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Biology VII

Lilit Rusyati, S.Pd.

January, 2010 Created by Biology Teacher lilit_roesyati@yahoo.co.id/www.lilitrusyati.blogspot.com

A. Level of Biodiversity
Variety of living things, number of kinds. Ecosystem diversity
different habitats, niches, species interactions.

Species diversity
different kinds of organisms, relationships among species.

Genetic diversity
different genes & combinations of genes.

B. Biodiversity in Indonesia
1. The riches of floras in Indonesia - DR. Sampurno Kadarsan a. The wet tropical forest b. The seasonal forest c. The savanna forest land d. The steppe 2. The riches of faunas in Indonesia - Wallace & Weber

1. The wet tropical forest/tropical rain forest

Tropical forests are characterized by the greatest diversity of species. They occur near the equator. Tropical rain forests are highly common in Africa, Asia, Central America, South America and on many Pacific Islands. Temperature is on average 20-25 C and varies little throughout the year: the average temperatures of the three warmest and three coldest months do not differ by more than 5 degrees. Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm. Soil is nutrient-poor and acidic. Decomposition is rapid and soils are subject to heavy leaching. Canopy in tropical forests is multilayered and continuous, allowing little light penetration. Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. Trees are 25-35 m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves. Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines (lianas), ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests. Fauna include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.

2. The seasonal forest

The seasonal forests can be found in India, South East Asia, West Africa, the West Indies and Northern Australia. They are located between the tropical rain forests and the tropical savannas.
Teak tree Characteristics of the seasonal forest : 1. These forests have a distinct wet and dry season. They have fewer climbing plants than the tropical rain forests. 2. Many species are deciduous in eastern North America, western Europe and Asia. They grow well in areas that have wet and dry seasons. The trees shed their leaves in the dry season. The trees are not close together. 3. The oldest trees in the tropical seasonal forest are the bristle cone pines. They are believed be more than 4600 years old. 4. Trees in the tropical seasonal forests tend to be larger than trees in eastern Canadian forests. They grow to heights of 100 feet (30 metres). 5. Monkeys and frogs, spiders, kangaroos, koalas and rabbits live in the tropical seasonal forest.

3. The savanna forest land

A savanna, or savannah, is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. It is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees, however in many savanna communities tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forest communities. Savannas are also characterized by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall being confined to one season of the year. Savannas can be associated with several types of biomes. Savannas are frequently seen as a transitional zone, occurring between forest and desert or prairie. Savannas cover 20% of the globe not including oceans. The largest amount of Savannah is in Africa.

4. The steppe
Steppe-tundra is a sparse dry-climate vegetation type which was widespread during Pleistocene times at mid-latitudes of North America and Eurasia, but no longer exists today. The characteristics of steppe-tundra are inferred indirectly from knowledge of the habitat preferences of the individual plant species that were present in this vegetation, and from related zoological and sedimentological evidence. The terms steppe and tundra tend to imply a dense sward with organic-rich soils, and so in this sense the term is misleading. For convenience, the steppe-tundra can be divided into two types, a more 'steppe-like' variant and a more 'tundra-like' variant. For the tundra-like vegetation, analogies have been drawn with a treeless vegetation that presently occurs in scattered patches on well drained south-facing hillslopes in north-eastern Siberia, although the modern-day equivalent is thought to have too dense a ground cover of vegetation.[2] Ground cover amounted to no more than about 50%, with mainly herbaceous plants but a few scattered low shrubs and occasional stunted trees in sheltered spots. Peat accumulation would have been negligible, and the soil would have had a much lower organic content than most present-day tundra such as Ubsunur Hollow .[1] The more steppe-like variant, containing a higher proportion of steppic species, would seem if anything to have had an even sparser vegetation cover. The best analogy would be with semidesert transitional steppes that occur today at the northern fringes of the central Asian desert. The steppe-tundra supported grazing megafauna such as bison, horses, and mammoths.

1. The Spreading of Fauna in the West Indonesian Region (Asiatis type)

Many found the kind of big mammal, except pocked mammal. The diversity of colorful bird is very low. Found the kinds of monkeys (primitive primate), mainly in Kalimantan. Found endemic mammal, such as one horned rhinoceros, two horned rhinoceros, orang utan, bear, cat, siamang, tarsius, bekantan, and kukang. Found endemic bird, such as jalak bali bird, white eagle, red forest chicken, and the chicken pegar salvadori.

