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Animalogy: Conquest of the Animal World Author: Bassam Imam

FOOD FUR FARMING

Throughout history, animals have been used in ways that have resulted in the worst forms of killing, abuse, torment, torture, mass slaughter, humiliation, frivolous entertainment, and fun killing (killing for no legitimate reason or gain). Alls not bad, however. Animals have also been used for beneficial purposes, and thankfully there are many people who love and care about animals. This book is tilted towards the animal welfare perspective, not animal rights. The animal welfare perspective proposes the humane use of animals for beneficial purposes. Brutality, sadism, abuse use for unnatural purposes and humiliation of animals is not tolerated. This is not speceism, it is realism. Humans have used animals and they will continue using them indefinitely. There are a plethora of uses for animals and an even greater number of websites about animals including but not
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limited to animal rights, animal welfare, animal use, animal abuse, entertainment, social work, social studies, human services, consumption, war, history, criminal justice, criminology, breeding, trafficking, work, clothing, killing, hunting and trapping, trading, medicine (medication, anatomy, physiology, vivisection), pharmacology, health, psychology (behaviour, vivisection), academics, display, food (pet food, animals as food), etc. There are an estimated 80 million cats and over 70 million dogs living in American households. This does not include the unknown number of strays. Between 5 and 7 millions cats and dogs are euthanized in animal shelters annually. Animal activism is prevalent throughout much of the world. In addition to this, we need animal studies courses in the fields of criminology, criminal justice, and social work. Further on, if possible, our colleges and universities need to incorporate degree programs in Animal Welfare. One university in India has already done this. Maslows hierarchy of needs should be academically extended to companion animals. What does your dog or cat need to attain self-actualization? Companion animals that are treated with love, kindness, and compassion, by their owners should be ever so thankful. Companion animals, like babies, cannot speak. As such, acts of abuse and neglect may go unnoticed, except by caring visitors to homes. Worse yet, sadism and brutality against companion animals are often hidden from the publics eye. Animals have been our companions, guards, slaves, entertainers (cinema, fighting and display), objects of vivisection (animal experimentation), non-paid soldiers, traction workers (pulling), worship, toys, objects of displaced aggression, hoarding, consumption, aphrodisiacs (by-products). Humans have literally conquered the animal world. Countless deep sea creatures cannot evade the human pollution of the oceans. In addition, discovered and undiscovered animal species in remaining forests are on borrowed time. Wildlife can neither run humanity. Our weapons can take down anything that is alive. _ Ten billion animals area slaughtered annually for food in the U.S. This does not include what is taken from the water. Over 90 percent of slaughtered animals are from the poultry sector. Worldwide, over fifty billion animals are slaughtered each year for food. Furthermore, billions of animals are extracted from oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and ponds. Much of what is extracted from the oceans is by-catch (non-intended catches; usually tossed back into the sea).
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Tuna nets are responsible for the killing of countless dolphins every year. Thankfully, new and improved dolphin safe nets are on the market. However, this new discovery is not universal. The shrimp industry is responsible for the most bycatch killings. Large-scale meat eating in what was to later become the U.S. began in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Salted pork was placed in large barrels for storage and sale. In 1641, the Massachusetts Bay Colony enacted the first animal cruelty statute. Article 92, called the Body of Liberties. This law forbade any person from exercising cruelty or tyranny unto an animal that is used by man. This law, incredible for its time, was enacted only two decades after the Mayflower landed on Plymouth Rock. This however, did not stop the large-scale trail drives pr the establishment of the gigantic slaughtering facilities. The most famous of which was the Chicago Union Stockyards. Factory farms carry the highest number of food animals. The future may see multi-level factory farms. Larger areas of land cost more; this is a big business. AGRIBIGNESS is in the business of making money. Factory farms hold units, or singular-stocks not living creatures. In addition to meat, humans use the skins, eggs, milk, fat, enzymes, hair, fur, teeth, eyes, testicles, bones, bone marrow, tongues, entrails, brains, heart, blood, fecal matter, urine and semen of animals. Regarding factory farms, the sheer quantity of output makes it quite difficult to go slow and easy with each and every slaughtering (workers cant take their time). Many people still believe that factory farm animals live normal animal lives. People need to know the truth. Its the consumer who brings in the money. Factory farmed animals end up nicely packaged into pretty pink-red, red, or white slabs that can be cooked into edible food. We prefer to see the packaged version of the slaughtered animals._ The Chicago Union Stockyards (CUSY) was established in 1865 to feed millions of Americans. Even then, America was a powerful nation with a growing population. The CUSY encompassed nearly one square mile. In the CUSY, labourers unloaded animals directly into the facility for slaughtering, canning and then packing. Over twenty five thousand people were employed in Chicago's meatpacking industry. It would eventually reach forty five thousand. The CUSY was responsible for meat-feeding eighty percent of America. Americans as a whole still love meat.
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Rapid technological advances during the 1870's helped to bring forth refrigerated transport. We can thank a genius named Gustav Swift for developing the first refrigerated railroad car. Processed meat could be shipped long distances. Prior to this remarkable invention, animals were transported live. Meat producers now had a choice. Refrigerated freight cars could be parked at loading docks to be filled with meats to be transported vast distances. Although the CUSY improved the assembly line system of processing, it was in Cincinnati that this process was first used. The famed Henry Ford discovered the use of the assembly line of production from the slaughterhouse operations. In the CUSY many thousands of carcasses (regardless of shape, weight, or size) could be processed quickly. Overhead rails were used to move large carcasses from station to station. This method is still being used in many slaughterhouses. Not surprisingly, work in this environment is potentially harmful to labourers and seriously compromises animal welfare protections of animals. CUSY labourers had to work too fast. Brutality to animals was the norm. Knockers used sledge hammers to smash the heads of large animals. Sometimes, several blows were needed to knock out or kill an animal. The knocker had to hit a homerun on the first blow. Women at the CSU comprised twenty percent of the labour force. They performed jobs that required dexterity (canning, packaging and cleaning the entrails). These women had to work at lightning speed. Accidents during canning, cutting, and cleaning were commonplace. The repetitive motions on their hands and fingers resulted in pain; sometimes lifetime injuries. In order to induce the women workers to work harder and faster, bonuses were given for extra canning. _ CUSY labourers were hard-working individuals who fed millions of people. Many of the workers had no alternative job offers. It was a tough period for many of Americas new desperate immigrants. Soon afterwards, ethnic tensions at the CUSY and nearby Chicago neighbourhoods reached a boiling point. Ethnic groups at the CUSY were stereotyped. Members of a specific ethnic group were assigned to work at a designated station. This is sometimes referred to as 'ethnic compartmentalization. Today, many Latino migrants (Mexicans and Central Americans) are moving to small town America. Desperate for work, these Latino migrants end up working in slaughterhouses, factory farms or as farm labourers. Work conditions are usually
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deplorable. With no medical care, systemic racism, discrimination and no benefits they are at the mercy of employers. Regardless of what we think of their work; they are hard-working, performing duties that almost none of us would consider doing. At the CUSY seniority meant nothing and re-instatement after a layoff was never assured. Foremen held incredible leverage over their workers. Foremen could, and often did, abuse their workers. The atmosphere lacked mercy and compassion for labourers and animals alike. CUSY labourers worked in and around blood, sweat, stench, maggots, rats, animal droppings, shrieks, and brutality. The slaughterhouse stench couldve killed a lion. The stench extended into the surrounding neighbourhood. Cold Chicago winters, hot and humid summers, increased the difficulty of working in the CUSY. Employees worked up to twelve hours a day with inadequate rest periods. Slaughterhouse workers at the CUSY included Germans, Slavs, visible minorities (blacks and Hispanics). Because of a continuous supply of new immigrants to the Chicago area, CUSY slaughterhouse workers were disposable. This caused ferocious power struggles between the workers and management, ethnic groups, and strike breakers. Conditions for the CUSY labourers improved with the passing of the National Labour Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA). In theory, this act enabled labourers to form and join unions without being unjustly persecuted, intimidated, or otherwise harmed by the management. T he National Labour Relations Board (1935) was formed by Congress to direct the NLRA. Although this was a step forward for the protection of labourers and their right to form unions, there were subsequent attempts by management to weaken it. The CUSY labourers were better off with the NLRA. Not well off though, only better off. Corporate giants often use vertical integration to ensure bigger profits and expanded control over the process. In vertical integration large corporations provide their own feed, land space, cleanup, and distribution (delivery). In horizontal integration there are other players in the system. The latter is the essence of the old time family farm. Corporate food giants move into an area then eliminate or reduce small family farming. The system can be somewhat cold and impersonal. Working in a hectic-paced meat packing plant is very difficult, even in today's world. Get the job done, over and over again.

Today many illegal or ethnic slaughterhouse workers are intimidated; sometimes even having to hold back their urge to urinate or defecate while working. Some workers have had to do it in their pants. Externally, line workers may be sprinkled with blood, poop, and sweat. Other problems include cuts, abrasions, over-exhaustion, generalized anxiety, racism, discrimination, little or no legal recrimination, little or no workers compensation, frustration, ambivalence, confusion, apathy, anger, fear of deportation (illegal aliens), language barrier, cultural barrier, and a general public that doesnt know the truth, and often doesnt want to either. The southern American States are presently the most popular destination for Latino factory farm workers. Chicken catchers must be fast, hard-working, alert at all times, and can be speckled or smeared with dirt, feathers, dust, chemicals, squashed maggots and insects, fecal matter (bird and rodent), larvae, feed, blood, and other gooey stuff. At work, a cutting instrument must be the correct sharpness and the handle must be firmly grasped. Unfortunately this is not always the case. Cutting instruments are sometimes too sharp or too dull. Finger and hand accidents result in serious lacerations or horrible amputations. Furthermore, the fast-paced repetitive motions of the cutting, hoisting, pulling, twisting, chopping, and yanking can cause wrist or wrist and hand problems. Most North Americans would never do this kind of work. The late Upton Sinclair a once well-known novelist visited the CUSY. He saw, smelled, and noted the horrors in the CUSY. Later, Sinclair wrote a fictionalized version of the CUSY and general slaughterhouse conditions of the United States. His book, The Jungle was a smashing hit. The American public reacted with shock and outrage at how 'gruesome' meat could be processed, then packaged and sold to them._ Much of the meat sold at the time was infested and contaminated. Rat droppings, fecal matter, and other disgusting matter was in the meat supply. The U.S. Government was 'pressured into passing the Pure Food and Drug Act (PFDA), and the Beef Inspection Act (BIA). Without the public outcry, there would have been no government action; at least not then and there. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 paved the way to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA is responsible with testing foods and drugs. Prescriptions were required for the purchase of what was later to be called 'prescription medication or prescription drugs.
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The physician prescribing the medication had to be licensed. In addition, addictive drugs had to be labelled as such. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (MIA), set required standards for animals before slaughter. Any animal that was slaughtered could be inspected by government workers post mortem. Slaughterhouses and processing plants were required to maintain an acceptable level of cleanliness. In theory it was the government that decided the acceptable standard. Contemporary slaughterhouses are killing more animals at higher speeds. In effect, less humane measures and occasional abbreviated inspections are commonplace. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), under the Reagan Administration, granted factory farm owners and administrators increased self-inspection rights. In effect, they were given more freedom to violate slaughterhouse animals' rights and process polluted meat. Todays food giants include Tyson Foods, Maple Leaf Foods, Pilgrims Pride, Smithfield Foods, Iowa Beef Products, and Wayne Farms LLC. Organizations that espouse either a no animal use or a humane animal use philosophy include animal rights and animal welfare organizations. Animal rights activists (ARAs) and organizations may espouse a vegan, vegetarian, lacto vegetarian (dairy and vegetables), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (dairy, fish, vegetables) diets. The most liberal animal rightists espouse a no animal use philosophy. The Vegetarian Society based in the UK is the oldest recorded vegetarian organization in the world. Animal welfare organizations, in general, espouse a humane use of animals, including legislation and enforcement. Individuals and organizations may use morality, ethics, health, empathy, personal philosophy, and/or religion as a grid in determining where they stand regarding animal use. On the far left of the Animal rights sector total animal liberation is espoused. The Animal Liberation Front is a good example of this movement. Richard Ryder, a notable psychologist, coined the term 'speciesism to describe our superiority feelings and attitudes towards the animal kingdom. The distinguished Australian philosopher and animal protectionist, Peter Singer, helped to spread the term of speceism. Singers book Animal Liberation was a big hit. It helped to re-invigorate the animal protectionist movement. The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), a department within the USDA is assigned to ensure that Americas meat, poultry, and egg products are safe and wholesome enough for the
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public to consume. Wholesomeness inspection is mandatory while quality grading is voluntary. The FSIS employs nearly 9,400 full-time career employees. Whatever it costs to sustain this department is well-worth it in tax dollars. Helping to assure a safe meat and poultry supply is mandatory for any nation. The entry-level inspectors are responsible for inspecting the animals before and after slaughter. But there are too many slaughterhouses, too many animals and too many violations and not enough funding. In defence of the USDA and FSIS Americas meat and egg supply has been relatively safe. If you take into consideration the magnanimous levels of meat and egg consumption youll agree with my statement. Plant operations work at a hectic pace. Inspectors are sometimes reluctant to stop the operation if they see a violation. It takes time to analyze the violation and file the official report. Depending on the plant, workers and supervisors may not take too kindly to inspectors who hold-up the operations. There have been cases of inspectors being intimidated. Inspectors should be given more authority. Plant operators must respect FSIS inspectors, so that these same inspectors can do their job without any obstacles. On January 28, 2008, Ed Schafer was officially sworn in as the new Secretary of the USDA. On May 15, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln established a Department of Agriculture. In creating the USDA President Lincoln had good intent and foresight. America was rapidly expanding in population and size. The pilgrims had a strong appetite for meat, milk, and eggs. They were no different than much of the world. In those days, there was no assembly-line-style of animal slaughter or meatpacking on a grand scale. Animals were generally slaughtered one at a time. It all came down to the sharpness of the instrument, the talent of the butcher, and the luck of the animal. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is the Canadian counterpart to the USDA. There are over 6,000 employees stationed in field offices, laboratories, and processing facilities. The CFIA is assigned the duty of safeguarding food, animals, and plants that improve the health and well-being of Canadians. On a positive note, the USDA and the CFIA have comprehensive websites. Polite inquiries are answered politely. Their British counterpart is The U.K. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.
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Worst case scenarios for food animals in factory farms or slaughterhouses includes kicking, beating, tossing, throwing (poultry industry), de-horning, skinning (sometimes while the animal is still conscious), amputation (blunt or sharp instrument, sometimes while the animal is still alive), ear or tail twisting, scalding, or castration (without anaesthesia). Chicken eating in America got a big boost with Herbert Hoovers 1928 campaign promise of having a chicken in every pot. Today, processed chicken has engulfed North America. Popular foods like chicken nuggets, chicken fingers, breasts, paddies, wings, thighs, steak, filets, broth, strips, soup, stir-fry, hot dogs, gravy, chicken pot pie, salami, bologna, salad, and burgers can be found in supermarkets across North America. During the Second World War, The War Food Administration did not ration chicken. Their brethren the pigeons, immensely aided the Allied War effort, especially for the British who sent messages across the English Channel. Fast food chicken products are usually loaded with fat and salt. Never mind the fries, mayo, sauce, and other garnish. Still, most fast food chicken products are very tasty. Manufacturers understand the consumers palate. Chickens set for transfer to a slaughtering facility may be yanked from their cages. Often, the chicken 'inadvertently' leaves part of its body behind, like a toe or more. Afterwards, these chickens are manhandled then tossed into a box or cage inside the transport vehicle. Larger animals, like steer, can be enticed to move along by being kicked and/or prodded. They're too big and heavy to be snatched, hoisted, or thrown by a human. Bovine Spongiform Encaphalopy (BSE) or Mad Cow Disease is a communicable brain disease (in cattle) that causes degeneration and is fatal. BSE has an incubation period of up to 5 years in cattle; longer for humans. An infected animal can transmit BSE to others. Potential for a wide-scale catastrophe is there. Thus far, weve been lucky. BSE first appeared in the United Kingdom, in 1986. Infected feed (containing brain, spinal cord) was the avenue of transmission. Feed should never contain rendered meat or any other product animals shouldn't eat. People who eat BSE contaminated meat are at risk of acquiring Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Windowless poultry sheds can contain over 100,000 chickens. The chickens receive no rest breaks, natural sunshine, freedom to move about, forage, or dust-bathe. Chickens expectedly go nuts in these hell holes. Contrast this with the turn of the 20th century where farm chickens in the U.S. were free-roaming.
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Chickens were first domesticated 9,000 years ago in China and India. Intensive farming of chickens saw a major upswing in the late 1950's. Large chicken farms began to spring-up in the U.S. Although factory farming of chickens began in the 1930s the 1950s was when the number of chickens in chicken farms exploded. Chickens could no longer be personalized. The pace of operations accelerated considerably. Chickens in factory farms were routinely brutally snatched from their cages, tossed, thrown, kicked, and chocked. In addition, transport distances were lengthened; no food, water, veterinary care, or temperature regulation. The broiler chicken industry first took hold in the Delamar Region (Delaware, Virginia, Maryland), during the 1950's. Broilers are housed for up to 7 weeks, before slaughter. Broilers cages or enclosures are tiny; leaving each chicken trapped, unable to stretch its wings. Because broilers are raised to attain extreme size, they're too big to move around. Chickens need to move around, spread their wings, dust bathe, and eat whenever and wherever they need to. Broilers are raised for meat, not for eggs. Housed in window-less sheds, surrounded by filth, chemicals, death, disease, and ammonia from dried up urine. The horrible conditions result in immense pain, agony, and torment for every single live broiler. Many go mad. The system is fast-paced, cruel, and automated. Everything is regulated; food, water, temperature, waste disposal, chemicals, lighting, life, antibiotics, and ventilation. Broilers legs are too weak to sustain their unnaturally large bodies. Imagine trying to walk around with the legs of a stork. Also, imagine being forced to stand up day and night. Broilers legs become deformed. Broilers who can't sustain their own weight simply collapse. Unnatural weight causes many broilers to die of heart attacks. Dead chickens are callously taken away by farm workers to be tossed away or used as low grade food; maybe soup, or rendered (recycled as chicken feed). In order to prevent chicken-to-chicken aggression roosters have their soft, tender beaks sliced off with a hot blade. This ensures that they dont peck at each other. If the blade isnt hot enough or the slice isn't perfect, the broiler is assured increased pain. The hectic pace makes the use of pain killers non-viable. Bulbous swellings and infections are common. Antibiotics are used to help prevent infection.

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This hectic pace of the poultry industry doesn't permit slow calculated movements by the line workers. One ailing chicken will never stop the process. Chickens may have their claws or part of their toes sliced off to inhibit aggression. If part of the toe of a chicken 'encrusts' itself on the wiring, it poses another problem. When these chickens are yanked out of their cages, the encrusted flesh stays put. Chickens in the wild live according to a pecking order. In cramped cages, social behaviour becomes twisted, and extremely brutal. 'Recessive chickens' can't run or hide. This category of chickens ends up being brutalized by cage mates. Also, they tend to occupy the worst part of the cage, smothered, or unable to eat and drink enough to stay alive. Stronger and larger chickens dont have mercy on their weaker cage mates; the strong live, while the weak die. Chickens are cheaper than the cages theyre put in. Therefore, the system can sacrifice many lives, because many more will survive. The surviving ones will bring in most of the money. As stated earlier, even the dead ones can also bring in money. Breeding roosters live their lives in a state of hunger. They peck excessively at anything they can and to try to get something into their empty stomachs. A device called a NOZBONZ is used by some poultry farms. This device is shoved into roosters' noses (without anaesthesia) from one side to the other then left there. The purpose of the NOZBONZ is to stop roosters from sticking their heads into the cages or feeding troughs of other chickens. In essence, theyre being prevented and punished for behaving like roosters. Poultry farms housing egg producing chickens have no need for the male chicks. Male chicks flesh is of lower quality. Upon birth, the male chicks are tossed into a bag, where theyre suffocated. Or they can be thrown into a chicken grinder. Either way, theyre treated as disposable chickens. Chickens in overcrowded sheds endure extreme thirst. Owners want to save on water bills and cleaning times. More water means increased watery stools. Lights in chicken sheds are turned on 23 hours a day. When the lights are on the chickens are in production mode. The one hour or so of no lighting is not for the chickens benefit. Its a safety precaution in case theres a sudden blackout. Chickens that have never been in the dark will go berserk during a sudden blackout.

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Countless chickens that are taken to the slaughterhouse suffer from broken bones and severe bruises. They're routinely manhandled, tossed into tiny, filthy, boxes for transport. Right before slaughter chickens are sent through electrically charged water. Because of the hectic pace their throats may not be properly cut at the time of slaughter. Forced molting is the process of starving chickens in order to alter (enhance, increase) the egg-laying cycle. The word molting originally meant the natural replacement of old feathers with new ones. A normal replacement of feathers occurs during the course of a year. Forced molting can last up to 2 weeks. Up to 7 million chickens are molted each year in the U.S. Molted chickens are given high doses of antibiotics. The doses cause side effects that can be dangerous to chickens' natural immunity, especially when the drugs are withdrawn. These chickens suffer from immense pain, agony, and frustration. Overcrowding, over-flowing excrement, lack of freedom, stimulus overload, unnatural lighting, callous workers, and not being able to breathe clean air, take their toll. Ammonia from urine, fecal matter, dust, chemical pollution, blood, discharges, and death stink up the chicken sheds. Build-up of excrement, rotting flesh, and disease cause toxic fumes to 'engulf' the interior of the chicken sheds. Many chickens develop heart and lung problems. The ever-presence of mice, rats, flies, parasites, and the fecal matter of the aforementioned aggravate matters. These creatures must eat. Caged chickens in infested sheds have nowhere to run or hide. Other problems include salmonella, swollen head syndrome, and fatty liver syndrome. School hatching programs began in the 1950's, probably to glamorize the factory farming of chickens. Pre-teens and their teachers place fertilized eggs in classroom incubators. Twenty five days later the eggs hatch. Children make a connection between the incubator and the hatchings. Pigs in the wild can choose to play and roll in mud for pleasure, to cool off, and to protect themselves from nasty insects. Pigs are intelligent, social animals. They also have a pecking order and can be extremely nasty to each other at times, even cannibalistic. Being out in the open field is not always an animal paradise. Electronic sow feeding involves dozens to several hundred sows that are housed together and individually fed in high-tech computer food stations. What is proposed in this book is an improvement in housing, feeding, and slaughter of food animals. Animal welfare standards should encompass all food species. This cannot be done
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overnight. The use of animals is an essential part of human existence. It will never end, regardless of what some individuals and organizations think. Over 100 million hogs are slaughtered every year in the United States producing twenty billion pounds of pork, almost all of it for food. Roughly 80 percent of Americas pig farms produce more than 5000 hogs per year. Canada and Denmark are large exporters of pork. Current trends indicate that the numbers of slaughtered hogs will increase. It's a multi-billion dollar industry employing (directly or indirectly) hundreds of thousands of persons. In high concentration hog farms, most hogs spend much of their lives inside sheds or other enclosures. Small town family farms are disappearing from the North American landscape. Factory farm style establishments have already begun their encroachment into the Third World. There are an estimated 500 million farmed pigs in China. If you eat you must defecate. The Government of China has a notorious reputation for dumping waste with little or no consideration for the potential harm. Pigs in factory farms are unable to breathe clean air, exercise, or wallow in mud. Wallowing in mud is important to pigs because they don't sweat. The ammonia in the air can cause lung and heart problems. Many pigs that reach the slaughterhouse suffer from pneumonia. Pigs used for breeding are called breeding sows. Theyre locked into gestation crates. Gestation crates are often so tiny the breeding sow can only stand and lie down. In worse cases, the sow can't properly lie down. The reasoning behind this is to protect the piglets from being inadvertently crushed by their mother. Also, the piglets can be nursed at will. Breeding sows that move less gain weight faster. Some pig producers are beginning to breed for less fat and more muscle; a healthier pig for the consumer. Over two thirds of the 6 million breeding sows in the United States spend seventy percent of their adult lives locked inside tiny gestation crate. Large doses of antibiotics must be given to the breeding sows to prevent medical problems. Muscle atrophy, lameness, digestive system problems, and mastitis are common problems. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) supports the use of gestation crates. Gestation crates are an anathema to animals' overall physical and mental health. Gestation crates are an example of immobility-incarceration.

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Piglets who survive the first three weeks of life are taken away from their mothers to a feeding pen where theyre castrated, have their tales sliced off, ears notched, and teeth ground down, without anaesthesia. Tail docking and teeth grinding are done to prevent aggression amongst pigs, like tail biting and the biting of other body parts too. The pigs are reacting to the circumstances of their environment. Many pigs dont see the light of day until transport to the slaughterhouse, which is usually far away. Transport is cramped, filthy, tiny, and little or no protection is provided from the elements. Winter transport results in the death of some of the pigs being transferred. After collapsing, their bodies may begin to freeze onto the side railing or the floor. Transport laws regarding maximum number of hours on the road and rest periods are quite difficult to adequately enforce. It all depends on the owners. All transport is not horrible though. Some livestock owners are more humane than others. However, in large-scale, fast operations, humanity is the exception not the prevalent rule. Line workers in slaughterhouse plants use metallic hooks or electric prods to encourage hogs onto transport trailers. When used, the device is plunged into flesh, resulting in the hogs encouragement to load onto the transport trailer's ramp. Because the hogs have lived rough lives, they may be resistant to boarding the trailer ramp. But once inside the transport vehicle, the hogs are sandwiched into a tiny area. They can suffer from breathing, internal, or rectal problems. Sandwiching ensures maximum transport at minimum expense. There have been cases of hogs being squashed so badly, their guts actually pop out. Hog trailers are recognizable from the powerful stench, and the protruding snouts that are searching for clean air and freedom. Slaughter of pigs is preceded by being stunned with a captive bolt gun. Aim and accuracy are never guaranteed. In Islam and Judaism the animal must be fully conscious during slaughter. The animal must not appear sickly during slaughter. While pigs are on the conveyer hooks, they scream, shriek, struggle, and kick. Afterwards, the pigs are sent to a scalding tank. The scalding is supposed to make skinning easier. Under optimal conditions it doesn't pose a problem. Unfortunately, some pigs are still alive during the scalding phase. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), a French chemist, invented the process of pasteurization (heating food in order to destroy harmful organisms). Although this lead to many improvements in food safety and longevity, it was really Franz non Soxhlet
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(1848-1926), a Belgian chemist, who first applied pasteurization on milk. As a result milk can be stored for longer periods of time. Unfortunately, Soxhlet has been forgotten. Under normal circumstances, cows can live to twenty five years. Dairy cows in large operations are used for 3 or 4 years then are sent to the slaughterhouse. Dairy cows normally produce 10 pounds of milk per day. In order to increase milk output Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) is injected into the dairy cows. BGH is a synthetic hormone that alters the normal milk production patterns and quantities for dairy cows. Cows can produce up to 100 pounds of milk per day. BGH can cause birth defects in calves. Cows have a gestation period of 9 months. Increase in yields calls for a cow to give birth once a year. The repeated birth cycles can cause milk fever; dairy cows can't produce enough calcium to compensate for the rapid birth cycle. Milk is mainly consumed as a liquid, sliced into cheeses, ice cream, butter, yogurt, coffee cream, and as part of a cereal snack or meal. Veal production using the standard method cannot be humane. The mothers of veal calves are dairy producers. Their male calves are taken away from them soon after birth. As a result, there's no time to form a true loving bond between mother and son. Bob veal is a veal calf that is taken away for slaughter shortly after birth. Veal calves are sent to special open pens, where theyll spend the next 16 weeks inside a tiny pen. In inhumane farms they're incarcerated, usually chained, given a milk substitute lacking in iron, forced to live in darkness, and are deprived of sufficient water. Consumers expect their veal meat to be tender, pale pink or white in color. Not being able to move around causes the veal calves to lose muscle mass and tone, thereby tenderizing their flesh. A state of sub-clinical anaemia develops, causing the flesh to appear pale. The deprivation of water causes veal calves to drink more of the milk substitute. Since the milk substitute is not water, the veal calves live their lives in a state of unending thirst. Like other factory farmed animals, veal calves are given high doses of antibiotics. The darkness in the sheds causes veal calves to control their movements. In the past, veal calves only weighed a fraction of what they do today. In Holland a new technique was discovered that caused the fattening of veal calves. This resulted in pain, boredom (no playing, grass, sunshine, or just running around), for 16 weeks. Today, veal calves can weigh up to 400 lbs.

