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THESLOWUNFOLDING

8 3
Kolodny,anNKVDagent . * " B ynop os s i b i li ty,i ts eem s to
m e,couldMr . B erleh av es up p os edIw as des cri b i ngth e
w ork i ngs of aMarx i s ts tudygroup ," h ei ns i s ted .
Greatlyagi tatedb yw h atC h am b ers h adtoldh i m ,B erle
s ai d,accordi ngtoC h am b ers ' recollecti on," Wem ayb ei nth e
w arw i th i nf orty- ei gh th ours
; andw ecannotf i gh taw ar
unles s w eh av eacleangov ernm ent
. " Th en,ev enb ef ore
Lev i neandC h am b ers w ereoutof th eroom ,h eh adp i ck ed
up th etelep h one,ap p arentlytocallth eWh i teHous e . C h am -
b ers returnedtoNew Y ork ,ex p ecti ngacti on . Lateronh e
w as toldth atB erleh adgonetoR oos ev eltandh adb eentold
" togoj um p i nth elak e,onlyi ncoars erlanguage . " Th i s p ar-
ti culari nci dentw as gi v enw i decurrencyb ys ources clos eto
B erlew h enth ecas eb rok ei nth es um m erof 1 9 4 8 .
Ins tartli ngcontradi cti onw as A dolf B erle' s ow ntes ti m ony
b ef oreth eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee . Th ati tcam e
j us tb ef oreth ep res i denti alelecti on,w h enh i s candi date
HarryS . Trum anw as dep recati ngth ew h oleaf f ai ras a" red
h erri ng," m i gh th av eledB erletop laydow nth ees p i onage
angle . B uti tcouldnotex p lai nw h yB erle,adeclaredanti -
C om m uni s t,s eem edtob edoi ngh i s utm os ttodi s credi tWh i t-
tak erC h am b ers andtom i ni m i zeth ei m p ortanceof th e
w h olecons p i racy.
" Mr. C h am b ers relatedtom e[ B erletoldth eC om m i ttee]
th ath eh adb eenam em b erof th eundercov erC om m uni s t
group f rom 1 9 3 4 toth eendof 1 9 3 7 . . . Hes ai dth ati n
addi ti ontoth eNew Y ork core,th eP artyp oli cy,th eC om -
m uni s tP artyp oli cy,h adb eentotrytodev elop agroup of
s ym p ath i zers w h om i gh tb eof us etoth em lateri nth eUni ted
States Gov ernm ent .
" Th i s w as not,as h ep uti t,anyq ues ti onof es p i onage.
Th erew as noes p i onagei nv olv edi ni t
. Hes tatedth atth ei r
h op em erelyw as togets om ep eop lew h ow ouldb es ym -
'
C uri ous lyenough ,Kolodny' s drugs torew as nex tdoortoth ecleani ng
anddyei ngs h
of Wi lli am R os en,aC om m uni s tP artym em b erw h ow as
deep lyi nv olv ei nth ecom p li catedb us i nes s
of A lgerHi s s ' oldFord .
C f
. C h ap ter1 4 .
8 4

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
p ath eti cto th ei rp oi ntof v i ew . Wi th th ati nm i ndap p arently
a
s tudygroup of s om es orth adb eenf orm edof m en w h o
w erei nteres tedi nk now i ngs om eth i ngab outR us s i aand R us -
s i anp oli cyandth egeneralC om m uni s tth eoryof li f eand s o
on . . .
Hem enti onedA lger Hi s s , DonaldHi s s ,Nath an
Wi tt,andP res s m an
. .
. He
s ai dth atth es em en,i t
w as
h op ed,w ouldgoon,as th eycalledi t,underground ; th ati s to
s ay,th eyw ouldnotap p earas p art of th ew ell- k now norop en
C om m uni s tgroup ,b utth eyw oulds i m p lyb eth ereandb e
s ym p ath eti c . . . Hedi dnotm ak eanydi rects tatem entth at
anyof th es em enw erem em b ers of th eC om m uni s tP arty
[ b ut] m enw h ow eres ym p ath eti c . . . andtow h om th ey
m i gh th av eacces s . . . i ncas eanyb odyb rough t a req ues t
th ere . . . "
R ob ertStri p li ng. Di dyous ub s eq uentlydoanyth i ngof f i ci ally or
unof f i ci allyab outth i s i nf orm ati on?
B erle . Y es ,Idi dagreatdeal . Iw as di s turb edagooddeal,b ut
nots om uch atth eth reeorf ourm ennam ed .
. . Th ei death at
th etw oHi s s b oys andNatWi ttw eregoi ngtotak eov erth eUni ted
States Gov ernm entdi dnts tri k em eas anyi m m edi atedanger
. . .
Ich eck edonth etw oHi s s b oys
. Sp eci f i callyIch eck edw i th Dean
A ch es on . . . A ch es ons ai dh eh adk now nth ef am i lyandth es e
tw ob oys s i ncech i ldh oodandh ecouldv ouch f orth em ab s olutely
.
If urth erch eck edandf oundth atMr . J us ti ceFrank f urterw ould
gi v eth em anex actlys i m i larendors em ent . Sch em ati cally,
h ow ev er,Ib eli ev edth atC h am b ers w as telli ngth etruth as h es aw
i t,s oIcaus edth eDep artm enttoes tab li s h v eryclos erelati ons
w i th th eFB I
. . .
Stri p li ng .
Wereyouatanyti m eev ers us p i ci ous of Mr. Hi s s ?
B erle . A b etterw ayof s ayi ngi ti s : Iw as w orri ed . .
. A tth at
ti m eMr . Hi s s di dtak ew h atw ew ouldcallth ep ro- R us s i anp oi nt
of v i ew . Now ,th atw as areas onf orw orry. Iti s notneces s ari lya
reas ontodraw th econclus i onth ath ew as adi s loyalm an
. . .
Th erew as oneoth erth i ngth atw orri edm e,too . A tth atti m ew e
w erealltryi ngnottotellanyth i ngth atough tnotb etold,and
th erew erep rettycons i s tentleak s w h enev eranyth i ng w ent
th rough [ Hi s s ' ] of f i ce .
THESLOWUNFOLDING

a
A f term oregeneralq ues ti oni ng,i n w h i ch B erlew as com -
p li m entedf orh i s " f orth ri gh tnes s ," th ef orm erA s s i s tantSeo-
retaryof Stateaddedgratui tous ly :
" Ih av eh ads om eex p eri encew i th m enw h oh av eb een i n
[ th eC om m uni s tap p aratus ] andth engotoutof i t . Th ey
s om eti m es tendtoex aggerateali ttleth edep th s of th eex p eri -
enoeth eyh av eh ad
. Th eyh av eob v i ous lyb eenth rough a
v i olentem oti onalex p eri ence . . . [ Th eC om m uni s tm ov e-
m ent] i s am os tdam nedi nf ernalnui s ance,andi nti m eof w ar
couldb edangerous . Is h ouldq ues ti onw h eth erth ei ractual
i m p ortanceatanyti m e,ex cep ti naf ew li m i tedareas i n
Was h i ngton,w as as grav eas th eyli k etom ak eout
. . . Iam
b ynom eans clearth atHi s s w ouldh av eb eentak eni ntoth e
C om m uni s tP arty . .
. P eop lem ak econtri b uti ons w i th out
b ei ngm em b ers of th eC om m uni s tP arty
. Weallof us k now
b oys th ath av ech i p p edi nonth i s ,th at,andth eoth ercam -
p ai gns ,orm adedonati ons orw h atnotatoneti m eoranoth er
w i th outev erb ei ngallow edi nth ef old . "
Iti s f uti leatth i s ti m etos p eculateas toth erelati v eaccu-
racyof th es eth reeaccounts
. Th ei m p ortantf acti s th atWh i t-
tak erC h am b ers di dtellA dolf B erleenough tos h ak eth e
us uallys elf - as s uredA s s i s tantSecretary
. Wh enC h am b ers re-
turnedtoNew Y ork af terth ei nterv i ew ,h ew as certai nth at
w i th i nam atterof days h ew ouldb earres tedf ores p i onage
alongw i th th ew h olek i tandk ab oodleof s ti ll- loyal- to- Mos -
cow C om m uni s tagents
. Hew ai tedi nv ai n .
B utDonLev i new as nots op ati entam an
. Wh enh ereal-
i zed
th atB erledi dnot- orcouldnot- ef f ectah ous ecleani n
i nth eStateDep artm ent,Lev i nef eltth ath ew as duty- b ouni
top res s th em atterw h ereandas h ecould
. Th erecordof h i s
f uti leef f orts ,ev enduri ngth ep eri odof th eHi tler- Stali np act
eA dolf B erle' s tes ti m onyw as onth e3 0 th of A ugus t,1 9 4 8
. Duri ngth e
s econdtri alof A lgerHi s s ,p eop lew h orem em b eredh i s w ords w onderedh ow
th eycouldj i b ew i th h i s notes ,p roducedi ncourt,of th e1 9 3 9 conv ers ati on
.
Fi lli ngf ourtyp ew ri ttenp ages ,
th ey
w ereh eaded" UndergroundEs p i onage
A gent . " A lgerHi s s w as las tonth eli s t
.
8 6 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
w h enf ri ends h i p f orth eSov i etUni onw as atf ai rlylow eb b ,i s
ani ndi cati onof th ep ow erf ulf orces w i th i nth egov ern-
m entw h i ch b lock edaf ulli nv es ti gati onof th eC h am b ers
ch arges .
Lev i nes p ok etoLoyHenders on,th ench i ef of th eR us s i an
s ecti onof th eStateDep artm entandas taunch anti - C om -
m uni s tw h oh ads erv edatth eA m eri canEm b as s yi nMos cow .
ToHenders on,Lev i nedi v ulgedas i zab lep orti onof th es tory
w h i ch h adb eentoldtoB erle. Of cours e,Henders onw as
p ow erles s toactandloth tos i gnh i s p oli ti caldeath w arrant
b ys i ngle- h andedlym ak i ngap ub li ci s s ueof w h atcanonlyb e
des cri b edas acons p i racyof s i lence .
Earlyi n1 9 4 0 ,DonLev i new enttoaf ri end,SenatorWar-
renA us ti n- laterch i ef Uni tedStates rep res entati v eatth e
Uni tedNati ons - w i th a" f ai rlycom p reh ens i v eaccount" of
th eSov i etunderw orldi nWas h i ngton . Fors om ereas on,
A us ti ndi dnotf eelth ati tw as up toh i m tocarryth eex p lo-
s i v ei nf orm ati ontoth eA m eri canp eop le
. InMarch of th e
s am eyear,Lev i nef urni s h eds uf f i ci entev i dencetoMarti n
Di es ,' ch ai rm anof th eHous eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om -
m i ttee,tow arrantaf ull- s calei nv es ti gati on . B utth ough th e
s catter- b rai nedTex ani s s uedap ub li cs tatem entth ath e
w oulds oonh eartes ti m onyf rom th e" h eadof th eOGP U" i n
A m eri ca,h es eem edm uch m orei nteres tedi np urs ui ngh ap -
les s li b erals andb elab ori ngf ellow - trav elers th ani nb us ti ng
op enth es p yri ng .
Wh enWi lli am C . B ulli tt,f orm erA m b as s adortoR us s i a
andaone- ti m eSov i etp arti s an,h eardw h atb oth C h am b ers
andGeneralWalterKri v i tzk yh adrev ealedtoLev i neof Sov i et
es p i onagei nf i ltrati oni nth egov ernm ent,h ew ents trai gh tto
th eWh i teHous ew i th th i s s tartli ngi ntelli gence . B utth ough
B ulli ttw as onaf i rs t- nam eb as i s w i th R oos ev elt- aconf i dant
andf ri endof th eP res i dent- h ew as notab letoach i ev eh i s
p urp os e
. FDR laugh edandtoldh i m nottow orry. State
* R ob ertStri p li ng,th enacom m i tteei nv es ti gator,w as als op res ent, b ut
th enam eof C h am b ers nev erregi s teredw i th h i m ei th er .
THESLOWUNFOLDING

8 7
Dep artm entof f i ci als tow h om B ulli ttrep eatedh i s w arni ng
reactedw i th as i m i larlack of concern .
Lev i new as s ti lltryi ngtogetacti oni nMarch ,1 9 4 1 . C all-
i ngonWalterWi nch ellatth eR oneyP lazaHoteli nMi am i ,
h elai db ef oreh i m m uch of th eC h am b ers di s clos ures ,telli ng
th ecolum ni s tab outth es i x Sov i etagents th enop erati ng
f reelyi nth egov ernm ent . Wi nch ell,w h of ors om eti m eh ad
b eenus i ngh i s p ow erf ulandw i delys yndi catedcolum nas a
s ti ck tob elab oranti - A m eri canf orces ,b oth C om m uni s tand
f as ci s t,h eldares erv ecom m i s s i oni nNav alIntelli genceand
w as af req uentgues tatth eWh i teHous e . A gh as t,h etoo
agreedtotak eth em atters trai gh ttoth eP res i dent . Li k e
B ulli tt,h egotnow h ere .
Fi nally,duri ngth e1 9 4 4 p res i denti alcam p ai gn,Gov ernor
Th om as E . Dew eyw as m ade p ri v y toth em uch - rep eated
s tory. " Iurgedup onDew eyth ev i talneedof i nf orm i ngth e
A m eri canp eop leduri ngth ecam p ai gnof th es h ock i ngs tate
of af f ai rs i ns i deWas h i ngton," s ays Lev i ne . Dew eyp rom i s ed
torai s eth eq ues ti oni nas p eech - andth enh eattack edA . A .
B erleas af ellow - trav eler . Th i s s am es tum b li ngi nab i li tyto
cop ew i th th ep rob lem w as ex h i b i ted,i roni callyenough ,b y
th em anw h ow ouldh av eb eenDew ey' s Secretaryof Stateh ad
th eNew Y ork gov ernorw onth ep res i dencyi n1 9 4 8 . Hew as
J oh nFos terDulles ,w h o,des p i tef req uentw arni ngs ,w as one
of th os eres p ons i b lef orA lgerHi s s ' electi oni n1 9 4 6 as h ead
of th eC arnegi eEndow m entf orP eace .
B utIs aacDonLev i new as notth eonlym ananx i ous totell
th eC h am b ers s tory
. Inth eearlym onth s of 1 9 4 0 ,Wi llA llen,
th enlab oredi torf orth eWas h i ngton
Dai lyNew s , w as s p rung
f rom h i s regularb eatandgi v enas p eci alas s i gnm ent .
" Th ere' s b eenlots of talk ab outC om m uni s ti nf i ltrati oni n
th egov ernm ent," h i s b os s toldA llen . " We' v ep ub li s h ed
p lentyof f ragm entarys tori es onth es ub j ect . B utnooneh as
ev erf ollow edallth eleads andti edth em togeth eri naneat
b undle. If youcoulddoth at,i tw ouldb eoneh ellof agood
yarn .
"
8 8

SEEDSOF TR EA SON
So Wi llA llenb egandi ggi ng i n th ev as tb ureaucracy of
New DealWas h i ngton
. Hi s f i rs tb i gs tri k ew as th eof f i ceof
Nath anGregorySi lv erm as teri nth eDep artm entof A gri cul-
ture . A llenh adlongex p eri encei ncov eri ngC om m uni s tacti v -
i ti es ; h ek new agreatm anyof Was h i ngton' s C om m uni s ts
andf ellow - trav elers b ynam eandb ys i gh t. Wh enh ew alk ed
i ntoSi lv erm as ter' s of f i ce,h ew as s truck b yth ef actth at at
nearlyev erydes k th erew as acard- h olderorP arty- li nerb us y
doi ngth egov ernm ent' s w ork . Hek new h eh adh i tup on
s om eth i ng .
B yi nv es ti gati ngSi lv erm as ter,h i s f ri ends ,andh i s as s o-
ci ates ,b oth i np ub li candp ri v ateli f e,A llenb egangetti ngth e
m ateri alh eh adb eens eek i ng . B utas h ep rob edf urth er,h e
di s cov eredth atallh i s s i gni f i canti nf orm ati ons eem edtob e
leadi ngi nonedi recti on- toNew Y ork . A llenf ollow edh i s
s toryth ere . Tak i ngaroom atth eB arb i zonP laza,h eh i tall
th etri ed- and- trues ources of i nf orm ati ononC om m uni s t
s h enani gans . B uth egotnow h ere ; h eh adh i tab lank w all .
Th en,oneday,ananti - C om m uni s tf ri endtoldh i m :
" Y ouk now ,th ere' s aguyi nNew Y ork - Idon' tk now h i s
nam e- w h ow as ab i gs h otam ongth eWas h i ngtonC om -
m uni s ts . Idon' tk now w h ereh eli v es orw h ath edoes ,b ut
h e' s b rok enw i th th eP artyandIunders tandh e' s gotah ai r-
rai s i ngs torytotell . If anyonecangi v eyouth es toryyou' re
look i ngf or,th i s m ancan . "
Mos tp eop lew ouldh av es h ruggedof f th i s w af er- th i nlead .
B utWi llA llen,agoodnew s p ap erm an,k new th atalli ttak es
totrack dow nev enth em os ttenuous f acti s b rai ns ,p er-
s i s tence,goodcontacts ,andlots of legw ork . B ycom b i ni ng
allf our,h ef i nallygotw h ath ew anted
: ap h onenum b erh e
couldcall. Wh enh eh adcalledth i s num b er,allh ecoulddo
w as leav eam es s ageth ath ew as s top p i ngatth eB arb i zon
P laza,th ath ew as anx i ous todi s cus s th eC om m uni s tP arty
w i th s om eonew h ok new i ts i nnerw ork i ngs ,andth ath e
w ouldw ai tf orareturncall .
Th en,f orth reedays ,Wi llA llens ati nh i s room ,h av i ngh i s
THESLOWUNFOLDING
m eals s entup andw ai ti ngf oracallh ew as nots urew ould
ev ercom e
. Onth eth i rdday,Wh i ttak erC h am b ers - h i gh ly
s us p i ci ous b utcuri ous as toh i s m i s s i on- telep h onedh i m
.
A f teralongconv ers ati oni nw h i ch A llenp ai ns tak i nglyes tab -
li s h edh i s b onaf i des andex p lai nedw h ath ew as af ter,C h am -
b ers agreedtom eeth i m i nth elob b yof th eB arb i zonth e
nex tev eni ng
.
Ev enth en,i ttook cons i derab lecoax i ngonA llen' s p artto
getC h am b ers tocom eup toth eroom
. Onceth ere,A llen
s h uck edof f h i s coatandp rep aredtogetdow ntocas es
. B ut
Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ref us edtorem ov eh i s ow nh eav yov er-
coat,th ough th eroom w as h ot
. Si tti ngs ti f f ly,h econti nuedto
actw ary,talk i ngli ttleandli s teni ngp ok er- f acedtoA llen' s
p leas f ori nf orm ati on
.
" Wh at' s th egoodof telli ngyouw h atIk now ? " C h am b ers
f i nallyas k ed . " Y ouw on' tb eab letodoanyth i ngw i th i t . "
" J us ttrym e," s ai dA llen . " Y ouk now w h atm yp ap erf eels
ab outth eC om m i es . Th ey' v es p entalotof th ei rm oneyand
m yti m eonth i s s tory . Wh ys h ouldyoudoub tus ? "
A f ter s om e di s cus s i on,C h am b ers w as s ti llunconv i nced .
" J us ttrym eout," A llenurged .
" A llri gh t," C h am b ers s ai df i nally . " I' lltryyouout . If you
gi v em eyourw ordth atyouw on' trev ealyours ource,I' llgi v e
youth enam es of f ourNKVDm ennow op erati ngi nWas h -
i ngton . Th at' s enough f oras tory . If youus eth at,I' lltellyou
m ore
. B ut,you' lls ee,yourp ap erw on' ttouch i t
. " Y ears later,
Wi llA llenh adf orgottenth reeof th os enam es . Th eoneth at
h erem em b ered,h ow ev er,w as s i gni f i cant- Kolodny,th em an
w h oranth edrugs toreandletter- drop nearWi lli am R os en' s
tai lors h op .
Deli gh ted,A llenp ack edh i s b ags andreturnedtoWas h -
i ngton
. Look i ngf ori nf i ltrati on,h eh adh i tup ones p i onage
.
B uth ew as s m artenough toreali zeth atth es toryh eh addug
up w as ali ttletoob i gf oranew s p ap er- ev enanew s p ap er
ch ai n- toh andle . " Wh ydon' tw em ak eadealw i th th eFB I,"
h etoldh i s b os s . " We' llgi v eth em th eti p ,th eycantrack
9 0

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
dow nth es eb oys ,andw e' llgetanex clus i v ei nreturn . " On
th i s b as i s ,h ep as s edth enam es of th ef ourR us s i ans ecret
p oli ceop erati v es toth eB ureau . Toh i s s urp ri s e,th eFB Iw as
dub i ous
.
" Y ou' llh av etoclearth i s w i th th eStateDep artm ent," h e
w as told. SoA llentram p edov ertoth eb i ggi ngerb readb ui ld=
i ngonP enns ylv ani aA v enueandm arch edi ntoth eof f i ceof a
f ri endw h oh andleds ecuri tym atters th ere
.
" Look ," h etoldth ef ri end . " Wh atI' m goi ngtotellyoui s
of f th erecord . B utb ef oreItellyou,Iw antyoutok now th at
I' m notatli b ertytorev ealth es ource
. Now ,th i s i s i t . I' v egot
th enam es of f ourNKVDm enop erati ngh erei nWas h i ngton .
A ndth eFB Iw on' tm ov ei nunti li tgets clearancef rom th e
StateDep artm ent . "
Th ef ri ends m i led . " Is eeyou' v eb eentalk i ngtoWh i ttak er
C h am b ers ," h es ai d
.
" Look ," Wi llans w eredh i m
. " Y ou' v ep rob ab lygotth reeor
f ournam es of p eop lew h om i gh th av egi v enm eth ei nf orm a-
ti on
. A ndyou' lltos s th em atm e,oneb yone,h op i ngth atI' ll
gi v ei taw ay . Ij us tcan' ttellyouth enam eof m ys ource . "
A gai nth ef ri ends m i led . " Y ou' rew rong . Th ereares ev eral
w h oh av eth ati nf orm ati on . B utonlyoneof th os eh as b rok en
w i th th eap p aratus ,andth at' s Wh i ttak erC h am b ers . Y ou
m i gh tas w ellf orgetab outth ew h oleth i ng,Wi ll
. Th eDep art-
m entdoes n' tw antth os em enarres ted
. Knock th em outof th e
p i ctureandth eR us s i ans w i lls endf ourm ore
. Mayb ew e
w on' tk now w h oth os eare- andth at' llb ereallydangerous . "
Wi llA llen' s b i gs earch endedth ere . B uti nretros p ect,th e
q ues ti ons rem ai n : Wh eredi dth eDep artm entgetth os e
nam es ? Was i tth rough i ts ow ni ntelli gences erv i ce? A nd,i f
th eDep artm entw as aw areof C h am b ers ' NKVDacti v i ti es ,
w h ydi dh i gh A dm i ni s trati onof f i ci als attem p ts os trenuous ly
tob eli ttleh i s tes ti m onyb ef oreth eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es
C om m i tteeunti lth erev elati onof th ep um p k i np ap ers ?
9
R i ngs w i th i nR i n
ONEDA Y INA P R IL,1 9 3 4 ,THENEW Y OR K" TIMES" P UB -
li s h ed as h ortdi s p atch f rom Hels i nk i
. Tuck edaw ayonan
i ns i dep age,i tw as a s i deb artoth em ores ens ati onalaccount
of th earres ti nFi nlandof tw enty- ei gh tSov i ets p i es .
9 1
a
UNITEDSTA TESSA IDTOHA R B OR B IGSP Y R ING,
SUR P A SSINGTHEFINNISHOR FR ENC HB A NDS
Th i s corres yondentlearnedtoni gh tf rom w ell- i nf orm edp er-
s ons ,w h os ei denti tyh ei s f orb i ddentodi s clos e,th ati nth eUni ted
States th ereex i s ts b eyonddoub tanes p i onageorgani zati onp er-
h ap s s urp as s i ngi nm agni tudeb oth th eFi nni s h andMm e . Lydi a
Stah l' s group arres tedi nFrance .
Iti s unders toods trongev i denceh as b eengath eredtos up p ort
th i s as s erti onap artf rom s tatem ents m adeb yth eA m eri can,A rv i d
W
. J acob s on,w h ow as conv i ctedh ereyes terday,andb yR ob ert
GordonSw i tz,A m eri can,w h oi s underarres ti nP ari s .
Secretconnecti ons b etw eenth eUni tedStates andEurop eh av e
b eendev elop edonanex tens i v es caleb yagroup of clev eragents
. C ertai nclues als oleadtoC anada,* b utth eacti v i ti es i nth e
Uni tedStates of s ub v ers i v eb odi es f orm i ngp artof ani nterna-
ti onalnetw ork w eref arm oreex tens i v e .
Th es toryw entunnoti ced,los ti nth eup s urgeof f ellow -
trav eleri s m w h i ch h adh i tth eUni tedStates . Mos tA m eri cans
"
In1 9 4 5,w h enIgorGouzenk oes cap edf rom th eR us s i anEm b as s yi n
Ottaw a,h eb rough tw i th h i m am p leands tartli ngp roof of th eezi s tenoeof
th eC anadi anri ng.
9 2

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
couldnotb eb oth eredw i th nons ens eab outSov i ets p i es
.
R us s i aw as ourf ri end . B utth e
Ti m es corres p ondenth adh i t
up ons om eth i ng
. Itw ouldtak ef ourteenyears b ef ores uch a
s toryw ouldm ak eadentonth ep ub li ccons ci ous nes s - and
b ef oretangi b leev i denceof th eSov i ets p yri ngop erati ngi n
A m eri caw ouldcom etoli gh t
. Forth e" i nternati onalnet-
w ork " trulyex i s ted,tyi ngtogeth erWh i ttak erC h am b ers ,
J
. P eters ,andah os tof oth ers toth es ub v ers i v eadv entures
of th eC om i ntern.
Th es toryof J acob s onandof Sw i tzb ears telli ngi f only
b ecaus ei nm anyw ays i ti s ap recurs orof th ei nf i ni telym ore
dram ati cHi s s - C h am b ers ep i s ode
. Iti s s i gni f i cantandi nter-
es ti ngtonoteh ow th e
dram ati c p ers onae of th i s taleare
li nk edw i th th eearli erone
.
Inth eearlyth i rti es ,th eC om m uni s tP artyattractedm any
p eop le- s om eb i tter,s om edes p erate- w h os enati v ei ntelli -
genceandadv ancededucati onm adeev endeep erth ei r
rej ec-
ti onof as oci alorderw h i ch f ai ledtous eth ei rtalents p rop -
erly
. Manyw ereunem p loyed
. Sti lloth ers w eres tagnati ng
i ni ll- p ayi ngj ob s . C onv i ncedth atth ei rcaus ew as th eonly
s oluti ontodep res s i onandw ar,th eyeagerlyaccep tedC om i n-
ternas s i gnm ents andev entuallys li p p edi ntoth eem p loyof
th eFourth Secti onof th eR edA rm y,Sov i etMi li taryIntelli -
gence . A s A m eri canci ti zens ,w i th A m eri canp as s p orts ,th ey
couldop eratei nres p ectab leci rcum s tances w h erev erth ey
w ereas s i gned .
Typ i calof th es edi s af f ectedA m eri cans w ereA rv i dWerner
J acob s onandR ob ertGordonSw i tz
. Th atth erew erem any
s uch p eop lerecrui tedf orth eKrem li n' s es p i onages erv i ces w e
k now f rom th etes ti m onyof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ,General
WalterG . Kri v i tzk y,andoth ers .
A rv i dJ acob s onw as b orni n1 9 0 5i nWatton,Mi ch i gan,th e
s onof p oorFi nni s h i m m i grants w h ow erenev erth eles s ab le
togi v eh i m agoodA m eri caneducati on
. A tth eUni v ers i tyof
Mi ch i gan,f rom w h i ch h egraduatedw i th h onors i n1 9 2 8 ,h e
m aj oredi nm ath em ati cs . Inth os edays ,h ew as s oci allycon-
R INGS WITHINR INGS

9 3
s ci ous i n am i ldw ay,j oi ni ngth eFab i ans oci ali s tStudent
Leaguef orIndus tri alDem ocracy . B utth i s gentlep h as ew as
of b ri ef durati on . Sev eralyears later- w h i leateach eri na
Detroi th i gh s ch ool- h es tartledth e s ch ool b oardb yan-
nounci ngth ath eh adj oi nedth eC om m uni s tP arty .
" Marx i s m - Leni ni s m logi callyp os es th ei s s ueof ov erth row -
i ng th es ys tem w h i ch m ak es dep res s i ons p os s i b le," h etold
Welli ngtonR ob erts ,ab oardm em b er .
A s h eb ecam ep rom i nenti nth eDetroi tC om m uni s tP arty,
J acob s oncam etoth eattenti onof th eR edSq uadandw as
q ues ti oneds ev eralti m es b yth eDetroi tp oli ce . Hem adef i ery
s p eech es
f req uently,andth edos s i eronh i m grew b ulk y .
B utreconci li ngth edayti m eroleof teach erw h om us t
ch oos eh i s w ords caref ullyw i th h i s ni gh tti m eacti v i ty as a
m i li tantC om m uni s tb ecam ei ncreas i nglydi f f i cult
. Onedaya
com radef rom New Y ork s h ow edup atJ acob s on' s North v i lle
h om e . Th eytalk edf oranh our . Inaf ew w eek s ,th ecom rade
returned . Th enex tdayJ acob s onnoti f i edth es ch oolb oard
th ath ew as goi ngtoNew Y ork todores earch atC olum b i a
Uni v ers i tyandw ouldnotreturntoh i s teach i ngj ob th atf all
of 1 9 3 2
. B utJ acob s ondi dnotregi s teratC olum b i aw h enh e
andh i s w i f ereach edNew Y ork
. Ins teadh etook th ef i rs ts tep
i ntoth eunderground ; h erep ortedtoJ
. P eters - th es am e
J . P eters w h ow ork eds oclos elyw i th Wh i ttak erC h am b ers -
on
th eni nth f loorof th eoldlof tb ui ldi ngat3 5Eas t1 2 th
Street,h eadq uarters of th eC om m uni s tP artyUSA .
Es p i onagew as acrow ded calli ng
af terWorldWarI,as
one nati oncov etedth em i li tarys ecrets of allth eoth ers
. R i ga,
th ecap i talof th eLatv i anR ep ub li c,w as ath ri v i ngcenter
w h eres p i es of alllands op eratedalm os tw i th outh i ndrance
.
Itw as neutralterri toryw h erenew s p ap ercorres p ondents
tri edtob uy" i ns i de" i nf orm ati ononSov i etR us s i a,th egreat
unk now n .
Strategi callys i tuatedas ab arm ai di noneof th eb etter
h otels w as aq ui ck - m i ndedandam b i ti ous Latv i anp eas ant
9 4

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
gi rl,MaryEm m aSch ul
. Th ough lack i ngf orm aleducati on,
s h elearnedtos p eak s ev erallanguages ,i ncludi ngEngli s h ,
andb ef orelongs h ew as p eddli ngi nf orm ati ontoth eh i gh es t
b i dder
. Inth elatetw enti es s h ew entonth eSov i etp ayroll
andth ereaf terf lew regularlytoMos cow
. Sh ecalledh ers elf
Mrs
. Loui s eMarti nandli v edaccordi ngtoh erconcep tof
th ew i f eof anA m eri canm i lli onai re,th eroles h eaf f ectedto
ex p lai nh erh eav ys p endi ng . Sh etrav eledw i delyandh ad i m -
p ortantduti es .
Itw as toMrs
. Marti n,i nh ers ui teatth eA dlonHoteli n
B erli n,th atA rv i dJ acob s onw as s ent
. Mrs . Marti ndi rected
J acob s ontoenterth eUni v ers i tyof Hels i nk i as agraduate
s tudent,acov erf orh i s es p i onageacti v i ti es ,andtof i nda
h om enearth euni v ers i tycam p us f rom w h i ch h ecould
op erateas h erli ai s onw i th m em b ers of th eSov i etri ng i n
Hels i nk i .
J acob s onf oundam oderncottageonatree- li neds treet
nearth ecam p us andp layedth eroleof anaf f luentA m eri can
s tudent . Th eJ acob s ons w ouldi nv i tef ellow s tudents toth ei r
h om ew h ereth erew as alw ays p lentytoeatanddri nk . To
di v erts us p i ci ons f rom h i s realacti v i ti es ,J acob s onw ould
v oi ceanti - Sov i etandp ro- f as ci s top i ni ons toh i s new f ri ends .
InSep tem b er,1 9 3 3 ,Hels i nk i rock edw i th th enew s th at
th eof f i ci alp h otograp h erof th eFi nni s h GeneralStaf f ,a
Li eutenantVi lh oP enti k ai nen,h adf ledtoR us s i aaf ters tri p -
p i ngs taf f h eadq uarters of i ts top s ecretdocum ents . P enti -
k ai nenh adlas tb eens eentrav eli ngi nacarath i gh s p eed
f rom Hels i nk i ,tow ardth eSov i etf ronti er . A s taf f i nv es ti ga-
ti on,conductedi ns ecrecy,es tab li s h edth atth eli eutenant
h adb eenonth ep ayrollof am ys teri ous Mrs . Marti n . Heh ad
als ob eens eenenteri ngth eJ acob s onh om e .
Soonaf terth eP enti k ai neni nci dent,th em anagerof Fi n-
land' s larges tm uni ti ons p lant,Li eutenantC olonelWalter
A s p lund,di edunderm ys teri ous ci rcum s tances . Inth eb es t
of h ealth ,h ek eeledov eraf terah eartydi nner . A nautop s y
s h ow edth ath eh adb eenp oi s oned ; ani nv es ti gati on,th atth e
R INGSWITHINR INGS

9 5
m odelof anew Germ anA rm yri f leonw h i ch h i s com p any
h adb eenw ork i ngh addi s ap p eared.
OnOctob er2 7 ,1 9 3 3 ,Mrs . Marti ngav eap artyi nh er
lux uri ous Hels i nk i ap artm entf orMr . andMrs
. J acob s on,as
w ellas f orm anyFi nni s h s oci etyf i gures ,p oli ti ci ans ,i ntel-
lectuals ,andf i lm ands tages tars . B utw h i leth ep artyw as
goi ngon,th eJ acob s onh om ew as b ei ngs earch edb ys ecret
p oli ce. Mi li tarydocum ents f rom generals taf f h eadq uarters
w eredi s cov eredth ere,h i ddeni nacloth es clos et .
Tw oh ours later,th ep oli ceb rok ei nonMrs . Marti n' s p arty,
arres ti ngMrs . Marti n,th eJ acob s ons ,ands i x oth ergues ts .
Si m ultaneous ly,ni neteenoth erarres ts w eretak i ngp laceall
ov erth eFi nni s h cap i tal . Th eyi ncludedj ennyA nti lla,am ai d
i nC olonelA s p lund' s h ous eh oldw h ow as laterconv i ctedof
p oi s oni ngh i m . Herh us b and,A k s el,w as als oarres ted,b uth e
m anagedtoes cap ew i th th eai dof th elocalC om m uni s ts . In
1 9 4 0 ,h ereap p earedas Mi ni s terof Def ens ei nth eq ui s li ng
Fi nni s h gov ernm ents etup b yth eSov i etUni onduri ngi ts
i nv as i onof th eti nyrep ub li c
.
A lth ough Mrs . Marti np rotes tedh eri nnocencetoth elas t,
m os tof th eoth ercons p i rators ,i ncludi ngJ acob s on,adm i tted
th ei rgui lt . ( OnlyMrs . J acob s on,as anunw i lli ngaccom p li ce
of h erh us b and,w as releas ed . ) Mrs . Marti nw as s entencedto
ei gh tyears of h ardlab orb yaFi nni s h h i gh court,J acob s onto
f i v e. Th eh i gh cri m es ch argedagai ns tth em cons i s tedof s teal-
i ngv as tnum b ers of of f i ci aldocum ents andof p lotti ngth e
death s of s ev eralFi nni s h of f i ci als andtech ni ci ans
.
Th earres tandconv i cti onof Mrs . Marti n' s Fi nni s h ri ng,
h ow ev er,w as b utoneres ultof th erai donJ acob s on' s h om e .
A m ongth ep ap ers p oli cef oundth ere,w as ap os tcardw i th a
s eri es of h i eroglyp h i cs draw noni ts b ack . Th ecard,p os t-
m ark edP ari s ,w as f rom aMm e . Lydi aTch eck alov Stah l.
Th eh i eroglyp h i cs w ereundeci p h erab le,b utth enam eof
Mm e . Stah lrangb ells
. Sh ew as li s tedi nth es ecretf i les of
ev eryp oli cef orcei nEurop e .
Mi ddle- agedandh ardlyb eauti f ul,Mm e . Stah lh adgreat
9 6

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
p ers onal m agneti s m . From th eearly
tw enti es , s h e h ad
w ork eddi li gentlyf orth eSov i ets ,us uallyacti ngas a
couri er
i n h ertrav els ab outEurop eandth eUni tedStates
. In 1 9 3 2 ,
ona tri p toNew Y ork ,s h ew ork edclos elyw i th th e
under-
groundgroup th ati ncludedWh i ttak erC h am b ers andR ob ert
GordonSw i tz. Onh erreturntoP ari s ,th ecounter- es p i onage
agents of th eDeux i em eB ureau,France' s p oli ti calp oli ce,p ut
h erunderrouti nes urv ei llance,f ollow i ngh ertos ev eral
ren-
dezv ous w i th Mrs . Marti n . B utw i th li ttleconcreteev i dence
togoon,noth i ngw as done .
Th earres tof th eMarti nri ngandth ep os tcardli nk i ng
J acob s ontoMm e . Stah lgav eth eFrench p oli ceth eh andle
th eyh adb eenlook i ngf or . Th enth i ngs b egantom ov e
rap i dly . A w eek b ef oreC h ri s tm as ,i n1 9 3 3 ,les s th antw o
m onth s af terth eFi nni s h ri ngw as b rok enup ,th eFrench
p oli ceroundedup tw enty- tw os us p ecteds p i es . Oneof th em
w as R ob ertGordonSw i tz .
Sw i tz,w h os es toryp arallels J acob s on' s i nm anyres p ects ,
w as atth i s ti m eaf ull- f ledgedop erati v ew h oh adalreadyp er-
f orm edas ucces s f ulm i s s i oni nth eP anam aC analZ one . He
h adb eenap p roach edi n1 9 3 1 b yaR us s i anf ri endof oneof
h i s b roth ers
. Th etw om enh addi s cus s edev eryth i ngf rom
Sw i tz' s i nteres ti nav i ati ontoSov i etR us s i a . A ndi nSw i tz' s
w ords ," B ef oreIk new i tIh adb ecom ei m m ens elyi nteres ted
i nth eR us s i anex p eri m entf rom ah um ani tari anp oi ntof v i ew .
A tth atti m e,Ireallyb ecam eaC om m uni s t
. "
Sh ortlyaf terth i s encounterw i th th eR us s i an,Sw i tzw as
onh i s w aytoMos cow i nth egui s eof anav i ati oni ns tructor .
Th ere,i ns teadof i ns tructi ng,h ew as h i m s elf i ns tructed- i n
th earts of es p i onageands ab otage . R eturni ngtoNew Y ork ,
h em adecontactw i th th eundergroundap p aratus andre-
cei v edh i s f i rs tas s i gnm ent
. OnMay2 1 ,1 9 3 2 ,h es ai led
ab oardth eS
. S . SantaC lara f orP anam a.
In
Octob er,1 9 3 2 ,aclerk i nth eC analZ one' s dead- letter
R INGSWITHINR INGS

9 7
of f i ceop enedab ulk yenv elop e,m ai ledtoHerm anMeyers ,
1 8 59 Eas tNi nth Street,B rook lyn,w h i ch h adb eenreturned
s tam p ed" A ddres s eeUnk now n . " Th eletterh adb eenm ai led
b yaJ am es J
. McC arth y . Th erew as nos uch p ers oni nth e
Z one.
Ins i deth eenv elop e,th eclerk di s cov ereddi agram s of
C analdef ens es ,docum ents ,andam ap of FortSh erm an
.
" Th es elook li k es ecretm i li tarydocum ents ," h etoldp os t
of f i cei ns p ectorS . C . R us s ellex ci tedly
.
Th eyw ere
. Onew as am em orandum detai li nganti - ai rcraf t
arti lleryi ns tallati ons i nth eZ one
. A noth er,w as th etex tof a
p lan,des cri b edb yth es enderas
a " com p letep lanf orth e
s ub j ugati onof P anam ai ncas eof rev oluti on
. "
A rm yof f i ci als di dnottrytoh i deth ei ralarm
. A yearearli er,
th earres tof aR us s i annam edIv anKras s i nh adledtoth e
di s cov eryth at,th rough aC om m uni s tem p loyedatth eR C A
A llA m eri caC ab les of f i ce,Mos cow h adacces s toalltele-
gram s com i ngi ntoorleav i ngth eZ one .
Wh i letyp ew ri terex p erts w ork edonth e" dead" letter-
now
v erym uch ali v e- th ecom m andi ngof f i cerof FortSh er-
m an,C olonelC . G
. B unk er,di s cov eredth atconf i denti al
p ap ers h adb eens ys tem ati callyri f ledf rom h i s ow nf i les . Th e
ex p erts f i nallytracedth etyp ew ri teronw h i ch th ei ncri m i nat-
i ngletterh adb eentyp ed
. Inth es p ri ngof 1 9 3 3 ,C orp oral
R ob ertOs m anof C olonelB unk er' s s taf f w as arres ted
.
Os m an,atallyoungm anw i th adark ,
. i ntelli gentf ace,h ad
j oi nedth eregularA rm yi n1 9 3 1 toreli ev eh i s lab orerf ath er
of af i nanci alb urden . A tth eti m eof h i s arres t,h eh adp as s ed
an ex am i nati onw h i ch m i gh th av eledtoali eutenant' s com -
m i s s i on .
A th i s courtm arti al,Os m anadm i ttedth ath eh adb eena
C om m uni s ts ym p ath i zeri nNew Y ork . Hetes ti f i edth ath e
h adrecei v edm oneyf rom aC om m uni s tnam edHarryDur-
yeaw h om h eh adm etataY oungC om m uni s tLeaguedance .
Hes ai dth ei rcorres p ondencew as carri edonth rough ath i rd
p artyb ecaus eDuryeaw as th es onof ari ch m anw h oob j ected
9 8

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
toh i s p oli ti cs
. Duryeah adv i s i tedh i m tw i cei nP anam a,
Os m antes ti f i ed
. B utw h ow as Duryea? Hecouldb etraced
nei th eri nNew Y ork nori nP anam a .
Os m anw as s entencedtotw entyyears ath ardlab orand
di s h onorab lydi s ch argedf rom th eA rm y
. B utth ecas ew as
notov er
. A f ew m onth s later,h i s p arents v i s i tedLoui s
Waldm an,th eNew Y ork lab orlaw yer,andas k edh i m to
ap p ealth ei rs on' s cas e
. Th eys ai dh ew as notaC om m uni s t
.
Waldm an,th enandnow as taunch anti - C om m uni s t,w arned
th em th ath ew ouldtak eth ecas eonlyi f h ew ereconv i nced
th atOs m anw as anai v ev i cti m of th eC om m uni s ts
. A f ter
ex tens i v ei nq ui ri es ,h etook th ecas ew i th outf ee
.
Onh i s w aytoP anam ai nMay,1 9 3 4 ,top leadOs m an' s
cas e,Waldm anw as th um b i ngth rough acop yof Ti m e m aga-
zi new h enh i s eyew as caugh tb yth ep i ctureof a" longnar-
row h eadof ayoungm anw i th as m all,ungenerous ,di s s i -
p atedm outh ,cyni cal,p ulledup toones i dealm os ttoth e
p oi ntof di s torti on
; th enos ew as longandth i nw i th as li gh t
m alf orm ati onatth eb ri dge ; andev eni nth eb lack andw h i te
p h otograp h th es h adi ngof th ef ullandw av yh ai rs ugges ted
th ati tm i gh tb eb lond
. " "
Waldm anp layedah unch
. Hecutoutth ep h otograp h s o
th atonlyth ef ace,h ead,ands h oulders rem ai ned
. A f ew days
later,h em etOs m anf orth ef i rs tti m e
. Th eyh adalong,p ri -
v atech ati nth eanteroom of th em i li tarydetenti onb arrack s
.
Suddenly,Waldm anp ulledoutth e
Ti m e p h oto. Watch i ng
Os m anclos ely,h es ai d : " R ob ert,tellm eth etruth
. Doyou
k now th i s m an? "
Wi th outh es i tati onOs m andeclared
: " SureIdo . Th at' s m y
f ri end,HarryDuryea
. " Itw as ,i nf act,R ob ertGordonSw i tz,
ontri ali nP ari s f ores p i onage .
Onth eb as i s of th i s ,auth ori ti es es tab li s h edth atSw i tzh ad
regi s teredunderh i s ow nnam eataP anam ah otelaf terarri v =
i ngonth e SantaC lara onMay2 8 ,1 9 3 2 ,andagai nonMarch
From Lab orLaw yerb y Loui s Waldm an,E . P . Dutton&C om p any,
Inc. ,1 9 4 4 .
R INGSWITHIN R INGS

9 9
2 7 ,1 9 3 3 ,af terarri v i ngb yp lanef rom Mi am i
. Onh i s f i rs t
arri v al,Sw i tzh adtoldi m m i grati onauth ori ti es th ath ecam e
as th egues tof Maj orGeneralP res tonB row n,com m andi ng
th eC analZ onegarri s on
. B row n' s s on,Dorrance,h adb een
aclas s m ateof Sw i tz' s b roth er,P aul,atY ale,andth es p yh ad
actuallyb eenth egeneral' s di nnergues t
. Th i s connecti onh ad
gi v enSw i tzentreei ntoth eZ one' s m i li taryi ns tallati ons
. He
h adus edh i s ow nnam eth rough out,ex cep ti nh i s deali ngs
w i th Os m an
. A f teratough legalb attle,andth ep ers onal
i nterv enti onof P res i dentR oos ev elt,Waldm anw onarev ers al
of conv i cti onf orh i s cli ent .
Th elos s of Os m an,tos om edegreeth ei nnocentdup eof a
C om i nternagent,m adev eryli ttledi f f erencetoth ew orld-
w i deunderground
. B uth i s connecti onw i th R ob ertGordon
Sw i tzandw i th th eacti v i ti es of i nternati onalR us s i ans p i es
m i gh tnev erh av eb eenrev ealedh adnotth eFi nni s h and
French auth ori ti es s ucceededi nb reak i ngup i m p ortantri ngs
i nth os ecountri es
.
Sw i tz' s P anam aop erati onh adf i rm lyes tab li s h edh i m i n
th eNew Y ork undergroundas acourageous andef f ecti v e
agent
. OnedaySw i tzap p earedatth eof f i ceof R ob ertV
.
Scott,m anagerof th eR oos ev eltA v i ati onSch ool
. ToScott,
th eyoungm ans eem edtob e" v erys m art" andk now ledge-
ab lei n" w h atev ers ub j ects om eonem i gh tb ri ngup i ncon-
v ers ati on
. " Wh enSw i tzs ai dh ew antedtorep res ents om e
A m eri canb us i nes s f i rm
i n Europ e,Scotti ntroducedh i m to
J . N . A
. VanDenB ouw h uys en,anav i ati oncom p anyof f i ci al .
OnVanDenB ouw h uys en' s recom m endati on,Sw i tzw as
com m i s s i onedtorep res entth ecom p anyi nEurop e
.
InP ari s ,Sw i tzm ades trai gh tf orMm e
. Stah lw h om h eh ad
k now ni nNew Y ork
. Onorders f rom Loui s eMarti n,s h ei ntro-
ducedh i m toMerk ow i tzR es ch ezk i
. Th em eeti ngtook p lace
i nth eaq uari um of th eTrocadero,af av ori terendezv ous
s p otf orm em b ers of th eP ari s ri ng
. R es ch ezk i ,aw areth ath e
w as unders us p i ci onb yth eFrench p oli ce,look edab outto
s eei f th eyw ereb ei ngob s erv ed
. " Onlyth ef i s h don' th av e
1 0 0

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
ears ," h e s ai dnerv ous ly . Th enh eex p lai nedth em eth ods of
th eri ng' s op erati ons toSw i tz .
Each s p yw as k now ntoth eoth ers onlyb yanum b er,h e
s ai d . Th ei denti tyof each s p y w as k now nonlytoh i m . A ndh e
w as trans f erri ngth i s k now ledgetoSw i tz . " 6 2 4 " w as areti red
A rm yof f i cerw h ow as edi ti ngani m p ortantm i li taryp ub li ca-
ti on. " 6 53 " w as aFrench engi neeri nA rm yOrdnance
. " 3 1 2 "
w as aR um ani anw om andenti s tw h ok ep taradi otrans m i tter
i n
h erof f i ce
. A th i s s ugges ti on,Sw i tzw as tob ek now nas
Th eA v i ator :
R es ch ezk i als otoldSw i tzh ow m uch h ew as top ayeach
agent- am atterof p ri m ei m p ortance . Few of i ts m em b ers
w erew ork i ngs tri ctlyf orth ecaus e . Manyof th em w erenot
ab ov es elli ngth ei rw ares toth eGerm ans . R es ch ezk i ex -
p lai nedth ati tw as Sw i tz' s j ob tok eep th ev ari ous op erati ons
runni ngs m ooth lyandtotrans m i tth e" outp ut" regularly .
HereMrs . Sw i tzw as toas s i s th i m . Itw as h erdutytoh andle
th ep h otograp h i ngof alldocum ents andtom ai lth em toa
letter- drop i nSw i tzerland .
B utalm os tf rom th es tart,Sw i tzw as m ark edas as ub v er-
s i v e. Des p i teth eres p ectab i li tyof h i s cov erj ob as anA m eri -
cans ales m anandh i s m em b ers h i p i nth eA m eri canUni v ers i ty
Uni on( h eclai m edtob eaY alem an) ,Sw i tzh adarous ed
th es us p i ci ons of th ep oli ceb ya" ch ance" m eeti ngw i th
R es ch ezk i nearth eEi f f elTow er . From th atm om entth e
Sw i tzes w ereundertw enty- f our- h ours urv ei llance . P oli ce
s us p i ci onw as f urth erarous edb yth ef actth atth eSw i tzes
rarelyw entouttogeth er . Wh enei th eronelef tth ei rroom i n
as m allh otelonth eR ued' A nti n,th eoth errem ai ned
. P rob i ng
f urth er,th eDeux i em eB ureaudi s cov eredth at,f oram an
regi s teredas as ales m an,Sw i tzp ai drem ark ab lyli ttleatten-
ti ontob us i nes s
.
Th eFi nni s h s p ycas ei nNov em b erp utth eSw i tzri ngon
th ealert. Orders w entouttom em b ers toli elow unti lth e
h eath adb eenturnedof f . Th eSw i tzes k ep ttoth ei rroom .
Unaw areth atJ acob s on' s p os tcardh adgi v enth eFrench
R INGSWITHINR INGS

1 0 1
auth ori ti es th eli nk th eyneeded,Sw i tzf eltcertai nth at
i n
ti m eh ew ouldb eab letores um eop erati ons
.
Wh atp rotectedh i m ,h ow ev er,w as notlack of ev i dencei n
th eh ands of th eB ureau,b utth ei nternati onalp oli ti cals i tua-
ti on
. Forei gh tm onth s ,th reeh undredagents of th eDeux -
li m e
B ureau,th ep oli ce,andth eS&eteGeneraleh adb een
on
th etrack of s ev erals p yri ngs w h i ch reach edi ntotop
A rm yci rcles . B utnoarres ts h adb eenm ade
. Th eFrench
gov ernm entw as th entryi ngtonegoti ateatreatyw i th th e
R us s i ans ,andi tw as f earedth atanyround- up of Sov i ets p i es
w ouldw reck th ew h olep roj ect
. Fi nally,af terh i gh - lev el
di s cus s i ons ,th egov ernm entdeci dedtogi v eth eB ureaua
greenli gh t .
OnDecem b er1 9 ,1 9 3 3 ,P ari s p oli cef orcedth ei rw ayi nto
Mm e. Stah l' s ap artm ent
. Th eyf oundh erdres s edi nMandari n
cos tum e,s i tti ngcros s - leggedonth ef loorreadi ngaC h i nes e
b ook . P rotes ti ngth ats h ew as b ei ngi ns ultedandh erC h i nes e
s tudi es di s turb ed,s h ew as rus h edof f toh eadq uarters
. Sev -
eralh ours laterth etelep h onei nSw i tz' s h otelroom rang
.
Li s teni ngi nonth etap p edw i re,p oli ceh eardanuni denti f i ed
v oi cew arn," Th eyh av earres tedMm e
. Stah lands om eoth ers .
A ndyouh av eb eendi s cov ered
. Leav eas s oonas p os s i b le . "
Th etelep h onecli ck ed,andab adlyf ri gh tenedSw i tztold
h i s w i f eth atth eym us tp ack andleav ei m m edi atelyf orth e
h i deaw ayth eyh adp rep aredatFontai neb leauf orj us ts uch
anev entuali ty
. Sw i tztelep h onedth eh oteldes k clerk th at
th eyw erech eck i ngout
. B utw h enh eop enedh i s room door,
h edi s cov eredth atth e" f li cs " w erew ai ti ngf orh i m
. Toth e
accom p ani m entof i ndi gnantp rotes ts
th at" I' m b ei ng
f ram ed," h i s room w as s earch edandi ncri m i nati ngp ap ers
f ound .
Underq ues ti oni ng,Sw i tzi ns i s tedth ath ew as alov erof
France,th atth ep ap ers f oundi nh i s room w erep lanted
.
A s k edtoaccountf orth e1 9 ,0 0 0 f rancs f oundonh i s p ers on,
h econv eni entlyf orgotw h ereh eh adgotth em
. Th ep oli ce
w erenoti m p res s edb yh i s p rotes tati ons
. Inth ei rs w eep th at
1 0 2

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
day, th eyh adarres tedtens p i es ,uncov eredth es ecretradi o
trans m i tteri nth ew om andenti s t' s of f i ce,turnedup f i lm s of
French f orti f i cati ons andcop i es of m i li tarydocum ents ,and
s entoneA m eri canw om anf leei ngth ecountry .
Th em i s s i ngA m eri canw as Mrs . P aulaLev i ne,ath i rty-
tw o- year- oldNew Y ork er,w h oh adw ork edclos elyw i th
Marj ori eSw i tz
. Notlongaf terh erf li gh t,Mrs
. Lev i nere-
ap p earedi nNew Y ork
. Herap artm entof f Fi f th A v enuew as
us edas as ecreth eadq uarters f orth eWh i ttak erC h am b ers
underground .
Th eMos cow p res s b i tterlydenouncedb oth th eFi nni s h
andFrench gov ernm ents
. C om m enti ngonth eP ari s arres ts ,
Izv es ti a declared
: " Th eri gh ti s tp res s of P ari s andth eWh i te
Guards [ s i c] aregi v i ngth ei rreaders canards ab outSov i et
es p i onagetodetractattenti onf rom
. . . th eStav i s k yb ank -
i ngf rauds
. Th eSov i etgov ernm enth as noth i ngi ncom m on
w i th th es ev i le,low af f ai rs . "
Th elef t- w i ngp res s of Francei s nodi f f erentf rom i ts
counterp arti nth eUni tedStates
. A s s ai li ng" s p yi ti s ," th eSo-
ci ali s t LeP op ulai re
des cri b edi tas a" di s eas ew i th w h i ch th e
p oli cei nculcateth ep ub li cev erys oof ten
. " Th eC om m uni s t
L' Hum ani te
s narledth atth eenti reaf f ai rw as cook edup b y
th eFrench s teeltrus ti nordertodes troygoodrelati ons
b etw eenth eSov i etUni onandFrance .
Th eres tof th eFrench p res s w as m uch m orei nteres tedi n
th eSw i tzes . Th erew as noth i ngrom anti cab outth ei rp li gh t
.
Mrs . Sw i tz' s celli nth eanci entP eti teR oq uettep ri s onw as
cold,th ef oodw as p oor,ands h ew as s ep aratedf rom h er
h us b and . Sw i tzw as noth ap p yei th er . Heb egantolos e
w ei gh tandtos h ow s i gns of th es trai nh ew as under . B ut
nei th erh enorh i s w i f ew ouldcrack . Ob v i ous lyth ew eak es t
f i nk s i n th es p ych ai n,th eSw i tzes s ti llh eldout,m onth af ter
m onth .
Magi s trateA ndreR enon,b ef orew h om th eSw i tzes w ere
b rough tp eri odi cally,di dnotdes p ai r . B yp utti ngof f th edate
of th eactualtri al,h eh op edtow eardow nei th erMarj ori eor
R INGSWITHINR INGS

1 0 3
R ob ert. Now andth en,th etw ow erep erm i ttedatantali zi ng
gli m p s eof each oth er . Wh enth ei rtrunk s w eres ealedi nth ei r
h otelroom ,th eyw ereallow edtok i s s ands ayaf ew w ords to
each oth er . Incourtth eyw erep erm i ttedtoh oldh ands
b ri ef ly . A tev eryap p earanceb ef oreR enon,Sw i tz- now gaunt
andh eav i lyb earded- ref us edtoadm i th i s com p li ci ty . B ut
th egov ernm ent' s p ati encew as rew arded- alth ough i na
totallyunex p ectedw ay.
InGenev a,aSw i s s ci ti zenw alk edi ntoth eFrench Em b as s y
w i th ap ack ageunderh i s arm . Heh ads m uggledi ti nf rom
Francef oraf ee,h es ai d
. R eadi ngof th earres ts conv i nced
th atth erem i gh tb es om econnecti onb etw eenth es p y
ri ngandh i s p ack age. Wh enEm b as s yof f i ci als op enedi t,th ey
f oundarollof f i lm s of French f orti f i cati ons . A ndonth ef i lm s
w as ab eauti f uls etof Sw i tz' s f i ngerp ri nts . A s i ngleb londe

i nth ep ack age,com p aredunderam i cros cop ew i th


Marj ori eSw i tz' s h ai r,w as i denti calw i th h ers .
C onf rontedw i th th enew ev i dence,th eSw i tzes b rok e
dow ncom p letely . Fors ev enh ours ,underth edos eq ues ti on-
i ngof R enon,th etw oyoungA m eri cans toldth ei rs tory . Tw o
s tenograp h ers ,w ork i ngi nrelays ,took i talldow n . Onth e
b as i s of th i s conf es s i on,tw enty- tw onew i ndi ctm ents w ere
h andeddow n. Th em os ts ens ati onaldev elop m entw as th e
arres tof Li eutenantC olonelOctav eduMouli n,ah i gh ly
res p ectedreti redA rm yof f i cerandm em b erof th e Legi on
d' h onneur .
DuMouli n,w h ow roteunderth ep ennam eof
" C h arras ," edi tedam i li taryj ournalcalled A rm yandDenw c-
racy. B i tterb ecaus eh eh adnotri s eni nth eA rm y,DuMouli n
b eeneas i lyp ers uadedtoturnov errep orts of s ecret
s es s i ons of th ef lcoleSup eri euredeGuerre,France' s WarC ol-
lege. Th e5,0 0 0 f rancs h erecei v edm onth lyf rom Sw i tzw ere
als oani m p ortantelem enti nDuMouli n' s treas on
.
A f teralongtri al,Mm e . Stah l,DuMouli n,ands ev enteen
oth ers w eres enttoj ai l. P aulaLev i new as s entencedtof i v e
years i nab s enti a .
Th eSw i tzes w eref reedunderaclaus e
p erm i tti ngleni encyf orth os ew h os econf es s i ons i m p li cated
7 A i

SEEDSOF TR EA SON
oth ers
.
A s Sw i tzw as b ei ngreleas ed,ap oli ceof f i ci altold h am :
" C o p uck
outani cedes erti s landand s tay th eref orm any
years . Mos cow ' s arm i s long,andMos cow w on' tf orget . "
In
A p ri l,1 9 3 5, Sw i tz di s ap p earedf rom v i ew . Ittook A rv i d
J acob s ontw oyears andf ourap p eals toth e
Fi nni s h P res i dent
b ef ore h ew onh i s p ardon. Th enh e, too,di s ap p earedf rom
s i gh t
1 0
New Lav es
Tm runi c A rm P x i v A T rs v ror A Lm m m s s A i m
Wh i ttak erC h am b ers , once th ey h adtak ens ep aratew ays ,
w eres i m i lari ntw ores p ects alone. Each m anros etogreat
h ei gh ts i nh i s ch os enp rof es s i on . A ndeach m anh ugged a
s ecret . Itw as th i s s ecret,h eldi ncom m on,w h i ch ev entually
des troyedth ei rtw ob ri lli antcareers .
In 1 9 3 9 ,w h enA s s i s tantSecretaryof StateFranci s
B . Sayre
lef tth eDep artm enttob ecom eHi gh C om m i s s i oner of th e
P h i li p p i nes ,A lgerHi s s w as alreadydef i ni tely onth eri s e. He
h ad acq ui redth ecorrectands tuf f ys tri p ed- p ants m annerof
th edi p lom ati ccorp s andw as m ark edas a m anw i th ab i g
f uture . Hi s s ' nex tj ob i n th eDep artm entw as as as s i s tantto
StanleyHornb eck h eadof th eh i gh lyi m p ortantFar Eas tern
Di v i s i on . Hornb eck ,af orm erHarv ardp rof es s or,w as re-
gardedas anex trem econs erv ati v eb yWas h i ngtonNew
Dealers . B utas ti m ew entb y,th e k ey deci s i ons w h i ch cam e
outof Hornb eck ' s di v i s i ontook onani ncreas i nglyp i nk h ue .
Its p ers onnel- andi ts p oli ci es w h i ch f av oredth eC h i nes e
C om m uni s ts - b ecam em oreandm ores us p ect. Wh eth er Hi s s
p layedarolei nth i s ch angei s am atterf orconj ecture .
In1 9 4 1 ,DeanA ch es oncam ei ntoth eStateDep artm entas
an as s i s tants ecretary . Th ough anouts i der,andas s uch h andi -
cap p edi nh i s m ai nj ob of li ai s onb etw eenth eDep artm ent
andC ongres s ,h eh adb eh i ndh i m allth ep res ti geof as oci al,
w ealth y,anddecorous b ack ground
. Sh ortlyaf terA ch es on
1 0 5
1 0 6

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
took ov erh i s
duti es andreq ues tedDonaldHi s s as h i s ai de,
A . A . B erle
p ai dh i m av i s i ttow arnh i m ab outth e Hi s s
b roth ers .
R ep eati ng' th ecurrentrum ors of A lger' s andDon-
ald' s C om m uni s t s ym p ath i es ,B erletyp i callyadded," Im us t
em p h as i zeth at [ th i s ] i nf orm ati oni s unconf i rm ed . B utIdi d
th i nk youough ttok now ab outi t
. " A ch es oncalledi nDonald
andas k ed h i m w h eth erh eh adev erh adanyC om m uni s t
as s oci ati ons . Donalddeni edanys uch th i ng,andA ch es on
toldh i m h econs i deredth at" th em atterw as clos ed . " Th at
s am e year,th eFB Iundertook arouti nech eck of A lgerHi s s .
B utth i s Hatch A cti nv es ti gati onp rov ednoth i ngex cep tth at
A lgerw as a v eryci rcum s p ectgov ernm entof f i ci al . Th ough
rum ors of h i s lef ti s tp rocli v i ti es p ers i s ted,th ei nv es ti gators
turnedup notth es li gh tes ttraceof aconnecti onw i th
ev en
th e m i ldes tC om m uni s tf ront.
B y1 9 4 2 ,th eyearw h enHi s s b ecam es p eci alas s i s tanttoth e
adv i s eron p oli ti calrelati ons f orth eDep artm ent,th erew as
nolongeranyneedtob etouch yof th eC om m uni s tq ues ti on .
Uncri ti calaccep tanceof R us s i aaf terHi tlerb rok eth eNazi -
Sov i etp actb ecam e,i nth ew ords of A rth urKrock ," s om uch
th ef as h i onth atev entop oi ntout[ f law s i nSov i et- A m eri can
relati ons ] w as tob ri ngdow nth ech argeof s ym p ath yw i th
' f as ci s m . ' " Sori di culous di dth i s terrorof of f endi ngR us s i a
b ecom eth atatth ereq ues tof th eStateDep artm entth ep ub -
li s h ers of LeonTrots k y' s b i ograp h yof Stali ns up p res s edth e
b ook andrecalledrev i ew ers ' cop i es w h i ch h adb eens entout .
Duri ngth ep eri odof th i s lov ef eas t,B erlew as i n
. di s rep ute
f orh i s " antagoni s ti c" v i ew s . Y eth ek ep th i s eyeonA lgerHi s s
.
Hi s tes ti m onyb ef oreth eHous eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es
C om m i tteei s contradi ctoryandp uzzli ng . B uti np ri v atecon-
v ers ati on,B erleh as s i nceas s ertedth atm ateri alw h i ch
Hi s s
h andledh adatendencytoreach th eR us s i ans . Wh enth i s
m ateri alw as tak enoutof Hi s s ' terri tory,th eleak s s eem ed
to s top
. Y etnei th erB erlenoranyof th eDep artm ent' s s ecuri ty
of f i cers s eem edtoh i nderA lgerHi s s ,andh econti nuedto
m ak eh i s m ark
: - Hi s cap aci tyf orw ork andh i s ab i li ty,as one
NEWLIVES

1 0 7
of h i s s up eri ors onces ai d," top i ck th eb rai ns of h i s colleagues
i nanof f - h andw ayandus eth em ateri alas th ough i th ad
ori gi natedw i th h i m ," p rop elledh i m rap i dlyi ntoth eDep art-
m ent' s h i gh erlev els . Wh enth eOf f i ceof Sp eci alP oli ti cal
A f f ai rs w as createdi n1 9 4 4 ,w i th LeoP as v ols k yas di rector,i t
w as anoth ers tep p i ngs tonef orHi s s . Wi th i ns ev enm onth s ,h e
w as th eOSP A ' s dep utydi rector- as ens i ti v eandk eyp os i ti on .
InA ugus tof 1 9 4 4 ,Hi s s attendedth eDum b artonOak s con-
f erenceas ex ecuti v es ecretary . Wh enh ereturned,allm atters
p ertai ni ngtoth ep rop os eds ecuri tyorgani zati oncam eunder
h i s di rects up erv i s i on . Wi th Harry Hop k i ns ,C ordellHull,and
oth ers ,Hi s s w ork edonth ef i rs tdraf ts of th eUni tedNati ons
ch arter. Hi s relati ons w i th th ep ro- Sov i etHop k i ns w ere
cordi al,b utth erew as m uch f ri cti onb etw eenHi s s andth e
agedHullas th eyoungerm an" ex cori ated" th eSecretaryf or
h i s lack of f ai th i nth eth enSov i et- ap p rov edC h arles de
Gaulle .
( In1 9 4 4 ,arep orterob tai nedacop yof anFB Irep ort
w h i ch li nk edHi s s ,Nath anGregorySi lv erm as ter- anotori ous
C om m uni s tdes p i teh i s i m m uni tyi nth egov ernm ent- and
tw entyoth ers . Th erep orterlearnedth atth i s i nf orm ati onh ad
b eens ub m i ttedtoth eStateDep artm enti n1 9 4 3 b utth ati t
h adb eeni gnored . )
Wh enEdw ardStetti ni us ,oneof R oos ev elt' s les s f eli ci tous
ch oi ces ,s ucceededHull,h ef oundHi s s ' q ui ck ,retenti v em i nd
andi nv aluab leex p eri encei nth eDep artm entav eri tab legod-
s end . Th ank s toth i s goodop i ni on,A lgerw as ap p oi nteda
P res i denti aladv i s er
. Inth atcap aci ty,h eattendedth eY alta
C onf erence
. Earlyi n1 9 4 5,th eY alta- b oundStetti ni us p lane
p utdow ni nMarrak ech ,Morocco . Stetti ni us ,Hi s s ,andH .
Freem anMath ew s s p entth ew eek - endaddi ngth ef i ni s h i ng
touch es tov ari ous p rop os als w h i ch w eretob ep res entedto
P res i dentR oos ev elt . A m ongth es ew as th edi s as trous p oli cy
of s etti ngup " uni ty" gov ernm ents i nP olandandEas tern
Europ e- th ev eryp oli cyw h i ch deli v eredlarges ecti ons of
Europ etoth eC om m uni s ts . Th enex tday,Stetti ni us andHi s s
1 0 8

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
conf erredw i th B ri ti s h rep res entati v es i nth eh op eof con-
v i nci ngth em th atth eC h i nes eC om m uni s ts s h ouldb eth rus t
dow nth eth roatof C h i angKai - s h ek
.
How i m p ortantw as Hi s s ' roleatY alta? Heh i m s elf
tes ti f i edth at" Ith i nk i ti s anaccurateandnotani m m odes t
s tatem enttos ayth atI[ h elp edf orm ulateth eY altaA gree-
m ent] tos om eex tent
. " Th erei s als oth em utetes ti m onyof
th ep h onedi rectoryp ub li s h edf orth eA m eri candelegati oni n
th eC ri m ea
. A tam eeti ngs os tar- s tuddedw i th th eb i gges t
f i gures i nourp oli ti cal,m i li tary,anddi p lom ati cw orlds -
f i gures s uch as GeneralMars h all,A dm i ralKi ng,Stetti ni us ,
Hop k i ns - p rotocolw as i m p ortant . P res i dent
R oos ev elt' s
p h onenum b erw as " 1 . " A lgerHi s s ' w as " 4 . "
Y eti nth em onu-
m ental R oos ev eltandHop k i ns ,
R ob ertE . Sh erw oodgi v es
notones i nglem enti ontoHi s s .
Stetti ni us w eav es th enam eof
Hi s s rep eatedlyi ntoh i s
accountof th eY altaC onf erence
. A s Stetti ni us ' ai de,Hi s s
m ov edi nandoutof negoti ati ons ,h oldi ngs trategi callyi m -
p ortantp os i ti ons
. Wh enR oos ev eltas k edStetti ni us " toget
alaw yertocons ultw i th h i m ov erth ew ordi ngof th eP oli s h
b oundarys tatem ent,IcalledA lgerHi s s ," th eSecretary
w rote. *
A tonep oi ntduri ngth eb i tterf i gh tov erR us s i a' s dem and
f ors i x teenv otes i nth eUni tedNati ons ,R oos ev elt,Hi s s ,
Stali n,andaR us s i ani nterp reterw erelef talonei nacon-
f erenceroom
. Th eres tof th eh i gh b ras s cooledth ei rh eels
outs i de . Wh enR oos ev elt,th en a
dyi ngm an,cam eoutof th e
room w i th A lger,h eannouncedtoh i s adv i s ers th atan" agree-
m ent" h adb eenreach edw h i ch w ouldgi v eR us s i ath reev otes
agai ns tA m eri ca' s one . Toth ep rotes ts of th eA m eri can
delegati on,R oos ev eltw eari lyans w ered :
" Ik now Is h ouldn' th av edonei t. B utIw as s oti redw h en
th eygoth oldof m e . B es i des ,i tw on' tm ak em uch di f f erence . "
Wh ow ere" th ey" ? Stali nandth ei nterp reter? OrStali nand
* From R oos ev eltandth eR us s i ans at Y alta b yEdw ard
Stetti ni us .
Doub ledav &C om p any,New Y ork . 1 9 4 9 .
NEWLIVES

1 0 9
Hi s s ? Y ears
later, under q ues ti oni ng b yth eHous eUn-
A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee,Hi s s h i ntedatth eans w er .
A s k edab outY alta,h es ai d," Is ti ll th i nk i tw as av eryv aluab le
agreem entf orth eUni tedStates . "
Iti s k now nth ath eled s ev eral di s cus s i ons on Uni ted
Nati ons p rob lem s andth ataf teroneof th em GeneralMar-
s h allrem ark ed," Th atyoungm an,Hi s s ,di darem ark ab lej ob
i s h i s p res entati on . " A tanyrate,w h enth econf erencead-
j ourned,A lgerHi s s w as ah ap p ym an ; h ew as tw elf th of th e
th i rteens i gnatori es toth eY altaA greem ent; andh eh adb een
ap p rov edb y
Stali n,
C h urch i ll,andR oos ev eltas general
s ecretaryof th eup com i ngSanFranci s coC onf erence
.
A tth eSanFranci s coC onf erence,i nth es p ri ngof 1 9 4 5,
Hi s s p rov edth ath ew as anorgani zati onalw onder . A s general
s ecretary,i tw as h i s dutytos eeth atth ew h eels w entround-
andth eyli terallys p un . A ndagai nh ep rov edagods end to
Stetti ni us ,f lank i ngh i m atp res s conf erences andh elp i ngh i m
ov er
th erough s p ots . " A s f aras m os tof th eC onf erence
delegates ,cons ultants ,adv i s ers ,andth egeneralp ub li care
concerned," w roteonerep orter," Mr . Hi s s i s acros s b etw een
Si tti ngB ullandMr . Sh ak es p eare' s P ati enceonaMonum ent . "
B utev enh ere,i nf ullv i ew of th eA m eri canp ub li c,th ere
w ere certai nas p ects of h i s acti v i ti es w h i ch p uzzledp eop le.
Foroneth i ng,Hi s s h adatotali tari anv i ew of th ep res s . He
w ents of aras totellWi lli am P layer,J r . ,of tl
. eNew Y ork P os t
th atp ers ons i nres p ons i b lep os i ti ons m us tdeterm i new h at
th e p eop les h ouldk now ab outth eh i s tori cdeli b erati ons . " A ll
you p res s m enarei nteres tedi n,i ts eem s tom e,i s dev elop i ng
controv ers i es ," h es nap p edoneday . " Wh ydon' tyourep ort
th egoodth i ngs ,th eareas of agreem entw eh av ereach ed? "
Th eA m eri canFederati onof Lab orw as b i tteragai ns tHi s s
f or f av ori ngth eth enC om m uni s t- tolerati ngC IO . Th eA FL
ch argedth atth eUni tedNati ons of f i ces w ereb ei ngus edto
p rom oteanew lab orb ody. A ndtrueenough ,th eSov i et-
dom i natedWorldFederati onw as concei v edatSanFranci s co .
Internati onal lab orleaders w h oattendedh adaw ayof turn-
1 1 0

