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TEACHING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE BY USING INDICATIVE STRATEGY TO THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF THE SENIOR HIGH

SCHOOL 2 OF ULU MUSI 1. Background In Indonesia English is taught as compulsory subject to high-school students and college students. At some elementary school, English has been introduced as a local content subject to their fourth grade pupils. The objective of teaching English to Indonesian students is that the students are able to communicate in English both orally and in writing. To achieve the objective, the students should have the four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. Besides, to support their language skills, the students should master the language components, such as pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. Grammar is one of the language components that the students should master. Grammar is a linguistic description of a particular language, a set of statements or rules that explain how the language works (Calderonnello, 1986:481). It is important to master grammar because person who has a good grammar mastery would be able to understand utterances/sentences produced by other people and to produce grammatical utterances/sentences understood to other people. One English grammar that is taught to the second grade students at senior high school is passive voice. Passive voice is the original receiver, the action the grammatical subject, and the original doer of the action. There are two special form called voice (Marcella, 1972:55), they are:

1. Active Voice 2. Passive Voice


1) The active voice is the normal voice. This is the voice that we use most

of the time. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb, for example: *Cat eat fish. 2) The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb. The object of the verb becomes the subject of the passive verb, for example: Fish is eaten by cat. The form of the voice especially the passive, is not easy to be understood by the students. The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the normal voice, but sometimes we need the passive voice. In this case the teacher should give instruction to the students how to construct the passive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it. The indicative strategy represents a more modern style of teaching where the new grammatical structures or rules are presented to the students in a real language context (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135). Indicative grammar teaching is based on trial and error, experiments. The students learn from trying different things, seeing what works and what does not. Through experimenting, they figure out the grammatical rules. The

indicative strategy is also known as the discovery learning approach where lesson begin by the teacher providing examples to demonstrate how the language is employed. In doing so, the students derive the rule by themselves and the

language is practised in further activities (Thornbury, Scott, 2006, p.29-48).

Based on the above statement, the writer intended to conduct a study to find out whether or not indicative strategy is effective in teaching active and passive voice to the students. The reason for choosing this topic, because the writer experienced to see most of the students of Senior High School faced difficulties in learning passive voice. For example when they have to change the active sentence in present tense, they still put the verb in active form and also they do not understand in changing the be form of the voice. Using indicative strategy might help them of overcome the problem in learning English grammar. For this study the writer would like to use the second grade students of SMA Negeri 2 of Ulu Musi as the sample of this study. This study would be entitled Teaching Active and Passive Voice by Using Indicative Strategy to the Second Grade Students of the State Senor High School 2 of Ulu Musi. 2. Problem It is understandable that grammar plays an important role in learning English Language. Having a good, command of the language means not only to master the four language skills of reading, waiting, listening and speaking but also to achieve grammatical competence. When students face problems in acquiring the language, teacher should make an attempt to male their lessons as interesting as possible and not resort to the traditional chalk and talk method, which can be dull, and predominantly teacher centered. This study tried to find out whether indicative strategy has effects on the students learning of the use of the structure especially active and passive voice, through practice of the language in context of expressing the meaning in various
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language system, orally and accurately in the context of daily need in identifying the subject of a sentence and then forming the pattern of active voice and its changing into passive voice in the form of positive, negative and interrogative. The students then understand to construct the active and passive voice with in correct sentences.

2.1 Limitation of the Problem The study is limited in the following points; 1) The grammar that will be taught to the students are the active and passive voice in the Simple Present Tense and Simple Past Tense, through the practice of the language in context of expressing of daily need in a report text, narrative and analytical exposition, and letter realize the rules of changing of the verb, the verb form of the active and passive voice in the Simple Present Tense and Simple Past Tense from the practical examples. 2) The learners learn from trying different things, seeing what works and what does not thorough experimenting they figure out the grammatical rules especially active and passive voice. 3) The verb that will be taught to the students are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Go Walk See Take Give 6. Ask 7. bring 8. Buy 9. Visit 10. Make 11. Attack 12. Be 13. Guide 14. Guard 15. Watch 16. Serve 17. Tell 18. eat 19. Say 20. Tell 21. Sings 22. Steal 23. Tear 24. Sit 25. Kill 26. Pay 27. Stay 28. Leave 29. Put 30. Stir

2.2 Formulation of the Problem This study is formulated in the following Is it effective to teach active and passive voice by using indicative strategy to the second grade students of the State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi?

3. Objective of the Study The objective of the Study is to find out the effectiveness of indicative strategy in teaching active and passive voice to the second year students of of the State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi?