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The craving for iron causes veal calves to lick their own urine and rust off the metallic bars in their stalls. Wooden boards are used in their stalls to prevent veal calves from licking the iron off the rust. Today more veal producers are using less cruel methods of rearing their calves. Calves may be placed near their mothers longer and water is given. Its up to the consumer to find out where the purchased meat comes from and the circumstances of rearing, transport, and slaughter. Contact an animal protection organization in your area, or a nationally known one. Most animal protection organizations in are more than happy to answer your inquiries. If you need a guide or a helping hand, check the INFORMATION BOOTH Section of this book. Steers are bulls that have been castrated. Castration is usually done quickly and without anaesthesia. De-horning and branding are also common. Be aware, branding an animals face can cause severe eye or facial damage. Today OPTIBRAND absolute traceability collects retinal images for purposes of identifying and tracing livestock. Although the animal must be restrained for the procedure, its painless. The animal resists out of fear not pain. Steers are usually fed low quality feed in order to cut expenses. Even paper, manure, and rendered meat have been used. Hormones are administered to steers for the enhancement of growth; anything to make a buck. Branding is the act of heating a marker on the hide of a livestock animal. Branding helps protect steer owners from theft. Thankfully, branding is being phased out through the use of tagging and modern techniques of identification. If used, branding includes capital letters, symbols, numbers, or combinations thereof. Ear tagging and radio frequency identification tagging are making headway. 'Beef animals' have been an important part of American history. The American trail drives changed the face of the continental United States. Cattle herds, sometimes exceeding 2,000 head each were taken to richer grazing sites and/or railheads. Railheads were the end of rails, or places where military supplies were dropped off. Long trail drives from Texas to Kansas, or from Texas to lands further north, took a few months to complete. Stampedes (often at night-time), severe weather, cattle rustlers, problems with settlers, crossing Indian lands, river crossings, and exhaustion of the cattle hands and cattle were problems to be dealt with. Every worker in the trail drive had to be tough and dedicated. The man in charge was the trail boss.
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The cook drove the chuck wagon (containing food and necessary supplies), performed rudimentary medical care, and helped make the cattle hands feel at ease. The cook told interesting stories, relaxing the hands. Trail drives had four main checkpoints. The point man rode in front of the herd, while the flank riders rode on the left and right sides, and the dragsiders rode in the back of the herd. Dragsiders had the most difficult job because dust from the trailing of cattle would be jettisoned in their faces. During the night, one or more hands were chosen to slowly ride around the herd in order to keep it in check. This activity helped prevent many but not all stampedes. As soon as a stampede began the cattle hands shot onto their horses and got to work trying to control the herd. When the dust cleared, it was expected that a few head of cattle would unaccounted for. Trail taggers, tagged along trail drives. They waited on the peripheral of the herd for a chance to snatch a stray animal/s. Trail taggers came in two forms; human or animal. The former was more formidable and quite dangerous at times. These fellows were nothing but low-down thieves bent on getting free cattle. Potential for the use of deadly force was in the air. Trail drivers were ready for gun battles if need be. The Chisholm Trail, Pecos Trail, and Santa Fe Trail are embedded in American History. The Chisholm Trail was likely named after Jesse Chisholm. Chisholm was a mix of European and Cherokee blood. In 1866, Chisholm took his heavy wagon through Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) to Wichita, Kansas. The wheels of his wagon dug deep grooves into the ground, thereby leaving a visible trail. Cattle drivers, traders, and travellers used this trail for nearly 20 years. Many historians of the era agree that the Chisholm Trail was the most famous of them all. Trail drives brought about incredible sales. These sales were an important source of income for the broke and dilapidated South, following the civil war. Most Americans aren't aware of this fact. The northerners received much of their beef, while the southerners received their monies; a truly symbiotic relationship had begun. The appetite for beef has continued unabated with billions upon billions of burgers having been sold in North America alone. As a general rule, fast food and mall food stand burgers are affordable. Unlike the burger, foie gras is an uppity food. Foie gras is a French word meaning fatty liver. Foie gras is a specialty item in high class restaurants. Customers pay big bucks to eat this so-called delicacy.
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Sadly, this food item is produced in an inhumane manner. Unlike some other meat items, foie gras cannot be produced humanely. The force feeding of ducks was first practiced by the ancient Egyptians 4,000 years ago. Today, we're supposed to be a more civilized. Ducks in foie gras farms are forced to accept enormous quantities of foods (corn is the principal ingredient), through a steel tube thats shoved down their throats twice a day. Food is literally pumped down their throats. The ducks can't struggle because their necks are firmly held in place by a worker. The idea is to make the ducks super obese. The ducks take the shape of giant pears, without the stump. Foie gras ducks are unable to properly support themselves with their legs. Throat, digestive, and in particular, liver problems develop. Incredibly, their livers may swell up to ten times the normal size. No anaesthesia is used throughout the process. This horrible delicacy should be banned altogether. People in the foie gras business have found ways to circumvent the law. If production of foie gras is made illegal in a particular country or jurisdiction, the ban on the importation of foie gras requires another law, or an addendum to the original law. Thereafter, enforcement must be stringent. For example, it's illegal to force feed ducks in Poland, but foie gras is imported from France into Poland in large quantities. Other European countries have danced to this tune also; fooling their citizens, but not the ducks. In 2005, foie gras production became illegal in Israel. Prior to the Supreme Court decision, Israel was a big supplier of foie gras. Foie gras is illegal in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Turkey; California (Goes into effect in 2012; sale and production of foie gras becomes illegal). Foie gras cholesterol level is very high. The name says it all, fatty liver. Like their chicken brethren, factory farmed turkeys are placed together by the thousands in long, dimly-lit sheds. North Americans eat turkeys by the millions; thanksgiving and to a lesser extent Christmas is a favourite time of year to eat turkey. Poults (turkey chicks) spend six weeks in special brood homes. Alone, they must fend for themselves and reach for food and water without the aid of their mothers. Countless poults die from disease, starvation, and extreme stress.
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In order to curb cannibalism, feather plucking, and pecking, turkey chicks are de-beaked, without anaesthesia. Turkeys for consumption have been bred to have large breast size. Turkey breast meat is the consumers favourite. The turkeys grow so fast they cant support their own weight. Turkey hens used for breeding are artificially inseminated. This process is painful and terrifying for the turkey hens. Because of their incredible size and oftentimes deformed bodies, male turkeys in factory farms can't properly mount a turkey hen. The males chest cavity is too large, thereby adversely affecting the natural mounting capabilities of the male turkey. As soon as turkeys have attained selling weight they're promptly packed together in crates then sent to the slaughterhouse. At the slaughterhouse they're hung upside down by their legs, readied for slaughter. After being slashed, they're tossed into a scalding tank. The scalding water is supposed to remove the feathers. Every turkey is not dead at the time of scalding. Lobsters are sold as delicacies. They're placed inside tiny aquariums. The lobster must be cooked alive for up to two minutes. Waste matter from lobsters in aquariums is negligible compared to what is emanated from factory farms. Massive quantities of waste matter are accumulated from factory farms. Waste matter from factory farmed animals is high in nitrogen. When nitrogen seeps into the air it becomes ammonia. Too much ammonia in the air is harmful to those who breathe it. Not only are the animals and factory workers at risk, but also the surrounding neighbourhoods. A large factory farm can accumulate more waste matter than a human city. Waste matter is stored, dumped, or spread by rain. As a result, many rivers and lakes have been polluted; some of them irreparably. The Bush Administration signed an agreement that gave factory farms more flexibility in violating clear air standards. In addition, these same factory farms were forgiven of past fines and violations. Factory farms were requested to monitor their pollution levels and furnish the results to the Federal Government. Americas population is over 4 percent of the worlds population however, America produces 25 percent of the worlds greenhouse gas emissions. AGRIBIGNESS has powerful allies in government. Otherwise, many factory farm owners would be paying heavy fines and seeing justice. Homes that are located near a factory farm are usually difficult to sell. A strong stench, pollution, and lower property values are three big reasons for this.

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Shocking levels of food pollution will force a government to respond. Case in point, the USDA banned downers on December 30, 2003. Mad cow disease terrified people and the government. With so many slaughterhouses its difficult for USDA workers to identify and analyze every single downed animal. Each animal is a large block of money. Its often up to the line workers and their supervisors to abide by the no downer law. Ritual slaughter is permitted in Canada and the United States. The two most notable are Hallal and Kosher slaughter. Hallal is an Arabic word that means permitted, pure, and clean. The criteria for hallal slaughter are based on the Holy Quran and the Sunnah (sayings and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him). In order for food to be certified as Hallal it must meet the following requirements: 1. The slaughterhouse must be under the supervision of a certified Hallal inspector. The inspector should be deemed a pious Muslim by the Muslim community and observant of the slaughter. A mentally unstable or feebleminded person cannot be a certified Hallal inspector. 2. Each day before the slaughtering begins, the area, instruments, and machines to be used must be cleaned, and if applicable, sharpened. 3. Each animal must be checked before slaughter. Only animals that are healthy and fully conscious can be slaughtered. An animal that has been killed by strangulation, a fall off of a cliff, trampled upon, beaten to death; tortured in any way, shape, or form; or if the slaughterer pronounced a name other than ALLAH (GOD) it is not Hallal. All pork products are categorized as Haram (forbidden). Foie gras and typical veal are not raised and slaughtered in a humane manner. 4. The blade should be cleansed after each slaughter. 5. At the time of the slaughter the slaughterer must say In The Name Of ALLAH (GOD) and ALLAH (GOD) Is the Greatest. 6. The jugular vein, oesophagus, and respiratory tract must be severed quickly and completely. 7. No work on the animal can be done until it is dead. 8. No animal should see the slaughter of another animal; as this may cause extreme panic and fear. 9. The Slaughterer must use his right hand to perform the action. Kosher laws pertaining to food are derived from the Bible (The Pentateuch). Kosher laws have been practiced and accepted by practicing Jews for thousands of years.

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Animals/by-products such as pork, rabbit, and horse meat, fowl such as owl and stork, fish, such as cat fish, eels, shell fish, shrimp, and octopus and insects are non kosher foods according to Biblical definitions. In addition, kosher meat and fowl must be slaughtered by a specially trained expert in a painless ritual fashion in order to be acceptable. Dairy and meat products which comingle are not kosher. There are special laws relating to cheese, grape juice, and wine production. (Rabbi Yaakov Luban, Orthodox Union); Note: this is a paraphrase, not an exact quote. Bruises, cuts, and abrasions should not be found on the animal prior to slaughter. Furthermore, only hindquarters are used for kosher certification. The veins, arteries, and unacceptable fats are carefully removed after the slaughtering process. The rules pertaining to the practice of ritual slaughter are not always exercised in the proper manner. The pressure to produce more flesh is sometimes overwhelming. Purchase meat from a well-respected and well-known producer. Deceit and animal welfare violations have and do occur at some Hallal and Kosher establishments. Corruption and greed know no bounds. Be aware that this is not a religion book. If you eat ritual slaughter foods do not use the aforementioned information as a religious ruling of any kind. Go to a well-respected, authorized source for a religious ruling. I have only given you some basic information pertaining to ritual slaughter. If Ive made any errors in this section or any part of this book I sincerely apologize. A lacto-ovo vegetarian is a person who is a vegetarian, but also includes dairy and egg products into his/her diet. Hard-core vegans try to abstain from consuming or using dairy, meat, bird, eggs, fish or any other animal product/byproduct. The term vegetarian was first used by the British Vegetarian Society in the mid 19th century. For early humans, plant-based foods were very important for survival. But our ancestors also relied on much meat to survive. For many people consumption of animal flesh is a regular occurrence. Humans need vegetable matter and meat for optimum health. Not too much of either, however. Famous vegetarians include Pythagoras (Greek Mathematician), Leonardo da Vinci and George Bernard Shaw. Contrary to popular belief, Adolph Hitler was not a vegetarian. Hitler enjoyed eating Bavarian sausages, pigeon, and poured liberal doses of cream into his coffee. With a personal chef,

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bodyguards, and close associates, it was impossible for Hitler to keep his non-vegetarian lifestyle a secret. In China and Korea, there's a demand for dog meat, and to a lesser extent cat meat. Dog meat consumption can also be found in Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan but to a lesser extent than China and Korea. In Korea, roughly 2 million dogs and hundreds of thousands of cats are sold for food in restaurants, grocery stores, and in street markets. The dog and cat meat trade for food is horrible. In these markets you can witness an organized trade, especially in Guangzhu, located in Ching Ping. The odour emanating from these markets is stinky and noxious. Cats awaiting slaughter are crammed together in tiny, filthy cages. Killings are done by torching, strangulation, or beating while the animal is in a bag (for cat soup). After being beaten the cats are placed into pressure cookers. Many of the cats are still alive when theyre placed inside the pressure cooker. This is similar to live pig scalding. Dog farms are increasing in China. These farms hold many dogs placed in horrible conditions. Saint Barnards are the most popular breed of dogs for slaughter because they grow fast, big, and are generally tame around humans. Saint Barnards are imported from Switzerland. These gentle giants were originally bred to rescue humans in life threatening situations. This is how they're paid back?! As a result of the increasing market demand, compounded with improved living conditions, dog meat has become an attainable delicacy for the average Chinese household. Furthermore, the dog breeding industry is expanding, including but not limited to Beijing. Other big favourite dog breeds include Great Danes and Tibetan Mastiffs. The Beijing Hong Ding Breeding & Development Company is actively involved in this endeavour. A breeding facility established in 1999, in Kangxi grassland can produced 100,000 dogs annually. Many people are duped into believing that a raised adrenaline level of the dog at the time of death will enhance the virility for the consumer (scientifically unproven). Therefore, brutal methods of slaughter are performed. In 1991, the Government of Korea passed a law forbidding the consumption of dogs and cats by humans. As a general rule, this law isn't enforced. The Government of Korea has been under incredible pressure from within and abroad to end the eating of dogs and cats. Creatures living in water can't flee intensive animal farming. There's simply nowhere to go.
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Fish farms are walled-in pens in the ocean or other bodies of water, containing fish that are used for food. In British Columbia, Atlantic salmon (non-native species) is a very popular choice for fish farming. Fish farm waste matter may equal the amount of a small human town. This waste matter includes excreta (fecal matter) and sea lice that sometimes flow into surrounding waters. This threatens other sea creatures with high levels of pollution. If not properly enclosed, penned fishes will attract predators. During the 1990's British Columbia fish farmers killed many seals that were trying to eat penned salmon. Obstructive sonar is one method to keep predators away from penned fish. Salmon in fish farms are crowded into small swimming areas. Unnatural behaviour, diseases, and heavy anti-biotic treatment pose a big problem. High doses of antibiotics are given to fish in order to help prevent diseases. Farmed fish may be fed pellets that contain fishmeal and oils, antibiotics, pesticides, or fish waste. Fresh salmon doesn't necessarily mean that a fish that was caught by a fisherman. The fish farming industry is also referred to as aquaculture. Corporate behemoths want to make enormous profits, without worrying about the future consequences. If matters dont change for the better, we may severe consequences. Wild salmon has less fat content than farmed salmon. Farmed salmon are unable to burn calories by swimming. They're canned together tightly. Australian live animal exports transport animals across the sea. These trips are quite long and gruelling for the animals in the vessels. Australia exports more live animals (sheep, cattle, goats) than any other country, most by sea. Millions make it to their final destination, while thousands die of dehydration, starvation, illness, or exhaustion. Problems begin before arrival to the vessel. The animals are sent from farms and holding yards to ports. Because Australia is a vast country, the journey may take up to two days. In order to cut down on expenses, food and water may be rationed. Upon arrival at the port, the animals are sent to giant vessels that contain multi-decked (multi-tiered) layers; primarily for sheep and cattle. In linear troughs the sheep are pressed together in pens, many don't have a chance to reach food. Sheep in overcrowded vessels may be packed up to three per square meter. Cattle may be allotted one or two square meters.
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Veterinary care and a routine cleanup of the decks is not something that can be easily done. Emphasis is laid upon getting the animals to the slaughter destination. Most of the sheep are sent to the Middle East. The MV Cormo Express catastrophe carrying more than 100,000 sheep is not surprising. The vessel along with others like it, are sailing factory farms. Humane slaughter of animals in Australia, followed by refrigerated transport will solve much of the problem. Ritual slaughter can performed in Australia by a certified person. This, however, will not remove the entire problem. Some ritual slaughter must be performed on the spot; the meat is then divided and eaten according to religious edict, as in the Hajj slaughter. In Australia merino sheep must be mulsed. In mulesing skin is sliced away from the anal area of the sheep, without administering anaesthesia. In Australia mulesing is forbidden on companion animals. Merino sheep are specially bred to have loose skin folds. Their unnatural folds accumulate sweat, thereby attracting blowflies. The Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia Cuprina) is a pest in Australia. The vast majority of fly strikes are initiated by this pest. The Lucilia Cuprina breeds in sheep. Its a catch 22 kind of a situation. Mulesing, although extremely painful, is a procedure that should be performed on merino sheep in order to prevent the nasty blowfly infestation. The breeding of sheep that are less susceptible to blowfly infection will be a good step in the right direction. Australian sheep farmers are only responding to consumer demand when they breed merino sheep. From their perspective, they have an inherent right to earn a living, and in many cases to continue a multi-generational family enterprise. Fish have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Catches were considerably smaller than they are today. The bodies of water were full of food and life. Large vessels employ a smaller number of fishermen. Large vessels are increasing in number although catches are shrinking. Fishermen have to fish more in order to obtain less. The alarm bells have already begun to ring. The reduced fish catches has increased competition amongst large vessel operators at the expense of small-scale fishermen. Many small-scale fishermen are from poor countries suffering from a food shortage. Bottom trawling (benthic trawling) harms sea creatures' habitats and coral reefs.
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Large vessels work round the clock removing too many sea creatures even from the final sea frontiers. Governments around the world support these operations by giving large vessel owners and operators subsidies. Like cocaine, the pleasure is short term. The pain and agony will come later. By-catch is considered a non-target sea creature. This is a throw away item Throw away items can be as high as 90 percent of the catch. Shrimp trawling is the most wasteful of all fishing activities. Commercial long-line fishing involves large vessels using nets up to 60 miles long, with up to 1000 hooks. Sea turtles, birds, and marine mammals die in large numbers as by-catch. These mega-nets are also referred to as walls of death. Overfishing disturbs the natural relationship between predator and prey. Drastic declines in numbers of predators may cause significant increases in prey populations. A new species may fill in the gap as apex predator. This causes major changes. Creatures that are affected are turtles, seabirds, whales, sharks and dolphins. Ridley turtles have been found in the Pacific Ocean hooked onto long-lines. The Pacific leatherback turtle is threatened with extinction. In the past 25 years, the Pacific Leatherback turtle population has dropped from over 90 thousand to less than 5 thousand. This is a ninety four percent decrease. Loss of habitat is always a serious threat to land and sea creatures. Our worlds food supply may soon be adversely affected not only by illogical practices but also by pollution and global warming. We cannot imagine what a starving human world will be like. How will we humans respond? Humans sometimes resort to unnatural behaviours to stave off their starvation, or to just stay alive. Anthropophagi (cannibalism) can sometimes occur. An example of widespread cannibalism in extraordinary times occurred in the Ukraine (1932-1933). Joseph Stalin and his and the Bolsheviks induced a horrific famine on the Ukrainian people especially the kulaks (peasants). Grain supplies were forcefully and mercilessly confiscated. Ukrainian peasants who could once easily feed their nation were now starving, along with their co-nationals. Russian troops were sent to sniff out any hidden supplies of grain or food. Any person who was caught with state grain, or who did not appear to be starving could receive up to a 10 year sentence in a Russian gulag (labour camp). Even fecal droppings were analyzed. It was a terrible act of human-on-human cruelty. Ukrainians became so desperate they resorted to widespread cannibalism. Many people went mad.
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The intended consequence was to break Ukrainian nationalism and the individuality of the average peasant. 7 million people starved to death during the Ukrainian Holocaust. Others were executed or sent off to a gulag. The Ukrainian Holocaust was hidden from the world for decades. It has now been identified and accepted as a historical fact. Canada and the United States officially recognize it as such. Andrei Chikatilo, Russia's worst serial rapist, killer, and cannibal had survived the Ukrainian Holocaust as a child. He claimed to have seen his brother whisked away (still alive) by several of his relatives to be eaten. Chikatilo like many others around him witnessed terrifying acts. Some parents resorted to eating their own children. In some villages, there was a noticeable absence of children on the streets. Families warned their children to stay home. One woman thought her baby was a giant turkey; she roasted it. For the most part, Chikatilo was an impotent husband, often mocked by his wife. He was finally captured, sentenced and then executed by the Russian authorities. Albert Fish, a notorious cannibal of early 20th century United States, had an unusual life. Fish had his first taste of blood in an orphanage. He was being beaten mercilessly in the orphanage and then blood dripped down to his lips. After getting a few lick, he felt good. But there was more. He witnessed horrible acts of abuse therein. This was the beginning of Fishs freaky fantasies. Later, his fantasies would be acted out. Fish claimed to have harmed four hundred children, and feasted on at least several. In one case involving a 12 year-old girl, he made stew of her flesh, mixed with carrots, and other vegetables. He claimed to have feasted on the flesh for several days. Fish was finally captured, arrested then executed. After the execution an autopsy on his body revealed 29 sewing needles inserted into his scrotum (testicular sac). An example of state induced anthropophagi (cannibalism) happened in China. Historically, China has been riddled with nasty famines. In Mao Zedong's so-called Giant Leap Forward, a catastrophic agricultural policy and a severe drought (19591961), caused the deaths of an estimated 30 million people in Northern China. The horrible famines led to numerous acts of cannibalism. Sometimes the meal was to be was taken alive. The Red Guards (Mao Zedong's henchmen), terrorized the citizenry into reform. Anything appearing to represent the west, democracy, or bourgeois life, was deemed illegal. In other
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words, every aspect of Chinese society had to conform to Mao Zedong's philosophy. The Red Guards harmed and killed countless people. Unfortunately, it did not end there. The Red Guards sometimes cannibalised their victims. On at least one occasion the Red Guards displayed dead bodies on hooks in front of terrified students. Afterwards, the students were ordered to eat the flesh. Although humans have done much good on this planet, they've also committed the worst of atrocities.

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OTHER USES FOR ANIMALS

Dogs and cats are killed for their fur in China, the Philippines, and Thailand. China is taking the lead, with an estimated 2 million dogs and cats that are bred, slaughtered then skinned annually to sustain their fur industry. Many of the furs end up in Europe as toys or stuffed animals. Short-haired cats and German shepherd dogs are favourites. Dog fur is often mislabelled as coyote, raccoon, wolf, or any other name that can successfully be used to fool the consumers and customs officials. The Dog and Cat Protection Act of 2000 forbids bringing in, sending (shipping, transferring), producing, selling or marketing of any dog or cat fur product. However, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) reserves the right to exempt certain dog and cat fur products because of their minute size and quantity.