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
i ngouttob eC om m uni s torp ro- C om m uni s t,i tw as noted .
Th erew erep res s rep orts th atA lgerHi s s w as res p ons i b lef or
th eap p oi ntm entof DaltonTrum b o,ah i gh - p ri ceds creen
w ri ter,* as agh os tw ri terf orStetti ni us atth econf erence .
Th erew ererum ors th atHi s s w as res p ons i b lef orth eem p loy-
m ent,i nth eStateDep artm entandatth econf erence,of
,Dav i dZ ab lodow s k y,p ros cri b edf rom gov ernm ents erv i ceb y
th eC i v i lServ i ceC om m i s s i on . Sop res s i ngw ereth es erum ors
th atStetti ni us calledtogeth ers om em em b ers of th eA m eri can
delegati ontorep ort,as SenatorA rth urH. Vandenb ergre-
calls ," th ath eh adh eards uch rum ors ,h adch eck edth em ,and
f oundth em w i th outs ub s tanti ati on . "
B ack i nWas h i ngton,th econti nuedrum ors of A lger Hi s s '
C om m uni s taf f i li ati ons conti nuedtoleav eh i s s up eri ors un-
troub led . A s th ew h i te- h ai redb oyof th eStateDep artm ent,
h ew as nam eddi rectorof th eOf f i ceof Sp eci alP oli ti calA f f ai rs
tos ucceedth eb ri lli antLeoP as v ols k y . P as v ols k y' s reti rem ent
f rom gov ernm ents erv i cegav eWas h i ngton' s P arty- li ners con-
s i derab lep leas ure ; onem oreanti - Sov i etantagoni s th adb een
rem ov edf rom as ecti onw h i ch w as ,accordi ngtoth e C h ri s ti an
Sci enceMoni tor, " am aj orv oi cei ndep artm entaf f ai rs anda
v i talf actor i n f orm ulati ngf orei gnp oli cy . "
OnNov em b er2 5,1 9 4 5,f ollow i ngth es ens ati onalf i ndi ngs
of th eR oyalC om m i s s i oni nv es ti gati ngSov i etes p i onagei n
C anada,af i f ty- one- p agerep ortw as ci rculatedb yA m eri can
s ecuri tyof f i cers f orth eus eof s ens i ti v egov ernm entdep art-
m ents
. A cop yof th i s rep ortw as p lacedonP res i dentTrum an' s
des k
. Onep aragrap h of th i s s ti ll- s ecretdocum entb ears
q uoti ng :
IgorGouzenk o,f orm ercodeclerk i nth eof f i ceof C ol . Ni ch oli
Z ab oti n,Sov i etm i li taryattach e,Ottaw a,C anada,
[ w h o
es cap ed
f rom th eSov i etEm b as s yw i th enough es p i onagerecords top ut
th eC anadi anC om m uni s ts p yri ngb eh i ndb ars andtop oi nttoth e
* Wh enh etes ti f i edb ef oreth eHUA C i n1 9 4 7 ,Trum b ow as conf ronted
w i th tw op artycards ,Nos . 4 7 1 8 7 and3 9 3 0 0 ,b utref us edtoadm i tordeny
th atth eyw ereh i s .
NEWLIVES
1 1 1
ex i s tenceof f ouroth ers uch s p yri ngs op erati ngi nth atcountry
andi nth eUni tedStates ] w h eni nterv i ew edb yarep res entati v eof
[ th eFB I] andof f i cers of th eC anadi anR oyalMountedP oli ce,
s tatedth ath eh adb eeni nf orm edb yLt . Kulak ov i nth eof f i ceof
th eSov i etm i li taryattach eth atth eSov i ets h adanagenti nth e
Uni tedStates i nMay1 9 4 5w h ow as anas s i s tanttoth eSecretary
of State,Edw ardR . Stetti ni us .
A lgerHi s s h adb eenStetti ni us ' as s i s tantatY altai nFeb ru-
aryof 1 9 4 5 . Heh adgi v enai dandadv i cetoth eSecretary
th enandaf terw ard . Hew as th eonlyas s i s tanttoStetti ni us
w h oh adev erb eenaccus edof m em b ers h i p i naC om m uni s t
undergroundri ng . Ev enth em os tcas uali nv es ti gati onw ould
h av eturnedup A . A . B erle' s notes ,th enonf i lew i th th eFB I-
as w ellas StateDep artm ents ecuri tyrep orts - i m p li cati ng
Hi s s . Inex p li cab ly,noi nv es ti gati onw as m ade . Nei th erTru-
m annorth eStateDep artm enttook anyacti on .
InJ anuary,1 9 4 6 ,Hi s s b oardedth e Q ueen Eli zab eth to
attendth eLondons es s i onof th eUni tedNati ons General
A s s em b ly. Hew entas p ri nci p aladv i s ertoth eA m eri can
delegati onandi nth i s cap aci tyw as th row ni ntof req uent
contactw i th J oh nFos terDulles ,aleadi ngR ep ub li cans p ok es -
m anonf orei gnp oli cyandam em b erof th atdelegati on . B y
coi nci dence,th eEndow m entw as th enlook i ngf oras ucces s or
toNi ch olas MurrayB utlerw h oh adreti redas p res i dentof
th eC arnegi eEndow m entf orP eace,a$ 2 0 ,0 0 0 - a- yearp os i ti on .
Inani nf orm alget- togeth erw i th new s m enab oardth es h i p ,
Dulles as k edf oraf ew s ugges ti ons .
" A lgerHi s s ," B ertA ndrew s ,ch i ef of th eNew Y ork Herald
Tri b une' s Was h i ngtonb ureau,s ai dp rom p tly . J am es R es ton
of th eNew Y ork Ti m es agreedth ati tw as agoodnom i nati on .
B uth eh adoneres erv ati on : totak eHi s s outof th eDep art-
m entw ouldrob i tof ab ri lli anttalentatati m ew h enth eb es t
m enw ereleav i ngf orp ri v atej ob s .
Dulles s eem edi m p res s edb yth erecom m endati ons of th e
tw otop Was h i ngtoncorres p ondents
. Wh i les ti lli nLondon,
h eas k edHi s s i f th erew as anych anceth ath em i gh tleav e
1 1 2

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
gov ernm ents erv i ce . A ndHi s s i ndi catedth ath eh adw anted
toleav eh i s i ll- p ayi ngj ob f ors om eti m e . B uth em enti oned
toDulles th atStetti ni us w antedh i m tos tayonf oraw h i le .
Onh i s returntoWas h i ngton,Hi s s s p ok etoUnderSecretary
A ch es on,i ndi cati ngth ath ew ouldli k etoleav eth eState
Dep artm ent. A ndA ch es onm adei tclearth atth ough th e
Dep artm entw ouldregretlos i ngh i m ,h edi dnotf eelh ecould
s tandi nth ew ayof Hi s s ' adv ancem ent .
B utb ef oreHi s s h adlef tth eDep artm ent,th erew as one
m oref lare- up of th eC om m uni s taccus ati onagai ns th i m
.
C ongres s atth eti m ew as res ti v e
. B i tb yb i t,th es toryof
th eY altas ecretconces s i ons w as leak i ngout,andi ndi gnant
s enators andrep res entati v es ,w h oh adnotb eencons ulted,
w antedtok now w h oh adengi neeredth e" greatb etrayal" i n
th eC ri m ea . Th ev etop ow eri nth eUni tedNati ons ,th ead-
m i s s i onof th eUk rai neandWh i teR us s i aw h i ch gav eR us s i a
th reev otes i nth eGeneralA s s em b ly,th edi v i s i onof Germ an
rep arati ons ,th eces s i onof Sak h ali nandth eKuri les toth e
Sov i etUni on,andth eagreem enttoturnov ertoth eNKVD
ref ugees w h oh ades cap edth eR us s i anterror- th es ew ere
s om eof th ep oi nts w h i ch h adw orri edC ongres s .
Earlyi nMarch ,1 9 4 6 ,s om eof Secretaryof StateJ am es F .
B yrnes ' f orm ers enatori alcolleagues w arnedh i m th atattack s
w ereb ei ngp rep aredw h i ch w ouldnam eHi s s aC om m uni s t .
Th enew Secretaryof StatecalledA lgeri nandas k edh i m
p oi ntb lank ," A reyouaC om m uni s t,Mr
. Hi s s ? " Hi s s look ed
B yrnes i nth eeyeanddeni edth ech arge
. B yrnes reluctantly
accep tedHi s s ' w ords . B uth eh adones ugges ti ontom ak e
.
" Th i s i s av erys eri ous m atter," h es ai d . " Ith i nk allth e
s tori es centerf rom th eFB I . Ith i nk th eyareth ep eop lew h o
h av eob tai nedw h atev eri nf orm ati onh as b eenob tai ned
. I
th i nk youw ouldb ew elladv i s edtogodi rectlytoth eFB I
andof f eryours elf f oraf ulli nq ui ryandi nv es ti gati on . "
" If th erei s anyem b arras s m enttoth eDep artm entab out
th i s ," Hi s s toldB yrnes b ef oreh es aw th eFB I," Iw i llof cours e
NEWLIVES

1 1 8
b ep rep aredtores i gn
. Idon' tli k etores i gnunderf i reori na
f i gh t. "
Th ei nterv i ew b etw eenHi s s andDani elM . Laddof th e
B ureaunei th ers ettledm atters norb rough tth em toah ead
.
A s k edtom ak eas tatem ent,th eStateDep artm entof f i ci al
deni edth ath eh adev erb eenas s oci atedw i th anyi ndi v i duals
or
organi zati ons w h i ch " m i gh tlendcredencetos uch a
ch arge . ""
Th atth i s w as p atentlyuntrue,th eFB Ik new
. Th ey
as k edh i m ab outLeeP res s m an,ab outHenryC olli ns ,and
ab outh i s m em b ers h i p i nth eInternati onalJ uri di calA s s o-
ci ati on,anorgani zati onh eh adw ork edw i th i n1 9 3 2 . ( Its
h eadatth eti m ew as Mrs . C arolWei s s Ki ng,law yerf or
Gerh artEi s lerandoth erC om m uni s tleaders . ) Hes lough ed
f tallof f cas ually
.
P arenth eti cally,i tcanb ep oi ntedoutth atHi s s nev er
once
m enti onedth eInternati onalJ uri di calA s s oci ati onw h en
tes ti f yi ngb ef oreth eHous eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om -
m i tteeand,i nf act,di s clai m edm em b ers h i p i nanyC om -
m uni s tf ronts
. Wh enh ew as onth es tandi nh i s f i rs ttri alf or
p erj ury,h em adeagreats h ow of notq ui tek now i ngh ow to
p ronounce" J uri di cal" andm adei ts oundli k e" J uri di cature
. "
Heals ocalledi tan" edi tori al" group deali ngw i th " lab or"
p rob lem s ,w h ereas i tw as ,andi s ,as ortof legals em i narf or
th eC om m uni s tP arty' s law yers ' h oldi ngcom p any,th eInter-
nati onalLab orDef ens e .
A tam eeti ngof th eC arnegi eEndow m enttrus tees ,Hi s s
w as p rop os edandelectedi nf i f teenm i nutes ; andonDecem -
b er1 3 ,1 9 4 6 ,ap ub li cannouncem entw as m ade
. Th ats am e
day,DeanA ch es on,th enA cti ngSecretaryof State,i s s ued
h i s regrets toth ep res s ,ch aracteri zi ngHi s s as oneof th e
Dep artm ent' s " v eryb es tm en" andlaudi ngh i s " outs tandi ng
dev oti onandab i li ty
. " B yrnes ,w h oh adb eengrow i ngi n-
creas i nglys us p i ci ous of Hi s s ,w as p res s uredb yA ch es on
i ntos i gni nganalready- p rep aredletterof recom m endati on .
Duri ngth eHi s s tri als ,B yrnes w as di s s uadedf rom tes ti f yi ng
1 1 4 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
agai ns tHi s s onlyb ecaus ei tw as f elt th i s v eryletterw ould
nulli f y,h i s tes ti m ony .
B utb ef oreHi s s h adas s um edh i s new of f i ce,Dulles recei v ed
w h ats h ouldh av eb eenadi s turb i ngletterf rom LarryS .
Dav i dow ,aDetroi tlaw yerw h oh ads erv edw i th th eR e-
p ub li canp oli cy- m ak erateccles i as ti calconf erences
.
" Th ei nf orm ati onw eh av ew ouldi ndi cateth atMr . Hi s s
h as ap rov ab leC om m uni s trecord," Dav i dow w rote . " If you
arei nteres tedi nb ecom i ngm oref am i li arw i th th i s s i tuati on
[ reli ab lei ndi v i duals i nWas h i ngton] w i lldi s clos ei ttoyou
i n
f ullconf i dence . . . "
Dulles ans w ered,i naletterdatedDecem b er2 6 ,1 9 4 6 :
" Ih av eh eardof th erep orts w h i ch youref erto,b utIam
conf i dentth atth erei s noreas ontodoub tMr . Hi s s ' com p lete
loyaltytoourA m eri cani ns ti tuti ons . . .
If eelali ttle
s k ep ti calab outi nf orm ati onw h i ch s eem s i ncons i s tentw i th
allth atIp ers onallyk now . . . "
Much later,p eop lew h os aw cop i es of th ecorres p ondence
w onderedh ow Dulles couldh av es oeas i lydi s m i s s edth e
ev i denceagai ns tHi s s ev enb ef oreh eh adlearnedw h ati tw as .
Inf ai rnes s toDulles ,h ow ev er,i ti s i m p ortanttonoteth ath e
di dgeti ntouch w i th Hi s s ov erth etelep h oneandth atHi s s
contri v edtop utDulles ' m i ndatres tb ys i m p lylyi ngtoh i m .
HetoldDulles th atth ereh adb eens om erep orts ab outh i m
b utth ath eh ad" p arti cularly" and" s p eci f i callych eck ed"
w i th SecretaryB yrnes andh adb eentoldb yB yrnes th atth ey
h adb een" lai dtores t. " Hi s s h adnotch eck edw i th B yrnes
atall .
Mores i gni f i cantw as Hi s s ' caref ulav oi danceof anym en-
ti onth atf orm anyyears h eh adb eenunderi nv es ti gati onb y
th eFB I,th ath eh adb eenth es ub j ectof q ui etC ongres s i onal
s cruti ny,andth atB yrnes h i m s elf h adb eenalarm edb yth es e
rep orts . Nordi dh eaddth at s o loudw ereth ev oi ces agai ns t
h i m th atonh i s w i th draw alf rom th eStateDep artm ent,th e
' Oth ers trongw arni ngs w ereals ogi v enDulles b yA lf redKoh lb erg,now
p ub li s h erof P lai nTalk .
NEWLIVES

1 1 5
C h ri s ti anSci enceMoni torcould s tate," Moreth anoneC on-
gres s m an,w h enev erth es ub j ectof lef ti s t
acti v i tyi nth eState
Dep artm enti s m enti oned,p ulled
outali s tof s us p ects th at
w as i nv ari ab lyh eadedb yMr
. Hi s s . "
OnFeb ruary1 ,1 9 4 7 ,A lgerHi s s b ecam e
th ep res i dentof
th eC arnegi eEndow m ent, acorp orati onw i th anannual
b udgetof $ 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
Im m edi ately,th atp rocli v i ty toj oi n
ev eryth i ngi ns i gh t,s oouts tandi ng
duri ngh i s collegedays ,
agai ncam etoth ef ore . Inf ai rlys h ortorder,h e w as : a
di rectorandm em b erof th e ex ecuti v ecom m i tteeof th e
A s s oci ati onf orth eUni tedNati ons ; ch ai rm anof th eex ecuti v e
com m i tteeof th eC i ti zens C om m i ttee f orR eci p rocalWorld
Trade; m em b erof th ecounci lof th eA m eri can
Geograp h i cal
Soci ety; adi rectorof th eWoodrow Wi ls onFoundati on ; a
m em b erof th eb oardof trus tees of th e WorldP eaceFounda-
ti on .
A s p res i dentof th eC arnegi eEndow m ent, h ew as als ocon-
s tantlyi ndem andas as p eak erandas aw ri ter . A tJ oh ns Hop -
k i ns ,h ew as aw ardedanh onorary degree . Hedeli v ered
addres s es atHav erf ordC ollege
andatNorth w es ternUni -
v ers i ty,p op p edi nandoutof Uni ted Nati ons deli b erati ons ,
andw rotef ors uch di f f eri ng p ub li cati ons as th eQ uak er
organ, Th eFri end, andth eNew Y ork Ti m es . Now h erei nh i s
s p eech es orh i s w ri ti ngs ,h ow ev er, w as th ereas m uch as a
s i nglew ordof cri ti ci s m of th e Sov i etUni on . Ev enth em os t
tolerantnon- C om m uni s t,deali ngi nth ef i eldof i nternati onal
af f ai rs ,los tp ati encew i th R us s i anow and
th en,
Nots oA lger
Hi s s .
A tati m ew h enSov i eti ntrans i gence w as i ncreas i ng,h e
p rai s edth eR us s i ans f or" h av i ngm ade p rogres s tow ardagree-
m entw i th oth erp eop les i nrecent s es s i ons of th eUni ted
Nati ons . " Th eUni ted . Nati ons ,h e s ai donanoth eroccas i on,
h adb een" oneof th eb es tm eans of di s s olv i ngth es o- called
[ s i c] IronC urtai n . " Onatom i c energy- af i eldi nw h i ch th e
Sov i etUni tedNati ons delegati onh ad
ex acerb atedth e enti re
b ody- Hi s s f oundth atth e" R us s i ans h av ecom e a longw ay
1 1 0

SEEDSOF TR EA SON
tow ardm eeti ngw i th oth ernati ons . " Hef av oredth eMars h all
P lanb uttook th ef ellow - trav eli ngp os i ti onth ati ts h ouldb e
anoth erUNR R A ,adm i ni s teredb yth eUNb ureaucracy .
B utth i s w as s urf acedres s i ng . A lgerHi s s m us th av ek now n
th ats om eth i ngw as b rew i ng. Heh adb eeni nv es ti gatedi n
1 9 4 1 underth eHatch A ct . Heh adgonetoth eFB Ih i m s elf
i n1 9 4 6 . Now ,i nMay,1 9 4 7 ,th eFB Iv i s i tedh i m agai ntoas k
h i m i f h ew as aC om m uni s t,i f h eh adtak enp arti nC om -
m uni s tacti v i ti es w h i lei nth egov ernm ent,andi f h ek new
Wh i ttak erC h am b ers . ( Lateronh ew as totes ti f yth ath eh ad
nev erh eardth atnam eunti lC h am b ers took th es tandi n
Was h i ngtononA ugus t3 ,1 9 4 8 . )
Th en,i nFeb ruary,1 9 4 8 ,th enoos eti gh tened . Dulles f elt
h ecouldnolongeri gnoreth es tori es ab outHi s s . He" s earch -
i nglyq ues ti oned" Hi s s . A longw i th h i s deni als ,Hi s s w as
f orcedtoadm i tth ath eh adb eens ub p oenaedandq ues ti oned
b yth eFederalgrandj uryp rob i nges p i onage . B uth e" re-
as s ured" Dulles th ati tw as a" routi ne" ap p earance. *
A gai nDulles w as w i lli ngtoaccep tth es ereas s urances ,p lus
th os eof aStateDep artm entof f i ci alw h om h eh as nev er
nam ed,andtoletth em atterri de .
Onth eni gh tof A ugus t2 ,1 9 4 8 ,A lgerHi s s ' p h onerang .
" Th i s i s th eNew Y ork Star, Mr . Hi cc," s ai d
J am es P arlatore,
arep orter .
" Y es ? " ans w eredHi s s
.
" Doyouk now aWh i ttak erC h am b ers ? " Hi s s w as s i lent,
th enh erep li eds low ly," No,w h y? '
" Well," th e Star rep ortertoldh i m , " h e' s s up p os edtob e an
edi torof Ti m e andh e' s goi ngtoap p earb ef oreth eHous e
Un- A m eri canC om m i tteeandh e' s goi ngtonam e youas a
C om m uni s t . "
" R i di culous ," Hi s s s nap p ed .
Tw odays later,af terC h am b ers h adtes ti f i ed,th e Star
* Sh ortlyaf terth i s ,A ttorneyGeneralTom C lark ,f orreas ons w h i ch can
onlyb eh azarded,calledi nth etop m em b ers of th eWas h i ngtonp res s corp s
toi nf orm th em of f - th e- recordth atHi s s andth eoth erp eop leca

yy
grandj uryh adb eencleared .
NEWLIVES

1 1 7
calledHi s s agai n . Wh atth eaccus edm anh adtos ayw as
m orerev eali ngth anh ep erh ap s reali zed .
" I' m notap oli ti ci an,b uti tj us ts truck m eth atf i v eof th e
ei gh tp ers ons m enti oned- m ys elf ,P res s m an,Wi tt,Kram er,
andA b t- w ereem p loyedb yth eDep artm entof A gri culture
w h i leWallacew as th ere
. Idon' tk now ,b utth i s m i gh tb ean
i ndi rectattack atHenryWallace . " Unw i tti ngly,h eh adagai n,
calledattenti ontoh i s li nk w i th th eearlyandnotori ous
Was h i ngtoncell .
Th eri s eof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers i nth e Ti m e- Li f e
organi za-
ti onw as ,i ni ts ow nw ay,as p h enom enalas Hi s s ' h adb eeni n
gov ernm ents erv i ce . Itw as th em orep h enom enalb ecaus e
C h am b ers s tartedoutf rom s cratch - andb ecaus eh elack ed
Hi s s ' p rop ens i tyf ors eek i ngoutp rop i ti ous f ri ends h i p s
. From
h i s f i rs tdayat Ti m e, m oreov er,C h am b ers w as s urrounded
b yh os ti li ty . Th elargeC om m uni s tcellw h i ch f louri s h edi n
th eLuceem p i reduri ngth eearlyf orti es w as determ i nedto
s eeh i m ous ted,b yanyandallm eans .
In th os eearlydays ,w h enC h am b ers w as th em os tv ulner-
ab le,th ecelldi dev eryth i ngw i th i ni ts p ow ertob edev i lh i m .
P arty- li ners th w artedh i s ef f orts atev eryturn . Wh enh ew as
as s i gnedtoas tory,h i s res earch m ateri alw oulddi s ap p ear .
Oth erres earch m ateri al,neces s arytov eri f yp oi nts h eh ad
m adei nas tory,w ouldals odi s ap p earj us tb ef oredeadli ne .
Th i s w as di rects ab otage
. A th i s ev erym enti onof com m u-
ni s m ,th eclaq uew ouldattem p ttodrow nh i m out. Ins i di ous
li ttles tori es w oulds p readab outh i m ,s tarti ngnow h ereand
goi ngf ar
.
Hi s w arni ngs agai ns tth eC om m uni s ts on Ti m e w eretak en
as eccentri ci ti es oras th ef ulm i nati onof av i ci ous m an. A nd
th eyh urth i m i nh i s day- to- dayli f e . R alp h Ingers oll,later
toedi tP M,w as di ddli ngw i th th ei deaof Marx i s m th en .
Th erew ereoth ers i nth es eats of th em i gh tyw h oh adgone
cons i derab lyb eyondIngers oll
. C h am b ers w as ath orni nth ei r
s i de
. Inanattem p ttoundercuth i m ,th eyh adh i m s h i f ted
1 1 8

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
f rom dep artm enttodep artm ent . B uttryas th eym i gh t,th ey
couldnotm i ni m i zeh i s outs tandi ngab i li ti es as aw ri terand
edi tor . Slow lyb utp ercep ti b ly,h eros ei n Ti m e' s s h i f ti ng
h i erarch y
. Ev eni ns os tyli zedam agazi ne,h i s w ri ti ngs s tood
outf orth ei rs h arp i ns i gh tandb roads cop e
.
Mov i erev i ew s ,b ook rev i ew s ,f orei gnnew s - allth es e
p as s edth rough h i s h ands . Hew ork edw i th ab oundles s p er-
s i s tence . A s th eMondayni gh tdeadli neap p roach ed,h e
w ouldw ork th eclock aroundandaround- of tenf orty- ei gh t
h ours atas tretch . Now andth enatof f i cep arti es ,h ew ould
unb uttonenough totellf ri ends s om eth i ngof th eneth erw orld
f rom w h i ch h eh adem erged . ( HenryLucew as ev entually
gi v enm anyof th es ali entdetai ls b yC h am b ers h i m s elf . ) Or
h ew ouldattem p ttoex p lai nth enatureof com m uni s m to
s om eof th es h ak ys ouls w h os eem edtob es uccum b i ng . He
m adef ew f ri ends h i p s ,b utth os eh edi dm ak ew eredeep and
las ti ng. Wh enh ef oundh i ddentalent,h enurturedi t . Itw as
C h am b ers w h os p ottedHenryGrunw ald,trai nedh i m as a
w ri ter,ands eth i m onth eroadf rom of f i ceb oytoas s oci ate
edi tor .
C h am b ers ' undergroundp as tcaugh tup w i th h i m only
cas ually . In1 9 4 3 ,tw oFB Iagents v i s i tedh i m . B ef oretalk i ng
toth em ,C h am b ers ch eck edw i th B erleonth eadv i s ab i li tyof
s p eak i ngh i s p i ece
. Wh enB erleas s ented,C h am b ers told
th em p art,th ough f arf rom all,of h i s s tory
. Itw as along
ram b li ngi nterv i ew ,alm os tp oi ntles s . Wh enth eq ues ti oni ng
w as ended,oneof th eagents toldanam us edandas tounded
C h am b ers ," Y oui nteres tm egreatly . " Notunti l 1 9 4 5w as
th ereanyf urth ers i gnof th ati nteres t
. Th en,th eB ureaus ent
anoth erm anw i th ap h otoof J . P eters f orC h am b ers to
i denti f y. C h am b ers w as as k edf oralongs tatem ent . From th at
p oi nton,th eFB Ib oth eredh i m onlyw h eni tw antedp arti cu-
lari nf orm ati ononas p eci f i cp ers oni nth eP arty .
Inth os ef i rs t Ti m e years ,C h am b ers w as m ov i nggradually
tow ardQ uak erf ai th . Heh adf eltw h enh eb rok ew i th th e
P artyth atth eab s enceof Godm adecom m uni s m af ai lure
.
NEWLIVES

1 1 9
Hi s b reak i ts elf h adb eenadeep reli gi ous ex p eri ence,b ut
i th adrem ai nedunres olv ed
. Th erew as agreatv oi di nh i s
li f ew h i ch th eEp i s cop ali ani s m h eh adaccep tedi n
1 9 3 9 di d
notf i ll
. Inh i s m em orab lecov ers toryonth eP rotes tantp h i -
los op h erR ei nh oldNi eb uh r,C h am b ers w as tow ri tem any
years later," Toth i s unendi ngef f orttok now God,m ani s
dri v enb yth enob les tof h i s i ntui ti ons - th es ens eof h i s m oral
i ncom p letenes s - andb yh ardex p eri ence
. "
Heh adgai nedth ath ardex p eri encei nth edes p eratedays
of h i s b reak w h enh ew as arootles s ,di recti onles s m anreach -
i ngoutof th edark nes s
. Th es h oddym ateri ali s m of C om -
m uni s ti deologyh adb luntedh i s i ntui ti on
. B uti th adcom eto
s ens i ti v i tyagai nw h enC h am b ers em ergedi ntoth eli gh t
. He
k new oncem orew h ath i s b oyh oodconf us i ons h adv aguely
uttered- th at" as tw enti eth - centuryci v i li zati onreach es a
cli m ax ,i ts ow np aradox es grow catas trop h i c . " Th i s h adled
h i m b ef oretocom m uni s m andtoth es erv i ceof Luci f er,th e
f allenangel
. Wh ereh eh adoncech os enb etw eenh elland
p urgatory,h ow ev er,h enow f acedtw ooth eralternati v es
.
" Mans tands atth ej unctureof natureands p i ri t," h ew rote
i nth eNi eb uh rs tory
. Inch oos i ngth es p i ri t,h ech os eGod ;
andi nch oos i ngGod,h eturnedtoth em ys ti calex eges i s of
th eQ uak ers .
Th i s w as nos uddenconv ers i ononth eroadtoDam as cus .
Th erew as ath i nconti nui tyw h i ch ledh i m toi t,as enti m ental
aw arenes s th ath i s grandm oth erh adb eenaFri endanda
s h arp recollecti onof longconv ers ati ons i nw h i ch P ri s ci lla
Hi s s h adh ark edb ack toch i ldh ooddays i nQ uak erm eeti ng
h ous es
. C h aracteri s ti cally,h ereadGeorgeFox ,th ef ountai n-
h ead,i np rep arati on
. B ef oretak i ngth es tep ,h eattended
m eeti ngs of th eSoci etyof Fri ends i nNew Y ork andi nth e
country,notf arf rom h i s Wes tm i ns terf arm . In 1 9 4 1 , Wh i t-
tak erC h am b ers b ecam eaQ uak er
.
" Wh i tC h am b ers w as alw ays readytoi llum i natereali ty,"
h i s Ti m e- Li f e f ri endandcolleagueJ oh nC h am b erlai nw rote
f orth eOctob er
1 5,1 9 4 9 ,New Leader . " P udgyi nap p earance,
1 20 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
h ew as h ardanddi s ci p li nedunderneath h i s m i s leadi ngex -
teri or . Heh adagooddealof gai ety,h ew as ex trem elyi n-
teres tedi nreli gi ous s ub j ects ,h ew ouldw ork li k eatruck
h ors etodeli v eronanas s i gnm ent,andh ew ouldgoof f to
th ecountrytow ork eq uallyh ardatgetti ngi nth eh ay .
Duri ngth eyears i nw h i ch Ik new h i m h ew as b ecom i ng
m oreandm oreenam oredof countryli f e . Hetook p ri dei n
th ef actth ath ew as oneex - C om m uni s tw h oref us edtom ak e
ali v i ngoutof b ei ngan ` ex . '
" Heof tenb oas tedth ath i s s onanddaugh terw ereh av i ng
agoodb i rth ri gh t
; th eyw eregrow i ngup i nth ecountry,i na
s ob erA m eri cancom m uni ty . Th eyw ouldh av eap ri deof
p lace,as tab i li ty,th ath i s ow ngenerati onh adnev erk now n .
Hi s daugh terEllenof tenrep eatedaQ uak erp rayerb ef ore
m eals th atw ent :
Godm adeth es un
A ndGodm adeth etree.
Godm adeth em ountai n
A ndGodm adem e .
Ith ank th ee,0 Lord,
Forth es unandth etree,
Form ak i ngth em ountai n
A ndf orm ak i ngm e
.
" Wh i ttak erw antedh i s ch i ldrentob ereli gi ous i nth es ens e
of th atp rayer,w h i ch b reath edagladaccep tanceof th e
s acrednes s of h um anli f e . . . "
Th eaccep tanceb yC h am b ers of aQ uak erp h i los op h yi s
cruci ali nth i s narrati v e . Fori tnotonlyb rough th i m i ntoth e
com m uni tyof God- f eari ngm en ; i trai s eds p eci f i cq ues ti ons
i nh i s m i ndandledh i m tocom m i th i s p erj uri es b ef oreth e
Hous eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i tteeandth eFederal
grandj ury . A s anuncom p rom i s i ngenem yof com m uni s m ,
i tw as h i s dutytof i gh ti t" i nw ordandact
. " B utas aQ uak er,
h ew as als ob oundtores p ectth eh um anelem ent . Fullyaw are
th atats om eti m eoroth erh ew ouldb ecalledup ontob ear
w i tnes s agai ns tHi s s ,HarryDex terWh i te,andth eoth ers ,
NEWLIVES

1 2 1
h edeci deddeli b eratelytow i th h oldev i denceof es p i onage .
Y ears later,as h es ati nth ew i tnes s ch ai rduri ngth es econd
Hi s s tri al,C h am b ers ex p lai nedh i s m oti v ati on .
" Myp urp os eh adb eentodes troyandp aralyzeth eC om -
m uni s tcons p i racyi nth egov ernm ent," h es ai dq ui etly. " A t
th es am eti m eIw i s h edtodoas li ttlei nj uryas p os s i b leto
th eh um anb ei ngs i nv olv ed
. . .
Inm yow ncas e,Ih adb een
gi v enti m etow ork outanew li f e . Inb reak i ngw i th th e
C om m uni s tP arty,ti m ei s am os tes s enti alf actor . Iw anted
togi v eth es ep eop leth es am eop p ortuni tyIh ad . . .
" Th erew as adi s ti ncti oni nm ym i ndb etw eendi s clos i ng
th eulti m atep erf i dyof es p i onageandth em eref actof com -
m uni s m
. Ingeneral,Ith i nk th erearetw ok i nds of m en . One
k i ndb eli ev es th atGodi s aGodof j us ti ce . Th eoth erb eli ev es
th atGodi s aGodof m ercy
. Iam s ocons ti tutedth atIw i ll
alw ays rangem ys elf onth es i deof m ercy . "
SoC h am b ers i ni ti atednof urth erm ov etoex p os eA lger
Hi s s . A ndas ti m ew entb y,th eundergroundp eri odof h i s
li f em us th av es eem edrem otei ndeed
. Onceh eres urrected
i ts ym b oli callyi nap i ecef or Li f e w ri ttenatth ereq ues tof
HenryLuce . Ti tled" Th eDev i l," i tw as am orali tys k etch ,
anallegoryonev i li nw h i ch Luci f erw as th eh eadof an
undergroundeli tes ub v erti ngGod- i roni cally,aneli teto
w h i ch s om eof s oci ety' s b es t - p eop leb elonged . Itanatom i zed
th eR eas onw h i ch does notunders tandandth eSci enti s m
w h i ch ex p lai ns noth i ng .
B utf orth em os tp art,C h am b ers ' w ork i nth eLuceor-
gani zati onm ov edalongadi f f erentroad
. Hew roteth e
m eas uredandk now ledgef ulp i eces onth eR enai s s anceand
th eR ef orm ati onw h i ch ap p earedi n
Li f e
.
Hew rotealong
es s ayonth eP op e . Hi s cov ers toryonNi eb uh rw as h ardlyi n
k eep i ngw i th th etoneof ap op ularm agazi ne,b uti nth e
m oreraref i edreli gi ous ci rcles i tcaus edm uch com m ent . Hi s
rev i ew of Toynb ee' s Hi s toryof C i v i li zati on agai nw as recog-
ni zedas outs tandi ng
. R i ch i nap h ori s m s ,i tw as w rack edw i th
m an' s ordeal,w i th th ereali zati onof ourti m e' s p lague .
1
2 2

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
Th erew ereoth ers tori es h ew rote,lyri candm ov i ngand
ali v e,s uch as h i s cov ers toryonMari anA nders on,th eNegro
s i nger. B ecaus eh ef eltth at" th eth em eof th egreates tm us i c
i s alw ays th eb i rth of th es oul," h ew roteth es toryf or Ti m e' s
R eli gi onSecti onandnotf orMus i c
. B uth edi dnotdev ote
h i m s elf s olelytoth eli f eandartof aw arm lyreli gi ous w om an .
Hecarri edh i s ex p os i ti onf urth er,i ntoagleam i ngdes cri p ti on
of th eNegros p i ri tual .
" Itw as th ereli gi ous v oi ceof aw h olereli gi ous p eop le-
p rob ab lyth em os tGod- ob s es s ed( andm an- des p i s ed) s i nce
th eanci entHeb rew s ," h ew rote . " Ones i m p lef acti s clear-
[ th es p i ri tuals ] w erecreatedi ndi rectans w ertoth eP s alm i s t' s
q ues ti on,` How s h allw es i ngth eLord' s s ongi nas trange
land? ' . . . Gri ef ,li k eatuni ngf ork ,gav eth etone,and
th eSorrow Songs w ereuttered . "
9 1
Th erew as nogai ns ayi ngth ep redi cti v eaccuracyof
Wh i tC h am b ers ' j ournali s m ," C h am b erlai ns ays . " Hew as
alw ays ah eadof h i s colleagues ,f orh ek new h ow totali tari ans
couldb eex p ectedtob eh av ei nanygi v eni ns tance . Hew as n' t
f ooledb yTeh eran,Y alta,orP ots dam ,andh ew ouldh av e
b eenab etteradv i s ertoJ i m m yB yrnes th ananyoneonJ i m m y
B yrnes ' StateDep artm entp ayroll .
" J ournali s m th ati s m oreth anas tep ah eadof m ob atti tudes
i s n' tv eryp op ular
. A tth ev eryh ei gh tof th eA m eri can- R us s i an
lov ef eas t,Wh i ttak erC h am b ers w roteab ri lli antf antas y
called` Th eGh os ts onth eR oof . ' Inth i s f antas yTs arNi ch olas
returnedtoearth toannounceh i s conv ers i ontoStali ni s m .
Wh yh adth elas tof th eR om anov s ch os entogoov ertoh i s
ex ecuti oners ? Foronecom p elli ngreas on . Stali nw as i n
p roces s of gai ni ngallth eends i nf orei gnp oli cyf orw h i ch
th eR om anov s h adw ork eduns ucces s f ullyth rough outth e
centuri es . P ri ntedi n Ti m e, w h i ch i s m ani f es tlyanew s
w eek ly,th ef antas ym ayh av ep uzzledm any . B uti f truth i s a
m atterof accuratei llum i nati onof reali ty,th en` Th eGh os ts
onth eR oof ' w as th etrues ts ortof new s . "
NEWLIVES

1 2 3
B utti m ew as runni ngoutf orth es eni oredi torof Ti m e .
Hi s res olv etos p eak outagai ns tth e" ev i lth i ng" h adyettob e
p uttoth etes t . Oneday,new s p ap erh eadli nes b lazonedth e
s toryof Eli zab eth B entley' s conf es s i on . Th eclock s truck
coldlyf orWh i ttak erC h am b ers . Th eelev enth h ourh adcom e
.
1 1
Th eB entleyStory
THEC OMMUNISTESP IONA GEA P P A R A TUS IS LIKE A
f low i ngri v er,ev erch angi ngyetalw ays th es am e . From year
toyear,i ts leaders andi ts p ers onneldrop outorarerep laced.
B utth ei rs ucces s ors ,h ow ev erdi f f erentth eym ayb ei ndi v i du-
ally,s ti llf uncti oni nth es am ew ay. If ti m eb rough tany
ch ange,i tw as th i s : th eWas h i ngtons p yri ngop erati ngi n
th elateth i rti es underWh i ttak erC h am b ers h adb eenaw ell-
b eh av edri v er,carryi ngi ts m odes tgoods toMos cow
. B yth e
ti m eth eUni tedStates w as b us i lyengagedi ndef eati ngth e
A x i s p ow ers ,th eri v erh adov erf low edi ts b ank s
. A neddyof
th i s es p i onagetorrenti s th eB entleys tory.
Eli zab eth B entley,C om m uni s t,w as ananom alytoth eNew
Englandtow ni nw h i ch s h es p entth ef i rs ts ev enyears of h er
li f e . B orni nNew Mi lf ordi n1 9 0 8 ,s h ew as des cended,
th rough h ers ch ool- teach erm oth er,f rom th eolds ettlers of
C onnecti cutandcouldclai m k i ns h i p w i th m anyf am i li es i n
th edi s tri ct . Herf ath er,ori gi nallyf rom Morri s tow n,New
J ers ey,w as as oli dm i ddle- clas s ci ti zen- aR ep ub li can,aP ro-
h i b i ti oni s t,andaleadi ngm em b erof th eC ongregati onal
C h urch .
B utNew England,f oralli ts tradi ti onalcons erv ati s m ,w as
als oacradleof A m eri cani deali s m
. Th ep h i los op h i caldream s
th atb ri ef lycam etoli f eatWaldenP ondandB rook Farm
f i lledth em i ndof " b ook i s h ,b rai ny" Eli zab eth
. A s h erf ath er' ' s
1 2 4
THEB ENTLEY STOR Y

1 2 5
b us i nes s took th eB entleys f rom ci tytoci ty,th i s i deali s m w as
f urth erconf i rm ed,p arti cularlyi nth eex p andi ngi ndus tri al
tow ns w h ereB ettys aw atf i rs th andth eeconom i cm i s eryand
s oci ali neq uali tyof cap i tali s m ati ts crudes t
.
Th edep res s i onw as ati ts w ors tw h enB ettyB entleygradu-
atedf rom Vas s arC ollegei n
1 9 3 0
.
B utth ef ullex tentof h er
undergraduatep rotes th adb eenah alf - h eartedm em b ers h i p
i nth eLeaguef orIndus tri alDem ocracy . Fortw oyears ,B etty
taugh tlanguages atFox crof t,af i ni s h i ngs ch ooli nVi rgi ni a .
Th ens h ew entb ack tos ch ool,tos tudyItali anatC olum b i a
Uni v ers i tyi nNew Y ork . Itw as atC olum b i ath ats h ef elli n
w i th th atlargeandacti v egroup of cam p us C om m uni s ts
andf ellow - trav elers w h i ch atth eti m eagi tatedop enlyand
b oi s terous lyonMorni ngs i deHei gh ts
.
HerItali ans tudi es took h ertoth eUni v ers i tyof Florence
i naFas ci s tItalyw h ere,s h erecalls ," alm os tev eryone
s neak edaroundcorners andw h i s p ered i n ev eryb odyels e' s
ears . " Wh ens h ereturnedtoC olum b i a i n th ef allof 1 9 3 4 ,
togeth erm as ter' s degree,s h ew as " i nv i olentrev uls i on
agai ns tf as ci s m " and" look i ngf ors om eth i ngtodotof i gh t
agai ns ti t . " A s i th adb eenf orm anyoth eryoungp eop le,com -
m uni s m s eem edtob eth eans w er . Herf i rs ts tep i nth edi rec-
ti onof th eP artyw as th eA m eri canLeagueA gai ns tWarand
Fas ci s m ,th eorgani zati onw h i ch launch edth e" p op ular
f ront" i nth i s country,tow h i ch s h ecouldgi v eth eb enef i ts
of h erf i rs t- h andob s erv ati ons . Gradually,th eP artyi ndoc-
tri natedh er
. Th eb i gargum entw as
: " If youf eelli k eali b -
eral,andi f youf eelth atcondi ti ons areb ad,th enyous h ould
allyyours elf w i th th egroup th atw i llb es tronganddi s -
ci p li nedandi ntelli gentandth atcanreallydos om eth i ng . "
Inth os edays ,th eargum ents eem edtom ak es ens e
.
Ittook B ettyB entleyunti lMarch , 1 9 3 5, tob ecom eacard-
carryi ngm em b erof Harlem Uni tNo
. 1 atC olum b i aUni v er-
s i ty,underth eP artynam eof Mary
. Forth reeyears ,as s h e
dri f tedi nandoutof th eWP A Wri ter' s P roj ect,h eracti v i ti es
1 2 6

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
w ereth os eof th eav erageC om m uni s t . Sh em arch edi np i ck et
li nes ,s old Dai lyWork ers , p aradedonMayDay,ands eri -
ous lys tudi edP artyli terature .
In1 9 3 8 ,Eli zab eth B entleytook aj ob i nth eItali anLi b rary
of Inf orm ati on
. Th eres h ew as s truck b ytw oth i ngs : th at
th eLi b raryw as ap artof th eItali angov ernm ent' s P rop aganda
Mi ni s tryandth ati tw as adi s tri b uti oncenterf orFas ci s tp rop -
aganda
. Li k eagoodanti - Fas ci s t,s h ecarri edth i s k now ledge
toC om m uni s th eadq uarters onEas t1 2 th Street,eagerto
m ak eth eb es tp os s i b leus eof h erp os i ti oni nth eenem ycam p .
Th i s act,certai nlynotarep reh ens i b leone,li f tedth etrap
doortoth eC om m uni s tunderw orldf orB etty .
Th eP artyw elcom edEli zab eth B entley' s of f er . Sh ew as
toldtodes troyh erP artycardi m m edi ately,endh erattend-
anceatuni tm eeti ngs ,anddi s s oci ateh ers elf f rom h erC om -
m uni s tf ri ends . From th atm om entons h ew as tob eam em -
b eratlargew h os eonlyconnecti onw i th th eP artyw ouldb e
th rough acontacts h ek new atf i rs tonlyas J oh n . Inth e
C om m uni s tP arty," youtak eorders anddon' tas k q ues ti ons . "
B ettydi das s h ew as told
.
Forab outayear,duri ngw h i ch s h es eri ous lyb eli ev edth at
s h ew as f i gh ti ngFas ci s m ,Marycollectedev i denceof Itali an
andSp ani s h Falangi s tconni v ancei nth i s country
. Sh ek ep t
li s ts of v i s i tors toth eLi b raryof Inf orm ati onandm adea
recordof Fas ci s tp rop agandali teratureb ei ngdi s s em i nated
i nth i s country
. A llth es eth i ngs s h eturnedov ertoJ oh nat
p rearrangedm eeti ngs i nres taurants andons treetcom ers .
Foralongti m es h ew as unaw areth atJ oh nw as reallyJ acob
Golos ,p res i dentof WorldTouri s ts ,Inc
. ,orth atth i s " res p ect-
ab letrav elagency" w as af rontf orSov i etes p i onageop era-
ti ons .
Itw as anev enlongerti m eb ef ores h ek new th atWorld
Touri s ts trans m i tteds toleni nf orm ati onconcealedi nf ood
andcloth i ngp ack ages f orth eSov i etUni onorth ati tw as a
k i ndof underground" cons ulate" w h i ch s up p li edtrans p orta-
ti onandcredenti als toC om i nternagents . B utWorldTour-
THEB ENTLEY STOR Y

1 2 7
i s ts ,h eadedb yC om m uni s tf uncti onari es s uch as A lex ander
Trach tenb erg andR ob ertWi lli am Wi ener,s erv edex actly
th atp urp os e . Wh enGerh artEi s lerw enttoth eSov i et
Uni oni n1 9 3 5,i tw as WorldTouri s ts w h i ch arrangedf ora
f ak ep as s p orti s s uedunderth enam eof Sam uelLi p tzen .
Much of Eli zab eth B entley' s earlyw ork f orGolos w as
p rettyi nnocuous . Sh edi ddetai ledres earch ons uch p eop le
as Herb ertHoov er,Th om as E. Dew ey,m em b ers of th e
R oos ev eltC ab i net . Duri ngth eFi nni s h - R us s i anw ar,s h es up -
p li eddataonm em b ers of th eFi nni s h R eli ef C om m i ttee
.
P artof th i s i nf orm ati onw enttoR us s i a ; p artw as us edi n
s m earattack s p ub li s h edb yth eC om m uni s tp res s . A nds om e-
h ow ,th eth i rty- year- oldw om anf ellunderth es p ellof Golos
- anunattracti v eli ttlem an,m i ddle- aged,andev enth en
s eri ous lyi llof h eartdi s eas e .
Wh enGolos f eltth atB ettyw as trus tw orth y,h ei nf orm ed
h erth ats h ew as torecei v em ai lf orh i m ; i noth erw ords ,s h e
w as tob eh i s " letter- drop . " Th i s m ai lw ouldb eaddres s edto
h er,b utanyletters b eari ngaC anadi anorMex i canp os tm ark
w eretob ep as s edontoGolos unop ened . Later,Eli zab eth
B entleyw as totes ti f yth at" A llof th atendedatth eti m eth at
Trots k y' s ch auf f eurw as s h oti nMex i co . . . b ecaus eoneof
th ep eop lew ri ti ngletters w as oneof th em enw h os h oth i m . ""
Th eC anadi anm ai l,s h es us p ected,cam ef rom FredR os e,a
C anadi anC om m uni s tleaderw h ow as caugh ti naround- up
of atom i cs p i es i nth ef am ous C anadi ans p ycas e .
In1 9 4 0 ,af ri endlytax i dri v erw h os es tandw as nearth e
WorldTouri s ts of f i cetoldB ettyB entleyth atth eFB Ih ad
b eenaround,as k i ngq ues ti ons ab outh erandGolos . P uton
th ealert,B ettyreali zedth ats h ew as b ei ngf ollow ed . A s a
res ultof th i s k now ledge,s h eandGolos w erep utoni ceb y
th eap p aratus . B utth eFB Ih addonei ts w ork w ell . Wi th
th eai dof aStateDep artm entof f i ci al,,i th adgath eredenough
Trach tenb ergw as th ecom m i s s aratth e" C ulturalC onf erence" h eld at
th e Waldorf - A s tori a i nth es p ri ngof 1 9 4 9 w h i ch ,underth e gui s eof urgi ng
w orldp eace,w as i nreali tyas oundi ng b oardagai ns tth eUni tedStates and
th eWes terndem ocraci es
.
1 2 8

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
ev i dencetos endGob s toj ai lf orav ari etyof cri m es agai ns t
th eUni tedStates ,i ncludi ngp as s p ortf raud
. B utb yoneof
th ei nex p li cab leci rcum s tances w h i ch i nth os eyears s eem ed
toop eratei nf av orof C om m uni s ts ub v ers i v es ,Golos w as
p i ck edup onarelati v elym i norch arge
. A ndev enth i s w as
notp res s ed . Indi ctedunderth eVoorh i s A ctf orf ai lureto
regi s teras th eagentof af orei gngov ernm ent,h ep leaded
gui ltyandrecei v edas us p endeds entence . A f i neof $ 1 ,50 0
w as als oi m p os edonh i m
.
Th em os ti m p ortantcons eq uenceof Golos ' arres tw as th at
i tdes troyedth eus ef ulnes s of WorldTouri s ts as acov er .
Golos th eref ores etab outcreati nganew f ronttoh andleh i s
b us i nes s ,th eUni tedStates Serv i ceandSh i p p i ngC orp
. Th e
nom i nalh eadw as tob e" ani m p eccab leb us i nes s m an," a
" s ym p ath i zer," b ut" notak now nC om m uni s t . " B ettyB entley
w as m adeth ev i cep res i dentands ecretary,b utactuallys h e
ranth ew h oleorgani zati onatas alaryrangi ngf rom $ 2 0 0 to
$ 8 0 0 am onth
. A s ev ereh eartattack atth i s ti m eli m i ted
Golos ' di rectp arti ci p ati on .
Th i s i llnes s ,andh i s clos ep ers onalrelati ons h i p w i th B etty,
ledGolos toturnm oreandm oreof h i s di rectlys ub v ers i v e
w ork ov ertoh er
. A nds o,alm os tb yi ndi recti on,th ei deali s ti c
New Englanderb ecam eacouri erf orp artof th egreatnetw ork
of s p i es op erati ngi nWas h i ngton . A s acollateral" des cend-
ant" of Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ,s h ep lungedi ntoth egreatri v er
of es p i onage .
" Its tartedi n1 9 4 1 ," s h etes ti f i edb ef oreth eFergus ons ub -
com m i tteei nv es ti gati ngth eLoyaltyp rogram ," atab outth e
s tartof th eR us s i an- Germ anw ar,w h enGolos toldm eth ath e
h adrecei v edf rom EarlB row derth enam eof N . Gregory
Si lv erm as terw h ow as w ork i ngf orth egov ernm ent,w h ow as
i nteres tedi nh elp i nggeti nf orm ati ontoR us s i a,andw h o
couldorgani zeagroup of oth ergov ernm entem p loyees to
h elp i nth i s w ork . Si lv erm as terw as w i th th eFarm Securi ty
A dm i ni s trati on[ and] w as p rob ab lyanagent
of th e
NKVD . . .
THEB ENTLEY STOR Y

1 2 9
" Si nceIw as th eonlyp ers onth atGolos com p letelytrus ted,
h eb egantoturnov ertom es om eof th ew ork th ath ew as
doi ng- th egath eri ngof i nf orm ati onf rom C om m uni s tP arty
m em b ers ands ym p ath i zers ,th egreatb ulk of th em em p loyed
b yth eUni tedStates Gov ernm ent . . . Li ttleb yli ttle,Itook
ononegroup andanoth er . Itw as agradualp roces s . . . It
s tartedoutm odes tlyb yb ei ngp oli ti calandas ti m ew enton
w es tartedtak i ngonm i li tary[ i nf orm ati on] too
. . .
" Si lv erm as tercam etoNew Y ork tos eeGolos atth eb eh es t
of Earl . . . andarrangem ents w erem adef orm etogototh e
Si lv erm as terh ous e[ i nWas h i ngton] andm ak eth eacq uai nt-
anceof Mrs . HelenSi lv erm as ter . . . Iw as toldtos ayth atI
w as Helenandth ath erh us b andh adarrangedf orm eto
com edow n . "
A regularrouti new as w ork edoutw h ereb yEli zab eth
B entley( ali as Mary,ali as Helen) v i s i tedth eSi lv erm as ter
h om eev erytw ow eek s andcarri edb ack w i th h ertoNew
Y ork m ateri algath eredb yth eSi lv erm as terri ng . Th os ew h o
s up p li edSi lv erm as terw ere,li k eth em em b ers of C h am b ers "
eli tegroup ,m os tlyp eop lew h op os edas non- C om m uni s ts
andw h ok ep tth ei rconnecti onw i th th eundergroundex -
trem elys ecret . Much later,B ettyb eganp i ck i ngup i nf orm a-
ti onf rom anoth ergroup ledb yVi ctorP erlo,aC h am b ers
alum nus ,andm adeup of op enP artym em b ers w h oh adb een
orderedtodrop outof P artyaf f ai rs i nordertow ork m ore
i ncons p i cuous ly .
From atotalof ab outth i rtyp eop lei nth etw ogroup s and
ab outtw entym orei ndi v i dualcontacts ,em p loyedi nev ery
s ens i ti v egov ernm entdep artm entorb ureauw i th th eex cep -
ti onof th eNav yandth eFB I,cam edetai led,clas s i f i edi n-
f orm ati onon :
P h as es of A m eri canp oli cytow ardC h i naandth eB alk ans
;
Fi gures onai rcraf tp roducti onandp laneallocati ontov ari -
ous th eaters of op erati ons
;
Des cri p ti v em ateri alonth eth en- s ecretB - 2 9 Sup erf ortres s .
Onces h eb rough taf orm ulaf orm ak i ngs ynth eti crub b er
1 3 0 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
outof garb age . * Onanoth eroccas i on,th eR us s i ans w ere
" v eryex ci ted" w h ens h ei nf orm edth em th atouri ntelli gence
w as onth ev ergeof b reak i ngth eR us s i ancode . Soaccurate
w as h eri nf orm ati ononD- day,s h erecalls ,th atth em em b er
of h ergroup w h os up p li edth ei nf orm ati onw onanof f i cep ool
onth ei nv as i ondate .
Th em ateri algrew s ov olum i nous th atB ettyB entleyh ad
tocarryi ti nas h op p i ngb ag . Toh andleth ew i deni ngs cop e
of th eri ng' s op erati ons ,ah om e- m adem i crof i lm ap p aratus
w as b rough ti ntous e . " Inth eb as em entof th eSi lv erm as ter
h om eth eyh adaC ontax cam eraandth es et- up allreadyf or
p utti ngdocum ents i nandh oldi ng[ th em ] i np lace . Wh en
[ Wi lli am Ludw i g] Ullm an[ w h oli v edi nth eSi lv erm as ter
h ous e] w as av ai lab le,h edi di tb ecaus eh em adeh i m s elf i nto

ex p ertp h otograp h er . -
Wh enh ew as aw ay,ori f i tw as
toom uch f orh i m toh andle,Mrs
. Si lv erm as terp i tch edi n . "
Earlyi n1 9 4 1 ,Eli zab eth B entleyw as i ntroducedtoMary
Watk i ns P ri ce,th ens ecretarytoWalterLi p p m ann . Th i s w as

i nv aluab lecontact . Li p p m ann' s h i gh lyi nf luenti als yndi -


catedcolum ngav eh i m ak i ndof s em i - of f i ci als tatus w i th th e
StateDep artm ent . Th rough h i s h i gh - lev els ources ,h ew as
of teni np os s es s i onof i nf orm ati onw h i ch w as def i ni telynot
f orp ub li cati onordi s s em i nati on . Inh i s lock edf i les ,h ek ep t
cop i ous notes of conv ers ati ons w i th top f i gures i ndi p lom ati c
ci rcles
. " From th ef i rs tti m ew em et,unti ls h elef tMr .
Li p p m ann' s em p loy," B ettytes ti f i ed," [ s h ef urni s h edm ew i th
w h atev er] s h ew as ab letogetf rom h erb os s ' f i les . Heh ada
greatdealof i nf orm ati ononourrelati ons w i th B ri tai n
[ w h i ch ] w as v eryi nteres ti ngtoMr . Golos
. "
B ettyals oh adam oredeli cateas s i gnm ent . Th erew erea
num b erof p eop le," m i s gui dedi deali s ts " i nh eres ti m ati on,
w h ow ereei th ertooh i gh lyp lacedortoow arytori s k m eet-
i ngh erop enly
. Wi th th es ep eop le,s h em adeap p oi ntm ents
"
A ctually,p otatop eels .
tUlh nandeni edth ath eh adev erp h otograp h edgov ernm entdocum ents
b utref us edtos ayw h eth erornoth eh adev erf urni s h edSi lv erm as terw i th
acam eraf orth atp urp os e .
THEB ENTLEY STOR Y

1 3 1
tom eeti nth ep ark oronas treetcorner
. Occas i onally th ey
m eti nanout- of - th e- w ayres taurant
. From th em s h erarely
gotdocum ents
; th ei ri nf orm ati onw as us uallyv erb al
. A nd
f orallof h erP artys ources ,s h es erv edth euti li tari anp urp os e
of collecti ngdues ands up p lyi ngth em w i th th eP artyli tera-
turew h i ch tells aC om m uni s tw h atandh ow toth i nk .
A s Eli zab eth B entleygrew m oreandm oreadep t,s h etook
p ri dei nh ers k i llas anop erati v e. " Ialw ays allow edm ys elf a
goodh alf h ourb ef oreanap p oi ntm enttogorunni ngi nand
outof dep artm ents tores ,p laces w i th tw oentrances ,andi nto
des erteds treets w h ereyoucans eew h ati s goi ngon,tob e
s ureth erew as nooneb eh i ndm e . . .
Wh enyoutook atax i -
cab yougotof f ab lock ortw ob ef oreyourdes ti nati on,w ai ted
unti lth etax i cab turnedaround,andth enp roceededonf oot "
Once,w h enanFB Iagentw as onh ertrai l,s h educk edi nto
th eladi es ' room of adep artm ents tore,k now i ngh ecould
notf ollow h er,andcalm lylef tb yas econdex i t .
A llth i s ti m e,th ough s h ew as b etrayi ngh ercountrytoth e
R us s i ans ,s h e" di dn' tth i nk ab outi t . "
OnTh ank s gi v i ngDayi n1 9 4 3 ,Golos h adas uddens trok e
anddi edi nEli zab eth B entley' s ap artm ent . Eli zab eth called
GraceHutch i ns ,af uncti onaryof th eInternati onalWork ers
Order,th eC om m uni s tb uryi ngs oci ety,w h oq ui etlys ecured
adeath certi f i catef rom aP artydoctorandtook ch argeof th e
f uneralarrangem ents
. A w areth atdeath m i gh tcom eunex -
p ectedly,Golos h adm adep reli m i naryarrangem ents f or
B ettytoconti nueth ew ork w i th outh i m . A f ew days af ter
th ef uneral,s h ew as ap p roach edb yC ath eri new h oi ntro-
ducedh ertoB i ll
. Forab outayear,th es etw op eop les erv ed
as li ai s onb etw eenB ettyandth eNKVDagents w h otook th e
Was h i ngtonri ngs ' h auloutof th ecountry
.
B utth ough B ettyconti nuedh erj ob as couri er,andev en
took onth ef urth erres p ons i b i li tyof h eadi ngth etw oWas h -
i ngtons p yri ngs ,th edeath of Golos h adarous edh erto
anaw arenes s of w h ats h ew as doi ng
. " Th eef f ectof Golos
w as w eari ngof f " i s th ew ays h ep uti t . A ndth eanalys i s w as
1 3 2

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
s ound
. Itw as Golos ,m oreth ananyi deologi calconv i cti on,
th ath adb rough th eri ntoth eundergroundw ork
. Itw as h er
relati ons h i p w i th h i m w h i ch h adk ep th erth ere
. Wh enh e
w as nolongerw i th h er,s h ereali zedth eenorm i tyof h er
acti ons .
" Hav i ngw ork edw i th Mr
. Golos ,w h om Itook tob eagreat
i deali s t,Ih adb eenterri f i callys h i eldedf rom th ereali ti es
b eh i ndth i s th i ng,andw h enh edi edIw as th row ni ntodi rect
contactw i th th eR us s i ans
. " A s i th adb eentoC h am b ers ,th i s
w as ach i lli ngex p eri ence
. Ev enth eC om m uni s tm i ndf ound
i th ardtorati onali zeth ep oli ce- s tatem entali ty
. " Th eR us s i ans
th ough tIk new w h atw as goi ngon," s h es ai d
. " Th eym ade
nob ones of th ei rcontem p tf orA m eri canC om m uni s ts
. . .
andof th ef actth atth eyw ereus i ngth eA m eri canC om m un-
i s tP artyas arecrui tm entcenterf ores p i onage
. Th eyb eh av ed
li k egangs ters . "
Th erew as anoth erj olti ns toref orh er- th eb ureaucracyof
th eA m eri canP arty
. " Iw as th row ni ncontactw i th B row der,"
s h erecalled," andi tw as q ui teas h ock tof i ndth ath i gh f unc-
ti onari es of th eC om m uni s tP artyw erej us tch eap li ttlem en
p ulledb ys tri ngs f rom Mos cow
. " B row der' s lux uri ous li f e,h i s
countryh om e,andh i s li m ous i neandch auf f eurdi dn' ts i tw i th
h erv eryw ellei th er .
Sens i ngh ergrow i ngcyni ci s m ,th eR us s i ans tri edh eav y-
h andedlytob uyth edev oti ons h eonceb es tow edf reely
; th ey
of f eredh eraf urcoat,anai r- condi ti onerf orh erap artm ent,
andaf ats alary
. A lreadyf edup ,th em annerof th ei rof f eri ng
f urth errep elledh er,ands h eref us edtoaccep tth egi f ts or
s alary. Wh enth i s tack f ai led,th eytri edanoth er- f lattery
.
Inm i d- Nov em b er,1 9 4 4 ,s h ew as i ns tructedtom eetA li n
f rontof th eEdi s onTh eateronB roadw ayand1 0 3 rdStreet
i nNew Y ork . A lw as aR us s i anw h om s h elateri denti f i ed
f rom p h otograp h s as A natolGrom ov ,th eFi rs tSecretaryof
th eR us s i anEm b as s y .
A s B ettyandA lw alk edalongR i v ers i deDri v e,h edeli v -
eredalongs p eech " toth eef f ectth atth eSup rem eP res i di um
THEB ENTLEY STOR Y

1 3 3
of th eU. S . S
. R
. h adaw ardedm eth eOrderof th eR edStar
f orm yex trem elyv aluab les erv i ces toth eSov i etUni on
. "
Typ i cally,allh eh adtos h ow w as ap i ctureof th em edal,
tornf rom anA m eri canm agazi ne
. Tw om onth s later,Grom ov
s h ow edh erth em edalandap res entati oncerti f i cate,b uth e
nev ergav eei th erof th em toh er
.
Th enth eelem entof f earw as i ntroduced
. A s ugges ti onw as
m adetoh erth ats h em i gh t" gotoR us s i aundercov erand
recei v eacours eof trai ni ngov erth ere . . . Itf ri gh tenedm e
cons i derab ly
. " A ndw h enth es ub j ectof leav i ngw as m en-
ti oned,s h ew as told
: " Nob odyev erleav es th i s . Nob odyev er
leav es th es erv i ce . "
A tth i s p oi nt,th eR us s i ans p layeddi rectlyi ntoh erh ands
.
Leeryof h ertrus tw orth i nes s ,th eyp uth eroni ceunderth e
p retex tth atth erew ereleak s w h i ch m adeh ertoo" h ot . " In
Decem b er,1 9 4 4 ,s h ew as orderedtoturnov erh errem ai ni ng
contacts toas ucces s or,andth ough s h erem ai nedi ntouch
w i th th eap p aratus ,s h ew as nolongerap artof i ts acti v i ti es .
B uth erob s es s i on,togeth ers elf outof th ew h oleb us i nes s
" w i th outendangeri ngm ys elf ," conti nued . " Ireali zedIw as
onep ers onf i gh ti ngav as tm ach i ne," s h etes ti f i ed . " Icould
ei th erw alk outandf orgeti th adh ap p enedorIcouldgoto
th eFB I
. Ittook m eayeartogettoth ep oi nt . "
Late
i n A ugus tof 1 9 4 5,Eli zab eth B entleyw enttoth eFB I .
B utli k eallp eop lew h oh av eb eeni nth eunderground,s h e
h adth ei death atgov ernm entb ureaus w eref ullof C om -
m uni s ts p i es
. Ins teadof goi ngtoth eWas h i ngtonorNew
Y ork FB Iof f i ces ,w h eres h ef eareds h em i gh tb erecogni zed
as s h ew alk edi n,s h etrav eledup toaf i eldh eadq uarters i n
New Hav en . Onceth ere,s h elos th ercourage,m erelydi s clos -
i ngth ats h ew as ane' - C om m uni s tandth ats h ew as af rai d
h erli f ew as i ndanger . Th eNew Hav enFB Irep ortedh er
conv ers ati ontoNew Y ork andarrangedanap p oi ntm ent
th eref orh er.
Ittook s om edoi ngb ef ores h etalk edf reely . ToFB Iof f i -
ci als ,th eoutli neof h ers toryw as notnew s . B utth enam es
1 3 4 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
s h eearnes tlym enti oneds taggeredth em . A m ongth os es h e
accus edw ereaWh i teHous eadv i s er,aTreas uryof f i ci al,a
StateDep artm entem p loyee,andah os tof oth ers trategi cally
p lacedgov ernm entem p loyees . Ev entom enw h os ew ork w as
counter- es p i onage,h ers toryw as unb eli ev ab le . Waryth ats h e
m i gh tb eap lant,orw ors eadoub leagent,th eyref us edto
tak eh ers eri ous ly .
Form onth s s h eli v edth rough th atcli f f - h angi ngf rus trati on
ands us p ens ew h i ch areth es tock - i n- tradeof Hi tch cock th ri ll-
ers . Sh eh adth ef acts ,b utnoones eem edtob eli ev eh er .
Fi nally,th eFB Iw as s uf f i ci entlyconv i ncedtop uth ertoth e
tes t. R eturntoth ees p i onagenetw ork ,s h ew as told,and
b ri ngus th ek i ndof concreteev i dencew h i ch w i llp rov eyour
s tory. Si m ultaneous ly,th eFB Iw ouldconti nuei ts ow ni nv es -
ti gati on. R eluctantly,B ettyB entleyagreed .
InOctob er,s h ei nf orm edth eFB Ith ats h eh adanap p oi nt-
m entw i th Grom ov . Ob v i ous ly,i tw as h i s j ob todeterm i nei f
s h ew as trus tw orth yaf terh erp eri odof i nacti v i ty . A s th ey
w alk edalongth edes ertedHuds onR i v erw aterf rontlateat
ni gh t,Grom ov ' s s p eech andm annerw ereom i nous . " Hetold
m es om eth i ngw as w rongw i th m eb ecaus eIw ouldnot
accep tth em oneyth atw as p i li ngup i nMos cow f orm e . He
k ep tp res s i ngm eandtoldm eth atunles s Iaccep tedth e
m oneyh eh adi nh i s p ock et,h ew ouldcons i derm eatrai tor
andIk new w h atth atm eant. Fi nally,Igoth i m aw ayf rom
th edock regi on,andh egav em eth em oney . "
Grom ov ,of cours e,di dnotk now th atth i s trans acti onw as
w i tnes s edb yFB Iagents orth atth eenv elop e,contai ni ng
$ 2 ,0 0 0 i n$ 2 0 b i lls ,w as tolandi nanFB Is af e .
B utGrom ov w as s h rew denough toreali zeth ats om eth i ng
h adh ap p enedto Eli zab eth B entley. Th ough s h ew as p er-
m i ttedtoh oldh erj ob w i th th eUni tedStates Serv i ceand
Sh i p p i ngC orp . unti li tw as li q ui datedi n1 9 4 7 ,s h ew as no
longergi v enth es ortof es p i onageas s i gnm entw h i ch w ould
h av ecli nch edth ecas ef orth eFB I . Sh es ti llm adetri p s to
Was h i ngton,b utallh ercontacts s eem edtoh av eb een
THEB ENTLEY STOR Y

1 3 5
w arnedtob ecaref ulw i th h er . Trai ledatallti m es b ygov -
ernm entagents ,s h ecouldp rov em erelyth atth ep eop les h e
h adnam edreallyk new h er .
B uts h eh addem ons tratedenough toconv i nceth eDep art-
m entof j us ti ceth atagrandj uryi nv es ti gati onof C om -
m uni s tes p i onagew as longov erdue . Sti llw i th outconcrete
ev i dence,b utw i th th eap p rov alof P res i dentTrum an,th e
gov ernm entm ov edah ead . Th om as J . Donegan,anex - FB I
m anp racti ci nglaw ,w as ap p oi nteds p eci alas s i s tantA ttorney
Generalb yTom C lark . OnMarch 2 2 ,1 9 4 7 ,aFederalgrand
j uryw as i m p aneledi nNew Y ork C i tytoh earEli zab eth
B entley' s s toryandtoq ues ti onth ep eop les h enam ed. If one
of th es ep ri nci p als couldb em adetocrack onth ew i tnes s
s tand,Doneganreas oned,th ecas ew ouldb reak w i deop en .
1 2
Th eFi rs tB real
Looi aNc
B A C KOVER THE
C OUR SEOFTHE
B ENTLEY
s tory,i ti s h ardtounders tandw h yMr . Trum ans ancti oned
th egrandj uryi nv es ti gati oni n1 9 4 7 - f ullyaw areof th ei m -
p ortof Eli zab eth B entley' s ch arges - andth endi dh i s b es tto
nulli f yh ertes ti m onyi n1 9 4 8 . Was truth conf oundedw h en
utteredb yh i s p oli ti calenem i es ? Orh adth eP res i dentb een
unaw areth atth eB entleydi s clos ures w ouldp uts q uarelyon
th erecordth ei nadeq uaci es of th eR oos ev elt- Trum ans ecur-
i typ oli cy? Oras s om eh av es ugges ted,h adh eb eli ev edth at
b yb uryi ngth es toryi ns ecretgrandj uryp roceedi ngs h e
coulds ti llth erum ors onceandf orall?
A tanyrate,Mr . Trum andi dcallth egrandj uryi ntos es -
s i on
. A ndab adlyf ri gh tenedEli zab eth B entleyb eganth e
p i ecem ealreci talof h eracti v i ti es i nWas h i ngton
. A tf i rs t,
attem p ts w erem adetok eep h eri denti tys ecret,ev enf rom
th ej ury . Sh ew as calledtoth es tandas Maryandth ep arti cu-
lars of h erp ers onalli f ev ei led . Ev entually,h ow ev er,as s h e
gai nedconf i dence,s h eagreedtof oregoth es ep recauti ons .
Onth eb as i s of h ertes ti m ony,th ej ury,w h i ch w as m eeti ng
f oraf ew h ours ev eryw eek ,i s s ueddozens of s ub p oenas to
th ep eop les h enam edandoth ers onFB Is us p ectli s ts
. B ut
anyattem p ts tom ak eth ew i tnes s es gob eyondarouti ne
des cri p ti onof th ei rgov ernm entj ob s w erem etb yev as i ons
andref us als b as edonth econs ti tuti onalgroundth atto
ans w erm i gh ttendtoi ncri m i nateordegrade . Th ef ocus of
1 3 6
THEFIR STB R EA K

1 8 7
th ei nv es ti gati onw as th e" h ous eInWas h i ngton" - th eSi lv er-
m as terh om ew h os ep h otograp h i cs tudi oh adb eenus edto
m i crof i lm p ap ers anddocum ents .
Wi tnes s es w h ocouldb eli nk edci rcum s tanti allyw i th th e
Si lv erm as ters clai m edth atth ei rv i s i ts toth eh ous ew ere
p urelys oci al . Oth ers p roducedp h otos of th em s elv es top rov e
th ei nnocenceof th ei rerrands
. Si m ultaneous ly,th em i lls of
p oli ti cali nf luenceb egantogri nd . Onep rom i nents enator,
i ndi rectlyi m p li catedb yth eacti v i ti es of as ub ordi nate,re-
p ortedlyw entas h i gh as th eWh i teHous e
. Wh atf ollow ed
. th erem adegoodgos s i p atth eNati onalP res s C lub b ar,b ut
f orob v i ous reas ons i tnev ergoti ntop ri nt
.
Vei leds tori es b egantoap p eari nth eWas h i ngtonand
New Y ork p res s ,ref erri ngtoth egrandj uryh eari ngs
. Th ere
w ererum ors th atw i tnes s es h adcrack ed,th atth e
cas e
reach eds oh i gh i ntoth egov ernm entth atth eA dm i ni s tra-
ti onp lannedaw h i tew as h
. Th erew ererum ors th at,i nap res i -
denti alelecti onyear,noi ndi ctm ents w ouldb edraw nup
.
A ndf rom gov ernm ents ources cam es taunch deni als
. Itw as
notp oli ti calex p edi encyb utlack of concreteev i denceth at
w as th ecaus eof th edeadlock i nth egrandj uryroom
. Wh at-
ev erth ereas on,th eh eari ngs conti nuedf orov erayear,p ro-
duci ngnoth i ngb eyondp ub li candp ri v ateconj ecture
. *
Q ui tes uddenly,i nA p ri l,1 9 4 8 ,FederalA ttorneyJ oh nF
. X .
McGoh eyw as calledi ntow ork w i th Tom Donegan
; th e
J us ti ceDep artm enth addeci dedtos h i f tem p h as i s
. From th i s
p oi nton,th ees p i onageanglew as f orgottenandMcGoh ey
b egantow adeth rough th ev olum i nous FB If i les onth eC om -
m uni s ts top rep areani ndi ctm entunderth eSm i th A ct
. Hi s
j ob w as now toconv i nceth egrandj uryth atth eC om m uni s t
P artyw as cons p i ri ngtoteach th eov erth row of th egov ern-
m entb yf orceandv i olence
.
Th i s ch ange- ov erw as anop ens ecretam ongnew s p ap er-
m en . Th em orecyni calof th em took i tas af ace- s av i ngdev i ce