4. Significance of the Study The significance of this study emphasized on the following points: (1) To the writer This study would increase her knowledge to know how the active and passive voice is taught to the students by using indicative strategy is tested and how to measure their achievement. (2) To the Teacher By giving the written test using indicative strategy, the writer expects, it would encourage their students to learn English grammar, so that from now on they can self-access study on it and the indicative strategy can be the supplementary material for classroom now. (3) To the Students For the second year students of the State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi, they are expected to keep on learning English grammar correctly by following the indicative strategy rules, as they should be. In addition, this study may attract them to learn the grammar of English better. (4) To the Institution

This study could be one of the informative references, so by doing the indicative strategy, the students grammar would be better. 5. Literature Review This part will present (1) the concept of teaching, (2) the concept of active and passive voice, (3) the concept of grammar, (4) the concept of indicative strategy, and (5) related previous study

5.1 The Concept of Teaching Teaching is profession conducted by using a combination of an art, science and skill. It is an art because it relies on the teachers creative provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her students. It is science since it is a system, an ordered set of ideas and methods used by the teachers in doing their main jobs: planning a lesson, implementing the plan in the classroom and evaluating the outcomes of the activities. It is skill because it demands the ability attained from relevant theories and practice to assist students expertly in learning so that they are able to gain linguistic and communicative competence in the target language (Saleh, 1997:16). While Brown (1994) states teaching is showing or helping some one to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand. Base on the definition above, the writer can conclude that the meaning of teaching is a process of a transferring knowledge from someone to another one in order to make people know or understand about something. For example, in this
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case teacher will be transfer about active and passive voice by using indicative strategy to her students.

5.2 The Concept of Active and Passive Voice (Wren and Martin, 1982:91) give definition that the active and passive voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive. The need to make a particular word the subject of the sentence will often determine which voice is to be used. The active voice is the normal voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. The voice is used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is performing the action or causing the happening denoted by the verb. We are probably already familiar with the active voice. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb, for example:

subject

verb

object >

active Cats Everybody eat drinks

fish. water

The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice the subject receives the action of the verb. The voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the cource) of the action denoted by the verb, for example:

subject passive Fish

verb < are eaten

object

by cats.

The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb: subject active passive Everybody Water verb drinks is drunk object water. by everybody.

5.2.1 Construction of the Passive Voice The structure of the passive voice is very simple (Wren and Martin, 1982:92): subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle). The main verb is always in its past participle form. Look at these examples: subject Water 100 people I We Are auxiliary verb (to be) is are am are they main verb (past participle) drunk employed paid not paid paid by everyone. by this company. in euro. in dollars. in yen?

Use of the Passive Voice We use the passive when:


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we want to make the active object more important we do not know the active subject subject verb object by Lee Harvey Oswald.

give importance to active object (President Kennedy)

President Kennedy

was killed

active subject unknown

My wallet

has been stolen.

Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats). Look at this sentence: - He was killed with a gun. Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer". In this study, the tenses of active and passive voice that will be taught to the students are in Simple Present Tense and Simple Past Tense.

5.3 The Concept of Grammar Grammar is defined by Ur (1992:4) as the way language manipulates, and combines words (or bit words) in order to form longer units of meaning. Thos

definition is quite close to the common understanding of what grammar is. The main difference is that it tells us how the rules of language actually work- they arrange and shape words. Nevertheless, knowing what these rules di is not a very motivating factor alone. Crystal (2004:5) says, Grammar is the structural

foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way and others we use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. Additionally, it can help

everyone, not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything for all teaching grammar is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning. Maugham (1938:176) adds, It is necessary to know grammar, and it is better to write grammatically than not, but it is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated. Usage is the only test. As it can be seen from the above definitions, grammar is not an unimportant set of rules that can be ignored without consequences. It is a very complex phenomenon and even though learners may find it difficult thing to master, the time devoted to is that is certainly not wasted. Making students realize it, however, is only the first step in teaching grammar, and the following activities can take many different forms, based on a selected approach and method.