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Dog and cat fur farms are overcrowded, filthy, disease infested; lack empathy, proper food, water, veterinary medical care, and climate control. Dogs and cats are often kept outside so their fur can grow thicker and longer. Even the methods of killing are brutal. Dogs are generally killed by strangulation. The instrument of choice is a metallic chord. Afterwards, the dogs may be stabbed in the groin repeatedly. Then, they're skinned, sometimes while still alive. Cats are hanged or drowned by having water forcefully poured into their mouths. Like the foie gras birds, cats and dogs in the fur industry are unable to defend themselves. The executioner is intent on finishing the job. Some warehouses containing cat and dog fur can be as large as football fields; theyre full to the rim (the roof). Humans have literally conquered the animal world. Animals can neither run nor hide from us. We can use them for whatever purposes. Eating, wearing, using by-products, observing, abusing, loving, studying, vivisecting, playing, admiring, worshipping, hating, killing, incarcerating, cooking, vilifying, chasing, hunting, riding, roping, training (for acting or performing unnatural acts), studying, or sporting. Our brain, thumbs, feet, and bipedal-style walking have enabled us to dominate the animal world. Because habitat loss is continuous, at this rate most wildlife will be housed in enclosed areas; zoos, reserves, sanctuaries, national parks, or circuses (GOD forbid) sometime in the future. The animal world is shrinking every single second of every single day. All deforestation destroys creatures habitats therein. The Brazilian rainforest, like other forests especially in Asia and Africa are being erased by large impersonal corporations. Cameroon has lost nearly 90 percent of its original forest. In the not so distant past, overhunting was the primary culprit responsible for reducing wildlife populations. Gross habitat destruction causes deaths by starvation, removes home ranges, destroys individual homes, causes wildlife to venture out for food and helps to introduce invasive species. Starving wildlife will raid crops owned by farmers. This is happening in Africa and Asia. The bear bile farm industry uses Asiatic black bears to literally squeeze every last bear bile drop out of these beautiful creatures (bear bile machines). A catheter is inserted into the bears abdomen (without anaesthesia), to drain the much sought after bile.
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There are over 7000 moon bears in Chinese bear bile farms. There has been a 25 percent decrease in bear bile farming, though. Although the Chinese government stopped issuing new licenses, this industry is still operating. Even if most of the bears are eventually freed, there will still be others suffering immensely round the clock. Moon bears are locked into place inside a tiny, filthy cage. The moon bear cannot turn around, stand upright, or properly lay down. This results in deformed bones infections, constant pain, and extreme mental stress and agony. Depending on the farm a moon bear may be placed inside another cage when its not being drained of bile. Don't be fooled though. The other cage is barely larger than the procedure cage. Some bears spend up to fifteen years caged in a bear bile farm. Moon bears are drained twice daily. Veterinary care is considered an expensive luxury. As long as the moon bear's bile is extracted, owners are content. Bear gall bladders can sell for up to twenty times the price of gold. This kind of enterprise breeds a criminal underground. Aside from cats and dogs, other animals are also farmed for their fur and leather. Over 30 million animals are killed in fur farms (fur ranches) around the world every year. In many fur farms the animals spend their lives in cages unable move around or satisfy their basic needs. Stress for the animals and the possibility of contracting diseases are two potential problems in fur farms. Tiny cages are used to decrease expenditures while making maximum profit. Animals that are naturally free-roaming or water-bound must stay put. Genuine fur is biodegradable and more eco friendly than faux fur though. Farmed animals that have spent their lives in fur farms may not be able to handle being set free into the wild. They end up dying in large numbers or returning. Thats not to say that their cages are nice places to live in. The fur animals have been de-animalized. It was in 1534 while Jacques Cartier was in the Gulf of St. Lawrence that he took notice of aboriginals holding up beaver robes. By the end of the 16th century the French were trading in supplies of new and used beaver robes. The incredible demand in Europe helped to sustain the beaver trade. Beaver hats were a specialty item. This incredible demand helped to sustain the fur trade in what was to later become Canada.
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Soon, the beaver hats trade spread to Spain and Portugal. The Dutch were also active in the fur trade. For Canada to form there had to have been animals therein, a prominent fur trade, First Nations expert guides and advisers, English and French settlements and later Allophone settlements. The animals were the first ones to live in the Americas. The early aboriginal migrants wouldve had to return across the Bering Strait or wouldve died out if there were no animals in the Americas. Big names involved in fur trading include Medard Chouart des Groseillier, Radisson, Simon Fraser, Pierre-Esprit Radisson, John Jacob Astor, Simon McTavish, and Alexander Mackenzie. Fur animals, especially the beaver helped mould a viable Canada. Within the animal kingdom no animal in Canada has been as important as the beaver. The beaver has been our most important unwilling contributor. New ports and routes were established as a result of the fur trade, including the St. Maurice River, Ottawa River, Saguenay River, and the Ottawa-Gatineau system; to name a few. The Algonquin, Iroquois, Huron and Cree Nations were actively involved in the fur trade. The Europeans traded knives, kitchen supplies, alcohol, and needles for fur owned by First Nations peoples. Alcohol was a valuable trade item for all; it was devastating to First Nations peoples. The fur trade and exploration of new travel routes went hand in hand. A short cut to China was desperately searched for. The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC) was the first corporation in North America. The HBC was incorporated in 1670 by royal charter through Prince Rupert. The HBC acquired enormous land mass only to lose it through Ruperts Land Act of 1868. In effect, the HBC lost its land empire. The HBC had its beginnings in the lucrative and expanding fur trade. In 1821 the HBC merged with its number one rival, The Northwest Company. Ivan the Terrible once sent henchmen through Siberia to confiscate countless animal furs. This confiscation eventually led to the conquest of Siberia. Another lucrative enterprise in the Americas was sugar cane in the West Indies. For the French it equalled or perhaps excelled in importance to the fur trade.

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HORSES

Throughout history horses have been used by human beings for companionship, farming, wars, transport, traction, sports, showmanship, as companion animals, and food. The idea of eating horse meat never took off in the United States. Although horses are slaughtered in the United States for food, the numbers don't compare with other slaughtered animals. If ever passed, the upgraded version of the American Horse Slaughter Prevention Act will make it illegal for any institution to slaughter horses for human consumption or to ship horses abroad for the purpose of slaughter. Horses were first domesticated 5 thousand years ago. Today, there are over 200 recognized breeds of horses. Horse slaughter plants in the United States send most of their meat to Europe and Japan. Some of the slaughtered horses were once carriage, racing (retired), or wild horses. The use of

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horses for food dates back at least as far back to the Ancient Egyptians. It's difficult to estimate how many horses were stolen during the Wild West era. Since the turn of the 20th century, more than 2 million horses have been slaughtered in USDA-approved horse slaughter plants. Horses are sent to slaughterhouses in cramped trailers or carts. The crowding is so bad horses can't stand up properly. If a horse falls it may be trampled. During transport horses may spend up to 28 hours without food, water, exercise, or adequate veterinary care. To aggravate matters the sealing inside the trailers or carts is often lower than the level of horses' heads. Horses in these transport facilities are forced to lower their heads for extended periods of time. This is unnatural and painful for a horse. U.S. Federal Law requires that horses are rendered unconscious before slaughter. A device called a captive bolt gun is shot into the heads of the horses to render them unconscious. Because of the hectic pace of plant work, the captive bolt gun is sometimes incorrectly used. Horses in this predicament are hoisted up and sent to have their throats cut while kicking and screaming. For humane slaughter of horses, the entire process, from beginning to end must be smooth and well-coordinated. Horses' urine is also a valuable commodity on the market. Premarin is pregnant mare urine. Premarin horses endure extreme boredom, inactivity, pain, and discomfort in their stalls. The hormone premarin is used to treat women with menopausal symptoms. Up to 80 thousand mares are used for premarin. This hormone is extracted from horses urine through the use of collecting devices strapped to their bodies. Premarin mares are placed in tiny stalls, chained, and are partially water-deprived. Its believed that increased amounts of water consumption will dilute the potency of premarin. Foals (a horse younger than a year-old) of premarin mares are normally sent to the slaughterhouse shortly after birth. Therefore, a mare is unable to form a bond with her foal. The foal is of no use to premarin manufacturers. When the mare can no longer produce more premarin, she is promptly sent to the slaughterhouse. Since March of 1999; Cenestin (conjugated synthetic estrogens), an FDA approved synthetic estrogen product can be used to treat women with menopausal symptoms. Like dogs, horses have been bred by humans for special uses.
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Healthy horses have long-snappy strides, with incredible lung capacity. With strenuous physical exertion, horses blood oxygen can increase thirty five-fold. Horses have good memories regarding routines and routes (returning home, delivery jobs). In addition, theyre faster and have more stamina than oxen. This is one of the reasons that many more horses were used in North America than oxen for strenuous work. Mules, horses, and oxen have historically been used to pull. Draft horses are very strong and massively built. Theyre not as fast as thoroughbreds, but can pull more weight. The word mule is derived from the Spanish word meaning half-breed; the commonly known word mulatto. A mule is a cross between a donkey stallion (male) and a horse mare (female). Camels were briefly used by the U.S. Military in the mid 19th century. The United States Camel Corps was an experiment in the use of camels in addition to horses. Camels have a nasty temperament and terrify horses. Their use was ended quickly. Draft horses (Clydesdales, Shires, Percherons, Punches, and Suffolks), are used for pulling heavy loads. Shires are the largest and most powerful of the draft horses. With so many horses used in cities, horse manure dotted streets, thereby creating an engulfing stench. The horse contributed to the opening up of the American west. Later, the iron horse (railroad) became the fastest long distance runner. The 20th century saw an increase in horse breeding. Breeding is for the benefit of humans, not for the horses involved. The use of horses has helped to improve this world. In the not so distant past horse speed and power was the engine of its day. Without horses, travel on land wouldve been much slower. Nathan Bedford Forest (founder of the KKK) was a cavalryman and a talented rider of horses. Famous men and fictional characters had special horses. Robert E. Lee (Traveller and Lucy Long), Ulysses S. Grant (Cincinnati), the Lone Ranger (Silver, Hollywood Horse), Alexander the Great (Bucephalus), and in Islam the Prophet Muhammad was taken to Paradise on a lightning-fast white horse named Buraq. The aforementioned was only a partial listing. Horses helped to build the Erie Canal. Horse ferries transported many people and merchandise over long distances. Sadly, the horses used for these ferries were usually worked mercilessly. During the American Civil War many thousands of horses were used. Transport, feed, and general care of the horses took much
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work. Horses were used by the North and the South, carrying supplies, equipment, and soldiers. By wars end many thousands of horses had died. The South found it difficult to feed horses throughout the brutal war. No feed, no functioning horses. For optimum performance horses need hay, grain, and corn. Corn is less nutritious than hay or grain. To ease the feeding problem, mixtures were also used. Horseshoes were in great demand by both sides. The Union purchased many of their horseshoes from The Burden Horseshoe Company. In 1835, Henry Burden received the first patent for a horseshoe manufacturing machine. For the Union Army transportation of soldiers, equipment, horses, and any other essential items was the responsibility of the Quartermasters Department. Horses used during the Civil War had to endure exhaustion, fear, anxiety and injury (from shrapnel, strenuous work or trauma). Countless horses were taken as booty by both side, then later used for the war effort. Historically many jobs and uses evolved around horses. These include but are not limited to ambulance workers, law enforcement, delivery workers, show horse industry, delivery man (food, milk, beer, etc.), race industry, jockey, streetcar operator, farm worker, furrier, showmanship, horse breaker, rodeo, manufacturers of horse equipment, horse food workers, stable worker, stagecoach driver (Concord stagecoach was the standard type), nutritionist, hunting, circus, fire truck operator, Knacker (a person who purchases over-the-hill livestock then butchers them for sale), masseuse, veterinarians, vivisection (limited), corral worker, waste removal, entertainment industry, war, fire departments, groomer, horse show judge (prestigious), breeder, butcher, horse fighting promoter (dishonourable job), Pony Express rider (short-lived but well-respected), wagon and carriage manufacturers, carriage driver and riding instructor. The Kentucky Derby is the most well-known racehorse in the world. Exceptional horses that are ridden by tenacious jockeys win the Triple Crown. The mint julep is the drink of the Kentucky Derby. The winner of the Kentucky Derby is literally draped with a garland of roses (564 rosebushes). The trophy is presented with the horseshoe turned up. Unfortunately, all is not good in the horse industry. Because only a select few horses can make the grade the large surplus must be removed.

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The incredible training and racing regimen result in numerous injuries to horses. Sometimes, a horse must be euthanized. When careers end the horses must be removed from the glamour of the racing industry. Unless a person or an organization decides to care for the horse, slaughter or euthanasia is the usual outcome. Financial gain and the thrill of winning are powerful motivating factors in the horseracing industry. Pain killers alleviate the pain only, not the underlying cause. In effect a racehorse may run on an injury. Horses are only two or three years-old when first race. Their bones may not be fully developed. Horses can also be put to other uses. The Persians developed the first cavalry. There are guide horses for the blind, and for the physically and mentally challenged.

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HUNTING & TRAPPING

Early humans lived primarily as hunter gatherers. Their food (fruits, roots, fish, mammals, birds) were obtained from the surrounding areas. In the case of birds, the eggs were easier to acquire. Residence was temporary; small populations of humans were clustered together. Whenever resources in a particular area ran out, our ancestors moved to another area. Everyone helped in the sustenance of the community. Men hunted, the women gathered. As a general rule what was hunted was needed. There was hardly any excess waste. Sport hunting targets an estimated 200 million animals in the United States every year. As expected varying estimates can be acquired pertaining to this estimate, depending on the institution you get your information from. Ive used the most common estimate.

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A successfully targeted animal may die quickly, die slowly, survive a lifelong wound, live maimed, and/or be orphaned. Depending on the weapon of choice, number and location of wound/s, age and health of the animal, species, the elements, the animals resolve, where it ranks in the predator hierarchy, gender, and the availability of food, water, and shelter. An abbreviated list of hunted, fished, or trapped animals species includes passenger pigeons (exterminated), elephants, apes, monkeys, bison (American bison nearly exterminated), rhinos, hippos, giraffes, koalas, pandas (the cutest bears), beavers, wolves, prairie dogs, ferrets, coyotes, fishes, Zanzibar leopard (may have been exterminated), sharks, dolphins, whales, jackals, bears, deer, foxes, tigers, turtles, bobcats, lynxes, lions, tigers, frog, cougars, snakes, cheetahs, grizzly bears, black bears, moon bears, polar bears, American bald headed eagles (now protected), California condors (now protected, peregrine falcons, ibex, musk oxen, dodo birds, almost fell into extinction), Florida panthers, leopards, jaguars, rabbits, squirrels, moose, squirrels, wildebeest, zebras, lynx, bobcats, pigeons, kangaroos, antelopes, wolverines, muskrats, whales, dolphins, fishes, apes, monkeys, crocodiles, walruses, penguins, seals, fishes, water borne mammals, alligators, snakes, boars, deer, moose, raccoons, swans, and African cape buffalo. In times of war or territorial skirmishes, humans are also hunted-down in incredibly large numbers; the Taino were almost exterminated, the Beothuk were exterminated. The last member died in 1829 in St. Johns, Newfoundland. In 1760, near Pomfret, Pennsylvania, there occurred a Circle of Death; a smorgasbord hunt. The intended result was to kill a magnanimous number of wildlife (predators and prey; land and airborne). The settlers did not appreciate the presence of so many pests nearby. The hunters formed a 30 mile diameter ring. In addition, the hunters made loud noises. Then the hunters slowly moved in for the kill, shrinking the circle from all directions in the process. Wildlife therein had nowhere to run but to the center of the ring. In the end, a massacre ensued. Primitive hunters used crude gadgets like sticks, atlatl, rocks, or any other object they could throw, beat, or ram into an animal. Primitive hunters had to use their imagination and brawn. Like wolves, they worked together to outsmart the target animal. As weapons became more sophisticated hunting game could be done at a greater distance and with less brawn.

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Animals could even be killed without having taken notice of the hunter. Sport hunting became possible; afterwards, canned hunting. Today, we have remote hunting from vast distances. When the subsequent waves of humans arrived in the Americas it was the beginning of the end for many of the existing forests and wildlife species. The number of wildlife in North America, especially the United States was considerably larger than it is today. Today millions of acres of forests are destroyed annually. Not to mention the indigenous populations, wildlife, and other treasures therein. Early colonists became annoyed at night-time sounds emanating from forests. Unless we humans suffer through an incredible worldwide catastrophe, animal habitats around the globe will soon be severely diminished. Reasons for mass hunting of species include demonization, threat to livestock, contagious diseases, human habitat expansion, food and by-product use, protection of humans, and sport. If a mother animal is killed, or severely wounded, her young offspring usually die. Bow hunting requires more concentration and steady hands than crossbow or rifle hunting. Because of this fact, a targeted animal is more likely to be struck in a non-lethal part of his/her body from a bow hunter. This may cause a long-term lingering injury. Naturally, the targeted animal will try to get away if possible. Crossbow hunting is popular in Ohio. The use of bows and arrows in hunting and warfare caused an enormous leap in technology. The bow and arrow along with the crossbow are smaller and require less brute strength than a primitive spear. Cross bow hunting uses a propulsion system similar to a firearm. Its very effective. Barring a worldwide catastrophe, some form of hunting or another will be around for ages to come. Conservation and hunting must not be at odds. Habitats must be protected. Hunting seasons and maximum kills must be calculated to ensure that wildlife species numbers do not fall below a sustainable level. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) must be rejuvenated. Bush era weakening of the ESA or special interests groups must be reversed and more. Government agencies and hunters organizations should work together to ensure accuracy in this endeavour; if that is possible. Furthermore, if possible, protected zones (no hunting or human encroachment) should be established.

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Wildlife and forest lands are difficult to effectively protect if located near high density or poor human populations. Professional, legal hunters understand that roads give easier access to hunting sites, but lessen privacy and isolation. Africa and Asia have been hit hard by illegal and government sanctioned non-sustainable logging, poaching, and wildlife trafficking. In all fairness poor people involved in deforestation, nonsustainable hunting, hyper-extraction of valuable resources, and the bush meat trade view people in the western world as hypocritical. They need their money. Sometimes theyre very hungry and have no other way to earn a living. Westerners made fortunes by doing the same thing that theyre telling the Third World nations not to do. First World corporations are doing most of the damage in Third World countries, and theyre reaping the bulk of the profits. Anti-poaching laws must be stringent and enforced. In North America illegal hunting must result in stiff fines. Smorgasbord style hunting (limitless hunting; American bison, passenger pigeon), habitat destruction, pollution, and destruction of keystone species are big problems that must be dealt with headon. Were not struggling Third World people. When large tracts within forests are destroyed, humans and animals therein are adversely affected. Soil erosion, habitat loss, and mud slides can result. Trees help to keep the ground soil in place. Tree dwelling creatures can't go anywhere if the trees in their habitat are destroyed. When roads are carved into forested areas, pollution levels rise, and humans become more detached from nature. Large woodlands or forests become non-contiguous. Road kill is another serious problem. What does a wild animal know about roads and road kill? The bush meat resulted from overhunting of wildlife species in the equatorial forests of west and central Africa. The Great apes are being obliterated in order to be eaten as a meat delicacy in fancy African restaurants. A plate of chimpanzee or gorilla meat can cost 60 U.S. or more. The bush meat trade is a lucrative business bringing in an estimated 2 billion dollars. Poachers number in the thousands, often from other countries or in Africa. Poachers are nasty, well-armed, and will fire on rangers if necessary. Great apes are no match for the poachers' super weapons. The logging industry is helping to sustain the bush meat crisis. Logging companies (often foreign) build roads that cut
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into forests. Workers enter deep into the forest to kill, eat, and sell bush meat. Baby apes abducted for the entertainment industry require the killing of several other members of the troupe, by shooting or machete. This holds so especially in gorilla troupes. Male silverbacks may fight to the death to protect themselves, those under them, and for their honour as troupe leader. Chimpanzee and gorilla mothers have been known to fight to the death to protect their offspring. Mouse lemurs are the smallest primates. Wildlife including Great Apes, monkeys, elephants, swine, water borne mammals, rodents, and pangolins are affected by the bush meat trade. Many great apes and monkeys have lost a hand or a foot in horrible snares. In fact, any animal that steps on a snare is subject to being ensnared, regardless of what the target species was. The term bush meat generally concerns Africa, but can refer to any place on this planet where this problem occurs. Africa and Asia are not the only places where wildlife habitats are being obliterated. The Amazon Rainforest is taking a beating 24 hours a day. Many dams have flooded indigenous peoples lands and have destroyed wildlife habitats. Animal habitats are under the complete control of humans. Animal species can't run, hide, or migrate to far-off regions to escape us. Specialist animals have a difficult time re-adjusting to new habitats. Many of them end up dying. Advanced weaponry, helicopters, airplanes, water borne vessels (with ice breaking instruments), sonar, tracking devices, computer monitoring, advanced communication devices, satellite technology, automobiles, and snowmobiles, have given humans the ability to kill, terrorize, control, trans-locate, and/or annihilate any mammalian species on the face of this planet. Humans have charted every known land mass. Wildlife on miniscule non-charted islands cannot escape our pollution. Even polar bears are hunted. The lucky ones are gunned down and die quickly. The unlucky ones are chased, wounded, and then continue to be chased by hunters, sometimes with specially trained dogs or mechanized vehicles. If an injured polar bear were to miraculously escape from its human pursuers, he/she will be forced to live the life of a 'wounded animal (blood loss, anaemia, illness, infection, the elements, loss of hunting capacity, etc.). Polar bears tread vast distances on ice in the circumpolar region of this planet. Anthropogenic (human caused problems) include oil barrel leakages, excessive hunting, PCB's and other chemical poisons.

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Nations and territories with polar bear populations include Canada, the United States, Norway, the former Soviet Union, and Greenland (a territory of Denmark)._ Early spring ice melting occurring in vast stretches of the North, where polar bears live. Early spring ice melting causes a shorter hunting season for the polar bears. Polar bears need a platform (ice) in order to hunt their favourite food (seals). Polar bears wait silently and patiently next to a breathing hole then make their move as soon as the seal comes up to take a breath. A polar bear can scent a seal from up to 20 miles. Polar bears also eat seabirds, fishes, berries, plants, and reindeer. Polar bears are very powerful animals. They attack and kill seals with their teeth and claws. Polar bears are more dangerous to humans than grizzlies. Perhaps it's because Polar bears havent come into contact as often as grizzlies. Polar bears and grizzly bears have been seen evading traps. Some individuals even know how to remove an article of food from a trap without triggering the trap. Indeed, these are intelligent animals. Polar bear populations can easily fall into the danger zone. They breed slowly; have small litters, maturation occurs between the age of four and six, and over-hunting. Native hunting of polar bears is regulated by international law and the laws of the nation. Poaching and corruption is prevalent in the former Soviet Union. In sport hunting, polar bears are gold medals of the Arctic. They're the largest, toughest, and most courageous of all the large bear species. Excluding humans, polar bears are the highest ranking predator in their habitat. Professional polar bear hunters must have high levels tenacity, endurance, stamina, and strength. Hunting is often done in extreme temperatures, with the use of sled dogs. This is the hunters choice. Inuit peoples depend on polar bear hunting for survival. The hide, meat, and teeth, are used efficiently. Inuit peoples once believed that polar bears were the second most powerful spirit. Bear claws were used as talismans by the Cree. The purpose was to ensure protection. Some aboriginal peoples of the far north use technology to hunt native species. In essence, it has become much easier to hunt animals. T he early American colonists killed off many of the bears in their respective region. Sadly, this process would continue throughout much of the continental United States. Grizzly bears
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now reside in less than 2 percent of their former range, and their population is between 1 and 2 percent of its former number. There are slightly more than one thousand grizzly bears in the continental United States. There have been numerous cases of grizzly bears prying open car doors and ransacking homes. DO NOT FEED A WILD BEAR, EVER! IF YOU ARE CAMPING, BE ALERT AND PLACE YOUR FOOD IN SEALED CONTAINERS. Black bears have been more successful in their survival and in evading of humans. There are presently eight recognized bear species. Minnesota had a bounty on black bears from 1945 to 1965. Bears have been shot, poisoned, trapped, box trapped, and assaulted with an espontoon (French word). An espontoon is a spear known in English as a halbert. The espontoon resembled a spear, was five or six feet long, and had two blades. The attacker could thrust his weapon repeatedly at a grizzly bear. Problems between humans and bears have a very long history. In fact, it was primitive humans who first had problems with bears in caves. There are many nicknames for bears. A partial list of names includes nanook, big hairy one, black beast, brownie, yogi, bruin, happy hooligan, big feet, bear cat, beast, goliath, grandmother, shining cat, honey bear, four eyes, ape man, monster, etc. This partial list includes names from all of the bear species. The Stutz Bearcat was an early automobile. Professional, amateur, and youth sports teams use bear names; most notably football, baseball, and basketball. Many bears were killed in the First and Second World War. The Indian Army killed many sloth bears during the 1800s. Perhaps for target practice, or some other trivial reason/s. On a somewhat positive note, grizzly bears are flexible in what they eat; salmon, berries, honey, fruit, moose, elk and human food. Grizzly bears may double their weight, eating up to 20 thousand calories per day, in preparation for a long hibernation. Incredible quantities of plant materials must be eaten because grizzly bears digestive system cant properly absorb the nutrients therein. Scientists study bear scats to identify what was eaten and digested by individuals. The term black bear is a generic description of bears that are coloured black, cinnamon, brown, semi-red, or in between. Historically, bears have been hunted, trapped, used for entertainment, eaten, caged, bear baiting (horrible sport),
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demonized, driven off of their habitats, and have had body parts including their skin, teeth, bones, and claws used to satisfy human needs. Texas ranchers killed bears to protect peoples livestock. Grizzly bears are large, powerful, and fast. If desperate enough theyll take on and kill a full-grown moose. Father Armand David was the first European to see a panda. The Chicago zoo was the first to house a giant panda. There are nearly 1600 pandas in the wild. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has used the panda as its logo since 1961. Although giant pandas are cute and cuddly looking, never approach one straight on in the wild. The giant panda is still a wild animal. Giant pandas eat twenty different kinds of bamboo. They live in thick-forested areas in China where its cool and damp. Their primary food source is bamboo. The hunting of giant pandas has been illegal in China since 1962. Being a giant panda in the wild is tough. Many giant pandas Dont reach adulthood. Leopards and other predators are a lurking danger. The Government of China has established 40 giant panda preserves in order to help protect this beautiful animal. Corridors have been carved out to enable pandas to migrate to bamboo sites. Pandas generally dont breed too well in captivity. Zoo professionals must work hard to fix this problem. The Arabian Oryx (140-175 lbs.) is a medium-sized antelope. It was almost blasted out of existence. This desert wonder was once quite numerous in the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Oryx can survive without drinking water for up to a year. Plants supply it with much needed moisture. From the 1950's rampant, unfettered hunting of the Arabian Oryx by helicopters, radio communications, and modern weaponry almost resulted in extinction of this species. The Government of Saudi Arabia, Fauna Preservation Society (now Fauna and Flora International) and the World Wildlife Fund have helped pull the Arabian Oryx back from the brink of extinction. Today, there are conservation efforts by governments in the region and international organizations, helping to maintain a healthy Arabian Oryx population. Seven percent of the American population are hunters; theyre dedicated to their cause. Canned hunting doesnt require much talent, often no chase, and a guaranteed kill. Many professional hunters look down upon the canned hunting industry, and rightfully so. Canned hunting preserves are springing up in the United States. There are hundreds of preserves in Texas alone. The
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hunting is done on private lands containing exotic animals, usually from Africa or Asia. Because most owners guarantee that the hunter will get a kill, any John, Dick, or 'Harriet, can shoot an animal. Just have your credit card in your hand. Thankfully, 9 states have already outlawed canned hunts. In 2005 the Texas Legislature passed a law prohibiting remote hunting (hunting by internet); including bow hunting, cross bow hunting, or firearm hunting of animals in Texas. Trophy hunting is available in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. In Europe, millions of Euros are made annually from proceeds of the trophy hunting industry. Trophy hunting organizations based in Europe offer package deals (including tours, lodging, and hunting) to designated sites in Africa, Asia, North America, and Europe. Endangered species are oftentimes hunted. Some zoos and circuses sell animals to the canned hunting industry. Some of these animals have been in captivity on display and have been fed by humans for much of or all of their lives. Abuse does occur. The Association of Zoos & Aquariums (AZA) is respected and known throughout the world. In essence, many canned hunting targets have been deanimalized; theyve lost their fear of humans and their flight instinct has been blunted. Most preserves are fenced-in, or have some kind of enclosure structure. In effect, the animals are sitting ducks! Even if the animal does run away, itll be within the confines of the preserve. In some cases, food is used to entice the animal to approach a pre-designated site. Food may be placed in the same location for days or weeks beforehand to better assure an easy kill. The animal casually goes to its food source, and is then killed. Some canned hunting organizations give the hunter even more aid. The target animal is actually securely fastened to a stationary object; a guaranteed kill. Wolves once prevailed over much of the North American continent. With over 20 gray wolf sub-species its no wonder. In their heyday wolves were super predators, usually hunted in well-organized packs, thereby increasing their strength, persistence and efficiency. Wolves have incredible endurance, able to trot for many miles a day. Packs of wolves will kill a bear if it gets too close for comfort. In a one-on-one confrontation, a wolf wouldn't stand a chance against a full-grown bear or a cougar. Early European settlers, demonized, then began wide-scale slaughtering campaigns against wolves. Because wolves killed

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livestock and were large predators, settlers, especially ranchers, viewed them as competitors and dangerous creatures. Unwarranted and inflated stories of wolves attacking people were widely distributed. In fact, wolves in the wild almost never attack people. A wolf attack may occur when a person inadvertently walks into a dispute, near wolf pups or encounters a sickly individual. Hybrid (wolf-dogs) should not be companion animals; Theyre unpredictable. They dont belong in the pet category. Ranchers have an inherent right to defend their livestock and companion animals. Problem animals should be dealt with by translocation or deadly force, if necessary. Translocation takes time and money though. Ranchers provide bread and butter to the citizens at large. Fencing, securing the livestock, guard dog/s, and motion detectors (expensive), and other non-lethal methods may help The extermination campaign of wolves was encouraged and supported by the United States Government through the use of bounties. The bounty system was also used in the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Calls for the 'extinction' of wolves were prevalent. What they really meant was extermination. Extinction sounds natural, like it was caused by nature. Under this context, extermination is the deliberate, coldblooded and calculated series of actions designed to completely annihilate wolves. Trapping, hunting (with or without a bounty), habitat destruction, poisoning and translocation were the main methods used. Bounties were given for wolf carcasses. By the early1970's, there were only a few hundred wolves left in the Continental United States, most of them in the upper Midwest. Although wolves in Alaska fared better today they're under threat, from aerial shooting. The Endangered Species Act (1973) was a step forward for the protection of endangered species, including wolves. Although the process was slow it eventually lead to the re-introduction of additional wolves into the upper Midwest. Other areas may follow suit. Nevertheless, the forces against wolves havent given up yet. A wolf named Old Lefty evaded being killed for 13 years. In Alaska, wolves are being killed by aerial shooting or land and shoot kills. The former procedure exhausts the wolves, making it easier to shoot them. The gunners are sharpshooters. In land and shoot kills, the plane lands, the gunners get out then the wolves are gunned-down at close range or point blank range.