Iti s i nteres ti ng- andp uzzli ng- tonoteth atA lgerHi s s w as calledand
Wh i ttak erC h am b ers s tudi ous lyi gnored .
1 3 8
SEEDSOFTR EA SON
- orw ors e,taci tadm i s s i onof anA dm i ni s trati onw h i tew as h
.
ForB ettyB entley,th eJ us ti ceDep artm ent' s new tack cam e
as as h ock
. Moti v atedb yh ers ens eof rev uls i ontow ardcom -
m uni s m ,s h eh adgonetoth eFB Iex p ecti ngq ui ck res ults
.
Now ,af terayearof s trai nas analm os tcons tantw i tnes s ,
th egov ernm enth adlef th erh i gh anddry
. Inth i s s tateof
m i nd,s h eth ough tof Frederi ck Woltm an,th eNew Y ork
WorldTelegram ' s
P uli tzerP ri ze- w i nni ngex p ertoncom m u-
ni s m ,w h os ef i rs tw i f es h eh adk now nas as tudentatVas s ar
.
Sh es aw Woltm an,andtoldh i m onanof f - th e- recordb as i s
notonlyth es toryof h eracti v i ti es as as p y- couri er,b utals o-
ex p lai nedh erp redi cam ent
. Wh atw ouldb eth eb es tw ayto
gets om eacti on? s h eas k edh i m
.
" C ongres s i onalcom m i ttees w i llcertai nlyop enth es toryto
th ep ub li c,nom atterw h atth egrandj urydoes ," h ereas s ured
h er . B utas longas s h ew as undergrandj urys ub p oena,th ere
w as li ttleth ats h ecoulddo
. Onces h ew as f reeof th at,h e
w ouldb eab letoact,h ep rom i s edh er
. Wh enh ealertedh i s
edi tors ,p rep arati ons w erem adef orp ub li s h i ngth i s " ex clu-
s i v e" atth ep rop erti m e
.
Meanw h i le,McGoh eyw as m ov i ngah eadw i th th econ-
s p i racycas e
. Ittook h i m th reem onth s tob ui ldup h i s p res -
entati on
. Inth ep roces s ,h edrew onFB Idos s i ers ,th etes ti -
m onyof FB I" conf i denti ali nf orm ants ," andali b raryof
s tandardP artyli terature
: th e" C om m uni s tMani f es to," th e
w ri ti ngs of Leni nandStali n,tex ts of p ub li candp ri v ateutter-
ances b y C om m uni s t
leaders ,andP arty" tex tb ook s " s uch as
J . P eters ' " Manualof Organi zati on
. " Th edateof th econs p i r-
acyw as s etat1 9 4 5w h enth eC om m uni s ts ,oni ns tructi ons
f rom th e" di s s olv ed" C om m uni s tInternati onal,ex p elledEarl
B row der,di s cardedh i s li neof m oderati on,andreturnedto
th eoldp recep ts of v i olentrev oluti onandf orcef ulcap ture
of th es tatem ach i nery .
Si x teenm onth s af teri tconv enedtoh eares p i onagetes ti -
m ony,onJ uly2 0 ,1 9 4 8 ,th egrand
j ury h andeddow ni ndi ct-
m ents agai ns tth edozenm em b erof th eC om m uni s tP arty' s
THEFIR STB R EA K

1 3 9
nati onalb oard,th eA m eri can" P oli tb uro . " Ex cep tf orth e
A m eri canp res s ,th eB entleys toryw ouldh av eb eendead
andf orgotten .
B utonceth ei ndi ctm enth adb eenh andeddow nb yth e
grandj ury,th e
World Telegram f eltf reetop ub li s h th e
B entleydi s clos ures . Fors om eti m e,Nels onFrank ,arep orter,
h adb eeni nterv i ew i ngB ettyB entley . Wh enth eti m ecam e
togeti ntop ri nt,rew ri tem anNortonMock ri dgew as as -
s i gnedtotak eFrank ' s notes andw h i p th em i ntos h ap e
.
Underth ei rj oi ntb y- li ne,as eri es of s tori es ap p earedw h i ch
h i tNew Y ork andth ecountryv eryh ardi ndeed
. Wi th out
m enti oni ngnam es - Eli zab eth B entleyw as Maryandth e
oth erp ri nci p als w eredes cri b edas a" h i gh Treas uryof f i ci al,"
a" P res i denti aladv i s er," etc
. - th etw onew s p ap erm entolda
b as i callys ound,i f rath erenth us i as ti c,v ers i onof th ef acts
.
Th elong- dorm antUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee
leap edtos ecureth etes ti m onyof th ew i tnes s ,now releas ed
f rom Federals ub p oena
. Forw eek s ,th eyh adb eeni tch i ng
todos o
. B utth eFergus ons ub com m i ttee,engagedi ni nv es -
ti gati ngth eLoyaltyp rogram f orth eSenate,m ov edev en
m oreq ui ck ly
. Work i ngth rough Nels onFrank ,w h oh ad
electedh i m s elf Mi s s B entley' s s p ok es m an,SenatorFergus on
gotf i rs tli ck s
. From B ettyB entleyh eandh i s s ub com m i ttee
h eardav ei ledv ers i onof h eri nv olv em entw i th th ees p i onage
netw ork ,th enatureof th ei nf orm ati ons h ep rocured,andh er
ex p eri ences w i th th eFB I
. Th eonlynam es h em enti onedw as
th atof Wi lli am R em i ngton,ayounggov ernm entof f i ci al
th enunderth eSenate' s s cruti ny . *
Th eTh om as com m i ttee,onJ uly3 1 ,th ef ollow i ngday,got
allth enam es andth eli on' s s h areof th eh eadli nes
. Itw as ,
f oraw h i le,aR om anh oli dayf orb oth th ecom m i tteeand
th ep ub li c,acloak anddaggerorgy
. A s nam ef ollow ednam e,
i ns eem i nglyendles s p rof us i on,th eA m eri canp ub li ch eard
f orth ef i rs tti m ew h atas m allgroup of anti - C om m uni s tex -
p erts h adlongk now n- th atth eram i f i cati ons of Stali n' s tree
"
R em i ngtonw as laterclearedb yaLoyaltyB oard
.
1
4
0 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
of treas onw erem ulti tudi nous . Inaf ew m onth s ,m os tof th i s
w as f orgottenas p ub li cattenti onb ecam ef ocus s edonth e
tragi cs truggleof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers andA lgerHi s s . B ut,
p arti cularlyi nWas h i ngton,duri ngth es um m erof 1 9 4 8 B etty
B entley' s cas ualutterances andaccus ati ons createdani n-
credi b letens i on .
Fi rs tonth eB entleyli s tw as Nath anGregorySi lv erm as ter,
a w i ry, s h arp - f acedli ttlem anw i th up s w ep tgreyh ai randa
w i s p ym us tach e- af erret- li k ev ers i onof C h arli eC h ap li n .
B utth erew as noth i ngf unnyab outh i s recordorh i s tes ti -
m ony . B eyondcalli ngMi s s B entleya" neuroti cli ar" and
b randi ngh erch arges " f als eandf antas ti c," Si lv erm as terre-
ti redb eh i ndab arrageof " Iref us etoans w eronth egrounds
th atanyans w erIm aygi v em aytendtob es elf - i ncri m i na-
tory. " Itw as as tatem entw h i ch th ecom m i tteew ouldh ear
w i th m onotonous regulari tyf rom th eas s ortedC om m uni s ts
andcryp to- C om m uni s ts tes ti f yi ngons ucceedi ngdays
.
B uti nth ecas eof Si lv erm as ter,th erew as noneedtorely
on h i s reluctanttes ti m ony . Th ecom m i tteeh adtoh anda
v olum i nous C i v i lServ i ceC om m i s s i onrep ortonth ew i tnes s
w h i ch m adei tdi f f i culttounders tandh ow anyof f i ci alcould
h av eh i redh i m
.
B orni nR us s i ai n1 8 9 8 ,Si lv erm as terenteredth i s country
f rom C h i naw h ereh eh adattendeds ch ool . Herecei v eda
B . A . f rom th eUni v ers i tyof Was h i ngtoni nSeattleanda
P h . D
. f rom th eUni v ers i tyof C ali f orni a . In
1 9 2 7 ,h eb ecam e
anaturali zedci ti zenof th eUni tedStates ,th ough ,accordi ng
toth eC i v i lServ i cerep ort,h ew as alreadyam em b erof th e
C om m uni s tP arty .
" Th erei s cons i derab letes ti m onyi ndi cati ngth atab out
1 9 2 0 [ h e] w as anundergroundagentf orth eC om m uni s t
P arty . . .
Heh as b eenev eryth i ngf rom af ellow - trav elerto
anagentf orth eOGP U
. Heh as b eenk now nandli s tedi nth e
f i les of th eSeattleP oli ceDep artm ent,th eTh i rteenth Nav al
Di s tri ct,th eSanFranci s coP oli ceDep artm ent . . . andth e
FB Ias am em b erandleaderof th eC om m uni s tP arty
. "
THEFIR STB R EA K

1 4 1
" [ He]
w as clos elyas s oci atedw i th Sam DarcyandHarry
B ri dges " - tw of uncti onari es of th eP arty- " Hew as agi tati on
p rop agandi s tof th eFi llm ores ub s ecti oni nth eSanFranci s co
1 3 th Di s tri ctC om m uni s tP arty," th eC om m i s s i onrep ortedi n
1 9 4 2 . " Th eov erw h elm i ngam ountof tes ti m onyi ndi cates b e-
yondreas onab ledoub tth atNath anGregorySi lv erm as teri s
now ,andh as - f oryears b eenam em b erandleaderof th e
C om m uni s tP arty,andv eryp rob ab lyas ecretagentof th e
OGP U. "
From A ugus t,1 9 3 5,toNov em b er,1 9 3 8 ,Si lv erm as ter
w ork edf orth eFarm Securi tyA dm i ni s trati on . From Nov em -
b er,1 9 3 8 ,toJ uly,1 9 4 0 ,h ew as onth eMari ti m eLab or
B oard. From J uly,1 9 4 0 ,toDecem b er,1 9 4 4 ,h ew as i nth e
A gri cultureDep artm ent . OnJ uly1 6 ,1 9 4 2 ,th eC i v i lServ i ce
C om m i s s i onrecom m ended," C anceleli gi b i li ti es
. . . andb ar
h i m f orth edurati onof th eNati onalEm ergency . " Ins tead,
Si lv erm as term ov edov ertoan$ 8 ,0 0 0 - a- year- j ob as aTrea-
s uryDep artm enteconom i s tw h ereh es tayedunti l1 9 4 5 . He
trans f erredth entoth eWarA s s ets A dm i ni s trati onw i th a
rai s eto$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 . Wh enh eres i gnedf rom gov ernm ents erv i ce
i nMarch ,1 9 4 6 ,i tw as s i m p lyb ecaus e,i nth ep os tw arcut-
b ack s ,h eref us ed" toaccep tanarb i trarydem oti oni ns tatus
. "
How w as Si lv erm as terab letorem ai ni ngov ernm ents er-
v i ce? Th eans w erw as v erys i m p le . Heh adaf ri endi nLauch -
li nC urri e,aP res i denti aladv i s er . C urri eh adi ntercededf or
Si lv erm as terandgots om eb i gnam es i nth egov ernm entto
v ouch f orh i m . Si lv erm as terw as nev ertrans f erredf rom one
j ob toanoth er,ap roces s w h i ch w ouldh av egi v enth eC i v i l
Serv i ceC om m i s s i onach ancetoref us eh i m clearance,b ut
w as ` loaned" i ns tead .
Goi ngi ntogreatandconv i nci ngdetai l,Eli zab eth B entley
des cri b edSi lv erm as ter' s roleas s p ym as ter,h i s i nf luencei n
p laci ngC om m uni s ts i ngov ernm entj ob s ,andtoldh ow
docum ents w erep h otograp h edi nth eb as em entof h i s h ous e .
From th atp oi nton,th enam es cam eth i ck andf as t .
Wi lli am Ludw i gUllm anof th eTreas uryDep artm ent,
1 4 2

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
lateri nth eA i rC orp s ; Vi ctorP erlo* of WP B ; C h arles
Kram er,* anai def i rs ttoSenatorKi lgoreandlatertoth e
on- agai n- of f - agai np i nk oSenatorC laudeP ep p er ; R ob ert
Mi llerof th eOf f i ceof th eC oordi natorof Inter- A m eri can
A f f ai rs ; GeorgeSi lv erm an,* w h ow entf rom th eR ai lroad
R eti rem entB oardtoanA i rForceci v i li anp os t ; Wi lli am Gold
andh i s w i f eSoni a ; J oh nA b t ; andas coreof oth ers .
A llof th es ep eop les h enam edb oth as C om m uni s ts and
m em b ers of th eSi lv erm as terri ng . Th erew eretw oem i nent
m ens h enam edb utdi dnotaccus eof P artym em b ers h i p
.
A b outHarryDex terWh i te,A s s i s tantSecretaryof th eTrea-
s ury,auth orof th eMorgenth auP lan,andap p oi nter,of C om -
m uni s ts tos ens i ti v eGerm anoccup ati onp os ts ,s h es ai d : " I
don' tk now w h eth erMr . Wh i tew as acard- carryi ngC om -
m uni s tornot . . . Hegav ei nf orm ati ontoMr . Si lv erm as ter
w h i ch w as relayedtom e . . . From w h atth eys ai d,Mr .
Wh i tek new w h erei tw as goi ngb utp ref errednottom en-
ti onth ef act . " Of Lauch li nC urri e,s h es ai d : " Hew as nota
C om m uni s t,b uth edi dgi v ei nf orm ati ononth i s gov ern-
m ent' s atti tudetow ardC h i na,[ and] tow ardoth ergov ern-
m ents . . . Mr . C urri ecam edas h i ngi ntoMr . Si lv erm an' s
h ous e,s ortof outof b reath ,andtoldh i m th atth eA m eri cans
w ereonth ev ergeof b reak i ngth eSov i etcode
. . . " Som e
of th ep eop lew h ogav eh eri nf orm ati on,s h etes ti f i ed," m ay
h av eth ough ti tw as goi ngtoth eC om m uni s tP artyh ead-
q uarters f orth eus eof EarlB row der,oroth ers m ayh av ej us t
gues s edth etruth
. Itw as j us tnotdi s cus s ed. "
R li zab eth
B entley' s tes ti m onyw as f ollow ed,th reedays
later,b yWh i ttak erC h am b ers ' . B utth ough h i s s ub s eq uent
duelw i th A lgerHi s s graduallycrow dedoutth eB entleytes ti -
m ony,m anyof th es ucceedi ngdays w eres p enti nlongf uti le
h eari ngs i nw h i ch th eTh om as com m i ttees ough tw eari lyto
gets om es ortof adeq uatereb uttalf rom th ep eop leB etty
B entleyh adnam ed
.
Th ep atternof th es eh eari ngs w as q ui ck lyes tab li s h ed . A
' Nam edb yC h am b ers i nh i s tes ti m onyaf ew days later
.
THEFIR STB R EA K

1 4 3
w i tnes s w ouldb es w orn,h ew ouldm ak eadenunci ati onof
th ecom m i ttee,readas tatem entf latlydenyi ngth eov er- all
ch arges ,andonp oi nt- b y- p oi ntq ues ti oni ngreti reb eh i ndth e
p rotecti onof th eC ons ti tuti on . " Iref us etoans w eronth e
grounds of s elf - i ncri m i nati on" b ecam eas h i b b oleth . Wi t-
nes s es ref us edto s ay w h eth erth eyk new oneanoth er,
w h eth erth eyw ereC om m uni s ts ,w h eth erth eyh adv i s i ted
th eSi lv erm as terh om e . Onew i tnes s ev enclai m edth atto
adm i th eh adev erb eeni nWas h i ngton' s Uni onStati onw ould
b es elf - i ncri m i natory . A noth erref us edtoconf i rm ordeny
m em b ers h i p i nth eA m eri canLegi on .
A f ew of th ew i tnes s es - R ob ertMi ller,one- ti m ech i ef of
p ub li cati ons i nth eStateDep artm ent,w as am ongth em - ad-
m i ttedth atth eyk new Eli zab eth B entleyunderv ari ous
nam es . B utth eydeni edth atth eyh adgi v enh erclas s i f i ed
m ateri alandw enttos om ep ai ns todi s credi th erp ers onal
ch aracter . Sh ew as " neuroti c," " unh ealth yandunnatural,"
a" nui s ance
. " Th eyh adtoleratedh ertoap oi ntandth en
ref us edtoh av eanyth i ngm oretodow i th h er
.
B ut,i nas ens e,th es ew i tnes s es w ereth es m allf ry . Much
b i ggerf i s h w ereLauch li nC urri eandHarryDex terWh i te .
A ndb ei ngb i gger,th eyranaw ayw i th th eh ook . C urri ead-
m i ttedth ath eh adk now nb oth Si lv erm as terandSi lv erm an-
as w ellas oth ers am ongth eaccus ed . B uth edeni edth ath e
h adev eri nterf eredtos av eN . GregorySi lv erm as terf rom
b ei ngdi s ch argedas as ecuri tyri s k . Heh adm erelyreq ues ted
th e Unders ecretaryof War,R ob ertP . P atters on,* toi nv es ti -
gateth ech arges ,andSi lv erm as terh ads ub s eq uentlyb een
clearedb yG- 2 .
Th ough h eh adnev erb eenaccus edof m em b ers h i p i nth e
C om m uni s tP arty,h eem p h ati callydeni edanys uch af f i li a-
ti on . " Ih av enev erb eenaf f i li atedw i th anyorgani zati onor
group s ym p ath eti cw i th th edoctri nes of C om m uni s m oren-
gagedi nf urth eri ngth atcaus e," C urri eadded . " Ih av enev er
h adanyreas ontob eli ev eth atanyf ri ends of m i neorev en

P atteraonp ef orm edas i m i larrolei nth eHi s s cas e


.
1 4 4
SEEDSOFTR EA SON
acq uai ntances oras s oci ates w ereC om m uni s ts
. " Inth i s ,h e
w entalongw i th m os tof th ew i tnes s es
. Was h i ngtonw as f ull
of C om m uni s ts andf ellow - trav elers - m anyof w h om m ade
nob ones of i t- b utw i tnes s af terw i tnes s s tatedi ns eri ous nes s
th ath ek new noC om m uni s ts
.
C uri ous ly,th ecom m i tteem adeonlyonef eeb les tab at
p rob i ngth i s s tatem ent
. Y eti ni ts ow nrecords ,th erew ere
s cores of p ages deali ngw i th C urri e' s acti v i ti es i nb eh alf of
th eWas h i ngtonC om m i tteetoA i dC h i na,aC om m uni s t
f ronts ob latantth atMrs
. EleanorR oos ev elth adw i th draw n
h ers up p ort .
Th i s s am euncoordi natedb eh av i orw as dem ons tratedb y
th ecom m i tteew h eni tq ues ti onedHarryDex terWh i te
. Th e
ch arges agai ns th i m w eres eri ous
; h eh adb eennam edb y
b oth Eli zab eth B entleyandWh i ttak erC h am b ers as aC om -
m uni s toracollab orator
. In1 9 4 2 ,h eh adb eencas uallyli s ted
i naC i v i lServ i ceC om m i s s i onrep ortas a" k now nC om m u-
ni s t. " A ndh i s nam eh adb eenm enti onedonth ef loorof C on-
gres s as aP artym em b eri n1 9 4 5
. Of th ep eop lenam edas
C om m uni s ts and/ ors p i es b yC h am b ers andB entley,alm os t
h alf w ereei th erf ri ends of Wh i teorp eop leh eh adem p loyed
i nth egov ernm ent
. Hew as ,m oreov er,auth orof th eMorgen-
th auP lanf orth ep as torali zati onof Germ any- ap lanw h i ch
h adth ew h oleh earteds up p ortof A m eri canC om m uni s ts and
th eSov i etUni on.
Hadth ecom m i tteeb oth eredtoi nv es ti gate,i tw ouldh av e
learned,too,th atWh i te' s ap p oi ntees - m enw h ow ork edf or
th eTreas uryDep artm enti nGerm any- w erew i th f ew ex cep -
ti ons C om m uni s ts orf ellow - trav elers
. Wh atanti - C om m uni s ts
dri f tedi ntoth eTreas uryuni ti nv es ti gati ngcartels w ere
q ui ck lytrans f erredorreturnedtoth eUni tedStates .
Y etth ecom m i tteep erm i ttedWh i tetolecturei tonA m eri -
cani s m ,totalk of " s tar- ch am b erp roceedi ngs " w i th agli b nes s
w h i ch f ooledev eryoneex cep tth os ew h ok new w h atth e
term m eans ,andtoactas i f th eh eari ngs w eream us i cal
com edyrouti ne
. Li k eC urri e,Wh i tedi dn' tk now anyC om -
THEFIR STB R EA K

1 4 5
m oni s ts . Hep rof es s edtob es h ock edb yth eb eh av i oronth e
s tandof s om eof h i s f ri ends andex - colleagues . B uth ew ould
nev eradm i tth atanyth i ngs h ortof aP artycardw ouldcon-
v i nceh i m of am an' s com m uni s m
. A nd,h ei ndi cated,ev en
th eP artycardw ouldnotreallycli nch i t .
Th ecom m i ttee couldrep eat, adi nf i ni tum , th ats om eone
w as lyi ng,th ats om ew h ereth erew eregrounds f orap erj ury
i ndi ctm ent
. B uti tw as f rus tratedands tym i edb yi ts ow n
li m i tati ons andb yth eref us alof th eTrum anA dm i ni s trati on
toop eni ts i ntelli gencerecords tocom m i tteei nv es ti gators .
Itm i gh th av erem ai nedatth atb utf orth ep ers i s tenceof
A lgerHi s s ,th ef ores i gh tof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ,andth e
m em oryof aWas h i ngtonrep orter .
EdNellor,th enof th eNew Y ork Sun' s Was h i ngtonB ureau,
recalledh av i ngh eardav ers i onof th es toryC h am b ers h ad
tri edtotelli n1 9 3 9 . Hes ugges tedtoth ecom m i tteeth ati t
callC h am b ers . P erh ap s h em i gh tb eab letob reak th edead-
lock . OnA ugus t2 nd,Wh i ttak erC h am b ers learnedth ata
s ub p oenah adb eeni s s ueds um m oni ngh i m toap p earb ef ore
th eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee . Seek i ngouth i s good
f ri end,J oh nC h am b erlai n,C h am b ers agi tatedlyex p res s eda
com p leterep ugnancetoth ew h olei dea .
" Ialw ays f earedI' dh av etocros s th i s b ri dge," h etold
C h am b erlai n," b utIh op ednotto . " Says C h am b erlai n : " Th e
p op ularp i ctureof C h am b ers rus h i ngtoWas h i ngtonto` get'
A lgerHi s s j us tdoes n' ts q uarew i th h i s b eh av i oraroundth e
Ti m e of f i ceonth edayh egotnew s of h i s s ub p oena . . . He
k ep trep eati ngth ath eh adnev erm adeab us i nes s of telli ng
ab outh i s C om m uni s tp as t . " B utth erew as noturni ngb ack .
A s anav ow edenem yof com m uni s m ,f i gh ti ngi t" i nw ord
andact," h ecouldnotb ack dow nnow . Fullyaw areth ath e
w as j eop ardi zi ngh i s career,C h am b ers s atdow nth atni gh t
tow ri teth es tatem entw h i ch w as toli f tth ecurtai nonth e
f i rs tactof th eh i gh dram a
.
1 3
Hi gh Dram ai naHeari ngR oom
I
THE B ENTLEY STOR Y HA D SHOC KED THE C OUNTR Y .
B utf orm anyreas ons i tw as m erelyth ecurtai n- rai s erf orth e
tragi cdram ath atw as tounf oldi nth eh eari ngroom of th e
Hous eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee . Foroneth i ng,
Eli zab eth B entleyw as as m allf i gurei nagreatcons p i racy .
B oth h erp artandh erow nch aracterw eres m allcom p ared
w i th th etrem endous conf li ctw h i ch engulf edh er
. Foran-
oth er,h ers toryh adb eenv i ti atedb yth e" b londes p yq ueen"
tagw h i ch th enew s p ap ers s aw f i ttoti eonh er .
Incom p ari s on,Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ' ti gh t- li p p ed,q ui et,
b utem oti on- ch argedtes ti m onyh i tth ecom m i tteeandth e
countryw i th ani m p actli ttlek now ni nanati onas p oli ti cally
s up erf i ci alas ours . OnA ugus t3 ,1 9 4 8 ,at1 1 A . M. , C h am b ers
w as s w orni nb yR ep res entati v eKarlE
. Mundti nah eari ng
room of th eNew Hous eOf f i ceB ui ldi ng . Sp eak i ngi nav oi ce
k eyeds olow th atnew s p ap erm enatth ep res s tab leh ad
di f f i cultyi nh eari ngh i m ,C h am b ers h adgoneth rough th e
p reli m i nari es of tes ti m ony . B utas h ep rogres s edi nth i s s tory,
th eres onanceb adcom ei ntoh i s v oi ce,gi v i ngi tani m p res s i v e
ands i ncereri ng . A s as eni oredi toron Ti m e, h ecoulds p eak
w i th cons i derab leauth ori ty . A s am ans up erb lyeq ui p p ed to
ex p res s h i m s elf ,h ew as ab letob roadcas tth i s auth ori ty . B ut
i tw as th ei nnerconv i cti onw h i ch m adeh i s w ords s tandas
truth .
1 4 6
HIGHDR A MA IN
A HEA R INGR OOM

1 4 7
" A lm os tni neyears ago," s ai dC h am b ers ," Iw enttoWas h -
i ngtonandrep ortedtoth eauth ori ti es w h atIk new ab outth e
i nf i ltrati onof th eUni tedStates Gov ernm entb yC om m uni s ts
.
Foryears i nternati onalcom m uni s m ,of w h i ch th eUni ted
States C om m uni s tP artyi s ani ntegralp art,h adb eeni na
s tateof undeclaredw arw i th th i s R ep ub li c
. Wi th th eHi tler-
Stali nP act,th atw arreach edanew s tage
. Iregardedm y
acti oni ngoi ngtoth egov ernm entas as i m p leactof w ar,
li k eth es h ooti ngof anarm edenem yi ncom b at .
" A tth atm om enti nh i s tory,Iw as oneof th ef ew m enon
th i s s i deof th eb attlew h ocouldp erf orm th i s s erv i ce
. "
Th en,b ri ef ly,C h am b ers des cri b edh i s reas ons f orj oi ni ng
th eC om m uni s tP artyi n1 9 2 5andh i s reas ons f orb reak i ng
w h enh edi d .
" Y et,s os trongi s th eh oldw h i ch th ei ns i di ous ev i lof com -
m uni s m s ecures oni ts di s ci p les ," h eadded," th atIcould
s ti lls aytos om eoneatth eti m e
: Ik now th atIam leav i ng
th ew i nni ngs i def orth elos i ngs i de,b uti ti s b ettertodi eon
th elos i ngs i deth antoli v eundercom m uni s m . "
" . . .
Ih ads oundreas onf ors up p os i ngth atth eC om m u-
ni s ts m i gh ttrytok i llm e
. Foranum b erof years Ih adm ys elf
s erv edi nth eunderground,ch i ef lyi nWas h i ngton,D
. C . . . .
Ik new ati ts top lev el,agroup of s ev enors om en,f rom
w h om i nlateryears certai nm em b ers of Mi s s B entley' s organ-
i zati onw ereap p arentlyrecrui ted
. Th eh eadof th eunder-
groundatth eti m eIk new i tw as Nath anWi tt,anattorney
f orth eNati onalLab orR elati ons B oard
. Later,J oh nA b t
b ecam eth eleader
. LeeP res s m anw as als oam em b erof th i s
group ,as w as A lgerHi s s . . .
Th ep urp os eof th i s group at
th atti m ew as notp ri m ari lyes p i onage
. Its ori gi nalp urp os e
w as th eC om m uni s ti nf i ltrati onof th eA m eri canGov ernm ent
.
B utes p i onagew as certai nlyoneof i ts ev entualob j ecti v es
. Di s loyaltyi s am atterof p ri nci p lew i th ev erym em b erof
th eC om m uni s tP arty
. Th eC om m uni s tP artyex i s ts f orth e
s p eci f i cp urp os eof ov erth row i ngth egov ernm ent,atth e
op p ortune
ti m e,b yanyandallm eans
; andeach of
i ts
1 4 8

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
m em b ers ,b yth ef actth ath ei s am em b er,i s dedi cated
to
th i s p urp os e
. "
Underth es cattered,of tendi s organi zed,q ues ti oni ngof th e
com m i ttee,Wh i ttak erC h am b ers p i ecedoutoth erp arts of h i s
v olum i nous p as ti nth eC om m uni s tunderground . Hecon-
s ci ous lyandcaref ullym adei tap oi nttoav oi dth ech arge
th atth ep eop lei nh i s eli tegroup h adb eenengagedi nes p i o-
nage
. Hes ai dth enth atth ep ri m aryai m of h i s C om m uni s t
group w as i nf i ltrati onandth ei nf luenci ngof p ub li cp oli cy,
alth ough i ts ev entualp urp os ew as es p i onage . Onlyth eas tute
andlong- ti m es tudentof th eC om m uni s tneth erw orldcould
reali ze,b yC h am b ers ' i ns i s tenceth ath i s li f eh adb eeni n
danger,th atth es tock y,greyi ng
Ti m e edi torw as touch i ng
onm atters f arm oregri ev ous toth enati onali nteres tth an
s ub v ers i v ep enetrati on. Wh ati m p li cati ons th erew ere of
es p i onagew ereof tenob s curedb yR ep res entati v eJ oh nR an-
k i n' s ceas eles s attem p ts todragi ntoth eh eari ngev eryone
of h i s ,p eth ates i nandoutof th eNew Dealandtotw i s t
C h am b ers ' w ords i ntoanti - Sem i ti cutterances
. Th atth ecom -
m i tteedi di ts b es ttoi gnoreR ank i n' s outb urs ts w as v ery
m uch toi ts credi t .
Wh enth enam eof HarryDex terWh i tew as b rough t up ,
R ep res entati v eF. Edw ardHeb ertas k ed :
Heb ert .
Wh i tew as b ei ngus edas anunw i tti ngdup e?
C h am b ers . I
w oulds carcelys ay" unw i tti ng
. " Hew as ,as nearly
as Ik now ,p erf ectlyw i lli ngtob eus ed .
Sof ar,A lgerHi s s w as s ti llam i norch aracteri nth edram a .
Hi s nam eh adb eenm enti oneds ev eralti m es i np as s i ng . A t
oneti m eR ep res entati v eKarlE
. Mundts i ngledh i m outf or
rath erex tendedref erence,b utth atw as all :
" Mr
. C h am b ers ," s ai dMundt," Iam v erym uch i nteres ted
i ntryi ngtoch eck th ecareerof A lgerHi s s . . . A s am em b er
of th eForei gnA f f ai rs C om m i ttee,th ep ers onnelcom m i ttee,
Ih av eh ads om eoccas i ontoch eck th eacti v i ti es of A lgerHi s s
w h i leh ew as i nth eStateDep artm ent . Th erei s reas onto
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 4 9
b eli ev eth ath eorgani zedw i th i nth eDep artm entoneof th e
C om m uni s tcells w h i ch endeav oredtoi nf luenceourC h i nes e
p oli cyandb ri ngab outth econdem nati onof C h i angKai - s h ek ,
w h i ch p ut[ C arlA ldo] Marzani * i nani m p ortantp os i ti on
th ere,andIth i nk i ti s i m p ortanttok now w h ath ap p enedto
th es ep eop leaf terth eylef tth egov ernm ent . . . "
B utth atw as all . From th ereon,C h am b ers conti nuedto
des cri b eh i s acti v i ti es andtoex p lai np ati entlytoth ecom -
m i tteeth enatureof aC om m uni s tcell . Wh enh eh adf i ni s h ed
h i s tes ti m ony,Mundt,acti ngch ai rm anof th ecom m i ttee
i nth eab s enceof J . P arnellTh om as ,th ank edC h am b ers
w arm ly .
" Th eC h ai rw ouldli k etos ay,Mr
. C h am b ers ,i nconclus i on,
th atw es i ncerelyap p reci ateth etes ti m onyyouh av egi v en
h eretoday. Iti s atrem endous lydi f f i cultj ob top rov eth e
th i nk i ngof th eA m eri canC om m uni s tm i nd,andi ti s f rom
m enli k eyou . . . w h oh av eb eenth rough th ev alleyof th e
s h adow ands eenth eerrorof th ei rC om m uni s tp h i los op h y
andh adth ecourageandgoodp atri oti s m torenouncecom -
m uni s m op enlyandtom ak eav ai lab letoth elaw enf orce-
m entandi nv es ti gati ngagenci es of th egov ernm entyouri n-
f orm ati on . . . th ats low lyands urelyw earep i eci ngtogeth er
th i s p atternof th eC om m uni s tcons p i racyandh elp i ngto
educatearath ergulli b leA m eri ca . "
Th i s w as onTues day . B yWednes day,th eh ueandcry
agai ns tC h am b ers f orm enti oni ngA lgerHi s s andHarry
Wh i teh adb egun . B oth m enh adp ow erf ulf ri ends i nth e
gov ernm entandi nth ep res s . Heres tartedth ef i cti onth ata
v i ndi cti v eC h am b ers h adth rus th i m s elf i ntoth eli m eli gh tb y
i rres p ons i b lyh urli ngch arges atp rom i nentp ers ons . Elm er
Dav i s ,i nh i s ni gh tlyb roadcas ts f orth eA m eri canB roadcas t-
i ngC om p any,unq uali f i edlydeni edth atth ech arges agai ns t
h i s f ri endWh i teh adanyb as i s of f act . Wi th eq ualv eh e-
m ence,h ecam etoth edef ens eof A lgerHi s s . Itw as ,h ei nti -
* A StateDep artm entof f i cerw h ow as j ai ledf orf als elys w eari ngi na
gov ernm entap p li cati onth ath ew as notaC om m uni s t .
1 50

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
m ated,ap lottos m earth eNew Deal
. Wh en,s h ortlyaf ter
h i s ap p earanceb ef oreth eHous ecom m i ttee,Wh i tedi edof a
h eartattack ,th erew erelouds h outs th ath eh adb een
" m urdered
. "
Th es tai dNew Y ork Ti m es ,
us uallys taunch lyagai ns ts i n,
ref lectedth at" w eh av eap reci ous h eri tagei nth i s country
of p rotecti onof th ei nnocent
agai ns t
f als eaccus ati on,of a
f ai rtri alev enf orth egui lty
. Wh atp ri ceaf ew h eadli nes i f
th os eri gh ts arecom p rom i s ed
.
. . "
Th eWas h i ngton
Star
p ub li s h edacartoondep i cti nganop ens ew erm anh ole
lab elled" Th eHous eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee
. "
OnA ugus t5th ,A lgerHi s s ,as li m ,s m i li ngm anof f orty-
th ree,dres s edi naneatgreys ui t,took th es tandi nacrow ded
congres s i onalh eari ngroom
. A s new s reelandtelev i s i oncam -
eras ground,k li egli gh ts glared,andf las h b ulb s p op p ed,Hi s s
s uddenlyas s um edth eroleof top counter- p rotagoni s ti na
dram aw h i ch w i th th ei nev i tab i li tyof aGreek tragedyun-
rolledtoanalm os tp redi ctab leconclus i on
. Wi th th eex cep -
ti onof HarryWh i te,Hi s s w as th eonlytop - f li gh tw i tnes s i na
longs eri es of h eari ngs w h odi dnotw i th draw b eh i ndth e
s k i rts of h i s cons ti tuti onalp ri v i legeb yp leadi ngs elf - i ncri m -
i nati on . Ins tead,h ew entonth eof f ens i v e,denyi ngev ery-
th i ngth ath adb eens ai dagai ns th i m
.
" Iam h ereatm yow nreq ues t," Hi s s toldth ecom m i ttee
i nh i s op eni ngs tatem ent," atm yow nreq ues ttodenyun-
q uali f i edlyv ari ous s tatem ents ab outm ew h i ch w erem ade
b ef oreth i s com m i tteeb yoneWh i ttak erC h am b ers th eday
b ef oreyes terday
. Iap p reci ateth e com m i ttee' s h av i ng
p rom p tlygrantedm yreq ues t . Iw elcom eth eop p ortuni ty
toans w ertoth eb es tof m yab i li tyanyi nq ui ri es th em em b ers
of th i s com m i tteem ayw i s h toas k m e
.
" Iam notandh av enev erb eenam em b erof th eC om m u-
ni s tP arty
. Idonotandh av enev eradh eredtoth etenets of
th eC om m uni s tP arty
. Iam notandh av enev erb eenam em -
b erof anyC om m uni s tf rontorgani zati on
. Ih av enev erf ol-
low edth eC om m uni s tP artyli ne,di rectlyori ndi rectly
. To
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 51
th e
b es tof m yk now ledge,noneof m yf ri ends i s aC om -
m uni s t . . .
" Toth eb es tof m yk now ledge,Ih av enev erh eardof
Wh i ttak erC h am b ers unti li n1 9 4 7 ,w h entw om em b ers of
th eFederalB ureauof Inv es ti gati onas k edm ei f Ik new h i m
. . .
Sof aras Ik now ,Ih av enev erlai deyes onh i m ,andI
s h ouldli k etodos o
. . .
Ih av ek now nHenryC olli ns s i ncew e
w ereb oys i ncam p togeth er
. . . LeeP res s m anw as i nm y
clas s atth eHarv ardLaw Sch ool
. . . Wi ttandA b tw ereb oth
m em b ers of th elegals taf f of th eA gri culturalA dj us tm ent
A dm i ni s trati on
. . .
Kram erw as i nanoth erof f i ceof th eA A A ,
andIm eth i m i nth atconnecti on . Ih av es eennoneof th es e
las tth reem enIh av em enti onedex cep tm os ti nf req uently
s i nceIlef tth eDep artm entof A gri culture . Idon' tb eli ev eI
ev erk new Vi ctorP erlo.
" Ex cep tas Ih av ei ndi cated,th es tatem ents m adeab out
m eb yMr
. C h am b ers arecom p letef ab ri cati ons . Ith i nk m y
recordi nth egov ernm ents p eak s f ori ts elf . "
Th i s p oi nt- b lank deni alas w ellas h i s com p letef ai lureto
i denti f yC h am b ers f rom p h otos s h ook m os tof th ecom m i ttee
.
A f terdi s cus s i ngHi s s ' p os i ti onandth ev ari ous j ob s h eh ad
h eldi nth egov ernm ent,th ecom m i tteef lounderedf oran
op eni ng. Mr
. R ank i nas k edw h atth ew i tnes s ' s p res entem -
p loym entw as
.
Hi s s . I am p res i dentof th eC arnegi eEndow m entf orInterna-
ti onalP eace.
Heb ert . Doyou
k now Mr . J oh nFos terDulles ?
Hi s s . I do
. Hei s ch ai rm anof m yb oardof trus tees .
Heb ert .
Di dh eas s i s tyoui nanyw ayi ngetti ngyourp res ent
p os i ti on?
Hi s s . Heurgedm etotak em yp res entp os i ti on
.
B utth i s li neof q ues ti oni ngw as p oi ntles s . Heb ert,th e
p res i denti alelecti oni nm i nd,h addraggedi nDulles ' nam e
s i m p lytob elab orth eR ep ub li cancandi date,Th om as E .
Dew ey
. Hop eles s ly,MundtletHeb ert' s q ues ti ons p eterout,
th enrem ark ed :
1 52
SEEDSOFTR EA SON
" Iw anttos ayf oronem em b erof th ecom m i tteeth ati ti s
ex trem elyp uzzli ngth atam anw h oi s s eni oredi torof
Ti m e
m agazi ne,b ynam eof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ,w h om Ih ad
nev ers een
Hi s s . A s f aras Ik now ,Ih av enev ers eenh i m
.
Mundt. . . .
s h ouldcom eb ef oreth i s com m i tteeanddi s cus s
th eC om m uni s tap p aratus w ork i ngi nWas h i ngton,w h i ch h es ays
i s trans m i tti ngs ecrets toth eR us s i angov ernm ent,andh eli s ts
s ev enp eop le- Nath anWi tt,LeeP res s m an,Vi ctorP erlo,C h arles
Kram er,J oh nA b t,HaroldWare,A lgerHi s s ,andDonaldHi s s -
Hi s s
. Th ati s ei gh t.
Mundt.
Th eres eem s tob enoq ues ti onab outth es ub v ers i v e
connecti ons of th e s i x
oth erth anth eHi s s b roth ers ,andIw onder
w h atp os s i b lem oti v eam arew h oedi ts
Ti m e m agazi new ouldh av e
f orm enti oni ngDonaldHi s s andA lgerHi s s i nconnecti onw i th
th os eoth er s i x .
Hi s s . SodoI,Mr . C h ai rm an . . .
Mundt . Y ou
canap p reci ateth ep os i ti onof th i s com m i tteew h en
th enam eb ob s up w i th th os econnecti ons . .
. A llw earetryi ng
to doi s f i ndth ef acts
.
Hi s s
. I w i s h Icouldh av es eenMr
. C h am b ers b ef oreh etes ti f i ed .
A tth i s p oi nt,R ank i ncam eup w i th oneof h i s i ni m i tab le
rem ark s ,turni ngonC h am b ers ,w h om h eh ads oeas i ly
p rai s edj us ttw odays p rev i ous ly
. " A f terallth es m earattack s
agai ns tth i s com m i tteeandi ndi v i dualm em b ers of th i s com -
m i tteei n Ti m e m agazi ne," s ai dR ank i n,getti ngab i glaugh ,
" Iam nots urp ri s edatanyth i ngth atcom es outof anyb ody
connectedw i th i t
. "
B yth eti m eth eh eari ngh adended,allth ecom m i ttee
m em b ers w i th th eex cep ti onof R i ch ardNi x onw ereb us y
m ak i ngam ends toHi s s f orth ei nconv eni enceth eyh ad
caus edh i m
. Of th ep eop lew h oattended,ei th erp res s or
s p ectators ,th eth um p i ngm aj ori tyb eli ev edth atHi s s w as
telli ngth etruth andC h am b ers ,f ors om eob s curep ri v ate
m oti v e,lyi ng . Itw as as com p letearev ers alof p os i ti onas th e
com m i tteeh adev ers een .
Im m edi atelyaf terth eh eari ngw as concluded,th ecom -
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM 1 53
m i tteew enti ntoex ecuti v es es s i on
. C ons ternati oni s th eonly
w ordw h i ch des cri b es th ef eeli ngof th em em b ers . Mundt,
s p eak i ngf orth eoth ers - agai nw i th th eex cep ti onof Ni x on-
s tatedcategori callyth ati tw as q ui teap p arentth ecom m i ttee
h adb eentak eni nb yC h am b ers . Unles s acollaterali s s ue
w eredev elop ed,h es ai dalm os ti np ani c,ani s s uew h i ch
w ouldtak eth ep ub li cm i ndof f th eHi s s f i as co,th ecom m i ttee
w oulds uf f eragreatdealof dam age . Heb ert' s v i ew w as a
li ttledi f f erent . Hef eltth atth eb es tw aytoh andleth ecas e
w as f orth ecom m i tteetow as h i ts h ands of b oth Hi s s and
C h am b ers andtos endth ef i leof th eA ugus t3 rdandA ugus t
5th tes ti m onytoth eA ttorneyGeneral
. Tom C lark couldth en
determ i new h ow as lyi ng,w h otelli ngth etruth .
Toallth i s ,R i ch ardNi x onob j ecteds trenuous ly . Heh ad
li s tenedtoHi s s andw atch edh i m onth es tandw i th agreat
dealof attenti on .
" If elt," h econf i dedaf terw ards ," th atHi s s w as m uch too
caref ulaw i tnes s i nh i s tes ti m onyf oronew h op urp ortedto
b etelli ngth ew h oletruth w i th outq uali f i cati on
. Inotedth at
th rough outh i s tes ti m ony,h enev eronces ai d,` Ih av enev er
k now nWh i ttak erC h am b ers . ' Healw ays i ns i s tedonus i ngth e
q uali f yi ngp h ras i ng,' Ih av enev erk now nam anb yth enam e
of Wh i ttak erC h am b ers
. ' C ouldHi s s h av ek now nC h am b ers
underanoth ernam e?
" If eltals oth atHi s s s eem edtop utona` s h ow ' w h enh e
w as s h ow nap i ctureof C h am b ers
. Hi s s tatem entth at` th i s
m i gh tlook li k eyou,Mr
. C h ai rm an,' andh i s elab orateex -
p lanati onallcom b i nedtom ak em eth i nk th ath eactually
di drecogni zeth ep i ctureandw as attem p ti ngtogi v eadi s -
arm i ngs tatem entconcerni ngi t .
" A lli n all, If eltth atHi s s w as av erys m ooth w i tnes s ,b ut
b etw eenh i m andC h am b ers ,C h am b ers h adb eenth em ore
conv i nci ngw i tnes s
. B utIcouldonlyof f erth i s as ap ers onal
s us p i ci ononm yp art . "
SoNi x onm adeh i s ow np rop os altoth eb ef uddledcom -
m i ttee
. Itw as th i s p rop os alw h i ch ,i nef f ect,ledtoth egreat
1 54

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
cli m ax of th ecas e . Ni x onurgedth atalth ough th ecom m i ttee
couldnotas yetdeterm i new h ow as lyi ngonth eq ues ti on
of Hi s s ' af f i li ati onw i th th eC om m uni s ts ,i tw as p os s i b leth at
th eym i gh tp rov econclus i v elyw h eth erornotC h am b ers h ad
ev erk now nHi s s . If Hi s s h adli edonth i s p oi nt- andth ecom -
m i tteecouldp rov ei t- i tw ouldb eab i gf eath eri nth ecom -
m i ttee' s cap .
Ni x ons ugges tedth atas ub com m i tteegoi m m edi atelyto
New Y ork toq ues ti onC h am b ers i nex ecuti v es es s i on . " Let' s
geth i m totellus ev eryth i ngh ek now s ab outA lgerHi s s ,"
Ni x ons ai d . " Th enw ecans eew h eth erh i s s toryi s af ab ri ca-
ti onornot . " C oncurri ngw i th Ni x on,R ob ertS
. Stri p li ng,th e
com m i ttee' s ch i ef i nv es ti gator,notedth atth erew as aw i tnes s
i nth eB entleycas ew h oli v edi nNew Y ork andw h om i gh t
als ob eq ues ti onedb yth es ub com m i ttee
.
Sti llunconv i nced,Mundtnev erth eles s agreed
. Th en,as a
cov erup ,i ncas eth em eeti ngw i th C h am b ers p rov edtob ea
dud,h etoldth ep res s th atth ecom m i tteew as goi ngtoNew
Y ork toi nterrogatea" m ys teryw i tnes s " w h om i gh tb reak
th eB entleys toryw i deop en . Th enew s p ap ers leap edf orth e
" m ys tery" angle,i gnori ngth eHi s s - C h am b ers as p ectof th e
i nq ui ry
. A s i tturnedout,i tw as th em ys teryw i tnes s w h o
w as th e dud.
1 4
Hi gh Dram ai naHeari ngR oom
II
THEEFFEC TOFA LDER HISS' P OINT- B LA NKDENIA LS
w as
electri c
. P arti s ans of th edap p eryoungex ecuti v eglee-
f ullys h outed" Itoldyous o" f rom ev eryh ous etop i nWas h -
i ngton . Th eNati onalP res s C lub b arw as th es ceneof long
andf erv entargum ents b etw eenth ep ro- Hi s s f orces andth e
p ro- C h am b ers f orces . C ock tai lp arti es f rom P ark A v enueto
Dup ontC i rclerangw i th analm os tuni v ers alcondem nati on
of th eHous eUn- A m er ;,canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee . Th e cry
of " red- b ai ti ng" w h i ch h adb eens om ew h ats ti lledi nth eland
s i nceth ecoldw arb eganw as agai nh eardloudlyi nli b eral
ci rcles . A ndth ecryp to- C om m uni s ts m earf actori es b egan
w ork i ngov erti m ew i th s landerous rum ors onth em oraland
s ex ualh ab i ts of Wh i ttak erC h am b ers .
B utw h i leth euni nf orm edandth em i s i nf orm edtraded
conv ers ati onalgam b i ts ,R ep res entati v eNi x onw as p roddi ng
atth etw om eni nanef f orttogetf acts
. Th ough h ew as a
j uni orm em b erof th ecom m i tteeandaf res h m anC ongres s -
m an,h eh adi nas ens etak enth eb i ti nh i s teeth w h enh e
i ns i s tedonf urth erh eari ngs i nNew Y ork
. Toalli ntents and
p urp os es ,i tw as h i s s h ow f rom th atm om entf orw ard . Tw o
days af terth ef i rs tHi s s h eari ng,Ni x on - accom p ani edb y
H6 b ert,McDow ell,Stri p li ng,th ecom m i ttee' s di rectorof
res earch B enMandel,ands ei reacali nv es ti gators - w as m eeti ng
1 55
1 58

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
i nR oom 1 0 1 of th eUni tedStates C ourth ous eonFoley
Sq uarei nNew Y ork . Ni x on' s s ub com m i tteem ets ecretly,
i n
ex ecuti v es es s i on,w i th C h am b ers
. A t1 0 : 3 0 A . M. onSaturday,
A ugus t7 th ,Ni x oncalledth em eeti ngtoorderandb egan
q ues ti oni ngC h am b ers .
" Mr
. C h am b ers ," Ni x ons ai d," youareaw areof th ef act
th atMr
. A lgerHi s s ap p earedb ef oreth i s com m i ttee,b ef ore
th eUn- A m eri canA cti v i ti es C om m i ttee,i np ub li cs es s i onand
s w oreth atth etes ti m onyw h i ch h adb eengi v enb yyouunder
oath b ef oreth i s com m i tteew as f als e
. Th ecom m i tteei s now
i nteres tedi nq ues ti oni ngyouf urth erconcerni ngyouralleged
acq uai ntances h i p w i th Mr
. A lgerHi s s s oth atw ecandeter-
m i new h atcours eof acti ons h ouldb ef ollow edi nth i s m atter
i nth ef uture .
" Mr . Hi s s i nh i s tes ti m onyw as as k edons ev eraloccas i ons
w h eth erornoth eh adev erk now nork new am anb yth e
nam eof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers . Ineach i ns tance,h ecategor-
i callys ai d, ` No . ' A tw h atp eri oddi dyouk now Mr
. Hi s s ? A t
w h atti m e? "
C h am b ers . I k new Mr
. ' Hi s s ,rough ly,b etw eenth eyears 1 9 3 5
and1 9 3 7 .
Ni x on . Doyou
k now h i m as Mr. A lgerHi s s ?
C h am b ers . Y es .
Ni x on.
Di dyouh ap p entos eeMr . Hi s s ' p i ctures i n
th enew s -
p ap ers as ares ultof th es erecenth eari ngs ?
C h am b ers . Y es ; Idi d
.
Ni x on.
Was th atth em anyouk new as A lger Hi s s ?
C h am b ers . Y es ; th ati s th em an .
Ni x on. Y ou arecertai nof th at?
C h am b ers . I am com p letelycertai n .
Ni x on .
Duri ngth eti m eth atyouk now Mr . Hi s s ,di dh ek now
youas Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ?
C h am b ers . No
. Hek new m eb yth eP artynam eof C arl .
Ni x on . Di dh eev erq ues ti onth ef actth ath edi dnotk now your
las tnam e?
C h am b ers . Nottom e .
Ni x on . Wh ynot?
C h am b ers . B ecaus ei nth eundergroundC om m uni s tP artyth e
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM 1
5
7
p ri nci p leof organi zati oni s th atf uncti onari es
. . . s h allnotb e
k now nb yth ei rri gh tnam es b utb yp s eudonym s orP arty
nam es .
Ni x on . WereyouaP artyf uncti onary?
C h am b ers . I w as af uncti onary .
Ni x on. Th i s enti regroup w i th w h i ch youw ork edi nWas h i ngton
di dnotk now youb yyourrealnam e?
C h am b ers . Nom em b erof th atgroup k new m e b ym y realnam e.
Ni x on. I unders tandyoutos ayth atMr. Hi s s w as am em b erof
th eP arty .
C h am b ers . Mr. Hi s s w as am em b erof th eC om m uni s tP arty .
Ni x on. How doyouk now th at?
C h am b ers . I w as toldb yMr . P eters .
Ni x on . Wh atf acts di dMr . P eters gi v eyou?
C h am b ers . Mr . P eters w as th eh eadof th eenti reunderground
. . . C om m uni s tP artyi nth eUni tedStates .
Ni x on. Do youh av eanyoth erev i dence,anyf actualev i dence,
tob earoutyourclai m th atMr . Hi s s w as am em b er of th eC om -
m uni s tP arty?
C h am b ers
. Noth i ngb eyondth ef actth ath es ub m i ttedh i m s elf
f orth etw oorth reeyears th atIk new h i m as adedi catedand
di s ci p li nedC om m uni s t .
Ni x on. Di dyouob tai nh i s P artydues f rom h i m ?
C h am b ers . Y es ,Idi d .
Ni x on. Ov erw h atp eri odof ti m e?
C h am b ers . Tw o orth reeyears ,as longas Ik new h i m .
Ni x on
. P artydues f rom h i m andh i s w i f e?
C h am b ers . I
as s um eh i s w i f e' s dues w ereth ere . . .
Mr. Hi s s
w oulds i m p lygi v em eanenv elop econtai ni ng P artydues w h i ch
Itrans f erredtoP eters . Idi dn' th andleth e m oney.
Ni x on
. How of ten?
C h am b ers . Onceam onth . . . Hew as rath erp i ous ab outp ay-
i ngh i s dues p rom p tly .
Ni x on. Is th ereanyoth erci rcum s tancew h i ch w ould s ub s tan-
ti ateyourallegati onth ath ew as am em b erof th e P arty?
C h am b ers . I
m us tals oi nterp olateth ereth atallC om m uni s ts
i nth egroup i nw h i ch Iori gi nallyk new h i m accep tedh i m as a
m em b erof th eC om m uni s tP arty .
Ni x on. C ouldth i s h av ep os s i b lyb eenani ntellectual s tudy
group ?
C h am b ers . Itw as i nnow i s eani ntellectuals tudy group . Its
p ri m aryf uncti onw as notth atof ani ntellectual s tudygroup . I
certai nlys up p li eds om eof th ati ntellectuals tudy b us i nes s ,w h i ch
1 58
SEEDSOFTR EA SON
w as p artof m yf uncti on,b uti ts p ri m aryf uncti on
w as toi nf i ltrate
th egov ernm enti nth ei nteres tof th eC om m uni s t
P arty.
Ni x on
. A tth atti m e,i nci dentally,Mr
. Hi s s andth eoth er m em -
b ers of th i s group w h ow eregov ernm entem p loyees
di dnoth av e
P artycards ?
C h am b ers
. No m em b ers of th atgroup tom yk now ledgeev er
h adP artycards ,nordoIth i nk th atm em b ers of th at
group h av e
P artycards .
Ni x on. Th ereas oni s -
C h am b ers .
Th ereas oni s s ecuri ty,concealm ent .
Ni x on .
Inoth erw ords ,p eop lew h oarei nth eC om m uni s t
un-
dergroundarei nf acti ns tructedto
deny th ef actth atth eyare
m em b ers of th eC om m uni s tP arty?
C h am b ers
. I w as toldb yP eters th atP artyregi s trati onw as k ep t
i nMos cow andi ns om es ecretf i lei nth eUni ted
States .
Ni x on . Di dMr . Hi s s h av ech i ldren?
C h am b ers . Mr
. Hi s s h adnoch i ldrenof h i s ow n .
Ni x on .
Wereth ereanych i ldrenli v i ngi nh i s h om e?
C h am b ers . Mrs . Hi s s h adas on
. . . Ti m oth yHob s on.
Ni x on.
A p p rox i m atelyh ow oldw as h eatth eti m eyouk new
h i m ?
C h am b ers .
Its eem s tom eh ew as ab outtenyears old
.
Ni x on .
Wh atdi dyoucallh i m ?
C h am b ers . Ti m m i e . . .
Ni x on . Wh atnam edi dMrs
. Hi s s us ei naddres s i ngMr . Hi s s ?
C h am b ers . Us ually," Hi lly"
. .
Ni x on .
Wh atni ck nam e,i f any,di dMr
. Hi s s us ei naddres s i ng
h i s w i f e?
C h am b ers .
Moreof ten" Di lly" ands om eti m es
" P ros s . " Her
nam ew as P ri s ci lla . . .
Ni x on .
Di dyouev ers p endanyti m ei nHi s s ' h om e?
C h am b ers
. Y es .
Ni x on.
Di dyous tayov erni gh t?
C h am b ers . Y es ,I
s tayedov erni gh t . . f rom ti m etoti m e
.
Ni x on. Di dyouev ers taylongerth anoneday?
C h am b ers . I h av es tayedth ereas longas aw eek
. . . Im ade
th atak i ndof i nf orm alh eadq uarters .
Ni x on
. I unders tandth at,b utw h atw as th ef i nanci al
arrange-
m ent?
C h am b ers
. Th erew as nof i nanci alarrangem ent
. . .
Ni x on.
Di dth eHi s s es h av eanyp ets ?
C h am b ers . Th eyh ad,Ib eli ev e,acock ers p ani el . Ih av eab ad
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 59
m em oryf ordogs ,b utas nearlyas Icanrem em b eri tw as acock er
s p ani el . . .
Irem em b erth eyus edtotak ei tup tos om ek ennel
.
Ith i nk outWi s cons i nA v enue
.
Ni x on .
Th eytook i ttob oardth ere?
C h am b ers . Y es
. Th eym adeoneortw ov acati ontri p s toth e
Eas ternSh oreof Maryland
. . . A tth os eti m es th edogw as k ep t
atth ek ennel .
Ni x on
. Y ou
s tateth eHi s s es h ads ev eraldi f f erenth ous es w h en
youk new th em
. C ouldyoudes cri b eanyoneof th os eh ous es
tous ?
C h am b ers . I th i nk s o
. Its eem s tom ew h enIf i rs tk new h i m h e
w as li v i ngon2 8 th Streeti nanap artm enth ous e
. Th erew eretw o
alm os ti denti calap artm enth ous es
. Its eem s tom eth ati s adead-
ends treetandth i s w as ri gh tatth edead- endandcertai nlyi ti s
onth eri gh t- h ands i deas yougoup
. Itals os eem s tom eth atth e
ap artm entw as onth etop f loor
. Now ,w h atw as i tli k ei ns i de,th e
f urni ture? Ican' trem em b er .
Ni x on .
Wh atw as Mr . Hi s s ' li b rarydev otedto?
C h am b ers .
Verynondes cri p t,as Irecall
.
Ni x on .
Was th ereanys p eci aldi s h th eys erv ed?
C h am b ers . No
. Ith i nk yougeth erei ntos om eth i ngels e
. Hi s s
i s am anof greats i m p li ci tyandagreatgentlenes s ands w eetnes s
of ch aracter,andth eyli v edw i th ex trem es i m p li ci ty
. Ih adth e
i m p res s i onth atth ef urni turei nth ath ous ew as k i ndof p ulled
togeth erf rom h ereandth ere,m ayb e[ th ey] goti tf rom th ei r
m oth erors om eth i ngli k eth at,noth i nglav i s h ab outi tw h ats o-
ev er,q ui tes i m p le . Th ei rf oodw as
i n th es am ep attern,andth ey
carednoth i ngab outf ood
. Itw as notap ri m aryi nteres ti nth ei r
li v es .
Mandel . Di dMr
. Hi s s h av eanyh ob b i es ?
C h am b ers . Y es ;
h edi d . Th eyb oth h adth es am eh ob b y- am a-
teurorni th ologi s ts ,b i rdob s erv ers . Th eyus edtogetup earlyi n
th em orni ngandgotoGlenEch o,outth ecanal,toob s erv eb i rds
.
Irecallonceth eys aw ,toth ei rgreatex ci tem ent,ap roth onotary
w arb ler .
McDow ell . A
v eryrares p eci m en?
C h am b ers . I
nev ers aw one . Iam als of ondof b i rds
.
Ni x on . Di dth eyh av eacar?
C h am b ers . Y es ,th eydi d
. Wh enIf i rs tk new th em th eyh ada
car
. A gai nIam reas onab lys ure- Iam alm os tcertai n- i tw as a
Fordandth ati tw as aroads ter . Itw as b lack andi tw as v ery
di lap i dated
. Th erei s noq ues ti onab outth at .
1 6 0 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
Irem em b erv eryclearlyth ati th ad h andw i nds h i eldw i p ers . I
rem em b erth atb ecaus eIdrov ei tone rai nydayandh adtow ork
th os ew i nds h i eldw i p ers b yh and .
Ni x on. Doyourecallanyoth ercar?
C h am b ers . Its eem s tom ei n1 9 3 6 ,p rob ab ly, h egotanew
P lym outh .
Ni x on. Doyourecalli ts typ e?
C h am b ers . Itw as as edan,atw o- s eatedcar .
Mandel . Wh atdi dh edow i th th eoldcar?
C h am b ers . Th eC om m uni s tP artyh adi nWas h i ngton as erv i ce
s tati on- th ati s ,th em ani nch arge orow nerof th i s s tati onw as a
C om m uni s t- ori tm ayh av eb eenacarlot .
Ni x on
.
B utth eow nerw as aC om m uni s t?
C h am b ers .
Th eow nerw as aC om m uni s t . Inev erk new w h o
th i s w as orw h erei tw as . Itw as agai ns t allth erules of th eunder-
groundorgani zati onf orHi s s todoanyth i ngw i th h i s oldcarb ut
tradei ti n,andIth i nk th i s i nv es ti gati onh as p rov edh ow ri gh t
th eC om m uni s ts arei ns uch m atters ,
b utHi s s i ns i s tedth ath e
w antedth ecarturnedov erto th eop enP artys oi tcouldb e of
us etos om ep oororgani zeri n th eWes tors om ew h ere .
Much agai ns tm yb etterj udgm ent andm uch agai ns tP eters '
b etterj udgm ent,h ef i nallygotus top erm i th i m todoth i s th i ng .
P eters k new w h ereth i s lotw as , andh eei th ertook Hi s s th ereor
h egav eHi s s th eaddres s
; and Hi s s w entth ere,andtoth eb es t
of m yrecollecti onof h i s des cri p ti on
of th ath ap p eni ng,h elef t
th ecarth ereands i m p lyw ent aw ayandth em ani nch argeof
th es tati ontook careof th eres t of i tf orh i m . Ith i nk th erecords
of th attrans f erw ouldb etraceab le .
Ni x on . Wh erew as th at?
C h am b ers . InWas h i ngton,D . C . ,Ib eli ev e ; certai nlys om e-
w h erei nth eDi s tri ct .
Ni x on. Doyourecalloth ercars b es i des th es etw o?
C h am b ers . No,I th i nk h eh adth eP lym outh w h enIb rok e w i th
th ew h oleb us i nes s . . .
Ni x on. C ouldyoudes cri b e
Mr. Hi s s p h ys i cal
ap p earance
tous ?
C h am b ers . Mr. Hi s s ,Is h ouldth i nk ,i s ab out5f eet8 or9 ,
s lender . Hi s eyes arew i de ap artandb lueorgrey . . . Ith i nk
th eych ange . . . Inh i s w alk ,i f youw atch h i m f rom b eh i nd,
th erei s as li gh tm i nces om eti m es . . . Irem em b erh etoldm e
as as m allb oyh eus edtotak eali ttle w agon- h ew as aB alti m ore
b oy- andw alk up toDrui dHi ll P ark ,w h i ch w as atth atti m e
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 6 1
w ayb eyondth eci v i li zedcenter of th eci ty,andf i llup b ottles
w i th s p ri ngw aterandb ri ng th em b ack ands elli t .
Ni x on. Doyourem em b eranyp h ys i cal ch aracteri s ti cs of th e
b oy?
C h am b ers . Ti m m i e?
Ni x on. Y es .
C h am b ers . Ti m m i ew as ap unyli ttleb oy, als orath ernerv ous .
Ni x on . Th i s i s Mrs . Hi s s ' s on?
C h am b ers . Mrs . Hi s s ' s onb yTh ayerHob s on.
Ni x on
. Doyourecallw h ereh ew entto s ch ool?
C h am b ers . Y es ; Ido . Idon' tk now th enam e of th es ch oolh e
w as attendi ngth en,b utth ey toldm eth atTh a y erHob s onw as
p ayi ngf orh i s s on' s educati on, b utth eyw eredi v erti ngalarge
p artof th atm oneytoth eC om m uni s t P arty.
Ni x on. Hi s s toldyouth at?
C h am b ers . Y es ,s i r .
Ni x on. Di dh enam eth eC om m uni s tP arty as th ereci p i ent?
C h am b ers . C ertai nly .
Heb ert. Hob s onw as p ayi ngf orth eb oy' s educati on?
C h am b ers . Y es ; andth eytook h i m outof am oreex p ens i v e
s ch oolandp uth i m i nales s ex p ens i v es ch oolex p res s lyf orth at
p urp os e
. Th ati s m yrecollecti on .
Stri p li ng .
Doyourem em b eranyth i ngab outh i s
h ands ?
C h am b ers . Wh os e?
Stri p li ng . A lgerHi s s ' .
C h am b ers . Heh adrath erlongdeli catef i ngers . Idon' trem em -
b eranyth i ngs p eci al .
Mandel.
How i s i th enev erw roteanyth i ng p ub li cly?
C h am b ers .
Well,h ecam ei ntoth eunderground li k es om any
C om m uni s ts di d- th i s w as anew s tage i nth eh i s toryof A m eri can
C om m uni s ts .
Mandel. Hew as nev eri nth eop enC om m uni s t P arty?
C h am b ers . Hew as nev er i n th eop enC om m uni s tP arty,cam e
i nas anunder g roundC om m uni s t .
Heb ert. Di dh eh av eanyoth erb roth ers ors i s ters b es i des
Donald?
C h am b ers . Heh adones i s ter,Ib eli ev e,li v i ng w i th h erm oth er
i nB alti m ore . .
Stri p li ng
. Di dh egotoch urch ?
C h am b ers . Hew as f orb i ddentogotoch urch .
Stri p li ng . Doyou k now w h eth erh ew as am em b erof ach urch ?
C h am b ers . I don' tk now .
1 8 2 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
Stri p li ng . Doyou k now i f h i s w i f ew as am em b erof a ch urch ?
C h am b ers . Sh ecam ef rom aQ uak erf am i ly . Herm ai dennam e
w as P ri s ci llaFans lerb ef ores h e w as m arri ed . Sh ecam ef rom th e
GreatValley,nearP aoli ,P enns ylv ani a .
Ni x on . Di ds h etellyouanyth i ngab out h erf am i ly?
C h am b ers . No, b uts h eonces h ow edm ew h i lew e w eredri v -
i ngb eyondP aoli th eroaddow nw h i ch th ei rf arm lay.
Ni x on . Y ou
drov ew i th th em ?
C h am b ers . Y es .
Ni x on. Di dyoum ak eanaf f i dav i tconcerni ng Mr. A lgerHi s s ?
C h am b ers . I m adeas i gneds tatem ent . Is h ouldth i nk i tw as
ab out1 9 4 5. B ef oreth atIh adrep ortedth es ef acts atleas t tw o
years b ef oretoth eFB Iand ni neyears agotoMr . B erle and
m enti onedHi s s ' nam e .
Ni x on. Ni neyears ago,areyoucertai nth atyoudi dm enti on
Hi s s ' nam etoB erle?
C h am b ers . I certai nlym enti onedHi s s ' nam etoB erle .
Ni x on. Hav eyous eenHi s s s i nce1 9 3 8 ?
C h am b ers . No; s i nceth eti m eIw enttoh i s h ous e andtri ed
tob reak h i m aw ay,Ih av enev ers een h i m s i nce .
Ni x on .
Wouldyoub ew i lli ngtos ub m i t
toali edetectortes t
onth i s tes ti m ony?
C h am b ers .
Y es ; i f neces s ary .
Ni x on . Y ou
h av eth atm uch conf i dence?
C h am b ers . I am telli ngth etruth .
Ni x on . Th ank you . Ih av enof urth erq ues ti ons .
Heb ert . I am i nteres tedi nth eh ous es h eli v edi n . Y ou s ai d
s ev eralh ous es
. How m anyh ous es ? Startf rom th eb egi nni ng
.
C h am b ers A s w ellas Icanrem em b er,w h enIf i rs t k new h i m
h ew as li v i ngon2 8 th Streetand w h enIw enttos eeMr . B erle
i ts truck m eas s trange,b ecaus e Mr. B erlew as li v i ngi nSti m s on' s
h ous eonWoodleyR oadnear2 8 th
Street
. From th ereIam not
ab s olutelycertai nof th eorder
of th eh ous es ,b uti ts eem s to
m e
h em ov edtoah ous ei nGeorgetow n- th at Ik now ; h em ov edto
ah ous ei nGeorgetow n- b ut i ts eem s i tw as onth ecorner of
P Street,b utagai nIcan' tb eab s olutely certai nof th es treets .
Heb ert. Itw as onacom er?
C h am b ers . Y es
; andas Irecall,youh adto goup s tep s toget
toi t.
Mandel
. How m anyroom s w ereth erei nth ath ous e?
C h am b ers . I don' tk now of f h and,b utIh av e th ei m p res s i oni t
w as ath ree- s toryh ous e . Ials o th i nk i th adak i ndof p orch i n
b ack w h erep eop les at .
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 6 3
Th eni f Ih av egotth eorderof th eh ous es ri gh t,h em ov edto
ah ous eonanup - and- dow ns treet,as treetth atw ouldcros s th e
lettereds treets ,p rob ab lyj us taroundth ecornerf rom th eoth er
h ous e . . .
Heb ert
. Sti lli nGeorgetow n?
C h am b ers
. Sti lli nGeorgetow n
. Ih av ef orgottenth ereas onf or
h i s m ov i ng
. Th atw as as m allerh ous eand,as Irecall,th edi ni ng
room w as b elow th elev elof th eground,oneof th os eb as em ent
di ni ngroom s
; Ith i nk i th adas m allyardi nb ack . Ith i nk h ew as
th erew h enIb rok ew i th th eC om m uni s tP arty
. . . B utIw ent
tos eeh i m i nth eh ous eh elaterm ov edto,w h i ch w as onth eoth er
s i deof Wi s cons i nA v enue .
Heb ert.
Th elas tti m eyous aw h i m w h enyouattem p tedto
p ers uadeh i m tob reak f rom th eP arty-
C h am b ers .
Th atw as b eyondWi s cons i nA v enue . . .
" Wh enw etook C h am b ers ' tes ti m onyi nNew Y ork on
A ugus t7 th ," Ni x onh as s i nces ai d," i tw as q ui teap p arent
f rom h i s detai ledans w ers toth eq ues ti ons th atw ep utto
h i m th atei th erh ek new Hi s s orth ath eh adm adeav ery
th orough s tudyof Hi s s ' li f ef orth ep urp os eof b ei ngab leto
tes ti f yagai ns th i m
. Th es econdth eoryreq ui red,of cours e,
th atC h am b ers m us th av eh adam oti v e . A ndas C h am b ers
h i m s elf p uti ttom ei np ri v ateconv ers ati on,th em oti v em us t
h av eb eenones os trongth ati tw ouldleadh i m todes troy
h i s ow ncareeri nth ep roces s
. "
Ni ne days elap s edb etw eenth eC h am b ers tes ti m onyand
A lgerHi s s ' s econdap p earanceb ef oreth ecom m i ttee
. Duri ng
th i s p eri od,com m i tteei nv es ti gators f ev eri s h lyattem p tedto
corrob orates tatem ents of s i m p lef acti nC h am b ers ' s tory .
Ini ns tanceaf teri ns tance,th eans w ers w h i ch C h am b ers h ad
gi v enw eref oundtob es ub s tanti allyi nagreem entw i th th e
as certai nab lef acts
. Duri ngth i s ti m e,als o,Ni x onv i s i tedth e
C h am b ers f arm atWes tm i ns tertw i cetos eei f h em i gh t
dev elop oth erleads f ori nv es ti gati on. Th ough h ef ai ledi n
th i s ,th ev i s i ts rem ov eds uch doub ts as h es ti llentertai ned
concerni ngth eov er- allv eraci tyof C h am b ers ' s tory
.
" Ireali zed i n
m yconv ers ati ons w i th h i m ," Ni x ontoldth e
1 6 4