5.4 The Concept of Indicative Strategy An indicative strategy is a strategy to study the grammar through the practice of writing the sentence and then forming the sentence in the correct

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grammar guided by the teacher and then practice by themselves about the sentence, expressing the verb forms, and forming active and passive in correct pattern (Felder & Henriques1995). Indicative approach can also be called rulediscovery learning. The teacher presents the examples of the active and passive sentences and explains to the students the meaning, the pattern and the use of the structure, then the students discovering grammar rules while working through exercises of active and passive voice. In this sense, learners understand grammatical rules from the examples.
The presentation of grammatical rules can be spoken or written. Eisenstein (cited in Long & Richards, 1987) maintains that the indicative approach tries to utilize the very strong reward value of bringing order, clarity and meaning to experiences. This approach involves learners participating actively in their own instruction. In addition, the approach encourages a learner to develop her/his own mental set of strategies for dealing with tasks. In other words, this approach attempts to highlight grammatical rules implicitly in which the learners are encouraged to conclude the rules given by the teacher.

The main purpose of teaching grammar at the undergraduate level is to provide remediation as there is not much new grammar to be taught at this level. As said before, since the students are not able to produce grammatically correct sentences in connected texts, there is a need to make a journey from the teaching of formal grammar to the teaching of functional grammar. It must be remembered that the ultimate aim of teaching grammar at the undergraduate level is to enable students to take part in communicative interaction and so an attempt that must be made to bring grammar closer to students life. Context plays a very significant role in the teaching of grammar. Topics that can give an opportunity to the

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students to practice a particular grammatical item must be given and students can be motivated to speak on those topics. The following examples reveal how a teacher can move from the teaching of formal grammar to the teaching of functional grammar: After teaching the simple past tense, students can be asked to speak on topics like The Happiest Day of My Life or The First Day of My Colledge.
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After discussing the rules of the active-passive voice, the teacher can ask students to write a paragraph on How is tea prepared at home.

5.4.1 Teaching Active and Passive Voice by Using Indicative Strategy According to Krashen (1993:33-44) offers steps in teaching active and passive voice by using indicative strategy, which can be roughly characterized as the following four steps: STEP 1: Students are given a representative set of passive voice. - Students are given a mixed group of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences regarding the use of the active and passive voice, as exemplified: a. Cats eat fish (active) b. *Cats eats fish c. Fish is eaten by cats (passive) d. *Fish is eat by cat STEP 2: Students are asked to generalize active and passive forms. sentences about active and

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Students are asked to produce or generalize a grammatical rule from the active and passive sentences to account for both its grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. Based on their grammatical judgments about the two sentences students would formulate a tentative grammatical rule which governs the use of the active and passive voice. STEP 3: Students are asked to check and test the active and passive sentence. Students are asked to check and test the rule of the voice sentence involving the use of the active and passive, and to find out whether this grammatical rule can be applied in the sentence. STEP 4: Students are asked to revise the grammatical rule of the voice accommodate the new sentences. The students check the result of the sentence, and check whether the sentence is grammatical or not. This steps involves learners participating actively in their own instruction. In addition, the approach encourages students to develop her/his own mental set of strategies for dealing with tasks. In other words, this approach attempts to highlight grammatical rules implicitly in which the students are encouraged to conclude the rules given by the teacher. to

5.3.1 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Indicative Strategy (Krasen, 1993:33-44) The inductive approach offers advantages and disadvantages as seen in the Table 1 below.

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TABLE 2
THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INDICATIVE STRATEGY

5.4 Related Previous Study There are quite many theses discussed about pronunciation and songs, but the writer will take only one thesis which closely related to this thesis with the tide "Efektivitas Penggunaan Lembar Kerja Siswa pada Pokok Bahasan Passive Voice dan Active Voice untuk Siswa Kelas VII MTs NU 01 Kramat Kabupaten Tegal

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Tahun 2009/2010", written by Rosita, Imut Diah in 2010. The objective is to find out to know whether using media of Work Sheet to Student has positive effect on structure ability Passive Voice and Active Voice for Students at Class VII MTs NU 01 Kramat Tegal Regency in Academic Year 2009/2010. The research result shows on degree significance of 5% (0,05), there is significance difference between mastery in English Writing skill of student who are taught by using work sheet of student, and those who are taught without using work sheet of Student at MTs. The result of ttest is 6,5254 and t-table is 2,021. So, it is higher than t-table. The similarities and differences are found, they arc: 1) The similarities are: a. Both talked about active and passive for the topic of the study. 2) The Differences arc: a. The previous thesis was Written in 2010 while the writer in 2011 b. The previous thesis used the work sheet media to know its effect on the students structure ability passive voice and active voice c. The previous thesis population was 120 students and the samples was 40 students, the writers' population was 70 from two classes and the sample will be all with one class as the experiment and the other class as the control group. d. The previous study used the true experimental method while the writer will use experimental method. 6. Hypotheses In relation to the objective of the study as mentioned above, the writer formulates the following two hypotheses.