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The Airborne Hunting Act of 1972 specifies the conditions pertaining to the aerial hunting of wildlife. Aerial hunting in Alaska has been placed under the category of wildlife management, thereby neutralizing the Airborne Hunting Act of 1972. In packs wolves are very formidable predators; able to take down a full-grown, antlered, healthy moose. Wolves can trail a target animal for many miles, if necessary. Wolf packs initially spot a herd, stalk the herd, get closer to the herd, close-in on an individual, harass and make contact with the individual, separate the individual then move in for the kill. In the kill, several or all of the wolf members may participate. Alls not good however. Many of their attempts at finding and killing prey are unsuccessful. Prey animals have evolved acute senses and in the case of adult moose, an incredibly deadly kicking ability; in adult males incredible antlers. These prey weapons can cause serious injury or death to a wolf. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between government bodies. CITES members safeguard the safety and security of wildlife and plants in the international trade. CITES member states adhere to CITES rulings voluntarily. The trade in wildlife and plants crosses numerous international borders. As such cooperation between member nations is necessary in order to implement CITES rulings. The black market trade is a big problem to be tackled. Currently, there are 175 members of the CITES Convention. Animals are categorized animals into three appendices: 1. Appendix one: Includes species populations that are threatened with extinction. Trade in these species is permitted under special circumstances (non-commercial import). 2. Appendix Two: Includes species populations that are controlled in order to prevent trade that is harmful or hazardous to their existence. 3. Appendix three: Includes species that are controlled in one or more countries. The controlling nations have requested other nations to help in their control. Although CITES does not have the power or authority it needs, the organization is respected by the governing world body and citizens across the globe. Nations that illegally trade in animals and plants are often not fully equipped to stop poaching, don't care, or are
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actively involved in the illegal trade. In effect, some governments are a big part of the black market. Rampant corruption, dictatorship, and no tough controls keep the process running. CITES member nations should continue to work hard and diligently to help protect endangered species. In Britain people who want to hunt game birds can do so at special estates or farms. Here, game birds are reared to later be targets for game bird hunters. Game bird hunters referred to as punters by the British, pay hefty prices to shoot game birds out of the sky. The surrounding areas may be cleared (poisoning, trapping, shooting, bludgeoning, snaring, etc.) of wildlife prior to the big hunting event. Fur-bearing animals can be trapped by the use of snares. Snares are wires that strangle the part of the body that is caught. For instance, if a fox's leg is caught in a snare, the snare becomes a tourniquet. Since many snares don't have a 'stop' the more the fox struggles the more he/she suffers. If on the other hand, the fox's neck is caught in the snare then the result may be death by strangulation. If a snare becomes rusty or splintery, it only adds to the pain of the ensnared animal. Its up the trapper to ensure effective snares. Snares can be implanted into a log or block. The ensnared animal is forced to drag the log or block around until exhaustion, or death by exhaustion overtakes it. Non-target animals may be inadvertently trapped. Depending on where the trapping is done; it could be your dog or cat thats trapped. Sometimes wildlife population control measures are necessary. This can be done by translocation, sterilization, the introduction of predatory animals, trapping, or hunting. Prior to introducing any wildlife species in to an area, a comprehensive scientific study must be done. Artificially introducing, or re-introducing any wildlife species can possibly have adverse effects on the particular habitat. In 1996, conibear traps were outlawed in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Question One referendum. What later ensued was a lesson to us all. Beaver populations skyrocketed from an estimated 20,000 in 1996 to over 50,000 in 1999, and continued rising. Massachusetts Wildlife received hundreds of complaints from homeowners hit with beaver related problems. When beavers build dams, the water can back-up, causing flooding in yards and roadways.
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In addition, cranberry growers were adversely affected by muskrat overpopulation. Although the plight and welfare of animals is always important, humans, their companion animals, and their properties have priority. This is not speceism, this is realism. We, who live outside of the overpopulated areas should be empathic to the Massachusetts complainants. Today, residents of Massachusetts who own property can receive special permits to use conibear traps, as a result of amendments to the 1996 law, adopted in 2000. Aside from mammalian traps, some traps are used for indoor pests, birds, or small animals. Glue traps are a common method of trapping rodents and small birds. The traps are effective but wreak havoc on the trapped animal. A rodent caught in a glue trap struggles with all his/her might just to get loose. Rodents sometimes end up pulling out their own hair, blotches of skin, or breaking or biting off an appendage. Sometimes a rodent is stuck head first in glue; resulting in suffocation until death. A bird can easily break a leg while struggling to escape a glue trap. Extinct calls for a bird to fly away. Box traps (metallic or plastic) are more humane than glue traps. It's up to the trapper to check the box traps on a regular basis. From the opposing viewpoint too many birds and rodents leave droppings, can spread diseases, or destroy food supplies. Therefore, it's imperative that all humane methods of trapping and repulsion be tried first. If all fail, then lethal methods must be used. For homes and buildings, all holes, cracks, and openings should be sealed. This includes windows, plumbing, and doors. Prevention usually works if its done early and correctly Although hunting with dogs is now illegal in the England and Wales, a basic description of this kind of hunting should be given. On November 18, 2004 the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 were invoked. The ban on hunting with dogs officially went into effect on February 18, 2005. Countless hunted animals and many overstressed foxhounds had been used in this sport. In fox hunting the target animal (fox), if caught, is usually or torn into pieces by trained Foxhounds, but is sometimes shot. The only way to evade this catastrophe is to escape. Foxholes in the intended hunting areas are sealed a day in advance, by 'earth stoppers.

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Earth stoppers are not paid workers. Theyre volunteers who do their work late in the night or shortly after dawn. They seal up every single fox hole that they come across. Fox hounds are bred to have incredible stamina and endurance. During a hunt their duty is to wear down and find the hunted fox. Fox hounds are put to use for 5 to 7 years. When a fox hound outlives its usefulness, its up to the owner to do with it as he/she pleases. The end result is not always good. During the fox hunt, the horse rider positions himself behind the Foxhounds. As soon as the scent is picked up, hunters ride into the path of the fox. The object of the sport is to capture and kill the fox. Officially, sport hunting is illegal in Hong Kong. This doesnt stop sport hunters from going to remote areas of the country to hunt. Nearby, in China, sport hunting is more pervasive. China is a large country both in population and geographical area. Furthermore, there are no animal protection laws in this country. In sport fishing countless sea fishes die unnecessarily; many are tossed back into the water as a result of being killed in a mega-fishing expedition. Thousands of dolphins around the world die as by-catch. By-catch, are non-target fishes, sea mammals and birds. Dolphins and porpoises suffocate to death in fishing nets. Bycatch are usually tossed overboard. An injured fish, sea mammal, or bird is literally dead meat. Cyanide and explosives are also used to kill fish. This method of fishing is hazardous to coral reefs and countless nontarget sea creatures. Dolphins may be killed for their meat or are sent to seaquariums (concrete prisons) to spend countless years performing unnatural acts to cheering humans. In Taiji, a small village in Japan, fishermen slaughter thousands of dolphins and small whales in an enclosed cove. Target sea mammals are driven into a shallow water cove. Fishermen then close off the entrance to the cove by dropping large fishing nets. Afterwards, the bloodbath begins. The dolphins and small whales are then laconically beaten to death. The water in the cove literally turns blood red. Cetaceans include whales, dolphins, and porpoises. People have been fascinated by whales for thousands of years. There are nearly 80 species of cetaceans.

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Cetology is the branch of zoology that deals with the study of whales. People first learned about whale physiology from their encounters with beached whales. There are toothed whales (orcas, sperm whales) and nontoothed (baleen) (fin, blue, humpback whales). The blue whale can reach 110 feet in length. The humpback whales are astonishing singers. Although Aristotle identified whales as mammals, in wasn't until the 18th century that mainstream scientific community began to earnestly accept his classification. As civilizations continued to advance in knowledge, whale skeletons were reconstructed and then placed in natural museums. This enabled scientists to identify a link between whales and land mammals; they had a common ancestor. The Basques were the first large-scale whalers. New England colonists hunted humpback whales. Improvements in hunting equipment and most notably the steamship enabled whale hunters to drastically increase their takes. The Antarctic waters became hunting grounds for whales in the early 20th century. Whales cant hide from whalers. Non-hunting (whale watching) has become a lucrative business and a popular activity. Whales were hunted for their meat, bones, and oil. Whale meat provides indigenous peoples with much nutrition. Blue whales may reach a weight of 160 tons. No wonder, they were once referred to as sea monsters. This has not saved them from being critically endangered though. Primitive peoples didn't have the technology to devastate whale populations. This devastation began with commercial whaling. The 19th and 20th century involved a sustained series of whale killing fests. The invention of the explosive harpoon gun in the 1860's, by Svend Foyn, a Norwegian, enabled whalers to kill whales easier and faster. The harpoon gun was convenient. Whales could be killed in minutes, rather than hours. The use of sonar by the Japanese to track whales' locations helped whalers to find their targets easier. Large commercial whale hunting establishments generally think of the here-andnow, rather than sustained hunting. If the whale killing fest had continued unabated more whale species wouldve become extinct. The two most famous whales are Moby Dick, the fictional character, and the whale that swallowed the prophet Jonah. The latter which was significantly more important was never given a name.

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The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up under the International Convention for the Regulating of Whales signed on December 2, 1946. The IWC is assigned to provide complete protection to certain whale species, designate whale sanctuaries, set limits regarding to maximum numbers and sizes of whales to be hunted, stipulates hunting and non-hunting seasons, prohibits the capture and/or hunting of suckling calves and female whales escorting the calves. Specified record-keeping pertaining to numbers of hunts and species of whales hunted. The IWC performs much scientific research and publishes the results. Currently there are 88 IWC member nations and commissions. Although the IWC doesnt have direct enforcing powers, many nations respect its rulings. Japan, Norway, and Iceland have been violators of IWC rulings and quotas. Iceland resumed commercial whaling in 2003, after years of abiding by the moratorium. Iceland was reinstated into the IWC, having been allowed to vote in support of its reinstatement. Japan has hunted thousands of whales under the guise of scientific research. At the 2004 IWC meeting Japan issued a proposal to increase its scientific whale hunting. Norway has set its own quotas, and has tried to pass its whale hunting as scientific research. The scientific research loophole in the IWC moratorium is an indication that the IWC can at times appear as a de-clawed and defanged organization when face-to-face with resistant nations. Whale hunting in Japan, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, and amongst northern indigenous populations is more important to them than it is for most of us. Being a city boy I dont rely on whale meat or any byproduct thereof. When we complain about whale hunting we should always find out how important it is for the specific nation or indigenous group involved. Smorgasbord whale hunting and unsustainable whale hunting cannot be tolerated. Sustained whale hunting is an easier and more fruitful practice. Nations that are obviously threatening whale populations with their overhunting should be sanctioned. Unfortunately, whale hunting on the high seas is difficult to monitor. The Southern Ocean Sanctuary, established in 1994, is a whale sanctuary. This is a good idea. Whales face other serious dangers such as by-catch, pollution, and sound energy.

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Anthropogenic (human-induced) sound energy has been rising steadily for decades, resulting in an increase in mass whale stranding (beaching). Except for a brief respite during the Second World War, whales have been hunted-down by one nation or another. Seal hunting is bloody and brutal. To date, there has been no humane method of mass slaughter of seals. Seal pups may be a couple of weeks of age when theyre clubbed or shot to death. The attackers are perceived as giant bi-pedals by the seals. Hundreds of thousands of seals are clubbed or shot to death every year. Baby seal pups are born in late February to mid-March. They're born into a harsh environment therefore, rapid weight gain is essential. Mother seals produce milk rich in fat. The seal pups must drink large quantities every single day. The large accumulation of blubber helps them stay warm. The trapping of animals is done in order to control vermin, protect peoples and properties, and for the production of fur. Millions of animals are caught in traps every year around the world. Animal protectionists, especially animal rightists protest cruel capture, farming, and killing methods by the fur trapping industry. Many people choose to purchase fur, while others choose faux fur (fake fur). Regardless of the reasons for setting animal traps, serious attempts should be made to make them more humane. The fur trapping industry consists of many workers. In addition, trapping of animals is an old tradition. It brings in needed income to individuals, families, and organizations. Snares are cable restraints that tighten around the animal's neck or appendage. It is possible for an animal to be ensnared in another body part. Death may take hours or a few days. Fur trappers should check traps regularly basis. Snares strangle the affected body part, somewhat like a giant wired-python. Because an animal's natural tendency is to try to free itself, struggling may tighten the snare. In addition, snares can be dirty or have metallic splinters. Blood loss, the natural elements (extreme weather conditions or exposure), dehydration, starvation, strangulation, and/or predation are possible outcomes. These are the worst case scenarios. Fur trappers understand that the trapped animal is income; bread and butter. Laws ordering trappers to check their traps regularly, for example, once every 24 hours can't be enforced.

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Conibear traps snap shut on the trapped animal's spinal column at the base of the skull. Imagine a giant mouse trap; the old kind but much stronger. If a mistake occurs the trap may crush the animal's bones or internal organs. An animal may spend hours or days in this predicament until death. Often times, non-target animals such as dogs, cats, birds, or endangered species are caught in conibear traps. Non-target animals are referred to as trash or throwaways by mainstream fur trappers. Steel jaw leg hold traps contain two powerful metallic jaws and springs. When an animal triggers the springs the jaws slam shut with extreme force; bone-crushing force. Steel jaw leg hold traps are condemned by the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Animal Hospital Association, and National Animal Damage Control Association. The pain and shock of this snapping action has been compared to a person having a door slam on her/his fingers. Actually its much worse, because you or I would automatically withdraw our hand, then wed seek medical aid. The trapped animal's body part is locked into place. Therefore, the pain is sustained and unrelenting. Naturally, the trapped animal tries anything to get free. No wonder, some animals end up chewing off their limbs, losing many of their teeth (trying to bite through the metallic jaws), or twisting off their affected limbs. Most of the animals that cannot escape die before the trapper returns. The few that can twist or chew off their limbs must live with blood loss, infection, and a severe handicap (major tooth loss or a loss of a limb). Many Americans oppose the use of steel jaw leg hold traps. Whenever an adult animal is killed theres a possibility that a youngster is relying on that animal. Padded leg hold traps are the semi-humane version of the steel jaw leg hold trap. The snap is still there, but padded. Underwater leg hold traps target mink, beavers, and muskrats. The trapped animal drowns to death. Death can take up to 20 minutes. An animal still alive when the fur trapper returns may be beaten to death or stomped to death; in the latter case, the fur trapper jumps up and down onto the animal. Nearly 90 countries have outlawed steel jaw leg hold traps. Even the awesome super-predators of the seas cant escape the long arms of humanity. For millions of years sharks and orcas were masters of the waters they inhabited. Humanity has reached their domain. In shark finning, sharks are captured by fishermen who slice off the fins then throw the body overboard. The fins
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represent between 1 to 5 percent of body weight. Because sharks without fins cant swim, they end up sinking to the bottom of the ocean. Bleeding profusely, unable to swim or defend themselves, they die a slow and agonizing death. Shark fin soup is an expensive delicacy in China. People should be aware that some species of sharks have been decimated by up to 90 percent. Some nations have begun to take action against shark finning. The Shark Finning Prohibition Act (December 21, 2000) was signed by President Bill Clinton. Overhunting in most of the Cape Colony led to the decimation of elephants, hippos, ostrich, and rhinoceros in the early 19th century._ The quagga was exterminated in Africa, the last individual died in Amsterdam. White hunters who ventured into the interior of Africa had incredible firearms on their person. Their hunting rifles could kill any animal, including the largest elephants. Lions and springbok were once omnipresent in much of Africa. When the springbok migrated southward (trekbokken), they literally blanketed large areas. Anyone in the path of a migration had to move out of the way or else be stampeded to death. Smorgasbord hunting (rampant, uncontrolled) has resulted in countless atrocities upon wildlife. When humans overhunt, there are severe consequences for the targeted and sometimes non-targeted wildlife species. The saddest example of this phenomenon in North America is the case of the exterminated Passenger pigeon. The passenger pigeon was the most numerous of bird species in North America. Estimates pertaining to their numbers go as high as 5 billion. When passenger pigeons flocked in the air the sky would be darkened; some accounts claim hours of darkness at a time. Sometimes when passenger pigeons perched on trees in large numbers one or more branches would collapse from the sheer weight. Because the Passenger pigeons were light, only slightly larger than mourning doves, their numbers wouldve had to have been astronomical to result in a branch collapsing. Prior to the destruction of their habitats passenger pigeons had a variety of food supply to choose from within the North America forests. Passenger pigeons could fly up to 70 miles per hour. Even this speed wasnt enough to save the passenger pigeon. Deforestation, human expansion, and smorgasbord hunting were the death knell for the Passenger pigeon.

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Firearms, netting, long sticks (to knock them off trees), and noxious fumes (used to make them dizzy and fall), and snatching of birds eggs were the major methods used in the extermination campaign. In addition, squabs (young pigeons) that often filled the forest floor were killed and eaten by wolves, foxes, birds, snakes, and other predators. The people involved in this horror campaign were, as a whole selfish, greedy, and didnt have a conservation ethic. They wanted to eat and/or sell what they could as fast as they could. The 19th century was catastrophic for the Passenger pigeon. These birds naturally lived in large flocks. Later on, attempts were made at conservation, but to no avail. Laws against hunting Passenger pigeons were too little and too late. Worse yet, people simply ignored the laws. The end result was extinction. The last Passenger pigeon died in 1914 at the age of 29 at the Cincinnati Zoological Garden. Her name was Martha. When she died there was a crowd of people watching. It is said that a group of them nudged Martha just to make certain that she was really dead. Likewise the dodo bird, once located in Mauritius, was exterminated by humans. Sailors first took notice of the dodo bird in 1600. Roughly 80 years later, the bird was erased from the face of the earth. Although the distant ancestors of the dodo bird were able to fly, the dodo bird of 1600 was flightless. Having landed on the island of Mauritius with plentiful food and no predators, flying became a frivolous act. Flying for bird species uses up incredible quantities of energy. Therefore, the dodo bird naturally stopped flying. Sailors picked the dodo birds off quite easily. The dodo bird couldnt fly and had lost its escape instinct. In addition, imported animals including cats, rats and pigs ate the dodo birds with delight. Compound this with the sailors big appetite the dodo bird was naturally doomed. Smorgasbord hunting obliterated the Quaggas of Africa. Their final days were in 1870. Stellers sea cows and cormorants were also exterminated. Quaggas are related to horses and zebras. The last Quagga died in Amsterdam, many miles away from its native habitat in Africa. The American bison (technically, the word buffalo refers to the African water buffalo, bison is the correct term to use) once roamed throughout large tracts of land as far as Canada to the North and Mexico to the south. Bison herds were so large they blanketed the area like giant ants.
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Bison were an important part of the plains Indians culture. The three species of bison include Plains Bison, Wood Bison, and the European Wisent. In North America the bison numbered between 40 and 60 million bison. The highest estimate I came across was an astounding 70 million, the lowest 35 million. The bison is the largest land mammal in North America. Their stampedes were commonly referred to as thunder of the plains. Plains Indians used the meat, bones, tongue, entrails, and other body-parts of the bison. The natives stripped the bison bare. The bison was their bloodline. With the advance of European settlers and smorgasbord hunting the bison eradication began. Bison hunters used powerful repeating rifles, big fifty rifles, and horses to gun-down bison. Some hunters shot and killed bison from trains. The Transcontinental Railroad unofficially referred to as the iron horse (1869), fencing, settlers, smorgasbord hunting, bison tongue demand in the Eastern United States, cattle ranching and a perceived U.S. Government policy to exterminate the livelihood of plains Indians (through bison eradication) served as a death knell for the bison. The railroad split the bison into north and south. The south bison lost out first. Within 20 years the area Colonel Dodge described as full of bison for miles {vertically and horizontally} would be empty of bison, bone, and scrap. A European traveller stated that she saw bison carcasses miles on end, strewn across vast patches of land. Meat, hides (many sent to Europe), bones, and tongues were used by Americans. There was so much waste and killing, often times bison carcasses were strewn across vast expanses of land, only their tongues missing. Countless bison tongues were sold, while the bodies were wasted. The infamous Buffalo Bill Cody bragged about having (gunned-down) nearly 4300 bison in a 17 month period. Cody claimed to have committed the act in order to help feed railroad workers. He appeared to have enjoyed the act. The 1860's through the 1870's signified the beginning of the end for the American bison. Too many were being wiped out, too fast. Individuals who cared and hunters began to notice a major decrease in the number of bison. By 1893 there were according to estimates, anywhere between 23 and a few hundred bison left. It was a miracle the bison didn't become extinct. Today, there are over 200,000 bison in the Continental United States.
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Many of the bison are enclosed in the Yellowstone National Park. If a bison strays from the enclosure onto grazing land at the wrong time itll gunned-down like a dog. The National Park Service and state agencies are being pressured by cattle ranchers to keep bison in check. The Montana Department of Livestock asserts that the Yellowstone bison slaughters are to avert a brucellosis outbreak from bison to livestock. Activists for bison assert that there has never been a transmission of brucellosis from a bison to livestock. Both sides are adamant in their claims. One thing is for sure: North Americans eat beef, not bison meat. Although bison contains less fat and more nutrition, its not one of the main food items. Also, if there were ever to be an actual case of brucellosis transmission, theres no telling how much damage it would do to livestock. Brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease thats found in infected livestock and in discharges that accompany aborted foetuses. Brucellosis is a very dangerous disease that affects the internal organs, causes infertility, decreased milk production, lameness, and death to young animals. Brucellosis is zoonotic (can be spread from humans to animals, vice versa). The problems relating to the bison issue includes brucellosis, roaming, and grazing. There are 2 major adversarial parties; on the one hand, the U.S. Government and State Governments are for the control of the bison range and generally support the culling of strays from the Yellowstone National Park. The opposing view consists of animal rights activists who are actively involved in the bison protection campaign, support better protections of strays and according to them do not see any hard evidence for punishing wandering bison for fear of brucellosis. The cattle industry has powerful persuasion powers. Before the arrival of the settlers there were an estimated 4 or 5 five billion prairie dogs. Prairie dog colonies were decimated without mercy. Up to 90 percent of the population has been poisoned, gassed, hunted, bulldozed, and brutally extracted from their homes. The present pet trade in prairie dogs has exacerbated the problem. Prairie dogs, like other undomesticated wild animals, dont belong in peoples' homes. Theyve been known to bite their captors. This oftentimes results in owners tossing or giving away their pet. Fortunately, some owners send their pet to a prairie dog rescue. Most prairie dogs destined to be pets are yanked out of their habitats then sent away to be sold to a human family. As a general rule, small, cheap-priced animals in pet stores dont receive adequate veterinary medical care. Its too expensive and its easier to toss the animal.
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In the U.S. pets are a 40 billion dollar industry. The word pet is an English word dating back to the 1500s. Rabbits have been show animals since the end of the 19th century. There are an estimated 5 million rabbits in the United States. Angora rabbits produce wool. Gerbils were popular pets in the U.S. in the 1970s. Some prairie dogs are sent away to destinations up to 1000s of miles away from their habitat. Prairie dogs are keystone species; other species rely on them for food, and also use their homes. Theyre an important aspect of the ecosystem. The black-footed ferret has undergone a catastrophic decline in population. Black-footed ferrets prey on prairie dogs. Furthermore, black-footed ferrets have a difficult time surviving away from prairie dog towns. Ferrets were once used on ships to kill off rats. The prairies have lost many of its wolves, bison, grizzly bears, and prairie dogs. Grizzly bears once roamed an area about half the size of the continental United States. Therein were up to 100,000 grizzly bears. In Arizona, grizzly bears were gunned-down out of existence in the early 20th century. Because grizzly bears have a low reproductive rate humans will have to monitor their populations. Native cultures respected grizzly bears. Today, grizzly bears inhabit only 2 percent of their former range. Their population dropped to a low of just over 1,000 individuals. Perceived as large predators competing with humans for food and eating livestock, they were mercilessly gunned-down. In an historical context, the mass slaughters took roughly a century to nearly eradicate the grizzly bears. Bears are free-roaming. The black bears of North America are still found in 42 states. Theyve fared much better than the larger and more powerful grizzly bear. Black bears have a slow reproduction rate and are affected by human encroachment though. Bears are intelligent, powerful, fast, and can sometimes be cunning. They can react to circumstances with lightening speed, faster than a human can comprehend. Bears can dig large holes into the ground quickly, open a car door (downward-bending motion), climb trees (black bears), take down large prey with a single blow and carry a carcass vast distances. Food and curiosity often bring bears close to human settlements or individuals. If a bear is hungry, itll search for food with incredible diligence, if necessary. People sometimes get too close to bears, even petting them or trying to hand feed them. Bears are wild animals that are unpredictable. People should always be careful around bears.
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A human may inadvertently get too close to a nursing mother bear, or cross a hungry bears path. Bears that attack people or become a nuisance are either chased down and then shot, or can be trans-located. Property owners sometimes kill problem or trespassing bears. The Black Rhino is on the verge of extinction. This prehistoric looking animal once roamed large areas of eastern and southern Africa, reaching well into the Sudan in the north and Nigeria in the west. Rhinos are valued for their horns, which are made out of keratin. Poaching, deforestation, smorgasbord hunting, human expansion, and killing out of spite have been the major causes of this disaster. Ounce per ounce rhinos horns can be worth more than gold. Rhino horns are sold as items of traditional medicine in Asia and as handles for daggers in Yemen. Although the sales to Yemen have decreased, the threat of a rise is ever present. Neither the poachers nor the purchasers of rhino horns seem to care about conservation. Poachers can be extremely dangerous to law enforcement officers. Poachers are often armed with AK-47s and some will kill you where you stand, if you try to get in their way. Affected governments have begun to dehorn the Black Rhino and other rhino species to remove the monetary gain factor. All is not perfect through; some poachers are ordered to remove the stub; anything for a quick buck. Worse even yet, there have been cases of poachers killing hornless rhinos out of spite. Because black rhinos have poor vision, theyre often sitting targets. Pictures of dead, dehorned rhinos describe the brutality and ruthlessness of this enterprise. On a more positive note, the Indian rhinos (one-horned) and the Southern white rhino of South Africa are presently faring better than the black rhino. With less than 200 individuals left, the Indian Rhino was on the verge of extinction. Presently, there are 2,500 individuals. Although poachers still operate in India, the authorities have done a decent job in thwarting many of them. Karizanga National Park (KNP), located in Assam, Eastern India, is home to Indian rhinos, tigers, leopards, elephants, tigers, birds, and other mammals. The rare Javan Rhino, described as the one horned rhino, is located in Western Indonesia and Eastern Indochina. This animal is on the verge of extinction. KNP is a fine example of wildlife conservation. This kind of park should be carved out in many countries of the world; where possible.