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
auth ors ," th atw h enh edi s cus s edHi s s h ew as talk i ngab out
am anh ek new rath erth anam anw h os eli f eh eh ads tudi ed
.
Onth es eoccas i ons ,Ias k edC h am b ers i nnum erab leq ues -
ti ons concerni ngh i s relati ons h i p w i th Hi s s andh i s ans w ers
toth em ,w erei nallcas es ,f orth ri gh tandconv i nci ng . Duri ng
onetalk ,C h am b ers rem ark edab outth ef actth atMrs
. Hi s s
w as aQ uak er . Suddenlyh es nap p edh i s f i ngers .
" ' Here' s s om eth i ngw h i ch m ayb eof i nteres t,' h es ai d,
` Mrs . Hi s s us uallyus edth ep lai ns p eech w h ens h ew as talk i ng
w i th A lger i n th eh om e . ' [ Th ep lai ns p eech i s th eus eof
th ee,
i ns teadof you, w h i ch i s p artof Q uak ercus tom . ] Ik new th at
C h am b ers couldnoth av ek now ns uch i nti m atedetai ls unles s
h eactuallyk new Hi s s . "
Th es econds ceneof th es econdactof th edram aw as
p layed
i n th ecom m i ttee' s h eari ngroom i nth eOldHous e
Of f i ceB ui ldi ngonth eaf ternoonof A ugus t1 6 th . A lgerHi s s
arri v edw i th as li gh tch i p onh i s s h oulder,th eedges of h i s
s uav em annerrub b edof f . Stori es of Wh i ttak erC h am b ers '
detai ledtes ti m onyh adp ercolatedoutof th ecom m i ttee' s
h eari ngroom . Th eyh adreach edHi s s andw orri edh i m . Hi s
f ri ends - andh eh adm anyam ongth em i gh ty- s ti llconti nued
torallyab outh i m . B utam ongnew s p ap erm eni nNew Y ork
andWas h i ngton,th ef i rs ts eeds of doub tas toHi s s ' s trai gh t-
f orw ardnes s h adb eenp lanted .
A noth erf actorh adals ob eguntocondi ti onth ep ub li c
cons ci ous nes s ,as Hi s s andC h am b ers as s um edth ep rop or-
ti ons of h eroi cantagoni s ts . J us tas R i ch ardNi x onh adrea-
s oned,s otoodi dm anyoth ers . Forw h atp os s i b lem oti v e
couldam an,occup yi ngap os i ti onof res p ons i b i li tyandi m -
p ortanceon Ti m e, oneof A m eri ca' s m aj orm agazi nes ,j eop -
ardi zeh i s careeri nanattem p ttos m earani nnocentm an?
If Hi s s w eretelli ngth etruth ,h ew as ani nnocentm anw h om
C h am b ers h adnev erev enm et . If th em enh adm etand
tangled,th enA lgerHi s s - w h eth erh ew as aC om m uni s tor
not- h adli ed
i n denyi ngth erelati ons h i p . A ndi f h eh adli ed
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 6 5
ab outk now i ngC h am b ers ,w h entoadm i ti tw ouldh av e
b eenth ew i s ercours e- th i s s eem edtoh i ntatdark s ecrets .
Much of th i s reas oni ngw as s ub cons ci ous ,p arti cularly
am ongp eop lew h oh adnotyettak ens i des i nth ew i deni ng
controv ers y
. Forup p erm os ti nm anym i nds w as th ei m p ec-
cab lep ub li cch aracterof A lgerHi s s ,h i s greatp ers uas i v enes s ,
h i s di s ti ngui s h edrecord,andth eloyaltyof th eex alted
f ri ends w h os urroundedh i m . Toadm i tth ath ew as aC om -
m uni s tw as v i rtuallyani m p os s i b i li tyf orli b eralandcons erv a-
ti v eali k e . Toth eli b eral,i tm eantadm i tti ngth atHears ti an
ch arges agai ns tR eds i nth eNew Dealh adb eentrue . Toth e
cons erv ati v e,i tm eantgi v i ngup th eolds tereotyp eab out
C om m uni s ts i f s oclean- cutanA m eri can,s oR otari anaf i gure,
couldaccep tth edev i ous i deologyof th eMarx i s ts .
P erh ap s th i s w as w h yoth erw i s ereas onab lep eop lew ere
w i lli ngtores olv eth ep aradox b yas cri b i ngtoC h am b ers any
andallth es ex ualandm entalm aladi es w h i ch th eC om m uni s t
s m earm ach i nedev i s edtodi s credi tth ei rex - f uncti onary
. For
i f C h am b ers w erem ad,as th ecock tai l- p artyanalys ts i n-
s i s ted,th erew as nop rob lem at,all . B utev enth i s couldnot
ex p lai nw h yh i s m adnes s s h ouldh av ef i x edi ts elf onA lger
Hi s s
. P erh ap s i tw as w i th th i s i nm i ndth atHi s s tes ti f i edas
h edi dth atA ugus t1 6 th
.
A f terth ef orm alp reli m i nari es ,i nw h i ch Hi s s w as as s ured
th atth es es s i onw as s ecret,R i ch ardNi x ons um m ari zedth e
p urp os eof th ecom m i ttee : todeterm i new h i ch w i tnes s ,
C h am b ers orHi s s ,w as ap erj urer .
" Th ecom m i ttee," Ni x ondeclared,` h as th eres p ons i b i li ty
tores olv eth atp rob lem . . . Weh av ecom etoth econclus i on
th atth ei ndi v i dualw h oh as com eb ef oreth ecom m i tteeand
h as gi v enf als etes ti m onym us t,i f p os s i b le,ans w erf orth at
tes ti m ony .
" Forth atreas onw earegoi ngth i s af ternoontogoi ntoa
num b erof i tem s w h i ch Icanas s ureyouh av eadi rectb ear-
i ngonth atp rob lem . . .
w ew antth erecordtob eab s olutely
1 6 6 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
s trai gh t on th e conf li cts b etw eentes ti m onyp res entedb y
Mr. C h am b ers andyours elf . . .
" Now ,w h endi dyouf i rs th ear
of
Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ? "
Hi s s . Th ef i rs tti m eIev erh eardof Wh i ttak erC h am b ers to
th eb es tof m yk now ledgew as w h entw orep res entati v es of th e
FederalB ureauof Inv es ti gati oncalledatm yof f i ceat 7 0 0 J ack s on
P lace,Ith i nk ,i nth em onth of May,
1 9 4 7 ,
andam ongth eli s t
of nam es of p eop leth eyas k edm ei f Iw as acq uai ntedw i th w as
th enam eWh i ttak erC h am b ers . . . Th enam es tuck i nm y
m em oryatth em om entb ecaus ei ts oundedli k eadi s ti ncti v eand
unus ualnam e,andIs ai d, " No
. "
Ni x on. Y ou tes ti f i edw h enyouw ereb ef oreth i s com m i tteeth at
i n1 9 4 6 Mr. B yrnes h adas k edyoutotalk toh i m concerni ng
certai nallegati ons m adeb ym em b ers of C ongres s concerni ng
C om m uni s taf f i li ati ons ,andatth atti m eyous aw Mr . Tam m of
th eFB I.
Hi s s . I rath erth i nk i tw as Mr . Laddw h om Iactuallys aw . . .
Ni x on. Di dMr . Laddm enti onth ech arges tow h i ch Mr . B yrnes
h adref erred?
Hi s s . No . . . My recollecti oni s th atIw as as k edv eryf ew
q ues ti ons . . .
Ni x on. Y oudi dn' th earth enam eWh i ttak erC h am b ers i n 1 9 3 9 ?
Hi s s . No .
Ni x on. Wh i ttak erC h am b ers . . . h as tes ti f i edth ath ew as
k now nb yth enam eof C arl . Doyourecallh av i ngk now nan
i ndi v i dualb etw eenth eyears 1 9 3 4 and1 9 3 7 w h os enam ew as
C arl?
Hi s s . Ido
not recallanyoneb yth enam eof C arlth atcould
rem otelyb econnectedw i th th ek i ndof tes ti m onyMr . C h am b ers
h as gi v en . . .
Ni x on. Y ourtes ti m onyi s th enth atyouk new nop ers onb yth e
nam eof C arlb etw een 1 9 3 4 and 1 9 4 7 ?
Hi s s . Merelyb yth enam eof C arl- ab s olutely-
Ni x on. Do youk now J . P eters ?
Hi s s . I donot .
Ni x on. Now , Mr . Hi s s ,th erei s s om etes ti m onyi nyourp rev i ous
recordb ef oreth ecom m i tteeconcerni ngyouracq uai ntances h i p
w i th HenryC olli ns . . . doyourecallev erh av i nggonetoth e
ap artm entof HenryC olli ns onSt . Matth ew ' s C ourt?
Hi s s .
Icertai nlyw ouldn' tw anttos ayIh adnev erb eenth ere
b ecaus e,as Ites ti f i edb ef ore,Ih av ek now nMr
. C olli ns s i ncew e
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 6 7
w ere
b oys .
Ih av ev i s i tedi nh i s p laceof ab ode,w h eth eri th ap -
p enedtob eanap artm entorah ous e,andh ei nm i necertai nly
s i ncew eagai n
k new each oth erw h enIw as i nlaw s ch ooli n
1 9 2 9 .
A f ters om ep erf unctoryq ues ti oni ngonHi s s ' as s oci ati on
w i th LeeP res s m an,HenryC olli ns ,andoth ers accus edb y
C h am b ers of C om m uni s tacti v i ty,Ni x ongottoth enub of
th em atter
. P i ck i ngup tw op i ctures of Wh i ttak erC h am b ers ,
h e as k edHi s s i f h ecouldi denti f yth em i nanyw ay
. Hi s s w as
v olub le
b uth ardlyf orth ri gh t .
Hi s s .
MayIrecalltoth ecom m i tteeth etes ti m onyIgav ei nth e
ub li cs es s i onw h enIw as s h ow nanoth erp h otograp h of Mr .
' ttak erC h am b ers . . . Ites ti f i edth enth atIcouldnots w ear
th atIh adnev ers eenth em anw h os ep i cturew as s h ow nm e
.
A ctuallyth ef aceh as acertai nf am i li ari ty
. Ith i nk Ials otes ti f i ed
toth at .
Iti s notaccordi ngtoth ep h otograp h av erydi s ti ncti v eor
unus ualf ace . Iw ouldli k ev erym uch tos eeth ei ndi v i dualf ace
tof ace . Ih adh op edth atw ouldh ap p enb ef ore . Is ti llh op ei t
w i llh ap p entoday .
Iam notp rep aredtos ayth atIh av enev ers eenth em anw h os e
p i ctures arenow s h ow nm e
. Is ai dth atw h enIw as onth es tand
w h enadi f f erentp i cturew as s h ow nm e . Icannotrecallanyp er-
s onw i th di s ti nctnes s anddef i ni tenes s w h os ep i ctureth i s i s ,b ut
i ti s notcom p letelyunf am i li ar . . .
Ni x on . Wouldyourans w erb eanydi f f erenti f th i s i ndi v i dual
w eredes cri b edtoyouas onew h oh ads tayedov erni gh ti nyour
h ous eons ev eraloccas i ons ?
Hi s s
.
Ith i nk ,Mr . Ni x on,letm es ayth i s . Inth ecours eof m y
s erv i cei ngov ernm entf rom 1 9 3 3 to1 9 4 7 andth ep rev i ous year
1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 0 andas alaw yer,Ih av eh adagreatm anyp eop lew h o
h av ev i s i tedi nm yh ous e .
Ih av etri edtorecalli nth elas tw eek ors oanyonew h ow ould
k now m yh ous ew h om Iw ouldn' tk now v eryw ell . Th ereare
m anyp eop leth ath av ecom etom yh ous eons oci aloccas i ons or
ons em i b us i nes s occas i ons w h om Ip rob ab lyw ouldn' trecallatall .
A s f aras s tayi ngov erni gh ti nm yh ous ei s concerned
. .
. I
can' tb eli ev e,Mr. Ni x on,th atanyonecouldh av es tayedi nm y
h ous ew h enIw as th ere . .
. w i th outm yb ei ngab letorecallth e
1 6 8 SEEDSOFTR EA SON
i ndi v i dual
; andi f th i s i s ap i ctureof anyone,Iw ouldf i ndi tv ery
di f f i culttob eli ev eth atth ati ndi v i dualcouldh av es tayedi nm y
h ous ew h enIw as th ereons ev eraloccas i ons ov erni gh tandh i s
f acenotb em oref am i li arth ani ti s . . . Idon' tw anttos ugges t
anyi nnov ati oni nyourp rocedure,b utIdow anttos ays p eci f -
i callyth atIdoh op eIw i llh av eanop p ortuni tyactuallytos ee
th ei ndi v i dual .
Ni x on. Iti s goi ngtob earranged . . . Im i gh ts ayth i s ,too :
th atMr . C h am b ers ,as youm ayb eaw aref rom new s p ap erac-
counts ,ap p earedi nex ecuti v es es s i onb ef oreus onSaturday . . .
A tth atti m ew ew enti ntoth es i tuati onw i th h i m ,s h ow edh i m
p i ctures of you,andh edeclaredw i th outq ues ti onyouw ereth e
m an.
Forth atreas onw ew antedtob es ureth atyouh adth es am e
op p ortuni tyb ef orew ew enti ntoop ens es s i on
. Ob v i ous ly,as you
cans ee,anop ens es s i onw i lli nv olv eacons i derab leam ountof
p ub li ci ty,andw ew ereth i nk i ngth ati f th atcouldb eav oi ded,
th ati ts h ouldb eav oi ded
. Iti s q ui teap p arentnow ,ev ens of ar
as w eh av egone,th atev entuallyth ati s goi ngtooccur,b utI
w antedtogoi ntoaf ew m oreq ues ti ons h eref i rs t . . . Y our
tes ti m onynow i s th atyouh av enev erb eenam em b erof th e
C om m uni s tP arty?
Hi s s . Nev er . . .
Ni x on. Orof anyundergroundorgani zati onconnectedw i th th e
C om m uni s tP arty?
Hi s s . Notanyundergroundorgani zati onconnectedw i th th e
C om m uni s tP arty
.
Ni x on. Doyouh av eanych i ldren,Mr
. Hi s s ?
Hi s s . Ih av etw och i ldren .
Ni x on. C ouldyougi v eus th ei rages ?
Hi s s . Onew i llb etw enty- tw o- h ei s m ys tep s on- Sep tem b er1 9
nex t . Hi s nam ei s Ti m oth yHob s on . Heh as b eenm ys tep s ons i nce
h ew as th reeyears old . Iw as m arri edi n1 9 2 9 . Ih av eoneoth er
s onw h oi s now s ev en
. .
. Hew as b ornA ugus t5,1 9 4 1
. Hi s
nam ei s A nth onyHi s s .
.
.
Ni x onth enas k edas eri es of q ues ti ons ab outMrs
. Hi s s to
w h i ch Hi s s rep li ed
:
Hi s s . Hernam ew as P ri s ci llaFans ler,h erm ai dennam e . Her
f i rs tm arri agew as toaMr . Hob s on . . . Sh ew as b orni nEv ans -
ton,Illi noi s ,b uts p entm os tof h erearlyli f eouts i deof P h i ladel-
HIGHDR A MA INA HEA R INGR OOM

1 6 9
p h i a . . . onth eMai nLi nenotf arf rom [ P aoli ]
. . .
Herf ath er
w as i nth ei ns uranceb us i nes s ,andh eacq ui redas m allp lace- I
s up p os ei tcouldb ecalledaf arm - f rom w h i ch h ecom m utedto
h i s i ns uranceb us i nes s .
Ni x on . Now ,i s yours onTi m oth ys ti llli v i ngw i th you?
Hi s s . No; m ys onTi m oth yi s now li v i ngonh i s ow nas an
i ndep endent,earni ngm ale .
Ni x on. Wh erei s h eatth ep res entti m e?
Hi s s . I th i nk h ei s onh i s w ayb ack f rom C ali f orni a atth ep res -
entti m e . Hew as ex p ecti ngtoreturnonth e1 6 th ,andIb eli ev e
todayi s th e1 6 th .
Ni x on. Is h eli v i ngi nNew Y ork ?
Hi s s . Hei s li v i ngi nNew Y ork .
Ni x on . C ouldyougi v eus th eaddres s of your s oni nNew Y ork ?
Hi s s .
Mr. Ni x on,youareas k i ngm eab outas ub j ectw h i ch i s
oneof rath erdeep concerntom e .
Ni x on. I unders tand.
Hi s s .
Mys ons erv edi nth eNav y,V- 1 2 . Hew ent i nas av ery
youngm an
. Wh enh elef tth eNav y,h edi dnotw i s h togoon
w i th college. Idi dw i s h h i m togoon
. Heh adh ads om ecollege
w h i lei nth e Nav y V- 1 2 p rogram . Hef eels th eneedof i ndep end-
enceof h i s p arents atth ep res entti m e . Hei s b ei ngw h atp eop le
i nVerm ontcallnotonlyi ndep endent,b ut" i ndegoddam p endent . "
Th ati s aVerm onti s m .
Ih av eanaddres s f rom m ys onw h i ch Iam toldi s noth i s
p res entaddres s . Heh as nottoldm e . orh i s m oth er i n th ep as t
f ew m onth s w h ath i s p res entaddres s i s . Iex p ecth ew i lldos o
.
Th i s i s notth ef i rs tti m ei nth elas tyearw h enh eh as ch anged
addres s andtoldm eaf terth eev enti ns teadof b ef ore . Ib eli ev e
h etri edtoreach m eb ytelep h oneth eni gh tb ef oreItes ti f i ed
h ere,b ecaus eap h onecallcam ei nf orm eatth eh otelf rom
Los A ngeles andIcouldn' tf i gurew h oi tw as anddi dn' tk now
h ew as i nLos A ngeles atth eti m e. Ih av es i ncelearnedh ew as
i nLos A ngeles andIb eli ev eh ew as calli ngm e.
Ilearnedf rom th es am ep ers onw h ok new h ew as i nLos
A ngeles th ath ew ouldb eb ack i nNew Y ork onth e1 6 th . Idon' t
k now of m yow nk now ledge . Icangi v eyouth eaddres s i nNew
Y ork
. Idon' tth i nk youcanreach h i m th ere
.
Iw onderi f youw ouldm i ndi f Igav eyoui ns teadth eaddres s
of h i s doctor,b ecaus eh eh as b eencons ulti ngap s ych i atri s t i n
th elas tcoup leof years .
Ni x on
. Wouldth edoctork now w h ereh ei s ?
1 7 0

SEEDSOFTR EA SON
Hi s s . He w i llgeti ntouch w i th th edoctoras s oonas h ereturns
.
Th edoctorh as h i s oth eraddres s ,andIdi dn' tth i nk i tap p rop ri ate
toas k th edoctorf orh i s addres s . Iti s Dr . A b ram Kardi ner . Y ou
w i llunders tandw h yth i s i s av erydi f f i cults ub j ecttotalk ab out
b ecaus eIlov em ys tep s onv erydeep ly . Manyp eop letak ean
ex aggeratedv i ew of w h atp s ych i atri cas s i s tancem eans .
Ni x on . Mr. Hi s s ,couldyougi v eus th enam es of anys erv ants
youh adduri ngth ep eri od1 9 3 4 to1 9 3 7 ?
Hi s s . Mr . Ni x on,m ayIrai s eaq ues ti onatth i s p oi nt?
Ni x on. C ertai nly .
Hi s s . Y outodayandth eacti ngch ai rm anp ub li clyh av etak en
th eatti tudew h enyouh av etw ow i tnes s es ,oneof w h om i s a
conf es s edf orm erC om m uni s t,th eoth eri s m e,th atyous i m p ly
h av etw ow i tnes s es s ayi ngcontradi ctoryth i ngs as b etw eenw h om
youf i ndi tm os tdi f f i culttodeci deoncredi b i li ty .
Mr. Ni x on,Idonotk now w h atMr . Wh i ttak erC h am b ers tes ti -
ledtoyourcom m i tteelas tSaturday
. Iti s neces s ari lym yop i ni on
of h i m ,f rom w h ath eh as alreadys ai d,th atIdok now th ath e
i s notcap ab leof telli ngth etruth ordoes notdes i reto,andI
h ones tlyh av eth ef eeli ngth atdetai ls of m yp ers onalli f ew h i ch
Igi v eh ones tlycanb eus edtom ydi s adv antageb yC h am b ers
th en ex p os tf acto k now i ngth os ef acts .
Iw ouldreq ues tth atIh earMr . C h am b ers ' s toryof h i s alleged
k now ledgeof m e . Now ,Ih av eb eencudgeli ngm yb rai ns ,p ar-
ti cularlyonth etrai ncom i ngdow nth i s m orni ng,andIh ad
th reeorf ourh ours onth etrai nb etw eenNew Y ork andWas h -
i ngton,as tow h ocouldh av ev ari ous detai ls ab outm yf am i ly .
Manyp eop lecould .
Mr. Ni x on,Idonotw i s h tom ak ei teas i erf oranyonew h o,f or
w h atev erm oti v eIcannotunders tand,i s ap p arentlyendeav ori ng
todes troym e,tom ak eth atm an' s endeav ors anyeas i er . Ith i nk
i ncom m onf ai rnes s tom yow ns elf - p rotecti onandth atof m y
f am i ly andm yf am i ly' s goodnam eandm yow n,Is h ouldnot
b eas k edtogi v e,detai ls w h i ch s om eh ow h em ayh earandth en
m ayb eab letous e as
i f h ek new th em b ef ore . Iw ouldli k eh i m
tos ayallh ek now s ab outm enow
. Wh atIh av edonei s p ub li c
record,w h ereIh av eli v edi s p ub li crecord . Leth i m tellyouall
h ek now s ,letth atb em adep ub li c,andth enletm yrecordb e
ch eck edagai ns tth os ef acts i ns teadof m yb ei ngas k ed,Mr . Ni x on,
totellyoup ers onalf acts ab outm ys elf w h i ch ,i f th eycom eto
h i s ears ,coulds oundv eryp ers uas i v etooth erp eop leth ath eh ad
k now nm eats om ep ri orti m e .
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 7 1
Ni x o n . T h e q u e s t i o n s Ih a v e a s k e d y o u t o d a t e , Mr . Hi s s , i f
y o u w i l l r e c a l l t h e m , h a v e a l l b e e n f a c t s t h a t c o u l d b e c o r r o b o -
r a t e d b y t h i r d p a r t i e s . No w . . .
t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h o y o u r s e r v -
a n t s w e r e . . . i s p u r e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o r r o b o r a t i o n a n d i t
w i l l b e t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e , i f p o s s i b l e , t o f i n d o n e
o f t h e s e r v a n t s t o s e e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y w i l l c o r r o b o r a t e t h e
s t o r y .
No w , t h e s e c o n d p o i n t Iw i s h t o m a k e i s t h i s : o f c o u r s e , t h e r e
i s a v e r y s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n i n y o u r s t a t e m e n t , a n d t h a t i s t h a t
t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s p u r p o s e i n q u e s t i o n i n g y o u t o d a y i s t o g e t i n f o r -
m a t i o n w i t h w h i c h w e c a n c o a c h Mr . C h a m b e r s s o t h a t h e c a n
m o r e o r l e s s b u i l d a w e b a r o u n d y o u .
Hi s s . Mr . Ni x o n , Im e a n t n o s u c h i m p l i c a t i o n .
B u t Al g e r Hi s s w a s s t i l l n o t d i s p o s e d t o l e t t h e m a t t e r r i d e
.
No r w a s h e r e a d y t o g i v e t h e c o m m i t t e e a n u n e q u i v o c a l
d e n i a l o r a f f i r m a t i o n o n t h e c r u c i a l p o i n t : d i d h e o r d i d h e
n o t k n o w C h a m b e r s ? P r e s e n t e d a g a i n w i t h a p h o t o o f C h a m -
b e r s , h e s l i p p e d i n t o a d o u b l e n e g a t i v e . " T h e f a c e , " h e s a i d ,
" i s d e f i n i t e l y n o t u n f a m i l i a r . " T h e n h e r e t u r n e d t o t h e a r g u -
m e n t . " T h e i s s u e i s n o t w h e t h e r
t h i s
m a n k n e w m e a n d I
d o n ' t r e m e m b e r h i m . T h e i s s u e i s w h e t h e r . . . Ia m a m e m b e r
o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o r e v e r w a s , w h i c h h e h a s s a i d a n d
Ih a v e d e n i e d . " Hi s e x t r e m e c a g i n e s s , h o w e v e r , s t r e n g t h e n e d . ,
t h e c o m m i t t e e i n i t s r e s o l v e t o p r e s s h i m . V e r y s u b t l y , t h e
a t m o s p h e r e c h a n g e d . Re p r e s e n t a t i v e J . P a r n e l l T h o m a s a n d
s e v e r a l o f t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s , w h o h a d l e t t h e b u r d e n o f
q u e s t i o n i n g Hi s s r e m a i n o n Ri c h a r d Ni x o n ' s s h o u l d e r s , l o s t
t h e i r h e s i t a n c y . T h o m a s , a s c h a i r m a n , b e g a n t o l o s e h i s
f o r m e r o b s e q u i o u s n e s s . W i t h a l i t t l e a n n o y a n c e i n h i s v o i c e ,
h e a s k e d :
" Mr . Hi s s , w o u l d y o u b e a b l e t o r e c a l l a p e r s o n i f t h a t
p e r s o n p o s i t i v e l y h a d b e e n i n y o u r h o u s e t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s
. . . i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . .
. ? "
Hi s s . Ic o u l d n o t f a i l t o r e c a l l s u c h a m a n i f h e w e r e n o w i n
m y p r e s e n c e
.
C h a i r m a n . Y o u
a r e p o s i t i v e . . .
1 7 2 SEEDSOFT REASON
Hi s s . Ex a c t l y , i f h e h a d n ' t h a d a f a c e l i f t i n g . . .
C h a i r m a n . No w h e r e i s a m a n w h o s a y s h e s p e n t a w e e k i n
y o u r h o u s e i n t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . Do y o u r e c o g n i z e h i m ?
Hi s s . I d o n o t r e c o g n i z e h i m f r o m t h a t p i c t u r e
. . . b u t I
w o u l d l i k e t o s e e h i m
.
C h a i r m a n . I w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e a m o r e d e f i n i t e a n s w e r . . .
Hi s s . I a m n o t p r e p a r e d t o t e s t i f y o n t h e b a s i s
o f a p h o t o g r a p h .
Iw a n t t o h e a r t h e m a n ' s v o i c e .
It w a s
p r o b a b l y a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t Hi s s d e c i d e d t o c h a n g e
t a c t i c s . P e r h a p s h e r e a l i z e d t h a t , t h e s h i e l d o f h i s d i g n i t y
s h a t t e r e d , h e w o u l d h a v e t o m a k e a s t r a t e g i c r e t r e a t a n d
t o p r e p a r e t h e g r o u n d f o r a s u b s e q u e n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f
C h a m b e r s .
C h a i r m a n .
If t h e m a n h i m s e l f c a m e i n h e r e , y o u w o u l d b e a b l e
t o s a y y e s o r n o ?
Hi s s . I t h i n k Iw o u l d , s i r .
C h a i r m a n . Y o u t h i n k y o u w o u l d .
Hi s s . I c a n ' t b e l i e v e a m a n w o u l d h a v e c h a n g e d a s m u c h a s
t h a t , a n d Ia m a b s o l u t e l y p r e p a r e d t o t e s t i f y t h a t n o b o d y , t h a t
m a n o r a n y o t h e r m a n , h a d a n y s u c h c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h m e i n
m y h o u s e o r a n y w h e r e e l s e a s h e h a s t e s t i f i e d t o .
St r i p l i n g . W h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n d i d h e t e s t i f y h e h a d w i t h y o u
i n y o u r h o u s e ?
Hi s s . Mr . C h a m b e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o
t h e r e c o r d t h a t Ir e a d , h e
s a i d t h a t h e c a m e t o m y h o u s e a n d p l e d w i t h m e t o b r e a k w i t h
t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , a n d t h a t I r e f u s e d , a n d t h a t Ih a d t e a r s i n
m y e y e s , a n d t h a t t h e r e a s o n Ig a v e w a s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e
C o m m u n i s t P a r t y l i n e .
Ni x o n . Mr . Hi s s , l e t m e e x p l a i n t h i s . Mr . C h a m b e r s , a s i n d i -
c a t e d , d i d t e s t i f y t h a t h e s p e n t a w e e k i n y o u r h o u s e . He a l s o
t e s t i f i e d t o o t h e r f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p w i t h y o u
- a l l e g e d f a c t s , Is h o u l d s a y - a n d Iw a n t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e
c o m m i t t e e b y g e t t i n g a n s w e r s t o c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s
f r o m y o u w i l l b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o g o c e r t a i n l y t o t h i r d p a r t i e s
a n d t o f i n d o u t w h e t h e r o r
n o t Mr . C h a m b e r s h a s c o m m i t t e d
p e r j u r y .
No w , o n o n e p o i n t i t i s p r e t t y c l e a r t h a t y o u h a v e i n d i c a t e d
t h a t Mr
. C h a m b e r s m u s t h a v e c o m m i t t e d p e r j u r y b e c a u s e h e s a i d
h e s p e n t a w e e k i n y o u r h o u s e .
No w , t h e s e o t h e r m a t t e r s t o w h i c h Mr . C h a m b e r s h a s t e s t i f i e d
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 7 3
i n v o l v e t h e s a m e t y p e o f t e s t i m o n y . Iw a n t t o s a y w h e n Mr .
C h a m b e r s a p p e a r e d , h e w a s i n s t r u c t e d o f f t h e r e c o r d b e f o r e t h a t
t h a t a m a t e r i a l q u e s t i o n w o u l d s u b j e c t h i m t o p e r j u r y . So c o n s e -
q u e n t l y , a s y o u s e e , a m a t t e r o f m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e C o m m u n i s t
P a r t y i s o n e t h i n g b e c a u s e t h a t i s a m a t t e r w h i c h m i g h t b e a n d
p r o b a b l y w o u l d b e c o n c e a l e d , b u t a m a t t e r o f o b j e c t i v e i t e m s
c o n c e r n i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h y o u , h i s a l l e g e d r e l a t i o n s h i p
w i t h y o u , c a n b e c o n f i r m e d i n s o m e c a s e s b y t h i r d p a r t i e s a n d
t h a t , f r a n k l y , i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .
Hi s s . Ma y Is a y o n e t h i n g f o r t h e r e c o r d ?
Ni x o n . C e r t a i n l y .
Hi s s . I h a v e w r i t t e n a n a m e o n t h i s p a d i n f r o n t o f m e o f a
p e r s o n w h o m Ik n e w i n 1 9 3 3 a n d 1 9 3 4 w h o n o t o n l y s p e n t s o m e
t i m e i n m y h o u s e b u t s u b l e t m y a p a r t m e n t . T h a t m a n c e r t a i n l y
s p e n t m o r e t h a n a w e e k , n o t w h i l e Iw a s i n t h e s a m e a p a r t m e n t .
Id o n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a s p o s s i b l y b e i n g t h i s m a n
.
If Ih a d n ' t s e e n t h e m o r n i n g p a p e r s w i t h a n a c c o u n t o f s t a t e -
m e n t s t h a t h e k n e w t h e i n s i d e o f m y h o u s e , Id o n ' t t h i n k Iw o u l d
e v e n h a v e t h o u g h t o f t h i s n a m e . Iw a n t t o s e e C h a m b e r s f a c e t o
f a c e a n d s e e i f h e c a n b e t h i s i n d i v i d u a l . Id o n o t w a n t a n d I
d o n ' t t h i n k Io u g h t t o b e a s k e d t o t e s t i f y n o w t h a t m a n ' s n a m e
a n d e v e r y t h i n g Ic a n r e m e m b e r a b o u t h i m . Ih a v e w r i t t e n t h e
n a m e o n t h i s p i e c e o f p a p e r . Ih a v e g i v e n t h e n a m e t o t w o f r i e n d s
o f m i n e b e f o r e Ic a m e i n t h i s h e a r i n g . Ic a n o n l y r e p e a t , a n d
p e r h a p s Ia m b e i n g o v e r a n x i o u s a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n a u t h -
o r i z e d d i s c l o s u r e o f t e s t i m o n y , t h a t Id o n ' t t h i n k i n m y p r e s e n t
f r a m e o f m i n d t h a t i t i s f a i r t o m y p o s i t i o n , m y o w n p r o t e c t i o n ,
t h a t Ib e a s k e d t o p u t d o w n h e r e o n r e c o r d p e r s o n a l f a c t s a b o u t
m y s e l f w h i c h , i f t h e y c a m e t o t h e e a r s o f s o m e o n e w h o h a d f o r
n o r e a s o n Ic a n u n d e r s t a n d a d e s i r e t o i n j u r e m e , w o u l d a s s i s t
h i m i n t h a t e n d e a v o r .
Ni x o n . T h i s m a n w h o s p e n t t h e t i m e i n 1 9 3 3 a n d 1 9 3 4 i s s t i l l
a m a n w i t h w h o m y o u a r e a c q u a i n t e d ?
Hi s s . He i s n o t .
Ni x o n . An d w h e r e w e r e y o u l i v i n g a t t h a t t i m e ?
Hi s s . He w a s n o t n a m e d C a r l a n d n o t W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s .
Ni x o n . W h e r e w e r e y o u l i v i n g a t t h a t t i m e ?
Hi s s . I
h a v e a g a i n w r i t t e n d o w n h e r e t o t h e b e s t o f m y r e c o l -
l e c t i o n b e c a u s e Ih a v e n o t c h e c k e d d o w n w i t h t h e l e a s e s - t h i s i s
s o m e t h i n g Id i d o n t h e t r a i n c o m i n g d o w n a n d t h e l e a s e s a r e i n
m y h o u s e i n Ne w Y o r k - w h e r e Ib e l i e v e d Il i v e d f r o m J u n e o f
1 9 3 3 u n t i l Se p t e m b e r 1 9 4 3 .
1 7 4

SEEDSOFT REASON
Ag a i n , Mr . Ni x o n , i f Ig i v e t h e d e t a i l s o f w h e r e Iw a s , i t i s
g o i n g t o b e v e r y e a s y i f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n g e t s o u t f o r s o m e o n e
t o s a y t h e n
e x p o s t f a c t o " I
s a w Hi s s i n s u c h a n d s u c h a h o u s e . "
Ac t u a l l y , a l l h e h a s t o d o i s l o o k i t u p i n t h e t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y
a n d f i n d w h e r e i t i s .
Ni x o n . Y o u r t e s t i m o n y i s t h a t t h i s m a n y o u k n e w i n 1 9 3 3 a n d
1 9 3 4 w a s i n o n e o f t h e h o u s e s y o u l i v e d i n ?
Hi s s . Is u b l e t m y a p a r t m e n t t o t h e m a n w h o s e n a m e Ih a v e
w r i t t e n d o w n .
Ni x o n . B u t y o u w e r e n o t t h e r e a t t h e s a m e t i m e ?
Hi s s . I d i d n ' t s p e n d a w e e k i n t h e s a m e a p a r t m e n t w i t h h i m .
He d i d s p e n d a d a y o r t w o i n m y h o u s e w h e n h e m o v e d i n
.
Ni x o n . T h i s w a s t h e a p a r t m e n t y o u l i v e d i n b e t w e e n 1 9 3 3 a n d
1 9 3 4 ?
Hi s s . It i s e x a c t l y t h a t a p a r t m e n t - 1 9 3 4 a n d 1 9 3 5 .
Ni x o n . B e t w e e n 1 9 3 4 a n d 1 9 3 5 ?
Hi s s . T h a t i s r i g h t .
Ni x o n . W h e n y o u s u b l e t y o u r a p a r t m e n t ? T h e r e w a s n o o t h e r
a p a r t m e n t a n d y o u c a n ' t t e s t i f y a s t o w h a t a p a r t m e n t t h a t w a s ?
Hi s s . Ic a n t e s t i f y t o t h e b e s t o f m y r e c o l l e c t i o n . . . Iw a n t
t o b e s u r e Mr
. Ni x o n d e f i n i t e l y w a n t s m e t o a n s w e r r e s p o n s i v e l y
i n s p i t e o f m y p l e a t h a t Id o n ' t t h i n k h e s h o u l d a s k m e .
St r i p l i n g . L e t t h e r e c o r d s h o w , Mr
. Hi s s , y o u b r o u g h t u p t h i s
e x p o s t f a c t o b u s i n e s s . Y o u r t e s t i m o n y c o m e s a s e x p o s t f a c t o
t e s t i m o n y t o t h e t e s t i m o n y o f Mr . C h a m b e r s . He i s a l r e a d y o n
r e c o r d , a n d Ia m n o t i n f e r r i n g t h a t y o u m i g h t k n o w w h a t h e
t e s t i f i e d t o , b u t c e r t a i n l y t h e U n i t e d St a t e s a t t o r n e y ' s o f f i c e h a s
s e v e r a l c o p i e s .
Hi s s . If w h a t It e s t i f y t o i n t h i s c o m m i t t e e t o d a y t h r o u g h n o
f a u l t o f a n y o f f i c i a l . . .
c o m e s t o h i s a t t e n t i o n
. . . h e w i l l
a g a i n b e a b l e t o t e s t i f y
e x p o s t f a c t o
t o m y t e s t i m o n y
o f t o -
d a y . . .
He b e r t . Iw i l l t e l l y o u r i g h t n o w a n d t e l l y o u e x a c t l y w h a t I
t o l d Mr . C h a m b e r s
. . .
Ei t h e r y o u o r Mr . C h a m b e r s i s l y i n g
. . . An d w h i c h e v e r o n e o f y o u i s l y i n g i s t h e g r e a t e s t a c t o r
Am e r i c a h a s e v e r p r o d u c e d . U p t o a f e w m i n u t e s a g o y o u h a v e
b e e n v e r y o p e n , v e r y c o o p e r a t i v e
. No w , y o u h a v e h e d g e d . . .
No w , a s t o t h i s i n q u i r y w h i c h y o u m a k e o v e r a n d o v e r . . . Mr .
C h a m b e r s d i d n o t k n o w o r h a v e a n y i n d i c a t i o n a s t o t h e q u e s -
t i o n s w e w e r e g o i n g t o a s k h i m , a n d w e p r o b e d f o r h o u r s , a n d
w e l i t e r a l l y r a n o u t o f q u e s t i o n s . . .
He c o u l d n o t h a v e p o s s i b l y
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 7 5
b y t h e f a r t h e s t s t r e t c h o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n p r e p a r e d h i m s e l f t o
a n s w e r b e c a u s e h e d i d n o t k n o w w h e r e t h e q u e s t i o n s w e r e c o m -
i n g f r o m . . .
Y o u s a y y o u a r e i n a b a d p o s i t i o n , b u t d o n ' t y o u t h i n k t h a t
C h a m b e r s h i m s e l f d e s t r o y s h i m s e l f i f h e i s p r o v e n a l i a r ? W h a t
m o t i v e w o u l d h e h a v e t o p i t c h a $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 p o s i t i o n a s t h e r e -
s p e c t e d s e n i o r e d i t o r o f T i m e m a g a z i n e o u t o f t h e w i n d o w ?
Hi s s . Ap p a r e n t l y f o r C h a m b e r s t o b e a c o n f e s s e d f o r m e r C o m -
m u n i s t a n d t r a i t o r t o h i s c o u n t r y d i d n o t s e e m t o h i m t o b e a
b l o t o n h i s r e c o r d . . . Ia m s o r r y b u t Ic a n n o t b u t f e e l t o s u c h
a n e x t e n t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r m e t o c o n t r o l m y s e l f t h a t y o u c a n
s i t t h e r e , Mr . He b e r t , a n d s a y t o m e c a s u a l l y t h a t y o u h a v e h e a r d
t h a t m a n a n d y o u h a v e h e a r d m e , a n d y o u j u s t h a v e n o b a s i s f o r
j u d g i n g w h i c h o n e i s t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h . Id o n ' t t h i n k a j u d g e d e t e r -
m i n e s t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f w i t n e s s e s o n t h a t b a s i s .
He b e r t . I a m t r y i n g t o t e l l y o u t h a t Ia b s o l u t e l y h a v e a n o p e n
m i n d . . . T h e f a c t t h a t Mr . C h a m b e r s i s a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d t r a i t o r
- a n d Ia d m i t h e i s - t h e f a c t t h a t h e i s a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d f o r m e r
m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y w h i c h Ia d m i t h e i s - h a s n o
b e a r i n g a t a l l o n w h e t h e r t h e f a c t s t h a t h e t o l d - o r , r a t h e r , t h e
a l l e g e d f a c t s t h a t h e t o l d -
Hi s s .
Ha s n o b e a r i n g o n h i s c r e d i b i l i t y ?
He b e r t . W e h a v e t o h a v e p e o p l e l i k e C h a m b e r s o r Mi s s B e n t l e y
t o c o m e i n a n d t e l l u s . Ia m n o t g i v i n g Mr . C h a m b e r s a n y g r e a t
c r e d i t f o r h i s p r e v i o u s l i f e . Ia m t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t i f h e h a s r e -
f o r m e d . So m e o f t h e g r e a t e s t s a i n t s i n h i s t o r y w e r e p r e t t y b a d
b e f o r e t h e y w e r e s a i n t s .
Id o n ' t c a r e w h o g i v e s t h e f a c t s t o m e , w h e t h e r a c o n f e s s e d
l i a r , t h i e f , o r m u r d e r e r , i f i t i s f a c t . T h a t i s a l l Ia m i n t e r e s t e d i n .
Hi s s . Y o u h a v e m a d e y o u r p o s i t i o n c l e a r . Iw o u l d l i k e t o r a i s e
a s e p a r a t e p o i n t . T o d a y a s Ic a m e d o w n o n t h e t r a i n Ir e a d a
s t a t e m e n t - It h i n k i t w a s i n t h e Ne w Y o r k Ne w s - t h a t a m e m b e r
o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e , a n u n i d e n t i f i e d m e m b e r o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e , h a d
t o l d t h e p r e s s m a n w h o w r o t e t h e a r t i c l e t h a t t h i s c o m m i t t e e
b e l i e v e d o r h a d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e f r o m t a l k i n g t o C h a m b e r s t h a t
C h a m b e r s h a d p e r s o n a l l y k n o w n Hi s s , n o t t h a t C h a m b e r s h a d
h a d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i c h i s t h e i s s u e h e r e , t h a t C h a m b e r s h a d
b e e n i n Hi s s ' h o m e . T h a t i s n o t t h e i s s u e b e f o r e t h i s c o m m i t t e e
. . . Ia m n o t p r e p a r e d t o s a y o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h -
He b e r t . W e u n d e r s t a n d .
Hi s s , - t h a t t h e m a n , t h a t h e i s n o t t h e m a n w h o s e n a m e Ih a v e
1 7 6
SEEDSOFT REASON
w r i t t e n d o w n h e r e
. W e r e It o t e s t i f y t o t h a t , w h a t a s s u r a n c e h a v e
It h a t s o m e m e m b e r o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e w o u l d n ' t s a y t o t h e p r e s s
t h a t Hi s s c o n f e s s e d k n o w i n g C h a m b e r s ?
In
t h e f i r s t p l a c e , Ih a v e t e s t i f i e d a n d r e p e a t e d t h a t Ih a v e
n e v e r k n o w n a n y b o d y b y t h e n a m e o f W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s
. I
a m n o t p r e p a r e d t o t e s t i f y Ih a v e n e v e r s e e n t h a t m a n
.
Ho b e r t
. Fo r t h e r e c o r d , t h e i s s u e i s w h e t h e r C h a m b e r s d i d
h a v e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h y o u , t h a t i s a d m i t t e d , b u t t h e o n l y
w a y w e c a n e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t t h a t C h a m b e r s h a d t h e o c c a s i o n
t o h a v e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h y o u i s
. . . t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t
t h a t Hi s s k n e w C h a m b e r s a n d C h a m b e r s k n e w Hi s s , a n d t h i s i s
v e r y p e r t i n e n t .
C h a i r m a n .
L e t ' s g o o n w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n .
Ni x o n .
If C h a m b e r s ' c r e d i b i l i t y o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r h e
k n e w y o u o r n o t i s d e s t r o y e d , o b v i o u s l y y o u c a n s e e t h a t t h i s
s t a t e m e n t t h a t h e h a d a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h y o u a n d t h a t y o u w e r e
a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , w h i c h w a s m a d e o n t h e b a s i s
o f k n o w l e d g e , w o u l d a l s o b e d e s t r o y e d
; a n d t h a t i s e x a c t l y t h e
b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d ,
Ic a n
a s s u r e y o u , b e c a u s e t h o s e a r e p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s
; w h e t h e r y o u a r e
a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y a n d w h e t h e r h e h a d a c o n -
v e r s a t i o n w i t h y o u i n d i v i d u a l l y i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t n o t h i r d p a r t y
c a n c o r r o b o r a t e o n e w a y o r t h e o t h e r
. B u t t h e s e o t h e r f a c t s a r e
m a t t e r s w h i c h t h i r d p a r t i e s c a n c o r r o b o r a t e
. T h e y w o n ' t p r o v e ,
o b v i o u s l y , e v e n i f t h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t o n a l l f a c t s , t h a t t h i s m a n
k n e w y o u , b u t i f t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t o n t h e s e f a c t s , t h e y w i l l
p r o v e t h a t C h a m b e r s i s a p e r j u r e r a n d t h a t i s w h a t w e a r e t r y i n g
t o f i n d o u t . If w e p r o v e h e i s a p e r j u r e r o n t h e b a s i s o f h i s t e s t i -
m o n y n o w , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f g o i n g i n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e m a t t e r w i l l
b e o b v i a t e d .
Hi s s . B u t i f h e i s a b l e t h r o u g h m y a c t i o n t o m a k e a m o r e
p l a u s i b l e s t o r y o f h a v i n g k n o w n m e o r i f h e h a s i n f a c t k n o w n
m e u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e h e h a s t e s t i f i e d
t o , It h i n k i n m y o w n s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n Is h o u l d h a v e a c h a n c e t o
s e e h i m . It h i n k t h a t f o r m e t o b e a s k e d d e t a i l s t h a t m a y g e t
b a c k , t h r o u g h n o f a u l t o f y o u r s - Ic a n o n l y r e p e a t i f t h i s c o m -
m i t t e e a s k s m e t o g o o n w i t h t h i s s p e c i f i c l i n e o f i n q u i r y , Iw i l l
c e r t a i n l y d o i t .
T h e n a m e o f t h e m a n Ib r o u g h t i n - a n d h e m a y h a v e n o r e l a -
t i o n t o t h i s w h o l e n i g h t m a r e - i s a m a n n a m e d Ge o r g e C r o s l e y
.
Im e t h i m w h e n Iw a s w o r k i n g f o r t h e Ny e c o m m i t t e e
. He w a s
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 7 7
a w r i t e r . He h o p e d t o s e l l a r t i c l e s t o m a g a z i n e s a b o u t t h e m u n i -
t i o n s i n d u s t r y .
Is a w h i m , a s Is a y , i n m y o f f i c e o v e r i n t h e Se n a t e Of f i c e
B u i l d i n g , w i t h d o z e n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p r e s s , p e o p l e
w r i t i n g b o o k s , r e s e a r c h p e o p l e . It w a s o u r j o b t o g i v e t h e m
a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o u t o f t h e r e c o r d , s h o w t h e m w h a t h a d
b e e n p u t i n t h e r e c o r d . T h i s f e l l o w w a s w r i t i n g a s e r i e s o f a r -
t i c l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o m y b e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n , f r e e l a n c i n g , w h i c h h e
h o p e d t o s e l l t o o n e o f t h e m a g a z i n e s . He w a s p r e t t y o b v i o u s l y
n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n f i n a n c i a l t e r m s , b u t a s f a r a s Ik n o w , w a s n ' t
a c t u a l l y h a r d u p .
St r i p l i n g . W h a t c o l o r w a s h i s h a i r ?
Hi s s . Ra t h e r b l o n d i s h , b l o n d e r t h a n a n y o f u s h e r e .
St r i p l i n g . W a s h e m a r r i e d ?
Hi s s . Y e s , s i r .
St r i p l i n g . An y c h i l d r e n ?
Hi s s . On e l i t t l e b a b y , a s Ir e m e m b e r i t , a n d t h e w a y Ik n o w
t h a t w a s t h e s u b l e a s i n g p o i n t . Af t e r w e h a d t a k e n t h e h o u s e o n
P St r e e t a n d h a d t h e a p a r t m e n t o n o u r h a n d s , h e o n e d a y i n t h e
c o u r s e o f c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s a i d h e w a s g o i n g t o s p e c i a l i z e a l l
s u m m e r i n g e t t i n g h i s a r t i c l e s d o n e h e r e i n W a s h i n g t o n , d i d n ' t
k n o w w h a t h e w a s g o i n g t o d o , a n d w a s t h i n k i n g o f b r i n g i n g
h i s f a m i l y .
Is a i d , " Y o u c a n h a v e m y a p a r t m e n t . It i s n o t t e r r i b l y c o o l ,
b u t i t i s u p i n t h e a i r n e a r t h e W a r d m a n P a r k . " He s a i d h e h a d
a w i f e a n d l i t t l e b a b y . T h e a p a r t m e n t w a s n ' t v e r y e x p e n s i v e , a n d
It h i n k Il e t h i m h a v e i t a t e x a c t c o s t . My r e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t h e
s p e n t s e v e r a l n i g h t s i n m y h o u s e b e c a u s e h i s f u r n i t u r e v a n w a s
d e l a y e d . W e l e f t s e v e r a l p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e b e h i n d . . . a n d w e
p u t t h e m u p t w o o r t h r e e n i g h t s i n a r o w , h i s w i f e a n d l i t t l e b a b y .
Ni x o n . Hi s w i f e a n d h e a n d l i t t l e b a b y d i d s p e n d s e v e r a l n i g h t s
i n t h e h o u s e w i t h y o u ?
Hi s s
. T h i s m a n C r o s l e y ; y e s .
Ni x o n . C a n y o u d e s c r i b e h i s w i f e ?
Hi s s . Y e s ; s h e w a s a r a t h e r s t r i k i n g l y d a r k p e r s o n .
Ni x o n . Ho w t a l l w a s t h i s m a n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y ?
Hi s s . Sh o r t i s h .
Ni x o n . He a v y ?
Hi s s . No t n o t i c e a b l y . T h a t i s w h y Id o n ' t b e l i e v e i t h a s a n y
d i r e c t , b u t i t c o u l d h a v e a n i n d i r e c t , b e a r i n g .
Ni x o n . Ho w a b o u t h i s t e e t h ?
1 7 8

SEEDSOFT REASON
Hi s s . V e r y b a d t e e t h . T h a t i s o n e o f t h e t h i n g s Ip a r t i c u l a r l y
w a n t t o s e e C h a m b e r s a b o u t . T h i s m a n h a d v e r y b a d t e e t h , d i d
n o t t a k e c a r e o f h i s t e e t h .
Ni x o n . C a n y o u s t a t e a g a i n j u s t w h e n h e f i r s t r e n t e d t h e a p a r t -
m e n t ?
Hi s s . I t h i n k i t w a s a b o u t J u n e o f 1 9 3 5 . . . Ia m s u r e , f r o m
m y r e c o l l e c t i o n , t h a t t h e 2 8 t h St r e e t a p a r t m e n t i s d e f i n i t e l y l i n k e d
i n t i m e w i t h m y s e r v i c e o n t h e Ny e c o m m i t t e e .
St r i p l i n g . W h a t k i n d o f a u t o m o b i l e d i d t h a t f e l l o w h a v e ?
Hi s s . No k i n d o f a u t o m o b i l e . Is o l d h i m a n a u t o m o b i l e
. Ih a d
a n o l d Fo r d t h a t It h r e w i n w i t h t h e a p a r t m e n t a n d h a d b e e n
t r y i n g t o t r a d e i t i n a n d g e t r i d o f i t . Ih a d a n o l d , o l d Fo r d
w e h a d k e p t f o r s e n t i m e n t a l r e a s o n s . W e g o t i t j u s t b e f o r e w e
w e r e m a r r i e d i n 1 9 2 9 .
St r i p l i n g . W a s i t a m o d e l Ao r m o d e l T ?
Hi s s . Ea r l y Am o d e l . . .
St r i p l i n g . W h a t c o l o r ?
Hi s s . Da r k b l u e . It w a s n ' t v e r y f a n c y , b u t i t h a d a s a s s y l i t t l e
t r u n k o n t h e b a c k .
Ni x o n . Y o u s o l d t h a t c a r ?
Hi s s . I t h r e w i t i n
. He w a n t e d a w a y t o g e t a r o u n d a n d Is a i d ,
" Fi n e , Iw a n t t o g e t r i d o f i t
. Ih a v e a n o t h e r c a r , a n d w e k e p t
i t f o r s e n t i m e n t a l r e a s o n s , n o t w o r t h a d a m n . " Il e t h i m h a v e i t
a l o n g w i t h t h e r e n t .
Ni x o n . W h e r e d i d y o u m o v e f r o m t h e r e ?
Hi s s . Ag a i n m y b e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t w e s t a y e d o n P St r e e t
o n l y o n e y e a r .
Ni x o n . Go i n g b a c k t o t h i s m a n , d o y o u k n o w h o w m a n y d a y s
a p p r o x i m a t e l y h e s t a y e d w i t h y o u ?
Hi s s
. Id o n ' t t h i n k m o r e t h a n a c o u p l e o f t i m e s
. He m a y h a v e
c o m e b a c k . Ic a n ' t r e m e m b e r w h e n i t w a s If i n a l l y d e c i d e d i t
w a s n ' t a n y u s e e x p e c t i n g t o c o l l e c t f r o m h i m , t h a t Ih a d b e e n a
s u c k e r a n d h e w a s a s o r t o f d e a d b e a t ; n o t a b a d c h a r a c t e r , b u t
It h i n k h e j u s t w a s u s i n g m e f o r a s o f t t o u c h .
Ni x o n . Y o u s a i d b e f o r e h e m o v e d i n y o u r a p a r t m e n t h e s t a y e d
i n y o u r h o u s e w i t h y o u a n d y o u r w i f e a b o u t h o w m a n y d a y s ?
Hi s s . I w o u l d s a y a c o u p l e o f n i g h t s . Id o n ' t t h i n k i t w a s l o n g e r
t h a n t h a t .
Ni x o n . A c o u p l e o f n i g h t s ?
Hi s s . Du r i n g t h e d e l a y o f t h e v a n . . .
Ni x o n . Y o u d o n ' t r e c a l l a n y s u b j e c t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n d u r i n g
t h a t p e r i o d ?
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 7 9
Hi s s . W e t a l k e d b a c k w a r d s a n d f o r w a r d s a b o u t t h e Mu n i t i o n s
C o m m i t t e e w o r k . He t o l d v a r i o u s s t o r i e s t h a t Ir e c a l l o f h i s
e s c a p a d e s . . . He h a d b e e n e v e r y w h e r e . Ir e m e m b e r h e t o l d
m e h e h a d p e r s o n a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l a y i n g d o w n t h e t r a c k s o f
t h e s t r e e t c a r s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . . . . r i g h t w i t h t h e r o a d
g a n g l a y i n g t r a c k s
. . .
Ni x o n . Y o u g a v e t h i s Fo r d c a r t o C r o s l e y ? . . .
Hi s s
. It h i n k Ic h a r g e d h i m e x a c t l y w h a t Iw a s p a y i n g f o r t h e
r e n t a n d t h r e w i n t h e c a r i n a d d i t i o n . Id o n ' t t h i n k Ig o t a n y
c o m p e n s a t i o n . .
St r i p l i n g
. W h a t k i n d o f a c a r d i d y o u g e t [ a f t e r t h e Fo r d ] ?
Hi s s . AP l y m o u t h s e d a n .
St r i p l i n g . Fo u r - d o o r ?
Hi s s . It h i n k Ih a v e a l w a y s h a d o n l y t w o - d o o r .
St r i p l i n g . W h a t k i n d o f a b i l l o f s a l e d i d y o u g i v e C r o s l e y ?
Hi s s . It h i n k Ij u s t t u r n e d o v e r - i n t h e Di s t r i c t y o u g e t a c e r t i f i -
c a t e o f t i t l e , It h i n k i t i s . It h i n k Ij u s t s i m p l y t u r n e d i t o v e r
t o h i m .
St r i p l i n g . Ha n d e d i t t o h i m ?
Hi s s
. Y e s
.
St r i p l i n g . No e v i d e n c e o f a n y t r a n s f e r . Di d h e r e c o r d t h e t i t l e ?
Hi s s . T h a t Ih a v e n ' t a n y i d e a . T h i s i s a c a r w h i c h h a d b e e n
s i t t i n g o n t h e s t r e e t s i n s n o w s f o r a y e a r o r t w o . Io n c e g o t a
p a r k i n g f i n e b e c a u s e If o r g o t w h e r e i t w a s p a r k e d
. W e w e r e
u s i n g t h e o t h e r c a r .
St r i p l i n g . Do t h o s e m o d e l Fo r d s h a v e w i n d s h i e l d w i p e r s ?
Hi s s . Y o u h a d t o w o r k t h e m y o u r s e l f .
St r i p l i n g . Ha n d o p e r a t e d ?
Hi s s . It h i n k t h a t i s t h e b e s t Ic a n r e c a l l .
Ni x o n . Do y o u r e c a l l t h e v o i c e o f t h i s f e l l o w C r o s l e y ?
Hi s s . Iw a s t r y i n g t o r e c a l l t h a t t h i s m o r n i n g . It w a s a l o w
v o i c e
. He s p e a k s w i t h a l o w a n d r a t h e r d r a m a t i c r o u n d n e s s .
Ni x o n
. T h e r e a r e m a t t e r s w h i c h Iw i s h t o g o i n t o n o w t o w h i c h
Mr . C h a m b e r s h a s g i v e n c a t e g o r i c a l a n s w e r s
. Ia m g o i n g t o p u t
t h e q u e s t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y , ' a s y o u c a n s e e
. Ia m n o t g o i n g t o t r y
t o l e a d y o u o n e w a y o r t h e o t h e r
. It w i l l b e v e r y h e l p f u l a s t h e
t w o r e c o r d s l o o k t o g e t h e r t o s e e h o w a c c u r a t e h e i s i n t h i s c a s e
.
W h a t w e r e t h e n i c k n a m e s y o u a n d y o u r w i f e h a d ?
Hi s s . My w i f e , Ih a v e a l w a y s c a l l e d h e r P r o s s y .
Ni x o n
. W h a t d o e s s h e c a l l y o u ?
Hi s s
. W e l l , a t o n e t i m e s h e c a l l e d m e q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y Hi l l ,
h - i - l - l .
1 8 0 SEEDSOFT REASON
Ni x o n . W h a t o t h e r n a m e ?
Hi s s . Hi l l y , w i t h a y .
Ni x o n . W h a t o t h e r n a m e d i d y o u c a l l h e r ?
St r i p l i n g . W h a t d i d y o u s a y ?
Hi s s .
Sh e c a l l e d m e Hi l l o r Hi l l y . I c a l l e d h e r P r o s s
o r P r o s s y
a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y . Id o n ' t t h i n k a n y o t h e r n i c k n a m e .
Ni x o n . Di d y o u e v e r c a l l h e r Di l l y ?
Hi s s . No ; n e v e r .
Ni x o n . W h e r e d i d y o u s p e n d y o u r v a c a t i o n s d u r i n g t h a t
p e r i o d ?
Hi s s . My s o n w e n t t o a c a m p o v e r o n t h e Ea s t e r n Sh o r e o f
Ma r y l a n d . . . W h e n h e w a s a t c a m p w e s p e n t t w o s u m m e r s ,
It h i n k , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n C h e s t e r t o w n , Ma r y l a n d .
Ni x o n . On t h e Ea s t e r n Sh o r e ?
Hi s s . On t h e Ea s t e r n Sh o r e o f Ma r y l a n d . He w e n t t o a c a m p
o f f r i e n d s o f o u r s w h o l i v e d j u s t o u t s i d e o f C h e s t e r t o w n
.
Fo r
t w o s u m m e r s w e t o o k a s m a l l a p a r t m e n t .
Ni x o n . Di d y o u h a v e p e t s ?
Hi s s . W e h a d a b r o w n c o c k e r s p a n i e l w e h a d b e f o r e w e c a m e
t o W a s h i n g t o n , w a s w i t h u s a l l d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , a n d l i v e d t o
b e s o o l d s h e d i e d o f o l d a g e .
Ni x o n . W h a t d i d y o u d o w i t h t h e d o g w h e n y o u
w e n t o n y o u r
v a c a t i o n s , d o y o u r e c a l l ?
Hi s s . I t h i n k w e t o o k j e n n y o v e r o n t h e Ea s t e r n Sh o r e . It h i n k
w e t o o k h e r o n t h e Ea s t e r n Sh o r e w h e n w e w e n t t h e r e . Sh e d i d
s p e n d s o m e t i m e i n t h e k e n n e l s w h e n w e w e r e a w a y .
Ni x o n . Y o u c a n ' t r e c a l l f o r s u r e ?
Hi s s . W e h a d a v e r y g o o d v e t o u t n e a r Ro c k C r e e k P a r k .
Ni x o n . Do y o u k n o w h i s n a m e ?
Hi s s . No ; b u t Ic o u l d e a s i l y a s c e r t a i n
i t .
Ni x o n . T h a t i s w h e r e y o u w o u l d h a v e l e f t t h e d o g , b o a r d e d t h e
d o g ?
Hi s s . Y e s ; a t t h a t t i m e It h i n k w e l e f t h e r t h e r e .
Ni x o n . W h a t h o b b y , i f a n y , d o y o u h a v e , Mr . Hi s s ?
Hi s s . T e n n i s a n d a m a t e u r o r n i t h o l o g y .
Ni x o n . Is y o u r w i f e i n t e r e s t e d i n o r n i t h o l o g y ?
Hi s s . I a l s o l i k e t o s w i m a n d a l s o l i k e t o s a i l . My w i f e i s In t e r -
e s t e d i n o r n i t h o l o g y , a s Ia m , t h r o u g h m y i n t e r e s t . Ma y b e Ia m
u s i n g t o o b i g a w o r d t o s a y a n o r n i t h o l o g i s t b e c a u s e Ia m p r e t t y
a m a t e u r , b u t Ih a v e b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s i n c e Iw a s i n B o s t o n .
It h i n k a n y b o d y w h o k n o w s m e w o u l d k n o w t h a t .
Mc Do w e l l .
Di d y o u e v e r s e e a p r o t h o n o t a r y
w a r b l e r ?
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 8 1
Hi s s . Ih a v e r i g h t h e r e o n t h e P o t o m a c . Do y o u k n o w t h a t
p l a c e ?
Ni x o n . Ha v e y o u e v e r s e e n o n e ?
Hi s s . Di d y o u s e e i t i n t h e s a m e p l a c e ?
Mc Do w e l l . I s a w o n e i n Ar l i n g t o n .
Hi s s . T h e y c o m e b a c k a n d n e s t i n t h o s e s w a m p s . B e a u t i f u l
y e l l o w h e a d , a g o r g e o u s b i r d . . . He n r y C o l l i n s i s a n o r n i t h o l -
o g i s t . . .
Ni x o n . As a b o y , Mr . Hi s s , d i d y o u h a v e
a n y p a r t i c u l a r b u s i -
n e s s t h a t y o u e n g a g e d i n ?
Hi s s . I h a d t w o b u s i n e s s e s . On e o f w h i c h I w a s m o s t p r o u d w a s
t h e d e l i v e r y o f s p r i n g w a t e r i n B a l t i m o r e . B a l t i m o r e p e o p l e d i d n ' t
t h i n k t h e y h a d v e r y g o o d m u n i c i p a l w a t e r . . . W e h a d t o g o
t o Dr u i d Hi l l P a r k . . . w h e r e t h e r e w e r e g o o d s p r i n g s a n d
s o m e
o f u s h a d w a t e r r o u t e s a n d w e c a r r i e d
w a t e r a n d d e l i v e r e d i t t o
c u s t o m e r s . . . Ia l s o r a i s e d p i g e o n s a n d
s o l d s q u a b s . . .
St r i p l i n g . Di d y o u e v e r g o r i d i n g w i t h C r o s l e y i n t h i s a u t o -
m o b i l e ( y o u s a y y o u g a v e h i m ) ?
Hi s s . I
t h i n k Id r o v e h i m f r o m t h e Hi l l t o
t h e a p a r t m e n t
St r i p l i n g
. Di d y o u e v e r t a k e h i m t o P e n n s y l v a n i a ?
Hi s s . No . It h i n k Io n c e d r o v e h i m t o Ne w Y o r k C i t y w h e n I
w a s
g o i n g t o m a k e a t r i p t o Ne w Y o r k C i t y a n y w a y .
Ni x o n
. W a s Mr s . Hi s s a l o n g ?
Hi s s .
T h a t Iw o u l d n ' t r e c a l l . Sh e m a y h a v e b e e n . It h i n k
Im a y
h a v e
g i v e n h i m a l i f t w h e n Iw e n t t o Ne w Y o r k .
St r i p l i n g
.
Di d y o u g o t o P a o l i ?
Hi s s . If Mr s . Hi s s w a s a l o n g , y e s .
C h a i r m a n . Ro u t e No . 2 0 2 ?
Hi s s .
Ro u t e 2 0 2 g o e s t h r o u g h t h a t p a r t o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , a n d
t h a t i s t h e r o u t e w e w o u l d t a k e .
Ni x o n .
Di d y o u e v e r d r i v e t o B a l t i m o r e w i t h C r o s l e y ?
Hi s s
. Id o n t r e c a l l i t . I t h i n k h e m o v e d t o B a l t i m o r e f r o m
h e r e , a s a
m a t t e r o f f a c t , b u t Id o n ' t r e c a l l t h a t I e v e r d r o v e h i m .
Ni x o n . Ho w d i d y o u k n o w t h a t ?
Hi s s .
It h i n k h e t o l d m e w h e n h e w a s p u l l i n g
o u t
.
He w a s i n
m y
a p a r t m e n t u n t i l t h e l e a s e e x p i r e d i n Se p t e m b e r .
Ni x o n . W h a t y e a r ?
Hi s s . I t h i n k i t w a s Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 5 , a n d It h i n k Is a w h i m
s e v e r a l t i m e s a f t e r t h a t , a n d It h i n k h e h a d t o l d m e h e m o v e d
f r o m h e r e t o B a l t i m o r e .
Ni x o n .
Ev e n t h o u g h h e d i d n ' t p a y h i s r e n t
y o u s a w h i m s e v e r a l
t i m e s ?
1 8 2

SEEDSOFT REASON
Hi s s .
He w a s a b o u t t o p a y i t a n d w a s g o i n g t o s e l l h i s a r t i c l e s .
He g a v e m e a p a y m e n t o n a c c o u n t o n c e
. He b r o u g h t a r u g o v e r
w h i c h h e s a i d s o m e w e a l t h y p a t r o n g a v e h i m . Ih a v e s t i l l g o t t h e
d a m n e d t h i n g .
Ni x o n . Di d y o u e v e r g i v e h i m a n y t h i n g ?
Hi s s . Ne v e r a n y t h i n g b u t a c o u p l e o f l o a n s
; n e v e r g o t p a i d
b a c k .
Ni x o n .
Ha v e y o u e v e r h e a r d o f h i m s i n c e 1 9 3 5 ?
Hi s s . No ;
n e v e r t h o u g h t o f h i m a g a i n u n t i l t h i s m o r n i n g o n
t h e t r a i n .
St r i p l i n g . Y o u w o u l d n ' t s a y p o s i t i v e l y Ge o r g e C r o s l e y a n d t h i s
p e r s o n a r e t h e s a m e ?
Hi s s . No t p o s i t i v e l y
.
St r i p l i n g . Y o u w o u l d n o t s a y p o s i t i v e l y ?
Hi s s . I
t h i n k t h e y a r e n o t . T h a t w o u l d b e m y b e s t i m p r e s s i o n
f r o m t h e p h o t o g r a p h s .
In t h i n k i n g t h i s m o r n i n g w h a t It h o u g h t w a s t h a t C r o s l e y i s
t h e o n l y p e r s o n Ik n o w w h o h a s b e e n i n m y h o u s e w h o k n o w s
t h e l a y - o u t o f a n y h o u s e o r a p a r t m e n t Il i v e d i n .
Ni x o n .
He k n o w s t h e l a y - o u t o f o n l y o n e h o u s e ?
Hi s s .
On l y o n e h o u s e .
Ni x o n .
Mr . C h a m b e r s , o f c o u r s e , a s Is a y , w a s v e r y c o n v i n c i n g
i n h i s t e s t i m o n y a n d y o u c e r t a i n l y a r e v e r y c o n v i n c i n g i n y o u r s .
No w , f r a n k l y , t h e c o m m i t t e e h a s a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m h e r e a n d
Iw o n d e r i f u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e
c o m m i t t e e i n t h i s m a t t e r y o u w o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o t a k e a l i e -
d e t e c t o r t e s t o n t h i s .
Im i g h t s a y b e f o r e y o u a n s w e r , s o y o u w i l l h a v e f u l l k n o w l e d g e
o f w h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e k n o w s , Mr . C h a m b e r s w a s a s k e d t h a t
q u e s t i o n a n d s a i d h e w o u l d t a k e a l i e - d e t e c t o r t e s t .
Al g e r Hi s s h a d e x p e c t e d t h i s q u e s t i o n . He h a d b e e n t o l d
t h a t C h a m b e r s h a d s h o w n n o h e s i t a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r i n a g r e e -
i n g t o t a k e a l i e - d e t e c t o r t e s t
. An d h e k n e w t h a t t o r e f u s e
w o u l d p r e j u d i c e h i s c a s e - w i t h t h e c o m m i t t e e a n d w i t h t h e
p u b l i c .
" Sh a l l Ia n s w e r n o w ? " h e a s k e d Mr
. Ni x o n . T h e y o u n g
C a l i f o r n i a n t o l d h i m t o g o a h e a d
. Hi s s ' a n s w e r w a s o b l i q u e ;
h e d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o s a n d c o n s o f t h e l i e d e t e c t o r , q u e s t i o n e d
HIGHDRAMAINAHEARINGROOM