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Ho : It is not effective teaching active and passive voice to the the second grade students of the State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi. HA : It is effective teaching active and passive voice to the the second grade students of the State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi. 7. Criteria for Testing the Hypotheses For testing the hypotheses formulated above, the writer will use critical value of the students of the t-test distribution table (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:272). Due to the fact that the writer will use 35 pairs students as the sample of the study, and the degree of freedom (df) was 34 (35-l ), therefore to accept the alternative hypotheses with 0.5% significance the writer will use the t-distribution table (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:272) with one tailed test, the result of the matched t-test oft-obtained should exceed 1.684. If the t-table is lower or smaller than 1.684, the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted and the alternative is rejected. On the other hand, if the result of the ttable is higher than 1.684, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted (Hatch and Farhady , 1982:272). 8.2 Research Variables A variable is a type of concept that can take or different values or have categories, such as tree, house, desk, teacher creativity, and school. There are two kinds of variables in this study: independent variable and dependent variable. The independent variable is a variable which influences other variables and come first, such as teaching method, teacher behavior, methods of instruction curriculum, individual characteristics, SES (Social Economy Status) and peer group behavior.
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Dependent variable is the one that is affected by or predicted by the independent variable, such as achievement attitudes, values, self concept, a social development (Dane, i990:22) In this study, the independent variable of the research is the teaching media that is songs and pictures, and the dependent variable is the students' vocabulary achievement. 8.3 Operational Definitions The title of this study is "Teaching Active and Passive Voice by Using Indicative Strategy to the Second Grade Students the State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi. From the title of this study, the dependent variable is students' grammar achievement and the independent variables is indicative strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the terms used. In this study, in order to avoid misunderstanding in writing, the writer tried to find out the key words relating with this title. They are teaching, active and passive voice, and indicative strategy. 1) "Teaching" is the teacher's activities in transferring knowledge or skill to he/his students. This study will teach active and passive voice by using indicative strategy 2). "active voice is the subject of the sentence performs the action denoted by the verb, and passive voice is in which the subject of a sentence or clause denotes the recipient of the action rather than the performer. 3) "Indicative strategy" is.the strategy for teaching the students learn the use of the structure through practice of the language in context, and later realize the rules from the practical examples.

8.4 Population and Sample

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8.4.1 Population According to Arikunto (1993:2), population is all research subjects." The population of this study will be all of the second year students of the state Senior High school 2 of Ulu Musi, in the academic year of 2010/2011. The number of the population is 105. There are three classes in the population as follows:

TABLE 2 THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY No. 1 2 3 Class VIII.1 VIII.2 VIII.3 Total Total Students 25 25 25 75

Source: The State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi in the academic year 2011/2012

8.4.2 Sample According to Arikunto (1993:104) sample is a part of the population that will be investigated. Because of the limited of time and the suggestion from the headmaster, the writer will used purposive sampling to take the sampling. Purposive sampling is one of the most common strategies, groups, participants according to preselected criteria relevant to a particular reserch question (Bernard: 1995:205). The sample of this study is only one class that is class 11.1, which consisted of 25 students. It could be seen in table 3. TABLE 3 THE SAMPLE OF THE STUDY No. 1 Class VIII.1 Total Total Students 25 25

Source: The State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi in the academic year 2011/2012

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8.5 Techniques for Collecting the Data In teaching active and passive voice by using indicative strategy, the writer will only use one technique that is a test. The writer will give a pre-test and posttest in teaching active and passive voice to the students by using indicative strategy. The test will be 30 questions which 15 items of active and passive voice in the form of multiple choices, changing sentences, and sentence completion, in the Simple Present and Past Tense.

8.5.1 Validity The most important variable in edging the adequacy of a measurement is its validity. Validity refers to extent to which the result of an evaluation procedure serves the particular uses for which they are intended to measure (see Tinambunan, 1988:11). It can be said, for example, a ruler is used to measure height, watches to measure time and scales to measure weight. There are three types of validity: content validity, criterion related validity, and construct validity. However, the most important concern for the classroom achievement testing is content validity (Tinambunan, 1988:12-13). Therefore, the discussion is focused on content validity. The test item will be specified in table 3. TABLE 3 TEST SPECIFICATION
Objective To measure the students achievement to answer the grammar Indicators Material The students Active and are able to Passive answer the Voice questions by using 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Content of the Test Number of items Item Go 16. serve 1 10 Multiple Walk 17. tell Choice See 18. eat Take 19. say Give 20. buy

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indicative strategy

11-20 6. Ask 21. sing 7. Hide 22. steal 8. Bring 23. tear 9. Visit 24. sit 10. Make 25. kill 21-30

Changing sentences

11.
pay

Attack Help Guide Guard

26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Sentence Completion

12.
put

13.
stay

14.
stir

15.

