Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) 1. Mode of Operation: Usually automatic but it can be semi-automatic. 2.

Principle of Operation: Granular flux & bare solid wire is used. Arc is subme rged hence no visible sign of arc. Arc melts the electrodewire, flux & some base metal to form weldpuddle. 3. Basic equipment requ irements: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) Transformer / rectifier (constant voltage( flat )characteristic) Head/Hose assembly Power return cable Wire feed unit Flux hopper / delivery / recovery system Run on/off tabs Tractor carriage Fume extraction.

4. Arc Striking: Wire contact is made by the advancement of the wire by bmechanical drive. 5. Arc & Weld shielding: Granular flux uses to generate protective gases & slag, & to addalloying element s to the weld pool. 6. Weld refining & cleaning: Refining & cleaning compounds within the flux 7. Process variable parameters: a) OCV (Open Circuit Voltage): Required to initiate or re-ignite the electr ic arc. b) Arc Voltage: Changes with arc length. Arc is submerged any changes in ar c length will change in weld metal composition . c) Current / WFS (Wire Feed Speed): Increasing the wire feed speed automati cally increases the current in the wire. d) Polarity: AC/DC +/- . e) Flux type & size: (i) Fused fluxes: acidic type. (ii) Agglomerated fluxes (Bonded fluxes): basic type. The shape of the flux is granular f) Electrode wire type & diameter: High quality wire in 2.4 6 mm diameter i n coils. Large diameter reduces penetration. g) Electrode wire / flux specification: Composition & grading is selected t o suit the electrode & parent metal. h) Wire Feed Speed( WFS): Increasing the wire feed speed automatically incr eases the current in the wire. 8) Consumables: High quality drawn wire & granular flux. i) a. (ii) Typical welding imperfections: Centerline cracks : Deep & narrow welds. Shrinkage cavities: caused by a weld depth / width ration of > 3/2 9) )Advantages a)High productivity b)No visible arc light Disadvantages Restricted in positional welding Variable compositions (Arc length)

10) a. b.

Positional Capabilities: Flat only, but may be H/V butt welds. TUNGSTEN INERT GAS (TIG) WELDING PROCESS 1) Mode of Operation: Manual but can be semi-automatic operation: Small diameter solid wire and shielding gas (ine arc is produced between a non-consumable electrode (tungste Operator must control the arc length & also add filler meta if needed.

2) Principle of rt gas) is used. The n) & the work piece. l into the weld pool 3) a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Basic equipment requirements: Transformer / Rectifier (constant current (drooping) characteristic) Head / Hose assembly. Power return cable. Torch head assembly Gas cylinder, hoses, regulators, flow meter. Visor with lens. Fume extraction.

4) Arc Striking : The arc striking (scratch start) the core wire onto the plate and withdrawing cause contamination of the tungsten and weld metal to wor k on this high frequency arc is used cause interference. To work on this, lift arc is used where the electrode is touched on to the plate & is withdrawn slightl y. 5) Arc and Weld Shielding: Inert gas (pure argon & helium) is used to shi eld arc & weld. Gas cut-off delay is used to shield weld metal at the end of a r un. 6) Weld refining & Cleaning: Very clean high quality drawn wire is used.

7) Process variable parameters: a) Voltage : Changes with change in arc length & type of gas being used. b) Current : Changes with change in tungsten diameter. Slope in & slope out controls the current at the start & end of the weld. c) Polarity : DC ve for steels. AC for Aluminum. d) Inert Gas type: Pure gases argon & helium are used. Nitrogen added for c opper welding. Mixture (Arg+Heli) gives good gas cover & penetration. e) Gas Flow rate : Should be correct for given joint design & position as g iven in approved welding procedures. f) Purging : Purging gas pure argon used to reduce atmospheric root oxidati on. g) Tungsten type : Thoriated tungsten for DC and zirconated tungsten for AC . Too fine vertex angle will melt the tungsten tip. With AC, the tungsten end is chamfered & forms a ball end during aluminum welding 8) Consumable : High quality drawn wire & inert gas (pure argon or helium o r mixture of both) 9) Typical imperfection: a) Tungsten inclusions: Caused by a lack of welder skill, too high current & incorrect vertex angle. b) Crater pipes : Caused by poor weld finish technique or incorrect use of

current decay. c) Weld/root oxidation : If using insufficient gas cut-off delay or purge p ressure. 10) Advantages: a) High quality weld b) All positional c) Low inner run cleaning 11) a) b) c) 12) Disadvantages: Small range of consumables. High ozone levels. Low productivity Positional capabilities: All positional.