1 8 3
i t s v a l u e a s a s c i e n t i f i c d e t e r m i n a n t o f t r u t h . T h e n , s t i l l d u c k -
i n g t h e a n s w e r , h e c o n t i n u e d t o t a l k :
Hi s s . Iw o u l d l i k e t o k n o w w h o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s , w h e t h e r
t h i s i s b e i n g d o n e b y s o m e o n e i n t h e B u r e a u w h o i s a n e x p e r t o r
a n i n d i v i d u a l s o - c a l l e d e x p e r t , w h a t k i n d o f a t e s t i t i s . In o t h e r
w o r d s , Id o n ' t t h i n k Io u g h t t o , o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e a d v i c e Ih a v e
h a d , t o t r y t o a n s w e r i t o u t o f h a n d u n t i l Ik n o w a n d y o u k n o w
.
Iw o u l d b e s u r p r i s e d i f t h i s c o m m i t t e e w o u l d w a n t t o r e l y o n
s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s n ' t s c i e n t i f i c
.
Ni x o n . C e r t a i n l y
. In a n s w e r t o y o u r q u e s t i o n , t h e c o m m i t t e e
h a s c o n t a c t e d Mr
. L e o n a r d o K e e l e r
. . . p r o b a b l y t h e o u t s t a n d -
i n g m a n i n t h e c o u n t r y . T h e t e s t Mr
. K e e l e r h a s i s t h e p o l y g r a p h
m a c h i n e . It i s t h e o n l y o n e , It h i n k , t h a t h a s a n y b r o a d a c c e p t -
a n c e a t a l l .
Fi n a l l y , Hi s s l a i d i t o n t h e l i n e
. He c o u l d n o t a g r e e t h e n
a n d t h e r e t o t a k e t h e t e s t , b u t h e w o u l d t a k e t h e m a t t e r
u n d e r a d v i s e m e n t a n d g i v e t h e c o m m i t t e e h i s a n s w e r i n s e v -
e r a l d a y s
. Fr o m t h e r e o n i n , t h e t e s t i m o n y r a m b l e d b a c k a n d
f o r t h o v e r g r o u n d a l r e a d y c o v e r e d
. St i l l g i v i n g w i t h o n e h a n d
a n d t a k i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r , Hi s s c o n t i n u e d t o b u i l d u p h i s
c h a r a c t e r o f t h e " d e a d b e a t " Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , w h i l e r e f u s i n g
t o s t a t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t C r o s l e y w a s C h a m b e r s
. W h e n
Ni x o n a s k e d h i m i f t h e m a t t e r o f t h e u n p a i d r e n t f o r t h e Hi s s
a p a r t m e n t w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v e f o r C h a m b e r s ' t e s t i -
m o n y a g a i n s t Hi s s , h e a n s w e r e d :
" No , t h a t i s w h y Ic a n ' t b e l i e v e i t w a s t h e s a m e m a n
. I
c a n ' t i m a g i n e a n o r m a l m a n h o l d i n g a g r u d g e b e c a u s e s o m e -
b o d y h a d s t o p p e d b e i n g a s u c k e r
. "
It w a s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t Ro b e r t St r i p l i n g c a s u a l l y a n d i n -
e p t l y s h i f t e d t o a q u e s t i o n w h i c h , t h o u g h v a l u e l e s s i n a c o u r t
o f l a w , w a s e x t r e m e l y p e r t i n e n t
. W a s i t r e a s o n a b l e t o b e l i e v e
t h a t s o a c u t e a m a n a s Al g e r Hi s s c o u l d h a v e b e e n c l o s e l y
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v o w e d C o m m u n i s t s a n d p r o - C o m m u n i s t s a s
He n r y C o l l i n s , J o h n Ab t , a n d L e e P r e s s m a n w i t h o u t h a v i n g
t h e s l i g h t e s t i d e a o f
t h e i r p o l i t i c s ? At r i a l l a w y e r c o u l d h a v e
1 8 4
SEEDSOFT REASON
m a d e m u c h o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , b u t St r i p l i n g i m m e d i a t e l y
v i t i a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s s a l l y b y d r a w i n g i n o t h e r ,
e x t r a n e o u s i s s u e s . An d l i k e t h e l a w y e r t h a t h e w a s , Hi s s
s e i z e d o n t h e m i n o r p o i n t s a n d s o d e m o l i s h e d t h e m t h a t t h e
m a j o r q u e s t i o n w a s f o r g o t t e n . As a r e s u l t , t h e s e c o n d a c t o f
t h e g r e a t d r a m a p e t e r e d o u t .
B u t t h o u g h i t w a s o b s c u r e d i n d e s u l t o r y q u e s t i o n i n g , i n -
c l u d i n g m a n y a s s u r a n c e s b y t h e c o m m i t t e e t h a t Hi s s w o u l d
b e f u r n i s h e d a t r a n s c r i p t o f h i s t e s t i m o n y , t h e b i g c u r t a i n
l i n e w a s t h e r e
: Al g e r Hi s s a n d W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s w o u l d
b e b r o u g h t f a c e t o f a c e .
1 5
T h e Gr e a t C o n f r o n t a t i o n
T HEST AGEW ASNOW SET FORT HEGREAT T HIRDAC T OF
t h e Ho u s e c o m m i t t e e ' s d r a m a t i c h e a r i n g s . Fo r t i f i e d b y Al g e r
Hi s s ' l a m e r e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t h e h a d p r o b a b l y k n o w n W h i t -
t a k e r C h a m b e r s a s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Ni x e s a n d
t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e d e c i d e d t o m o v e
q u i c k l y . Al m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r Hi s s ' a p p e a r a n c e , t h e c o m -
m i t t e e r e s o l v e d t o g o a h e a d w i t h t h e l o n g - p r o m i s e d c o n -
f r o n t a t i o n . Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Mc Do w e l l w i r e d Hi s s a s k i n g h i m
t o a p p e a r b e f o r e a s u b c o m m i t t e e a t t h e Ho t e l C o m m o d o r e
t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y . Re l u c t a n t l y , Hi s s a g r e e d . As i m i l a r w i r e
w a s s e n t t o C h a m b e r s , a n d h e i n d i c a t e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s .
B u t C h a m b e r s m i s u n d e r s t o o d o n e t h i n g ; h e t h o u g h t t h a t
t h i s h e a r i n g w a s t o t a k e p l a c e i n W a s h i n g t o n . On t h e a f t e r -
n o o n o f Au g u s t 1 7 t h , h e t u r n e d u p o n t h e s t e p s o f t h e Ol d
Ho u s e Of f i c e B u i l d i n g . B y s h e e r a c c i d e n t , h e r a n i n t o Ni x o n ,
Mc Do w e l l , St r i p l i n g , J . P a r n e l l T h o m a s , a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s
o f t h e c o m m i t t e e s t a f f j u s t a s t h e y w e r e l e a v i n g f o r Ne w Y o r k .
T h i s c r e a t e d a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m .
Al g e r Hi s s h a d c h a r g e d t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e w a s i n c a h o o t s
w i t h C h a m b e r s , t h a t i t h a d b e e n l e a k i n g s e c r e t t e s t i m o n y t o
C h a m b e r s i n o r d e r t o d a m a g e Hi s s . If C h a m b e r s w e r e s e e n
r i d i n g u p f r o m W a s h i n g t o n w i t h c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s , i t
m i g h t w e l l b e t a k e n a s e v i d e n c e t h a t Hi s s ' c h a r g e s w e r e t r u e
.
T h e c o m m i t t e e w a s o n t h e r e c e i v i n g e n d o f b l u d g e o n i n g
c r i t i c i s m f r o m t h e T r u m a n Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d f r o m l a r g e
1 8 5
1 8 6
SEEDSOFT REASON
s e g m e n t s o f t h e p r e s s . T o u c h i l y , t h e s u b c o m m i t t e e a g r e e d
t h a t i t w o u l d b e w i s e r f o r C h a m b e r s t o r i d e i n a n o t h e r c a r
.
T h r o u g h o u t t h e t r i p , t h e r e f o r e , C h a m b e r s s a t w i t h W . P .
B a n n i s t e r , t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s s t e n o g r a p h i c r e p o r t e r
.
At 5 : 3 5 P . M . , i n Ro o m 1 4 0 0 o f
t h e Ho t e l C o m m o d o r e , t h e
g r e a t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s c e n e b e g a n . Ac c o m p a n i e d b y a f r i e n d , a
h i g h l y p e r t u r b e d Al g e r Hi s s m a d e h i s g r e e t i n g s . Af t e r b e i n g
s w o r n , h e s a t d o w n i n a n e a s y c h a i r w i t h h i s b a c k t o t h e
e n t r a n c e o f t h e s u i t e
. As u s u a l , Ri c h a r d Ni x o n c a r r i e d t h e
b a l l f o r t h e c o m m i t t e e
. Hi s f i r s t w o r d s w e r e a d d r e s s e d t o
Hi s s .
Ni x o n . It i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t a t t h i s s t a g e i n t h e t e s t i m o n y , a s
y o u i n d i c a t e d y e s t e r d a y , t h a t t h e c a s e i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e
q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y . W e h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i d e n t i t y
t h r o u g h p h o t o g r a p h s o f Mr . C h a m b e r s a n d t h a t h a s b e e n i n a d e -
q u a t e f o r t h a t p u r p o s e .
T o d a y , w e t h o u g h t t h a t s i n c e y o u h a d i n y o u r t e s t i m o n y r a i s e d
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t h i r d p a r t y w h o m i g h t b e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s
c a s e i n s o m e w a y a n d h a d d e s c r i b e d h i m a t s o m e l e n g t h t o t h e
c o m m i t t e e t h a t i t w o u l d b e w e l l t o , a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e ,
d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e t h i r d p a r t y i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t w o
p a r t i e s o r t h e s a m e o n e , a n d s o c o n s e q u e n t l y w e h a v e a s k e d
Mr . C h a m b e r s t o b e i n Ne w Y o r k a t t h e s a m e t i m e s o t h a t y o u
c a n h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e e h i m a n d m a k e u p y o u r o w n m i n d
o n t h a t p o i n t .
Hi s s . Iw o u l d l i k e t h e r e c o r d t o s h o w t h a t o n m y w a y d o w n -
t o w n f r o m m y u p t o w n o f f i c e , Il e a r n e d f r o m t h e p r e s s o f t h e
d e a t h o f Ha r r y W h i t e , w h i c h c a m e a s a g r e a t s h o c k t o m e , a n d
Ia m n o t s u r e t h a t If e e l i n t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e m o o d f o r t e s t i m o n y . I
d o n o t f o r a m o m e n t w a n t t o m i s s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f s e e i n g
Mr . C h a m b e r s . Im e r e l y w a n t e d t h e r e c o r d t o s h o w t h a t
.
Iw o u l d l i k e t o m a k e o n e f u r t h e r c o m m e n t . Y e s t e r d a y , It h i n k
Iw i t n e s s e d - i n a n y e v e n t , Iw a s t o l d t h a t t h o s e i n t h e r o o m
w e r e g o i n g t o t a k e a n o a t h o f s e c r e c y . Im a d e s o m e c o m m e n t s
b e f o r e Ia n s w e r e d c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s o f Mr . Ni x o n w h i c h Ih a d
n o t i n t e n d e d a s a r e f l e c t i o n o n t h e c o m m i t t e e b u t w h i c h s o m e
m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e t h o u g h t i m p l i e d t h a t Iw a s r e f e r r i n g
m e r e l y t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l e a k a g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Iw o u l d l i k e
t h i s r e c o r d t o s h o w a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t t h e f i r s t t h i n g Is a w i n t h e
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 8 7
m o r n i n g p a p e r , t h e He r a l d T r i b u n e , w a s a s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e
c o m m i t t e e y e s t e r d a y h a d a s k e d m e i f Iw o u l d s u b m i t t o a l i e -
d e t e c t o r t e s t . .
.
T h e r e w e r e o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e p r e s s w h i c h
Ir e a d c o m i n g d o w n w h i c h r e f e r r e d t o o t h e r b i t s
o f m y t e s t i m o n y
w h i c h c o u l d o n l y h a v e c o m e f r o m t h e c o m m i t t e e . T h e y d i d n o t
c o m e f r o m m e . .
Mc Do w e l l . T h e C h a i r w o u l d l i k e t o s a y s o m e t h i n g . I, t o o ,
w a s
g r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d w h e n Ir e a d t h e m o r n i n g p a p e r
. Ob v i o u s l y ,
t h e r e w a s a l e a k , b e c a u s e t h e s t o r y t h a t a p p e a r e d
i n t h e v a r i o u s
p a p e r s Ir e a d w a s p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f y e s t e r d a y a f t e r n o o n
. I
h a v e n o i d e a h o w t h i s s t o r y g o t o u t
. In m y o w n c a s e , Iv e r y
c a r e f u l l y g u a r d e d m y s e l f l a s t n i g h t , s a w a n d t a l k e d t o n o o n e
e x c e p t m y w i f e i n P i t t s b u r g h . It i s r e g r e t t a b l e a n d u n f o r t u -
n a t e . . .
Ni x o n . Mr . Ru s s e l l , w i l l y o u b r i n g Mr . C h a m b e r s i n ?
L o u i s J . Ru s s e l l , t h e c o m m i t t e e i n v e s t i g a t o r , l e f t t h e r o o m
v i a t h e b e d r o o m o f t h e s u i t e . W h e n h e r e t u r n e d w i t h C h a m -
b e r s , h e w a l k e d t h r o u g h t h e f r o n t d o o r . Hi s s , w h o h a d h i s
b a c k t o t h e e n t r a n c e , d i d n o t m o v e o r t u r n h i s h e a d
. Hi s f a c e
r e m a i n e d e x p r e s s i o n l e s s . C h a m b e r s w a l k e d a r o u n d
Hi s s '
c h a i r a n d s a t d o w n o n a d i v a n o p p o s i t e Hi s s . T h e t w o m e n
w e r e f a c e t o f a c e a t l a s t .
Ni x o n . Mr . C h a m b e r s , w i l l y o u p l e a s e s t a n d ? An d w i l l y o u
p l e a s e s t a n d , Mr . Hi s s ? Mr . Hi s s , t h e m a n s t a n d i n g h e r e i s Mr
.
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s . Ia s k y o u n o w i f y o u h a v e e v e r k n o w n t h a t
m a n b e f o r e ?
Hi s s . Ma y Ia s k h i m t o s p e a k ? W i l l y o u a s k h i m t o s a y s o m e -
t h i n g ?
Ni x o n . Y e s . Mr . C h a m b e r s , w i l l y o u t e l l u s y o u r n a m e a n d y o u r
b u s i n e s s ?
C h a m b e r s . My n a m e i s W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s .
( At t h i s p o i n t ,
Mr . Hi s s w a l k e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Mr . C h a m b e r s . )
Hi s s . W o u l d y o u m i n d o p e n i n g y o u r m o u t h w i d e r ?
C h a m b e r s . My n a m e i s W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s
.
Hi s s . I s a i d , w o u l d y o u o p e n y o u r m o u t h ? Y o u k n o w
w h a t I
a m r e f e r r i n g t o , Mr . Ni x o n
. W i l l y o u g o o n t a l k i n g ?
C h a m b e r s
. I
a m s e n i o r e d i t o r o f T i m e
m a g a z i n e .
Hi s s . Ma y Ia s k w h e t h e r h i s v o i c e , w h e n h e
t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e ,
w a s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h i s ?
1 8 S
SEEDSOFT REASON
Ni x o n . Hi s v o i c e ?
Hi s s . Or d i d h e t a l k a l i t t l e m o r e i n a l o w e r k e y ?
Mc Do w e l l . Iw o u l d s a y i t i s a b o u t t h e s a m e n o w
a s w e h a v e
h e a r d .
Hi s s
.
W o u l d y o u a s k
h i m t o t a l k a l i t t l e m o r e ?
Ni x o n .
Re a d s o m e t h i n g , Mr . C h a m b e r s . Iw i l l l e t y o u r e a d
f r o m . . .
Hi s s . I t h i n k h e i s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , b u t Iw o u l d l i k e t o h e a r
h i m t a l k a l i t t l e l o n g e r .
Mc Do w e l l . Mr . C h a m b e r s , i f y o u w o u l d b e m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e ,
y o u m a y s i t d o w n .
Hi s s . Ar e y o u Ge o r g e C r o s l e y ?
C h a m b e r s . No t t o m y k n o w l e d g e . Y o u a r e Al g e r Hi s s , Ib e l i e v e .
Hi s s . Ic e r t a i n l y a m .
C h a m b e r s . T h a t w a s m y r e c o l l e c t i o n . . . [ r e a d i n g f r o m
Ne w s -
w e e k ] . Si n c e J u n e .
Ni x o n ( i n t e r p o s i n g ) . J u s t o n e m o m e n t
. Si n c e s o m e r e p a r t e e
g o e s o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o p e o p l e , It h i n k Mr . C h a m b e r s s h o u l d
b e s w o r n .
Hi s s . T h a t i s a g o o d i d e a .
Mc Do w e l l . Y o u d o s o l e m n l y s w e a r , s i r , t h a t t h e t e s t i m o n y y o u
s h a l l g i v e t h i s c o m m i t t e e w i l l b e t h e t r u t h , t h e w h o l e t r u t h ,
a n d
n o t h i n g b u t t h e t r u t h , s o h e l p y o u Go d ?
C h a m b e r s . I d o .
Ni x o n . Mr . Hi s s , m a y Is a y s o m e t h i n g ? Is u g g e s t e d t h a t h e b e
s w o r n , a n d w h e n Is a y s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t Iw a n t n o i n t e r r u p -
t i o n s f r o m y o u .
Hi s s . Mr . Ni x o n , i n v i e w o f w h a t h a p p e n e d y e s t e r d a y , It h i n k
t h e r e i s n o o c c a s i o n f o r y o u t o u s e t h a t t o n e o f v o i c e i n s p e a k i n g
t o m e , a n d Ih o p e t h e r e c o r d w i l l s h o w w h a t Ih a v e j u s t s a i d .
Ni x o n . T h e r e c o r d s h o w s e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s b e i n g s a i d h e r e
t o d a y .
St r i p l i n g . Y o u w e r e g o i n g t o r e a d .
C h a m b e r s ( r e a d i n g f r o m Ne w s w e e k m a g a z i n e ) . T o b i n
f o r
L a b o r . Si n c e J u n e , Ha r r y S . T r u m a n h a d b e e n p e d d l i n g t h e l a b o r
s e c r e t a r y s h i p l e f t v a c a n t b y L e w i s B . Sc h w e l l e n b a c h ' s d e a t h
i n
h o p e o f g a i n i n g t h e m a x i m u m p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e f r o m t h e
a p p o i n t m e n t .
Hi s s .
Ma y Ii n t e r r u p t ?
Mc Do w e l l . Y e s .
Hi s s . T h e v o i c e s o u n d s a l i t t l e l e s s r e s o n a n t t h a n t h e v o i c e t h a t
Ir e c a l l o f t h e m a n Ik n e w a s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y
. T h e t e e t h l o o k t o
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 8 9
m e a s t h o u g h e i t h e r t h e y h a v e b e e n i m p r o v e d u p o n o r t h a t t h e r e
h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e n t a l w o r k d o n e s i n c e Ik n e w Ge o r g e
C r o s l e y , w h i c h w a s s o m e y e a r s a g o .
Ib e l i e v e Ia m n o t p r e p a r e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c h e c k i n g t o t a k e
a n a b s o l u t e o a t h t h a t h e m u s t b e Ge o r g e C r o s l e y .
Ni x o n . Ma y Ia s k a q u e s t i o n o f Mr . C h a m b e r s ?
Hi s s . I w o u l d l i k e t o a s k Mr . C h a m b e r s , i f Im a y .
Ni x o n . I w i l l a s k t h e q u e s t i o n s a t t h i s t i m e . Mr . C h a m b e r s ,
h a v e y o u h a d a n y d e n t a l w o r k s i n c e 1 9 3 4 o f a s u b s t a n t i a l n a t u r e ?
C h a m b e r s .
Y e s , Ih a v e
.
Ni x o n . W h a t t y p e o f d e n t a l w o r k ?
C h a m b e r s . I h a v e h a d s o m e e x t r a c t i o n a n d a p l a t e .
Ni x o n . Ha v e y o u h a d a n y d e n t a l w o r k i n t h e f r o n t o f y o u r
m o u t h ?
C h a m b e r s . Y e s .
Hi s s . T h a t t e s t i m o n y o f Mr . C h a m b e r s , i f i t c a n b e b e l i e v e d ,
w o u l d t e n d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e m y f e e l i n g t h a t h e r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f
t o m e i n 1 9 3 4 o r 1 9 3 5 o r t h e r e a b o u t a s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , a f r e e -
l a n c e w r i t e r o f a r t i c l e s f o r m a g a z i n e s . . .
Ni x o n . C a n y o u d e s c r i b e t h e c o n d i t i o n o f y o u r t e e t h i n 1 9 3 4 ?
C h a m b e r s . Y e s . T h e y w e r e i n v e r y b a d s h a p e .
Ni x o n . T h e f r o n t t e e t h w e r e ?
C h a m b e r s . Y e s , It h i n k s o .
Hi s s . Mr . C h a i r m a n . . . Iw o u l d l i k e a f e w m o r e q u e s t i o n s
a s k e d . Id i d n ' t i n t e n d t o s a y a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h i s , b e c a u s e If e e l
v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t h e i s C r o s l e y , b u t h e l o o k s v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n
g i r t h a n d i n o t h e r a p p e a r a n c e s - h a i r , f o r e h e a d , a n d s o o n , p a r -
t i c u l a r l y t h e j o w l s .
Ni x o n
. W h a t w a s C r o s l e y ' s w i f e ' s n a m e ?
Hi s s . Id o n ' t t h i n k Ir e c a l l .
Ni x o n . Y o u d i d t e s t i f y t h a t s h e o n s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s w a s i n
y o u r h o m e o v e r n i g h t .
Hi s s . T h a t i s r i g h t .
Ni x o n . An d t h a t y o u h a v e r i d d e n w i t h h e r i n a c a r a s w e l l a s
w i t h h i m
.
Hi s s . Id o n ' t r e c a l l t e s t i f y i n g t o t h a t .
Ni x o n . Do y o u t e s t i f y s h e d i d n ' t ?
Hi s s . Id o n ' t r e c a l l
.
Ni x o n .
B u t s h e d i d s t a y o v e r n i g h t i n y o u r h o m e o n s e v e r a l
o c c a s i o n s ?
Hi s s
. Sh e d i d . Id o n ' t t h i n k Is a i d s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .
Ni x o n . Ho w m a n y t i m e s d i d y o u s a y ?
1 9 0
SEEDSOFT REASON
Hi s s . My
r e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t a t t h e t i m e Ge o r g e C r o s l e y s u b -
r e n t e d m y a p a r t m e n t o n 2 9 t h [ s i c ] St r e e t h i s w i f e a n d h e a n d
i n f a n t s p e n t t w o o r t h r e e o r f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e n i g h t s i n m y h o u s e
b e c a u s e t h e v a n h a d n o t c o m e w i t h t h e i r f u r n i t u r e , a n d w e l e f t
o n l y c e r t a i n p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e b e h i n d t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e m
.
Ni x o n . In r e g a r d t o t h e r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t w a s e n t e r e d i n t o
w i t h Mr
. C r o s l e y , d o y o u r e c a l l a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e r e n t a l t h a t
w a s c h a r g e d a n d a g r e e d t o ?
Hi s s . My
r e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t Is a i d Iw o u l d b e g l a d t o l e t h i m
h a v e t h e a p a r t m e n t f o r t h e c o s t t o m e
. It w a s a r a t h e r m o d e r a t e
r e n t a l .
Ni x o n .
C o u l d y o u s a y w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s ?
Hi s s . My
r e c o l l e c t i o n - Ic a n ' t r e m e m b e r j u s t w h a t Ip a i d f o r
t h e a p a r t m e n t t h a t f a r b a c k - m y r e c o l l e c t i o n i s i t w a s u n d e r $ 7 5
a m o n t h . It w a s a v e r y r e a s o n a b l e r e n t a l
. T h a t i s o n e o f t h e
r e a s o n s Ih a d t a k e n i t
.
Ni x o n .
Fo r h o w l o n g w a s t h i s r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t ?
Hi s s . . . .
So m e t i m e i n t h e s p r i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o m y r e c o l l e o -
t i o n , o f 1 9 3 4
.
Ni x o n .
Or d i d y o u s a y 1 9 3 5 ?
Hi s s .
T h a t i s m y b e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n .
Ni x o n
. Y o u a r e t e s t i f y i n g , a s Iu n d e r s t a n d , t h a t t h e l e a s e t o
Mr
. C r o s l e y w a s f o r t h e t h r e e s u m m e r m o n t h s a p p r o x i m a t e l y .
Hi s s . As
l o n g a s h e w a n t e d t o s t a y d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r p e r i o d
w h i l e Is t i l l h a d t h e u s e o f t h a t a p a r t m e n t
. . .
Ni x o n .
T h e n t h e t o t a l r e n t a l v a l u e f o r t h e p e r i o d w a s , i f i t
w e r e f o r t w o m o n t h s
; i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 1 5 0
;
t h r e e m o n t h s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 2 2 5 .
Hi s s .
It w a s c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e n u m b e r o f m o n t h s h e w o u l d
o c c u p y t h e r e m a i n i n g u n e x p i r e d t e r m u n d e r m y l e a s e
.
Ni x o n .
Di d h e e v e r p a y a n y r e n t a t a l l ?
Hi s s .
My r e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t h e p a i d n o c a s h , t h a t h e o n c e p a i d
i n k i n d .
Ni x o n
. No c a s h a t a l l ?
Hi s s
. He a l s o b o r r o w e d s o m e c a s h i n a d d i t i o n
.
Ni x o n . Ho w
m u c h d i d h e b o r r o w , a p p r o x i m a t e l y ?
Hi s s . I
d o n ' t t h i n k i t g o t o v e r $ 3 5 o r $ 4 0 i n d i f f e r e n t t r a n s -
a c t i o n s , n o t a l l a t o n c e
. Ih o p e i t d i d n ' t .
Ni x o n . Y o u
h a d k n o w n Mr . C r o s l e y , y o u r t e s t i m o n y i s , f o r
a b o u t e i g h t m o n t h s b e f o r e y o u e n t e r e d i n t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t ?
Hi s s . Fi v e o r s i x
m o n t h s .
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 9 1
Ni x o n . T h e n y o u h a d h a d s e v e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h h i m d u r -
i n g t h a t p e r i o d ?
Hi s s . It h i n k Im u s t h a v e s e e n h i m a s o f t e n a s Id i d a n y o t h e r
n e w s p a p e r m a n w h o w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d . It h i n k Is a w
h i m t e n o r e l e v e n t i m e s .
Ni x o n .
Ne v e r s a w h i m s o c i a l l y d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d ?
Hi s s . Ne v e r s a w h i m s o c i a l l y .
Ni x o n . An d t h e n t h e r e w a s s o m e c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t a c a r .
W h a t w a s t h a t ?
Hi s s . T h e r e w a s . Mr . C r o s l e y s a i d t h a t w h i l e h e w a s i n W a s h -
i n g t o n h e w o n d e r e d i f h e c o u l d g e t a r e n t e d c a r o r s o m e t h i n g ,
b e c a u s e h e w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e i t w h i l e h i s f a m i l y w e r e w i t h
h i m ,
g e t o u t w e e k - e n d s , s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t .
Is a i d , " Y o u c a m e t o j u s t t h e r i g h t p l a c e . Iw o u l d b e v e r y g l a d
t o t h r o w a c a r i n b e c a u s e Ih a v e b e e n t r y i n g t o g e t r i d o f a n o l d
c a r w h i c h w e h a v e k e p t s o l e l y f o r s e n t i m e n t a l r e a s o n s w h i c h w e
c o u l d n ' t g e t a n y t h i n g o n f o r t r a d e - i n o r s a l e . " Iw o u l d b e v e r y
g l a d t o l e t h i m h a v e t h e c a r b e c a u s e w e w a n t e d s o m e b o d y t o
m a k e r e a l u s e o f i t . W e h a d h a d i t s i t t i n g o n t h e c i t y s t r e e t s
b e c a u s e w e h a d a n e w o n e .
Ni x o n . It w a s a ' 2 9 Fo r d ?
Hi s s . On e o f t h e f i r s t m o d e l AFo r d s .
Ni x o n . T h e y e a r o f t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n w o u l d b e 1 9 3 5 ?
Hi s s . T h a t w o u l d b e m y b e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n .
Ni x o n . A s i x - y e a r - o l d Fo r d ?
Hi s s
.
T h a t i s r i g h t .
Ni x o n . Y o u j u s t g a v e h i m t h e c a r w i t h t h i s $ 2 2 5 r e n t a l ?
Hi s s . As p a r t o f t h e t o t a l c o n t r a c t . T h a t i s m y b e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n .
Ni x o n . T h e n b e f o r e h e m o v e d i n t o t h e a p a r t m e n t Iu n d e r s t a n d
t h a t y o u a l l o w e d h i m a n d h i s w i f e t o s t a y w i t h y o u i n y o u r h o m e ?
Hi s s . My r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h a t - a n d t h i s i s r e p e t i t i o u s -
Ni x o n . W e a r e r e p e a t i n g i t f o r h i s b e n e f i t a s w e l l a s t o s e e i f
h e c a n r e c a l l t h e i n c i d e n t .
Hi s s . I a m g l a d h e h a s n o o t h e r w a y o f f i n d i n g o u t a b o u t i t ,
Mr . Ni x o n .
My r e c o l l e c t i o n o n t h a t p o i n t i s t h a t . . . w e p u t t h e m u p t h e
w a y o n e w o u l d b e a p t t o t r y t o b e h e l p f u l t o p e o p l e y o u w e r e
s u b l e t t i n g . Y o u d e v e l o p a k i n d o f p s e u d o - f r i e n d l i n e s s o v e r a t r a n s -
a c t i o n o f t h a t k i n d .
Mr . C r o s l e y , h i s w i f e , a n d i n f a n t w e r e p u t u p i n m y h o u s e f o r
t w o o r t h r e e d a y s w h i l e t h e m o v i n g v a n w a s c o m i n g
; i t m a y h a v e
1 9 2 SEEDSOFT REASON
b e e n f o u r , m a y h a v e b e e n t w o . It w a s m o r e t h a n o n e n i g h t . I
i m a g i n e m y w i f e w o u l d t e s t i f y i t s e e m e d e v e n l o n g e r t h a n t h a t .
Ni x o n . W e r e t h o s e t h e o n l y t w o a p a r t m e n t s i n w h i c h Mr .
C r o s l e y s a w y o u ?
Hi s s . T o t h e b e s t o f m y k n o w l e d g e , y e s .
Ni x o n . W h e n d i d y o u s e e h i m a f t e r t h a t . p e r i o d o f t h e r e n t a l
a g r e e m e n t ?
Hi s s . I s a w h i m s e v e r a l t i m e s i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 3 5 , a s Ir e c a l l i t .
Ni x o n . W h a t w e r e t h e o c c a s i o n s o f t h o s e v i s i t s ?
Hi s s . So m e o c c a s i o n s - h e w o u l d c a l l - n o ; It h i n k h e c a m e t o
m y h o u s e o n c e o r t w i c e a f t e r t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t
o f a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ir e m e m b e r o n o n e o c c a s i o n h e c a m e
a n d b r o u g h t m e a r u g w h i c h w a s p a r t p a y m e n t . He h a d n ' t y e t
s o l d h i s a r t i c l e s , h e w a s h a r d u p , h e w a s g o i n g t o m a k e p a y m e n t .
My r e c o l l e c t i o n i s In e v e r g o t p a i d a s i n g l e r e d c e n t i n c u r r e n c y
Ni x o n . W h a t k i n d o f a r u g w a s i t ?
Hi s s . It w a s a b o u t t h e c o l o r o f t h i s r u g [ i n d i c a t i n g r u g o n
f l o o r ] . Is t i l l h a v e i t . Af a i r l y s i z a b l e r u g . My r e c o l l e c t i o n i s Mr .
C r o s l e y s a i d s o m e w e a l t h y p a t r o n h a d b e s t o w e d i t u p o n h i m a s a
g i f t .
Ni x o n . On t h e s e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h Mr . C r o s l e y s t a y e d
w i t h y o u ; d i d h e e v e r s t a y o v e r n i g h t ?
Hi s s . Iw o u l d n ' t b e s u r e o f m y r e c o l l e c t i o n . It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e
h e m a y h a v e s a i d t h a t h e c o u l d n ' t g e t a r e s e r v a t i o n . Mr . C r o s l e y
w a s a p p a r e n t l y i n t h e h a b i t o f h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . He m a y v e r y
w e l l h a v e s a i d t h a t h e c o u l d n ' t g e t a h o t e l r e s e r v a t i o n , c o u l d Ip u t
h i m u p . Mr . C r o s l e y , n o t b e i n g s o m e o n e w h o p a i d h i s d e b t s , m a y
v e r y w e l l h a v e a d d e d t o h i s o b l i g a t i o n s i n t h a t w a y
. T h a t I
w o u l d n ' t b e s u r e o f .
Ni x o n . Y o u t e s t i f i e d o n o n e o c c a s i o n y o u t o o k h i m o n a t r i p , a s
Iu n d e r s t a n d i t , f e r r i e d h i m t o Ne w Y o r k .
Hi s s . My r e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h a t o n o n e o c c a s i o n w h e n m y w i f e
a n d Iw e r e g o i n g t o d r i v e t o Ne w Y o r k i n a n y e v e n t , Mr . C r o s l e y
a s k e d f o r a r i d e . Im a y h a v e m e n t i o n e d w h e n Iw a s t a l k i n g t o h i m
t h a t Iw a s g o i n g t o Ne w Y o r k , o r h e m a y h a v e s a i d h e w a s g o i n g
t o
Ne w Y o r k , a n d Is a i d s o w a s I .
Ni x o n . W a s t h a t a f t e r t h e t i m e o f t h i s r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t ?
Hi s s . I a m a f r a i d Ic a n ` t r e c a l l
.
Ni x o n . No f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s o f Mr
. Hi s s a t t h i s t i m e .
St r i p l i n g . Mr . Hi s s , y o u s a y t h a t p e r s o n y o u k n e w a s Ge o r g e
C r o s l e y , t h e o n e f e a t u r e w h i c h y o u m u s t h a v e t o c h e c k o n t o
i d e n t i f y h i m i s t h e d e n t u r e s .
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 9 3
Hi s s . Ma y
Ia n s w e r t h a t m y o w n w a y r a t h e r t h a n j u s t " y e s " o r
" n o " ?
St r i p l i n g . W e l l , n o w , Iw o u l d l i k e t o p r e f a c e w h a t e v e r y o u
a r e
g o i n g t o s a y b y w h a t Is a y f i r s t .
Ic e r t a i n l y g a t h e r e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n w h e n Mr . C h a m b e r s w a l k e d
i n t h i s r o o m a n d y o u
, a l k e d o v e r a n d e x a m i n e d h i m a n d a s k e d
h i m t o o p e n h i s m o u t h , t h a t y o u w e r e b a s i n g y o u r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
p u r e l y o n w h a t h i s u p p e r t e e t h m i g h t h a v e l o o k e d l i k e .
No w , h e r e i s a p e r s o n t h a t y o u k n e w f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s a t l e a s t
.
Y o u k n e w h i m s o w e l l t h a t h e w a s a g u e s t i n y o u r h o m e .
Hi s s . W o u l d y o u . . .
St r i p l i n g . Iw o u l d l i k e t o c o m p l e t e m y s t a t e m e n t - t h a t h e w a s
a g u e s t i n y o u r h o m e , t h a t y o u g a v e h i m a n o l d Fo r d a u t o m o b i l e ,
a n d p e r m i t t e d h i m t o u s e o r y o u l e a s e d h i m y o u r a p a r t m e n t , a n d
i n t h i s , a v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n , t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t y o u
h a v e t o c h e c k o n i s t h i s d e n t u r e
; i s t h a t c o r r e c t ?
T h e r e i s n o t h i n g e l s e a b o u t t h i s m a n ' s f e a t u r e s w h i c h y o u c o u l d
d e f i n i t e l y s a y , " T h i s i s t h e m a n Ik n e w a s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , " t h a t
y o u h a v e t o r e l y e n t i r e l y o n t h i s d e n t u r e
; i s t h a t y o u r p o s i t i o n ?
Hi s s . Is y o u r p r e f a c e t h r o u g h ? My a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n y o u
h a v e a s k e d i s t h i s :
Fr o m t h e t i m e o n W e d n e s d a y , Au g u s t 4 , 1 9 4 8 , w h e n Iw a s a b l e
t o g e t h o l d o f n e w s p a p e r s c o n t a i n i n g p h o t o g r a p h s o f o n e W h i t -
t a k e C h a m b e r s , Iw a s s t r u c k b y a c e r t a i n f a m i l i a r i t y i n f e a t u r e s .
W h e n It e s t i f i e d o n Au g u s t 5 t h a n d w a s s h o w n a p h o t o g r a p h b y
y o u , Mr
. St r i p l i n g , t h e r e w a s a g a i n s o m e f a m i l i a r i t y o f f e a t u r e s
. I
c o u l d n o t b e s u r e t h a t Ih a d n e v e r s e e n t h e p e r s o n w h o s e p h o t o -
g r a p h y o u s h o w e d m e
. Is a i d Iw o u l d w a n t t o s e e t h e p e r s o n .
T h e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e r a t h e r g o o d p h o t o g r a p h s o f W h i t t a k e r
C h a m b e r s a s Is e e W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s t o d a y . Ia m n o t g i v e n o n
i m p o r t a n t o c c a s i o n s t o s n a p j u d g m e n t s o r s i m p l e , e a s y s t a t e m e n t s .
Ia m c o n f i d e n t t h a t Ge o r g e C r o s l e y h a d n o t a b l y b a d t e e t h . I
w o u l d n o t c a l l Ge o r g e C r o s l e y a g u e s t i n m y h o u s e . Ih a v e e x -
p l a i n e d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . If y o u c h o o s e t o c a l l h i m a g u e s t , t h a t
i s y o u r a f f a i r
.
St r i p l i n g . I a m w i l l i n g t o s t r i k e t h e w o r d g u e s t . He w a s i n y o u r
h o u s e .
Hi s s
. Is a w h i m a t t h e t i m e Iw a s s e e i n g h u n d r e d s o f p e o p l e .
Si n c e t h e n Ih a v e s e e n
t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e . He m e a n t n o t h i n g
t o m e e x c e p t a s o n e Is a w u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s Ih a v e
d e s c r i b e d
.
My r e c o l l e c t i o n o f Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , i f t h i s m a n h a d s a i d h e w a s
1 9 4
SEEDSOFT REASON
Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , Iw o u l d h a v e n o d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . He
d e n i e d i t r i g h t h e r e
.
Iw o u l d l i k e a n d a s k e d e a r l i e r
i n t h i s h e a r i n g i f Ic o u l d a s k
s o m e f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s t o h e l p i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Iw a s d e n i e d t h a t .
St r i p l i n g . I
t h i n k y o u s h o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d -
Hi s s .
Iw a s d e n i e d t h a t r i g h t . Ia m n o t , t h e r e f o r e , a b l e t o t a k e
a n o a t h t h a t t h i s m a n i s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y
. Ih a v e b e e n t e s t i f y i n g
a b o u t Ge o r g e C r o s l e y
. W h e t h e r h e a n d t h i s m a n a r e t h e s a m e o r
w h e t h e r h e h a s m e a n s
o f g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ge o r g e
C r o s l e y a b o u t m y h o u s e , Id o
n o t k n o w . He m a y h a v e h a d h i s
f a c e l i f t e d .
St r i p l i n g .
T h e w i t n e s s s a y s h e w a s d e n i e d t h e
r i g h t t o a s k t h i s
w i t n e s s q u e s t i o n s
. Ib e l i e v e t h e r e c o r d w i l l s h o w y o u s t a t e d " a t
t h i s t i m e
. " It h i n k h e s h o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d
t o a s k t h e w i t n e s s q u e s ,
t i o n s n o w o r a n y o t h e r m o t i o n s h o u l d
b e g r a n t e d w h i c h w i l l p e r -
m i t h i m t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r
o r n o t t h i s i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o
w h o m h e i s r e f e r r i n g .
Hi s s . Ri g h t . Iw o u l d b e v e r y h a p p y i f I
c o u l d p u r s u e t h a t
. Do
Ih a v e t h e C h a i r ' s p e r m i s s i o n ?
Mc Do w e l l .
T h e C h a i r w i l l a g r e e t o t h a t .
Hi s s . Do I
h a v e Mr . Ni x o n ' s p e r m i s s i o n ?
Ni x o n . Y e s .
Mc Do w e l l .
He r e i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n
.
Ni x o n .
T h e o n l y s u g g e s t i o n Iw o u l d m a k e i n f a i r n e s s t o Mr
.
C h a m b e r s i s t h a t h e s h o u l d a l s o
b e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k
Mr . Hi s s a n y q u e s t i o n s
.
Mc Do w e l l . Of
c o u r s e .
Hi s s . Iw i l l w e l c o m e t h a t
.
Ni x o n . Mr
. C h a m b e r s , d o y o u h a v e a n y o b j e c t i o n ?
C h a m b e r s . No .
Hi s s .
Di d y o u e v e r g o u n d e r t h e n a m e o f Ge o r g e C r o s l e y ?
C h a m b e r s . No t t o m y k n o w l e d g e .
Hi s s . Di d y o u e v e r s u b l e t a n a p a r t m e n t o n
2 9 t h St r e e t f r o m m e ?
C h a m b e r s
. No ; I d i d n o t .
Hi s s . Y o u d i d n o t ?
C h a m b e r s . No .
Hi s s . Di d y o u e v e r s p e n d a n y t i m e w i t h y o u r
w i f e a n d c h i l d i n
a n a p a r t m e n t o n 2 9 t h St r e e t i n W a s h i n g t o n
w h e n Iw a s n o t t h e r e
b e c a u s e Ia n d m y f a m i l y w e r e l i v i n g
o n P St r e e t ?
C h a m b e r s . I m o s t c e r t a i n l y d i d
.
Hi s s . Y o u d i d o r d i d n o t ?
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 9 5
C h a m b e r s . Id i d .
Hi s s . W o u l d y o u t e l l m e
h o w y o u r e c o n c i l e y o u r n e g a t i v e
a n s w e r s w i t h t h i s a f f i r m a t i v e a n s w e r ?
C h a m b e r s . V e r y e a s i l y , Al g e r . Iw a s a C o m m u n i s t a n d y o u w e r e
a C o m m u n i s t .
Hi s s . W o u l d y o u b e r e s p o n s i v e a n d c o n t i n u e w i t h y o u r a n s w e r ?
C h a m b e r s
. Id o n o t t h i n k i t i s n e e d e d .
Hi s s . T h a t i s t h e a n s w e r
.
Ni x o n . Iw i l l h e l p y o u w i t h t h e a n s w e r , Mr . Hi s s . T h e q u e s t i o n ,
Mr
. C h a m b e r s , i s , a s Iu n d e r s t a n d i t , t h a t Mr
. Hi s s c a n n o t u n d e r -
s t a n d h o w y o u w o u l d d e n y t h a t y o u w e r e Ge o r g e C r o s l e y a n d
y e t
a d m i t t h a t y o u s p e n t t i m e i n h i s a p a r t m e n t . No w w o u l d
y o u
e x p l a i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? Id o n ' t w a n t t o p u t t h a t u n t i l Mr . Hi s s
a g r e e s t h a t i s o n e o f h i s q u e s t i o n s .
Hi s s . Y o u h a v e t h e p r i v i l e g e o f a s k i n g a n y q u e s t i o n s y o u w a n t
It h i n k t h a t i s a n a c c u r a t e p h r a s i n g .
Ni x o n .
Go a h e a d
.
C h a m b e r s . As Ih a v e t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e , Ic a m e t o W a s h i n g t o n a s
a C o m m u n i s t f u n c t i o n a r y , a
f u n c t i o n a r y o f t h e Am e r i c a n C o m -
m u n i s t P a r t y . Iw a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e u n d e r g r o u n d g r o u p o f
w h i c h Mr . Hi s s w a s a m e m b e r . Mr . Hi s s a n d Ib e c a m e f r i e n d s . T o
t h e b e s t o f m y k n o w l e d g e , Mr . Hi s s h i m s e l f s u g g e s t e d t h a t I g o
t h e r e , a n d Ia c c e p t e d g r a t e f u l l y .
Hi s s . Mr . C h a i r m a n .
Ni x o n . J u s t a m o m e n t . Ho w l o n g d i d y o u s t a y t h e r e ?
C h a m b e r s . My r e c o l l e c t i o n w a s a b o u t t h r e e w e e k s . It m a y h a v e
b e e n l o n g e r . Ib r o u g h t n o f u r n i t u r e , Im i g h t a d d .
Hi s s . Mr . C h a i r m a n , I d o n ' t n e e d t o a s k Mr . W h i t t a k e r
C h a m b e r s a n y m o r e q u e s t i o n s . Ia m n o w p e r f e c t l y p r e p a r e d t o
i d e n t i f y t h i s m a n a s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y . . .
St r i p l i n g . Y o u w i l l i d e n t i f y h i m p o s i t i v e l y n o w ?
Hi s s . Iw i l l o n t h e b a s i s o f w h a t h e h a s j u s t s a i d p o s i t i v e l y
i d e n t i f y h i m w i t h o u t f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g a s Ge o r g e C r o s l e y .
Ni x o n . Mr . Hi s s , a n o t h e r p o i n t t h a t I
w a n t t o b e c l e a r o n . Mr .
C h a m b e r s s a i d h e w a s a C o m m u n i s t a n d t h a t y o u w e r e a C o m -
m u n i s t .
Hi s s . I
h e a r d h i m .
Ni x o n
.
W i l l y o u t e l l t h e c o m m i t t e e w h e t h e r o r n o t d u r i n g t h i s
p e r i o d o f t i m e t h a t y o u k n e w h i m , w h i c h i n c l u d e d p e r i o d s
o f
t h r e e n i g h t s , o r t w o o r t h r e e n i g h t s , i n w h i c h h e s t a y e d o v e r n i g h t
Of a l l t h e p e o p l e w h o a c k n o w l e d g e d h a v i n g k n o w n C h a m b e r s , Hi s s w a s
t h e o n l y o n e w h o i n s i s t e d h e c o u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e h i m .
1 9 6 SEEDSOFT REASON
a n d o n e t r i p t o Ne w Y o r k , f r o m a n y c o n v e r s a t i o n y o u e v e r h a d ,
h a d y o u a n y i d e a t h a t h e m i g h t b e a
C o m m u n i s t ?
Hi s s . I c e r t a i n l y d i d n ' t
.
Ni x o n . Y o u n e v e r d i s c u s s e d p o l i t i c s ?
Hi s s . Oh , a s f a r a s Ir e c a l l h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s - a n d Im a y b e c o n -
f u s i n g t h e m w i t h a l o t o f o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t w e n t o n i n
1 9 3 4 a n d 1 9 3 5 - p o l i t i c s w e r e d i s c u s s e d q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y . Ma y I
j u s t s t a t e f o r t h e r e c o r d t h a t i t w a s n o t t h e h a b i t i n W a s h i n g t o n
i n t h o s e d a y s , w h e n p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a m e m b e r o f t h e p r e s s c a l l e d
o n y o u , t o a s k h i m b e f o r e y o u h a d f u r t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n w h e t h e r
o r n o t h e w a s a C o m m u n i s t . It w a s a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t
a t m o s p h e r e
i n W a s h i n g t o n t h e n t h a n t o d a y .
Ih a d n o r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t Ge o r g e C r o s l e y o f b e i n g a C o m -
m u n i s t . It n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o m e t h a t h e m i g h t b e o r w h e t h e r t h a t
w a s o f a n y s i g n i f i c a n c e t o m e i f h e w a s . He w a s a p r e s s r e p r e s e n t a -
t i v e a n d i t w a s m y d u t y t o g i v e h i m i n f o r m a t i o n , a s Id i d a n y
o t h e r m e m b e r o f t h e p r e s s . It w a s t o t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e
i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e m u n i t i o n s i n d u s t r y , a s i t s m e m b e r s a n d w e o f
i t s s t a f f s a w i t , t o f u r n i s h g u i d a n c e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n t o p e o p l e w h o
w e r e p o p u l a r i z i n g a n d w r i t i n g a b o u t i t s w o r k .
Iw o u l d l i k e t o s a y t h a t t o c o m e h e r e
a n d d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e a s s
u n d e r t h e l i o n ' s s k i n i s C r o s l e y , Id o n ' t k n o w w h y y o u r c o m m i t t e e
d i d n ' t p u r s u e t h i s c a r e f u l m e t h o d o f i n t e r r o g a t a i o n a t a n e a r l i e r
d a t e b e f o r e a l l t h e p u b l i c i t y . Y o u t o l d m e y e s t e r d a y y o u
d i d n ' t
k n o w h e w a s g o i n g t o m e n t i o n m y n a m e ,
a l t h o u g h a l o t o f p e o p l e
n o w t e l l m e t h a t t h e p r e s s
d i d k n o w i t i n a d v a n c e . T h e y w e r e
a p p a r e n t l y m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n
t h e c o m -
m i t t e e i t s e l f . T h a t i s a l l Ih a v e t o s a y n o w
.
Mc Do w e l l . W e l l , n o w , Mr . Hi s s , y o u p o s i t i v e l y
i d e n t i f y -
Hi s s . P o s i t i v e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f h i s o w n s t a t e m e n t t h a t h e w a s i n
m y a p a r t m e n t a t t h e t i m e w h e n Is a w h e w a s t h e r e
. Ih a v e n o
f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n a t a l l . If h e h a d l o s t b o t h e y e s a n d t a k e n h i s n o s e
o f f , Iw o u l d b e s u r e .
Mc Do w e l l . T h e n , y o u r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
o f Ge o r g e C r o s l e y i s
c o m p l e t e ?
Hi s s . Y e s , a s f a r a s Ia m c o n c e r n e d , o n h i s o w n t e s t i m o n y .
Mc Do w e l l . Mr
. C h a m b e r s , i s t h i s t h e m a n , Al g e r Hi s s , w h o w a s
a l s o a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y a t w h o s e h o m e y o u
s t a y e d ?
Ni x o n . Ac c o r d i n g t o y o u r t e s t i m o n y .
Mc Do w e l l . Y o u m a k e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p o s i t i v e ?
C h a m b e r s . P o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 9 7
Hi s s h a d b e g u n h i s t e s t i m o n y w i t h r e l a t i v e c a l m
. B u t a s
t h e h e a r i n g p r o g r e s s e d , h e h a d g r o w n s h a r p e r a n d s h a r p e r
w i t h t h e c o m m i t t e e , s n a p p i n g o u t h i s a n s w e r s i n a m a n n e r
h a r d l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c h a r m a n d t a c t f u l n e s s o f h i s a p -
p r o a c h i n t h e e a r l i e r h e a r i n g s
. He w a s n o l o n g e r t h e s u a v e ,
y o u n g d i p l o m a t , g e n e r o u s l y a i d i n g t h e c o m m i t t e e i n a r r i v i n g
a t t h e t r u e f a c t s
. In s t e a d , h e w a s o u t t o p r o v e h i m s e l f a n
i n n o c e n t v i c t i m
. Ex c e p t f o r t h e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t Hi s s w a s a
C o m m u n i s t , C h a m b e r s h a d s p o k e n o f h i m w i t h r e s p e c t a n d
a f f e c t i o n . Hi s s h a d c o u n t e r e d b y a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s t r o y
C h a m b e r s ' c h a r a c t e r i n a n y w a y p o s s i b l e - t o m a k e h i m o u t a
c h e a p " d e a d b e a t " w h o s p o n g e d o f f p e o p l e .
No w , w h i t e - f a c e d w i t h a n g e r , Hi s s g o t u p a n d w a l k e d
i n
t h e d i r e c t i o n o f C h a m b e r s .
" Ma y Is a y f o r t h e r e c o r d a t t h i s p o i n t , " h e b u r s t o u t , " t h a t
Iw o u l d l i k e t o i n v i t e Mr
. W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s t o m a k e t h o s e
s a m e s t a t e m e n t s o u t o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e w i t h -
o u t t h e i r b e i n g p r i v i l e g e d f o r s u i t f o r l i b e l ? " L o o m i n g
t h r e a t e n i n g l y o v e r C h a m b e r s , h e s a i d v e h e m e n t l y , " Ic h a l -
l e n g e y o u t o d o i t , a n d Ih o p e y o u w i l l d o i t d a m n e d q u i c k l y . "
He w a s n o w s o c l o s e t o C h a m b e r s t h a t Ru s s e l l s t e p p e d f o r -
w a r d t o r e s t r a i n h i m .
" Ia m n o t g o i n g t o t o u c h h i m , " h e s a i d v i o l e n t l y t o t h e
i n v e s t i g a t o r . " Y o u a r e t o u c h i n g m e . "
C h a m b e r s s a t q u i e t l y , i m p e r t u r b a b l y , t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e
o u t b u r s t .
Ru s s e l l . P l e a s e s i t d o w n ,
Mr . Hi s s .
Hi s s . Iw i l l s i t d o w n w h e n t h e c h a i r m a n a s k s m e
.
Ru s s e l l . I w a n t n o d i s t u r b a n c e .
Hi s s . Id o n ' t . . .
Mc Do w e l l . Si t d o w n , p l e a s e .
Hi s s . Y o u k n o w w h o s t a r t e d t h i s . . . Mr . C h a i r m a n , w o u l d
y o u b e g o o d e n o u g h t o a s k Mr . C h a m b e r s f o r t h e r e c o r d h i s r e -
s p o n s e t o t h e c h a l l e n g e t h a t
I h a v e j u s t m a d e t o h i m ?
Mc Do w e l l . T h a t h a s n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e p e r t i n e n c y o f t h e
m a t t e r t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g , a n d I d o n t f e e l I
s h o u l d .
1 9 8
SEEDSOFT REASON
Hi s s . I
t h o u g h t t h e c o m m i t t e e w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n a s c e r t a i n i n g
t r u t h . . .
St r i p l i n g . I a m c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t y o u m a d e b e f o r e
t h e c o m m i t t e e o f C o n g r e s s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f q u i t e
a f e w h u n d r e d
p e o p l e t h a t y o u d i d n ' t e v e n k n o w t h i s p e r s o n .
Y o u l e d t h e p u b l i c
a n d p r e s s t o b e l i e v e y o u d i d n ' t k n o w s u c h a p e r s o n
.
Hi s s . W i l l y o u s h o w w h e r e t h a t i s ?
j
St r i p l i n g . Y e s . . . Re a d i n g h e r e f r o m y o u r s t a t e m e n t , Ih a v e
u s t s t a r t e d i n o n i t , b u t h e r e i s o n e s e n t e n c e :
" So f a r a s Ik n o w , Ih a v e n e v e r l a i d e y e s o n h i m ,
a n d Is h o u l d
l i k e t o h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o s o . "
Hi s s . T h a t i s c o r r e c t . Id i d n o t s a y t h a t Ih a v e n e v e r
s e e n t h i s
m a n . Is a i d , s o f a r a s Ik n o w Ih a v e n e v e r s e e n W h i t t a k e r
C h a m b e r s . . .
St r i p l i n g . Y o u
a r e f u l l y a w a r e t h a t t h e p u b l i c w a s l e d t o b e l i e v e
t h a t y o u h a d n e v e r s e e n , h e a r d , o r l a i d e y e s u p o n a n i n d i v i d u a l
w h o i s t h i s i n d i v i d u a l , a n d n o w y o u d o k n o w h i m
.
Hi s s . Mr . St r i p l i n g , y o u a r e s t a t i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n
o f p u b l i c
i m p r e s s i o n .
St r i p l i n g . Ab s o l u t e l y . . .
Ni x o n . Y o u n e v e r k n e w t h i s m a n u n d e r t h e n a m e o f C a r l ?
Hi s s . I d i d n o t .
Ni x o n . Y o u n e v e r p a i d t h i s m a n a n y m o n e y f o r C o m m u n i s t
P a r t y d u e s ?
Hi s s . I c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t .
Ni x o n . T h i s i s t h e m a n y o u g a v e t h e c a r t o ?
Hi s s
. T h e c a r ?
Ni x o n . Y e s .
Hi s s . C - a - r - y e s .
C h a m b e r s .
Ma y Ia s k a q u e s t i o n ?
Ni x o n
. Y e s .
C h a m b e r s .
Di d y o u e v e r p a y d u e s t o J . P e t e r s ?
Hi s s . I c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t .
C h a m b e r s . T o He n r y C o l l i n s ?
Hi s s . I c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t ; n o t e v e n f o r t h e Au d u b o n So c i e t y
d i d
Ip a y d u e s t o He n r y C o l l i n s .
Ni x o n .
Di d y o u e v e r d i s c u s s y o u r h o b b y , o r n i t h o l o g y , w i t h t h i s
m a n ?
Hi s s . I
m a y v e r y l i k e l y h a v e . My h o u s e h a s p i c t u r e s v e r y s i m i l a r
t o t h a t
[ i n d i c a t i n g p i c t u r e o n w a l l ] . T h i s i s a n a p p r o p r i a t e h e a r -
i n g r o o m
.
Mc Do w e l l .
It w a s a c o m p l e t e c o i n c i d e n c e .
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

1 9 9
Hi s s . An y o n e w h o h a d e v e r b e e n i n m y h o u s e w o u l d r e m a r k
t h a t Ih a d a n i n t e r e s t i n b i r d s .
Ni x o n . Do y o u k n o w i f t h i s m a n y o u k n e w a s C r o s l e y w a s a n
o r n i t h o l o g i s t ?
Hi s s . No t t o m y k n o w l e d g e .
Ni x o n . Y o u h a v e n e v e r g i v e n C r o s l e y a n y t h i n g y o u r e c a l l b e -
s i d e s t h e c a r ?
Hi s s . I h a v e n o s u c h r e c o l l e c t i o n . Id o n ' t c o n s i d e r Ig a v e h i m
t h e c a r , b u t t h r e w i t i n w i t h t h e w h o l e t r a n s a c t i o n .
Mc Do w e l l . Mr . Hi s s , d i d y o u e v e r h a v e a d i n n e r o r a m e a l w i t h
Ge o r g e C r o s l e y ?
Hi s s . I
t h i n k w e f e d h i m w h e n h e w a s i n t h e h o u s e f o r a c o u p l e
o f d a y s
. T h a t i s m y c u s t o m w i t h p e o p l e s t a y i n g u n d e r m y r o o f
.
Mc Do w e l l . Y o u a r e n o t s u r e ?
Hi s s . I k n o w Ih a v e h a d l u n c h w i t h h i m , b e c a u s e i t w a s m y
p r a c t i c e , a n d s t i l l i s , t h a t i f s o m e o n e w a n t s t o t a l k t o m e a b o u t a
m a t t e r t h a t r e q u i r e s r e l a t i v e l y l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n , a l u n c h e o n d i s -
c u s s i o n h a s a t e r m i n a t i o n . If t h e y c o m e t o s e e y o u i n y o u r o f f i c e ,
i t i s n o t q u i t e s o e a s y t o t e r m i n a t e i t a t y o u r o w n c o n v e n i e n c e .
Mc Do w e l l . Di d t h i s f e l l o w h a v e a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r h a b i t s
t h a t y o u c a n r e c a l l n o w ?
Hi s s . No ; n o t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , e x c e p t h i s b a d t e e t h .
Mc Do w e l l . W o u l d y o u k n o w w h e t h e r - a s i d e f r o m h i s b a d
t e e t h , w o u l d y o u k n o w w h e t h e r h e w a s a h e a v y d r i n k e r , o r m o d e s t
d r i n k e r , o r n o n - d r i n k e r ?
Hi s s . I h a v e n o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h a t .
Mc Do w e l l . Di d y o u e v e r t a k e a w a l k w i t h h i m ?
Hi s s .
T h a t Ic o u l d n ' t b e s u r e . Ic e r t a i n l y m u s t h a v e w a l k e d t o
l u n c h i f w e w e n t t o l u n c h f r o m t h e Se n a t e Of f i c e B u i l d i n g . W e
h a d t o w a l k q u i t e a d i s t a n c e t o g e t t o a n y r e s t a u r a n t f r o m t h e
Se n a t e Of f i c e B u i l d i n g .
Mc Do w e l l . It w o u l d a p p e a r t o m e , Mr . Hi s s , o f a l l t h e n e w s -
p a p e r m e n t h a t y o u w e r e i n c o n t a c t i n y o u r h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s
w i t h t h e Ny e c o m m i t t e e t h a t y o u m u s t h a v e f o r m e d s o m e s o r t o f
a n a f f e c t i o n f o r t h i s m a n t o g o t h r o u g h a l l o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u
d i d t o t r y t o o c c u p y y o u r h o m e , t a k e o v e r y o u r l e a s e , a n d g i v i n g
h i m a n a u t o m o b i l e
. .
.
St r i p l i n g . Mr . Ni x o n , d i d y o u a s k t h e w i t n e s s w h e t h e r o r n o t
Ge o r g e C r o s l e y e v e r w r o t e a n a r t i c l e f o r Am e r i c a n Ma g a z i n e ?
Ni x o n . Y e s . He t e s t i f i e d t o t h a t y e s t e r d a y t h a t i t w a s y o u r
u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t o n e o f t h e m a g a z i n e s f o r w h i c h h e w r o t e w a s
Am e r i c a n
.
Am Ic o r r e c t i n t h i s ?
2 0 0 SEEDSOFT REASON
Hi s s . Y e s ; t h a t w a s m y u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r o m h i m .
St r i p l i n g . Di d y o u e v e r s e e a n y a r t i c l e w h i c h a p p e a r e d
i n
Am e r i c a n Ma g a z i n e ?
Hi s s . I n e v e r d i d . In o t i c e d Mr . C r o s l e y w a s n o t m a r k e t i n g h i s
a r t i c l e s w i t h t h e s u c c e s s h e h a d e x p e c t e d .
St r i p l i n g . Mr . C h a m b e r s , d i d y o u e v e r w r i t e f o r
Am e r i c a n
Ma g a z i n e ?
C h a m b e r s . No , In e v e r d i d .
St r i p l i n g . Y o u n e v e r h a d a n y a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n
Am e r i c a n
Ma g a z i n e ?
C h a m b e r s
.
No t a t a l l .
St r i p l i n g
.
Di d y o u e v e r r e p r e s e n t y o u r s e l f a s a f r e e - l a n c e w r i t e r
w r i t i n g a r t i c l e s f o r Am e r i c a n Ma g a z i n e ?
C h a m b e r s . No , In e v e r d i d .
Mc Do w e l l . Mr . Hi s s , m i g h t Is a y i t i s m y c u s t o m - It o o h a v e
a l m o s t c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h n e w s p a p e r m e n a n d w r i t e r s a n d
s t u d e n t s a s y o u d e s c r i b e d a g o o d b i t a g o - i t h a s b e e n m y c u s t o m ,
a l t h o u g h n o t t h e r u l e o r l a w , t h a t Ia l w a y s f i n d o u t w h o t h e y a r e
w r i t i n g f o r , w h o t h e y r e p r e s e n t , w h o t h e y w o r k f o r , i f t h e y a r e
f r e e - l a n c e w r i t e r s w h e t h e r t h e y h a v e w r i t t e n a n y t h i n g .
C a n y o u r e c a l l e v e r f i n d i n g o u t a n y p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g t h a t Mr .
C h a m b e r s o r Mr . C r o s l e y h a d w r i t t e n ?
Hi s s . No ; Id i d n ' t , Mr . Mc Do w e l l .
Mc Do w e l l . Or w h e r e h i s t h i n g s h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d o t h e r t h a n
Am e r i c a n Ma g a z i n e ? . . .
Hi s s . I
n e v e r s a w a n y t h i n g h e p r o d u c e d
. He w a s a s i n g u l a r l y
u n p r o d u c t i v e w r i t e r . . .
Ni x o n . Do y o u h a v e a n y t h i n g t o s a y f o r t h e r e c o r d ?
C h a m b e r s . I d o n ' t t h i n k s o .
Hi s s . I
w o u l d n ' t t h i n k s o
. Ia m n o t s u r p r i s e d .
C h a m b e r s
. If y o u w a n t t o q u e s t i o n m e , Iw o u l d b e g l a d t o
a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s
.
Ni x o n . Is u g g e s t
w e a d j o u r n . . .
St r i p l i n g .
Di d y o u e v e r p a y a n y C o m m u n i s t P a r t y d u e s t o Mr
.
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s , w h o m y o u n o w h a v e i d e n t i f i e d a s Ge o r g e
C r o s l e y ?
Hi s s . I d i d n o t a n d Id i d n o t p a y C o m m u n i s t P a r t y d u e s t o a n y -
b o d y , n o t b e i n g a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y .
C h a m b e r s . Ma y I a s k a q u e s t i o n ?
Ni x o n . Y o u m a y .
C h a m b e r s . Di d y o u e v e r m e e t m e i n t h e c o m p a n y o f Ha r o l d
W a r e ?
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

2 0 1
Hi s s . Id i d n o t .
C h a m b e r s . Or J . P e t e r s ?
Hi s s . I d i d n o t . . .
C h a i r m a n .
An y m o r e q u e s t i o n s t o a s k o f Mr
. Hi s s ?
Ni x o n . I h a v e n o t h i n g
.
C h a i r m a n
. T h a t i s a l l
. T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h .
Hi s s . Id o n ' t r e c i p r o c a t e
.
C h a i r m a n . It a l i c i z e t h a t i n t h e r e c o r d
.
Hi s s . I w i s h y o u w o u l d .
Re v i e w i n g t h e p r i n t e d r e c o r d o f t h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r f o r
t h e Fe b r u a r y , 1 9 4 9 ,
P r o g r e s s i v e , J a m e s A . W e c h s l e r t o u c h e d
o n m a n y p o i n t s w i t h r e m a r k a b l e i n t u i t i o n
. " W h e n i t i s o v e r
a n d w h e n w e f i n a l l y g l i m p s e t h e t o t a l t r u t h , " h e w r o t e , " I
s u s p e c t t h a t t h e h o t e l - r o o m c o n f r o n t a t i o n
. . . w i l l m a k e
e v e n m o r e d r a m a t i c r e a d i n g t h a n i t d o e s n o w ; a n d t h a t r e -
r e a d i n g t h e r e c o r d o f t h i s e n c o u n t e r o n e w i l l
p a u s e a t s e v e r a l
p l a c e s , t h i n k i n g : ` Of c o u r s e , t h a t w a s i t
. Is h o u l d h a v e s e e n i t
a l l t h e r e . ' " " T h e n , t h o u g h h e h a d n e v e r d i s c u s s e d t h e c a s e
w i t h Hi s s o r C h a m b e r s , W e c h s l e r p u t h i s f i n g e r u n e r r i n g l y
o n t h e i r o p p o s i n g m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e i n n e r w o r k i n g s o f t h e i r
m i n d s :
" T h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o b e l i e v e t h a t C h a m b e r s w a s i n e f f e c t
i m p l o r i n g Hi s s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e d e g r e e o f g u i l t a l r e a d y
a s c r i b e d t o h i m - m e r e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e C o m m u n i s t r i n g , "
W e c h s l e r w r o t e , m o d e s t l y a s c r i b i n g t o o t h e r s w h a t f e w p e r -
c e i v e d , " s o t h a t i t w o u l d n o t b e n e c e s s a r y t o u n f o l d t h e
p a p e r s w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y d a m a g e d b o t h m e n , t r a n s f o r m i n g
t h e c a s e f r o m t h e l e v e l o f C o m m u n i s t a f f i l i a t i o n t o t h e m o r e
d e s o l a t e p l a n e o f e s p i o n a g e . Ac c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , Hi s s m i s -
i n t e r p r e t e d C h a m b e r s ' i n i t i a l f a i l u r e t o p r o d u c e t h e d o c u -
m e n t s a s a s s u r a n c e t h a t h e n e v e r w o u l d ; a n d C h a m b e r s w a s
e q u a l l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t Hi s s , c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s
g e s t u r e , w o u l d n e v e r s u e f o r l i b e l . "
Al g e r Hi s s d i d n o t k n o w i t t h e n , b u t t h e c o m m i t t e e f i n a l l y
h a d e n o u g h d i r e c t t e s t i m o n y i n i t s h a n d s t o p l a c e h i m d a n -
g l i n g f r o m t h e h o o k . Me r e l y b y l e t t i n g Hi s s t a l k , t h e y h a d
2 0 2
SEEDSOFT REASON
g o t f r o m h i m t h e v e r y f a c t s a n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h h i s
a s t u t e l e g a l m i n d h a d r e f u s e d t o f u r n i s h i n e a r l i e r a p p e a r -
a n c e s b e f o r e t h e c o m m i t t e e . It w a s a f e a t o f m a j o r p r o p o r -
t i o n s , f o r i t s p l i t t h e c a s e w i d e o p e n .
Ac t u a l l y , w h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e h a d d o n e w a s s i m p l e : i t h a d
m e r e l y l e t Hi s s k n o w t h a t C h a m b e r s h a d m a d e s o m e d a m a g -
i n g d i s c l o s u r e s
. In o r d e r t o c l e a r h i m s e l f , Hi s s h a d t r i e d t o
p a t t e r n a n i n n o c e n t s t o r y t o g u i l t y f a c t s . B u t s i n c e h e h a d
n o t k n o w n j u s t w h a t C h a m b e r s h a d s a i d , h e h a d b e e n f o r c e d
t o w o r k i n t h e d a r k . He h a d g u e s s e d p r e t t y w e l l , b u t n o t w e l l
e n o u g h . An d h e h a d f o r g o t t e n t h a t r e c o r d s e x i s t e d - a p a r t -
m e n t l e a s e s , b i l l s o f s a l e o n c a r s , e t c . It w a s t h e s e t r i v i a w h i c h
c a u g h t h i m .
B e t w e e n t h e f i r s t , s e c r e t c o n f r o n t a t i o n a n d t h e p u b l i c c o n -
f r o n t a t i o n i n t h e c a u c u s r o o m o f t h e Ol d Ho u s e Of f i c e B u i l d -
i n g , t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r s b e g a n c h e c k i n g t h e s e c o l d ,
u n b e n d a b l e f a c t s o f r e c o r d . T h e y f o u n d t h a t i n a l l c a s e s
w h e r e C h a m b e r s ' s t o r y w a s v e r i f i a b l e , i t c h e c k e d ; a n d w h e r e
Hi s s ' s t o r y c o u l d b e m a t c h e d w i t h t h e r e c o r d , i t f e l l d o w n .
On Au g u s t 2 5 , 1 9 4 8 , i n a r o o m p a c k e d w i t h s p e c t a t o r s a n d
t h e p r e s s , Hi s s a n d C h a m b e r s w e r e o n c e m o r e b r o u g h t f a c e
t o f a c e . Fo r t h e r e c o r d , i t c a n b e s t a t e d t h a t w h e n t h e h e a r -
i n g s g o t u n d e r w a y , m o s t o f t h e p r e s s w a s p r o - Hi s s .
It w a s a d r a m a t i c m o m e n t , s u p e r c h a r g e d w i t h e m o t i o n ,
w h e n J . P a r n e l l T h o m a s c a l l e d t h e h e a r i n g t o o r d e r
. C h a m -
b e r s , a s u s u a l s t o l i d a n d r e s i g n e d , s e e m e d a g a i n m o r e a
s p e c t a t o r t h a n a p a r t i c i p a n t . Hi s s , a c c o m p a n i e d b y c o u n s e l ,
w a s i n a f i g h t i n g m o o d , r e a d y t o p u t o n a s u p e r b e x h i b i t i o n
o f b r o k e n - f i e l d r u n n i n g . No l o n g e r t h e u r b a n e y o u n g e x -
e c u t i v e , h i s c o m m e n t s w e r e a c r i d . P e r h a p s h e r e a l i z e d , o r
s e n s e d , t h a t t i m e w a s r u n n i n g o u t f o r h i m
. B u t n e i t h e r s h a r p
a n s w e r s n o r s k i l l f u l d o d g i n g c o u l d h e l p h i m . T h e f a c t s w e r e
o n t h e l i n e .
V e r y g e n t l y , Ni x o n a n d St r i p l i n g l e d h i m o n . T h e y d r a g g e d
o u t l e t t e r s f r o m u t i l i t i e s c o m p a n i e s a n d l a n d l o r d s t o s h o w
t h a t Hi s s ' r e c o l l e c t i o n o f w h e n h e h a d t u r n e d o v e r t h e 2 8 t h
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

2 0 3
St r e e t a p a r t m e n t t o C h a m b e r s w a s f a u l t y
. J u s t i f i a b l y , Hi s s
a n s w e r e d t h a t n o m a n c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o r e m e m b e r t h e
e x a c t d a y i n w h i c h h e m o v e d f r o m o n e a p a r t m e n t t o a n o t h e r
- w h e n i t h a d a l l o c c u r r e d t e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y
. T h e n St r i p l i n g
w e n t o v e r t h e s t o r y o f t h e o l d Fo r d c a r w h i c h Hi s s c l a i m e d
h e h a d g i v e n t o C h a m b e r s . An d o n c e a g a i n , Hi s s s t a t e d
c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t h e h a d g i v e n t h e c a r t o C h a m b e r s i n Ma y
o r J u n e o f 1 9 3 5 , a f t e r h e h a d p u r c h a s e d a n e w P l y m o u t h .
T h e a u d i e n c e w o n d e r e d w h a t t h e s e p e t t y d e t a i l s w e r e b u i l d -
i n g u p t o . T h e y f o u n d o u t p r e t t y q u i c k l y w h e n t h e c o m m i t t e e
s p r a n g i t s t r a p .
In q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n , Ni x o n a n d St r i p l i n g s h o w e d t h a t Hi s s
h a d l i e d f r o m s t a r t t o f i n i s h a b o u t t h e c a r . U s i n g d o c u m e n t a r y
p r o o f , t h e y s h o w e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e Hi s s h a d a l l e g e d l y g i v e n
t h e Fo r d t o C h a m b e r s , h e h a d n o n e w P l y m o u t h . T h e y
s h o w e d t h a t h e h a d b o u g h t t h e P l y m o u t h i n Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 5 .
Hi s s t o r y t h e n , t h a t h e h a d o w n e d t h e t w o c a r s s i m u l t a n e -
o u s l y , t h a t t h e Fo r d h a d b e e n p a r k e d i n t h e s n o w f o r m o n t h s
b e c a u s e t h e Hi s s e s h a d n o u s e f o r i t , a n d t h a t h e h a d " t h r o w n
i t i n " w h e n h e s u b l e t h i s a p a r t m e n t t o C h a m b e r s - t h i s w h o l e
s t o r y f e l l a p a r t .
T h e n Hi s s d i d a s h o c k i n g t h i n g . It w a s s h o c k i n g b e c a u s e
i t w a s s o c o m p l e t e l y o u t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r h e h a d b u i l t u p f o r
. h i m s e l f . He b e g a n d e n y i n g w h a t w a s d o w n i n b l a c k a n d
w h i t e i n t h e r e c o r d o f h i s p r e v i o u s t e s t i m o n y . De n y i n g , d e n y -
i n g , d e n y i n g , h e s a i d h e h a d n e v e r t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e c a r h a d
b e e n g i v e n t o C h a m b e r s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 3 5 . He h a d m e r e l y
g i v e n h i m t e m p o r a r y u s e o f t h e c a r , h e n o w c l a i m e d . As t o
w h e n t h i s o c c u r r e d , h e g r e w v a g u e r a n d v a g u e r - a n d , a s h i s
o w n t e s t i m o n y w a s i m p e a c h e d , m o r e i r a t e
. P e r h a p s h e h a d
g i v e n t h e c a r t o C h a m b e r s
a f t e r
t h e d e a d b e a t a n d w e l s h e r
h a d m o v e d o u t w i t h o u t p a y i n g r e n t a n d w i t h o u t r e p a y i n g a
n u m b e r o f s m a l l l o a n s . P e r h a p s h e h a d g i v e n C h a m b e r s t h e
c a r a l o n g t i m e a f t e r . T h a t m u s t b e i t .
B u t e v e n t h i s s t o r y w a s s h o t f u l l o f h o l e s
. On c e Hi s s h a d
c l u t c h e d i t f i r m l y t o h i s b o s o m , t h e c o m m i t t e e t o s s e d i t s n e x t
2 0 4