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There were once many thousands of southern white rhinos roaming South Africa and bordering countries. Although the natives hunted these magnificent creatures, their numbers were still well above the danger zone. Shortly after European settlers arrived, the smorgasbord hunting campaign began. At the lowest, the white rhino population dipped to a few dozen individuals. The Umfolozi Game Reserve (UGR) was established in 1897. Its the oldest game reserve in Africa. The southern white rhino, cheetah, lion, antelope, buffalo, wildebeest, black rhino (few in number), hyena, wild dog, and elephant inhabit the UGR. Tourism through the area helps to bring in badly needed monies for conservation and maintenance. Non-invasive tourism better known as ecotourism is one of the methods used to increase funding for conservation. The southern white rhino population has risen to over 11,500 individuals thanks to hard-working rangers, and a government that has acted diligently. Southern white rhino reproductive capacity is so successful individuals are transferred to other reserves to inhibit overpopulation. International laws forbidding illegal transport or sale of animals or animal by-products should be enforced and respected by the international body of nations. In 1977, CITES ordered a ban on trade in rhino products, to no avail. Member nations must be diligent in their enforcement of bans. The world community must treat this problem like it treats the global trade in illegal drugs and illegal weapons. Although African elephants (weighing up to 8 tons) have been hunted for centuries, from 1970 through the 1980's was a catastrophic period. A common and agreed upon estimate of the African elephant population before 1970 is 1,300,000. Within decades decimation dropped the number to a low of 600,000. Like the rhinos, an elephants tusks are the most valuable part of its entire body for a poacher. The major obliteration of African elephants began in 1979. The Government of Kenya has torched millions of dollars worth of tusks in its never-ending battle against ivory poaching. African elephants are flagship species (a species that symbolizes an environmental or wildlife conservation cause; usually an attractive species). The international ivory trade ban officially began in 1989. Tusks are really giant incisors. Tusk=less elephants are referred to as makhnas; tusked elephants are referred to as tuskers.

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Tribespersons of the Jharkhand in India have begun to worship Asian elephants for protection. Asian elephants (weighing up to 6 tons) have also endured smorgasbord hunting. Comfortably high numbers of wildlife species can be sliced into small populations if poachers, poisoning, smorgasbord hunting, habitat destruction, killing by angry farmers, and other anthropogenic (human caused) problems are not addressed and alleviated. Today, most elephants live in congested parks, game reserves, sanctuaries, circuses, or zoos. Elephants in zoos must be observed for possible arthritis or foot problems. Most elephants live in herds. The herds consist of a dominant female (matriarch), young elephants, and a minority of bulls. Males may live in bachelor herds. Elephant bulls tend to become more aggressive as they age. This is why the matriarch must drive the aggressive males out of the herd. Musth is a yearly period where adult males have an incredible upsurge of testosterone levels. This is the time for breeding. Elephants in musth are extremely aggressive. Zoo keepers or anyone else in close proximity may be at risk of a deadly attack. Elephants in musk have been known to chase down rhinos and kill them mercilessly. Imagine what one of these elephants can do to an unarmed, unprepared human. There are 3 elephant species, two in Africa and one in India. Elephants are herbivores and need much food to eat. In the wild elephants spend much time eating and migrating in search of food. During the hunting smorgasbord of elephants, larger tusked elephants were to such an extent much that the average elephant tusk size today is smaller than in the past. In effect, the gene pool has been altered. If wildlife continues to lose habitat at the current pace, individuals and herds may one day be placed into secured congested zones; closed parameters. Beginning in the early 1970's, poachers began to use automatic weapons against elephants. Because elephants are very large targets they're difficult to miss. Compound this with the fact that elephants have poor vision, and you get an easy kill. In 1989, CITES listed elephants in Appendix 1. Unfortunately, the poaching continues, but to a lesser extent for now. Several African nations and pro-hunting organizations want to down list the African elephant in order to increase legal hunting. We must be careful not to open up a giant can of worms. Hunting, if necessary, must be done responsibly and conservatively.
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Elephant tusks are used in Asia, especially China, in traditional medicine. During the elephant catastrophe period, countless tusks or tusk by-products ended up in Europe and the United States. The African Elephant Conservation Act (AECA) of 1988 is supposed to help maintain, protect, and strengthen African elephant populations. Respective African governments are given funds to implement and improve elephant conservation strategies. The AECA places major restrictions and quotas on ivory imports into the United States. African elephant trophies are exempted from quotas. Conflicts between elephants and farmers pose a big problem. Elephant repulsion measures include electric fences, ditches, and pepper-oil bombs. The latter appear to be the most effective method. Electric fencing has been neutralized by some smart elephants. Trees can be toppled onto the fence or control box. Translocation (transfer) of elephants takes much work, coordination, and funding. In addition, a suitable habitat target area must be found first. Elephants are so large theyre always a keystone species in their natural habitat. They simply cant be ignored by humans, animals, or plants. Theres an elephant sanctuary in Hohenwald, Tennessee and the PAWS (Performing Animal Welfare Society) sanctuary in San Andreas, California. The latter is 2300 acres in size. The timber industry is destroying vast tracts of native peoples lands and wildlife habitats. When habitats are destroyed, many of the wildlife therein also perish. Although CITES can help prevent trade of these animals across international borders, but often times the poaching is done within a country. Other problems emanate from government corruption and an inability or unwillingness to enforce anti poaching laws. Benevolent individuals and organizations are trying to combat the bush meat crisis. In 1999, Jane Goodall of the Jane Goodall Institute helped establish the Bush meat Crisis Task Force (BCTF). The BCTF was formed with the collaboration of 28 government and non-government agencies. The BCTF promotes the conservation of wildlife populations that are threatened by commercial hunting for the sale of meat. In addition, the BCTF raises awareness of this issue to many organizations and peoples around the world. Jane Goodall is a respected, well-known primatologist, zoologist, author, and advocate for animals around the world; in particular, chimpanzees.

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The Great Apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) are genetically our closest relatives. Chimpanzees and bonobos share nearly 90 percent of our genetic code. Great apes are intelligent, are tool users, display a variety of emotions and in the case of chimpanzees have been known to wage war and commit calculated acts of killing. Some experts refer to these acts as murder. Great apes have opposable thumbs, are tail-less, have large braincases, and stereoscopic vision (binocular vision). Gorillas have 3-dimensional color vision. Gorillas are knuckle walkers (use their knuckles as forelegs). There are 2 main species of gorillas; eastern gorillas and western gorillas. Sexual dimorphism is wellpronounced in gorillas. Great apes are able bipedals, but can only walk on 2 legs for short distances. Its not their natural gait. Orang-utans are the clumsiest and wobbliest of all apes when walking on two legs. Orang-utans spend much of their time in trees. They are the most arboreal of all great apes. Eating the flesh of great apes is abhorrent to most people around the world. Although chimpanzees reside in 20 African countries they are like all great apes, an endangered species. Chimpanzees are omnivores. Ninety percent of their diet is vegetarian and 10 percent includes flesh; young antelopes, red collobus monkeys and other small animals. Chimpanzees are sophisticated hunters. When hunting in groups they chase a target animal in the direction of other chimpanzees. When they get a hold of a monkey they rip it apart limbs and all. In 1900, there were between 1 to 2 million chimpanzees. Today there are roughly 100,000 to 150,000 chimpanzees. The big cat family has endured excessive hunting campaigns and much habitat loss. Cheetahs, the fastest land mammals on earth, can run up to 65 mph. They have incredible streamlined bodies, with long legs suitable for sprinting short distances. Pronghorns are the fastest land mammals in North America reaching up to 50 mph. Unfortunately their speed wasnt enough to help them evade the smorgasbord hunting campaign. They now number roughly 1 million in the United States and Canada. They once numbered in the millions. Although cheetahs are big cats most of their catches are snatched away by other predators. Cheetahs aren't good fighters, and as sprinters they can't afford to be injured in a fight. Cheetahs weigh between 85-140 lbs., they're considered light for big cats.
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Cheetahs were once found in Africa and large areas of Asia. Changes in climate, destruction of habitat (cheetahs need large tracts of land to operate) forfeit of prey to more belligerent predators, excessive inbreeding, and overhunting (trophy, hides, ranchers) have decimated cheetah populations. Inbreeding in the wild is a recurring problem. At the end of the 19th century the cheetah population may have been over 100,000 individuals. Presently, there are 12,000 individuals; scattered in sub-Saharan Africa, and in northern Iran, they're threatened with extinction. Cheetahs are protected in Namibia, classified as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and are categorized in Appendix 1 of CITES. The clearing of land was a catastrophe for the eastern cougar. Furthermore, ranchers considered these big cats vermin and livestock killers. Like the wolf, the eastern cougar was demonized. Bounties were offered for anyone who killed an eastern cougar. Cougars in the mountain zone and Pacific zone were also bountied. Leopards are the most numerous and prevalent of the 36 wild species. Their pelts are valuable commodities on the market. Snow leopards are enduring habitat destruction, hunting for teeth, pelts, and bones. In addition, theyre shot by farmers. Executive poachers are cunning and sophisticated in their activities. Forgery, redirection, mislabelling, and bribery are used to transport illegal animals and their by-products through international borders. In general, customs officers throughout the world are primarily attuned to identifying and finding illegal weapons, drugs, and objects that can be used to commit attacks. Reformatting, dying, chopping up, or merging lawful with unlawful items is a trick of the trade. Customs officers dont have the time or know-how to catch violators. Farming enabled the human population to grow rapidly. This resulted in the domestication of animals. Predators that tried to eat the domesticated animals were considered dangerous and a threat to the livelihood of ranchers. The story of the African continent is sad indeed. Only a few centuries ago large tracts of lands were swarming with wildlife and contained stunning habitats. The first Europeans who entered the interior of Africa were baffled by the beautiful sceneries and wildlife. Gigantic antelope herds carpeted large areas, lions were omnipresent in much of Africa, and numerous elephant herds included hundreds of individuals. Lions were once considered noble-like, while lionesses were once worshipped as goddesses.
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Prehistoric humans who lived in present day Spain and France drew accurate images of lions. Ancient men of power killed countless lions to prove their own strength, bravery, and virility. Nero, the cruel Roman Emperor, enjoyed staging fights between humans and lions. The fighters were usually prisoners that were moderately armed, or unarmed. In Hinduism Narasingha is in the lion-god form. The ancient Egyptian sphinx is lion-headed. Lion kills by hunters were considered valued trophies. The lions were no match for the special scoped hunting rifles. By 1000 C.E. the lion population in Europe had been eradicated. Within the Gir Forest located in Gujarat, India, reside the sole remnant population of Asian lions. Lions have flexible spines, are very muscular, powerful, and are digitigrades walkers (walk on their toes). Man eating lions are usually unable to catch normal prey animals, have dental problems, are sick, injured, expelled from their pride, elderly, lack of prey, are habituated to human presence or have taken an opportunity to kill an easy prey. Many lion cubs dont reach adulthood. Lions are known as the king of the jungle. Males can reach 550 lbs., with an enormous quantity of muscle mass. Lions defend their prides from other lions and predators. Lionesses are the primary hunters while lions are defenders of the pride and fighters. Lions are not dissuaded or frightened by lightning and thunder. This helps lions hunt prey that are confused. It is estimated that in the past 60 years lion populations have been cut in half. Keep in mind that smorgasbord hunters had already begun to devastate lion populations well before this time. Today, lions are challenged by sport hunting, canned hunting, poaching, habitat destruction, and poisoning by ranchers. The prehistoric American lion was 25 percent larger than their present day counterparts in Africa. Lions in the wild that are lucky may for 11 years. In zoos lions can live up to 20years. One of the first acts of elephant exterminations took place in the south-western Cape in the early 1700's. Professional hunters shot whatever they wanted to. Wildlife was of no match to the firearms. Eventually, habitats were destroyed and numerous wildlife species became extinct, endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. The African continent has endured slavery, colonialism and Illogical borders; imposed for the sake of others at the expense of the native populations.
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A case in point is the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, activated by Portugal and advanced by German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck. Government officials from 14 western nations met in Berlin on November 14, 1884 for the purpose of carving-up the African continent. The major players in the Berlin Conference were Great Britain, France, Germany, and Portugal. By the First World War, the process had been complete. The cultural, territorial, and political aspirations of the indigenous peoples were ignored; let alone the wildlife therein. The wildlife story of the Americas is like that of the African continent; decimation of indigenous cultures and peoples, multi-species decimation, habitat alteration or destruction. Of the original 8 sub-species of tigers, 3 are extinct. What remain of the sub-species of tigers include the Bengal, Indochinese, Sumatran, South China (dangerously low numbers), and the Siberian. The Bengal Tiger is the most renown, followed by the Siberian Tiger. These tiger sub-species are an awesome wonder, but theyre no match for an armed poacher. From the second half of the 20th century, there has been an onslaught against tigers; poaching, non-sustainable hunting, and habitat loss. South China Tigers may be extinct in the wild. Tigers are the largest members of the cat family. They have massive bodies, giant claws, incredible teeth, and powerful jaws. Tigers can take down prey larger than themselves. Tigers can live in a multitude of habitats; jungle, tropical, or extreme cold. Hope lies in the passing of the Great Cats and Rare Canids Act of 2009 (H.R. 411). Cheetah numbers in the wild are too low (15,000 or less) for healthy existence. Excessive breeding has caused deformities and genetic abnormalities. Cheetah breeding in zoos is difficult. Cheetah females are picky and theyre solitary in the wild. Male cheetahs may hunt with family members or others. Cheetahs once roamed large tracts of the African plains and also Asia. The cougar is known by various names including mountain lion, puma, mountain devil, panther and wildcat. Cougars have been overhunted, trapped, tormented, and bountied by humans. Although cougars are muscular (males weighing up to 200 lbs.), solitary, hunt alone (pounce on their prey), fast runners (short distance), scale trees, swim, and have well developed senses, they can't defy human expansion,

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habitat destruction, deadly firearms, or any other anthropogenic problem thats shoved into their faces. Cougar populations have been decimated in eastern North America caused by destruction of habitat, trapping, excessive hunting, and the reduction of white-tailed deer populations; an important food source. The Florida panther is an endangered species. Perhaps a few dozen remain in remote areas of south Florida. Having once roamed parts of Texas and the south eastern United States, theyve been humiliated and almost wiped out. Iran has beautiful mountain scenery and wildlife. Foreign sport hunters can hunt red sheep, ibex, or birds. In Iran, the practice of sport hunting began around 500 B.C. Trained dogs and cheetahs were used to chase down prey. Today, powerful weapons (automatic firearms are forbidden) are used to kill the target animals. There are more than 70 national parks in Iran, along with game reserves and animal sanctuaries scattered throughout the country.

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ATTITUDES TOWARDS ANIMALS

Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904-1991) is a well-known name in the animal rights circle. I.B. Singer was born in a small village in Poland. His father was a Hassidic Rabbi. As a child, I.B. Singer was emotionally struck by what he perceived as the horrible slaughter of animals destined to be eaten by people. I.B. Singer believed that killing was wrong. He had to endure the deaths of relatives during the Second World War. He later became a staunch vegetarian. As a general rule, he opposed hunting and vivisection. Henry Spira (June 19, 1927 - September 12, 1998) was born in Antwerp, Belgium. He became an animal protectionist. Spira was influenced by Peter Singer's book Animal Liberation (1973); a commonly read book in the animal protection circle. The book Animal Liberation rejuvenated the animal rights movement.

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Spira helped to convince Revlon and Avon to end their testing on animals. He also convinced Procter & Gamble to invest into humane alternatives to animal testing, thereby helping to reduce the numbers of research animals. Spira also helped end experimentation on cats at the American Museum of Natural History. The draize test was first used in 1944, primarily on rabbits. In this test, irritating substances are placed into the lower eyelid pouches of restrained rabbits; rabbits don't tear. Whenever possible, alternatives to the draize eye irritancy test should be performed. The FDA supports the draize test. Spira often worked with, rather than against institutions that used animals. Henry Bergh (1811-1888) was born in New York. He was probably the best animal welfare activist in the history of the United States. His father, Christian Bergh, was a successful New York shipyard owner. Christian Bergh learned his trade in Nova Scotia, Canada. Bergh married the woman of his dreams, Catherine Matilda Taylor. The couple travelled to Europe and the Middle East. In Europe the couple met many prominent individuals. This helped give Bergh a larger outlook on life, and important connections hed later need. It was during Berghs first trip to Europe that he took notice of acts of animal abuse. Bergh considered Spanish bullfights to be extremely cruel. Abraham Lincoln appointed Bergh to a prominent legal post at the Russian Court of the Czar Alexander. While in Russia, Bergh saw numerous acts of animal abuse. Sometimes he spoke his mind to the offender. Bergh resided in Russia for a year then returned to New York. In New York, Bergh began to take an active role in the prevention of animal abuse. He convinced the New York State Legislature to accept his charter to incorporate the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). Hard work and powerful connections helped him to incorporate the ASPCA on April 4, 1866. Bergh was also responsible for the establishment of a Declaration of the Rights of Animals. Powerful men signed this important document, including John T. Hoffman (Mayor of New York), Horace Greeley, Harper & Bros., John J. Astor, and of course Henry Bergh. The signing was an incredible feat considering the newly formed union had other major problems to contend with. During Bergh's day, dogs, cats, pigs, and cows, commonly roamed the streets of New York.
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Horses were the most common and speediest form of city transportation. In fact horse powered transport was the taxi and the subway system of New York. Carriage and coach operators were usually cruel to their working horses. Carriages could be stuffed with dozens of people and pulled by 2 horses. Snow on the cobblestone streets would eat away the horses' hoofs. Sometimes, a hoof would just drop off. Cobblestones are uneven, causing pain to horses. Not to mention the weather extremes. That made no difference to the people making money from horse powered transport. Horses sometimes died of exhaustion, lack of rest, and inadequate diet. Dogs and cats were routinely brutally killed. For instance, unclaimed dogs could be dunked into the East River while they were inside a cage. Today, this kind of clean-up is performed in Taiwan. Bergh fought diligently against swill dairies, blue meat (rotten meat from cows), horse racing, cockfighting, tail docking (horses), cruel horse reins, dog fighting, rat baiting, bull baiting (to a lesser extent), corruption, and against the outright callous apathetic attitude of the general public towards animal suffering. Many animal fights were performed at the Sportsmen's Hall, or in the basements of buildings or saloons. The brutality of these fights was incredible. Animal fighting will be described in more detail later in this book. Bergh's ideas pertaining to animal welfare spread westward. He even tried to halt the bison extermination campaign. Although he couldn't end it, he should be given credit and respect for his serious effort. Henry Bergh had to endure incredible anxiety and stress while promoting animal welfare and defending animals in the line of duty. He was commonly threatened and ridiculed by both animal abusers and passersby. One man even sent Bergh a death threat indicating the time and day of Bergh's killing. Entrails of animals, harmful objects, and feces were thrown at him on numerous occasions. Bergh performed long exhausting foot patrols searching through the city for dog fights, overworking of horses, stray cats and dogs, drowning of dogs in the East River, or cruel animal slaughter. Rampant animal abuse and corruption in the courts and press made Berghs job more difficult and stressful. Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) in 1866, and later helped to form the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in 1874.
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The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) founded in 1824 was the first national animal society in the world. The key players in this society were well ahead of their time. By 1840, the SPCA had become widely known. Queen Victoria permitted the addition of Royal thereby making it the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA). The title has not changed since then. The society inspectors were like officers on-the-beat. In fact, the official police force came into being later in time. Today, there are thousands of animal rights and animal welfare organizations throughout the world. Many of these organizations have websites, making it easy to acquire important information pertaining to animal activism. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)is the largest animal rights organization in the world. PETA was established in 1980, by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco. Active members donate money, do volunteer work for PETA, respond to action alerts, help in specific campaigns and do much field work. PETA concentrates most of its attention and activism on factory farms, animal laboratories, the clothing industry, and the entertainment industry. PETA's website has regular updates and addendums for animal news and activism, found in the action alerts section. Visible addendums are usually done on weekdays. PETA campaigns involve long-term issues. Although PETA falls under the category of animal rights, many of their action alerts, campaigns, and literature is also suited for animal welfare activists. PETA sends individuals to do undercover work, and has received documentation of what they perceive (animal rights perspective) as animal abuse in laboratories, factory farms, and other establishments. Animals cant read, write or speak. We need someone to speak on their behalf. The Animal Liberation Front (ALF.) was formed in Great Britain. This anonymous member organization consists of cells of one or more persons each. ALF members truly believe in animal liberation. ALF has done immense property damage to biomedical research facilities, snatched countless animals from some of these labs, and have removed many animals from fur farms. The massive economic damage inflicted upon biomedical research facilities has forced the industry to upgrade its security systems and in some cases alter the physical arrangement of the premises.
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Worse yet, scientists and researchers have been ruthlessly harassed, intimidated, threatened, and demonized. ALF facts and other information pertinent to this group in brief include the following: -ALF seeks to liberate animals from laboratories, factory farms, fur farms, and any other place/s they perceive animals as being abused or wrongly used. Afterwards, their intent is to place the animals in good homes where they can live normal/natural lives (easier said than done). -ALF seeks to inflict economic damage upon institutions that profit from the abuse or exploitation of animals. -ALF further seeks to expose the actions of animal abusing enterprises through pictures, videos, downloads, paperwork, etc.). -ALF performs these actions with the intent to avoid harming any animal or human. -Any group of individuals who are vegetarians or vegans and who carry out action according to ALF guidelines are part of the ALF. -The ALF is a clandestine group consisting of pockets of individuals scattered without one specific overall leader. -The ALF are in a micro-minority of the overall animal protectionist movement. -As a result of improved security systems in animal biomedical facilities, liberations have become more difficult. -Biomedical organizations and facilities that experiment on animals have spent a fortune in improving security. Some facilities almost resemble military bases. The Animal Rights Militia (ARM), which was first formed in England, uses more direct and intense methods of action than the ALF. For instance, in 1984, the ARM notified the media that a designated number of Mars Bars (in England) had been poisoned. In response, the Mars Company conducted a massive recall. Although the ARM Later admitted that the notification was a hoax, huge monetary losses resulted. Although ARM's tactics were effective, the actions were inherently immoral and unethical. In 1992, a similar action was conducted by the ARM, this time in Canada. Their target was the Cold Buster (candy bars) Company. Recalls lost the company over 1 million dollars. The Justice Department (JD, not part of a government body) another animal liberation organization, supports the methods used by ALF, but goes much further in their quest for animal liberation. JD members' basic philosophy is to make the animal
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abuser feel what their victims (animals) feel. The legality or illegality of an act is somewhat irrelevant in their choice of actions. For example, the JD has sent letter bombs, and letters coated with rat poison to targeted individuals. Individuals are usually scientists who perform animal experiments. At the other end of the scale is Rene Descartes (15961650), a philosopher who had strong views pertaining to animals. Descartes perceived animals as automata, machine-like creatures that could neither rationalize nor think. Therefore theyre unable to think about feeling pain as humans do. Descartes conducted horrible experiments on animals. He believed that the shrieks and screams of subject animals were mechanical in nature. Descartes explained the human body by using a hydraulic model. Humans are similar to machines, but possess souls. Descartes was a man of his time. In this respect, the author is under the assumption that Descartes wasn't an inherently cruel or sadistic person. He just didn't know any better; he was ignorant. Today, we have access to more accurate up-to-date literature regarding the behaviour, kinesiology, physiology, and anatomy of animals. Primate literature, especially that relating to great apes got a big boost from the hard work and diligence of numerous scientists; one of the most notable is Dr. Jane Goodall. Dr. Goodall is the most famous expert on chimpanzee behaviour and culture. She was appointed UN Messenger of Peace. Dr. Goodall still had the chimpanzee toy her that her mother gave her as a child. Dr. Goodall (1934- ) has been studying, documenting, lecturing, and writing about chimpanzees since 1960. At the Gombe National Park, in Tanzania, Dr. Goodall spent many years observing, following, and documenting valuable information about chimpanzees. Dr. Goodall was brought into this field by the famed Dr. Louis Leakey. In her work, Dr. Goodall gave each chimpanzee a name. This was done in an era where apes were regarded as wild and ruthless creatures. The scientific community in general did not give personal names to individual subjects. Prior to the 1960's the bulk of ethologists were men. Ethologists could be assisted by women, sometimes their wives. In the particular case of Dr. Goodall; it was perceived as unwoman-like for a young, beautiful woman to travel from England to the forests of Tanzania to work alone for an extended period of time.
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Dr. Goodall earned a Ph.D. in Ethology from Cambridge University. She didnt obtain an undergraduate degree. Dr. Goodall observed chimpanzees kissing, holding hands, eating flesh (chimpanzees were previously thought to have been herbivores), fighting, tool making and use, fishing (fish, termites), cannibalism, climbing, mourning, embracing, loving, calculated killing (murder), disease, and engaging in low-grade warfare. In 1972, 6 males and 3 females from the Kasakela group broke off to form a new group, named the Kahama group. Maybe in an act of vengeance and control, members of the Kasakela group attacked and massacred every member of the Kahama group. Dr. Goodall sometimes aided sick chimpanzees by giving them medicine, and food if necessary. The scientific community, in general, does not condone intrusions of this sort into the natural order of a studied animal community. The stay clear policy was sometimes so ingrained, witnessing animals dying of disease, starvation, or sickness, was not alleviated by observers. Dr. Goodall observed chimpanzees fishing for termites in termite mounds. Chimpanzees used a grass stem, stuck it into the termite mound, and then pulled out their treats. Chimpanzees removed the leaves from twigs before using them to scoop up water. Also observed were moods and varying facial expressions. Chimpanzees do have temperaments. David Greybeard was the first chimpanzee who approached and befriended Dr. Goodall. Patience, diligence, and good observational skills proved very helpful to her. Today Dr. Goodall does much work and lectures for the betterment of habitat conservation, environmental protection, animal protection, and research. Dr. Goodall's Roots & Shoots program helps to enable and encourage youngsters to improve their communities by involvement through the promotion and care of animals, the environment, and other humans Today, the field of Primatology is statistically dominated by women. Up to 80 percent of doctoral students in Primatology are women. Up to two thirds of individuals in field work are women. Dr. Louis Leakey believed that women were better equipped and more likely to stay for the long haul when studying primates in their natural habitat. There are over 230 species of primates. The great apes and lesser apes are only a fraction of the total number. There are 4 great apes species and 1 lesser ape species. All of the ape species should be protected.