Watch drive

3.4 Reliability of the Test Reliability is a measure of degree to which test gives consistent result. Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:149) say that for the research purposes, a usual clue is that reliability should be at least 0.70 and preferably higher. formula was used in testing reliability.
KR 21 = K M (K M ) 1 K 1 K ( SD 2 )

The following

(Fraenkel and Wallen, 1993:149) Where: KR 21 K M SD = Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient, = Number of Items in the Test = The Number of the Students Correct Answers = Standard Deviation of the Set of Test Scores

( x x )
The Formula is: SD=
N

(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:59) Where: SD = Standar Deviation

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X
X

= The Number of the Students Correct Answers = The Average Number of the Correct Answers = The Number of the Students

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

TABLE 4 THE STUDENTS SCORES IN THE TRY-OUT TEST Number of Items Number of Correct Answers (X) 30 11 -7,4 30 12 -6,4 30 13 -5,4 30 15 -5,4 30 17 -4,4 30 17 -4,4 30 18 -3,4 30 1 -3,4 30 11 -2,4 30 11 -2,4 30 11 -2,4 30 12 -1,4 30 12 -1,4 30 12 -1,4 30 13 -0,4 30 13 -0,4 30 14 -0,4 30 14 0,6 30 16 0,6 30 16 0,6 30 17 1,6 30 17 1,6 30 18 1,6 30 18 2,6 30 19 2,6 505

54,76 40,96 54,76 54,76 19,36 19,36 11,55 11,55 5,76 5,76 5,76 1,95 1,95 1,95 0,16 0,16 0,16 0,36 0,36 0,36 2,56 2,56 2,56 6,76 6,76 183.04

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Average

505 = 35

= 13.9

( x x )
SD = = =
N

183 .04 25
1 .1 4 6

= 2,70

KR 21 =

K M (K M ) 1 K 1 K ( SD 2 )
30 13 .9(30 13 .9) 1 30 1 30 ( 2.70 2 ) 30 29 13 .9(16 .1) 1 30 (7.29 )

1 = 1.03

483 218 .7

= 1.05 [1 0.28515 ] = 1.05 [0.71485 ] = 0.75 The reliability coefficient of the test material is 0.75,it was suitable for the eighth grade students of the State Junior High School 3 of Lais MUBA. It means that the test material is reliable to be used as the test instrument for collecting data.

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3.5 Techniques for Analyzing the Data There will be two kinds of techniques in analyzing the data, they are: 1) Percentage Analysis The data obtained from the test will be analyzed by using percentage analysis. The percentage analysis formula is as follows:
X = R 100 % TXN

Where: X = Score of Percentage Result R = Total Number of Correct Answer T = Number of Sample N = Number of Test Items In order to get the percentage scores the total of students' choices divided by the total number of the sample students and multiplied by 100%. The criteria are as follows: Ranges 9.6 10 8.6 9.5 7.6 8.5 6.6 7.5 5.6 6.6 0 5.5 Category Excellent Very Good Good Sufficient Poor Very Poor

Source: The State Senior High School 2 of Ulu Musi in the academic year 2011/2012

2) T-Test

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The test is probably the most widely used statistical for the comparison of two means (Arikunto, 2002:267), there are several kinds of t-test, but we can choose a suitable depending on the case concerned. To know the significant difference between the students achievement in the experimental group and that in the control group, the independent t-test was applied. T-test was done to find out the homogeneity the result of the test. The formula is as follow:
t= X1 X2
1 S1 S2 + 2 N1 N 2

S=

n. fx12 ( fx1 ) n( n 1)

T
X1 X
2

The value of t obtained = Mean of the Experimental Group = Mean of the Control Group = The Number of Students in the Experimental Group = The Number of Students in the Control Group = Standard Deviation

N1 N2 S

(Sudjana, 1986:232)

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[1] William F. Mackey, Language Teaching Analysis, (London: Longman, Green and Co. Ltd, 1966), p. 138. Nancy Thuleen, "The Grammar-Translation Method." The article is accessed on April 26th, 2007 at http://www.nthuleen.com/papers/720report.html Diane Larsen-Freeman, Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 18

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