2. The Spreading of Fauna in the East Indonesian Region (Australis type)

Many poucked mammals (marsupials) are found, while big mammals are rarely raterary found. The diversity of colorful birds is very high. No species of monkeys (primitive primates) are found. Highly endemic animals, such as marsupials, Cendrawasih birds, Komodo dragons, Cuscus, Deer-hogs, Anoa, Butterflies, Macaca, Maleo birds, Lemur, and Musang Celebes can be found in this area.

C. Benefits of Biodiversity
1. Ecological Ecosystem functions Ecosystem services
Cleaning water, habitat & breeding areas for wildlife

2. Economic
New food sources : Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish

3. Culture

4. Science Medicines
Plants Jellyfish & sea anemones Nudibranchs

How much biodiversity ?

1.72.0 million species Estimates to 100 million

D. Threats to Biodiversity
Extinction and population reductions
Hunting and overharvesting
Tiger Dodo Whales Sharks

Habitat loss

Extinction and population reductions

Pollution Climate change Invasive species

E. Conservation of Biodiversity
1. In situ - Reservation of biodiversity done in the original living place (its habitat). - Ex : Gunung Leuseur National Park (Sumatra), Kerinci Seblat National Park (Sumatra), Way Kambas National Park (Sumatra), Tanjung Putting National Park (Kalimantan), Ujung Kulon Natinal Park (Java), Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park (Java), Baluran National Park (Java), Lore Lindu National Park (Celebes), Morowali National Park (Celebes), Komodo National Park (small Sundanese), Tangkoko Batuangus Natural Reservation (Celebes), Lorentz Natural Reservation (Irian Jaya), Wasur Natural Reservation (Irian Jaya).

2. Ex situ - Reservation of biodiversity (plants and animals) by exclusion from their habitat and keeping them in another place. - Collection garden, germ plasm garden, botanical garden, the storage in cold temperature chambers, the zoo. - Ex : Medan zoo (North Sumatra), Asam Kumbang Crocodile Park in Medan (North Sumatra), Mini Zoo in Lahat (South Sumatra), Pematang Siantar Zoological Park (north Sumatra), Kinantan Zoological and Culture Park in Bukittinggi (West Sumatra), Sriwijaya Zoo Foundation in Palembang (South Sumatra), Tourism Development Foundaion in Pekanbaru (Riau), Aneka Rimba Zoo (Jambi), Ragunan Zoo (Jakarta), Jaya Ancol Centre of Sea Life (Jakarta), Seaworld Indonesia (Jakarta), Bird Park-TMII (Jakarta), Tamansari Zoological Park Foundation Bandung (West Java).


Adaptation : modification of an organism or its parts that makes it more fit for existence under the conditions of its environment. Behavior : 1.anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation; 2.the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Biodiversity : the number of gene, species, and ecosystems in plants and animals which show various of shapes, appearances, frequencies, dimensions, and other proprties. Biome : a major ecological community type (as tropical rain forest, grassland, or desert) Biota : the entire organisms in a region, that is the union between plants (flora) and animals (fauna). Conifer : any of an order (Coniferales) of mostly evergreen trees and shrubs having usually needle-shaped or scalelike leaves and including forms (as pines) with true cones and others (as yews) with an arillate fruit. Deciduous : falling off or shed seasonally or at a certain stage of development in the life cycle. Ecosystem : the complex of a community of organisms and its environment functioning as an ecological unit. Endemic : the spreading of organisms which is limited in a certain region. Erode : to wear away by the action of water, wind, or glacial ice (flooding eroded the hillside). Ex situ : the condition of the living organism outside its habitat (its living place).

Food chain : an arrangement of the organisms of an ecological community according to the order of predation in which each uses the next usually lower member as a food source. Food web : the totality of interacting food chains in an ecological community. Gene : the part of chromosome which regulates the transfer of hereditary factors, formed by a number of nucleic acids which are composed into macromolecule called DNA. Habitat : the place or environment where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows. In situ : the condition of the living organism inside its habitat (its living place/its original natural environment). Nutfah plasm : the substance found in each group of living organisms and is heredity property which can be used and developed to create superior species or new cultivar. Predator : an animal that lives by predation (a mode of life in which food is primarily obtained by the killing and consuming of animals). Prey : an animal taken by a predator as food. Taiga : a moist subarctic forest dominated by conifers (as spruce and fir) that begins where the tundra ends. Temperate : having a moderate climate which especially lacks extremes in temperatur. Tropics : either of the two parallels of terrestrial latitude at a distance of about twentythree degrees north or south of the equator where the sun is directly overhead when it reaches its most northerly or southerly point in the sky. Variation : the difference found between two individuals of one species. Vegetation : the number of all plants found in a certain region; also plants which cover a part or all of Earth surface.