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Leakey's girls (Goodall, Fossey, and Galdikas) were the cream of the crop of 20th century Primatologists. Although Fossey was killed in 1985, much of her literature is still being put to good use today. Dr. Galdikas is the world's foremost authority on orangutans. She has spent over 3 decades studying orang-utans in Borneo. She has studied orang-utans through field work observation, documentation, and by enduring a very tough life in a rainforest half way around the world. Tanjung Puting forest contains poisonous plants, mosquitoes, swampy waters, leaches, general deprivation of modern day amenities, and of course, orang-utans. Because orang-utans are solitary by nature Dr. Galdikas had to be patient. She observed orang-utans eating, defecating, urinating, fighting, resting, and mating. Orang-utans have been known to attack and then rape women, especially while the victim is menstruating. As with all powerful animals, field workers should never forget that their subjects are potentially dangerous. Adult primates are immeasurably stronger than a human. An adult orangutan can easily kill a man or a woman. Dr. Galdikas is of Lithuanian origin. She was born in 1946, in Weisbaden, Germany. At the time, her parents were on route to Canada. Dr. Galdikas loved animals as a child. However, of the 3 Leakey girls, Dr. Galdikas was the only one academically trained as a scientist. Dr. Galdikas has held the position of Professor at Simon Frasier University, and Professor at the Universitas Nasional in Jakarta. Orang-utans, like other primate species face real dangers from humans. Poaching, human encroachment and habitat destruction are serious problems. Dr. Galdikas is President and founder of the Orang-utan Foundation International (OFI). OFI is a non-profit organization that educates the world about orang-utans and their plight. OFI returns former captive orang-utans back to the wild. Dian Fossey was the worlds most famed gorilla expert. Although she was savagely killed in her sleep in 1985, her legacy continues. The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International still stands. In 1967 she founded the Karisoke Research Center located in an isolated mountain camp in Ruhengeri province, Rwanda. Fossey spent 18 years of her life studying, researching, observing, and recording the behaviours of mountain gorillas.

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Fossey learned how to behave near gorillas. Although it some time for them to be habituated to her presence, patience, diligence, hard work (much mountain climbing), and sacrifice in a harsh and deprived atmosphere (Virunga Mountains, Rwanda) paid off. Fossey was a chain smoker, a known drinker, and suffered from chronic asthma, later emphysema. People near gorillas shouldnt run around, speak loudly, make sudden or unexpected quick moves, no sustained eye contact, no chest pounding, no creeping up, and should to stay a safe distance away. Gorillas can contract many human diseases. They have no immunity to many of those diseases. A person with the flu or a common cold can end up wreaking havoc upon a gorilla troop. Although gorillas are powerfully built, theyre no match to an armed poacher. Gorillas have a right to be fearful of humans. Countless gorillas have been hunted, trapped, and massacred. Gorillas have also been eaten. Gorilla hands are used as ashtrays and heads are used for taxidermy purposes. Lowland gorillas are the most common species seen in zoos. They love bamboo shoots. Gorilla watching tours in Rwanda began in the 1980s. These tours bring in revenues that create jobs, bring to light the importance of gorilla conservation, and help to fund conservation. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) was established in 1948. The IUCN is the worlds longest standing global environmental network. The IUCN contains over 1000 government and non-government member organizations. Membership is democratic in nature. The IUCN is beneficial to humans, wildlife, and nature. The IUCN Red List of threatened species is well-known and highly respected throughout the world. Valuable and comprehensive information pertaining to the status of both plant and animal species can be obtained on the IUCN Redlist website. The Humane Methods Slaughter Act of 1958 (U.S. Federal), was intended to protect livestock during slaughter. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 (U.K.) was designed to set limits on and to establish a licensing system for animal experimentation. In effect the act was intended to professionalize and better control the field of animal experimentation.

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CANIDS & FELINES

It is estimated that there are hundreds of millions of dogs on this planet; by far outnumbering all of their canid relatives including foxes, wolves, coyotes, and jackals combined. There are presently more than 400 hundred recognized/known breeds of dogs. More breeds are constantly being discovered and added. There are over 100 recognized pure breeds in the United States alone. Labrador retrievers have helped hunters immensely. Labs are fast runners, strong, good swimmers, medium-sized, and have a generally friendly temperament towards humans. Labs have also been used in warfare as swimmers and paratroopers. In addition, Labs are genetically inclined to retrieve objects or persons. They can be trained to guide the sick and blind. But they do require much attention and love from their owners. Sound dogs are trained to aid the deaf. This dog breed is very versatile.
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Great Danes are known as gentle giant dogs. This dog breed aided hunters in the past. Potential owners should understand that Great Danes carry blind or deaf gene. The Assyrians used close relatives of the Great Danes for hunting and warfare. The ancestors of the Great Danes were boarhounds; they had a very aggressive temperament. Celebrities whove owned a Great Dane include Side Caesar, Michael Douglass, Greg Louganis (former Olympic diver), and Olivia Newton-John. Great Danes have loose and slobbery lips. If youre close to one and it shakes its head, youll be sprayed with saliva. On a positive note, this is a generally friendly dog. Karelian bear dogs are incredible hunters with much tenacity and heroism. Karelian dogs can spook a bear, and will even attempt to fight it at times. Theyre powerful, intelligent and solidly built. Perhaps the most respected dog breed is the German shepherd. This is a powerful, loyal, fast, and versatile (companion, guard, military service, law enforcement, search and rescue, showmanship, and acting) dog breed. German shepherd dogs are respected in K-9 Units and in the Secret Service, RCMP (112 dog teams in Canada), and other law agencies abroad. The standardization of the German shepherd breed began in the late 1880s in Germany by Captain Max von Stephanitz. Mastiffs originated in Asia and were used in warfare (sometimes to attack and kill prisoners) and used in blood sports (still used to this day). The Mastiff is a massive, very powerful, and stoic in the dog fighting industry. The Molussus, an ancestor of the modern day Mastiff, was an extremely aggressive dog. A properly bred Mastiff with the right genetic makeup usually means a good companion animal. The American Kennel Club officially recognized the Mastiff breed in 1885. The American Kennel Club recognizes the following categories of dogs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Herding Dogs Hounds Non-Sporting Terriers Toy Dogs Working Dogs
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Dalmatians have been used for hunting, carriage dogs, fire departments, mascots, and companion animals. The Pekingese and Shitzu were referred to as lion dogs by ancient Chinese people. In ancient China, the Pekingese was bred to resemble a miniature lion. It was housed in large palaces. Pekingese were thought to protect their owners from evil. No wonder, theft of one of these dogs from a palace resulted in a serious penalty. The Pekingese dog has legs that are disproportionate in size to its head and torso. The Chihuahua is symmetrical but tiny. Rescue dogs are used after explosions, natural disasters, major wrecks, avalanches, floods, or any situation where humans or animals are hidden. There are also special cadaver rescue dogs. These dogs are trained to scent out rotten flesh. Hard-working rescue dogs are heroes in the truest sense. They cant comprehend heroism as we can, but they enjoy helping their master. Rescue dogs must be strong, energetic intelligent, have a good temperament, be trainable (2 years of intense training, including obstacle training), be in top shape, able to automatically obey commands, and be desensitized to new surroundings or stimuli. Trailing dogs sniff objects and scents. They keep their noses close to the ground. Air scenting dogs sniff the air. Specially trained dogs are used by law enforcement agencies to sniff out bombs (also includes UN mine sweeping dogs), narcotics and in arson investigations. Saint Bernard dogs are primarily used for snow-bound rescues. These dogs were first used in the Swiss Alps. Although German shepherds and Newfoundland dogs may also be used in snow bound rescues, the Saint Bernard dogs are the prime choice. Newfoundland dogs are used for water bound rescues. They have webbed toes, a double coat of fur, and are good swimmers. Special puppies are selected to be raised and trained as rescue dogs. The end result is a brave, obedient, versatile, easy to handle athletic dog. Although dog breeds varieties are mind-boggling, breeders and fanciers should try to breed out genetic and physical abnormalities. In addition, tail docking and ear cropping should only be performed out of medical necessity. Dogs ancestors, who were wolves, tagged along and eventually crept towards human settlements. Throwaway food items lured many wolves near human settlements. Some wolves had the braveness to approach humans. These wolves and their human caretakers began the process of doggification.
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The doggification process took thousands of years. Dogs ancestors helped to warn humans of impending danger from predators and intruders. Puppies from dogs ancestors were raised and those that grew up to be human-friendly were used. Humans began a process of breeding. The 19th century saw an incredible expansion and intensification of variable breeding of dogs. Humans were now becoming more proficient at breeding dogs for special purposes and appearance. In ancient Egypt dogs were considered members of the family. A dogs death was a tragic event. Ancient Egyptian militaries would sometimes unleash specially trained attack/killer dogs upon their enemies. In ancient Greece and Rome dog meat was considered a delicacy. Dogs were also put to work in kitchens to pump water. Dog meat is eaten in Korea and China, and to a lesser extent the Philippines. The Taiwanese Parliament passed a law prohibiting the consumption of dog or cat meat and the sales of their fur. The USDA uses Jack Parson Terriers (formerly known as Jack Russell Terriers) to detect brown tree snakes hidden inside cargo in the territory of Guam. Fisheries and Oceans Canada also uses dogs. Servus, a Belgian Malimois and World Trade Center dog, fell 20 feet, face first into a glass sharp-jagged rebar, and other dangerous rubble while on active duty. The Suffolk County SPCA treated sick and injured dogs that worked the World Trade Center as a result of the September 11, 2001 attacks. During the First World War the Russian Military used between 70 thousand 80 thousand dogs. Thousands of these dogs died during the war. After the Second World War and Vietnam War many war dogs were dumped by the U.S. Military. Finding proper homes for the military dogs, veterinary care, and shipping them back stateside wouldve been an enormous job, indeed. There were roughly 350 rescue dogs from around the world that were put to work in the World Trade Center. Sergeant Stubby was one of the most highly decorated war dogs in recorded history. Stubby attained the rank of sergeant in the United States Military. War dogs must be trained to filter out most stimuli. During the Second World War the favourite dog breeds of the U.S. Military were German shepherds and Doberman pinschers; quite ironic. Queen Elizabeth 1 loved animal blood sports. Christopher Columbus used attack dogs against the natives he came across. These dogs ripped apart many human beings.
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Robert E. Perry, the first human to reach the North Pole (1909), was accompanied by 23 men and 133 dogs. Roald Amundsen was accompanied by 92 dogs for his Antarctic expedition (1910-1912). Agility training, Schutzhund, and the Iditarod (over 1,150 miles of sledding), are for the cream of the crop of athletically inclined dogs. Regarding the Iditarod race it is run in Alaska in extreme cold. The raising, training, feeding, housing, and racing of any dog in this brutal race must be ensured optimum animal welfare standards. On the contrary, there have been numerous cases of these dogs dying of heart attacks, exhaustion, trauma, and also neglect in housing. Iditarod trained dogs have been photographed chained or placed inside tiny, filthy pens. Mushers and sled dog owners must treat their dogs humanely. In which case, many do and many dont. Many of the sled dogs are anxious to run. Its in their genetic makeup to run in the cold. However the duration, distance, terrain, and speed of the race are under the total control of the human mushers. Furthermore, if one of the dogs is suddenly injured or for some unknown reason cannot continue running during a sled dog race severe injury or death is possible. Alaskan malamute and Siberian husky dogs are well adapted to run the Iditarod. Greenland uses over 20 thousand sled dogs. Many of these dogs are chained up outdoors, when not in use. The lack of sufficient food and water for the sled dogs makes this issue a serious eyebrow raiser. Greenland has few animal protection laws and those that are in place are generally not enforced. In 1925, Balto, a Siberian husky, was the lead dog in an emergency sled dog delivery of serum for diphtheria. There was a possible diphtheria epidemic in Nome, Alaska. As a result of hard, strenuous work by Gunnar Kaasen, Leonhard Seppala, and sled dogs led by Balto the serum arrived in time. People around the world are fascinated with animals. In order to begin a career with animals an individual can do volunteer work, academic studies, internship, residency, or just go and apply to an animal establishment. Depending on the institution, requirements vary considerably. Working with animals includes some possible dangers; bites, scratches, kicks, tackling or butting, zoonotic diseases and allergies. Many of the entry-level jobs in the animal field are low paying.
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A degree from an accredited college or university in a relevant field will help open the doors of opportunity for the applicant, and the pay level will usually increase corresponding with the level of education and experience. Veterinarians are the M.D.s of the animal employment sector. When searching for a dog breeder make certain that the facility is clean, dogs appear healthy, the cages are clean, no multi-breeds, notice the dog to worker ratio; behaviour of the dogs, behaviour of the breeder and the other workers (if applicable), you should have the right to bring along a veterinarian of your choosing. Finally, try to get good referrals or recommendations from trusted family members, friends, your veterinarian, or former customers. Animal shelters in the United States are forced to put down 80 million dogs and cats every year; too many births, not enough spaying and neutering, irresponsible breeding and irresponsible ownership. Puppy mills are horrible places for dogs that are to be sold or are used as breeding machines (breeding dogs, or breeding bitches). Puppy mill breeding bitches are often the dogs that suffer the most and for the longest period of time. Many puppy mills place their dogs in tiny, filthy barren cages that may contain urine, pasted and logged feces, maggots, insects, blood, puss, and fresh or dry vomit. Puppy mill dogs suffer from mental and physical ailments. Veterinary care is usually not sufficient. The object is to sell dogs with the least overhead. Puppy mills often sell their dogs to pet stores. As a general rule, dogs should be purchased from a local shelter or a legitimate dog dealer. Depending on the jurisdiction, shelter dogs are probably on death row. They must be sold, or theyre killed. The method of killing depends on the shelter and the laws of the area. Euthanasia (lethal injection) is the fastest and most humane method of killing a shelter dog or cat. Unfortunately, shelters all around the United States are overcrowded, with insufficient staff and too much work. Not to mention the low pay and the lack of understanding and compassion by the public. Depending on the jurisdiction a shelter may use lethal injection, gas canister (gas chamber; a horror to the cramped animals and the ones in line that can hear their brethrens screams of agony), or a lethal injection into the heart of a fully conscious animal. People breed dogs then casually dump them in a shelter or onto the street when they realize that they cant handle the hard work, love, and dedication needed to care for a bitch and
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her puppies. Adult male dogs are also tossed. The dog may be incorrigible, too aggressive, or the owners dont know how to properly care or train him. If you purchase a dog from a shelter you may be helping to save its life and youll be helping the shelter and its staff. Please DONT BREED ANY ANIMAL/S unless youre a fully licensed and qualified breeder; you must know what youre getting into and be able to handle it. Surplus animals have to be sent somewhere or must be killed. Some jurisdictions allow animal shelters to practice pound seizure (sending of unclaimed or tossed dogs and cats to biomedical labs). Pound seizure opens up the door to corruption. Lost animals can be sold to biomedical labs before the deadline. When purchasing a dog from an animal shelter open your hearts to multi-breed dogs. Most patron want a pure bred. No kill animal shelters are good in theory but can easily become devastatingly overcrowded. The adoption rate almost never equals the housing rate. Animal shelters are also dumping grounds for former fighting dogs. Jersey City, New Jersey recently experienced a dramatic rise in fighting dog dumping (especially pure breed pit bulls, mixed breed pit bulls) into its shelters. These dogs have been bred to be extremely aggressive, mean, and to show no fear. These dogs already have the genetic components to fight. Thug breeders dont care about the dogs physical or mental well-being. They want to sell, make money and often-times watch bloody dogfights. The breeding of overly aggressive dogs has been going on for thousands of years. The primary purposes were for war, guarding, pitting against prisoners, bull or bear baiting, fighting lions, dog fighting, prestige (criminals, drug dealers). Fighting dogs were used in Roman coliseums. Dog fighting promoters, dog fight breeders, and anyone else who supports this horrible industry must face stiff penalties. In dog fights at least one of the dogs is seriously wounded, dies, or is later killed as a result of horrible wounds. The winner of any dog fight is on borrowed time, unless his owner/s retires him on the spot. The dog fighting organization is crime infested. Drugs, alcohol, weapons, ex-cons, illegal gambling, and a general atmosphere of toughness prevail. Children and youth who attend these matches are taught that this kind of behaviour (brutal
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blood sports, criminal activity and cruelty to animals) is acceptable. Dog fighting occurs in other parts of the world too. In Afghanistan fight day is on Friday morning before the weekly congregational prayer. How hypocritical. In Pakistan there is a sport called Gitt Kootah, better known as bear baiting. Mind you, this is not the bear baiting performed by canned hunters. This kind of baiting was imported into Pakistan (the countryside) by the British. The combatants include a defanged/declawed bear thats leashed to a pole or inanimate object. Two specially trained fighting dogs are unleashed upon the bear. This is a very bloody and gruesome sport. The bear may be forced to fight over and over again. Naturally, theres wagering on these fights. In addition, corruption of the authorities reaches high levels. The World Society for the Protection of Animals, other animal protection organizations, many petitioners and brave hard working Pakistani government workers have combated this menace. Because bear baiting occurs in the countryside corruption and difficulty in enforcement pose continuous problems. Furthermore, a nation thats facing instability and bombings on a regular basis has bigger priorities at hand. Fight promoters and participants in animal blood fights are losers; pure and simple. No human being of sound mind and who has empathy in his/her heart would ever stage a brutal animal blood sport. Fighting dogs like the American pit bull terriers are stocky, tough, fearless, and are sustained biters (keep biting until the referee or owner pulls the dog away). Most dog breeds bite and then snap back. Dog fighting trainers need a strong, tough, preferably medium sized or large breed of fighting dogs. There are countless tough dog breeds but the most notable is the American pit bull terrier (APBT). The fighting version of the APBT is powerfully built, fearless, relentless, feels almost no fear, and is an incredible sustained biter. Today, moulding a good fighting dog involves incredible raining, often times beyond exhaustion for the dog. Dogs in training endure forced runs on moving treadmills, tree-dogging, excessive caging, scaling trees to snatch blood pasted animals, being bitched out for making mistakes, little or no empathy, deprivation of food (to make it desperate and obey commands). Fighting dog owners care about the bottom line; MONEY, MONEY, AND MORE MONEY. They couldnt care less about the dogs in their care. I hate it when they say but I really love my dog.
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Fighting dog owners have been known to curse, kick, punch, Shoot and even burn alive their losing dog. Remember, theres a good chance that the dogs owners are wagering on the fights. Countless companion animals are stolen every year to be used as bait for fighting dogs. The bigger and tougher dogs that are stolen may be moulded into fighters. Dog fighting is common in Japan and in certain parts of Russia. Other forms of animal fighting include horse fighting (Philippine Island of Mindanao, thousands are maimed or killed every year), bullfighting, cock fighting, and hog-dog rodeos (the Deep South). Animal hoarding is a big problem in the United States. In individuals take in dozens or in some cases a few hundred animals (usually dogs, but cats are also victims) into their homes and properties. Rampant, unchecked births, lack of nutrition (hunger, starvation, thirst, emaciation, death) are ever present. In addition, lack of emotional care for the animals, tiny, filthy cages, and sickness are ever present. Animal hoarders are for the most part mentally ill. Hoarders consider the animals in their care as their own children or dependants. The hoarder may or may not realize the true nature of his/her actions. Denial is common. Unlike sadists and cruel individuals, hoarders claim to love their animals and may show no outward signs of hostility towards them. Unfortunately, its all too common for judges to return confiscated animals back to the hoarders. Hoarders should not be allowed to own animals, period! Theyre sick thereby unable to care for them. Animals under the care of humans must be housed, fed, watered, cared for (veterinary medical care), and loved. Hoarding is extreme negligence and ignorance of the animals in a persons care usually without the malice or evil intent. Hoarders are a danger to the animals in their care. Persons found guilty of hoarding must have the animals in their care confiscated and never returned. Its a terrible sight to see starvation, emaciation, sickness, mental anguish, and death on an animal hoarders premises. Feces, urine, blood, maggots, fleas, vomit, horrible stench, desperation and apathy engulf the air. Animals may also be trapped inside a barn; chained to a tree or an inanimate object. Psychological and/or psychiatric counselling for hoarders, if possible, is highly recommended. Because these individuals

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are sick, theres no telling what theyll do after their animals are confiscated. In the United States there are over 1000 new cases of hoarding every single year. Unfortunately, the hoarding problem is probably much larger. An animal hoarder who lives out in the middle of nowhere is unlikely to be discovered; barring a miracle. Every continent contains wild dogs except Antarctica. Domesticated dogs come in all shapes, sizes, coats, duties and personalities. Humans have moulded dogs more than any other species. Domestication of the dog began more than 10 thousand years ago. All dogs are descended from wolves; coyotes, jackals, and foxes are related. However, the fox is the most distant. The gray wolf (also called the timber wolf) is the largest and most numerous of all wolf species. The gray wolf can weigh up to 175 lbs. and can attain a height of 3 ft. at the shoulder and 6 ft. in length. Historically, in the United States the gray wolves have been hunted, killed, trapped, poisoned, demonized, cursed, had bounties on their heads, and have been driven off of their habitats. By 1973, the gray wolf had been nearly obliterated from the continental United States except for Minnesota and Michigan. Today, people shoot and kill wolves that are in the wrong place at the wrong time. The age-old story of the big bad wolf holds much weight in peoples attitudes. In 2003 Alaska began an aerial shooting campaign of wolves. Its important to understand both sides of this equation. Of course, wolves have endured tremendous suffering at the hands of humans. On an opposing note, wolves are able and willing to kill livestock. There must be a clear territorial separation and compensation (if possible) to a rancher who can verify livestock lost to a wolf. In addition, ranchers have a right to use humane repulsive measures, fences or even lethal force upon any predatory animal that tries to kill or who has killed one of their livestock and is still on their property; this is called personal livestock self-defence (PLSD). Red wolf DNA is a combination of gray wolf and coyote. The latter 2 have been killed wholesale. The Mexican gray wolf (lobo) is visibly smaller than the gray wolf. The swift or kit fox is the fastest fox. Wolves, coyotes, foxes, and jackals have been killed in large numbers. Above all else, theyre considered a threat to ranchers livestock.

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During the middle ages (in Europe) people commonly believed that wolves were devils dressed in wolf clothing. Later, wolves were exterminated from England and Ireland. There are only a few hundred Ethiopian wolves left in the wild. Problems include habitat loss, disease, and persecution. The maned wolf has endured habitat loss, disease, and hunting. In the American West bison, wolves, coyotes, prairie dogs, black footed ferrets, and grizzlies were considered vermin, and were duly exterminated. In Ancient Egypt many dogs were mummified. They were believed to be dual species gods (half human-half dog). Take a look at the carving of Anubis (perceived God of the dead). The sculptured face is that of a canid. Canid images were also painted. There are no wolves in Australia. The fox and dingo were imported by humans. As a general rule, the dingo doesnt bark. Dogs have been subjects of vivisection for biomedical, pharmaceutical, toxicity tests, tobacco, and burning tests. At the Third Military Medical University at Chongquing, China nearly 90 dogs were used in a series of fire burning tests. In the napalm burning tests (30 second duration) 36 dogs were used. The dogs were killed after 3 days of immense suffering. For the second experiment an additional 7 dogs were used as control subjects (no burning). At the end of the experiment all of the dogs were killed and their organs were examined to test the effects of resuscitation fluid on internal organs of napalm victims. Other dogs were burned (third degree burns over half of their bodies) then underwent brain scanning. The third experiment involved 24 mixed-breed dogs (I dont like to use the word mongrel because it has negative connotations) were scalded in approximately 40 percent of their bodies. Other militaries use animals in experimentation. Unfortunately, in dictatorial regimes much or all animal experimentation is hidden. One of the largest military experiments on animals occurred in Bikini Atoll. 4000 sheep were subjected to radiation effects of an atomic blast. Tobacco experiments performed in Hazeltons (now Covance) laboratories in Reston, Virginia involved smoking Beagles in sustained exposure to cigarette smoke adorned with carbon monoxide.