SEEDSOFT REASON
b o m b s h e l l - a b i l l o f t r a n s f e r s h o w i n g t h a t i n 1 9 3 6 , Al g e r Hi s s
h a d t r a n s f e r r e d t h e c a r t o t h e C h e r n e r Mo t o r C o m p a n y
w h i c h i n t u r n h a d t r a n s f e r r e d i t t o o n e W i l l i a m Ro s e n w h o
g a v e a f a l s e a d d r e s s
. Hi s s ' s i g n a t u r e , n o t a r i z e d b y a De p a r t -
m e n t o f j u s t i c e l a w y e r , w a s o n t h e t r a n s f e r . An d , t h e c o m -
m i t t e e s h o w e d , a l l r e c o r d s o f t h a t t r a n s a c t i o n h a d m y s t e r i -
o u s l y d i s a p p e a r e d . Al l t h i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y b o r e o u t C h a m -
b e r s ' e a r l i e r s t o r y t h a t Hi s s h a d g i v e n t h e c a r t o t h e C o m -
m u n i s t P a r t y f o r t h e u s e o f s o m e " p o o r " o r g a n i z e r . ( T h e
f o l l o w i n g d a y , Ro s e n a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e c o m m i t t e e b u t
r e f u s e d t o " i n c r i m i n a t e " h i m s e l f o n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e t r a n s -
f e r o r o n h i s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e P a r t y . )
It w a s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e p r o - Hi s s f a c t i o n i n t h e p r e s s
s e c t i o n b e g a n m e l t i n g a w a y . Ma n y o f t h e m j u s t s a t i n t h e
h e a r i n g r o o m a n d s u f f e r e d ; t h e m a n t h e y h a d b e l i e v e d i n w a s
a l i a r
; i f o n l y o n a m i n o r p o i n t , h e w a s a l i a r
; a n d i f h e h a d
l i e d a b o u t t h e c a r - w e l l
.
. . Y e t Hi s s c o n t i n u e d t o b a t t e r
h i s h e a d a g a i n s t t h e f a c t u a l e v i d e n c e , t o d e n y t h a t h e h a d
e v e r s e e n C h a m b e r s a f t e r 1 9 3 5 . W h e n Ri c h a r d Ni x o n
s u m m e d u p i n s e v e r a l h u n d r e d d e v a s t a t i n g w o r d s , Hi s s '
a b s u r d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , t h e w i t n e s s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t i m e h a d
c o m e f o r a c o u n t e r a t t a c k . On l y t h i s c o u l d n o w s a v e h i m .
Fi r s t h e a t t e m p t e d t o d a z z l e t h e c o m m i t t e e w i t h a s t a t e -
m e n t i n w h i c h h e h a u l e d o u t t h e n a m e s o f a g a l a x y o f i m p o r -
t a n t Am e r i c a n s . T h e y w o u l d t e s t i f y t o h i s g o o d c h a r a c t e r ,
Hi s s s a i d b r a v e l y
. T h i s w a s b u t o n e o f Hi s s ' m a n y a t t e m p t s
t o i n v o k e h i s o w n t h e o r y o f i n n o c e n c e b y a s s o c i a t i o n
. B y
m i n g l i n g w i t h a c r o w d o f t h e b l a m e l e s s , h e h o p e d t o a s s u m e
a p r o t e c t i v e c o l o r a t i o n . T h e c o m m i t t e e l e t h i m r u n o n f o r a
w h i l e , t h e n p e p p e r e d h i m w i t h a f e w m o r e m i n o r c o n t r a d i c -
t i o n s . On v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s , h e h a d t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e h a d
n e v e r h e a r d o f W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s u n t i l s o m e t i m e i n 1 9 4 8
.
B u t h e h a d a l s o t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e h a d h e a r d o f h i m i n 1 9 4 7
.
W h i c h d a t e w a s c o r r e c t ? He h a d t e s t i f i e d o n c e t h a t C h a m -
b e r s h a d n e v e r r e p a i d a n y o f t h e l o a n s Hi s s h a d m a d e h i m .
He h a d a l s o t e s t i f i e d t h a t C h a m b e r s h a d r e p a i d $ 1 5 o r $ 2 0 .
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

2 0 5
He h a d s t a t e d t h a t h e k n e w n o C o m m u n i s t s
. Y e t a m o n g h i s
f r i e n d s w e r e m e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , m e n
w h o h a d r e f u s e d t o a f f i r m o r d e n y t h i s c o n n e c t i o n
.
Fo r t h a t o n e , Hi s s h a d a n e a s y a n s w e r
. He n e v e r c r o s s -
e x a m i n e d h i s f r i e n d s a s t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s
. If t h e s e
p e o p l e w e r e C o m m u n i s t s , h e h a d n o t k n o w n i t , d e s p i t e t h e i r
b l a t a n t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h C o m m u n i s t c a u s e s
. St r i p l i n g c a u g h t
h i m h e r e
: i f h e c o u l d n o t t e l l w h e t h e r o r n o t L e e P r e s s m a n -
n o t o r i o u s f o r h i s v i e w s - w a s a C o m m u n i s t , h o w c o u l d h e
c l a i m t h a t h i s p o w e r f u l f r i e n d s , i n a n y c o n s c i e n c e , c o u l d
v o u c h f o r h i m ? Ha r r i e d b y h i s o w n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , Hi s s n o w
d i d a v e r y c l e v e r t h i n g
: h e a s k e d t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e p u t a
s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s
. T h e y w e r e g o o d
q u e s t i o n s , c o m b i n i n g a f i s h i n g e x p e d i t i o n i n t o C h a m b e r s '
p a s t , a w e l l - c a l c u l a t e d s m e a r o f C h a m b e r s h i m s e l f , a n d t h e
o v e r t h i n t t h a t Hi s s w a s t h e v i c t i m o f a g i g a n t i c f r a m e - u p
.
As h e b e g a n l i s t i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h " W h e r e
d o e s h e n o w r e s i d e , " Hi s s ' l a w y e r b e g a n h a n d i n g o u t c o p i e s
t o t h e p r e s s
.
Hi s s . Iw o u l d a s k t h a t y o u a s k h i m t o l i s t t h e v a r i o u s p l a c e s
w h e r e h e h a s l i v e d s i n c e 1 9 3 0 , i n d i c a t i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e h e
h a s l i v e d a t e a c h p l a c e , a n d t h e n a m e h e h a s u s e d a t e a c h p l a c e
.
As f a r a s Ia m c o n c e r n e d , t h a t i s a l l a m a t t e r o f t h e r e c o r d o f t h e
c o m m i t t e e a s t o w h e r e Ih a v e l i v e d , a n d t h e n a m e Ih a v e u s e d
.
Ne x t , w h a t n a m e w a s h e g i v e n w h e n h e w a s b o r n ? W h a t n a m e s
h a s h e u s e d a t a n y t i m e s i n c e h i s b i r t h f o r a n y p u r p o s e ?
As k h i m t o g i v e h i s c o m p l e t e e m p l o y m e n t r e c o r d d u r i n g h i s
m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , s i n c e h i s r e s i g n a t i o n f r o m
t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y , s t a t i n g t h e n a m e o f e a c h e m p l o y e r , s t a t i n g
h i s o c c u p a t i o n , a n d h i s c o m p e n s a t i o n , a l s o t h e n a m e b y w h i c h
h e w a s e m p l o y e d i n e a c h i n s t a n c e .
Iw o u l d l i k e h i m t o g i v e a c o m p l e t e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f a l l h i s
w r i t i n g s . He s a y s t h a t h e w a s a w r i t e r
. Gi v e t h e w r i t i n g s u n d e r
a n y a n d e v e r y n a m e h e h a s u s e d .
Iw o u l d l i k e h i m t o b e a s k e d w h e t h e r h e h a s e v e r b e e n c h a r g e d
o r c o n v i c t e d o f a n y c r i m e .
Iw o u l d l i k e h i m t o g i v e t h e f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s , i f s o , a s t o w h e r e ,
w h e n , a n d f o r w h a t .
2 0 6

SEEDSOFT REASON
Iw o u l d l i k e h i m t o b e a s k e d w h e t h e r h e h a s e v e r b e e n t r e a t e d
f o r a m e n t a l i l l n e s s .
He b e r t . Mr . C h a i r m a n , m a y Ii n t e r r u p t
t h e r e t o t e l l Mr . Hi s s
t h a t a t l e a s t o n e q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n a s k e d Mr . C h a m b e r s , No
. 7 .
Ia s k e d h i m i n Ne w Y o r k w h e t h e r h e h a d e v e r b e e n t r e a t e d f o r
a n y m e n t a l i l l n e s s , w h e t h e r h e
w a s e v e r i n a m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n o r
n o t , a n d h e r e p l i e d i n t h e n e g a t i v e
a n d a d d e d a l s o h e w a s n o t a n
a l c o h o l i c . So , y o u c a n s t r i k e t h a t . T h a t w a s a s k e d a l r e a d y
.
Hi s s . W a s t h a t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s i n q u i r y i n t o t h a t
s u b j e c t ?
He b e r t .
T h e c o m m i t t e e ' s i n q u i r y i n t o t h a t w a s b e c a u s e a
t y p i c a l C o m m u n i s t s m e a r i s
: w h e n a m a n g e t s u p t o t e s t i f y , a n d
p a r t i c u l a r l y a f o r m e r C o m m u n i s t ,
i s t o s a y h e i s i n s a n e o r a n a l -
c h o l i c o r s o m e t h i n g e l s e i s w r o n g
w i t h h i m .
Im m e d i a t e l y a f t e r Mr
. C h a m b e r s t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h i s c o m m i t t e e ,
t h e c o m m i t t e e h e a r d r e v e r b e r a t i o n s
a l r e a d y o f t h e f a c t t h a t h e
w a s a m e n t a l c a s e ; i n f a c t , i t s a i d i t c a m e f r o m T i m e
m a g a z i n e
b y h i s o w n a s s o c i a t e s , s o Ih a v e a l w a y s b e l i e v e d t h e o n l y w a y t o
f i n d o u t a n y t h i n g t o s t a r t o f f w i t h
i s t o a s k t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d ,
a n d Ia s k e d Mr . C h a m b e r s a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n . " Mr
. C h a m b e r s ,
w e r e y o u e v e r i n a m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n
o r t r e a t e d f o r a n y m e n t a l
d i s e a s e ? " Iw a n t e d t o k n o w , a n d Iw a n t e d t o a s k h i m , a n d t h e n
c h e c k b a c k f r o m t h e r e .
C h a i r m a n . I m i g h t s a y -
He b e r t . I
a s k e d h i m , a n d h e d e n i e d i t , a n d s a i d , " No , " a n d a l s o
a d d e d t o t h a t t h a t h e w a s n o t
a n a l c o h o l i c , w h i c h w a s a n o t h e r
c h a r g e t h a t w a s m a d e a g a i n s t h i m .
Im a y s a y t o y o u n o w , Mr .
Hi s s , t h a t Id o n o t a c c e p t Mr .
C h a m b e r s ' w o r d o n h i s o w n s t a t e m e n t
. Ii n t e n d t o c h e c k t h a t , t o o .
Hi s s . So d o I .
C h a i r m a n . I m i g h t s a y , Mr
. Hi s s , a n d a l s o t o t h e m e m b e r s o f
t h e c o m m i t t e e , t h a t Mr . C h a m b e r s w i l l t a k e t h e s t a n d
d i r e c t l y
a f t e r y o u f i n i s h o n t h e s t a n d t o d a y
.
Ni x o n . Mr
. Hi s s , e x c u s e m e , d o y o u h a v e a n y e v i d e n c e t h a t y o u
w o u l d l i k e t o p r e s e n t a t t h i s t i m e t h a t Mr . C h a m b e r s h a s b e e n i n
a m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n ? Y o u m a d e t h e c h a r g e t h a t h e h a s b e e n
.
Hi s s . Ih a v e m a d e n o s u c h c h a r g e .
Ni x o n .
T h e n , y o u d o n o t m e a n t h a t b y y o u r s t a t e m e n t ?
Hi s s . I
m e a n t h a t Ia m m a k i n g n o c h a r g e s . Ia m s e e k i n g i n -
f o r m a t i o n .
Ni x o n .
T h e c h a r g e a p p e a r e d y e s t e r d a y f r o m y o u r l e t t e r , a s y o u
r e c a l l - t h e s u g g e s t i o n
o f Mr . C h a m b e r s ' b e i n g
a m e n t a l c a s e .
T HEGREAT C ONFRONT AT ION

2 0 7
No w , d o y o u h a v e a n y e v i d e n c e t o p r e s e n t t o t h e c o m m i t t e e t h a t
h e i s ?
Hi s s
. I h a v e m a d e n o s u c h c h a r g e . Ij u s t r e a d t h e r e c o r d h e r e -
t h e l e t t e r i n t o t h e r e c o r d . Ia s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n , " Is h e a m a n o f
s a n i t y ? "
Ni x o n
. W i l l y o u
a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r y o u h a v e
a n y e v i d e n c e o f h i s h a v i n g b e e n i n a m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n ?
Hi s s . I h a v e h a d v a r i o u s r e p o r t s m a d e t o m e t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t
h e h a s b e e n .
Ni x o n
.
W h a t r e p o r t s h a v e y o u h a d ?
Hi s s . I h a v e h a d r e p o r t s m a d e b y i n d i v i d u a l s .
Ni x o n . W h a t i n d i v i d u a l s ?
Hi s s . T h e y a r e s o f a r o n l y h e a r s a y . T h e r e p o r t s t h a t c a m e t o m e
w e r e f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s , i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s o f t h e p r e s s , s o f a r ,
t h a t t h e y h a d h e a r d r u m o r s t o t h a t e f f e c t .
Ni x o n . W h a t m e m b e r s o f t h e p r e s s ?
Da v i s [ Hi s s ' c o u n s e l ] . Mr . Mu n d t , c a n h e f i n i s h h i s s t a t e m e n t ?
Iu n d e r s t o o d w e w e r e n o t t o b e i n t e r r u p t e d . L e t t h e m t a k e n o t e s
a n d t h e n a s k t h e q u e s t i o n s a f t e r h e f i n i s h e s .
C h a i r m a n . Al l r i g h t , g o a h e a d a n d f i n i s h t h e q u e s t i o n s
.
Hi s s . Iw o u l d l i k e t h e c o m m i t t e e t o a s k h i m i f h e h a s e v e r b e e n
t r e a t e d f o r m e n t a l i l l n e s s , w h e r e , a n d w h e n , a n d b y w h o m .
Iw o u l d l i k e h i m t o b e a s k e d w h e r e , w h e n , a n d t o w h o m h e h a s
b e e n m a r r i e d . Ho w m a n y c h i l d r e n h e h a s ; w h e r e d o e s h i s w i f e
n o w r e s i d e .
Iw o u l d l i k e h i m t o b e a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s
u n d e r w h i c h h e c a m e i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s c c m m i t t e e a n d t o m a k e
p u b l i c a l l w r i t t e n m e m o r a n d a w h i c h h e m a y h a v e h a n d e d t o a n y
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o m m i t t e e . '
Iw o u l d l i k e t o k n o w w h e t h e r h e i s w i l l i n g , a s Is a i d a t t h e o u t -
s e t o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , t o m a k e b e f o r e t h i s c o m m i t t e e , i n a m a n -
n e r f r e e f r o m t h e p r o t e c t i o n s o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e , t h e s t a t e m e n t s s o
t h a t Im a y t e s t h i s v e r a c i t y i n a s u i t f o r s l a n d e r o r l i b e l .
B e f o r e t h e c o m m i t t e e g o t a r o u n d t o a s k i n g C h a m b e r s f o r
h i s a n s w e r s , Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Mu n d t m a d e o n e t e l l i n g j a b
a t
Hi s s ' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n " i n c o n c e i v a b l e " f o r
h i m t o h a v e r e m a i n e d a l l t h o s e y e a r s i n t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t
a n d s t i l l b e a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y
. " T h i s i s n o t
i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o m e w i t h o u t i n a n y w a y a t t e m p t i n g a t t h i s
It a l i c s o u r s .
2 0 8

SEEDSOFT REASON
t i m e t o i n d i c t t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f Mr . Hi s s , " Mu n d t s a i d . " B u t
Iw i s h t o p o i n t o u t t h a t J o h n P e u r i f o y , As s i s t a n t Se c r e t a r y o f
St a t e i n c h a r g e o f s e c u r i t y , h a s n o t i f i e d C o n g r e s s t h a t 1 3 4
m e m b e r s o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y h a d w e a s l e d t h e i r w a y i n t o
t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t a l o n e a n d h a d b e e n r e m o v e d f o r d i s -
l o y a l t y r e a s o n s . So i t i s n o t a t a l l i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e n u m -
b e r c o u l d j u s t a s w e l l h a v e b e e n 1 3 5 a s 1 3 4 . "
On t h e s t a n d a n d u n d e r o a t h , C h a m b e r s i m p e r t u r b a b l y
a n s w e r e d Hi s s ' q u e s t i o n s
. He l i s t e d h i s v a r i o u s P a r t y n a m e s ,
d e s c r i b e d w h e r e h e h a d l i v e d , d e n i e d t h a t h e h a d e v e r b e e n
c o n v i c t e d o f a c r i m e o r b e e n c o m m i t t e d t o a m e n t a l i n s t i t u -
t i o n
. He r e p e a t e d m u c h o f h i s a c c o u n t o f t h e f r i e n d s h i p b e -
t w e e n t h e C h a m b e r s e s a n d t h e Hi s s e s . He t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e
h a d a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e c o m m i t t e e u n d e r s u b p o e n a a n d
h a d m a d e n o a t t e m p t t o i n v i t e t h a t s u b p o e n a
. He w a s , a s
a l w a y s , p a i n f u l l y f o r t h r i g h t
. T h e r e w a s o n e q u e s t i o n w h i c h
h e d i d n o t w i s h t o a n s w e r
. He d i d n o t w a n t h i s a d d r e s s m a d e
p u b l i c , f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s : C o m m u n i s t s h a v e l o n g m e m o r i e s
a n d t h e y f o r g i v e l i t t l e
.
W h e n t h e h e a r i n g a d j o u r n e d , i t h a d c o m e t o n o o f f i c i a l
c o n c l u s i o n
. No r h a d t h e q u e s t i o n , W h o i s l y i n g ?
b e e n
a n s w e r e d d e f i n i t e l y
. B u t w h e r e a s a f t e r t h e f i r s t p u b l i c h e a r -
i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e p r e s s a n d s p e c t a t o r s h a d r u s h e d t o s h a k e
h a n d s w i t h Hi s s a n d s p e a k t o h i m , a t t h e e n d o f t h i s
s e s s i o n
Al g e r Hi s s a n d h i s l a w y e r w a l k e d o u t a l o n e
.
1 6
L i b e l s a n d P u m p k i n s
FROM
T HE T IME T HAT T HE HOU SE U N- AMERIC AN
Ac t i v i t i e s C o m m i t t e e t o o k t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e B e n t l e y - C h a m -
b e r s c a s e f r o m t h e h a n d s o f a d o - n o t h i n g j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t ,
P r e s i d e n t T r u m a n a n d h i s At t o r n e y Ge n e r a l h a d b e e n f r e e i n
e x p r e s s i n g c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n
. No
e v i d e n c e o f i m p o r t a n c e , t h e y i n s i s t e d , h a d b e e n p r o d u c e d
.
Mr
. T r u m a n m a d e h i s f i r s t c h a r g e t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s w e r e
m e r e l y a p r e - e l e c t i o n " r e d h e r r i n g " s h o r t l y a f t e r Hi s s ' i n i t i a l
a p p e a r a n c e b e f o r e t h e C o m m i t t e e i n Au g u s t , 1 9 4 8
.
An d r e a d i n g f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t , e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r s a n d r a d i o
c o m m e n t a t o r s v e n t e d t h e i r s p l e e n o n C o m m i t t e e p r o c e d u r e s
b y m i n i m i z i n g t h e h e a d l i n e - m a k i n g d i s c l o s u r e s . Ev e n a f t e r
t h e h e a r i n g o f Au g u s t 2 5 t h , w h e n Hi s s c l e a r l y c o n t r a d i c t e d
h i s p r e v i o u s t e s t i m o n y , r e p o r t e r s q u o t e d j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t
s o u r c e s a s s t a t i n g t h a t Al g e r Hi s s w o u l d n e v e r b e c h a r g e d
w i t h p e r j u r y
. C u r i o u s l y e n o u g h , o f f i c i a l b i l e w a s d i r e c t e d e x -
c l u s i v e l y a t W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s - p e r h a p s b e c a u s e h e h a d
h a d t h e b a d m a n n e r s t o p u t o f f i c i a l W a s h i n g t o n ' s n o s e o u t o f
j o i n t .
On Au g u s t 2 7 t h , C h a m b e r s a p p e a r e d a s g u e s t o n t h e " Me e t
t h e P r e s s " r a d i o p r o g r a m
. Hi s i n q u i s i t o r s - a n d t h e y w e r e e x -
a c t l y t h a t - i n c l u d e d L a w r e n c e E
. Sp i v a k , e d i t o r o f t h e
Am e r i c a n Me r c u r y m a g a z i n e w h i c h c o n d u c t s t h e s h o w ;
J a m e s B . ( Sc o t t y ) Re s t o n o f t h e Ne w Y o r k T i m e s W a s h i n g -
t o n b u r e a u
; Ed w a r d T . Fo l l i a r d o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t ; a n d
2 0 9
2 1 0
SEEDSOFT REASON
T o m Re y n o l d s o f t h e C h i c a g o
Su n - T i m e s . W i t h v e r y l i t t l e
p r e a m b l e , Fo l l i a r d w e n t s t r a i g h t t o t h e p o i n t
.
" Ar e y o u w i l l i n g t o s a y n o w [ i n a n s w e r t o t h e Hi s s c h a l -
l e n g e ] t h a t Al g e r Hi s s i s o r e v e r w a s a C o m m u n i s t ? " h e
a s k e d .
T h e e m o t i o n a l i m p a c t w a s g r e a t w h e n C h a m b e r s , i n h i s
l o w - p i t c h e d v o i c e a n d i n a m o o d h e a v y w i t h t h e w e a r i n e s s o f
w e e k s o f q u e s t i o n i n g , r e p l i e d f l a t l y :
" Al g e r Hi s s w a s a C o m m u n i s t a n d m a y b e n o w . "
" Ar e y o u p r e p a r e d t o g o t o c o u r t t o a n s w e r a s u i t f o r l i b e l
o r s l a n d e r ? " Fo l l i a r d p r e s s e d .
" Id o n ' t t h i n k Hi s s w i l l g o t o c o u r t , " C h a m b e r s a n s w e r e d .
C h a m b e r s h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . He h a d
k n o w n , f r o m t h e d e r o g a t o r y a t t i t u d e o f t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
t h a t o n l y b y d e s t r o y i n g t h e i m m u n i t y w h i c h b l a n k e t e d h i s
c h a r g e s b e f o r e a c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o m m i t t e e c o u l d h e g i v e
w e i g h t t o h i s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d w o r d . B u t h e w a s t o t a l l y u n -
p r e p a r e d f o r t h e o v e r t h o s t i l i t y o f q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s Re y n o l d s ' ,
g r a t u i t o u s l y o f f e n s i v e :
" Do y o u f i n d i t e a s i e r t o m a k e a l i v i n g n o w t h a n w h e n y o u
w e r e a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y ? "
No r c o u l d h e u n d e r s t a n d w h y Re y n o l d s a t t e m p t e d c o n -
t i n u a l l y t o n e e d l e h i m i n t o m a k i n g w i l d c h a r g e s a g a i n s t Hi s s .
Fo r t u n a t e l y f o r C h a m b e r s , t h e q u e s t i o n s c a m e s o t h i c k a n d
f a s t t h a t , i n h i s s t a t e o f f a t i g u e , h i s e n t i r e a t t e n t i o n w a s c o n -
c e n t r a t e d o n a n s w e r i n g c i r c u m s p e c t l y a n d t o t h e p o i n t . It
w a s n o t u n t i l l a t e r t h a t h e r e a l i z e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f Re y -
n o l d s ' b l u d g e o n i n g q u e s t i o n s .
B u t n o w t h e f a t w a s i n t h e f i r e . T h e n e x t d a y , n e w s p a p e r s
f e a t u r e d t h e s t o r y o f C h a m b e r s ' d e f y . B o t h p r e s s a n d p u b l i c
w a i t e d t o s e e i f Hi s s ' c h a l l e n g e h a d b e e n a b l u f f o r t h e c r y o f
a m a n w h o r e a l l y w a n t e d t o c l e a r h i s n a m e . W o u l d h e s u e f o r
l i b e l ? As w e e k s w e n t b y , t h a t q u e s t i o n b u i l t u p t o a c r e -
s c e n d o
. " If Hi s s i s n ' t a C o m m i e , w h y d o e s n ' t h e s u e ? " Sa i d
t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , " Mr . Hi s s h i m s e l f h a s c r e a t e d a s i t u a -
t i o n i n w h i c h h e i s o b l i g e d t o p u t u p o r s h u t u p . " On l y
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 1 1
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s d o u b t e d t h a t Hi s s w o u l d e v e r p u t h i s
i n n o c e n c e o r g u i l t t o a c o u r t t e s t . V e r y s u b t l y , t h e a t t i t u d e
t o w a r d Hi s s , e v e n a m o n g h i s s t a u n c h e s t p a r t i s a n s , b e g a n t o
c h a n g e .
On e m o n t h a f t e r t h e b r o a d c a s t , Hi s s f i n a l l y f i l e d a $ 7 5 , 0 0 0
s u i t i n a B a l t i m o r e Fe d e r a l c o u r t , c h a r g i n g C h a m b e r s w i t h
m a k i n g " u n t r u e , f a l s e , a n d d e f a m a t o r y " s t a t e m e n t s a g a i n s t
h i m . Ex p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e d e l a y c a m e f r o m b o t h c a m p s . P r o -
Hi s s s p o k e s m e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h i s a t t o r n e y , W i l l i a m L .
Ma r b u r y , h a d b e e n a b r o a d a s a m e m b e r o f t h e Am e r i c a n
d e l e g a t i o n t o a Ge n e v a t a r i f f c o n f e r e n c e s i n c e Au g u s t 6 t h ,
a n d t h a t t h e w e e k s f o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n o n Se p t e m b e r 1 4 t h
h a d b e e n t a k e n u p b y a s t u d y o f t h e r e c o r d .
T h e a n t i - Hi s s f o r c e s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t Hi s s w a s i n a c l e f t
s t i c k
. As p r e s i d e n t o f t h e C a r n e g i e En d o w m e n t f o r P e a c e , h e
w a s r e s p o n s i b l e t o a c o n s e r v a t i v e a n d e m i n e n t b o a r d o f
t r u s t e e s w h i c h s o f a r h a d b e e n u n e q u i v o c a l i n i t s p u b l i c s u p -
p o r t o f h i m . If h e s u e d a n d l o s t , h e r i s k e d n o t o n l y h i s $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 -
a - y e a r j o b b u t h i s e n t i r e f u t u r e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f h e d i d
n o t s u e , i t w o u l d b e t a k e n a s a t a c i t a d m i s s i o n o f g u i l t . C h a m -
b e r s h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e d e l a y w a s m e r e l y a c a n n y w a i t
t o d e t e r m i n e t w o t h i n g s : ( 1 ) w o u l d t h e c l a m o r d i e d o w n ,
a n d ( 2 ) w o u l d a n y c o n c r e t e p r o o f b e o f f e r e d b y t h e e x -
c o u r i e r . It w a s Ma r b u r y w h o m a d e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n a n d
f i x e d t h e a m o u n t o f d a m a g e s .
" Iw e l c o m e Mr . Hi s s ' d a r i n g s u i t , " C h a m b e r s t o l d r e p o r t e r s
w h e n t h e c h a r g e s w e r e f i l e d . " B u t Id o n o t b e l i e v e t h a t Mr .
Hi s s o r a n y b o d y e l s e c a n u s e t h e m e a n s o f j u s t i c e t o d e f e a t
t h e e n d s o f j u s t i c e . "
T h e r e w a s n o t u r n i n g b a c k n o w f o r Al g e r Hi s s
. W i t h h i s
l a w y e r s , h e p l u n g e d i n t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e
c o u r t t e s t . Sc o r e s o f l e t t e r s w e r e s e n t o u t t o f o r m e r a s s o c i a t e s ,
a s k i n g t h e m i f t h e y w o u l d t e s t i f y a s c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s e s . In
a r e m a r k a b l e n u m b e r o f c a s e s , t h e a n s w e r s w e r e i n t h e

Or i g i n a l l y $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 , d a m a g e s w e r e u p p e d t o $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 w h e n C h a m b e r s
r e p e a t e d h i s c h a r g e .
2 1 2
SEEDSOFT REASON
a f f i r m a t i v e a n d In c l u d e d w a r m s t a t e m e n t s o f s u p p o r t . Ho w -
e v e r , Ga r d n e r J a c k s o n a n d J u d g e J e r o m e N . Fr a n k , w h o h a d
k n o w n Hi s s w e l l , r e b u f f e d h i m . J o s e p h Fr e e m a n , a n e x -
C o m m u n i s t w h o h a d w o r k e d o n t h e Ne w Ma s s e s , w a s a p -
p r o a c h e d b y Hi s s ' l a w y e r s a n d a s k e d i f h e w o u l d t e s t i f y t h a t
C h a m b e r s u s e d t h e p e n n a m e o f Ge o r g e C r o s l e y . Fr e e m a n
r e f u s e d .
" C h a m b e r s d i d n o t u s e t h a t n a m e o n t h e Ne w Ma s s e s , " h e
i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e s a i d f l a t l y . " An d , " h e a d d e d , " C h a m b e r s i s
i n c a p a b l e o f t e l l i n g a n u n t r u t h . "
Hi s s ' l a w y e r s w e r e n o t d i s c o n c e r t e d . T h e y h i r e d J o h n A .
B r o a d y , a n i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r u t h l e s s n e s s , t o
s e a r c h i n t o C h a m b e r s ' p a s t a n d t o t r y t o p r o v e C o m m u n i s t -
i n s p i r e d s t o r i e s t h a t t h e T i m e
e d i t o r w a s a s e x u a l i n v e r t a n d
t h a t h e h a d b e e n c o m m i t t e d t o a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l a t s o m e
p e r i o d i n h i s l i f e . B r o a d y ' s d e t e c t i v e s w o r k e d h a r d b u t t h e y
c o u l d f i n d n o t h i n g . Fi n a l l y , B r o a d y d r o p p e d t h e a s s i g n m e n t
i n d i s g u s t .
Fr o m L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , w h o s e n o v e l T h e Mi d d l e o f t h e J o u r -
n e y h a d b e e n b a s e d o n r u m o r s h e h a d h e a r d a b o u t C h a m b e r s ,
Hi s s ' l a w y e r s g o t e v e n l e s s
. W h e n t h e y c a l l e d o n T r i l l i n g , a n
En g l i s h p r o f e s s o r a t C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e , h e t o l d t h e m t h a t ,
y e s , h e h a d k n o w n C h a m b e r s i n t h e t w e n t i e s
. C h a m b e r s h a d
b e e n " d o m i n e e r i n g . " B u t h e b a d n o f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f
h i s a c t i v i t i e s , a n d h e c o u l d t e s t i f y t o n o t h i n g .
In m i d - No v e m b e r , C h a m b e r s w a s c a l l e d t o a p r e t r i a l h e a r -
i n g i n B a l t i m o r e . P r e s e n t a l s o w e r e Ma r b u r y , Ha r o l d Ro s e n -
w a l d , a n d C h a m b e r s ' l a w y e r , Ri c h a r d C l e v e l a n d . T h e q u e s -
t i o n s f l u n g a t C h a m b e r s , e s p e c i a l l y b y Ro s e n w a l d , w h o
g l a r e d b a l e f u l l y a t t h e
T i m e
e d i t o r t h r o u g h o u t , w e r e o f s u c h
a n a t u r e t h a t h e l e f t t h e h e a r i n g c o n v i n c e d " t h a t Hi s s w a s
d e t e r m i n e d t o d e s t r o y m e - a n d m y w i f e , i f p o s s i b l e
. "
B a c k h o m e o n h i s W e s t m i n s t e r f a r m t h a t n i g h t , C h a m b e r s
r e a l i z e d t h a t h e h a d f o r t h e t h i r d t i m e i n h i s l i f e r e a c h e d a
p o i n t o f c r i s i s . Ev e r s i n c e h i s b r e a k w i t h t h e C o m m u n i s t
P a r t y , h e h a d s o u g h t t o d e s t r o y t h e t h e o r y w i t h o u t h u r t i n g
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 1 3
t h e p e o p l e w h o e s p o u s e d i t . T h o u g h h e h a d s p o k e n f r e e l y
w h e n a s k e d , h e h a d a l s o t r i e d h a r d t o s h i e l d t h e d u p e s a n d
t o d a m a g e a s f e w p e o p l e a s p o s s i b l e . As a Q u a k e r , h e c o u l d
d o l i t t l e e l s e . B u t a s a t h i n k i n g m a n , h e k n e w t h a t i t w o u l d
b e f o l l y n o w t o c o n t i n u e t o h o l d b a c k e v i d e n c e - n o m a t t e r
w h o m i t h u r t .
In a T i m e
c o v e r s t o r y o n Re i n h o l d Ni e b u h r , t h e P r o t e s t a n t
p h i l o s o p h e r , C h a m b e r s h a d w r i t t e n , " B e t w e e n Go d ' s p u r p o s e
i n e t e r n i t y a n d m a n ' s p u r p o s e i n t i m e t h e r e a r e u n b r i d g e a b l e
d i f f e r e n c e s
. " T o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f a n d h i s f a m i l y , a n d t o s c o t c h
Hi s s ' p l a n s , h e w o u l d h a v e t o d o s o m e t h i n g t h a t , i n Go d ' s
e t e r n a l s c h e m e , w o u l d b e " w r o n g . " It w a s i n t h i s f r a m e o f
m i n d t h a t , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t e n y e a r s , h e t h o u g h t o f t h e
" l i f e i n s u r a n c e " h e h a d p u t b y a g a i n s t C o m m u n i s t v e n g e a n c e
.
He d e c i d e d t o d i s i n t e r t h e e v i d e n c e o f h i s p a s t .
T h e n e x t m o r n i n g , C h a m b e r s s e n t a t e l e g r a m t o h i s n e p h e w
Na t h a n L e v i n e i n B r o o k l y n . " Ha v e m y t h i n g s r e a d y . " It w a s
a v e r y b e w i l d e r e d y o u n g m a n w h o m e t C h a m b e r s
. On l y a f t e r
c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n d i d h e r e c a l l t h e p a c k a g e o f p a p e r s
a n d i t s h i d i n g p l a c e
. Fr o m t h e t o p o f t h e d i s u s e d d u m b -
w a i t e r s h a f t i n h i s m o t h e r ' s h o m e , L e v i n e h a u l e d o u t t h e
b u l k y m a n i l a e n v e l o p e . W h i l e L e v i n e a t t e m p t e d t o r e m o v e
t h e g r i m e , C h a m b e r s c a r r i e d t h e p a c k a g e i n t o t h e k i t c h e n .
W h e n L e v i n e f o l l o w e d h i m t h e r e , C h a m b e r s h a d a l r e a d y
o p e n e d t h e p a c k a g e a n d w a s l o o k i n g o v e r i t s c o n t e n t s . " My
Go d , " C h a m b e r s e x c l a i m e d . " Id i d n ' t k n o w t h i s w a s s t i l l i n
e x i s t e n c e . " T h e r e w e r e f o r t y - s e v e n t y p e d c o p i e s o f o f f i c i a l
d o c u m e n t s , f i v e r o l l s o f m i c r o f i l m , f o u r m e m o s i n Hi s s ' s
w r i t i n g a n d f i v e m e m o s i n Ha r r y W h i t e ' s w r i t i n g .
" It ' s a s t r a n g e t h i n g , " C h a m b e r s r e m a r k e d n o t l o n g a f t e r -
w a r d . " B u t Id i d n ' t r e m e m b e r w h a t w a s i n t h e p a c k a g e . I
t h o u g h t t h e r e w e r e j u s t a f e w m e m o s i n Al g e r ' s h a n d w r i t i n g .
W h e n Is a w w h a t Ih a d , Iw a s a m a z e d . "
B u t i n " f i n d i n g " t h i s d o c u m e n t a r y b o n a n z a , C h a m b e r s h a d
Ml s o c r e a t e d s e r i o u s n e w p r o b l e m s f o r h i m s e l f
. In t h e p a s t ,
h e h a d c a r e f u l l y r e f r a i n e d f r o m a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e r e w e r e
2 1 4

SEEDSOFT REASON
a n y d o c u m e n t s
. Re p e a t e d l y h e h a d s t a t e d t h a t t h e o n l y i s s u e
b e t w e e n Al g e r Hi s s a n d h i m s e l f w a s t h e q u e s t i o n o f C o m -
m u n i s t P a r t y m e m b e r s h i p
. In t a l k i n g t o t h e FB I, i n d i s c u s s -
i n g h i s f o r m e r C o m m u n i s t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r s o n
T i m e ,
h e h a d c a r e f u l l y s k i r t e d t h e e s p i o n a g e a n g l e . In h i s
t e s t i m o n y b e f o r e t h e U n - Am e r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s C o m m i t t e e , h e
h a d m o v e d p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o p e r j u r y b y g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s -
s i o n t h a t t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f h i s e l i t e g r o u p w a s i n f i l t r a -
t i o n .
T h e o n l y g i v e a w a y h a d b e e n h i s c o n v i n c i n g s t a t e m e n t t h a t
o n b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e P a r t y , h i s l i f e h a d b e e n i n d a n g e r
.
Ev e r y o n e w i t h e x p e r i e n c e o r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e w a y s o f t h e
C o m m u n i s t u n d e r g r o u n d a p p a r a t u s r e a l i z e d
i m m e d i a t e l y
t h a t C h a m b e r s ' r o l e h a d b e e n m o r e t h a n t h a t o f a P a r t y f u n c -
t i o n a r y . T h e C o m m u n i s t s w e r e a v e n g e f u l l o t , b u t h a d t h e y
a t t e m p t e d t o k i l l e v e r y m a n w h o b r o k e w i t h t h e P a r t y , t h e
w o r l d w o u l d b e f u l l o f t h e d e a d a n d d y i n g .
No w , h e w o u l d h a v e t o r e v e a l t h e t r e a s o n o u s n a t u r e o f h i s
o l d a c t i v i t i e s
. " B u t Ia l w a y s k n e w t h a t s o o n e r o r l a t e r Iw o u l d
h a v e t o d o t h a t , " h e h a s s a i d
. " T h i s w a s t h e t i m e . "
W h e n , o n No v e m b e r 1 7 t h , h e s a t d o w n i n Ma r b u r y ' s q u i e t ,
b o o k - l i n e d o f f i c e f o r t h e s e c o n d p r e t r i a l h e a r i n g , t h e r e w a s
n o i n d i c a t i o n o n h i s f a c e t h a t h e w a s r e a d y t o s p r i n g t h e
t r a p .
" Do y o u h a v e a n y d o c u m e n t a r y p r o o f o f y o u r a s s e r t i o n s ? "
Ma r b u r y a s k e d h i m b a d g e r i n g l y a f t e r s o m e q u e s t i o n i n g .
" On l y t h e s e , " s a i d C h a m b e r s b l a n d l y , l a y i n g a t h i c k s h e a f
o f p a p e r s o n t h e t a b l e
. T h e r e w a s a m o m e n t o f d e a d s i l e n c e .
T h e n , a s Ma r b u r y r e a c h e d f o r t h e i n c r i m i n a t i n g p a p e r s ,
C h a m b e r s ' l a w y e r s a i d :
" L e t ' s i d e n t i f y t h e s e p a p e r s b y r e a d i n g t h e f i r s t a n d l a s t
w o r d s o f e a c h o n e i n t o t h e r e c o r d . " It w a s a l o n g , b u t t e n s e ,
p r o c e s s . " ' T o k y o . . . Fe b r u a r y 1 2 , K ENNEDY . " P a r i s . . .
Fe b r u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 3 8 . . . Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e . . . Si g n e d
B U L L IT T . ' ` V i e n n a . . . Fe b r u a r y 1 3 , 1 9 3 8 . . . Se c r e t a r y
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 1 5
o f St a t e
. . . Si g n e d W IL EY . ' ` Ro m e . . .
Ma r c h 2 9 . . .
T h e Em b a s s y l e a r n s . . . Si g n e d P HIL L IP S
. " W a r s a w . . .
Ma r c h 2 9 . . .
Il e a r n f o l l o w i n g i n s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . . .
Si g n e d B IDDL E . " '
As C l e v e l a n d i n t r o d u c e d a l l f o r t y - s e v e n d o c u m e n t s a n d t h e
h a n d w r i t t e n m e m o s i n t o t h e r e c o r d , Ma r b u r y s t o o d b y t h e
w i n d o w l o o k i n g o u t b l a n k l y w h i l e Ro s e n w a l d p a c e d u p a n d
d o w n , s t o p p i n g e v e r y n o w a n d t h e n t o s t a r e a t C h a m b e r s w i t h
a l o o k o f i m p l a c a b l e h a t r e d . An d n o w t h e d e e d w a s d o n e ;
t h e r e w a s n o t u r n i n g b a c k ; a p o e t s i t t i n g i n t h a t r o o m m i g h t
h a v e h e a r d , f a i n t l y , t h e f l a p p i n g w i n g s o f t h e Fu r i e s .
B o t h Ma r b u r y a n d C l e v e l a n d a g r e e d t h a t t h e m a t t e r h a d
g o n e f a r b e y o n d a d e f a m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s u i t . J u d g e W .
C a l v i n C h e s t n u t , w h o h a d s a t o n t h e c a s e , w a s c a l l e d i n a n d
a l l t h r e e d e c i d e d t h a t t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t s h o u l d t a k e
o v e r . T h e o p p o s i n g a t t o r n e y s t e l e p h o n e d Al e x a n d e r C a m p -
b e l l , h e a d o f t h e C r i m i n a l Di v i s i o n , s k e t c h i n g i n t h e g e n e r a l
n a t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l w h i c h C h a m b e r s h a d s o u n e x p e c t e d l y
p r o d u c e d .
T a k i n g De a n Sh e d l e r , t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s C h i e f o f P u b l i c
In f o r m a t i o n , w i t h h i m , C a m p b e l l r u s h e d u p t o B a l t i m o r e f o r
a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h C l e v e l a n d , Ma r b u r y , Ha r o l d Me d i n a , J r . ,
( a T i m e In c . , l a w y e r ) , a n d j u d g e C h e s t n u t . T h e d o c u m e n t s
w e r e s e a l e d i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , a n d t h e c o u r t
r e p o r t e r w h o h a d b e e n t a k i n g d o w n t h e d e p o s i t i o n s w a s i n -
s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e n o c o p i e s o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t . An d e v e r y o n e
c o n c e r n e d w a s e n j o i n e d t o k e e p t h e e v e n t s o f t h e d a y c o m -
p l e t e l y s e c r e t . T h e n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w h e e l s b e g a n t o
g r i n d . T h e FB Ie x a m i n e d t h e p a p e r s a n d b e g a n a t h o r o u g h
c h e c k o f e x i s t e n t d o c u m e n t s . Si m u l t a n e o u s l y , i t g r i l l e d Hi s s
a n d C h a m b e r s
p r i v a t i m e t s e r i a t i m . Af e w d a y s l a t e r , C a m p -
b e l l d i r e c t e d U n i t e d St a t e s At t o r n e y Mc Go h e y t o o r d e r t h e
g r a n d j u r y , w h i c h h a d b e e n m e e t i n g i n Ne w Y o r k , r e c o n -
v e n e d f o r De c e m b e r 8 t h .
T w o w e e k s a f t e r t h e d o c u m e n t s h a d b e e n t u r n e d o v e r t o
2 1 6
SEEDSOFT REASON
t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t , n e i t h e r t h e U n - Am e r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s
C o m m i t t e e n o r t h e W a s h i n g t o n p r e s s c o r p s k n e w t h a t s o m e -
t h i n g w a s a f o o t . T h e n , a p e r p l e x i n g a n d c u r i o u s t h i n g h a p -
p e n e d . On De c e m b e r 1 s t , J e r r y K l u t t z c a r r i e d a n i t e m i n h i s
W a s h i n g t o n P o s t c o l u m n , Fe d e r a l Di a r y , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t
t h e p r e t r i a l h e a r i n g s h a d u n c o v e r e d " s o m e v e r y s t a r t l i n g i n -
f o r m a t i o n a s t o w h o i s a l i a r . " B u t o n t h e s a m e d a y , t h e W a s h -
i n g t o n Da i l y Ne w s d i s c l o s e d t h a t " t h e J u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t i s
a b o u t r e a d y t o d r o p i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c e l e b r a t e d Al g e r
Hi s s - W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s c o n t r o v e r s y
. "
" On e De p a r t m e n t s o u r c e , " t h e s t o r y r e a d , " s a i d t h a t o n t h e
b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , o f f i c i a l s i n c h a r g e o f t h e c a s e
b e l i e v e i t w o u l d b e u n w i s e t o t a k e i t b e f o r e t h e g r a n d j u r y .
B u t h e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e c o u l d c h a n g e o v e r n i g h t
i f t h e Ho u s e C o m m i t t e e o r t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r s
d i g u p s o m e n e w e v i d e n c e . "
T h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g s t o r i e s w e r e e n o u g h t o s e t B e r t An d r e w s
o f t h e He r a l d T r i b u n e b u s y b e a t i n g a t d o o r s
. He g o t l i t t l e
s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m Al e x C a m p b e l l , C h i e f o f C r i m i n a l Di v i s i o n
o f t h e J u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t . " Ij u s t c a n ' t c o m m e n t o n t h e s e
s t o r i e s . Ij u s t c a n ' t a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e
Hi s s -
C h a m b e r s c a s e , " C a m p b e l l s a i d f r a n k l y ; " Nu m b e r 1
. T h i s i s
t o o h o t
. Nu m b e r 2 . Ij u s t c a n ' t s a y a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t
. " T o a l l
o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , h e g a v e a n e m p h a t i c " No c o m m e n t
. "
C e r t a i n t h a t h e w a s o n t o s o m e t h i n g , An d r e w s m a d e a
s e r i e s o f p h o n e c a l l s - t o j u d g e C h e s t n u t , Ma r b u r y , C l e v e l a n d ,
Hi s s , a n d C h a m b e r s . Fr o m e a c h o f t h e m h e g o t e v a s i v e
a n s w e r s w h i c h f u r t h e r t a n t a l i z e d h i m
. W i t h t h e k i n d o f
p e r s i s t e n c e a n d i m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h m a k e a t o p - n o t c h r e p o r t e r ,
An d r e w s d e c i d e d t o p r o d h i s t o r y a l i t t l e
: h e s e n t a w i r e t o
Ri c h a r d Ni x o n , a t s e a o n t h e S. S
.
P a n a m a , b o u n d f o r C e n t r a l
Am e r i c a a n d a v a c a t i o n .
" In f o r m a t i o n h e r e i s t h a t Hi s s - C h a m b e r s c a s e h a s p r o -
d u c e d n e w b o m b s h e l l [ h e w i r e d ]
. C h a m b e r s h a s b e e n q u e s -
t i o n e d i n l i b e l s u i t s b y Hi s s . In d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t C h a m b e r s
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 1 7
h a s p r o d u c e d n e w e v i d e n c e
. Al l c o n c e r n e d a r e s i l e n t . . . In
v i e w y o u r c o m m i t t e e ' s r o l e c a n y o u t e l l m e w h e t h e r c o m -
m i t t e e w i l l r e o p e n i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ? "
De c i s i v e l y t a k i n g t h e i n i t i a t i v e , Ni x o n w i r e d b a c k : " Ha v e
a s k e d St r i p l i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e a n d a d v i s e m e r e n e w e v i d e n c e .
W i l l r e o p e n h e a r i n g s i f n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t j u s t i c e De p a r t -
m e n t c o v e r u p . . . " At Ni x o n ' s d i r e c t i o n , St r i p l i n g d r o v e
o u t t o W e s t m i n s t e r t h a t s a m e d a y
. He f o u n d C h a m b e r s i n
o v e r a l l s , f i n i s h i n g t h e e v e n i n g ' s m i l k i n g
. Ha d h e w i t h h e l d
e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e c o m m i t t e e , St r i p l i n g a s k e d b l u n t l y . C h a m -
b e r s a d m i t t e d i t b u t r e f u s e d t o g o b e y o n d t h a t . If h e d i s -
c u s s e d t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p r e t r i a l h e a r i n g , h e w o u l d b e i n
c o n t e m p t o f c o u r t .
T h i s w a s e n o u g h f o r Ni x o n
. C o m m a n d e e r i n g a C o a s t Gu a r d
p l a n e , h e h a d h i m s e l f r e m o v e d f r o m t h e
P a n a m a a n d f l o w n
b a c k t o W a s h i n g t o n
. W h i l e h e w a s e n r o u t e , t h e c o m m i t t e e
w a s b u s y . T h e d a y a f t e r K l u t t z ' s i t e m h a d s t a r t e d t h e b a l l
r o l l i n g , C h a m b e r s r e c e i v e d a p h o n e c a l l f r o m t h e c o m m i t t e e
a s k i n g h i m t o c o m e d o w n t o W a s h i n g t o n
. He w a s m e t w i t h a
s u b p o e n a c a l l i n g f o r a l l d o c u m e n t s o r m a t e r i a l i n h i s p o s s e s -
s i o n . C h a m b e r s k n e w t h a t h e h a d n o t h i n g t o g a i n b y d e n y i n g
t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r m a t e r i a l
; h e r e a d i l y a g r e e d t o s u r -
r e n d e r i t .
T h a t n i g h t c o m m i t t e e i n v e s t i g a t o r s W i l l i a m W h e e l e r a n d
Do n a l d T . Ap p e l l f o l l o w e d C h a m b e r s ' c a r u p t h e l o n g , w i n d -
i n g a p p r o a c h t o C h a m b e r s ' f a r m . B y t h e l i g h t o f t h e e l e c t r i c
b u l b o n t h e b a c k p o r c h , t h e y s a w t h a t a n u m b e r o f s q u a s h l a y
w i t h t h e i r n e c k s p o i n t i n g t o w a r d a p u m p k i n
. C h a m b e r s
p i c k e d i t u p .
" He r e ' s w h a t y o u ' r e l o o k i n g f o r , " h e s a i d
.
T h e t w o b e w i l d e r e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s l e a n e d o v e r t o e x a m i n e
t h e p u m p k i n . It h a d a p p e a r e d i n t a c t a n d g r o w i n g o n t h e
v i n e . B u t c l o s e r s c r u t i n y s h o w e d t h a t t h e t o p h a d b e e n n e a t l y
s l i c e d o f f a n d t h e n c a r e f u l l y r e p l a c e d
. Fr o m t h e h o l l o w e d - o u t
b a s e c a m e t h r e e r o l l s o f u n d e v e l o p e d f i l m e n c a s e d i n l i g h t -
2
1
8 SEEDSOFT REASON
p r o o f m e t a l c y l i n d e r s a n d s e a l e d w i t h t a p e . On e o f t h e c y l i n -
d e r s h a d b e e n s m a s h e d a n d C h a m b e r s r e m a r k e d t h a t i t w a s
p r o b a b l y l i g h t - s t r u c k . T w o o t h e r r o l l s , a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d ,
w e r e w r a p p e d i n o i l p a p e r .
C h a m b e r s h a d p l a c e d t h e m i c r o f i l m i n t h e p u m p k i n f o r
g o o d a n d s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n
. Ev e r s i n c e Hi s s h a d b e g u n h i s
d e f a m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s u i t , p r o w l e r s h a d b e e n s e e n n e a r t h e
W e s t m i n s t e r f a r m . W e r e t h e y C o m i n t e r n a g e n t s ? W e r e t h e y
d e t e c t i v e s h i r e d b y Hi s s ? Or w e r e t h e y t r a m p s w h o h a p -
p e n e d a r o u n d c o i n c i d e n t a l l y a t t h i s t i m e ? C h a m b e r s h a d n o
w a y o f k n o w i n g . So w h e n h e h a d g o n e u p t o W a s h i n g t o n , h e
h a d h i d d e n t h e m i c r o f i l m . On t h e p r i n c i p l e o f P o e ' s p u r l o i n e d
l e t t e r , h e h a d p l a c e d t h e p r e c i o u s c y l i n d e r s w h e r e t h e y c o u l d
l i e i n p l a i n v i e w w i t h o u t b e i n g d i s c o v e r e d
. " T h e p u m p k i n , "
h e s a i d a f t e r w a r d , " w a s t h e l a s t f l a r e - u p o f m y c o n s p i r a t o r i a l
n a t u r e . "
He h a d n o w a y o f k n o w i n g t h a t a n t a g o n i s t i c c o m m e n t a t o r s
w o u l d p l a y t h a t p u m p k i n f o r a l l i t w a s w o r t h , a s i f i t h a d
b e e n t h e f u n n i e s t t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d
. T h e y w o u l d h o w l a b o u t
t h e " p u m p k i n p a p e r s " a s i f r i d i c u l e c o u l d m a k e t h e m d i s a p -
p e a r . B y l i n k i n g " p u m p k i n " w i t h " e s p i o n a g e " t h e y h o p e d t o
m a k e a l l o f C h a m b e r s ' d i s c l o s u r e s s o u n d p r e p o s t e r o u s . Af t e r
a l l , w h o e v e r h e a r d o f a s p y w i t h a p u m p k i n ? B u t t h e c o n -
t e n t s o f t h o s e c y l i n d e r s w e r e t o o e x p l o s i v e t o r e m a i n f u n n y
.
W h e n St r i p l i n g e x a m i n e d t h e d e v e l o p e d f i l m t h r o u g h a n
e n l a r g e r , h e k n e w i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t t h e s e c r e t St a t e De p a r t -
m e n t p a p e r s p i c t u r e d t h e r e h a d g i v e n t h e c o m m i t t e e t h e k i n d
o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h w o u l d f i n a l l y c r a c k t h e Hi s s - C h a m b e r s
c a s e . An d t h e r e w a s p l e n t y o f t h i s e v i d e n c e . C a r e f u l l y d e v e l -
o p e d a t t h e V e t e r a n s Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n p h o t o g r a p h y l a b o r a t o r y ,
t h e p r i n t s m a d e a p i l e o v e r f o u r f e e t h i g h .
T h e f o l l o w i n g Su n d a y , De c e m b e r 5 t h , Ni x o n w a s b a c k i n
W a s h i n g t o n d i r e c t i n g t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s o p e r a t i o n s . Hi s f i r s t
a c t w a s t o h a v e St r i p l i n g d e t e r m i n e t h e d a t e o f m a n u f a c t u r e
o f t h e p r e c i o u s m i c r o f i l m
. On Mo n d a y m o r n i n g , St r i p l i n g
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 1 9
c a l l e d i n Ma u r i c e L e w i s , t h e Ea s t m a n K o d a k r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
f o r t h e W a s h i n g t o n a r e a
. L e w i s e x a m i n e d t h e f i l m , j o t t e d
d o w n i t s s e r i a l n u m b e r , a n d c h e c k e d w i t h h i s c o m p a n y i n
Ro c h e s t e r
.
An h o u r l a t e r , L e w i s c a l l e d w i t h a p i e c e o f d i s c o n c e r t i n g
n e w s . T h e f i l m h a d b e e n m a n u f a c t u r e d i n 1 9 4 7
. C o m m i t t e e
m e m b e r s h i t t h e c e i l i n g . Ho w c o u l d C h a m b e r s h a v e h i d d e n
t h e o n e - y e a r - o l d f i l m t e n y e a r s a g o ? C o u l d h i s e n t i r e s t o r y
o f t h e d o c u m e n t s b e a f a b r i c a t i o n , p u t t o g e t h e r a t t h e l a s t
m i n u t e t o c l e a r h i m s e l f o f l i b e l ? Fo r a n h o u r a n d a h a l f , t h e
c o m m i t t e e s t e w e d
. C h a m b e r s w a s c a l l e d i n a n d c h a l l e n g e d
t o e x p l a i n t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e . T h e n L e w i s c a l l e d a g a i n , a p o l o -
g e t i c a l l y . Ro c h e s t e r h a d j u s t p h o n e d h i m , h e s a i d , t o c o r r e c t
t h e e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t
. T h e f i l m h a d b e e n m a d e i n 1 9 3 7 a f t e r
a l l . Ni x o n s i g h e d w i t h r e l i e f a n d p l u n g e d a h e a d w i t h t h e
i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
W h i l e o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e b a s k e d h a p p i l y i n
t h e h e a d l i n e s , e n j o y i n g t h e k i n d o f p u b l i c a p p r o b a t i o n i t s e l -
d o m g o t , Ni x o n w a s c o n s u l t i n g w i t h f o r m e r U n d e r s e c r e t a r y
o f St a t e Su m n e r W e l l e s a n d As s i s t a n t Se c r e t a r y J o h n E .
P e u r i f o y , t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r
. W o u l d i t b e s a f e
t o p u b l i s h t h e d o c u m e n t s ? Or d i d t h e i r c o n t e n t s , a f t e r t e n
y e a r s , s t i l l i n v o l v e t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y ? B o t h W e l l e s a n d
P e u r i f o y a g r e e d t h a t t o p u b l i s h t h e p a p e r s a t t h e t i m e m i g h t
b e r i s k y . T h e c o m m i t t e e c o n t e n t e d i t s e l f w i t h v a g u e d e s c r i p -
t i o n s o f w h a t t h e p u m p k i n p a p e r s c o n t a i n e d .
T h e h u l l a b a l o o t h a t f o l l o w e d f o r c e d t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t -
m e n t ' s h a n d . C a m p b e l l i n s t r u c t e d Mc Go h e y t o r e c o n v e n e t h e
g r a n d j u r y o n Mo n d a y , De c e m b e r 6 t h , i n s t e a d o f o n t h e 8 t h
a s p r e v i o u s l y o r d e r e d
. Su b p o e n a s w e r e i s s u e d t o C h a m b e r s ,
Hi s s , a n d o t h e r s , h o p i n g t o f o r e s t a l l t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e b e f o r e
t h e U n - Am e r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s C o m m i t t e e
. B u t t h i s d i d n o t
d e t e r Ni x o n
. On t h e d a y t h e g r a n d j u r y b e g a n h e a r i n g i t s
w i t n e s s e s , h e s h o w e d u p i n Ne w Y o r k , a c c o m p a n i e d b y o t h e r
m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e .
2 2 0

SEEDSOFT REASON
Mc Go h e y m e t t h e m a t t h e t r a i n a n d f o l l o w e d t h e m t o t h e
C o m m o d o r e Ho t e l , p l e a d i n g t h a t C h a m b e r s a n d Hi s s b e l e f t
a l o n e w h i l e t h e y w e r e u n d e r g r a n d j u r y s u b p o e n a . B u t Ni x o n ,
w h o h a d l i t t l e f a i t h i n t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t ' s m o t i v e s , i n -
s i s t e d t h a t h e w o u l d n o t b e d e t e r r e d f r o m h o l d i n g a n e x e c u -
t i v e s e s s i o n i n Ne w Y o r k . T h e c o m m i t t e e ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n h a d
b r o u g h t t h e c a s e t o i t s c l i m a x , h e a r g u e d , d e s p i t e t h e h o s t i l e
l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n
. W h a t p r o o f h a d
h e t h a t t h e At t o r n e y Ge n e r a l m e a n t t o p r e s s t h e c a s e t o a n
i n d i c t m e n t ? As t h e a r g u m e n t b e c a m e h e a t e d , b o t h Mc Go h e y
a n d Ni x o n l o s t t h e i r t e m p e r s .
W h e n t h e d i s c u s s i o n d e s c e n d e d t o e x p l e t i v e s , St r i p l i n g
t h r e w o p e n t h e h o t e l w i n d o w a n d s a i d b i t t e r l y , " W e m i g h t
a s w e l l l e t t h e m h e a r a b o u t i t o n Fi f t h Av e n u e . " T h i s q u i e t e d
t h e s h o u t e r s . W h e n t h e c o m m i t t e e a n d Mc Go h e y e m e r g e d
f r o m t h e r o o m , t h e y w e r e t a l k i n g " c o o p e r a t i o n " a n d Ni x o n
h a d a g r e e d t o h o l d o f f h i s p r o j e c t e d i n t e r v i e w w i t h C h a m -
b e r s . B u t t h e a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t
a n d t h e U n - Am e r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s C o m m i t t e e w a s t o o i n g r a i n e d
t o b e t a l k e d o u t o f e x i s t e n c e .
It s c a u s e s w e r e m a n y . T h e r e w a s , t o b e g i n w i t h , t h e n a t u r a l
l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h h a s a l w a y s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e
l e g i s l a t i v e a n d t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h e s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t .
T h e r e w a s , a l s o , a p a r t i c u l a r a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d t h e c o m m i t t e e
w h i c h w e n t b a c k t o t h e d a y s o f Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Ma r t i n Di e s
.
T h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d g o o d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o m -
m i t t e e h a d a b u s e d i t s i n v e s t i g a t o r y p o w e r s t i m e a n d a g a i n ,
n o t t o r o o t o u t C o m m u n i s t s b u t t o t a r t h e Ne w De a l . Me n
l i k e Da v i d Sa p o s s , o f g o o d r e p u t a t i o n a n d s o u n d a n t i - C o m -
m u n i s m , h a d b e e n h o u n d e d b y t h e Di e s C o m m i t t e e m e r e l y
b e c a u s e t h e y s p o k e w i t h a
s l i g h t a c c e n t a n d w e r e J e w s . In
t h e c a s e o f C h a m b e r s , t h e J u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t c l a i m e d t h a t
i n i t s e a g e r n e s s t o m a k e h e a d l i n e s t h e c o m m i t t e e h a d b e e n
w i l l i n g t o j e o p a r d i z e b y p r e m a t u r e r e v e l a t i o n s a n y c h a n c e o f
b r e a k i n g t h e s p y c a s e a n d j a i l i n g t h e c u l p r i t s .
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2 2 1
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c o m m i t t e e c o u l d a r g u e c o n v i n c -
i n g l y t h a t t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t w a s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n
s u p p r e s s i n g e v i d e n c e o f e s p i o n a g e i n o r d e r t o s a v e t h e Ad -
m i n i s t r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , a n d t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t p a r t i c u -
l a r l y , f r o m e m b a r r a s s m e n t
. T h e c o m m i t t e e c o u l d c i t e e x a m -
p l e a f t e r e x a m p l e - s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e Am e r a s i a c a s e - t o s h o w
t h a t t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d n o r e a l d e s i r e t o r o o t o u t C o m -
m u n i s t e l e m e n t s i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t
. On o n e p o i n t , t h e c o m -
m i t t e e c o u l d s p e a k w i t h n o f e a r o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n
. Fr o m t h e
s t a r t , t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t h a d c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t
w a s m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n n a i l i n g C h a m b e r s - t h e s t a r w i t n e s s -
t h a n i n b r i n g i n g Hi s s a n d t h e o t h e r c u l p r i t s t o t r i a l
. W h a t -
e v e r m i g h t b e s a i d o f i t s p u b l i c i t y - s e e k i n g p r o c l i v i t i e s , t h e
c o m m i t t e e h a d b e e n t h e f i r s t t o f o r c e i n t o t h e o p e n a s p e c t s
w h i c h t h e FB Ih a d f a i l e d t o u n c o v e r o f t h e m o s t s e r i o u s c a s e
o f e s p i o n a g e i n Am e r i c a n h i s t o r y
.
W h e n t h e g r a n d j u r y r e c o n v e n e d o n Mo n d a y , De c e m b e r
6 t h , t h e m e r e n a m e s o f t h e w i t n e s s e s m a d e c o p y f o r t h e n e w s -
p a p e r s
: Al g e r a n d Do n a l d Hi s s , W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s , Mr s .
P r i s c i l l a Hi s s , a n d s o o n
. B u t n a m e s a n d c o n j e c t u r e s w e r e a l l
t h a t r e p o r t e r s h a d t o g o o n
. T h e r e a l s t o r i e s b e g a n t h e f o l l o w -
i n g d a y w h e n t h e Ho u s e C o m m i t t e e r e s u m e d i t s s e s s i o n s .
Ir o n i c a l l y , t h e t e s t i m o n y m o s t d a m a g i n g t o Hi s s c a m e f r o m
t h r e e f o r m e r a s s o c i a t e s
: e x - U n d e r s e c r e t a r y o f St a t e Su m n e r
W e l l e s , As s i s t a n t Se c r e t a r y J o h n P e u r i f o y , a n d As s i s t a n t
Se c r e t a r y Fr a n c i s B
. Sa y r e .
W e l l e s m a d e i t v e r y c l e a r t h a t " u n d e r n o c o n s i d e r a t i o n
w h a t e v e r " c o u l d
a n y d o c u m e n t s b e r e m o v e d " f o r a n y p u r -
p o s e f r o m t h e [ St a t e ] De p a r t m e n t . " He m a d e i t e q u a l l y c l e a r
t h a t t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e p u m p k i n p a p e r s t o u n a u t h o r i z e d h a n d s
i n 1 9 3 8 w o u l d b e " i n t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e p r e j u d i c i a l , a n d i n
t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e d a n g e r o u s , t o t h e n a t i o n ' s i n t e r e s t . " So m e
o f t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e s t i l l t o o c o n f i d e n t i a l , t e n y e a r s l a t e r ,
t o b e r e l e a s e d
. T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s , w i t h i n
t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t , h e a d d e d w o u l d h a v e b e e n " e x t r e m e l y
2 2 2

SEEDSOFT REASON
r e s t r i c t e d , " t o b e " k e p t u n d e r l o c k a n d k e y . " T o h a v e d e l i v -
e r e d t h e d o c u m e n t s t o a f o r e i g n p o w e r w o u l d h a v e m e a n t t o
d e l i v e r a l s o t h e m e a n s o f b r e a k i n g o u r m o s t s e c r e t c o d e s .
P e u r i f o y n a i l e d t h e l i d d o w n e v e n t i g h t e r o n Hi s s . In
a n s w e r t o a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n , h e a g r e e d t h a t r e m o v a l o f t h e
d o c u m e n t s i n q u e s t i o n f r o m t h e De p a r t m e n t w o u l d b e
p r i m a
f a c i e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n t a k e n f o r a p u r p o s e d e t r i -
m e n t a l t o t h e U n i t e d St a t e s .
" W o u l d i t b e a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e l a w f o r [ a St a t e De p a r t m e n t
o f f i c i a l ] t o c o p y [ a d o c u m e n t ] f o r h i s o w n p e r s o n a l u s e ? "
Ra n k i n a s k e d .
" W e l l , h e m i g h t m a k e a p a r a p h r a s e , d i c t a t e i t t o a s t e n o g -
r a p h e r , i n o r d e r t o p a s s i t t o a n o t h e r o f f i c i a l , b u t i f y o u m e a n
t a k i n g a p e n c i l a n d w r i t i n g i t o u t , Iw o u l d s a y t h a t w o u l d b e
a v e r y u n u s u a l p r o c e d u r e . "
P r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e f o u r m e m o r a n d a i n Hi s s ' h a n d w r i t i n g ,
P e u r i f o y a n s w e r e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y : " Iw o u l d r e g a r d a n y o n e
m a k i n g n o t e s o f w h a t Ih a v e s e e n h e r e , i n p e r s o n a l h a n d -
w r i t i n g , a n d t a k i n g t h e m o u t o f t h e De p a r t m e n t , a s v i o l a t i n g
a l l t h e s e c u r i t y r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e De p a r t m e n t . "
" W o u l d t h e r e b e a n y r e a s o n f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l t o m a k e a
m e m o r a n d u m s u c h a s y o u h a v e j u s t l o o k e d a t , i n h i s o w n
h a n d w r i t i n g ? " He b e r t p r e s s e d .
" No s i r ; n o t i n m y j u d g m e n t , " P e u r i f o y a n s w e r e d .
" Y o u w o u l d h a v e t o a s s u m e t h a t h e d i d i t f o r s o m e u l t e r i o r
m o t i v e ? "
" It h i n k t h a t i s r i g h t , " s a i d t h e As s i s t a n t Se c r e t a r y
. " U n d e r
t h e Y a r d l e y Ac t
. . . a p e r s o n w o u l d b e l i a b l e t o a $ 1 0 , 0 0 0
f i n e , a n d It h i n k u p t o t e n y e a r s i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r d o i n g s u c h
a t h i n g . "
Sa y r e ' s t e s t i m o n y , t a k e n i n s e c r e t s e s s i o n a n d n e v e r p u b -
l i s h e d , d i d Al g e r Hi s s n o g o o d . W h a t t h e f o r m e r As s i s t a n t
Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e s a i d w a s d o u b l y d a m a g i n g b e c a u s e h e w a s
t h o r o u g h l y r e l u c t a n t t o t e s t i f y a g a i n s t a f r i e n d . Y e t b y i n -
d i r e c t i o n , h e s e e m e d t o p o i n t t h e f i n g e r s t r a i g h t a t Hi s s . St a t -
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2
2
3
i n g c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t o n l y h e , t h e t w o u n q u e s t i o n a b l y l o y a l
o f f i c e s e c r e t a r i e s , a n d Al g e r h a d a c c e s s t o t h e f i l e s , Sa y r e
n o t e d t h a t i n h i s o f f i c e t h e s e f i l e s " w e r e k e p t l o c k e d a l w a y s . "
Re l u c t a n t l y , h e a d m i t t e d t h a t t h r e e o f t h e d o c u m e n t s c o u l d
h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d o n l y f r o m h i s o f f i c e a n d o n l y b y Hi s s o r
t h e t w o s e c r e t a r i e s . T h e Q . & A . o n t h e d o c u m e n t s w a s p a r -
t i c u l a r l y d e v a s t a t i n g .
Ni x o n . Di d Mr . Hi s s , a t h i s h o m e , h a v e a s o n e o f h i s d u t i e s t h e
p a r a p h r a s i n g o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s a n d b r i n g i n g t h e m b a c k t o y o u
i n t h i s w a y ?
Sa y r e . T h e a n s w e r i s " No . "
L i t t l e b y l i t t l e , a s t h e q u e s t i o n i n g p r o g r e s s e d , d o u b t s b e g a n
t o g r o w i n Sa y r e ' s m i n d . " It i s a c r i m e o f s u c h g r a v i t y t h a t I
y e t c a n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t Al g e r Hi s s w o u l d i n d u l g e i n i t
. Ma y b e
h e d i d . "
" Do y o u a g r e e t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g i m p o r t a n t o r n o t h i n g
w r o n g w i t h t u r n i n g t h i s s t u f f o v e r ? " Ni x o n a s k e d , c o m m e n t -
i n g o n p r e s s r e p o r t s t h a t t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t w a s n o t t o o
h o r r i f i e d b y t h e t h e f t o f t h e d o c u m e n t s .
Sa y r e . Iv i o l e n t l y d i s a g r e e , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e s u b s t a n c e o f
t h e s e c a b l e s , b u t b e c a u s e s o m e o f t h e m w e r e i n t h e h i g h l y c o n -
f i d e n t i a l c o d e s
;
.
. . An d f o r t h e s e t e l e g r a m s t o g e t o u t a t t h e
t i m e t h e y d i d m e a n t t h a t o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s c o u l d c r a c k o u r
c o d e s a n d t h a t , It h i n k , i s i n d e s c r i b a b l y h o r r i b l e .
Ra n k i n . In o t h e r w o r d s , i f t h e y g o t t h e s e d o c u m e n t s , i f t h e y
w e r e a b s o l u t e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i n t e r n a -
t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , t h e y c o u l d c r a c k t h e c o d e s w i t h o u t t r o u b l e .
Sa y r e . T h e o t h e r p o i n t i s t h a t s o m e o f t h e s e c a b l e s r e v e a l
s o u r c e s f r o m w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d , s o u r c e s p l a n t e d i n
f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . No w y o u m a k e a c a b l e o f t h i s k i n d k n o w n , y o u
c u t o f f t h a t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a n o t h e r c o u n t r y , a n d y o u
k i l l w h a t y o u h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g o n f o r y e a r s .
T w o d a y s l a t e r , He n r y J u l i a n W a d l e i g h , a s l e n d e r m a n i n
s h e l l - r i m m e d g l a s s e s , w h o h a d a l r e a d y t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e
g r a n d j u r y , c a m e b e f o r e t h e c o m m i t t e e i n W a s h i n g t o n
. Hi s
f a c e g a u n t a n d h i s h a n d s s h a k i n g , W a d l e i g h c h a i n - s m o k e d
2 2 4 SEEDSOFT REASON
t h r o u g h o u t t h e o n e a n d a h a l f h o u r s h e s a t o n t h e s t a n d . B u t
t h o u g h h e r e t i r e d b e h i n d t h e n o w - o v e r w o r k e d f o r m u l a o f " I
r e f u s e t o t e s t i f y o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t Im a y i n c r i m i n a t e m y -
s e l f , " h i s n e r v o u s n e s s w a s s u c h t h a t n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r s
a g r e e d h e w o u l d s u r e l y c r a c k . W i t h i n f o r t y - e i g h t h o u r s , h e
h a d t o l d h i s s t o r y t o t h e g r a n d j u r y .
T h e s a m e n e w s p a p e r w h i c h c a r r i e d t h e s t o r y o f W a d l e i g h ' s
p e r f o r m a n c e a l s o c a r r i e d a n o t h e r Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n b l a s t a t t h e
c o m m i t t e e . Ev e n t h e c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e w h i c h h a d f i n a l l y
b e e n p r o d u c e d d i d n o t r e s t r a i n t h e P r e s i d e n t f r o m r e p e a t i n g
h i s " r e d - h e r r i n g " c h a r g e s
. T h e c o m m i t t e e w a s " d e a d , " h e s a i d
w i t h a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f r e l i s h .
Al l t h i s , o f c o u r s e , w a s w i n d o w d r e s s i n g
. T h e r e a l a c t i o n
w a s t a k i n g p l a c e e l s e w h e r e . B o t h t h e FB Ia n d t h e g r a n d j u r y
w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o a n s w e r o n e b i g q u e s t i o n : c o u l d Hi s s b e
l i n k e d w i t h t h e C h a m b e r s p u m p k i n p a p e r s ? An e a r l y e x a m i -
n a t i o n o f t h e s e p a p e r s h a d r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n t y p e d
o n a 1 9 2 8 W o o d s t o c k t y p e w r i t e r
. Su c h a m a c h i n e h a d b e e n
g i v e n P r i s c i l l a Hi s s b y h e r f a t h e r . It w a s k n o w n t h a t t h i s
t y p e w r i t e r h a d b e e n i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e Hi s s e s i n 1 9 3 8
.
B u t b e t w e e n a W o o d s t o c k a n d t h e W o o d s t o c k , t h e r e w a s a
s i z a b l e g a p .
W h i l e t h e g r a n d j u r y
a t t e m p t e d t o e x t r a c t t e s t i m o n y f r o m
r e c a l c i t r a n t w i t n e s s e s , t h e FB Iw e n t a b o u t i t s w o r k
. Fi r s t i t
w a s l e a r n e d , b y c h e c k i n g p r o c u r e m e n t r e c o r d s , t h a t n o
W o o d s t o c k s h a d e v e r b e e n u s e d i n Hi s s ' o f f i c e . T h i s c l e a r e d
u p o n e p o i n t : t h e d o c u m e n t s h a d b e e n t y p e d o u t s i d e o f t h e
St a t e De p a r t m e n t . T h e b i g p r o b l e m w a s n o w t o f i n d t h e Hi s s
W o o d s t o c k . Fa i l i n g t h a t , t h e FB Ih o p e d t o u n e a r t h l e t t e r s o r
p a p e r s t y p e d o n t h e Hi s s m a c h i n e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e s p i o n -
a g e a c t i v i t i e s
. *
* T h e Hi s s e s w e r e a s k e d t o s u b m i t s p e c i m e n s o f t y p i n g f r o m a n y m a -
c h i n e s t h e y h a d o w n e d . T h e y r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y h a d n o t y e t u n c o v e r e d a n y
s a m p l e s f r o m t h e W o o d s t o c k . T h i s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t Mr s . Hi s s h a d
a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d f r o m B r y n Ma w r a t h r e e - p a g e r e p o r t t o t h e a l u m n a e
a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h s h e h a d t y p e d o n t h e W o o d s t o c k .
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 2 5
On Fr i d a y De c e m b e r 1 0 t h , t h e f o r e m a n o f t h e g r a n d j u r y
n o t i f i e d s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n t At t o r n e y Ge n e r a l Do n e g a n t h a t t h e
j u r o r s c o u l d f i n d n o i n d i c t m e n t . * In s t e a d t h e y i n t e n d e d t o
i s s u e a r e p o r t c o n d e m n i n g t h e U n - Am e r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s C o m -
m i t t e e f o r i t s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t m a t t e r s
. B u t
o v e r t h e w e e k - e n d , t h e FB Is t r u c k p a y d i r t
. On Mo n d a y
m o r n i n g , w i t h d r a m a t i c s u d d e n n e s s ,
i t t u r n e d o v e r t o
Do n e g a n t w o p a p e r s t y p e d o n t h e o r i g i n a l W o o d s t o c k - a
l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y Hi s s t o h i s i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n y a n d o n e Mr s
.
Hi s s h a d w r i t t e n t o t h e h e a d m a s t e r o f h e r s o n ' s s c h o o l
. B o t h
w e r e d a t e d 1 9 3 7 . Ma t c h e d a g a i n s t t h e t y p i n g o n t h e p u m p k i n
p a p e r s , t h e t y p e f a c e s a n d t h e t y p e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e t w o
s e t s w e r e f o u n d t o b e i d e n t i c a l . f
B u t w h i l e t h e t r a p w a s b e i n g b a i t e d , t h e g r a n d j u r y w a s
a l s o s e e k i n g c o r r o b o r a t i v e e v i d e n c e f r o m o t h e r s n a m e d i n
C h a m b e r s ' c h a r g e
. Ea c h o f t h e s e w i t n e s s e s , a s h e w e n t i n ,
g l a n c e d a t a n a p p a r e n t l y u n c o n c e r n e d Hi s s , w a i t i n g i n t h e
a n t e r o o m . W h e n He d e Ma s s i n g e m e r g e d , s h e w e n t o v e r t o
Al g e r . He g a v e h e r a c a l m s m i l e a s s h e r e p e a t e d t h e s u b -
s t a n c e o f h e r i n c r i m i n a t i n g t e s t i m o n y .
" V e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , " h e s a i d . " T h a n k y o u f o r c o m i n g
. No
d o u b t y o u t h i n k y o u a r e d o i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s e r v i c e , b u t
In e v e r s a w y o u b e f o r e . "
W i t h t h e t r a p r e a d y f o r s p r i n g i n g , Al e x C a m p b e l l c a l l e d i n
Hi s s a n d Ed w a r d Mc L e a n , o n e o f h i s l a w y e r s
. " I' m c o n v i n c e d
y o u c o m m i t t e d e s p i o n a g e , " C a m p b e l l t o l d t h e e x - o f f i c i a l .
" Y o u ' v e s e e n C h a m b e r s , W a d l e i g h , a n d o t h e r s g o i n a n d c o n -
f e s s . If y o u d o t h e s a m e , i t w i l l g o e a s i e r w i t h y o u
. " Sm i l i n g l y ,
Hi s s c o n t i n u e d t o d e n y a l l . " I' m a l s o c o n v i n c e d t h a t y o u c o m -
m i t t e d p e r j u r y , " C a m p b e l l c o n t i n u e d .
" W h a t y o u s a y d o e s n ' t i n t e r e s t m e , Mr
. C a m p b e l l , " Hi s s
On t h e s a m e d a y i n Ra d i o C i t y o f f i c e s o f T i m e , C h a m b e r s r e s i g n e d h i s
s e n i o r e d i t o r s h i p i n o r d e r n o t t o e m b a r r a s s t h e m a g a z i n e f u r t h e r . Q u i c k l y
a n d g r a t e f u l l y h i s r e s i g n a t i o n w a s a c c e p t e d
.
t On Mo n d a y , t o o , Hi s s s u b m i t t e d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n t o t h e b o a r d o f t r u s t e e s
o f t h e C a r n e g i e En d o w m e n t f o r In t e r n a t i o n a l P e a c e
. It w a s t a b l e d , a n d Hi s s
w a s g i v e n a l e a v e o f a b s e n c e w i t h p a y .
2 2 6

