Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

MSE 230

!

!

HW11 Solutions

(04/16)

© 2010 KPTrumble

Spring 2010

1. As presented in lecture, the overall anode and cathode reactions are as follows:

Fe Fe 3+ + 3e - (anode)

3 0 2 + 3 H 2 0 + 3e - 3OH - (cathode)
4

2

Fe + 3 0 2 + 3

2

4

H 2 0 Fe  3+ + 3 OH -

Fe(OH) 3

The two-step reaction can be written as:

Fe Fe 2+ + 2e - (anode)

1

2 0 2 + H 2 0 + 2e - 2OH - (cathode)

Step 1

Fe 2+ Fe 3+ +1e - (anode)

1

1

4 0 2 + 2 H 2 0 + 1e - OH - (cathode)

Step 2

Fe + 3 0 2 + 3

2

4

H 2 0 Fe  3+ + 3 OH -

Fe(OH) 3

The iron actually dissolves as Fe 2+ and then is oxidized further by a second step of the same cathode reaction.

2. (a) Iron and chromium are similar or the same in all four factors that determine solid solubility. Callister

does not have an Fe-Cr phase diagram, but it shows that the solid solubility of Cr in Fe increases from about 5 wt.% Cr at room temperature to complete solubility above ~820°C.

 

Iron

Chromium

1. Atomic size:

0.124 nm

0.125 nm

2. Crystal structure

bcc

bcc

3. Electronegativity

1.8

1.6

4. Valences (bold: most common)*

+2, +3

+2, +3, +6

*Other sources (e.g., Sargent and Welch periodic table) indicate the most common valence of Fe is +3.

(b) Chromium is actually more anodic than iron, -0.744 V (Cr 3+ ) versus -0.440 V (Fe 2+ ) or -0.036 V (Fe 3+ )

– standard reduction potentials – which at first might seem surprising since adding chromium to iron makes the alloy more corrosion resistance.

(c)

The chromium effect is mainly to increase scale (reaction product) adhesion so the alloy passivates.

(d)

Nickel is more cathodic (inert) than iron, so adding Ni reduces the overall tendency for oxidation

(corrosion).

© 2010 KPTrumble

3. (a) Food Cans

Zinc prevents corrosion of Fe even if the coating is breached (say if the can is badly dented), but goes into solution if sufficiently acidic, contaminating the food. This may only be a problem if the can is open and oxygen absorbed from the air provides a cathode reaction. Tin protects from corrosion only if not scratched to expose Fe. It is less anodic than Zn and exhibits less dissolution into most foodstuffs, but is also much more expensive than Zn.

(b) Outdoor Fencing

No problem with contamination as in food cans. Zinc is best, for it is anodic with respect to Fe. Tin protects as long as the integrity of its film is preserved—unlikely in this application. Also, tin is much more expensive.

4. (a) PTFE, Nylon 6,6, PEEK, PET are listed as "S" = Satisfactory in non-polar solvents (Epoxy is also

rated S, but is not a thermoplastics)

(b) Of the four thermoplastics having satisfactory non-polar solvent resistance, only PTFE has adequate

toughness at -20°C, as indicated by the glass transition temperature:

 

Tg (°C)

PTFE

-97

Nylon 6,6

57

PEEK

143

PET

69

5. The silicone does not have a double bond in its structure, unlike most of the other elastomers, which is

the main point of attack in the reactions that lead to weathering.

Also the – Si – O – Si – O – Si – O – backbone of the silicone rubber molecule is more oxidation resistant (it’s already an oxide, so to speak) than the – C – C – C – C – C – C – backbone of isobutylene and especially the – C – C = C – C – C – C = C – C – backbone of the other elastomers.