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In the mid-20th century tobacco experiments conducted on Beagles included securely fastening Beagles side by side and fitting them with secure face masks. The gizmo used allowed the experimenters to replace one smoked cigarette after another until the sequence for the particular experiment was finished. Later, other experiments relating to second-hand smoke were performed on Beagles. Vivisection or animal experimentation is a touchy subject. I hold a middle line view. Vivisection should only be done if theres clear anticipated benefit for humans and/or animals. In addition, all humane alternatives must be studied first. Of course, animal welfare standards must be exercised regarding housing, food, water, cage sizes, and enrichment activities. Tobacco is now a known carcinogen. Experiments on animals will not solve the tobacco cancer problem. Education, and of abstention are the best options. Dr. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), the Russian physiologist performed experiments on dogs to better understand the connection between salivation and the digestive system. An important field of study (Classical Conditioning) in psychology was born as a result of Pavlovs beneficial experiments. Dr. Pavlov received the Noble prize in 1904. In 1628 William Harvey proved that blood moves through the circulatory system by vivisecting living animals. Many research dogs are obtained from pound seizure, greyhound racing organizations and puppy mills, through the internet and questionable sources through free to a good home ads, special breeding labs or may be bred within the facility. The vivisection industry uses labels like number, subject, object, or research model when referring to the animals in their care. The vivisection controversy is the most emotionally charged of all animal uses; in particular for animals such as dogs, cats, and primates (especially great apes). Invasive procedures involving the head or eye cause the most controversy. Procedures involving the strapping of animals and using invasive procedures are perceived as cruel and inhumane by animal rights advocates. Graphic pictures and images, usually without the scientific context cause much emotionality amongst most non-scientists. Animal experiments have a purpose. The best method of understanding why a particular experiment is performed is to be knowledgeable about the particular subject. Read the literature of the institution and read the counter argument. Knowledge and objectivity are called for at all times. Animal testing has been used for research in tetanus, oral polio vaccines, rabies, anthrax, cardiac catheterization,
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insulin for diabetes, anti-coagulants, antibiotics, open heart surgery, organ transplants, lithium, AIDS and HIV, head injury, brain studies, whooping cough, arthritis, diphtheria, leprosy, rubella, measles, penicillin, measurement of blood pressure, pump-oxygenator, thyroxin, etc. Animal research is not perfect. There are controls and oversights in this field. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) which by U.S. federal law is required to be installed by establishments that make use of laboratory animals in their research or educating purposes to supervise and to judge all aspects of the institutions animal care and use program. The IACUC includes a minimum of persons which much consist of a qualified veterinarian, a qualified scientist, a layperson (non-scientist), a person who has no link or relationship whatsoever with the institution except of being an IACUC member. The fifth person can fall into one or more of the aforementioned categories. The IACUC reserves the right to have more than 5 members. Large scale military super bomb experiments are a terrifying phenomena. Theyre not for the good of human kind. The most notable experiment was the atomic bombing at bikini atoll (part of the Marshall Islands). For this horrible experiment 4 thousand goats, pigs and rodents were used. In jurisdictions where pound seizure is practiced (legal) authorized institutions can take animals from shelters and dog pounds for the purpose of vivisection. The USDA licenses Class A (animal breeders) and Class B (animal breeders, purchasers, and re-sellers of animals). Even puppies can be used in experiments. Beagles are the most convenient breed of dogs used in experiments. Beagles have a mild temperament and are generally trusting of humans. The Department of Defence (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have used millions of animals as research subjects. The DOD doesnt have to comply with the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act. Throughout most of the world most animal experiments are either labelled as secret or top secret. Military experiments on animals can include gunshot wounds, stabbings, burnings, biological tests, chemical tests, atomic bomb tests, nuclear tests, or trauma tests. Animals used include primates, cats, dogs, pigs, rodents, sheep, and rabbits. In non-military use up to 90 percent of animal subjects are rodents. Millions of animals are used for research every year around the world. Rabbits are a favourite source for eye

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irritation tests because they do not tear. Cats are a favourite for brain tests. Animal testing is also done for HIV, AIDS and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome). The use of animals in the cosmetics industry includes eye irritation tests, soaps, skin irritation, and allergic reactions. Protests against this industrys use of animals have made much progress. This is likely because alternatives have been found and the cosmetics industry has an overall appearance of being non-essential; not used for the military, household cleaners, medicine, pharmaceutical, or psychology. Leopards are an endangered species. A true leopard belongs to one of the 8 subspecies: Amur, Javan, Anatolian, South Arabian, North Chinese, Sri Lankan, and North Persian. Unfortunately, all of the major leopard subspecies are either endangered or critically endangered. The surviving leopards can be found in deserts, rainforests, savannas and mountains. Adult leopards are loners. In addition, meeting other leopards is primarily for copulation. Theyre territorial and mark their boundaries by urinating or clawing trees. Poaching of leopards is a very serious problem. Hunting, retaliatory killing by rancher or settlers, habitat loss, and the ever-present leopard skin trade are big problems that should be tackled. Cats are natural hunters. They have remarkable vision, olfactory sense, balance, speed, reflexes, agility, and good climbing and leaping abilities. Cats in general dont have good endurance. Cats claws enable them to seize prey, attack opponents or enemies. Declawing a cat is quite painful and potentially dangerous. Declawing is really an amputation. In human perspective it would be like amputating the last digit on each of our fingers and thumb. Declawed cats cannot defend themselves climb trees, properly walk and run, and must be kept indoors for the remainder of their life. An escape equals a death sentence. Problems may occur after surgery including chipped bones, nerve problems, abnormal re-growth, haemorrhage, chronic pain and sensitivity, excessive biting and/or urinating, and a noticeable personality change. Claws are an inherently natural part of a cats body and personality. This procedure will not remove a cats predatory instinct but will certainly frustrate it considerably.

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Cats were most likely used to protect food stocks from rodents. Ancient Egyptians loved cats. In fact, they were considered sacred beings. A cats tapetum lucidum which increases the quantity of light to the retina gives the eye the reflector look at night. The tigers of Sundarbans located in Bangladesh and India is a gigantic mangrove forest that covers 10 thousand square kilometres; in the Ganges Delta. There are roughly 500 hundred tigers in Sundarbans. Theyre responsible for up to 300 human deaths a year. Most of the victims are villagers. Tigers are fast, quick, stealthy, powerful, beautiful, agile, and can be extremely deadly. Sundarbans tigers are well adapted to their environment; theyre able to drink the salt water therein. Tigers can eat up to 80 lbs. of meat in one sitting theyre solitary hunters. Jim Corbett was a hunter who shot a tiger that killed 436 people. The Captive Wildlife Safety Act (September 17, 2007) makes it unlawful to transport most big cat species across state lines or U.S. borders unless the transporter is exempt. This law came into being as a result of the American publics fear of big cat owning neighbours.

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CAPTIVITY & ENTERTAINMENT

Zoos are also referred to as zoological gardens, zoological parks, or animal parks. Menageries and roadside zoos should be banned in all countries. The crowded, inhumane housing and ill treatment of menagerie animals is neither educational nor beneficial to any animal/s or people. Zoos were established in ancient Egypt, ancient China, and the lands within the ancient Roman Empire. The ancient Greeks erected zoos primarily for learning purposes; they were well ahead of their time. The Sumerians collected rare animals. In 1828, the Zoological Society of London founded the famed zoological garden (later known as the London Zoo) in Regents Park, London. Presently, the London Zoo includes some 650 animal species. Over 100 of these species are threatened. Ideally, zoos are places where people can see exotic wildlife in the flesh, impossible to do so by many of us.
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Animals from around the world, many from exotic places are enjoyable to see. For children, this can be a good introduction to the study of animals for later in life. A good zoo is an interesting and fun place to visit. Seeing wildlife on television, in books, on the internet, or in magazines or journals is good, but nothing beats real life viewing. Zoo animals must receive correct quantities and types of food, adequate water supply, enrichment activities (also toys if applicable), veterinary care, and must not feel a need to flee or be subjected to harassment by a stronger animal within its enclosure or by zoo patrons. Seeing animals in real life is a good step in convincing the general public of the importance of conservation. The Bronx Zoo, Denver Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoo, Smithsonian's National Zoo, Oregon Zoo, Indianapolis Zoo (The Indianapolis Prize), Columbus Zoo & Aquarium (Currently has over 70 wildlife conservation projects); there are many other zoos that aid in wildlife conservation. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums helps its accredited zoos to increase and improve their conservation strategies. Although some animal species find it hard to breed in captivity, most animal species can breed in zoos. This is a boost for animals that are endangered. Endangered animal species need to be protected and isolated in order to reproduce. Reintroduction programs are the ultimate aim. Every animal that dies in an accredited zoo undergoes a necropsy (animal autopsy). There are many horrible zoos and roadside menageries around the world including the Belgrade Zoo, zoos in Romania, Kabul Zoo (animals have received terrible treatment including a hand grenade thrown at a lion named Marjan); patrons at this zoo have been documented throwing objects and taunting the zoo animals. Zoo workers therein either dont care or cant do anything about the harassment. Although there are many conservation-minded zoos, theres still much more work to be done. Countless species are endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. Not to mention, the species that have become extinct as a result of humanitys coldblooded hands. Henry 111 kept a large collection of antelopes. Antelopes are jumpy by nature. Just under 3500 years ago ancient Egyptians were able to see animals brought back by soldiers from far off places, in gardens. We owe Queen Hatshepsut for her genius in ordering this venture.

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Five hundred years later (1000 B.C.), Emperor Wen Wang ordered the formation of the first imperial zoo which was to be called The Garden of Intelligence. Although the animals in the garden were initially to be seen only by the royal family, Emperor Wangs insight has helped in the overall formation of modern day zoos. Nothing this big occurs instantaneously. Many zoos have evolved from archaic, bare, concrete enclosures, to simulations of natural habitats. An abbreviated list of zoo jobs includes: zoo director, assistant director, veterinarian, veterinary nurse, food service and nutritionist, general curator, head of finance, conservation biologist, custodian, maintenance, security, merchandise sales, ticket booth attendant, parking lot attendant, tour guide, and visitor assistance workers. Zoos with aquariums offer additional jobs. Animal enclosures must be temperature regulated (if indoors), must have correct flight distance (for prey animals), correct habitat (natural or simulated), effective barrier, clean, free of diseased animals, correct architecture, resting place (if applicable), and play area (if applicable). Zoo keepers act as surrogates for zoo animals. Human incubators are used in some zoos. Zoo nurseries must always be cleaned after each use. Veterinarian/s, medical care and an animal dietician/s are necessary for every zoo. Larger zoos need more of each. Animals are cordoned off or restrained in a variety of enclosure shapes, sizes, and structures in (zoos, roadside menageries, mascots, and circuses), laboratories (biomedical, pharmaceutical, academic institutions), private collections, homes, enclosed yards, aquariums, pits, tree dogs, park, reserves and game parks. Totally free-roaming wildlife is good in theory but this phenomenon is becoming more and more difficult to see. Wildlife borders and parameters are drawn up by humans, not by animals. Even polar bears, who trek vast distances in the circumpolar region cant escape the long arm of humanity. For many of us zoos are the closest and most convenient places to see wildlife in the flesh. Comprehensive zoos may contain a wide variety of animals from the area and from around the world, insects and plants. The age of European colonialism and vast exploration enabled the importation of countless animal species and individuals. European zoos were turned into animal exhibitions. Initially members of the upper classes were the main patrons, but later on ordinary citizens were able to visit zoos.

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On a positive note, Przewalskis horse breeding in zoos helped to stop this horse breed from becoming extinct. There are currently 1100 of these horses in zoos worldwide. There were cases of indigenous peoples being incarcerated inside zoo cages with concrete floors and iron bars. A case in point was Ota Benga, an African pygmy, was displayed in the Bronx Zoos Monkey House. Thankfully, public outrage made this a short lived display. Aquariums also known as seaquariums may contain marine mammals (performing or non-performing), fish species (may include sharks), turtles, reptiles, and manatees. Marine mammals should not be forced to perform unnatural acts; especially when the training involves deprivation of food deprivation or when severe coercion is involved. Seeing sea mammals, turtles, reptiles, and manatees up close may awaken patrons to the importance of these creatures and for their conservation. A portion of the proceeds can go to conservation projects. Although many people find happiness and pleasure in going to seaquariums and seeing the creatures therein, there is another aspect to the housing of marine mammals in tiny, enclosed seaquariums. Most attendees are unaware of a few important facts. They should be known prior to their trip to the seaquarium: 1. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) that are in open waters spend hours every single day swimming long distances. 2. Seaquariums are tiny, concrete enclosures. 3. Orcas live in pods (groups) ranging in size from a few individuals to a few dozen. 4. Cetaceans in open waters dive deep into the ocean in search of food and to swim underwater. In seaquariums this action and the food-search-drive are obliterated. 5. Chlorine in seaquariums is both unnatural and can cause eye and skin problems for cetaceans. Furthermore, the water is unlike the waters they/d spend their natural lives in. 6. The act of breaching out of the water is limited due to the minute size of the enclosure. 7. Breeding problems often occur in seaquariums. 8. Cetaceans that are not performing tricks usually swim in circles (round and round). 9. Cetacean sonar in seaquariums is compromised. Full use of sonar requires open waters. 10. Fecal matter and urine may be present in the water. Theres nowhere to swim away to.

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In 1970, an orca named Lolita was captured while when she was five years old in Puget Sound (near Washington State). At the time, Lolita was swimming with her pod. Lolita has spent four decades in a tiny seaquarium. She is presently in the Miami Seaquarium. The Canadian Federation of Humane Societies is firmly opposed to housing cetaceans and polar bears in captivity. Polar bears tread many miles a day in the circumpolar region in search of food and because its a natural behaviour for them. Elephants are social animals. They tread long distances every day and need to eat and drink incredible quantities to stay alive. Elephants in zoos should not be placed inside concrete enclosures and they should be examined on a regular basis by a qualified individual, and should be fed well. Under no circumstances should an elephant in a zoo perform stereotyped behaviours. Any zoo animal seen performing any stereotyped action is in need of help. Both polar bears and elephants are perhaps the most difficult animals to protect from mental and physical strain, including illnesses and stereotyped behaviours. Caring and qualified zoo workers are always needed for all animals. The Malaysian sun bear (sleepy bear) is not considered an exciting animal to view by zoo patrons. Elephants have been serving humans for thousands of years. Because theyre the largest terrestrial animal on earth they can pull, carry, push, or lift very heavy objects. Elephants have been used in wars, traction work and entertainment. Elephants are good swimmers, surprisingly fast runners, but they cant hop or jump. A cetacean thats released from a seaquarium must be healthy, able to feed itself, and must successfully enter a pod. A gradual re-introduction may be required._ During the 19th century greyhound dogs were used to destroy or to ward off coyotes. Greyhounds have very good vision (sight hounds) and can run up to 40 mph. Thousands of greyhound racing dogs are killed or disposed of every year because they cannot make the grade or are genetically unsuitable to be professional race dogs. Gambling monies (legal and illegal), state profits, the publics ignorance of the hidden facts, and entertainment are big motives to keep this cruel industry going. Incredible pressure from animal protectionist organizations, animal activists, and a major dip in profits has weakened the greyhound industry. Greyhound race tracks have been in use in the United States since 1920.
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Greyhound dogs that can no longer race because theyre worn out or are injured must be disposed of; dumping (shelter, outdoors), sold to biomedical labs, die starvation; or are shot or beaten to death. The very lucky greyhounds are adopted by a reputable agency. Unfortunately, adoption levels dont come close to the actual numbers that are needed. The Greyhound Association of America is a non-profit membership association that promotes responsible greyhound racing dog ownership and care. As with most other issues pertaining to animal use, there are three viewpoints. One supports the use of animals for any and all purposes with little regard for animal welfare protections, while the other is adamantly against any and all use of animals. The two aforementioned viewpoints are the extremes of each side. However, many people are in the middle ground; they believe in animal use for needed purposes but with the minimum amount of harm to the animals whenever possible. Regarding the extreme viewpoints, Im sorry to say this but lying is something thats borderline prevalent in the animal use field. Ive seen enough outright contradictory statements and statistics from the pro-use and the anti-use camps. I prefer to take the animal welfare approach, whenever possible. Some activities are inherently cruel (e.g. foie gras, animal fighting). If there is to be dog racing, a good idea is to allow any dog/s from any breeds to run, regardless of speed. Lets make it fun. So long as no dog/s or people are hurt and theres no wagering things should work out okay. Wagering occurs when the race has serious overtones. In this kind of dog racing people will come to the track to for fun and to see fun-funny races. Toy dogs, giant dogs, fat dogs, and slim dogs can race against each other. If cats ever learn how to race Id want them to race too. The rodeo had its North American beginnings during the 18th century from the Spanish. Today, the vaqueros or cowboys/cowgirls are the human participants in rodeo events. Events include bull riding (extremely dangerous), bareback riding, ladies barrel racing, steer wrestling, saddle bronco riding, and tie roping. The clown has a very dangerous job too. Although he/she looks and acts funny the animal that he steers away is extremely dangerous. The rodeo is a terrifying and unusual event for the animals involved. Bone fractures, bone breaks, internal injuries, maiming, and death can occur.

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In horse tripping (usually in Mexican rodeos) the contestants job is to trip the horse, bull, or steer. Horses are often injured, terrified, and can easily be maimed. Cock fighting is a cruel blood sport. A pair of specially bred roosters square off in a tiny, enclosed ring or area. Naturally, there are many people surrounding them (spectators, betters, onlookers). One rooster must kill or seriously maim the other for the fight to end. Metallic spurs are usually attacked to the fighters feet in order to cause horrific wounds on each of the opponents especially the loser. Cockfighting is illegal in all 50 states. Unfortunately, this blood sport still occurs. The criminal element engulfs this sport. I pity any child whos taken to one of these fights by a trusted and loved adult. The cruel sport of horse fighting is 500 years old. Its still practiced in parts of Asia. Kicking, biting, intimidating, pushing, and head butting are common behaviours. The horses involved but definitely the loser is literally beaten to a pulp and massacred by his opponent. Incredible blood loss, torn flesh, and other injuries make the spectators joyous and think about their wagers too. Both horses are placed in an inescapable enclosure. In addition, although both horses are supposed to be wild and vicious, a chicken or scaredy-cat horse is sometimes pitted up against a wild fighter just to see a massacre. Theres no escape; no mercy, compassion, or love from the spectators. They want to see a gruesome match. Wild animal mascots (WAMs) must endure incredibly high levels of noises, and bright and unnatural lighting. Not to mention hundreds or even thousands of rowdy humans nearby. The game, whatever it is, confuses and causes the WAM confusion. Remember every single person in the entire arena, field, or court, belongs to a different species than the WAM. WAMs are usually kept in tiny cages during the event. Afterwards theyre sent back to who knows where? Then the WAM is re-used over and over again. The WAMs enclosure at the event and back to its home is most likely tiny and barren. WAMs are extremely dangerous. Theres always a possibility that one may accidentally escape its cage or an intoxicated or foolish person may try to touch it. College ball games and events are for humans. The best, friendliest, safest, and most natural mascots are humans dressed in animal clothing. At least they know whats going on.

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WILDLIFE (GENERAL)

The bald eagle has been Americas national symbol since1782. The Chippewa National Forest located in Northern Minnesota is a refuge for the bald eagle and other bird species. In 1963 the bald eagle population dwindled to a few hundred nesting pairs. Historically, bald eagles had to endure poisoning, trapping (as target and non-target animals), shooting, demonization, DDT (dangerous pesticide), and habitat destruction. DDT was a decimator of bald eagles and peregrine falcons. From 1917 to 1952 there was a bounty on eagles in Alaska. Unlike the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1913 which helped to protect migratory bird species, The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 forbade (except under strict conditions) the acquisition of, ownership (possession), and the sale, trade,

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or exchanging of the bald eagle. This resulted in a dwindling of illegal bald eagle hunting. The bald eagles favourite food source is fish, but this bird also eats other birds, beached whales, carcasses, road kill, and sometimes steals food from other birds. The bald eagle is the master of the sky in its domain. Its a tough bird that can steal food from other tough bird species. Native Americans have always revered the bald eagle. Today, many North Americans feel likewise. The presence of the bald eagle and the California condor are miracles. These two incredible bird species, especially the California condor were in serious trouble. When Europeans first arrived in North America there were large numbers of bald eagles along the shores of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans reaching Alaska on the west coast. Furthermore, eagles controlled the skies in their respected areas and many rivers and lakes. There may have been a million bald eagles at the time. On June 28, 2007 Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne announced that the bald eagle had been officially removed from the endangered species list. The art of falconry began in the Middle East 3000 years ago. Peregrine falcons were saved from the brink of extinction. It took 3 decades of hard work to do the job. Many ranchers and farmers shoot or trap raptors (birds of prey). Raptors hunt what trappers, hunters, and fishermen hunt; birds, rabbits, fish, and small animals. The Philippine eagle has been hunted mercilessly. The California condor by human standards is ugly and menacing-looking. Its also a scavenger. There are 6 species of vultures who observe the African savannah. The lappet-faced and white-headed vultures get first pickings of a carcass. The two species are powerful enough to split open a carcass. Next in line are the griffin and white-backed vultures. They have long specially designed necks that allow them to sink their heads deep into a carcass. Vulture populations in the Middle East and Europe have drastically declined. Today, the budgerigars are the most common bird species. Our planets highest mountains are in Asia and South America. Wildlife in mountain areas include Barbary sheep, mountain lions, sun bears, giant pandas, red pandas, snow leopards, bongos, deer, elk, grizzly bears, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, wolves, bird species (predator and prey). In general, mountain prey is better protected than lowland prey.

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But human encroachment has reached our tallest mountains too. Pollution knows no boundaries. Wilderness safaris (ecotourism) allow tourists to enter exotic wildlife areas (sometimes densely populated) and take pictures of individuals or groups. A portion of the proceeds from wilderness safaris can be used for conservation and education. To see wildlife in its natural habitat is a good way to remind and educate people about wildlife conservation. Everyone cant afford to go to Africa, Asia, or some other far off lands. Zoos have aided in the re-introduction of bison, Arabian Oryx, and red wolf. Zoos can play a role in protecting individuals and populations of critically endangered species. The green tree snake, a horrible pest in Guam, is a native of the coast of Australia, Papua New Guinea, and islands in Melanesia. Green tree snakes have wreaked havoc on Guams birds, and also have preyed on its lizards, bats, and tiny rodents. Nine species of Guams bird species have been exterminated by the brown tree snake and several others are in trouble. Brown tree snakes were most likely military stowaways at the end of the Second World War. By the early 1950s their presence was already known. The closest U.S. state to the Territory of Guam is Hawaii. Every measure should be taken to rid Guam of this super pest and to prevent its leap-frogging into Hawaii, or any other island or country for that matter. People in Guam have been bitten by the brown tree snake. In fact one elderly man was bitten in the scrotum while he was seated in a toilet seat. Ouch! There are more than 400 species of sharks. They have large brains. Most shark bits are either defensive, territorial or are mistakes (humans swim like injured fish). In addition, surfers on boards look like large fish. Dozens of humans are killed by sharks annually, many more are bitten. Sharks have been hunted for their flesh, medicine, teeth, cartilage, liver oil, and to satisfy the shark fin soup industry. Shark fin soup which is in high demand in Asia is obtained by catching a shark, slicing off its fins then tossing the body back into the water. Shark meat is generally of little or no value on the market. However shark fin soup can run up to 100 dollars in a restaurant. Shark populations, especially in Asian waters, are being hunted for their fins in an unsustainable manner. Millions of
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sharks are killed annually; equalling over 1 million tons of shark flesh. Sharks have been demonized throughout history. Its easy to understand when you picture an image of a shark in your head. Most are scary looking, cold, terrifying, and have incredible razor sharp teeth. They appear monstrous and laconic when attacking prey. Sharks are a keystone species. They keep prey numbers in check and large sharks help to control small shark populations. Unsustainable shark hunting is aggravated by the sharks slow reproduction rate. The Great White Shark is an apex predator in the ocean. Only orca pods can threaten this powerful shark. By-catch, demonization, pollution, habitat destruction (bottom trawlers, overfishing), and reduced prey populations are problems for the Great White Shark. In 1991 South Africa passed a law for the protection of Great White Sharks. The Shark Finning Prohibition Act makes it unlawful for any foreign oceanic craft to dump or unload shark fins into a U.S. port, without unloading the rest of the sharks bodies. The North American bison has always been an important part of Native American culture (in particular on the plains). The bison provided Native Americans with optimum nutrition, and the body was stripped down, literally to the bone and teeth. Nothing was wasted. Hides were used as clothing and for tee pees. In addition, the bison was a part of Native American religion and folklore. Hunting was important for males, the family, and the tribe. The U.S. Government understood that by eradicating the bison, Native Americans would be doomed to starvation, transfer, and reservations. Reservation life for Native Americans was horrible to say the least. The food handouts were of dog food quality and high in fat; usually consisting of low-grade fatty strips of bacon or other high-fat pork products. Diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, higher body fat composition (for both sexes), cultural and religious annihilation, humiliation, loss of bison, high unemployment, horrible alcoholism, high mortality rates, and a general feeling of apathy, anger, mistrust, fear, and depression have been common amongst many Native Americans. Turtles have been around for nearly 200 million years. There are close to 270 turtle species. Giant turtles are referred to as tortoises. Their smaller relatives are called terrapins.
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The leatherback turtle is the largest sea turtle. Unfortunately, turtle populations around the world are declining. Turtles used for food, Chinese medicine, and the problems of pollution, habitat destruction, by-catch, pet trade, and accidents are destroying many turtle species. Leatherback blubber is used by the cosmetic industry. Plastic bags (cause choking), fishing gear, and fishing nets are also dangerous problems. Turtle watching tours are good for conservation. In addition, turtle breeding can help in the conservation effort. Nesting success for turtles is very important for their survival. Unfortunately, people take countless turtle eggs to sell at the market. In 2001, the Taiwanese Authorities seized an illegal shipment of 10 thousand turtles. Turtles in general are slow and do not fight back when attacked or when captured by humans. Hawksbill turtles are overhunted for their incredible shells. Leatherback baby turtles are a food delight for birds of prey, crabs, bears, coyotes, raccoons, snakes, and predatory fish. Frogs have been on this planet for more than 250 million years, except in Antarctica. Frogs are a keystone species; very important for their habitat. Over 30 species of frogs are extinct. In addition 25 frog species are in danger of becoming extinct. Habitat loss or alteration, pollution, and the introduction of non-native species harm turtle populations. The frog pet and vivisection trade are compounding the population decline problems. Frogs eat many insects that we consider pests. Frogs can be found living in or close to ponds, lakes, rivers, muddy grounds, wetlands, grasslands, in trees, or deserts. Grazing livestock destroy frog habitat by trampling the ground and eating much of the plant life. Pesticides, fertilizers, acid rain, and other pollutants cause countless frog deformities. Of the approximately 1000 species of bats 250, including the Mexican long-nosed bats, are endangered. No other known mammal has the ability to fly. Bats have many enemies including canids, felids, raccoons, snakes, and humans (pollution, pesticides, habitat destruction, and bat killings). Bats are classified as megabats (large type, herbivores) and microbats (small type, carnivores). There are no bats in Antarctica.

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In general, bats use echolocation to zoom-in on prey (primarily insects). Bats can be protected in abandoned caves and mines by building special barriers for people and NO ENTRY signs. As soon as the early American settlers began to chop down trees in large numbers in order to clear the land for agriculture and settlements predators in the area became vermin; especially wolves, bears, coyotes, birds, and big cats. Coyotes are one of the most adaptable and opportunistic of animals. Coyotes took advantage of the new food sources imported into the country by the settlers. The panther however, didnt fare as well. Its food source shrunk with the expansion of human settlements. They coyotes size and diet permitted it to eat whatever it could find. By the 19th century the American panther population had been devastated. Sightings by settlers became fewer and far between. The last confirmed killing of an eastern panther was in Vermont in 1881. As a direct result of dwindling wildlife, the eastern panther was forced to eat livestock. The panther, wolf, and coyote have been demonized like no other species in North America. However, the eastern panther played a significant role in Native American culture. Habitat destruction, hunting, pollution, trapping, wildlife population reduction, demonization, fencing, the railroad and human expansion have caused the reduction of predator populations. In North America, Victoria Island, British Columbia is the place where a person is most likely to be attacked by a panther. Depending on what part of North America you live in the eastern panther or panther (east), mountain lion (west), or cougar (mountain) may be used to describe the biggest cat in the region. Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, hated cougars with a passion. Theres much love for animals in this world, however, theres also too much hatred of animals in this world.