SEEDSOFT REASON
s a i d , b r e a k i n g i n b e f o r e Mc L e a n c o u l d s p e a k
. " I' v e n o t h i n g
t o c o n f e s s
. It o l d n o l i e s . Ij u s t d o n ' t k n o w w h a t y o u ' r e t a l k -
i n g a b o u t . " Fi v e d a y s l a t e r , o n W e d n e s d a y , De c e m b e r 1 5 t h ,
Hi s s w a s c a l l e d i n a n d s w o r n . Mo s t m e t i c u l o u s l y , t h e g r a n d
j u r y m o v e d a h e a d .
" Mr . Hi s s , y o u h a v e p r o b a b l y b e e n a s k e d t h i s q u e s t i o n b e -
f o r e , b u t I' d l i k e t o a s k t h e q u e s t i o n a g a i n , " Do n e g a n b e g a n .
" At a n y t i m e d i d y o u , o r Mr s . Hi s s i n y o u r p r e s e n c e , t u r n a n y
d o c u m e n t s o f t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t o r o f a n y o t h e r g o v e r n -
m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o v e r t o W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s ? "
Hi s s ' d e n i a l w a s b y n o w r o u t i n e . " Ne v e r . Ex c e p t i n g , I
a s s u m e , t h e t i t l e c e r t i f i c a t e t o t h e Fo r d . "
" T o n o b o d y e l s e d i d y o u t u r n o v e r a n y d o c u m e n t s , t o a n y
o t h e r p e r s o n , " a j u r o r a s k e d .
" An d t o n o o t h e r u n a u t h o r i z e d p e r s o n , " Hi s s a n s w e r e d .
No w t h e q u e s t i o n i n g s h i f t e d . " Mr
. Hi s s , Mr . C h a m b e r s h a s
t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e o b t a i n e d t y p e w r i t t e n c o p i e s o f o f f i c i a l St a t e
De p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s f r o m y o u , " h e w a s t o l d .
" Ik n o w t h a t . "
" Di d y o u e v e r s e e Mr . C h a m b e r s a f t e r y o u w e n t i n t o t h e
St a t e De p a r t m e n t ? "
" Id o n o t b e l i e v e Id i d , " Hi s s a n s w e r e d
. " Ic a n n o t s w e a r
t h a t Id i d n o t s e e h i m s o m e t i m e , s a y , i n t h e f a l l o f ' 3 6 . .
" C a n y o u s a y d e f i n i t e l y t h a t y o u d i d n o t s e e h i m a f t e r
J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 3 7 ? "
" Y e s , It h i n k Ic a n d e f i n i t e l y s a y t h a t , " Hi s s s a i d . T h e t r a p
s n a p p e d s h u t .
Ne x t t h e t y p e w r i t e r e v i d e n c e w a s p r e s e n t e d t o h i m . Ho w
c o u l d h e a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p u r l o i n e d d o c u m e n t s
h a d b e e n c o p i e d o n a m a c h i n e w h i c h w a s i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n a t
t h e t i m e ? C o u l d h e e x p l a i n a w a y t w o h u n d r e d p a g e s o f t y p e -
s c r i p t ? Hi s s ' a n s w e r c a m e q u i c k l y
.
" Ia m a m a z e d
; a n d u n t i l t h e d a y Id i e Is h a l l w o n d e r h o w
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s g o t i n t o m y h o u s e t o u s e m y t y p e -
w r i t e r , " h e s a i d b l a n d l y .
L IB EL SANDP U MP K INS

2 2 7
T h e j u r y l a u g h e d o u t l o u d .
If Hi s s w a s t o b e b e l i e v e d , C h a m b e r s h a d s o m e h o w m a d e
h i s w a y i n t o t h e h o u s e o n v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s , a v o i d i n g a l l
m e m b e r s o f t h e f a m i l y , a n d b u s i l y c o p i e d t w o h u n d r e d p a g e s
o f d o c u m e n t s w h i c h s h o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n t h e r e i n t h e f i r s t
p l a c e . T h e j u r y a c t e d w i t h d e s p a t c h . T h e s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a -
t i o n s p r e v e n t e d i t f r o m b r i n g i n g e s p i o n a g e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t
Hi s s . It d i d t h e n e x t b e s t t h i n g
; i t h a n d e d d o w n a p e r j u r y i n -
d i c t m e n t , c h a r g i n g t h a t Hi s s h a s ( 1 ) l i e d u n d e r o a t h b y
d e n y i n g t h a t h e t r a n s m i t t e d c o p i e s o f s e c r e t d o c u m e n t s t o
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s , a n d ( 2 ) l i e d a g a i n b y c l a i m i n g t h a t h e
h a d n o t s e e n a n d c o n v e r s e d w i t h C h a m b e r s a f t e r J a n u a r y
1 , 1 9 3 7 .
T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , a t h i n a n d s o b e r - f a c e d Al g e r Hi s s s t o o d
b e f o r e j u d g e J o h n W
. C l a n c y i n a t h i r d - f l o o r c o u r t r o o m o f
t h e U n i t e d St a t e s C o u r t h o u s e i n Ne w Y o r k .
" Ho w d o y o u p l e a d ? " t h e c l e r k a s k e d .
" No t g u i l t y t o b o t h c o u n t s , " s a i d Hi s s f i r m l y i n a v o i c e s o
r e s o n a n t t h a t i t c a r r i e d t o e v e r y p a r t o f t h e c o u r t r o o m . W i t h
b a i l f i x e d a t $ 5 , 0 0 0 , s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n t At t o r n e y Ge n e r a l Ra y -
m o n d P . W h e a r t y s a i d t o t h e j u d g e , " No w Ia s k t h a t t h e
d e f e n d a n t b e p h o t o g r a p h e d a n d f i n g e r p r i n t e d a s a c o n d i t i o n
o f b a i l . "
Ac c o m p a n i e d b y t w o FB Ia g e n t s , t h e b r i g h t y o u n g c a r e e r -
i s t w h o h a d s a t n e x t t o Ro o s e v e l t a n d St a l i n a t Y a l t a l e f t t h e
c o u r t f o r t h e s i x t h - f l o o r r o o m w h e r e h e w o u l d b e " m u g g e d "
l i k e a c o m m o n c r i m i n a l . It w a s a c o l d d a y , a d a y o f d r i v i n g
r a i n , a n d t h e s h i v e r o f t r a g e d y w a s i n t h e a i r . In W a s h i n g t o n ,
Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Mu n d t w o u l d s a y " Ih o p e t h a t n o b o d y a n y -
w h e r e w i l l e v e r r e f e r t o t h i s c a s e a g a i n a s a r e d h e r r i n g . "
In Ne w Y o r k , a s t h e w i n t e r g l o o m s e t t l e d o v e r t h e c i t y ,
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s s a i d q u i e t l y , " Iw o u l d b e l e s s t h a n
h u m a n i f Ic o u l d t a k e a n y p l e a s u r e i n Al g e r Hi s s ' p e r s o n a l
t r o u b l e s . " T h i s w a s t h e m e a s u r e o f t h e m a n .
1 7
T h e T r i a l o f Al g e r Hi s s
T r =z W AS NOP ROFESSIONAL DET AC HMENT AB OU T
t h e r e p o r t e r s w h o w a i t e d i n t h e t h i r d - f l o o r c o r r i d o r o f Ne w
Y o r k ' s Fe d e r a l C o u r t h o u s e o n Ma y 3 1 , 1 9 4 9 . T h e y b r o k e u p
i n t o l i t t l e g r o u p s , a r g u i n g q u i e t l y o r a n g r i l y o v e r t h e i n n o -
c e n c e o r g u i l t o f Al g e r Hi s s . T h e r e w a s t e n s i o n a n d a n x i e t y
i n t h e a i r . Af t e r s i x p o s t p o n e m e n t s , d r a g g e d o u t o v e r f i v e a n d
o n e h a l f m o n t h s , t h e Hi s s p e r j u r y t r i a l w a s a b o u t t o b e g i n
.
W h e n s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n t At t o r n e y Ge n e r a l T h o m a s J . Do n e g a n
a n d As s i s t a n t U n i t e d St a t e s At t o r n e y T h o m a s F . Mu r p h y
a p p e a r e d , t h e y w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r o u n d e d b y r e p o r t e r s .
W o u l d i t b e a l o n g t r i a l , t h e y a s k e d . Di d t h e g o v e r n m e n t
h a v e a g o o d c a s e ?
" W e ' v e g o t p l e n t y o f c o g e n t e v i d e n c e , " T o m Mu r p h y t o l d
t h e m .
Sh o r t l y b e f o r e 1 1 : 3 0 A. M . , Al g e r a n d P r i s c i l l a Hi s s s a u n -
t e r e d t o w a r d t h e c o u r t h o u s e d o o r s . W i t h t h e m w a s t h e i r
c h i e f c o u n s e l , L l o y d P a u l St r y k e r , r e d - f a c e d , c r o p - h a i r e d ,
e b u l l i e n t . As t h e d e f e n s e a n d t h e p r o s e c u t i o n m o v e d t o t h e i r
t a b l e s w i t h i n t h e p e n o f t h e c o u r t r o o m , t h e r e w a s a s t i r a n d
a r u s t l e
. " Al l r i s e , " a b a i l i f f c o m m a n d e d , a n d j u d g e Sa m u e l
H
. K a u f m a n t o o k h i s s e a t a t t h e b e n c h . As m a l l , s h a r p - f a c e d
m a n , h i s r o l e i n t h e t r i a l w a s t o s t i r u p h e a t e d c o n t r o v e r s y .
Hi s
r e c o r d a s a T r u m a n a p p o i n t e e , t h e f a c t t h a t h e w a s
t r y i n g h i s f i r s t i m p o r t a n t c a s e , a n d h i s p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l
i n d e b t e d n e s s t o St r y k e r w e r e t o b e r a k e d o v e r i n t h e n e w s -
2 2 8
T HE T RIAL OFAL GER HISS

2 2 0
p a p e r s . B u t a t t h i s m o m e n t , h e w a s
j u s t a j u d g e , t o r n b e t w e e n
a f f a b i l i t y a n d s t e r n n e s s .
B e f o r e h i m l a y t h e s t a g e o n w h i c h t h e c r u c i a l s c e n e i n t h e
l o n g d r a m a w a s t o b e p l a y e d . T h e a c t o r s h a d t h e i r r o l e s . T h e
s c r i p t w a s y e t t o b e w r i t t e n . T h e r e w a s T o m Mu r p h y , 6 f e e t
4 i n c h e s t a l l a n d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y b r o a d , s o f t - s p o k e n a n d
d e l i b e r a t e , a n o u t s i z e m o u s t a c h e s h i e l d i n g a g e n t l e f a c e . He
w a s a v e t e r a n o f t h e j u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t ' s c r i m i n a l d i v i s i o n ,
b u t t h i s c a s e f o c u s s e d o n h i m t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n ' s
p r e s s . An d t h e r e w a s St r y k e r w h o s e r e p u t a t i o n a s a m a s t e r
o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n g l i t t e r e d . He h a d w o n a n d l o s t i m p o r -
t a n t c a s e s , b u t t h e p y r o t e c h n i c s o f h i s p e r f o r m a n c e n e v e r
f a i l e d t o e n t r a n c e t h e a u d i e n c e . In t h e p r o t r a c t e d d u e l t o
c o m e , e a c h l a w y e r w o u l d u s e h i s w i t n e s s e s a s f o i l s .
He w o u l d p r o v e , s a i d Mu r p h y i n h i s o p e n i n g s t a t e m e n t ,
t h a t Al g e r Hi s s h a d t a k e n d o c u m e n t s w h o l e s a l e f r o m t h e
St a t e De p a r t m e n t . He w o u l d s h o w t h a t t h e s e w e r e t y p e d o n
Hi s s ' W o o d s t o c k t y p e w r i t e r f o r t r a n s m i t t a l t o C o l o n e l B o r i s
B y k o v i n Ne w Y o r k . T h e g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t h a v e t h e t y p e -
w r i t e r , b u t i t d i d h a v e l e t t e r s t y p e d b y Mr s
. Hi s s a n d e x p e r t s
w o u l d p r o v e t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n w r i t t e n o n t h e s a m e m a c h i n e
a s t h e d o c u m e n t s . " W e w i l l c o r r o b o r a t e Mr . C h a m b e r s ' t e s t i -
m o n y b y t h e t y p e w r i t e r a n d t h e h a n d w r i t i n g o f t h e m e m o s , "
h e s a i d . " U n t i l y o u h a v e h e a r d Mr . C h a m b e r s ' c o m p l e t e
s t o r y y o u w i l l n o t b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o t e s t h i s c r e d i b i l i t y . . .
Iw a n t y o u t o w a t c h t h e c o l o r o f Mr . C h a m b e r s ' f a c e
. . . If
y o u d o n ' t b e l i e v e Mr . C h a m b e r s ' s t o r y , w e h a v e n o c a s e . "
St r y k e r p a c e d b a c k a n d f o r t h r e s t l e s s l y a s h e o u t l i n e d h i s
c a s e
. In t y p i c a l s l a m - b a n g f a s h i o n , h e p i c t u r e d t h e v i r t u e s o f
Al g e r Hi s s , i n v o k i n g t h e s h a d e s o f Ol i v e r W e n d e l l Ho l m e s
a n d Fr a n k l i n D . Ro o s e v e l t . He w a v e d t h e f l a g , r h a p s o d i z e d
o v e r " t h e l a n d Il o v e a n d y o u l o v e " a n d m a r s h a l l e d a n i m p r e s -
s i v e a r r a y o f c l i c h e s t o m a k e h i s p o i n t s
. C h a m b e r s w a s " a
t h i e f , " a m o r a l l e p e r , a p e r j u r e r ,
a f u r t i v e , s e c r e t i v e , d e -
c e p t i v e m a n " e n g a g e d i n a " n e f a r i o u s , l o w - d o w n c o n s p i r a c y , "
h e s a i d - h i s v o i c e r a n g i n g f r o m a s h o u t t o a s i b i l a n t w h i s p e r
.
2 8 0

SEEDSOFT REASON
T h e a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e Hi s s e s w e r e " c o n c o c t e d " b y
C h a m b e r s a n d b y h i s w i f e Es t h e r . Si d e b y s i d e , Al g e r a n d
P r i s c i l l a s a t s t o n y - e y e d a n d s t o n y - j a w e d
. No w a n d t h e n a
w i s p o f a n e n i g m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n p a s s e d o v e r Mr s . Hi s s ' f a c e .
B u t i n t h e e b b a n d f l o w o f St r y k e r ' s t i r a d e , t h e t w o Hi s s e s
s e e m e d r e m o t e a n d a b s t r a c t e d .
T h e n t h e r e a l t r i a l b e g a n
. U n d e r Mu r p h y ' s q u e s t i o n i n g ,
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s b e g a n t e l l i n g t h e l o n g s t o r y o f h i s i n -
v o l v e m e n t i n t h e C o m m u n i s t m o v e m e n t , o f h i s s u b m e r g e n c e
i n t o t h e So v i e t u n d e r g r o u n d , o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Al g e r
Hi s s . He t o l d o f h i s b r e a k w i t h t h e P a r t y a n d h i s l o n g , h a r d
s t r u g g l e t o r i s e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y o f f r e e m e n . T h i s w a s h i s
b a c k g r o u n d , h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e j u r y
. Of m o r e i m m e d i a t e
p e r t i n e n c e w a s t h e g r o u n d w o r k o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h h e l a y f o r
t h e g o v e r n m e n t . He d e s c r i b e d Hi s s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o t u r n o v e r
d o c u m e n t s , h e t o l d o f v i s i t s t o t h e Hi s s h o m e a n d o f r e t u r n e d
c a l l s b y t h e Hi s s e s . He s t u n n e d t h e d e f e n s e b y t e s t i f y i n g t h a t
h e b o r r o w e d $ 4 0 0 f r o m Hi s s i n No v e m b e r , 1 9 3 7 , t o b u y a c a r .
AW a s h i n g t o n b a n k e x e c u t i v e t e s t i f i e d l a t e r i n t h e t r i a l t h a t
o n
No v e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 3 7 , Mr s . Hi s s w i t h d r e w t h a t s u m f r o m
h e r a c c o u n t
. An d a n o f f i c e r o f t h e Sc h m i d t Mo t o r C o m p a n y
t e s t i f i e d t h a t f o u r d a y s a f t e r Mr s
. C h a m b e r s b o u g h t a Fo r d
s e d a n f r o m h i m , p a y i n g $ 4 8 6 i n c a s h .
C h a m b e r s t o l d t h e c o u r t t h a t o n o r d e r s f r o m B y k o v h e h a d
g i v e n Al g e r a B o k h a r a r u g i n 1 9 3 7 - i n p a y m e n t f o r s e r v i c e s
r e n d e r e d t o t h e So v i e t U n i o n
. Hi s s h a d a d m i t t e d r e c e i v i n g a
r u g , b u t h e c l a i m e d t h a t i t h a d b e e n g i v e n t o h i m i n 1 9 3 5 .
L a t e r i n t h e t r i a l , P r o f e s s o r Me y e r Sc h a p i r o t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e
h a d p u r c h a s e d a n d s h i p p e d t o W a s h i n g t o n f o u r B o k h a r a r u g s
f o r C h a m b e r s
. He h a d b e e n p a i d i n c a s h f o r t h e m . Ar u g
d e a l e r i d e n t i f i e d t h e s a l e s s l i p
. It w a s d a t e d De c e m b e r 2 3 ,
1 9 3 6
. C h a m b e r s a l s o d e s c r i b e d t r i p s h e h a d t a k e n w i t h t h e
Hi s s e s , t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e i r v a r i o u s h o m e s , a l l w i t h t h e
s a m e i n t i m a t e d e t a i l w h i c h h a d b e e n s o c o n v i n c i n g d u r i n g
t h e Ho u s e c o m m i t t e e h e a r i n g s
.
W h e n St r y k e r t o o k u p t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , h e w a s a i d e d
T HET RIAL OFAL GER HISS

2 3 1
i n h i s b i t i n g , s c r a t c h i n g a t t a c k b y t h e w i t n e s s h i m s e l f . Fo r
C h a m b e r s w a s i n a p e n t i t e n t i a l m o o d . Hi s p a s t i n t h e u n d e r -
g r o u n d h a d t o b e e x p i a t e d , a n d d e s p i t e t h e i n d i g n i t y o f
St r y k e r ' s o n s l a u g h t , C h a m b e r s w a s w i l l i n g t o s a y , " Me a
m a x i m a c u l p a . " C a l m l y h e a d m i t t e d t h a t a s a C o m m u n i s t h e
h a d l i e d a n d c h e a t e d .
" Y o u w e r e a n u n d e r h a n d e d e n e m y o f t h i s c o u n t r y d o i n g
w h a t y o u c o u l d t o a i d a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y a n d o v e r t h r o w o u r
C o n s t i t u t i o n b y f o r c e a n d v i o l e n c e ? " St r y k e r s t o r m e d
.
" Y e s , " C h a m b e r s a n s w e r e d . Dr a w i n g f r o m t h e r e c o r d o f
f i v e m o n t h s ' p r e t r i a l t e s t i m o n y d u r i n g w h i c h C h a m b e r s h a d
d i s c u s s e d w i t h Hi s s ' a t t o r n e y s e v e r y p e c c a d i l l o a s w e l l a s t h e
g r a v e m i s d e e d s i n C h a m b e r s ' l i f e , St r y k e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y
a s s a i l e d t h e w i t n e s s
. Al i e t o t h e C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e d e a n s u d -
d e n l y e m e r g e d a s a m o n s t r o u s a n d s y m b o l i c c r i m e a g a i n s t
s o c i e t y . T h e n St r y k e r d r e w u p h i s b i g g u n s .
" W h e n y o u t e s t i f i e d [ f i r s t ] b e f o r e t h e g r a n d j u r y , y o u w e r e
a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s a n y e s p i o n a g e . . . An d y o u
a n s w e r e d t h e r e w a s n o t ? " C h a m b e r s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h i s
. " So
y o u t e s t i f i e d f a l s e l y a n d c o m m i t t e d p e r j u r y
. . . "
St r y k e r
t h u n d e r e d . " T h a t i s r i g h t , " s a i d C h a m b e r s i m p a s s i v e l y . T u r n -
i n g t o e a c h o t h e r , Al g e r a n d P r i s c i l l a s m i l e d t r i u m p h a n t l y .
U n d e r t h i s r a n c o r o u s c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , C h a m b e r s a d m i t t e d
t h a t h e h a d w i t h h e l d p a r t o f t h e t r u t h o n s i x i n s t a n c e s
. B u t h i s
e x p l a n a t i o n , o n r e d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n , m a d e c l e a r w h y h e h a d
n o t t o l d e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t Hi s s ' a c t i v i t i e s :
" T h e r e a r e d e g r e e s o f i n j u r y , " h e s a i d s l o w l y , " a n d Is o u g h t
t o k e e p [ Mr
. Hi s s ] f r o m t h e u l t i m a t e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f w h a t
[ h e ] h a d d o n e
. . . Ra t h e r t h a n r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t o f h i s
a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h o s e o f o t h e r s , Ic h o s e t o j e o p a r d i z e m y s e l f . "
P e r h a p s t h e c r o w n i n g i n d i g n i t y f o r C h a m b e r s w a s t h e
p r e s e n c e w i t h i n t h e p e n o f Dr . C a r l A . L . B i n g e r , a p s y c h i -
a t r i s t e n g a g e d b y t h e d e f e n s e t o " a n a l y z e " h i m . T a k i n g
c o p i o u s n o t e s , B i n g e r s t a r e d d o w n h i s n o s e a t C h a m b e r s " a s
i f t o g i v e h i m a d o u b l e w h a m m y , " a s a n FB Im a n r e m a r k e d
.
W h e n C h a m b e r s s t e p p e d d o w n , a s e r i e s o f w i t n e s s e s
2 3 2

SEEDSOFT REASON
i d e n t i f i e d l e t t e r s a n d p a p e r s , t y p e w r i t t e n a s l a t e a s Ma y ,
1 9 3 7 , b y Mr s
. Hi s s a n d b e a r i n g t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f Al g e r o r
P r i s c i l l a
. T h e s e w e r e p r o d u c e d t o c o m p a r e t h e i r t y p e c h a r a c -
t e r i s t i c s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e c o p i e d d o c u m e n t s - p r o o f t h a t a l l
h a d b e e n w r i t t e n o n t h e Hi s s W o o d s t o c k . On e a f t e r a n -
o t h e r , t h e s e w i t n e s s e s w o v e a c i r c u m s t a n t i a l n e t a b o u t t h e
d e f e n d a n t
.
T h e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t s t r u c k a n o t h e r b o d y b l o w a t t h e
d e f e n s e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Al g e r Hi s s h a d n e v e r s e e n C h a m b e r s
a f t e r J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 3 7
: i t e g l l e d Mr s . Es t h e r C h a m b e r s t o t h e
s t a n d
. Sh e b o r e t h e i m p r i n t o f Q u a k e r s i m p l i c i t y . He r t o u g h -
e n e d h a n d s g a v e a c l u e t o h e r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a s m a n a g e r
o f a 3 0 0 - a c r e f a r m
. " It w a s i m p o s s i b l e f o r a n y o n e t o f e e l t h a t
Mr s
. C h a m b e r s w a s t e l l i n g a n y t h i n g b u t h e r b e s t r e c o l l e c -
t i o n , a f t e r a g o n i z e d s e a r c h i n g , o f t h e t r u t h , " t h e l a t e H . R.
K n i c k e r b o c k e r s a i d i n h i s b r o a d c a s t t h a t n i g h t . " Sh e i s a
s m a l l w o m a n , f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s o l d , w h o s e b o d y i s h a r d e n e d
b y t o i l a n d w h o s e s o u l h a d b e e n p u r i f i e d b y s u f f e r i n g , i f i t
w e r e e v e r a n y t h i n g e l s e b u t p u r e . Sh e w o r e a g r a y s u i t , i l l -
f i t t i n g , a n d a b l a c k h a t w h i c h f r a m e d a n i n t e n s e , a n g u l a r f a c e
t o t a l l y d e v o i d o f m a k e - u p b u t n o t o f b e a u t y . Sh e h a d a s p i r -
i t u a l b e a u t y i n h e r p a l e f a c e w h i c h w a s n o t e v e n i m p a i r e d b y
s p e c t a c l e s
. . . He r s t r u g g l e t o m a s t e r h e r e m o t i o n s , h e r p r o -
f o u n d s i m p l i c i t y , h e r p a i n a t b e i n g f o r c e d t o h u r t o l d , d e a r
f r i e n d s w a s e n o u g h t o m o v e e v e n t h e o n e s b e i n g h u r t
. . . .
Ho w c o u l d s u c h a w o m a n a s Es t h e r C h a m b e r s b e f a l s e ? "
Sp e a k i n g s o f t l y b u t w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y o f s i n c e r i t y , s h e
r e c a l l e d w i t h a w e a l t h o f d e t a i l s o m e o f h e r m a n y m e e t i n g s
w i t h Al g e r a n d P r i s c i l l a
. Sh e r e c a l l e d t h e c o l o r a n d p a t t e r n
o f t h e w a l l p a p e r i n o n e Hi s s h o m e , l i s t e d t h e f u r n i t u r e o n
e a c h o f t h r e e f l o o r s , a n d t o l d o f t h e c h i n t z b e d s p r e a d w h i c h
Mr s
. Hi s s h a d b o u g h t a t a s a l e
. Sh e d e s c r i b e d o t h e r Hi s s
h o m e s a n d g a v e p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s o f t h e i r h o m e l i f e . Sh e r e -
m e m b e r e d a Ne w Y e a r ' s p a r t y a t t h e Hi s s h o m e o n De c e m b e r
3 1 , 1 9 3 6 - c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e d a t e s e t i n t h e i n d i c t m e n t . Sh e
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 3 3
m e n t i o n e d a w e d d i n g a n n i v e r s a r y p a r t y e a r l i e r t h a t m o n t h
t o
w h i c h t h e Hi s s e s b r o u g h t c h a m p a g n e - a l t h o u g h h e r e s h e
a d m i t t e d t h a t h e r m e m o r y w a s s o m e w h a t v a g u e
.
" W h a t w a s y o u r l a s t n a m e ? " J u d g e K a u f m a n a s k e d
.
" W e n e v e r h a d a l a s t n a m e [ t o t h e Hi s s e s ] , " Es t h e r C h a m -
b e r s a n s w e r e d .
" Y o u r h u s b a n d t e s t i f i e d t h a t y o u w e r e k n o w n a s C r o s l e y , "
t h e j u d g e c h a l l e n g e d .
" Oh , n o l " s p e c t a t o r s c r i e d o u t , c o r r e c t i n g K a u f m a n
. He
l o o k e d a n g r i l y a t t h e m b u t s u b s i d e d a s h e h a d o n o t h e r o c c a -
s i o n s w h e n h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t e s t i m o n y h a d b e e n v a g u e
.
De s p i t e t h e g r e a t s t r a i n w h i c h p o s s e s s e d h e r , Mr s
. C h a m -
b e r s s p o k e a l m o s t c h a t t i l y o f t h e d a y s i n 1 9 3 5 w h e n t h e
C h a m b e r s c o u p l e h a d m o v e d i n t o t h e 2 8 t h St r e e t a p a r t m e n t
a n d l a t e r w h e n t h e t w o f a m i l i e s h a d t r i e d j o i n t h o u s e k e e p i n g
i n t h e Hi s s e s ' P St r e e t h o m e
. " P l e a s a n t a s i t w a s t o b e t o -
g e t h e r , w e d e c i d e d w e ' d b e t t e r h a v e s e p a r a t e h o u s e h o l d s , "
s h e s a i d q u i e t l y .
W h e n t h e C h a m b e r s e s m o v e d t o B a l t i m o r e , t h e Hi s s e s
g a v e t h e m a p a t c h e d r u g , a t a b l e , a n d a t o y c a b i n e t w h i c h
T i m m i e h a d o u t g r o w n
. On o n e v i s i t t o t h e Hi s s h o m e , s h e
t e s t i f i e d , t h e C h a m b e r s b a b y " w e t t h e f l o o r
. P r i s c i l l a g a v e m e
a l o v e l y o l d l i n e n t o w e l t o u s e a s a d i a p e r
. " In r e t u r n , Es t h e r
C h a m b e r s p a i n t e d p i c t u r e s f o r t h e Hi s s e s , i n c l u d i n g a l a n d -
s c a p e a n d a p o r t r a i t o f T i m m i e . ( In h e r t e s t i m o n y , Mr s
. Hi s s
i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e p o r t r a i t h a d b e e n p a i n t e d i n o n e n i g h t
. )
T h e n f o r t w o d a y s a s n a r l i n g a n d s h o u t i n g St r y k e r t r i e d
t o f o r c e Mr s . C h a m b e r s i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i n g h e r d i r e c t t e s t i -
m o n y
. P a l e b u t i n c o n t r o l o f h e r s e l f , t h e w i t n e s s f o u g h t b a c k
.
T h o u g h s h e o n c e w a v e r e d o n a d a t e , t h e m a i n b o d y o f h e r
s t o r y - t h a t t h e Hi s s a n d C h a m b e r s f a m i l i e s h a d b e e n c l o s e
f r i e n d s - r e m a i n e d u n d a m a g e d
. At t h e s a m e t i m e , s h e f i e r c e l y
d e f e n d e d W h i t t a k e r a g a i n s t St r y k e r ' s c e a s e l e s s a s s a u l t
. " My
h u s b a n d i s a d e c e n t c i t i z e n a n d a g r e a t m a n , " s h e s a i d
s h a r p l y
. " If h e d o e s w h a t h e b e l i e v e s i s t h e r i g h t t h i n g t o d o
2 3 4 SEEDSOFT REASON
a t t h e m o m e n t , Ib e l i e v e h e i s a g r e a t m a n . . . Hi s b e l i e f s
m a y c h a n g e , a n d h i s d i d . " W h e n s h e s t e p p e d d o w n f r o m t h e
s t a n d , h e r t e s t i m o n y w a s t h e r e t o p l a g u e t h e d e f e n s e .
On a s p e c i a l l y b u i l t p l a t f o r m o v e r t h e w i t n e s s b o x , t h e
p r o s e c u t i o n n e x t m o u n t e d b l o w - u p s o f t h e c o p i e d St a t e De -
p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s . On e d o c u m e n t w a s w i t h h e l d f r o m t h e
j u r y . T h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d i t t o o s e c r e t
.
Ho u r a f t e r h o u r Mu r p h y c o m p a r e d t h e c o p i e s w i t h t h e o r i g -
i n a l s , b r o u g h t d o w n f r o m W a s h i n g t o n b y a St a t e De p a r t m e n t
e m p l o y e e . Mu r p h y ' s p u r p o s e w a s a d u a l o n e : t o s h o w t h a t
t h e t o p - l e v e l d i p l o m a t i c p a p e r s h a d p a s s e d a c r o s s Al g e r Hi s s '
d e s k a n d t o t e a r d o w n a s t a t e m e n t b y t h e d e f e n d a n t t h a t t h e
d o c u m e n t s w e r e n o t h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . B u t o n l y s t u d e n t s o f
h i s t o r y , i n t e r e s t e d i n U n i t e d St a t e s f o r e i g n p o l i c y d u r i n g t h e
Mu n i c h e r a , c o u l d f i n d a n y e x c i t e m e n t i n t h i s p a i n s t a k i n g
d e m o n s t r a t i o n . T h e j u r y l o o k e d b o r e d a n d s o m n o l e n t , a n d
St r y k e r w a n d e r e d o u t i n t o t h e c o r r i d o r t o s m o k e o r c h a t w i t h
r e p o r t e r s .
Al i t t l e l i f e r e t u r n e d t o t h e c o u r t r o o m w h e n Mi s s Eu n i c e
A
. L i n c o l n , p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y t o As s i s t a n t Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e
Fr a n c i s Sa y r e ( Hi s s ' b o s s i n t h e c r u c i a l y e a r s ) , t o o k t h e s t a n d
a s t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s t w e n t y - n i n t h w i t n e s s . He r r o l e w a s s m a l l
b u t s i g n i f i c a n t : s h e i d e n t i f i e d t h e f o u r m e m o s a s b e i n g i n t h e
h a n d w r i t i n g o f Al g e r Hi s s , a n d s h e s e r i o u s l y p u n c t u r e d d e -
f e n s e h i n t s t h a t t h e i n c r i m i n a t i n g p a p e r s h a d b e e n s t o l e n
f r o m Hi s s b y He n r y J u l i a n W a d l e i g h .
" Di d Mr
. W a d l e i g h e v e r c o m e t o y o u r o f f i c e a n d t a k e a n y
f i l e s o u t ? " Mu r p h y a s k e d Mi s s L i n c o l n .
" Id o n ' t r e c a l l t h a t h e d i d , " s h e a n s w e r e d . " He d i d n o t
c o m e t o t h e o f f i c e f r e q u e n t l y , a n d w h e n h e d i d i t w a s u s u a l l y
w i t h o t h e r s , f o r c o n f e r e n c e s . "
T h e r e a l l y d a m n i n g t e s t i m o n y c a m e f r o m Ra m o s S . Fe e -
h a n , a n FB Ih a n d w r i t i n g a n d t y p e w r i t e r e x p e r t . Fe e h a n
e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l l b u t o n e o f t h e d o c u m e n t s h a d b e e n c o p i e d
o n t h e s a m e t y p e w r i t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e
o l d W o o d s t o c k b e l o n g i n g t o P r i s c i l l a Hi s s . C o m p a r i n g t h e
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 3 5
c o p i e d d o c u m e n t s w i t h l e t t e r s w r i t t e n b y t h e Hi s s e s a t t h e
t i m e , h e s t a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t t h e y h a d a l l b e e n t y p e d
o n t h e s a m e m a c h i n e
. T h e d e f e n s e c o n c e d e d t h e p o i n t
. B e -
f o r e Fe e h a n c o u l d t e s t i f y o n t h e f o u r m e m o s , St r y k e r c o n -
c e d e d t h a t t h e y w e r e i n Hi s s ' h a n d w r i t i n g .
T h e r e w a s a b r i e f i n t e r l u d e a s t h e d e f e n s e , w i t h t h e p e r m i s -
s i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , p u t t w o c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s e s o n t h e
s t a n d . T h e y w e r e J o h n W . Da v i s , De m o c r a t i c P r e s i d e n t i a l
c a n d i d a t e i n 1 9 2 4 , a n d Dr . St a n l e y Ho r n b e c k , Hi s s ' s u p e r i o r
i n t h e De p a r t m e n t ' s Fa r Ea s t e r n Di v i s i o n . B o t h m e n l a u d e d
t h e d e f e n d a n t . B u t i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n Da v i s a d m i t t e d t h a t
h e h a d n e v e r h e a r d o f Hi s s u n t i l 1 9 4 5 , a n d Ho r n b e c k r e c a l l e d
a w a r n i n g h e h a d r e c e i v e d f r o m a n u n n a m e d f r i e n d t h a t Hi s s
w a s a C o m m u n i s t f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r . Ho r n b e c k d e c l a r e d t h a t
h e h a d d i s r e g a r d e d t h e w a r n i n g .
T h e n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n r e a l l y j o l t e d t h e c o u r t r o o m : i t c a l l e d
He n r y J u l i a n W a d l e i g h . At a l l , c a r e l e s s l y d r e s s e d , s h o c k -
h a i r e d m a n , h e w a s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o c o r r o b o r a t e i n o p e n
c o u r t C h a m b e r s ' s t o r y o f t h e So v i e t s p y r i n g . *
" Ib e g a n t o t a k e o u t d o c u m e n t s a n d g i v e t h e m t o u n a u t h o r -
i z e d p e o p l e a s s o o n a s Ij o i n e d t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 3 6 ,
m o s t l y t o a m a n i d e n t i f i e d t o m e r e c e n t l y a s Da v i d C a r p e n t e r
[ a c o p y r e a d e r o n t h e Da i l y W o r k e r ] . . . I s e l e c t e d d o c u -
m e n t s f r o m t h o s e t h a t c a m e t o m y d e s k , " W a d l e i g h s a i d
c a l m l y , a l m o s t b r a s h l y .
" W e r e t h e r e s o m e o c c a s i o n s w h e n y o u g a v e t h e d o c u m e n t s
t o W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s ? " Mu r p h y a s k e d . Y e s , h e h a d . Ha d
h e g i v e n C h a m b e r s a n y o f t h e d o c u m e n t s n o w i n e v i d e n c e ?
No , s a i d W a d l e i g h . T h e s e w e r e " r i c h f i n d s " a n d h e w o u l d
h a v e r e m e m b e r e d t h e m . Ha d h e t a k e n a n y p a p e r s f r o m Hi s s '
o f f i c e t o t r a n s m i t t o t h e Ru s s i a n s ? He h a d n o t , W a d l e i g h
i n s i s t e d . " T h e o n l y m a t e r i a l Iu s e d w a s t h a t w h i c h c a m e
a c r o s s m y d e s k . " He h a d a l s o g o t t e n a r u g f r o m C h a m b e r s i n
1 9 3 7 .
a T h e s o n o f a n Ep i s c o p a l i a n m i n i s t e r , a g r a d u a t e o f Ox f o r d , a St a t e
De ~ a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l , W a d l e i g h w a s o n a s o c i a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l p a r w i t h t h e
d e f e n d a n t .
2 3 6

SEEDSOFT REASON
Al l t h e n e x t w e e k , t h e d e f e n s e s o u g h t t o c h i p a w a y a t t h e
g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a s e . As t r i n g o f w i t n e s s e s , t h e i r t e s t i m o n y
c a l c u l a t e d t o c a s t d o u b t o n C h a m b e r s ' s t o r y , w e r e c a l l e d b y
St r y k e r a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e , Ed w a r d Mc L e a n
.
J . K e l l o g g Sm i t h , d i r e c t o r o f a Ma r y l a n d c a m p , t e s t i f i e d
t h a t h i s f r i e n d s t h e Hi s s e s h a d n e v e r l e f t C h e s t e r t o w n , Ma r y -
l a n d , d u r i n g t h e b u l k o f t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 3 7 - t h e t i m e w h e n
C h a m b e r s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y j o i n e d h i m o n a t r i p t o P e t e r -
b o r o u g h , Ne w Ha m p s h i r e
. B u t u n d e r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ,
Sm i t h a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e n o t e s h e w a s r e a d i n g f r o m , g i v i n g
t h e v a c a t i o n d a t e s , h a d b e e n o b t a i n e d " w o r d f o r w o r d " f r o m
Al g e r Hi s s
. Mr s . L u c y E . Da v i s , w h o o p e r a t e d t h e g u e s t
h o u s e i n P e t e r b o r o u g h w h e r e t h e Hi s s e s a n d t h e C h a m b e r s e s
h a d a l l e g e d l y s t o p p e d o v e r n i g h t , s w o r e t h a t s h e h a d n e v e r
s e e n t h e d e f e n d a n t o r h i s w i f e . T h e r e w a s n o r e c o r d o f t h e i r
t e n a n c y .
Ne x t t h e d e f e n s e t h r e w i n t w o p r i z e p a c k a g e s - Su p r e m e
C o u r t J u s t i c e s St a n l e y Re e d a n d Fe l i x Fr a n k f u r t e r . ( T a k i n g
a d a y o f f f r o m Mt
. Ol y m p u s , a n e w s p a p e r m a n c r a c k e d a b o u t
Fr a n k f u r t e r
. ) T h e i r a p p e a r a n c e a s c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s e s l e f t
s h a t t e r e d p r e c e d e n t s s t r e w n a b o u t t h e c o u r t r o o m . J u d g e
K a u f m a n r o s e f r o m t h e b e n c h t o s h a k e h a n d s a n d w a s v i s i b l y
i m p r e s s e d a t b e i n g a b l e t o d o s o
. Ea c h r e a f f i r m e d t h e p u b l i c
r e p u t a t i o n o f Hi s s
. W h e n Mu r p h y a s k e d Fr a n k f u r t e r w h e t h e r
h e h a d e v e r p u t h i s s t a m p o f a p p r o v a l o n L e e P r e s s m a n ,
K a u f m a n s u s t a i n e d d e f e n s e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , a n d
t h e m a t t e r w a s d r o p p e d .
In c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e t w o j u d i c i a l d i g n i t a r i e s , t h e n e x t t w o
w i t n e s s e s w e r e f o r m e r s e r v a n t s o f t h e Hi s s e s . T h e f i r s t , Mr s .
C l a u d i a C a t l e t t , h a d s p o n t a n e o u s l y r e c o g n i z e d C h a m b e r s i n
FB Ih e a d q u a r t e r s t h e p r e v i o u s Fe b r u a r y . No w s h e w o u l d
a d m i t o n l y t h a t s h e h a d s e e n h i m o n c e , i n 1 9 3 6 , a n d t h e n
u n d e r t h e n a m e o f " C r o s b y , l i k e i n B i n g . " T h e f a m o u s W o o d -
s t o c k t y p e w r i t e r , s h e s a i d , h a d b e e n g i v e n t o h e r t w o s o n s i n
1 9 3 6 o r 1 9 3 7 - t h e f i r s t d a t e i n o b v i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e
e v i d e n c e o f Hi s s l e t t e r s a l r e a d y a d m i t t e d i n t h e c a s e .
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 3 7
He r s o n Ra y m o n d b a c k e d h e r u p a d m i r a b l y i n d i r e c t t e s t i -
m o n y , r a t t l i n g o f f n a m e s a n d d a t e s w i t h e a s e . B u t u n d e r
c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , h i s s t o r y f e l l a p a r t w h e n h e a d m i t t e d t h a t
h e h a d n o t t h e f a i n t e s t n o t i o n o f t h e m o n t h o r y e a r t h a t h e
g o t t h e t y p e w r i t e r . Af t e r s o m e s u r l y r e m a r k a t p r o s e c u t o r s
i n g e n e r a l , h e c l a m m e d u p . T h i s , m o r e t h a n t h e s u d d e n
a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e m a c h i n e i n c o u r t - d r a g g e d o u t f r o m u n d e r
t h e d e f e n s e t a b l e - w a s t h e b i g s e n s a t i o n o f t h e d a y
.
P e r r y C a t l e t t k n o c k e d a n e v e n g r e a t e r h o l e i n t h e s t o r y
.
W h e n h e a n d Ra y m o n d r e c e i v e d t h e t y p e w r i t e r i n 1 9 3 7 , h e
t e s t i f i e d , t h e y h a d t a k e n i t t o a W o o d s t o c k s h o p o n K St r e e t
a n d C o n n e c t i c u t Av e n u e i n W a s h i n g t o n t o t r y t o h a v e i t
r e p a i r e d . " W h a t i f It e l l y o u t h a t t h e s h o p o n K St r e e t w a s n ' t
o p e n e d f o r b u s i n e s s u n t i l Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 ? " Mu r p h y
s h o u t e d . P e r r y w e i g h e d t h e q u e s t i o n . " Id o n ' t k n o w t h e
t i m e , " h e s a i d i n d e f e a t .
T h e r e w a s a s t i r w h e n Al g e r Hi s s , a n e a t f i g u r e i n
a t a n
s u m m e r s u i t , t o o k t h e s t a n d
. Ah u s h s e t t l e d o v e r t h e c o u r t -
r o o m a s St r y k e r s t a l k e d o v e r t o h i s s t a r w i t n e s s .
" Mr . Hi s s , " h e s a i d i n a r i n g i n g v o i c e , " a r e y o u n o w
o r h a v e
y o u e v e r b e e n a m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y
. . . o r a
f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r ? "
Hi s s ( f i r m l y ) . In e v e r h a v e b e e n a n d Ia m n o t .
St r y k e r ( s h o w i n g h i m h a n d w r i t t e n m e m o s )
. Ar e t h e s e i n y o u r
h a n d w r i t i n g ?
Hi s s .
Y e s , t h e y a r e .
St r y k e r . Di d y o u i n . . .
1 9 3 8 o r a n y o t h e r t i m e i n y o u r l i f e
d e l i v e r t h o s e e x h i b i t s t o W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s ?
Hi s s . I d i d n o t .
St r y k e r . Di d y o u i n y o u r l i f e t i m e e v e r d e l i v e r a n y k i n d o f St a t e
De p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s . . . t o C h a m b e r s ?
Hi s s . I d i d n o t .
St r y k e r t u r n e d t r i u m p h a n t l y t o t h e j u r y a n d t o t h e p r e s s
a n d s h o t h i s c u f f s . T h e n f o r f i f t y m i n u t e s h e l e d Hi s s t h r o u g h
a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f h i s l i f e , f r o m h i s c h i l d h o o d i n B a l t i m o r e
2 3 8 SEEDSOFT REASON
t o h i s j o b a s g e n e r a l s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Sa n Fr a n c i s c o C o n f e r -
e n c e
. T h e p i c t u r e t h a t e m e r g e d w a s o f a f a i t h f u l p u b l i c
s e r v a n t w h o w o r k e d l o n g a n d e a r n e s t l y t o s e r v e h i s c o u n t r y .
Hi s s w e n t i n t o g r e a t d e t a i l a b o u t h i s w o r k i n t h e St a t e De -
p a r t m e n t
. " My d u t y w a s t o a d v i s e Mr . Sa y r e o n v a r i o u s m a t -
t e r s c o m i n g a c r o s s h i s d e s k
. T h e r e w a s a g r e a t v o l u m e o f
p a p e r w o r k . . .
So Iw e e d e d o u t m a t e r i a l f o r h i m . In t h e
c o u r s e o f t h i s Im a d e m e m o s o f f a i r l y l e n g t h y p a p e r s , s u m -
m a r i z i n g t h e m
. " T o u c h i n g o n h i s r o l e a t Y a l t a a n d a t Du m -
b a r t o n Oa k s , Hi s s d r e w a s e l f - p o r t r a i t o f a b e h i n d - t h e - s c e n e s
o p e r a t o r , a f r i e n d o f Fr a n k l i n D. Ro o s e v e l t , a n d t h e h o s t
a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s
. " Ia m v e r y p r o u d , " h e s a i d
m o d e s t l y .
As Hi s s s p o k e , h i s s h a r p l y d e l i n e a t e d f a c e w a s c a l m . Oc c a -
s i o n a l l y a p l e a s a n t s m i l e p u n c t u a t e d h i s t e s t i m o n y . On l y i n
t h e w a y h e c l e n c h e d h i s h a n d s , g r i p p e d t h e a r m s o f t h e w i t -
n e s s c h a i r , o r c r o s s e d a n d u n c r o s s e d h i s l e g s w a s t h e r e a n y
i n d i c a t i o n o f n e r v o u s n e s s
. Hi s s o f t v o i c e r e a c h e d o n l y p a r t l y
a c r o s s t h e p a c k e d , t e n s e c o u r t r o o m . T o h e a r h i m p e o p l e
l e a n e d f o r w a r d , c u p p i n g t h e i r e a r s . He d e s c r i b e d " t h i s p e r -
s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g h i m s e l f a s a f r e e - l a n c e w r i t e r - ' Ge o r g e
C r o s l e y , ' " w h o h a d l i v e d i n h i s a p a r t m e n t , w e l s h e d o n t h e
r e n t , b o r r o w e d h i s c a r , b o r r o w e d m o n e y , a n d t h e n d i s a p -
p e a r e d . On c e C r o s l e y a n d Mr s
. C r o s l e y h a d s t a y e d o v e r f o r
t w o n i g h t s a t t h e Hi s s h o m e i n Ge o r g e t o w n
. Du r i n g t h a t s t a y ,
Hi s s s a i d , Mr s . C r o s l e y p a i n t e d a p i c t u r e o f h i s s t e p s o n
T i m m i e .
T h e n St r y k e r m o v e d i n o n t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t St a t e De p a r t -
m e n t d o c u m e n t s . Fo l l o w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s , Hi s s r e p o r t e d t h a t
t h e d o o r s o f h i s o f f i c e w e r e a l w a y s o p e n . T h e p u b l i c a n d n e w s -
p a p e r m e n d r i f t e d i n a n d o u t a t w i l l . " . . . Mr . W a d l e i g h
c a m e i n s e v e r a l t i m e s . . . "
Ha d C h a m b e r s g i v e n h i m a r u g ? Y e s , s a i d Hi s s , i n t h e
s p r i n g o f 1 9 3 6 . W h a t a b o u t t h e a l l e g e d $ 4 0 0 l o a n m a d e t o
C h a m b e r s l a t e i n 1 9 3 7 ? Hi s s t o o k a b a n k b o o k o u t o f h i s
p o c k e t . Y e s , h e a d m i t t e d , $ 4 0 0 h a d b e e n w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 3 9
Hi s s e s ' j o i n t b a n k a c c o u n t
. B u t i t w a s u s e d t o p u r c h a s e s o m e
n e w f u r n i t u r e f o r t h e i r V o l t a P l a c e h o u s e
. He c o u l d n o t
e x p l a i n h o w t h e C h a m b e r s e s w e r e a w a r e o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l
.
T h e n , h e t o o k b a c k h i s g r a n d j u r y t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e W o o d -
s t o c k t y p e w r i t e r h a d b e e n i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n t h r o u g h 1 9 3 8 .
T h e C a t l e t t t e s t i m o n y h a d r e f r e s h e d h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n , h e
s t a t e d . He h a d g i v e n i t a w a y i n 1 9 3 7 .
P r i m i n a n o y s t e r - c o l o r e d s u m m e r s u i t a n d a c h a s t e b r o w n
t i e , Al g e r Hi s s l o u n g e d i n t h e w i t n e s s c h a i r . On l y t h e q u i c k
m o v e m e n t o f h i s e y e s b e t r a y e d h i s t e n s e a l e r t n e s s . P r o s e c u -
t o r Mu r p h y l e a n e d h e a v i l y a g a i n s t t h e l e c t e r n n e a r t h e j u r y
b o x . T u g g i n g a t h i s c a v a l r y m a n ' s o u t s i z e m o u s t a c h e , h e
s e e m e d m o r e m o u r n f u l t h a n a g g r e s s i v e . Fo r t w o d a y s
Mu r p h y t r i e d t o m a k e t h e n i m b l e - w i t t e d Hi s s a d m i t t h a t h e
t u r n e d St a t e De p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s o v e r t o W h i t t a k e r
C h a m b e r s o r t h a t h e s a w t h e f o r m e r T i m e e d i t o r a f t e r J a n -
u a r y 1 , 1 9 3 7 . He m o v e d s l o w l y a n d p o n d e r o u s l y a f t e r a n
a s s a i l a n t w h o u s u a l l y e l u d e d h i m . He c o u l d p i n i n c o n s i s -
t e n c i e s o n Hi s s , b u t h e c o u l d n o t g e t Hi s s t o a d m i t t h a t h e
h a d o f f e r e d m a n y d i f f e r i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s o f e a c h c r u c i a l p o i n t .
In h i s t e s t i m o n y b e f o r e t h e Ho u s e U n - Am e r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s
C o m m i t t e e , Hi s s d e c l a r e d t h a t h e g a v e h i s 1 9 2 9 Fo r d t o
C h a m b e r s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 3 5 a s p a r t o f a d e a l i n w h i c h h e
s u b l e t h i s a p a r t m e n t t o t h e C o m m u n i s t u n d e r g r o u n d a g e n t
.
At t h e t i m e o f t h e d e a l , Hi s s c l a i m e d , h e a l r e a d y h a d b o u g h t
a P l y m o u t h . B u t , Mu r p h y p o i n t e d o u t , w h e n h e l e a r n e d t h a t
t h e P l y m o u t h w a s n o t p u r c h a s e d u n t i l Au g u s t , 1 9 3 5 , Hi s s
c h a n g e d h i s s t o r y
. He n o w s a i d t h a t h e g a v e C h a m b e r s t h e
c a r d u r i n g 1 9 3 6 , a f t e r C h a m b e r s h a d w e l s h e d o n s e v e r a l
d e b t s a n d a f t e r h e h a d g o n e o f f w i t h o u t p a y i n g r e n t o n t h e
s u b l e t a p a r t m e n t .
Mu r p h y d r a g g e d f r o m t h e d e f e n d a n t t h e a d m i s s i o n t h a t
h i s o w n e x p e r t s a g r e e d t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e t y p e d o n t h e
Hi s s W o o d s t o c k - a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a s e
. B u t
a s t h e p r o s e c u t o r s o u g h t t o g r a p p l e w i t h a s w i f t l e g a l m i n d
w h i c h w r a p p e d e v e r y s e n t e n c e a n d e v e r y p h r a s e i n q u a l i f i c a -
2 4 0

SEEDSOFT REASON
t i o n s , h e u s u a l l y f o u n d h i m s e l f h u g g i n g t h i n a i r . W h e n Hi s s
s t e p p e d o f f t h e s t a n d , h e w a s s t i l l p r i m , s t i l l u n s h a k e n .
T h e r e w a s d r a m a , s h a r p a n d q u i c k , w h e n P r i s c i l l a Hi s s
t o o k t h e s t a n d
. Sp e a k i n g i n a l i l t i n g v o i c e s o c l u t c h e d b y
n e r v o u s n e s s t h a t i t c o u l d b a r e l y b e h e a r d , s h e t o l d a s t o r y
w h i c h i n a l l e s s e n t i a l s j i b e d w i t h h e r h u s b a n d ' s . P o i n t b y
p o i n t , s h e c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e t i g h t l y p a c k e d a c c o u n t o f i n t e r -
f a m i l y i n t i m a c i e s t o l d b y b o t h W h i t t a k e r a n d Es t h e r , f l a t l y
d e n y i n g s u c h m i n o r t h i n g s a s Es t h e r ' s r e m a r k t h a t P r i s c i l l a
d i d n o t l i k e i c e - c r e a m
.
No w i t w a s Mu r p h y ' s t u r n . L i k e a Gr e a t Da n e h a n d l i n g a
k i t t e n , h e g e n t l y l e d h e r i n t o t w o g l a r i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n s
w h i c h l e f t h e r v i s i b l y s h a k e n
. W h i l e l i v i n g w i t h Al g e r Hi s s
i n Ne w Y o r k i n 1 9 3 2 , h a d s h e b e e n a m e m b e r o f t h e So c i a l i s t
P a r t y ?
" No , " s a i d Mr s . Hi s s .
" Ma y b e Ic a n r e f r e s h y o u r r e c o l l e c t i o n , " Mu r p h y s a i d
s o f t l y . He s h o w e d h e r p h o t o s t a t s o f B o a r d o f El e c t i o n s r e g i s -
t r a t i o n s i n 1 9 3 2 , c a l l i n g h e r a t t e n t i o n t o h e r n a m e a l o n g s i d e
a So c i a l i s t P a r t y d e s i g n a t i o n .
" Mr s . Hi s s , " h e a d d e d , " d o n ' t y o u k n o w t h a t t h e r e c o r d s
o f t h e So c i a l i s t P a r t y ' s Mo r n i n g s i d e B r a n c h l i s t y o u a s a
m e m b e r ? " Sh e d i d n o t , Mr s . Hi s s w h i s p e r e d .
Mu r p h y h a d t h e a i d o f d e f e n s e c o u n s e l i n s p r i n g i n g t h e
n e x t t r a p
. T o p r o v e t h a t s h e h a d s e e n t h e Hi s s e s i n 1 9 3 7 ,
Mr s
. C h a m b e r s t e s t i f i e d t h a t P r i s c i l l a t o l d h e r s h e p l a n n e d
t h a t y e a r t o t a k e a n u r s i n g c o u r s e a t t h e Me r c y Ho s p i t a l i n
B a l t i m o r e . U n d e r St r y k e r ' s q u e s t i o n i n g , Mr s . Hi s s h a d t r i -
u m p h a n t l y d e n i e d t a k i n g a n y s u c h c o u r s e . Mu r p h y r e c a l l e d
t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e t w o w o m e n . T h e n h e r e a d i n t o t h e
r e c o r d a l e t t e r t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Ma r y l a n d w r i t t e n b y
Mr s . Hi s s i n Ma y , 1 9 3 7 , a p p l y i n g f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n a n i n -
o r g a n i c c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a Me r c y Ho s -
p i t a l c o u r s e s h e h a d p l a n n e d t o t a k e . It w a s a s g r e a t a s h o c k
t o St r y k e r a s i t w a s t o Mr s
. Hi s s .
Mo v i n g o n , Mu r p h y h a d o t h e r p u z z l e r s f o r Mr s
. Hi s s . W h y
h a d s h e t e s t i f i e d t o t h e g r a n d j u r y t h a t Mr s
. " C l y t i e " C a t l e t t
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 4 1
w a s
d e a d w h e n t h e w o m a n w a s a l i v e ? W h y , i f s h e h a d c h a r g e
a c c o u n t s i n n u m e r o u s d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s a n d a n a c t i v e c h e c k -
i n g a c c o u n t , h a d s h e d r a w n $ 4 0 0 c a s h f o r " f a m i l y s h o p p i n g "
i n No v e m b e r o f 1 9 3 7 ? Sh e h a d t o l d t h e g r a n d j u r y t h a t t h e
W o o d s t o c k w a s i n h e r p o s s e s s i o n i n 1 9 3 8 . W h y h a d s h e
c h a n g e d h e r t e s t i m o n y , a l l e g i n g t h a t s h e h a d g i v e n i t t o t h e
C a t l e t t c h i l d r e n i n 1 9 3 7 ? W h e n Mr s . Hi s s l e f t t h e s t a n d , s h e
s e e m e d o n t h e v e r g e o f h y s t e r i a .
B e f o r e t h e d e f e n s e r e s t e d , i t c a l l e d o n e l a s t i m p o r t a n t
w i t n e s s - Dr
. C a r l A. B i n g e r . Ag a i n s t t h e p r o l o n g e d o b j e c t i o n s
o f Mu r p h y , J u d g e K a u f m a n a l l o w e d B i n g e r t o t a k e t h e s t a n d
.
T h e n , f o r f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s , St r y k e r p o s e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l
q u e s t i o n o n C h a m b e r s ' s a n i t y . T h e j u d g e r e f u s e d t o a l l o w
B i n g e r t o a n s w e r , a n d h e w a s d i s m i s s e d . " Ag r a v e i n j u s t i c e
h a s b e e n d o n e t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t , " Mu r p h y r o a r e d
.
T h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d h o p e d t o c l i n c h t h e c a s e b y p l a c i n g
o n t h e s t a n d Mr s . He d e Ma s s i n g , t h e f i r s t w i f e o f K r e m l i n
a g e n t Ge r h a r t Ei s l e r a n d h e r s e l f a f o r m e r C o m m u n i s t a g e n t
w h o h a d k n o w n Hi s s i n t h e s p y u n d e r g r o u n d . B u t J u d g e
K a u f m a n , a l r e a d y u n d e r f i r e f o r h i s h a n d l i n g o f t h e c a s e ,
r e f u s e d t o l e t h e r t e s t i f y . Sh e w a s n o t a l e g i t i m a t e r e b u t t a l
w i t n e s s , h e i n s i s t e d . Fr u s t r a t e d a n d o u t r a g e d , Mu r p h y t r i e d
t o c a l l i n a w i t n e s s t o c o n t r a d i c t Hi s s ' t e s t i m o n y a b o u t t h e
Fo r d c a r
. Ag a i n K a u f m a n r u l e d h i m o u t .
Du r i n g t h e l o n g , h e a t - s e a r e d d a y s o f t h e t r i a l , t h e q u e s t i o n
h a d e c h o e d i n t h e c o u r t r o o m a n d o n c i t y s t r e e t s w h e r e
s m o t h e r e d Ne w Y o r k e r s g l a n c e d a t t h e s c r e a m i n g h e a d l i n e s
.
" W h o i s l y i n g ? Hi s s o r C h a m b e r s ? " Fi n a l l y , St r y k e r g a v e
h i s a n s w e r . St r i d i n g f o r c e f u l l y t o t h e e n c l o s u r e w h e r e t h e
j u r y s a t , h e b e g a n h i s l o n g s u m m a t i o n . Sh o r t , e r e c t , a n d
w h i t e - t h a t c h e d , t h e r e d - f a c e d l a w y e r s t o r m e d i n d e n u n c i a -
t i o n o f W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s a n d o r a t e d g r a n d l y i n p r a i s e o f
h i s c l i e n t . As h e m o v e d f r o m c l i m a x t o c l i m a x , e v e r y s p a d e
w a s a g l o r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t o r a d i r t y s h o v e l , n e v e r m e r e l y
a s p a d e .
T h e j u r y m e m b e r s w e r e " c i t i z e n - j u d g e s o f t h e f a c t , " t h e
2 4 2