Manual Metal Arc Process (MMA) 1) Mode of Operation : Manual 2) Principle of Operation: Arc is struck between short flux bonded metal el ectrode & the work piece. Both the electrode & work piece surface melt to form a weld pool. Simultaneously melting of flux coating on the rod will form a gas & slag which protects the weld pool from the surrounding atmosphere. One of the we ld run is completed the slag must be chipped off. 3) Basic Equipment requirement: a) Transformer rectifier (constant current (dropping) characteristic) b) Power / Power return cables c) Electrode holders. d) Visor with lens e) Electrode f) Electrode oven (bakes up to 350 C) g) Holding oven (temp. up to 200 C) 4) Arc striking: The arc is struck by striking the electrode on the surface of t he plate & withdrawing it a small distance. Maintain short, constant arc length. 5) Weld refining & cleaning : Refining & cleaning compounds within the bonded fl ux. 6) Process variable parameters: a) OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) Requirement to initiate or re-ignite the arc & change with type of electrode being used. Arc voltage changes with change in a rc length. b) Current : Type & value of current will be determined by the choice of el ectrode classification, diameter, material type, thickness & welding position. c) Polarity : AC/DC+/- (Electrode + or - & polarity reversible or straight) or electrode coating being used. d) Full electrode specification & diamter : Should be correctly written on electrode & electrode box. e) Electrode pre-use: Basic coated electrodes (i) should be baked at 350 C f or 1 Hr. (ii) Held in holding ovens at 150 C (iii) Finally in a heated quiver (ar ound 70 C0 with welder for welding. f) Speed of travel: High dependant on the skill of a welder. 7) Consumables: Core solid wire between 350 & 450mm & 2.5-6mm diameter, covered with bonded flux coating core wire generally low quality steel. Electrodes are g rouped depending on the main constituent in their flux coating. The common group s arc Basic Calcium carbonate & calcium fluoride (Electrode no. ending with5,6&8) Cellulosic Cellulose (Electode no. ending with 0 &1) Rutile Titania (Electrode no. ending with 2,3, &4) 8) Typical imperfections: i) Slag inclusions : Poor welding technique & insufficient inter run cle aning.

ii) Hydrogen cracks : Incorrect electrode type or baking procedure. 9) Advantages: i) Range of consumables. ii) All positional. 10) Disadvantages i) High level of generated fumes. ii) Hydrogen control iii) Positional capabilities : All positional but depend on consumable tpe.

Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding Process or Metal Active Gas (MAG) Welding Process 1. Mode of Operation : Semi-automatic 2. Principle of Operation : Copper coated or uncoated small diamter solid co ntinuous wire from a spool & shielding gas (Argon + Co2) is used. Arc is produce d between a metal electrode wire & the work piece to form a weld pool. 3. Basic equipment requirements: a) Transformer / Rectifier (constant voltage (flat) characteristic) b) Head / hose assembly c) Wire liner d) Power return cable e) Wire feed unit, wire spool f) Gas cylinder, hoses, regulators, flow meter g) Visor with lens h) Fume extraction. 4. Arc Striking: The arc is struck in three different metal transfer modes. i) Dip transfer : The wire short circuits the arc & the molten metal formin g on the wire is transferred by the wire dipping into the weld pool. ii) Spray transfer : The wire does not make contact with the weld pool. The molt en metal at the tip of the wire transfers to the weld pool in the form of spray of small droplets. iii) Pulsed transfer : Uses pulses of current to fire a single global of metal a cross the arc gap. 5. Arc & Weld shielding : Cylinder fed inert / active gas shield for arc & weld. 6. Weld refining & cleaning : Very clean, high quality drawn wire. 7. Process variable parameters: a) OCV (Open Circuit Voltage): Require to initiate or re-ignite the arc. De pend on type of gas being used & type of transfer achievable. b) Current /Wire feed speed (WFS): Increasing the wire feed speed automatic ally increases the current in the wire. c) Polarity : DC ve (Electrode positive Reversible) d) Gas type : Mixture of argon & Co2 (5-20%) to get good penetration, stabl e arc, very little spatter. e) Gas flow rate : Adequate to give good coverage over solidifying & molten metal to avoid oxidation & porosity. f) Inductance: Causes a backpressure of voltage to occur in the wire & oper ates only when there is a change in current. Reduce level of spatter. g) Electrode diameter: (Generally produced in 0.6/0.8/0.1/1.2/1.4&1.6mm dia meter. h) Contact tip/drive roller & liner sizes: Both should be of correct size f or the wire being used. Loss in contact between the wire & contact tip will redu ce current pick. Contact tip should be replaced regularly. The drive roller pres sure is only hand tight just to drive the wire. Liner should be of correct type & size for the wire. i) Wire Feed Speed (WFS) : Incrasing the wire feed speed automatically incr eases the current in the wire.

8. Consumables : High quality drawn wire & inert active gas. 9. Typical imperfections: i) Burn through : Incorrect metal transfer mode. ii) Solica inclusions : Caused by poor inter run cleaning. 10. Advantages: i) Material thickness range ii) High productivity (o/f) iii) Continuous electrode 11. Disadvantages i) Small range of consumables ii) High ozone levels iii) Protection for site working. 12. Positional Capabilities: Dip All positional Spray Flat only Pulse All positional.