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INFORMATION BOOTH: Note: Sites that are listed without a website address can be found by typing in the words shown on the Yahoo or Google search engines. In addition, Wikipedia is a good source for general information on a wide variety of subjects. If you decide to design a web page for an animal related issue you can use the following recommended categories on your Home Page: Home | Campaigns & Issues | Newsletter | Get Involved | Events | About Us | Blog | Contact | Links | ANIMAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND RELATED SITES: Note: Some words are clumped together with no Spacing. Type exactly what you see. DOGS: www.actionforgreyhounds.co.uk/ Action for Greyhounds (UK) www.adbadog.com/p_home.asp American Dog Breeders Association www.allaboutdogsandcats.com/index.html www.all-about-great-danes.com Great Danes www.alllabs.com All Labs American Association of Zookeepers American Bouvier des Flandres Club www.americanboxerclub.org American Boxer Club American Dog breeders Association American Dog Owners Association American Dog Trainers Network American German shepherd Rescue Association American Kennel Club (Best site/institution to find information about dog breeds, registration, pedigree information, etc.) American Rottweiler Club AnimalRightsCanada.com Contains Animal Rights Sites in Canada Animal Shelters-Image Results AnimalWorld.com (Much Information) www.apdt.com The Association of Pet Dog Trainers www.arba.org American Rare Breeds Association www.ardainc.org American Rescue Dog Association www.assistancedogsinternational.org Assistance Dogs International Association of Pet Dog Owners Association of Pet Dog Trainers www.asca.org Australian Shepherd Club of America
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www.ava.org/Taildock.htm Tail Docking www.banpoundseizure.org Ban Pound Seizure www.barkingbuddies.com Barking Buddies www.bearsearchandrescue.org The Bear Search and Rescue Foundation (Dont be Fooled by the Name, this is a Rescue Dog Site) www.bleedingeyeballs.com/basenjiart/egyptiandogs.htm Other Ancient Egyptian Dogs www.bulgariadogs.webs.com Bulgarian Society for Animal Protection and Preservation www.bulldoginformation.com/war-dogs.html War Dogs, Military Service Dogs, Battle Dogs Canadian Kennel Club www.canine-academy.com Canine Academy (Austin, Texas) www.caninecompanions.org Canine Companions for Independence Canine Good Citizen Award CanineInformationLibrary.com www.canismajor.com Canis Major Dog Site (Breed Information for Owners) www.carda.bc.ca Canadian Avalanche Rescue Dogs Association clubs.akc.org/NBC/usdas_beagle_brigade.htm USDAs Beagle Brigade www.dawnrestdogs.org Dawnrest Dogs Family & Strain Delta Society digital.library.mcgill.ca/nwc/history/09.htm The Fur Traders www.dogchannel.com/dog-breeds/all_landing.aspx Dogs Info www.dccfund.org Dog and Cat Cancer Fund dogcustomer.com Dog Fancy (Magazine) www.workingdog.eu/dog_fighting_en.html Dog Fighting Info www.doggiesparadise.com/behavior.shtml CANINE BEHAVIOR www.doggonesafe.com Dog Bite Prevention Information www.dogmeat.org Petition Against Eating Dog Meat www.dogobedienceadvice.com/ Which Dogs are Most Aggressive Dog Owner's Guide: Canine Behaviour www.dogplay.com/index.html Dog Play Dogsabuse.com Dogs for Kids (Magazine) www.dogsinthenews.com Dogs in the News Dogs in Review (Magazine) dogs.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Dog_History Extensive Site www.dogstardaily.com Dog Star Daily Dog World (Magazine) Dog Writers Association of America Doni's Dogs.com www.ethiopianwolf.org Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme
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www.fema.gov/emergency/usr FEMA Urban Search and Rescue (Humans and Dogs are Employed) Gaines TWT (Touring with Towser): Information pertaining to hotels and motels that allow canine guests. Gas Chamber in Shelters German Shepherd Dog Club of America www.gdca.org Great Dane Club of America www.germanshepherddog.com United Schutzhund Clubs of AmericaFor the German Shepherd Dog www.meetgina.ca/ Greyhounds in Need of Adoption (GINA) www.gra-america.or Greyhound Racing Association of America. www.greatdaneclub.danemoor.com The Great Dane Club The Great Dane Reporter greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Animals_at_War/... Dogs at War Greyhound Action www.greyhoundadventures.org/ Greyhound Adventures and www.greyhounds.org Greyhound Protection League www.helpsleddogs.org/faq.htm Iditarod Race Facts www.iditarod.com Official Site of the Iditarod International Sled Dog Racing Association kenyonsatdogcreek.com/whyagd.html Great Dane Site www.k9obedience.co.uk/dogcare/rescue/fightingdogs.html www.k9web.com/dog-faqs/behavior.html CANINE BEHAVIOR National Association of Dog Obedience Instruction National Association of Search and Rescue Dogs National Disaster Search Dog Foundation National Stock Dog Registry North American Flyball Association North American Working Dog Association www.nsgsdc.com/breedhistory.shtml Nova Scotia German shepherd Club On the Road Again with Mans Best Friend: (Good Directory) NYC Anti-Animal Fighting Campaign Pit Bull Rescue Central Pitbullsontheweb.com www.projectpetslimdown.com Project Pet Slim Down www.psychdog.org Psychiatric Service Dog Society www.puppyfinder.com PuppyProfits.com DOG FIGHTING www.sharethelovenc.org Share the Love Pet Food Bank www.stopdogfighting.net/ www.stoppuppymills.org Puppy Mills www.stoppuppymills.org/inside_a_puppy_mill.html Puppy Mills www.texastaskforce1.org Texas Task Force 1 (Human and Canine Rescue Team Members) Therapy Dogs International www.tomregan-animalrights.com/archive/vividogs.html Dog
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Vivisection Pictures www.tufts.edu/vet/behavior/canine.shtml CANINE BEHAVIOR United Kennel Club U.S.Wardogs.org www.uswardogs.org/id10.html www.westminsterkennelclub.org Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show (World Renown) White Shepherds Clubs wilddog.hypermart.net/Home/Wild_dog_page/.../index.htm Wild Dog Foundation www.woofstock.ca Woofstock: The Largest Annual Gathering of Dogs/Their Owners in North America (Toronto, Canada) WorkingPitbull.com/dogfighting.htm World Federation of Dogs (Federation Cynologique Internationale) CATS: www.absolutelycats.com/22FavoriteNames.html Africat Foundation Alley Cat Allies All for Tigers www.best-cat-tips.com/catbehaviorproblems.htm Cat Behaviour BigCatRescue.org Burning of Cats (Found on Wikipedia) www.cannedlion.org Campaign against Canned Hunting of Lions Catchannel.com Cat Fancy (Magazine) Cats.com Cats & Kittens (Magazine) Cat Welfare Society of Israel Cat World (Magazine) www.catwriters.org Cat Writers Association, Inc. www.declawing.com/htmls/declawing.htm Declawing www.funnycatsite.com Contains Funny Cat Pictures The Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (British) International Cat Association www.kats-korner.com/bigcats/cougar.html www.pawproject.com IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT DE-CLAWING www.petstation.com/declaw.html Declawing pusscats.com/Cat_Behavior.htm CAT Behaviour SaveTheCancunTigers.com www.sspca.org/Cats CAT BEHAVIOR www.sniksnak.com/cathealth/declaw.html Declawing www/ucat.us/catlinks.html A.
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www.aaalac.org Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) www.abcra.com.au Australian Bushmens Campdraft & Rodeo Association www.abolitionistapproach.com Abolitionist-Online.com ActNowForAnimals.com Actors & Others for Animals Adlaz.org Animal Defence League of Arizona Africa Biodiversity www.africanconservation.org African Wildlife Foundation Africat Foundation www.aoca.org.za/petition.php Afri Oceans Conservation Alliance www.afrma.org American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association (AFRMA) Alaska Wildlife Alliance All-Creatures.org/alert/index.html Alley Cat Allies allianceforanimalrights.webs.com American Anti-Vivisection Society American Association for the Advancement of Science www.aamp.com American Association of Beef Producers American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums www.abcbirds.org American Bird Conservancy: Bird Conservation in the Americas American Bison Society www.americanfamilyrodeo.com A Pro-Rodeo Site www.americanhumane.org Protecting Children and Animals American Museum of Natural History www.apppa.org The American Pastured Poultry Producers www.apra.com American Professional Rodeo Association Associationapppa.org www.americanpetproducts.org American Pet Products Association (APPA) American Psychological Association American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) Also the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Hotline Toll Free At: 1-888-426-4432 American Zoo and Aquarium Association American Zoological Association americasbestonline.net/index.php/pages/bestzoos.html Best Zoos In America www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/zoos.htm Zoos (Good Site for Kids) www.animal-abusesite.info/index.html Animal Activism Queensland
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Animal Actors of Hollywood AnimalAid.org.uk Animal Alliance of Canada Animal Allies Animal blood sports - AskMen.com Contains Important Articles AnimalCircuses.com AnimalConcerns.org www.animalconnectiontx.org Animal Connection Texas www.animaldefense.org/index.html Animal Defence Militia Animal Diversity Web Animalearn.org AnimalEquality.net Animal Fighting Animalforum.com Animal Friends of the Balkans The Animal Holocaust www.animallawcoalition.com Animal Law Coalition Animal Legal Defence Fund Animal Liberation Front animalink.ab.ca/LivingWithAnimals/indexanimalprotection.htm www.animalnews.info/animal_torture_and_heinous_crimes.htm_ www.animalnews.info/world/australia_animal_news.htm Australia Animal News Animal News animalpeoplenews.org www.animalpetdoctor.homestead.com/History1.html 'The Animal Pet Doctor' Animal Protection Institute www.animalresearch.info/en/medical Pro-Vivisection Site Animal Rights Advocates of Upstate New York Animal Rights Africa www.animalrightscanada.com Animal Rights Canada AnimalRights.Change.org Animal Rights Coalition Animal Rights History.org animalrightsmalta.blogspot.com www.animal-rights.network Animalsrighttoliewebsite.com www.animalsuffering.com Animalsvoice.com Animal Transport Coalition Animal Victims of Trauma Training www.animal-world.com Dr. Jungles Animal World Anonymous for Animal Rights The anti-Cruelty Society The Anti-Docking Alliance (A.D.A.) The Ape Alliance
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Apes in Entertainment www.the-aps.org The American Physiological Society Asian Animal Protection Network (Good information about Chinese Animal abuse/use) www.4apes.com Ape Alliance-Action for Apes www.ara.org.au Animal Rights Advocates Arkive.org Information Pertaining to Endangered Species Association against Animal Factories www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control Animal Poison Control Center The Association of Sanctuaries www.attra.org Organic Farming Site The Audubon Society www.ausraptor.org.au Australasian Raptor Association (ARA) www.avianwelfare.org Avian Welfare Resource Center www.awol-egypt.org Animal Welfare Egypt B. www.banhdc.org Coalition to Ban Horse Drawn Carriages www.batcon.org Bat Conservation International www.bearinfo.org/gbusa.htm Grizzly Bear Outreach Project www.bearwithus.org/index.htm Bear With Us (Bear and People, Conflict Prevention) Becoming Human.org www.beef.org National Cattlemens Beef Association (USA) www.beefproducts.com Iowa Beef Products, Inc. (IBP) www.beeftoday.com (A Farm Journal) www.best-horse-photos.com/Wild-Horses.html Site Containing Beautiful Horse Photos www.bfro.net The Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization www.biaza.org.uk British Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums www.bigfootencounters.com Bigfoot Encounters BigWildlife.org Bikini Atoll (Nuking of Innocent Animals by Military) www.bioacademy.gr/Aboutus/about.php Biomedical Research Foundation www.bioko.org/news/ Bioko Biodiversity Program www.biography.com/animalographies/famous-animals.jsp Famous Animals Bonobo Initiative Born Free Foundation www.bowzone.ca/ Archery and Bow hunting (Canada) www.drmartybecker.com Best Loved Doctor for Pets (Dr. Marty Becker) Brigitte Bardot Foundation
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British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection blog.buffalofieldcampaign.org www.bucknell.edu/msw3 Database of Mammalian Species of the World www.bulldoginformation.com/fighting-dog-breeds.html Fighting Dog Breeds Bureau of Land Management (USA) C. www.cabelas.com/ Hunting Gear Calcutta Zoological Garden www.calgarystampede.com Calgary Stampede www.canadafishingonline.net/ Fishing (Canada) Canada Parks and Wilderness Society CanadaWolves.net www.canadiana.org/hbc/intro_e.html Exploration, the Fur Trade and the Hudsons Bay Company Canadian Coalition for Farm Animals The Canadian Council on Animal Care Canadian Federation of Humane Societies Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canadian Museum of Nature Canadian Psychological Association Canadian Voice for Animals Captive Animals Protection Society www.fws.gov/le/CaptiveWildlifeSafetyAct.htm Captive Wildlife Safety Act Cease Animal Torture Center for Biological Diversity Center for Great Apes Centre for Orangutan Protection Change.org CHAI Animal Rights www.chicagohs.org/history/stock.html Chicago Union Stock Yards Chimpanzoo ChimpHaven.org www.cites.org Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Clean Air Act www.climateark.org Cloud Foundation (Preservation of Horses) Coalition to Ban Horse Drawn Carriages coe.fgcu.edu/students/pospisil/firstpage.htm All About Monkeys coe.nevada.edu/mnitta/mnittafolder/ehaquest.html Save Endangered Hawaiian Animals WebQuest
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Companion Animal Protection Society www.carepets.org Companion Animal Rescue Effort (CARE) Concordia Animal Rights Association Congo (The Painting Chimpanzee) www.conservationforce.org/role2.html Conservation Force: Staunch Defenders of Hunters Rights Conservation International Conservation.org/Links/groups.html Cormorants Defenders International The Cornucopia Institute www.cosewic.gc.ca COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada www.cowboyway.com/BroncRiding.htm A Pro-Rodeo Site www.cpc-ccp.com Canadian Pork Council CrimesAgainstAnimals.org Critically Ill for Biomedical Research www.crufts.org.uk Crufts Hosts Dog shows in the UK D. www.dardni.gov.uk Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (UK) www.deerhunting.ws/ Deer Hunting Defenders of Animals www.defra.gov.uk www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca Fisheries and Oceans Canada Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Digit Fund International DiscoveringChimpanzees.com Dogs Trust Doris Day Animal Foundation Doris Day Animal League Ducks Unlimited Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.dyingtolearn.org/animalUseHistory.html Anti-Vivisection Site E. www.eagala.org Equine Assisted Psychotherapy www.earth-liberation-front.org Earth Liberation Front www.eceae.org/a4_primates.php The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments www.easterndrafthorse.com/History/drafthorseinamerica.htm www.eco-action.org/dt/pigeon.html Extinction: The Story of the Passenger Pigeon EcologicalInternet.org
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The Elephant Manager's Association www.elephant-news.com Elephant News www.elephants.com The Elephant Sanctuary (Hohenwald, Tennessee) www.elephanttrust.org www.elephantart.com Asian Elephant Art & Conservation Project elephant.se/african_bush_elephant_database.php?...+database Database with Captive Elephants Worldwide www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/apes/gorilla all about Primates Endangered Species Act (USA) www.endangeredspecie.com/specieprofile.htm Information Regarding Endangered Species www.envirolink.org/pubs The EnviroLink Network www.equinecanada.ca Equine Canada Hippique www.equisearch.com/famousquiz11302_ Famous Riders and their Horses' Names The European Coalition to End Experiments F. Farm Animal Reform Movement Farm Sanctuary www.farinc.org www.fauna-flora.org/ Fauna & Flora International www.faunafoundation.org/ The Fauna Foundation is a Chimpanzee Sanctuary located in Quebec www.fbresearch.org Foundation for Biomedical Research (Relevant Information Pertaining to Animal Research) Feminists for Animal Rights www.fishingcanada.com/ Fishing Directory (Canada) www.fishing.net/ Fishing ForestEthics.org Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Frankfurt Zoological Society Friends of Captive Animals www.mcneilbears.org/press/FOMR6.htm Friends of McNeil River (Protection of McNeil River State Game Sanctuary and its brown bears) FurCommission.com Fur Institute of Canada G. Global Action Network (Montreal) globalphilosophy.blogspot.com/2006/03/... This is a Good Blog Goodzoos.com
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The Gorilla Foundation grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/olaw.htm Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (US) Great Ape Alliance Great Ape Conservation Fund Great Ape Survival Partnership (A Project of the United Nations Environment Programme) www.greatapetrust.org Great Ape Trust The Jane Goodall Institute www.greatbear.org/pandabear.htm Great Bear Foundation www.thegreathunters.com/sitemap.htm The Great Hunters Greenpeace International www.gutenberg.org/files/17748/17748-h/17748-h.htm Bison Extermination H. www.habitatforhorses.org Habitat for Horses www.hbc.com/hbcheritage Historic Hudsons Bay Heritage www.hickerphoto.com/animal-pictures-cat.htm Animal Photos grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/olaw.htm U.S. Department of Health and Human Services www.historyforkids.org/learn/environment/horses.htm Horses www.historyforkids.org/learn/economy/hunting.htm Hunting (Kids) www.hollywoodanimals.com www.horsechannel.com www.horsedrawncarriages.biz Horse Drawn Carriages www.horse-races.net/library/links-famous.htm www.horserides.org/history-of-horses.html www.hfa.org Humane Farming Association www.humaneseal.org Humane Society International Humane Society of the United States www.humanwildlifeconflict.org Human Wildlife Conflict Collaboration www.huntingnet.com/ Hunting Community I. www.iaapea.com/ International Association against Painful Experiments on Animals www.iacuc.org/aboutus.htm Institutional Animal Care and Committee (IACUC) www.igcp.org/about/team/ International Gorilla Conservation Programme In Defence of Animals www.internationalrivers.org
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www.isis.org International Species Information System www.iranjasminsafari.com Site for Iran Hunting Safari www.ispca.ie/ Irish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals www.itbcbison.com Intertribal Bison Cooperative www.iucn.org International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) www.iucnredlist.org IUCNs Red List (Vulnerable, Threatened, Endangered, Critically Endangered Plants and Animals) www.izea.net International Zoo Educators Association J. Jakarta Animal Aid Network The Jane Goodall Institute Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust www.jewishveg.com Jewish Vegetarians of North America www.jockeysguild.com K. Karisoke Research Center The Kentucky Derby Kewa.org/snow.html (Endangered Snow Leopards) www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/zoos.htm Zoos (Good Kids Site) www.kidsfarm.com (Kids Farm in Colorado, Nice Information) Kinship Circle Korean Animal Rights Advocates Korean Animal Protection Society KoreanAnimals.org Krokodille Zoo (Denmark) L. Last Chance for Animals www.latham.org The Latham Foundation (Promotes Humane Education) The League against Cruel Sports The Leakey Foundation www.iearn.org.au/greatapes The Great Apes Project www.lemurs.us/index.ht Lemurs The Lewa Conservancy library.thinkquest.org/3378/ Worldwide Zoo Net Horrendous Horse Fighting Blood Sport LifeForceFoundation.org literati.net/Bekoff Website of Dr. Marc Bekoff www.lrca.us Lop Rabbit Club of America Louisiana Fur and Alligator Advisory Council
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www.lovelongears.com/about_mules.html Mules M. The Madagascar Fauna Group Maine Friends of Animals Malay Tiger www.maniacworld.com/Animal_Fights.htm Animal Fights www.mapleleaf-foods.com Maple Leaf Foods www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/691_14438.asp March of Dimes (Pro Vivisection) Marsabit Game Reserve www.massanimalrights.org Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition www.mercyforanimals.org Mercy for Animals Meru Game Reserve Jean Mills (Bengal Cat) www.miombosafaris.com/hunting/professional-hunters.html Professional Safari in Tanzania www.mtbeef.org Montana Stockgrowers Association MoonBears.org The Vicki Moore Foundation The Morris Animal Foundation www.mrmcmed.org Medical Research Modernization Committee www.msc.org Marine Stewardship Council N. www.nanations.com/extermination_bison_buffalo.htm Bison Information www.nabt.org National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) www.napcc.aspca.org National Animal Poison Control Center www.nas.edu National Academy of Sciences www.navs.org National Anti-Vivisection Society National Aviary National Geographic Society www.thenationalmouseclub.co.uk The National Mouse Club (UK) www.nih.gov National Institutes of Health (USA) www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/animals/atomic.html Animals as Cold Warriors: Atomic Animals www.noaa.gov National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) www.naturecanada.ca The Nature Conservancy www.nwf.org/ National Wildlife Federation www.navs.org National Anti-Vivisection Society Network for Animals www.neavs.org/contact/media/vivisection.htm New England Anti118

Vivisection Society NHBS Alligator and Crocodile Rescue www.nigelarchersafaris.com/ Hunting Safari in Kenya No Caged Egg.com www.nofoiegras.org This Site Calls for a Ban on Foie Gras Sales and Production Northern Rangelands Trust Northwest Animal Rights Network www.nppc.org National Pork Producers Council (United States) www.nrahuntersrights.org/ The National Rifle Association Defends Hunters Rights (USA) www.ntonline.com/biz/twwa/ (Bow hunting in Canada) www.nwf.org National Wildlife Federation O. www.oceanalliance.org/ Ocean Alliance OntarioNature.org www.orangutan-appeal.org.uk www.orangutan.com www.orangutan.org Orangutan Foundation International Orangutan Conservancy www.orangutans-sos.org Sumatran Orangutan Society Orcahome.de Orca News www.orcanetwork.org/captivity/lolitatoday.html Orca Network Lolitas (Orca) Life Today Origin of Bipedalism Orthopaedic Foundation for Animals Overfishing.org Ottawa Animal Advocates P. www.anthro.palomar.edu/primate/prim_1.htm Primate Information Pan African Sanctuary Alliance www.pc.gc.ca/ Parks Canada www.pawsweb.org Performing Animal Welfare Society www.petnamesworld.com/animal-names.html Pet Names www.pcrm.org Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine www.petco.com Pet Foods www.petland.com Petland Store www.petplace.com/cat-pictures.aspx www.petsamerica.org Pets America www.petsmart.com Pet Foods & Supplies www.pigfarminginnz.co.nz/index.php/farming-styles Pig Farming Styles in New Zealand www.pilgrimspride.com Pilgrims Pride (Giant Food Producer)
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www.polarbearsinternational.org Polar Bears International www.primatefreedom.com www.pin.primate.wisc.edu Primate Info Net www.primate.org Primate Conservation, Inc. PrimatePatrol.org Primates.com Professional Hunters Association Project Primate Inc. www.prorodeo.com (The Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association) www.prosimians.com Prosimians Q. R. www.rabbit.org House Rabbit Society Rainforest Action Network www.rerun.org Adoption of Former Racehorses The Responsible Animal Care Society www.returntofreedom.org/kids/wild_horses.html Return to FreedomAbout Wild Horses www.rintintin.com/ The Most Famous German Shepherd Dog www.rmad.org Rocky Mountain Animal Defence www.rodeocruelty.com Anti-Rodeo Site roldadogs.tripod.com/why.html Dogs-Romania www.rolda.org Dogs-Romania Romanian Alliance for the Protection of Animals The Rome Zoo Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Royal Society for the Protection of Birds S. www.safaritalk.net Safaritalk is the African Safari Forum S.A.F.E. animal rights SanWild Wildlife Trust www.savejapandolphins.org ending Dolphin Slaughter in Taiji, Japan www.savelucy.ca/elephant-sanctuaries Dedicated to Saving Lucy the Elephant Save the Animals Rescue Foundation Save the Manatees www.seapics.com Ocean Wildlife Nature Pictures www.searchingforbigfoot.com searching for Bigfoot www.seashepherd.org/ Sea Shepherd Conservation Society www.sfn.org Society for Neuroscience theshadowlands.net/bf.htm The Shadowlands Bigfoot Page
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www.sharkonline.org SHARK (Showing Animals Respect and Kindness) SHEVI Animal Rights Israel www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/passpig.htm Passenger PigeonSierra Club www.slavetoentertainment.com/statement.htm www.smallanimalchannel.com Small Animal Channel www.smithfield.com Smithfield Foods The Smithsonian Institute Smithsonian National Zoological Park www.snowleopard.org International Snow Leopard Trust Society for the Protection of Animals Southern Animal Rights Coalition Southern Oregon Animal Rights Society www.sparelives.org www.start4animals.org St.Louis Animal Rights Team The Suffering of Animals in War www.syracuseanimalrights.com/index.html T. Taiji Dolphin Massacres TalkOrigins.org The Tamarin Project Tanjung Puting National Park Texas Humane Legislation Network Thai Elephant Conservation Center tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/.../louisianablackbear/plan East Texas Black Bear and Conservation Management Plan www.tripspirit.com/35:The-Best-Zoos-in-the-World-According-to The Best Zoos in the World According to Forbes www.tvma.org/Pet_Owners/texas_animal_HoF.phtml Texas Hall of Fame www.tyson.com Tyson Foods U. www.unep.org/ United Nations Environment Programme ushunting.itopsites.com/ One Hundred Hunting Sites United Animal Nations www.unitedegg.org United Egg Producers United Nations Great Apes Survival Project United Poultry Concerns United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) www.usacritters.com USACRITTERS

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V. www.veccs.org Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society (VECCS) Ventana Wildlife Society visalia.k12.ca.us/teachers/lporton Good Site for Youngsters www.vita.org.ru/english/newsletters/1.2008.htm Vita Center for Animal Rights Protection (Russia) VoiceForAnimals.org Vudzungwa Primate Conservation Project W. www.waynefarmsllc.com Giant Poultry Producer www.waza.org/ World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) www.wbu.com/chipperwoods/photos/passpigeon.htm Passenger Pigeon-Exterminated www.wdcs.org/ Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society www.welfareforanimals.org Association for the Welfare of Animals www.wherelolitabelongs.com About Lolita the Captive Orca www.whiteshark.co.za South African White Shark Research Institute www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattle_drives_in_the_United_States Cattle Drives of the Old West www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meat_packing_industry Meat Packing Industry Churchill Downs (Home of the Kentucky Derby) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_Derby WildAid.org Wilderness First www.wilderness-safaris.com Wilderness Safari (Africa) Wildlife Conservation International www.wildlife-tour-india.com/indian-wildlife/leopard.html Wildlife Tours in India www.thewildones.org/Animals/lemur.html Lemurs Win Animal Rights www.wkghorse.com The Working Horse Magazine World Animal Net www.world-newspapers.com/animals.html Animal Magazines Online www.worldwildlife.org World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Society for the Protection of Animals X.

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www.xphomestation.com/frm-history.html History of the Pony Express Y. www.yorku.ca/arusson Orangutan Sanctuary Z. www.zanzibarleopard.blogspot.com The Zanzibar Leopard, May Have Been Exterminated www.zippythetvchimp.com/book.htm Zippy the Chimp Zoocheck.com www.zoohistory.co.uk Zoo History (The Bartlett Society) Zoological Society of London zooworks.org/index.html Zoo Enclosures, Fencing, Design Technical Support (India Based) www.zoos-worldwide.de/ Zoos, Aquariums, Animal Sanctuaries and Wildlife Parks: Important Information for Travellers and Vacationers. www.zsl.org Zoological Society of London

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