SEEDSOFT REASON
" s o l d i e r s o f j u s t i c e , " a g r e a t " o r c h e s t r a o f j u s t i c e , " h e s a i d ,
p a c i n g b a c k a n d f o r t h
. He h i m s e l f w a s t h e Ar t u r o T o s c a n i n i .
Hi s d e f e n s e w o u l d b e l i k e t h e " f o u r - o r - f i v e n o t e t h e m e o f
B e e t h o v e n ' s Fi f t h Sy m p h o n y , "
r e p e a t e d o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n ,
n o w s o f t l y , n o w t h u n d e r i n g . It w a s a s i m p l e t h e m e , t a k e n
f r o m a p h r a s e i n t h e p r o s e c u t o r ' s o p e n i n g s t a t e m e n t , " If y o u
d o n ' t b e l i e v e W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s n o
c a s e
.
" W e a r e t r y i n g o n e q u e s t i o n h e r e , a n d o n l y o n e , " St r y k e r
s a i d p a s s i o n a t e l y . " Di d Mr . Hi s s f u r n i s h , t r a n s m i t , a n d d e l i v e r
t o C h a m b e r s r e s t r i c t e d d o c u m e n t s i n Fe b r u a r y a n d Ma r c h ,
1 9 3 8 . T h a t i s t h e s o l e q u e s t i o n
. . .
T h e r e i s o n l y o n e m a n
i n t h e w h o l e w o r l d w h o s a y s Mr . Hi s s f u r n i s h e d d o c u m e n t s
t o h i m , a n d t h a t m a n i s W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s . . . Iw o u l d
n o t b e l i e v e C h a m b e r s o n a s t a c k o f B i b l e s i f t h e FB Is t a c k e d
t h e m a s h i g h a s t h i s b u i l d i n g . . . Ro g u e r y , d e c e p t i o n , c r i m -
i n a l i t y h a v e m a r k e d t h i s m a n C h a m b e r s a s i f w i t h a h o t i r o n .
He s h o w s t h e p a t t e r n o f a n u n u s u a l p e r s o n a l i t y a n d h i s l i f e
i s f i l l e d w i t h s t r a n g e i n c i d e n t s . . . "
W h y h a d C h a m b e r s a c c u s e d Hi s s o f s t e a l i n g d o c u m e n t s
f r o m t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e Ru s s i a n s ?
T o h e l p d e f e a t t h e De m o c r a t s , St r y k e r a n s w e r e d
. " It w a s a
w o n d e r f u l r e d h e r r i n g t o t a k e t h e p u b l i c ' s m i n d o f f t h e 8 0 t h
C o n g r e s s . " Ho w d i d C h a m b e r s g e t t h e d o c u m e n t s a n d t h e
h a n d w r i t t e n m e m o s ? " So m e o t h e r r o g u e o r t h i e f g o t [ t h e m ]
a f t e r Mr . Hi s s w a s d o n e w i t h t h e m i n h i s o f f i c e . " Ho w a b o u t
t h e W o o d s t o c k w h i c h h a d b e e n u s e d t o t y p e t h e d o c u m e n t s ?
" Mr . a n d Mr s . Hi s s d i d n o t h a v e t h a t t y p e w r i t e r . . . w h e n
m o s t o f t h o s e d o c u m e n t s w e r e t y p e d , " s a i d St r y k e r
.
" T h i s i s n ' t a c a s e ; i t ' s a n o u t r a g e , " h e s h o u t e d . T h e n , t u r n -
i n g t o t h e d e f e n d a n t , h e s a i d s l o w l y a n d h u s k i l y : " Al g e r Hi s s ,
t h i s l o n g n i g h t m a r e i s d r a w i n g t o a c l o s e . Y o u r f a t e , y o u r l i f e ,
i s i n g o o d h a n d s . " An d h e b o w e d t o t h e j u r y . T h e s u m m a t i o n ,
l a s t i n g f o u r h o u r s a n d t h i r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s s t r e t c h e d o u t o v e r
t w o d a y s , h a d b e e n a v i r t u o s o p e r f o r m a n c e
.
W h e n Mu r p h y r o s e t o s u m u p t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a s e , i t w a s
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 4 3
i m p o s s i b l e t o g u e s s h o w h e w o u l d r e p l y t o t h e d r a m a t i c
o r a t o r y o f t h e d e f e n s e c o u n s e l . T h r o u g h o u t t h e t r i a l Mu r p h y ' s
a p p r o a c h h a d b e e n p a i n s t a k i n g a n d a l i t t l e p e d e s t r i a n . No w ,
t o t h e s u r p r i s e o f t h e s p e c t a t o r s h i s v o i c e r a n g o u t d r a m a t i -
c a l l y . He d e s c r i b e d f i r s t , t h e p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e s u b m i t t e d t o
t h e c o u r t , " t h e u n d i s p u t e d f a c t s . "
" W e h a v e s h o w n y o u h e r e , " h e s a i d , " t h e t y p e w r i t e r , t h e
o r i g i n a l St a t e De p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s , a n d t h e d o c u m e n t s i n
t h i s c a s e - t h r e e s o l i d w i t n e s s e s . " He t h e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t
t h e d e f e n s e h a d n o t d i s p u t e d t h r e e f a c t s : W h i t t a k e r C h a m -
b e r s h a d i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n c o p i e s , s o m e v e r b a t i m , o f o r i g i n a l ,
s e c r e t , c o n f i d e n t i a l St a t e De p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s ; t h e d o c u -
m e n t s w e r e a l l d a t e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e m o n t h s o f 1 9 3 8 ; a l l b u t
o n e o f t h e t y p e w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t s w e r e c o p i e d o n t h e Hi s s
t y p e w r i t e r . Ne x t h e m o v e d o n t o t h e p a r a d e o f f i f t e e n c h a r -
a c t e r w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d b y t h e d e f e n s e t o " p r o v e " t h e a b s u r d i t y
o f t h e c h a r g e s t h e j u r y w a s t o w e i g h .
" Mr . St r y k e r s a i d t h a t h e w a s g o i n g t o c a l l t h e s h a d e o f
Ol i v e r W e n d e l l Ho l m e s a n d h a v e t h e g h o s t o f t h a t r e v e r e d
J u s t i c e t e s t i f y o n b e h a l f o f t h e d e f e n d a n t . An d Is a i d t o
m y s e l f , i f h e i s g o i n g t o c a l l t h e s h a d e o f j u s t i c e Ho l m e s ,
t h e r e a r e a c o u p l e o f s h a d e s t h a t Iw o u l d l i k e t o c a l l h e r e .
On e m a n ' s n a m e w a s J u d a s Is c a r i o t a n d t h e o t h e r ' s Ma j o r
Ge n e r a l B e n e d i c t Ar n o l d . "
T h e n h e w e n t o n . " B u t l e t m e d w e l l j u s t a m o m e n t o n r e p u -
t a t i o n . Id a r e s a y t h a t J u d a s Is c a r i o t h a d a f a i r l y g o o d r e p u t a -
t i o n . He w a s o n e o f t h e T w e l v e . He w a s n e x t t o Go d , a n d w e
k n o w w h a t h e d i d . B e n e d i c t Ar n o l d c a m e f r o m a f i n e f a m i l y
. . He w a s m a d e a m a j o r g e n e r a l a n d s o l d o u t W e s t P a i n t .
He w a s n ' t c a u g h t . B u t i f h e h a d b e e n c a u g h t , d o n ' t y o u t h i n k
h e c o u l d h a v e h a d Ge o r g e W a s h i n g t o n a s a r e p u t a t i o n
w i t n e s s . . .
" Mr
. St r y k e r f i r s t t o l d y o u , i n h i s o p e n i n g , t o b e w a r e o f
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s . He s a i d h e w a s a m o r a l l e p e r , a t h i e f
. . If Mr . St r y k e r c a l l s Mr . C h a m b e r s a m o r a l l e p e r , w h a t
i s t h e d e f e n d a n t Hi s s ? W h a t i s t h e n a m e f o r a g o v e r n m e n t
24 4 SEEDSOFT REASON
e m p l o y e e w h o t a k e s g o v e r n m e n t p a p e r s a n d g i v e s t h e m t o a n
e s p i o n a g e a g e n t ? . . .
In s i d e o f t h a t s m i l i n g f a c e , t h e h e a r t
i s b l a c k a n d c a n c e r o u s
. He i s a t r a i t o r . . . "
Mu r p h y p r o c e e d e d t o a s l a s h i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e f e n s e .
" No w t h i s t r i a l h a s b e e n i n p r o g r e s s s i n c e Ma y 8 1
. . . a n d
n o t o n c e h a v e Ib e e n a b l e t o f i n d o u t w h a t t h e d e f e n d a n t
c h a r g e s h e r e w a s t h e m o t i v e o f C h a m b e r s
. W h a t w a s h i s
m o t i v e ? W h a t w a s t h e m o t i v e o f t h e s e n i o r e d i t o r o f T i m e -
g e t t i n g $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 a y e a r - t o c o m e f o r w a r d w i t h t h e s e p a p e r s ?
W e l l , t h i s m o r n i n g Ih e a r d s o m e t h i n g a b o u t a p o l i t i c a l c a m -
p a i g n . Mr . St r y k e r d i d n o t s a y i n s o
m a n y w o r d s t h a t t h a t
w a s t h e m o t i v e
. He s k i r t e d a r o u n d t h a t a l i t t l e b i t . L e t u s
s e e n o w , w h a t w a s t h e s e n i o r e d i t o r o f
T i m e g o i n g t o g e t a s a
r e s u l t o f i n j e c t i n g h i m s e l f i n a p o l i t i c a l c a m p a i g n ? Ia s s u m e
w e w i l l h a v e t o a g r e e t h a t h e w a s n o t g o i n g t o g e t a $ 3 0 , 0 0 0
j o b i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t
. Do y o u k n o w w h a t m e m b e r s o f t h e
C a b i n e t g e t ? . . . No t h i n g l i k e $ 3 0 , 0 0 0
. W h a t w a s h e g o i n g
t o g e t i f h i s s i d e w o n , a n d w h a t w a s h i s s i d e ? C o u l d i t b e
s o m e p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e ? T h e r e i s n o t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e m a n
e v e r c o n c e r n e d h i m s e l f w i t h p o l i t i c s a f t e r 1 9 3 8
. He w a s i n -
t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s p r i o r t o 1 9 3 8
. He w a s i n t e r e s t e d
i n C o m m u n i s t p o l i t i c s , w i t h h i s f r i e n d Al g e r Hi s s
.
" No m o t i v e h a s b e e n p r o v e d . No m o t i v e h a s e v e r b e e n
s u g g e s t e d o n t h e w i t n e s s s t a n d h e r e . . .
" Ho w d i d Mr . St r y k e r k n o w a l l a b o u t t h e i n t i m a t e l i f e o f
t h e C h a m b e r s e s ? Do y o u t h i n k i t w a s t h e r e s u l t o f s o m e v e r y ,
v e r y m y s t e r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t h e a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s c o n -
d u c t e d ? . . . W a s n ' t i t o b v i o u s t o y o u , a s It o l d y o u i n m y
o p e n i n g , t h a t t h e r e w a s n o t a b l e s s e d t h i n g t h a t t h e d e f e n s e
d i d n o t k n o w b e f o r e t h i s t r i a l c o m m e n c e d ? T h e y h a d e x a m -
i n e d Mr
. a n d Mr s
. C h a m b e r s u n d e r o a t h i n B a l t i m o r e - f o r
s o m e 1 3 0 0 p a g e s . T h a t e x a m i n a t i o n c o m m e n c e d , It h i n k , i n
t h e e a r l y p a r t o f No v e m b e r , 1 9 4 8 , a n d c o n c l u d e d i n t h e l a t t e r
p a r t o f Ma r c h , 1 9 4 9 * . . . T h e y h a d t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e
Ho u s e c o m m i t t e e i n p r i n t e d f o r m
. . . An d a r m e d w i t h a l l
4 Ha v i n g b e e n c o n t i n u e d e v e n a f t e r Hi s s w a s i n d i c t e d .
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS
2 4 5
t h a t t h e y c a m e i n t o c o u r t a n d t r i e d t o i m p r e s s y o u w i t h t h e
f a c t t h a t a l l o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d b y v i r t u e o f
t h e i r o w n i n d u s t r y , s e c r e t l y . . .
T h e y k n e w e v e r y t h i n g .
T h e y e v e n h a d t h e t y p e w r i t e r . . .
" Do y o u r e m e m b e r h o w s h o c k e d Mr
. St r y k e r w a s w h e n
Mr . C h a m b e r s t o l d a b o u t t h e $ 4 0 0 l o a n
. ` T h a t ' s t h e f i r s t t i m e
y o u t e s t i f i e d t o t h a t , ' h e s a i d . . . a n d w h a t d i d t h e y d o w i t h
i t ? T h e y f u m b l e d ; t h e y d r o p p e d t h e b a l l o n t h a t o n e . .
.
W h e r e i s C h a m b e r s ' t e s t i m o n y c o r r o b o r a t e d ? In w h a t r e s p e c t
d o w e k n o w a s r a t i o n a l h u m a n b e i n g s t h a t h e t o l d t h e t r u t h ?
In w h a t r e s p e c t d o w e k n o w t h a t Hi s s l i e d ? Y o u d e t e r m i n e
w h e r e t h e l i e i s i n t h i s c a s e b y e x a m i n i n g a n d p l a c i n g s i d e b y
s i d e t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e Hi s s e s a n d t h e C h a m b e r s e s . On e
t h a t s t r u c k m e a s b e i n g v e r y c o g e n t w a s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f
t h e h o u s e s , t h e i n s i d e l a y - o u t o f t h e r o o m s . B e a r i n m i n d , t h e
Hi s s e s s a y t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e C h a m b e r s e s w e r e i n 3 0 t h St r e e t
o r V o l t a P l a c e . W e h a v e a d e s c r i p t i o n f r o m Mr s . C h a m b e r s
a n d f r o m Mr . C h a m b e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n s i d e o f t h e h o u s e s . "
T h e n Mu r p h y r e a d t h e m e t i c u l o u s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t w o Hi s s
h o m e s f r o m t h e r e c o r d o f Es t h e r C h a m b e r s ' t e s t i m o n y . " Is i t
p o s s i b l e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s f o r [ Mr . C h a m b e r s a n d Mr s .
C h a m b e r s ] t o d e s c r i b e t w o h o u s e s i n s u c h d e t a i l a n d n o t
h a v e b e e n t h e r e ? Is i t h u m a n l y p o s s i b l e ? C o n s i d e r t h a t w h e n
y o u a s k y o u r s e l f w h o i s l y i n g . "
W i t h a f i n e e d g e o f i r o n y , Mu r p h y d e s c r i b e d t h e c o n f r o n t a -
t i o n o f C h a m b e r s b y Al g e r Hi s s , t h e c a g e y w a y i n w h i c h Hi s s
a p p r o a c h e d a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f C h a m b e r s . He m o c k e d t h e
f a c t t h a t Hi s s c o u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e C h a m b e r s u n t i l t h e l a t t e r
h a d o p e n e d h i s m o u t h . " W e l l , C h a m b e r s o p e n e d h i s m o u t h
a n d h e l o o k e d i n , a n d h a v i n g l o o k e d , h e w a n t e d t h e n t o k n o w
t h e d e n t i s t ' s n a m e
. Se e , t h a t w o u l d b e i m p o r t a n t
. He a l s o
w a n t e d t o k n o w w h e n t h e d e n t a l w o r k w a s d o n e . T h a t w o u l d
h e l p h i m r e c o g n i z e h i s m a n . " It w a s n o t u n t i l C h a m b e r s s a i d ,
" Y o u a n d I, Al g e r , w e r e C o m m u n i s t s t o g e t h e r , " Mu r p h y
r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h a t Hi s s " r e c o g n i z e d " h i s a n t a g o n i s t .
T h i s w a s t h e s t o r y o f t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n a n d n o t w h a t Hi s s
2 4 6
SEEDSOFT REASON
s a i d w h e n t e s t i f y i n g , " Ir e c o g n i z e d
h i m w i t h o u t h e s i t a -
t i o n . . . "
" No w a b o u t t h e c a r , " Mu r p h y c o n t i n u e d
. " L e t u s a s s u m e
t h a t Hi s s c o u l d n o t h o n e s t l y r e m e m b e r w h a t y e a r i t w a s t h a t
h e g a v e t h e c a r a w a y
. T h e r e i s n o d o u b t i n y o u r m i n d t h a t
y o u w o u l d r e m e m b e r t o w h o m y o u g a v e i t . . . He f i r s t
t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e g i v i n g o f t h e c a r w a s t o c l i n c h [ t h e s u b l e a s e
o f h i s a p a r t m e n t t o C h a m b e r s ]
. No w r i t t e n l e a s e , n o t h i n g l i k e
t h a t , j u s t a n o r a l a g r e e m e n t , n o r e n t i n a d v a n c e . T h i s Ha r -
v a r d m a n , a b r i l l i a n t l a w s t u d e n t , t h e n a l a w y e r , p r a c t i c i n g
l a w w i t h t h e Ny e c o m m i t t e e , p e r m i t t e d a m a n w h o m h e d i d
n o t k n o w t o o w e l l , d i d n o t k n o w w h e r e h e w o r k e d , d i d n o t
k n o w w h e r e h e c o u l d r e a c h h i m , p e r m i t t e d h i m t o b e c o m e a
s u b t e n a n t o f h i s w i t h o u t a w r i t t e n l e a s e , w i t h o u t d e m a n d i n g
t h e m o n e y i n a d v a n c e , a n d t h e n , t o c l i n c h t h e b a r g a i n i n
1 9 3 5 , g a v e h i m a Fo r d .
" L a t e r o n h e s a i d h e g a v e h i m ` t h e u s e ' o f t h e Fo r d
. T h a t
i s Mr . Hi s s ' f o r t e
. He i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h , t o c o m b i n e t r u t h
w i t h h a l f - t r u t h , a l i t t l e b i t t o c o l o r i t , a l i t t l e b i t m o r e t o
t e s t i f y , a n d t h e n , i f p l a c e d i n a c o r n e r , t o r e l y u p o n t h e t r u t h -
f u l p a r t , a n d y o u h a v e t o b e p r e t t y g o o d t o d o t h a t , a n d h e i s
p r e t t y g o o d .
" No w , h e s a i d h e g a v e t h e c a r i n 1 9 3 6 . T h a t i s , h e c o m -
p l e t e l y d i v e s t e d h i m s e l f o f t h e c a r i n 1 9 3 6 , i n t h e s u m m e r ,
b e c a u s e h e p r o m i s e d t o g i v e i t t o h i m i n Ap r i l o f t h e y e a r
b e f o r e . It w a s a p r o m i s e m a d e a n d a p r o m i s e f u l f i l l e d . Of
c o u r s e t h e g u y g y p p e d h i m a l i t t l e b i t i n b e t w e e n , b e a t h i m
o u t o f t h e r e n t , t o u c h e d h i m f o r $ 3 0 o r s o , a c o m p l e t e
m o o c h e r , b u t h e m a d e a p r o m i s e , a n d , b y Go d , w h e n t h e m a n
s a i d , ` W h e r e i s t h e c a r ? " He r e i t i s . ' An d h e g a v e h i m t h e c a r .
` B u t w h a t d o e s t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f t i t l e s a y ? T h e a s s i g n -
m e n t o f t i t l e , w h i c h w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n e v i d e n c e h e r e , s a y s ,
` Fo r v a l u e r e c e i v e d t h e u n d e r s i g n e d h e r e b y s e l l s , a s s i g n s a n d
t r a n s f e r s u n t o C h e r n e r Mo t o r C o m p a n y , 1 7 8 1 Fl o r i d a Av e -
n u e , N.
W . , t h e m o t o r v e h i c l e d e s c r i b e d o n t h e r e v e r s e s i d e
o f t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e , a n d t h e u n d e r s i g n e d h e r e b y w a r r a n t s t h e
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 4 7
t i t l e ' a n d s o f o r t h , a n d t h e s i g n a t u r e o f t h e a s s i g n o r : ' Al g e r
Hi s s . ' ` Sw o r n t o J u l y 2 3 , 1 9 3 6 . W . Ma r v i n Sm i t h , No t a r y
P u b l i c
. ' As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , It h i n k Mr . Hi s s t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e
w r o t e i n t h e n a m e C h e r n e r Mo t o r C o m p a n y h i m s e l f . T h a t i s
w h a t h e s a i d u n d e r o a t h o n J u l y 2 8 , 1 9 8 8
. T h a t i s w h a t h e
s a i d h e d i d w i t h t h a t Fo r d a u t o m o b i l e . He a s s i g n e d , t r a n s -
f e r r e d , a n d s o l d t h a t c a r t o C h e r n e r Mo t o r C o m p a n y , a n d
J u d g e K a u f m a n w o u l d n o t l e t m e p r o v e w h a t h a p p e n e d
a f t e r t h a t .
" On e t h i n g m o r e t o a d d t o t h e l i s t o f t h i n g s t h a t w i l l h e l p
y o u d e c i d e w h o l i e d . Mr . C h a m b e r s t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e b o u g h t
f o u r Or i e n t a l r u g s w i t h m o n e y h e r e c e i v e d f r o m B y k o v . He
h a d h i s f r i e n d , P r o f e s s o r Me y e r Sc h a p i r o f r o m C o l u m b i a , b u y
t h e m f o r h i m
. . . .
Mr
. Hi s s s a y s h e d i d g e t a r u g f r o m
C h a m b e r s
. . . . "
Mo v i n g o n t o t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t t y p e w r i t e r , Mu r p h y d e -
c l a r e d t h a t a f t e r C h a m b e r s h a d p r o d u c e d t h e m e m o s a n d
d o c u m e n t s , " i t b e c a m e v e r y , v e r y i m p o r t a n t " t o f i n d t h e
Hi s s e s ' W o o d s t o c k t y p e w r i t e r
. " Hi s s w a n t e d t o h e l p t h i s g o v -
e r n m e n t o f y o u r s a n d m i n e . He w a n t e d t o t r a c k d o w n a n d
n a i l t h i s h o r r i b l e s t o r y o f t r e a s o n . . . Y e s , s i r , h e w a n t e d t o
h e l p . So w h a t d i d h e d o ? He t o l d FB Ia g e n t s t h a t [ h e a n d
Mr s . Hi s s ] h a d a n o l d t y p e w r i t e r , y e s t h e y h a d i t , b u t t h e y
d i s p o s e d o f i t i n 1 9 3 8 t o a s e c o n d - h a n d d e a l e r i n Ge o r g e t o w n .
" T h a t w a s t o h e l p t h e FB If i n d t h e t y p e w r i t e r . . . So t h e
FB Il o o k e d a n d t h e y l o o k e d a n d t h e y c o u l d n o t f i n d i t
. B u t
t h e y d i d f i n d . . . l e t t e r s w r i t t e n b y t h e Hi s s e s o n t h a t t y p e -
w r i t e r , a n d t h e i r e x p e r t l o o k e d a t t h e m , j u s t a s a b a l l i s t i c s e x -
p e r t l o o k s a t a b u l l e t , a n d s a i d , ` Y e s , t h o s e d o c u m e n t s e x c e p t
t h e o n e w e k n o w a s No
. 1 0 , w e r e a l l w r i t t e n o n t h e s a m e
t y p e w r i t e r t h a t t h e s e s p e c i m e n s w e r e w r i t t e n o n
. ' It b r o u g h t
u s a l i t t l e c l o s e r t o Al g e r Hi s s
. No w i n l o o k i n g f o r t h i s t y p e -
w r i t e r , t h e FB Ia l s o h a d s o m e o t h e r h e l p f r o m t h e Hi s s e s
.
Y o u c a n s e e h o w t h a t f i r s t h e l p s a v e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o t
o f m o n e y a n d t i m e , b u t h e w a n t e d t o h e l p . T h a t w a s t h e o n l y
t h i n g h e w a n t e d t o d o i n De c e m b e r , w a s t o h e l p t h e FB I
.
2 4 8

SEEDSOFT REASON
" Mr s . Hi s s t o l d t h e g r a n d j u r y t h a t t h e i r m a i d , C l a u d i a
C a t l e t t , w a s d e a d . Y o u c a n s e e h o w t h a t w o u l d h e l p . Y o u
c o u l d j u s t e l i m i n a t e h e r f r o m t h e l i s t o f p e o p l e t o s e e . B u t
t h e y f o u n d [ t h e t y p e w r i t e r ] . Ho w ? T h e y w e n t t o t h e s a m e
s o u r c e s t h a t w e d i d . T h e FB I a g e n t s s a w t h e C a t l e t t b o y s a t
t h e e n d o f J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 9 , a n d t h e y d e n i e d k n o w i n g a n y t h i n g
a b o u t a Hi s s t y p e w r i t e r . T h a t i s w h a t t h e y t o l d t h e FB I . B u t
w h a t d i d t h e y t e l l t h e Hi s s e s ? T h a t l i t t l e C a t l e t t b o y s a i d h e
w e n t t o Do n a l d Hi s s t h e d a y a f t e r a n d s a i d t h e FB I a g e n t s
w e r e a r o u n d i n q u i r i n g a b o u t a t y p e w r i t e r a n d t h e n t h i n g s
s t a r t e d t o b u z z
.
" W e f i n d Mr . Ro s e n w a l d , a f e l l o w c l a s s m a t e [ o f Hi s s ] , o u t
i n De t r o i t i n t h e e n d o f J a n u a r y . An d t h e n w e k n o w t h e s t o r y ,
h o w t h r o u g h t h e s m a l l e r o f t h e C a t l e t t b o y s t h e t y p e w r i t e r
w a s t r a c e d t h r o u g h h i s f a m i l y , t h r o u g h t h e s i s t e r , a n d f i n a l l y
[ t o De t r o i t ] i n t o Mr . L o c k e y ' s h a n d s , a n d t h e n Mr . L o c k e y
s o l d i t t o Mr . Mc L e a n , a n d t h e r e c e i p t s a y s Ap r i l 1 9 , 1 9 4 9 ,
f o r $ 1 5 . So y o u c a n s e e h o w t h i s h e l p e d . No w t h e Hi s s e s
k n e w t h a t t h e t y p e w r i t e r f o r m e d a c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e t w e e n
C h a m b e r s a n d t h e m . T h e y k n e w t h a t f r o m t h e p e r i o d f r o m
Ma y o r J u n e , 1 9 3 7 , u n t i l h i s d e f e c t i o n i n Ap r i l o f 1 9 3 8 t h a t
t h a t t y p e w r i t e r w a s g o i n g a l l t h e t i m e , a n d i f t h e r e e v e r w a s
g o i n g t o b e a c h a r g e a g a i n s t t h e Hi s s e s , t h a t w o u l d b e t h e
i m m u t a b l e w i t n e s s f o r e v e r a g a i n s t t h e m
. So w h a t d i d t h e y
d o ? Di d t h e y s e l l i t ? Of c o u r s e n o t
. If t h e y s o l d i t , t h e r e
w o u l d a l w a y s b e a r e c o r d a s i t p a s s e d f r o m o n e p e r s o n t o
a n o t h e r . T h e y g o t r i d o f i t b y g i v i n g i t t o t h e C a t l e t t s .
" U n t i l [ Hi s s ] w a s i n d i c t e d h e n e v e r o n c e m e n t i o n e d i t t o
h i s l a w y e r s . Of c o u r s e , h e n e v e r t o l d t h e g r a n d j u r y e i t h e r ,
b u t h e d i d t e l l o n e o f t h e C a t l e t t b o y s . He s a i d , ` If t h e FB I
e v e r c o m e s l o o k i n g f o r a t y p e w r i t e r , d o n ' t t e l e p h o n e m e b u t
t e l l m y b r o t h e r Do n a l d . ' In o t h e r w o r d s , h e c o u l d l e t i t s i t
.
If t h e a g e n t s d i d n o t f i n d t h e C a t l e t t s , a l l w e l l a n d g o o d
. . .
Is u b m i t t h a t t w o t h i n g s m u s t b e c l e a r
; o n e , t h a t t h e t y p e -
w r i t e r w a s i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e Hi s s f a m i l y u n t i l a t l e a s t
T HET RIAL OFAL GERHISS

2 4 9
Mr . C h a m b e r s ' d e f e c t i o n , u n t i l h e l e f t t h e P a r t y ; a n d t w o ,
t h a t t h e C a t l e t t s h a d t h e t y p e w r i t e r f o r s o m e t i m e a f t e r
t h a t . . .
" No w a n o t h e r i t e m , t h e $ 4 0 0 . Y o u k n o w t h e s t o r y . Mr .
C h a m b e r s s a y s t h a t Hi s s g a v e h i m $ 4 0 0 a n d h e u s e d t h a t t o
h e l p p a y f o r a c a r . T h e c a r w a s b o u g h t . . . i n No v e m b e r ,
1 9 3 7 . He u s e d i t i n h i s b r e a k f r o m t h e P a r t y
. No w i f h i s s t a t e -
m e n t w a s u n t r u e t h e r e , o f c o u r s e , c o u l d n o t b e a n y $ 4 0 0 w i t h -
d r a w a l f r o m t h e b a n k . B u t i f h i s s t a t e m e n t w a s t r u e a n d t h e r e
w a s a n e x a c t $ 4 0 0 w i t h d r a w a l , h e i s p s y c h i c . He d i d n o t h a v e
t h e b a n k a c c o u n t . He d i d n o t s a y $ 3 5 0 , h e d i d n o t s a y $ 5 0 0 ,
o r $ 4 2 5 , b u t a n e v e n $ 4 0 0 . W h a t d i d t h e y d o w i t h i t ? Mr s .
Hi s s s a i d s h e b o u g h t a l l o f t h e s e i t e m s f o r h e r V o l t a P l a c e
h o u s e . I, t o o , a m g o i n g t o a s k t h e l a d i e s o n t h e j u r y , i s t h a t
t h e w a y y o u d o i t w h e n y o u h a v e a c h e c k i n g a c c o u n t a n d a
c h a r g e a c c o u n t , a n d y o u h a v e n o t m o v e d i n ? Do y o u t a k e t h e
$ 4 0 0 o u t i n o n e l u m p ? Do y o u g o a r o u n d a n d b u y c u r t a i n s
a n d i t e m s f o r t h e h o u s e t o b e d e l i v e r e d l a t e r a n d p a y f o r
t h e m i n c a s h ? If y o u a r e g o i n g t o h a v e t h e m d e l i v e r e d l a t e r
y o u m i g h t a s w e l l p a y b y c h e c k
. Is t h a t $ 4 0 0 e x p l a n a t i o n r e a -
s o n a b l e t o y o u o r i s i t j u s t a n o t h e r l i e , a n o t h e r p e g u p o n
w h i c h y o u c a n t e l l w h i c h s i d e c r e d i b i l i t y l i e s ?
" T h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s Ex h i b i t 1 7 i s t h e o n e t h a t h u r t s
. T h a t i s
t h e o n e t h a t s c o r e d . T h a t i s a p r e t t y g o o d t y p i n g j o b
. An d
w h a t d i d s h e s a y i n t h e r e ? Sh e s a i d s h e w a s g o i n g t o t h e
u n i v e r s i t y i n o r d e r t h a t s h e m i g h t t a k e c o u r s e s a t Me r c y
Ho s p i t a l
. T h a t i s w h a t Mr s . C h a m b e r s t e s t i f i e d t h a t Mr s
. Hi s s
t a l k e d o f , ` t a k i n g c o u r s e s : No w w h y d i d i t h u r t ? B e c a u s e
[ Mr s . C h a m b e r s ] t o o m u s t h a v e b e e n p s y c h i c t o k n o w a b o u t
t h a t p l a n , o r e l s e , i f s h e w a s n o t p s y c h i c , s h e w a s c h u m m i n g
w i t h Mr s . Hi s s , a n d Is u b m i t t h a t i s h o w s h e k n e w i t .
" An d a g a i n , f i n a l l y , y o u a r e t h e s e c o n d j u r y t o h e a r t h i s
s t o r y . T h e g r a n d j u r y h e a r d t h e s a m e s t o r y . T h e g r a n d j u r y
h e a r d t h i s t r a i t o r a n d Mr
. C h a m b e r s , a n d t h a t g r a n d j u r y
i n d i c t e d Hi s s . It i n d i c t e d Hi s s b e c a u s e h e l i e d
. He l i e d t o
2 5 0

SEEDSOFT REASON
t h e m , a n d Is u b m i t h e l i e d t o y o u
. T h e g r a n d j u r y s a i d t h a t
h e l i e d t w i c e o n De c e m b e r 1 5 t h
. An d a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f
1 3 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e o f t h i s c o u n t r y , Ia s k y o u t o c o n c u r i n t h a t
c h a r g e o f t h e g r a n d j u r y
. Ia s k y o u a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e
U n i t e d St a t e s Go v e r n m e n t t o c o m e b a c k a n d p u t t h e l i e i n
t h a t m a n ' s f a c e . "
W h e n Mu r p h y h a d f i n i s h e d , j u d g e K a u f m a n t o o k o v e r
.
Af t e r h e h a d f i n i s h e d h i s c h a r g e , t h e j u r y f i l e d o u t o f t h e
c o u r t r o o m t o b e g i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s
. Fo u r t i m e s t h e j u r y r e -
p o r t e d t h a t i t c o u l d a r r i v e a t n o v e r d i c t
. Ea c h t i m e t h e j u d g e
a s k e d t h e m t o g o b a c k a n d t r y a g a i n . B u t t h e d e a d l o c k i n t h e
j u r y r o o m c o u l d n o t b e b r o k e n
. As t h e h o u r s p a s s e d , Hi s s p u t
a s i d e a s t a t e m e n t h e h a d b e e n w r i t i n g t o b e i s s u e d f o l l o w i n g
h i s a c q u i t t a l .
Fr a y e d o f t e m p e r a n d w e a r y o f d i s c u s s i o n , t h e j u r y r e -
t u r n e d t o t h e c o u r t r o o m o n t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e i r s e c o n d d a y ' s
d e l i b e r a t i o n a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o h o p e o f a g r e e -
m e n t a m o n g t h e m . Af t e r f o u r t e e n h o u r s a n d f o r t y - f o u r m i n -
u t e s , i t w a s s t i l l s p l i t - e i g h t f o r c o n v i c t i o n a n d f o u r f o r
a c q u i t t a l
. T h e l o n g o r d e a l h a d e n d e d i n a d e a d l o c k a f t e r
t w e n t y - s e v e n d a y s a n d 8 0 3 , 7 5 0 w o r d s o f t e s t i m o n y
.
Al g e r Hi s s , g r a y - f a c e d a n d g r i m , s t a l k e d o u t o f t h e c o u r t -
r o o m w i t h o u t a w o r d o r a f o r m a l h a n d s h a k e f o r St r y k e r
. B u t
d o w n o n h i s f a r m i n W e s t m i n s t e r , Ma r y l a n d , W h i t t a k e r
C h a m b e r s s a i d s o f t l y
: " Id i d w h a t Ih a d t o d o . . .
T i m e
w i l l b r i n g o u t t h e t r u t h . "
J u d g e Sa m u e l H
. K a u f m a n h a d b a r e l y d i s m i s s e d t h e j u r y
b e f o r e c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o n d u c t o f t h e c a s e b u r s t i n t o t h e o p e n
.
In W a s h i n g t o n , Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Ni x o n c a l l e d f o r a n i n v e s t i g a -
t i o n . K a u f m a n ' s " p r e j u d i c e f o r t h e d e f e n s e a n d a g a i n s t t h e
p r o s e c u t i o n w a s s o o b v i o u s . . . t h a t t h e j u r y ' s 8 - 4 v o t e f o r
c o n v i c t i o n c a m e f r a n k l y a s a s u r p r i s e t o m e , " h e d e c l a r e d
.
Ab o v e t h e f i g h t , o n e f a c t r e m a i n e d u n o b s c u r e d
. W i t h e v e r y
a d v a n t a g e o n h i s s i d e , w i t h o n e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s s h r e w d e s t
t r i a l l a w y e r s a n d a s y m p a t h e t i c j u d g e , Al g e r
Hi s s
c o u l d n o t
c l e a r h i m s e l f o f t h e c h a r g e s m a d e b y W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s
.
1 8
T w o St r i k e s Ar e Ou t
B ET W EENT HEFIRST ANDSEC ONDHISST RIAL S, J U L IAN
W a d l e i g h w r o t e h i s e m o t i o n a l , e g o c e n t r i c s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s
f o r t h e Ne w Y o r k P o s t s y n d i c a t e . Re t a i l i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n
t h e C o m m u n i s t u n d e r g r o u n d , t h e y h a d t h e e f f e c t o f c o r r o b -
o r a t i n g W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s o n a l l e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s . B u t t h e i r
r o m a n t i c i n a c c u r a c i e s * w e r e t o p l a g u e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n i n t h e
s e c o n d t r i a l
. Mu c h m o r e h a p p e n e d , h o w e v e r , t h a n t h e c i t i z e n
c o u l d r e a d i n h i s e v e n i n g p a p e r .
T h e r e a l a c t i v i t y w a s s u b t e r r a n e a n , a n d m u c h o f i t s h a p e d
t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i m p e n d i n g l i t i g a t i o n . T h e FB I, l i v i n g u p t o
i t s m o s t g l o r i o u s r e p u t a t i o n , w e n t a l l o u t t o f i n d w i t n e s s e s
w h o m i g h t p l u g u p w h a t e v e r h o l e s t h e r e h a d b e e n i n t h e f i r s t
g o v e r n m e n t e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e . Fa n n i n g o u t t o t h e
f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e c o u n t r y , i t t r a c k e d d o w n t h e s l i m m e s t o f
l e a d s a n d c a m e h o m e t r i u m p h a n t . On t h e m o s t v a g r a n t t e a s e r
- t h a t t h e C h a m b e r s e s h a d e m p l o y e d a Ne g r o m a i d n a m e d
Ed i t h i n B a l t i m o r e d u r i n g 1 9 3 5 a n d 1 9 3 6 - t h e y w e r e a b l e t o
t u r n u p Mr s
. Ed i t h Mu r r a y a f t e r s i x m o n t h s o f s e a r c h . An -
o t h e r w i t n e s s w h o b r o u g h t t h e d e f e n s e u p s h o r t , Se r g e a n t
Ge o r g e No r m a n Ro u l h a c , w a s l o c a t e d i n t h e Al e u t i a n & Mr s .
Gl a d y s T a l l y w a s b r o u g h t i n f r o m St
. L o u i s t o c o n f o u n d t h e
Hi s s e s o n s e v e r a l m i n o r b u t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y v i t a l b i t s o f t e s t i -
m o n y .
W a d l e i g h i n s i s t e d a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t C o l o n e l B y k o v w a s o n e -
a r m e d
.
2 5 1
2 5 2

SEEDSOFT REASON
T h e d e f e n s e i t s e l f w a s n o t s l e e p i n g . Ha v i n g d r o p p e d L l o y d
P a u l St r y k e r f o r r e a s o n s n e v e r e x p l a i n e d , Hi s s e n g a g e d
C l a u d e B
. C r o s s , a l a w y e r o f h i g h r e p u t a t i o n b u t n e g l i g i b l e
c r i m i n a l c o u r t e x p e r i e n c e . No s u r p r i s e w i t n e s s e s c o u l d b e
p r o d u c e d , b u t t h e d e f e n s e w o r k e d m o s t l o v i n g l y o n o n e
p r o j e c t . Fr o m t h e s t a r t , Hi s s ' l a w y e r s m a d e i t c l e a r t h a t a n
a t t e m p t w o u l d a g a i n b e m a d e t o u s e p s y c h i a t r i c e v i d e n c e t o
p r o v e t h a t C h a m b e r s w a s a n u n r e l i a b l e w i t n e s s . Si m u l -
t a n e o u s l y , Hi s s ' f r i e n d s r a n g e d B o s t o n , Ne w Y o r k , W e s t c h e s -
t e r , a n d W a s h i n g t o n s p r e a d i n g a s " e x p l a n a t i o n " f o r t h e e x -
d i p l o m a t ' s p r e d i c a m e n t a s t o r y s o p r e p o s t e r o u s a n d o b s c e n e
t h a t i t c o u l d n o t b e p u b l i s h e d i n a f a m i l y n e w s p a p e r . T h a t
t h i s " e x p l a n a t i o n " e x p l a i n e d n o t h i n g d i d n o t d e t e r t h o s e w h o
s p r e a d i t ; t h e i r i n t e n t i o n w a s t o i m p l e m e n t t h e St r y k e r t h e o r y
o f t h e " m o r a l l e p e r . "
De s p i t e t h i s v i c i o u s r u m o r - m o n g e r i n g , a s u b t l e c h a n g e i n
a t m o s p h e r e w a s t a k i n g p l a c e . T h e J u s t i c e De p a r t m e n t -
w h i c h t o o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e s a t l e a s t h a d n o t s e e m e d e n -
t h u s i a s t i c o v e r P r o s e c u t o r T o m Mu r p h y ' s h e r c u l e a n e f f o r t s t o
w i n a c o n v i c t i o n - s u d d e n l y w o k e u p . P e r h a p s t h e v i o l e n t
c r i t i c i s m o f j u d g e K a u f m a n ' s b e h a v i o r i n t h e f i r s t t r i a l h a d
s h a k e n a f e w p o l i c y m a k e r s . P e r h a p s i t w a s t i e d i n w i t h t h e
T r u m a n Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s g e n e r a l d r i f t a w a y f r o m t h e Ne w
De a l e r s a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a j e a l o u s Fa i r De a l g r o u p i n
W a s h i n g t o n w h i c h d i d n o t r e l i s h a l i n k w i t h t h e Ro o s e v e l t i a n
p a s t
. At a n y r a t e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e w a s p e r c e p t i b l e i n
t h e U n i t e d St a t e s C o u r t h o u s e o n Ne w Y o r k ' s Fo l e y Sq u a r e
.
An o t h e r f a c t o r c h a n g e d t h e b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s i n t h e s e c o n d
t r i a l . T o m Mu r p h y h a d b e e n t h r o w n i n t o t h e f i r s t t r i a l t o o
l a t e t o g r a s p f u l l y t h e h i g h l y c o m p l e x e v i d e n c e , t h e l i t t l e
b y - w a y s o f f a c t a n d f a n c y t h a t m a d e u p t h e c a s e . T h e m a s s
o f m a t e r i a l t o b e a b s o r b e d w a s f a n t a s t i c i n i t s a g g r e g a t e , a n d
Mu r p h y h a d d o n e s u r p r i s i n g l y w e l l i n h i s f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n .
B e t w e e n t h e t w o t r i a l s h e w a s g i v e n a c h a n c e t o a s s i m i l a t e
w h a t e x p e r t s o n C o m m u n i s t s u b v e r s i o n w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h
o n l y o u t o f t h e i r l o n g e x p e r i e n c e . Mu r p h y h a d g r o w n i n
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 5 3
s t a t u r e d u r i n g t h e l o n g , b i t t e r d u e l w i t h St r y k e r . Ab i g m a n
o f i m m e n s e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , t h e a b o r t i v e f i r s t t r i a l h a d s e r v e d
h i m a s a l i m b e r i n g u p t i m e . No w h e w a s r e a d y , w i l l i n g , a n d
a n x i o u s t o c o p e w i t h t h e b e s t t h e d e f e n s e c o u l d t h r o w a t h i m
.
L i k e a n y m a n o f c o u r a g e a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l m e a n s , h e r o s e t o
t h e c h a l l e n g e .
W h e n Mu r p h y s t e p p e d i n t o c o u r t o n No v e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 4 9 ,
h e w a s f u l l y d e d i c a t e d t o t h e j o b a h e a d . An d h e c o u l d d e v o t e
h i s e n t i r e e n e r g y t o p r o v i n g h i s c a s e
. On t h e b e n c h s a t j u d g e
He n r y W . Go d d a r d , a v e t e r a n o f t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e
Fe d e r a l c o u r t s , w h o r u l e d h i s d o m a i n w i t h a r i g o r o u s i m p a r -
t i a l i t y w h i c h c o u l d o n l y b e m a t c h e d b y h i s o b v i o u s d e s i r e t o
h a v e a l l t h e f a c t s l a i d b e f o r e t h e j u r y
. T h r o u g h o u t t h e t r i a l ,
J u d g e Go d d a r d g a v e b o t h s i d e s t h e w i d e s t l a t i t u d e i n t h e
c a l l i n g o f w i t n e s s e s a n d i n e l i c i t i n g t e s t i m o n y i n b o t h d i r e c t
a n d c r o s s e x a m i n a t i o n
. As a r e s u l t , t h e a c r i m o n i o u s a t m o s -
p h e r e o f t h e f i r s t t r i a l w a s l a c k i n g .
Mu r p h y o u t l i n e d w h a t C h a m b e r s ' t e s t i m o n y w o u l d b e , b u t
h e s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d o c u m e n t a r y p r o o f - t h e
" i m m u t a b l e " t y p e w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t s a n d t h e m e m o s i n Hi s s '
h a n d w r i t i n g . C r o s s , a s m a l l , s t o c k y m a n , g r a y o f v o i c e a n d
a p p e a r a n c e , t o l d t h e j u r y t h a t h e w o u l d p r o v e t h a t t h e d o c u -
m e n t s h a d b e e n s t o l e n b y W a d l e i g h a n d a n u n n a m e d e m -
p l o y e e o f t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s Fa r Ea s t e r n Se c t i o n
. C l e a r l y
t h e d e f e n s e h a d p r o f i t e d b y a c l o s e s t u d y o f t h e f i r s t t r i a l
r e c o r d a n d t h e g l a r i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s o f Hi s s ' c a s e h a d b e e n
n o t e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e t r i a l , t h e p r e s s ( a n d p r e s u m a b l y t h e
j u r y ) w a i t e d i m p a t i e n t l y t o l e a r n t h e n a m e o f t h i s m y s t e r i o u s
" r e a l " t h i e f . T h e q u e s t i o n m a r k g r e w g r e a t e r w i t h t h e d a y s
.
It w a s n e v e r c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e e x c l a m a t i o n p o i n t w h i c h
w o u l d h a m m e r h o m e a d e f e n s e v i c t o r y .
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s ' t e s t i m o n y , r i c h e r i n i n c i d e n t , * a n d
t h e r e f o r e m o r e d a m n i n g t h a n h i s f i r s t Fe d e r a l c o u r t r e c i t a l ,
w a s m a r k e d b y a s h a r p c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e
. W h e r e o n c e t h e
* W h e r e K a u f m a n h a d l i m i t e d C h a m b e r s g e n e r a l l y t o " y e s " a n d " n o "
a n s w e r s , j u d g e Go d d a r d p r e f e r r e d f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n .
2 5 4 SEEDSOFT REASON
g o v e r n m e n t ' s s t a r w i t n e s s h a d s a t i n p e n i t e n t i a l s t o i c i s m , h e
n o w d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t h e w a s t h r o u g h w i t h a c c e p t i n g t h e
u n w a r r a n t e d s l u r s o f a c r o s s - e x a m i n i n g a t t o r n e y . T h o u g h h e
a n s w e r e d f r a n k l y a n d w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n , a n e l e m e n t o f
c a l m i r o n y c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s s p a r r i n g w i t h C r o s s
. Of t e n t h e
d e f e n s e c h i e f w a s f o r c e d t o r e t i r e , r e d - f a c e d , a n n o y e d , a n d
d e f i n i t e l y t h e l o s e r . At o n e p o i n t , C h a m b e r s b l a n d l y i n v i t e d
C r o s s t o p r e s s h i m o n a p o i n t - w h a t o n e o f t h e Hi s s m a i d s
h a d s a i d t o h i m w h e n t h e t w o w e r e b r o u g h t f a c e t o f a c e b y
t h e FB I. C r o s s s t e p p e d i n t o t h e t r a p .
" Sh e s a i d t h a t s h e d i d n ' t r e m e m b e r m e , b u t t h a t L e e P r e s s -
m a n a n d Na t h a n W i t t w e r e f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s a t t h e Hi s s
h o m e , " C h a m b e r s s a i d . In a n g u i s h , C r o s s o b j e c t e d t o t h e
a n s w e r t h a t h e h a d d e m a n d e d , b u t t h e j u d g e l e t i t s t a n d . B y
s u b p o e n a i n g C h a m b e r s ' 1 9 3 5 " Da v i d B r e e n " p a s s p o r t a p p l i -
c a t i o n h e m a d e m i s c h i e f f o r h i s c l i e n t . He c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y h o w t h e d e f e n s e h a d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p a s s p o r t .
An d t h e p a s s p o r t p h o t o s h o w e d C h a m b e r s s p o r t i n g a b u s h y
L o Nn o N

U n d e r g r o u n d Es p i o n a g e Ag e n t
( 1 ) Dr . P h i l i p Ro s e n b l i e t t - Fo r m e r l y o f ( 4 1 s t St . & B ' w a y , NE)
Dr . Gr e e n b e r g - MD( W e s t 7 0 t h NY )
B r o t h e r - i n - l a w
Am e r i c a n l e a d e r o f B r i t i s h U n d e r g r o u n d C .
He a d i n Am e r i c a Ma c k Mo r e n ( a l i a s P h i l i p o v i t c h - a l l e g e d l y
Y u g o s l a v ) - r e a l n a m e - ?
Ro s e n b l i e t t - i n
U . S .
c o n n e c t e d w i t h Dr . Is a d o r Mi l l e r - C h e m i s t ' s C l u b - 4 1 s t St
.
C h e m i s t , Ex p l o s i v e Ar s e n a l , P i c a t i n n y , N . J .
w a r " f r o n t " b e h i n d Ma c k Mo r e n e x i s t e d - i n Mi l l e r ' s e m p l o y
K n e w P r e s s m a n - h i s a l i a s w a s " C o l e P h i l i p s " -
In t r o d u c e d h i m t o Ma c k Mo r e n , b u y i n g a r m s f o r Sp a n i s h
( L o y a l i s t ) Go v ' t . -
P r e s s m a n - a s c o u n s e l - h e l p e d Mo r e n - m a d e a f l i g h t t o Me x i c o
w i t h h i m ; f o r c e d d o w n a t B r o w n s v i l l e , T e x . i n l a t e ' 3 8 o r
e a r l y - 3 7 - - p r o b a b l y f a l l o f ' 3 6 .
P r e s s m a n
U n d e r g r o u n d o r g a n i z e d b y t h e l a t e Ha r o l d W a r e
; P r e s s m a n w a s
i n h i s g r o u p - ( 1 9 3 2 - 3 ? ? ) P r e s s m a n t h e n i n t h e
A. A . A . -
Na t h a n W i t t - Se c r e t a r y o f t h e NL RB - h e a d o f t h e u n d e r g r o u n d
g r o u p a f t e r Ha r o l d W a r e -
J o h n Ab t - f o l l o w e d W i t t i n t h a t g r o u p - T a x Di v ' n - De p t o f
j u s t i c e & n o w i n C IO( M . W a r e s w i d o w - J e s s i c a Sm i t h Ed .
So v i e t Ru s s i a ) .
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 5 5
m o u s t a c h e . C r o s s t r i e d t o m a k e m u c h o f t h e f a c t t h a t C h a m -
b e r s h a d n e v e r m e n t i o n e d t h e m o u s t a c h e . Al l h e p r o v e d w a s
t h a t n e i t h e r Al g e r n o r P r i s c i l l a h a d m e n t i o n e d i t e i t h e r ,
a l t h o u g h t h e w i t n e s s h a d w o r n a m o u s t a c h e d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e
p e r i o d i n w h i c h Hi s s a d m i t t e d k n o w i n g C r o s l e y .
T h e d e f e n s e ' s d e m a n d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t p r o d u c e n o t e s
m a d e b y A . A . B e r l e a f t e r h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h a m b e r s i n
1 9 3 9 a n d t h o s e m a d e b y a St a t e De p a r t m e n t s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r
i n 1 9 4 5 w e r e a b o o n t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n . De l i b e r a t e l y c o y a b o u t
t h e s e n o t e s , Mu r p h y g r u d g i n g l y p r o d u c e d t h e m . B u t i n s t e a d
o f p r o v i n g w h a t t h e d e f e n s e h o p e d t h e y w o u l d p r o v e - t h a t
C h a m b e r s h a d n e v e r m a d e a c c u s a t i o n s o f e s p i o n a g e b e f o r e
No v e m b e r , 1 9 4 8 - t h e y s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a s e . *
W h e n Es t h e r C h a m b e r s t o o k t h e s t a n d , s h e d e s c r i b e d a
Ne w Y e a r ' s e v e c e l e b r a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e Hi s s a n d C h a m b e r s

T h e B e r l e n o t e s a l s o c a s t s e r i o u s d o u b t s o n h i s Ho u s e c o m m i t t e e t e s t i -
m o n y t h a t C h a m b e r s m e r e l y d e s c r i b e d " a Ma r x i s t s t u d y g r o u p " t o h i m . T h e
t e x t , b e g i n n i n g o n p a g e 2 5 4 :
ST AT S
Mr
. Ab t - Si s t e r : Ma r i o n B a c h a r a c h - Se c r e t a r y - C o m m u n i s t f r o m
Mi n n e s o t a .
( J e s s i c a Sm i t h
: W i t h Re u t e r s i n 1 9 2 6 - f r i e n d o f L o u i s Fi s c h e r )
Me e t i n g p l a c e : J o h n Ab t ' s h o u s e - 1 5 t h St .
C h a r l e s K r i v i t s k y - a l i a s C h a r l e s K r a m e r - ( C IO) w o r k e d i n L a Fo l -
l e t t e C o m m i t t e e - P h y s i c i s t .
V i n c e n t Re n o - No w a t Ab e r d e e n P r o v i n g Gr o u n d s - C o m p u t e r -
Ma t h . As s i s t . t o C o l . Z o r n i g ( Ae r i a l b o m b - s i g h t De t e c t o r s )
Fo r m e r l y C P o r g a n i z e r u n d e r a l i a s " L a n c e C l a r k . "
P h i l i p Re n o - i n So c i a l Se c u r i t y ( ? ? ) - w a s h e a d o f U n d e r g r o u n d
T r a d e U n i o n Gr o u p P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r
El i n o r Ne l s o n , t r e a s u r e r o f Fe d . Em p l o y e e s ' U n i o n - ( Fe d
. W o r k e r s '
U n i o n , C IO- h e a d e d b y J a k e B a k e r )
Re n o c o n n e c t e d w i t h B a l t i m o r e P a r t y
o r g a n i z e r - B e n j a m i n ( Su n d a y ) Fr i e d m a n a l i a s Fi e l d - t h e n C a l i .
f o r n i a - t h e n Ru s s i a - n o w o r g a n i z e r f o r B a l t i m o r e & W a s h i n g t o n
o f Ab o v e - Gr o u n d P a r t y - U n d e r g r o u n d c o n n e c t i o n s -
P o s t - Ed i t o r s h i p , Fo r e i g n Se r v i c e J o u r n a l . W a s i n Al e x a n d r i a U n i t
o f C P - i n ` U n d e r g r o u n d Ap p a r a t u s " -
Du g g a n - L a u r e n c e - ( Me m b e r C P ? ? )
( W a d l e i g h ) W a d l e y - T r a d e Ag r e e m e n t Se c t i o n
L o v e l l - T r a d e Ag r e e m e n t Se c t i o n
C o m m u n i s t Sh o p Gr o u p
El i n o r Ne l s o n - L a u r e n c e Du g g a n - J u l i e n W a d l e i g h -
2 5 6

SEEDSOFT REASON
f a m i l i e s g r e e t e d 1 9 3 7 t o g e t h e r
. B u t s h e h a d b e e n n o t t o o c e r -
t a i n o f t h e y e a r . It c o u l d b e 1 9 3 6 o r 1 9 3 7
. B y p o u n d i n g a w a y
a t h e r , C r o s s f o r c e d h e r t o s e t t h e d a t e d e f i n i t e l y a s 1 9 3 6
.
W h e n Hi s s w a s o n t h e s t a n d , C r o s s t r i u m p h a n t l y p r o d u c e d a
l e t t e r ( p o s t m a r k e d De c e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 3 6 ) w h i c h t h e d e f e n d a n t
h a d w r i t t e n t o Mr s . Hi s s , t h e n v i s i t i n g i n C h a p p a q u a , c o m -
m i s e r a t i n g w i t h h e r b e c a u s e T i m m i e h a d c o m e d o w n w i t h
c h i c k e n p o x . Mr s . Hi s s i n t u r n t e s t i f i e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e
i l l n e s s , s h e a n d T i m m i e h a d r e m a i n e d i n C h a p p a q u a " u n t i l
a b o u t t w o w e e k s a f t e r t h e Ne w Y e a r . " Ob v i o u s l y , t h e d e f e n s e
a r g u e d , t h e c e l e b r a t i o n Mr s . C h a m b e r s d e s c r i b e d c o u l d n e v e r
h a v e o c c u r r e d . W h e n t h i s p o i n t b o o m e r a n g e d , t h e e f f e c t w a s
d e v a s t a t i n g . Dr . Ma r g a r e t Ma r y Ni c h o l s o n , a p r o m i n e n t
W a s h i n g t o n p e d i a t r i c i a n , w a s s w o r n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d
p r o d u c e d h e r r e c o r d s t o s h o w t h a t Mr s . Hi s s a n d T i m m i e h a d
v i s i t e d h e r o f f i c e o n J a n u a r y 2 , 1 9 3 7 . T h i s n o t o n l y m a d e t h e
Ne w Y e a r ' s p a r t y a p o s s i b i l i t y , b u t b e c a u s e t h e d e f e n s e h a d
W e s t Eu r o p e a n Di v ' n - Fi e l d - s t i l l i n -
( L e v i n e s a y s h e i s o u t w e n t i n t o I . E . O.
T h e n i n c o m m i t t e e f o r Re p a t r i a t i o n
Hi s l e a d e r w a s He d d a Go m p e r t z
L a u g h l i n C u r r i e
: W a s a " Fe l l o w T r a v e l e r " - h e l p e d v a r i o u s C o m
.
m u n i s t s - n e v e r w e n t t h e w h o l e w a y .
S. E . C .
P h i l i p Re n o - u s e d t o b e
T x s n s u n v
Sc h l o m e r
Ad l e r ( So l Ad l e r ? )
C o u n s e l ' s Of f i c e
Se n d s w e e k l y r e p o r t s t o C P ( Ge n . C o u n s e l ' s Of f i c e )
Fr a n k C o e - n o w t e a c h e r a t Mc Gi l l .
T h e r e a r e t w o : b r o t h e r - On e o f t h e m i n C P ' s " Fo r e i g n B u r e a u "
- B o b C o e
K n o w n f r o m P e t e r s - f o r m e r l y i n B e l a K u n
Go v t . Ag r i c u l t u r a l C o m m i s s a r i a t - c a l l e d Ga n d o s z ( ? ) T h e n t o
Ru s s i a - t h e n h e r e , i n B u s i n e s s Of f i c e o f C o m m u n i s t p a p e r " U j
El o r i " - t h e n , a f t e r 1 9 2 9 - h e a d o f C P U n d e r g r o u n d , l i v e d i n
Ha m i l t o n Ap t s . , W o o d s i d e , L . I . - u n d e r a l i a s " Si l v e r " - & l e c t u r e d
i n C o m m u n i s t c a m p s -
Fr i e n d : " B l a k e " o f " Fr e l h e i t " - r e a l n a m e - W i e n e r - Am e r i c a n :
P o l i s h J e w . -
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 5 7
w o r k e d s o h a r d t o k n o c k d o w n t h e s t o r y , m a d e i t p s y c h o -
l o g i c a l l y a d i s t i n c t p r o b a b i l i t y
.
Dr . Ni c h o l s o n ' s r e c o r d s w e r e a l s o o f v a l u e t o t h e g o v e r n -
m e n t b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t a n o t h e r s w o r n a s s e r t i o n o f Mr s
.
Hi s s - t h a t s h e c o u l d n o t h a v e t a k e n a n a u t o m o b i l e t r i p t o
P e t e r b o r o u g h , Ne w Ha m p s h i r e , w i t h t h e C h a m b e r s e s d u r i n g
t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 3 7 b e c a u s e s h e h a d n o t o n c e l e f t C h e s t e r -
t o w n , Ma r y l a n d - w a s f a l s e . Ac c o r d i n g t o t h e r e c o r d s Mr s .
Hi s s a n d T i m m i e h a d v i s i t e d Dr . Ni c h o l s o n ' s o f f i c e i n W a s h -
i n g t o n r e p e a t e d l y t h a t s u m m e r
. Fu r t h e r , Dr . Ni c h o l s o n s t a t e d
t h a t d e f e n s e c o u n s e l h a d k n o w n o f t h e s e v i s i t s d u r i n g t h e
t i m e o f t h e f i r s t t r i a l .
B u t t h e f i r s t r e a l l y s t a g g e r i n g b l o w t o t h e d e f e n s e , s i m i l a r
t o t h e e f f e c t o f W a d l e i g h ' s t e s t i m o n y i n t h e f i r s t t r i a l , h a d
c o m e w h e n j u d g e Go d d a r d p e r m i t t e d Mr s . He d e Ma s s i n g t o
t a k e t h e s t a n d f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Mr s . Ma s s i n g t o l d t h e
c o u r t h o w i n 1 9 3 5 s h e h a d m e t Hi s s a t t h e h o m e o f No e l
P e t e r s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r W a s h i n g t o n Se c t o r
W e n t t o Mo s c o w - w h e r e i s h e n o w ? -
W i f e - a C o m i n t e r n c o u r i e r -
W e s t C o a s t - He a d : " T h e Ol d Ma n " - V o l k o v i s h i s r e a l n a m e -
d a u g h t e r a C o m i n t e r n c o u r i e r . He k n o w s t h e W e s t C o a s t
u n d e r g r o u n d - Re s i d e n c e : Sa n Fr a n c i s c o o r Oa k l a n d -
Al e x a n d e r T r a c h t e n b e r g - P o l i t b u r o -
m e m b e r o f t h e Ex e c
. C o m m i t t e e
He a d o f GP U i n U
. S.
W o r k s w i t h P e t e r s -
P l a n s f o r t w o Su p e r - b a t t l e s h i p s -
s e c u r e d i n 1 9 3 7 - w h o g a v e -
K a r p - b r o t h e r - i n - l a w o f Mo l o t o v - w o r k i n g w i t h Sc o t t Fe r r i s ,
g o t t h i s r e l e a s e d -
No w
: Na v a l Ar c h i t e c t w o r k i n g o n i t , w h y ? ?
Fi e l d w a s o r i g i n a l c o n t a c t
He i n t r o d u c e d Du g g a n t o Go m p e r t z ( He d d a )
Du g g a n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s c a s u a l -
Sh a l l e x c u s e ? - e r e i s He d d a Go m p e r t z ? -
Du g g a n & Fi e l d s u p p o s e d t o h a v e b e e n b o t h m e m b e r s
o f p a r t y . -
Do n a l d Hi s s
( P h i l i p p i n e s Ad v i s e r )
Me m b e r o f C P w i t h P r e s s m a n & W i t t -
2 5 8

SEEDSOFT REASON
Fi e l d , a m e m b e r o f h e r s p y r i n g , a n d h o w s h e a n d Hi s s h a d
a r g u e d o v e r Fi e l d - s h e t o k e e p h i m i n h e r a p p a r a t u s a n d Hi s s
t o b r i n g h i m i n t o t h e Hi s s - C h a m b e r s u n d e r g r o u n d g r o u p .
Fo r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a c o u r t o f l a w , Hi s s h a d b e e n l i n k e d t o
t h e C o m m u n i s t n e t h e r w o r l d b y a w i t n e s s o t h e r t h a n C h a m -
b e r s . An d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n e i t h e r t r i a l , Al g e r Hi s s s h o w e d
a g i t a t i o n o v e r t h e t e s t i m o n y o f a w i t n e s s . T r y a s h e m i g h t ,
C r o s s c o u l d n o t b r e a k u p Mr s . Ma s s i n g , a n d s h e l e f t t h e s t a n d
w i t h h e r s t o r y u n s h a k e n . T h e n a m e o f Fi e l d w a s t o c r o p u p
l a t e r w h e n Mu r p h y p r o d u c e d a l e t t e r f r o m Hi s s t o t h e K r e m -
l i n a g e n t , w r i t t e n i n 1 9 4 8 . T h a t Fi e l d h a d d i s a p p e a r e d m y s -
t e r i o u s l y b e h i n d t h e Ir o n C u r t a i n i n 1 9 4 9 d i d n o t h e l p t h e
d e f e n s e .
T h e r e w e r e o t h e r w i t n e s s e s : t h e e x p e r t s w h o t e s t i f i e d t h a t
t h e d o c u m e n t s h a d b e e n t y p e d o n t h e Hi s s W o o d s t o c k
; Mi s s
Eu n i c e L i n c o l n
; W i l l i a m Ro s e n , w h o r e c e i v e d t h e f a m o u s
Hi s s Fo r d c a r i n 1 9 3 6 ( h e s t o o d o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g r o u n d s
a n d r e f u s e d t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s )
; a n d Fe l i x In s l e r m a n , w h o
m i c r o f i l m e d p u r l o i n e d d o c u m e n t s f o r t h e s p y r i n g .
T h e r e w a s l i t t l e c h a n g e i n t h e d e f e n s e c a s e
. As e r i e s o f
n i n e t e e n c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s e s * t o o k t h e s t a n d t o a f f i r m t h a t
Hi s s ' r e p u t a t i o n f o r " l o y a l t y , v e r a c i t y , a n d i n t e g r i t y , " h a d
b e e n e x c e l l e n t . B u t e v e n i n t h i s , Hi s s s u f f e r e d s e t b a c k s .
St a n l e y Ho r n b e c k , a s i n t h e f i r s t t r i a l , w a s f o r c e d t o a d m i t
t h a t o n a t l e a s t t w o o c c a s i o n s h e h a d b e e n w a r n e d t h a t Hi s s
* Fr a n k f u r t e r a n d Re e d w e r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y n o t a m o n g t h e m
.
L a b o r De p ' t . - As s t
. t o Fr a n c e s P e r k i n s -
P a r t y w a n t e d h i m t h e r e - t o s e n d h i m a s a r b i t r a t o r i n B r i d g e s
t r i a l -
B r o u g h t a l o n g b y b r o t h e r -
Al g e r Hi s s
As s ' t . t o Sa y r e - C P - 1 9 3 7
Me m b e r o f t h e U n d e r g r o u n d C o m . - Ac t i v e
B a l t i m o r e b o s -
W i f e - P r i s c i l l a Hi s s - So c i a l i s t -
Ea r l y d a y s o f Ne w De a l
No m - W h e n L o y He n d e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d Mr s
. Ru b e n s h i s ' r e p a t i m m e d i -
a t e l y w e n t b a c k t o Mo s c o w
. W h o s e n t i t ? Su c h c a m e f r o m W a s h -
i n g t o n .
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 5 9
w a s a C o m m u n i s t . T h i s t i m e h e - r e l u c t a n t l y - n a m e d h i s i n -
f o r m a n t
: Am b a s s a d o r W i l l i a m C . B u l l i t t
. Fr a n c i s Sa y r e
d e n i e d a n y k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o u r m e m o s Hi s s s w o r e h e h a d
p r e p a r e d a t Sa y r e ' s d i r e c t i o n
. He v o l u n t e e r e d t h a t t h e r e w a s
a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n a s t o Hi s s ' c h a r a c t e r
. Eq u a l l y d a m a g -
i n g w a s h i s t e s t i m o n y t h a t a t o n e t i m e Hi s s h a d r e c o m -
m e n d e d No e l Fi e l d a s a p o s s i b l e a i d e w h e n Sa y r e w a s Hi g h
C o m m i s s i o n e r o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . Ot h e r w i t n e s s e s a d m i t t e d
t h a t t h e y h a d k n o w n Hi s s f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e .
Hi s s ' t e s t i m o n y w a s , a s u s u a l , m a r k e d b y e v a s i o n , n i g g l i n g ,
a n d b i c k e r i n g o v e r d e t a i l s
. T u r n i n g h i s f a m o u s s m i l e o n a n d
o f f , h e w a s e l o q u e n t o n a l l i m m a t e r i a l m a t t e r s . W h e n c o n -
f r o n t e d b y d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n p r e s e n t a n d p r e v i o u s t e s t i -
m o n y , h e i n s i s t e d t h a t h i s m e m o r y h a d b e e n r e f r e s h e d o r t h a t
h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n h a d b e e n f a u l t y . St i l l t h e u r b a n e m a n o f
c h a r m , h e p e r s i s t e d i n h i s a c c o u n t t h a t h e h a d k n o w n C h a m -
b e r s a s a d e a d b e a t f r e e - l a n c e w r i t e r n a m e d Ge o r g e C r o s l e y .
De s p i t e Sa y r e ' s f l a t d e n i a l t h a t t h e m e m o s i n Hi s s ' h a n d w r i t -
i n g h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d a s p a r t o f St a t e De p a r t m e n t r o u t i n e ,
Hi s s p l a c i d l y c l u n g t o t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n . No w a n d t h e n h e
d e l i c a t e l y w i p e d h i s f a c e , h i s l i t t l e f i n g e r c r o o k e d j u s t a t r i f l e .
He s t e p p e d d o w n u n s h a k e n , b u t t h e n n o o n e h a d e x p e c t e d
t h a t h e w o u l d g i v e a n y g r o u n d .
L i k e a f r f g h t e n e d s o m n a m b u l i s t , Mr s . P r i s c i l l a Hi s s f a c e d
h e r o r d e a l o n t h e s t a n d . T h e b u r d e n s h e h a d b o r n e s i n c e
Au g u s t 3 , 1 9 4 8 , h a d p r e s s e d i t s i m p r i n t o n h e r f a c e
. He r
p r o m i n e n t e y e s l o o k e d o p a q u e , t h e p u p i l s d i l a t e d . An d i n a
s i n g - s o n g v o i c e , l i k e a s m a l l g i r l r e c i t i n g h e r l e s s o n s , s h e
e n t e r e d h e r d e n i a l s o f t h e m i n u t e l y
t e l l i n g
a c c o u n t w h i c h
Es t h e r C h a m b e r s h a d p l a c e d o n t h e r e c o r d
. Al m o s t b y s y s -
t e m , s h e c a l l e d b l a c k w h a t e v e r Mr s . C h a m b e r s h a d c a l l e d
w h i t e
. W a s t h e w a l l p a p e r i n t h e Hi s s V o l t a P l a c e l i v i n g -
r o o m m u l b e r r y c o l o r e d ? No , s h e s a i d , i t w a s g r a y i s h t a n
. Ha d
s h e v i s i t e d t h e C h a m b e r s e s i n B a l t i m o r e ? No , s h e h a d n o t
v i s i t e d t h e m
a n y w h e r e . Ha d t h e r e b e e n a n y i n t i m a c y b e -
t w e e n t h e t w o f a m i l i e s ? No , Mr
. C r o s l e y h a d b e e n p u r e l y a
2 9 0

SEEDSOFT REASON
b u s i n e s s a c q u a i n t a n c e o f Mr . Hi s s . W h a t a b o u t t h e $ 4 0 0
w h i c h C h a m b e r s s a i d h e h a d b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e Hi s s e s ?
V e r y e l a b o r a t e l y , Mr s . Hi s s e x p l a i n e d h o w t h e m o n e y h a d
b e e n u s e d t o p u r c h a s e c u r t a i n s a n d o t h e r f u r n i s h i n g s f o r t h e
V o l t a P l a c e h o u s e . Ho w e v e r , s h e c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r o n l y $ 2 0 0
o f t h e s u m u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n .
T h i s w a s i n d i r e c t t e s t i m o n y . U n d e r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ,
s h e s h r i v e l l e d u p . He r m e m o r y l e f t h e r
. Sh e r e m e m b e r e d
n e x t t o n o t h i n g . De n y i n g , d e n y i n g , d e n y i n g , s h e f e l l i n t o o n e
t r a p a f t e r a n o t h e r . Mu r p h y s h o w e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e s h e h a d
m a d e t h e $ 4 0 0 w i t h d r a w a l f o r f u r n i s h i n g s , s h e w a s a l s o
c h a r g i n g p u r c h a s e s a n d d r a w i n g c h e c k s s t e a d i l y a n d t h a t t h e
w i t h d r a w a l h a d s o d e p l e t e d t h e i r f u n d s t h a t P r i s c i l l a h a d
b o r r o w e d $ 3 0 0 e a r l y i n De c e m b e r
. He r c l a i m t h a t t h e s e p u r -
c h a s e s h a d b e e n d e l i v e r e d t o t h e V o l t a P l a c e h o u s e i n
No v e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r b e c a u s e t h e y h a d t h e k e y l o n g b e f o r e
t h e y m o v e d i n t o i t o n De c e m b e r 2 9 , 1 9 3 7 , w a s c a r e f u l l y
u n d e r l i n e d b y t h e p r o s e c u t o r .
( L a t e r i n t h e t r i a l , h e d e m o l i s h e d t h a t t e s t i m o n y b y s h o w -
i n g t h a t t h e h o u s e w a s n o t r e n t e d u n t i l De c e m b e r 8 t h a n d
t h a t t h e Hi s s e s h a d n o t e v e n s e e n t h e h o u s e u n t i l a t l e a s t t h e
5 t h o f t h a t m o n t h
. B y c a l l i n g Mr s . Gl a d y s M
. T a l l y , d a u g h t e r
o f t h e o w n e r o f t h e h o u s e , h e a l s o s h o w e d t h a t Mr s
. C h a m -
b e r s ' d e s c r i p t i o n h a d b e e n a c c u r a t e a n d Mr s . Hi s s ' f a l s e . )
B o t h Al g e r a n d P r i s c i l l a h a d s w o r n r e p e a t e d l y t h a t s h e w a s
" n o t a t y p i s t
. " " I' m a l o n g h a n d e r , " s h e h a d t i n k l e d
. Ha d n ' t
Mr s
. Hi s s p a s s e d a t y p i n g c o u r s e a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y ?
Mu r p h y a s k e d
. Mr s . Hi s s w i t h d r e w i n t o v a g u e n e s s
. Sh e h a d
n o r e c o l l e c t i o n o f p a s s i n g a n y s u c h c o u r s e , s h e s a i d . Mu r p h y
i n t r o d u c e d C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s t o p r o v e t h a t s h e
h a d
. St i l l Mr s . Hi s s r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t c o l d f a c t . Sh e r e f u s e d
t o a c c e p t d o c u m e n t a r y p r o o f t h a t s h e h a d b e e n a m e m b e r o f
t h e So c i a l i s t P a r t y ? Or t h a t h e r b r o t h e r T h o m a s Fa n s l e r h a d
b e e n a m e m b e r ? W h a t a b o u t h e r i n s i s t e n c e t h a t s h e h a d
n e v e r
i n h e r l i f e s e e n s e c o n d s h e e t s ( t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 8 1
t y p e d o n o n i o n s k i n ) ? W h y , t h e o n l y t i m e s s h e h a d e v e r
s e e n p a p e r o f t h a t k i n d w a s a s w r a p p i n g f o r d r e s s e s - t i s s u e
p a p e r . No t e v e n w h e n s h e w a s o f f i c e m a n a g e r a t T i m e m a g a -
z i n e ? No t e v e n t h e n . Mu r p h y l e t t h e p o i n t r i d e . De n y i n g ,
d e n y i n g , d e n y i n g , Mr s . Hi s s l e f t t h e s t a n d . ( " Sh e j u s t l o s t t h e
c a s e f o r Hi s s , " s a i d a r e p o r t e r .
T h e n t h e d e f e n s e p l a y e d w h a t i t t h o u g h t w a s t r u m p . It
c a l l e d Dr . C a r l A. L . B i n g e r t o t h e s t a n d . Fr i e n d s o f Hi s s i n
t h e s p e c t a t o r s ' s e c t i o n b r i g h t e n e d
. T h i s w a s t h e p s y c h i a t r i c
t e s t i m o n y w h i c h w o u l d f o r e v e r d e s t r o y W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s .
Fo r s i x t y - n i n e m i n u t e s C r o s s r e a d h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n ,
a c o m p o u n d o f e v e r y r u m o r , i r r e s p o n s i b l e a l l e g a t i o n , g a r b l e d
f a c t , a n d u n p l e a s a n t t r u t h a b o u t C h a m b e r s t h a t c o u l d b e
a s s e m b l e d . As s u m i n g t h e s e t h i n g s t o b e t r u e , s a i d C r o s s , w h a t
w o u l d b e y o u r d i a g n o s i s . " Ap s y c h o p a t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y , " s a i d
B i n g e r
. An d w h a t w e r e t h e s y m p t o m s o f a p s y c h o p a t h i c
p e r s o n a l i t y ? C r o s s a s k e d . B i n g e r l i s t e d t w e l v e s y m p t o m s :
r e p e t i t i v e l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , w i t h h o l d i n g t r u t h , i n s e n s i t i v i t y f o r
t h e f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s , p l a y - a c t i n g a n d a s s u m i n g f a l s e n a m e s ,
b i z a r r e a n d u n u s u a l a c t s , v a g a b o n d a g e , i n s t a b i l i t y o f a t t a c h -
m e n t s , p a n h a n d l i n g , a b n o r m a l e m o t i o n a l i t y , p a r a n o i d t h i n k -
i n g , a n d p a t h o l o g i c a l a c c u s a t i o n s .
So e a g e r t o p r o v e h i s p o i n t w a s B i n g e r t h a t h e w a s r e p r i -
m a n d e d b y j u d g e Go d d a r d
. " Y o u a r e h e r e a s a w i t n e s s , n o t a s
a n a d v o c a t e , " s a i d t h e j u d g e s e v e r e l y .
" Mr . C h a m b e r s i s s u f f e r i n g f r o m a c o n d i t i o n k n o w n a s
p s y c h o p a t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y , " t h e s a t u r n i n e p s y c h i a t r i s t s a i d i n
s m o o t h , r o l l i n g p e r i o d s , " a d i s o r d e r o f c h a r a c t e r , t h e o u t -
s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s o f w h i c h a r e a m o r a l a n d a s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . "
On e o f t h e s y m p t o m s o f t h i s a i l m e n t w a s " a t e n d e n c y t o m a k e
f a l s e a c c u s a t i o n s . " Ap s y c h o p a t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y , s o m e w h e r e
b e t w e e n t h e n e u r o t i c a n d t h e p s y c h o t i c , c o u l d n o t b e b e -
l i e v e d . " He i s u n d e r c o n s t a n t c o m p u l s i o n t o m a k e h i s f a n c i e s
c o m e t r u e
. " L y i n g w a s a n o t h e r s y m p t o m , a n d C h a m b e r s ' l i e s
h a d b e g u n i n 1 9 1 9 , B i n g e r t e s t i f i e d
. Af t e r c o n s u l t i n g h i s
2 6 2 SEEDSOFT REASON
n o t e s , h e a d m i t t e d t o a n e r r o r i n d a t e s . Ha l f a n h o u r l a t e r ,
B i n g e r c i t e d i n a b i l i t y t o r e m e m b e r p r e c i s e d a t e s a s a n i m p o r -
t a n t i n d i c a t i o n o f m e n t a l d i s o r d e r .
B i n g e r - a t a l l , f l e s h y - n o s e d i n d i v i d u a l w h o h a d l o l l e d a t
e a s e u n d e r d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n - w a s b r o u g h t u p a b r u p t l y b y
t h e p e r s i s t e n t q u e s t i o n s o f P r o s e c u t o r T o m Mu r p h y . Ho l d i n g
u p t o s c r u t i n y e a c h o f B i n g e r ' s f i n d i n g s , Mu r p h y ' s c r o s s -
e x a m i n a t i o n e m p l o y e d r e s p e c t f u l i n c r e d u l i t y , b r o a d s a r c a s m ,
a n d c o m m o n - s e n s e i n d i g n a t i o n . B e h i n d i t w e r e m o n t h s o f
e x h a u s t i v e r e a d i n g i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h i a t r y .
W o u l d Dr . B i n g e r ' s d i a g n o s i s e x p l a i n h o w t h e s t o l e n St a t e
De p a r t m e n t d o c u m e n t s o f f e r e d b y C h a m b e r s h a d b e e n t y p e d
o n t h e Hi s s W o o d s t o c k t y p e w r i t e r ? No , s a i d B i n g e r . W a s n ' t
i t t r u e - a n d h e r e Mu r p h y r e a d c o p i o u s l y f r o m s t a n d a r d p s y -
c h i a t r i c t e x t s - t h a t t h e t e r m " p s y c h o p a t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y " w a s
a m e a n i n g l e s s , c a t c h - a l l p h r a s e a n d " n o t a d i a g n o s t i c e n t i t y " ?
B i n g e r a g r e e d . As t o B i n g e r ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a s a n e x p e r t ,
w a s n ' t i t t r u e t h a t t h e d o c t o r h a d n o t b e e n c e r t i f i e d a s a p s y -
c h i a t r i s t u n t i l 1 9 4 6 , t h a t h e h a d n e v e r h e l d a r e s i d e n c y i n a n y
m e n t a l h o s p i t a l , t h a t h e h a d n o t p a s s e d a n e x a m i n a t i o n i n
o r d e r t o b e c e r t i f i e d , a n d t h a t h e h a d b e e n t u r n e d d o w n a t
l e a s t o n c e b y t h e Am e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c As s o c i a t i o n ? B i n g e r
c o n c e d e d t h a t a l l t h i s w a s s o .
Fo r t w o d a y s , Mu r p h y w e n t o v e r B i n g e r ' s t e s t i m o n y . In
s o m e c a s e s , B i n g e r a l l o w e d t h a t h i s a s s u m p t i o n s m i g h t n o t b e
t r u e
; i n o t h e r s h e e x c u s e d t h e p a u c i t y o f s y m p t o m s b y e x -
p l a i n i n g t h a t t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l l y t h e y m i g h t b e n e g l i g i b l e ,
h e w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e " t o t a l l i f e p a t t e r n . "
Ha d n ' t h e t e s t i f i e d t h a t o n e o f C h a m b e r s ' s y m p t o m s w a s
t h a t h e l o o k e d a t t h e c e i l i n g f r e q u e n t l y w h e n o n t h e w i t n e s s
s t a n d ? Y e s
. Di d Dr . B i n g e r k n o w t h a t i n f i f t y m i n u t e s , h e
h i m s e l f h a d l o o k e d u p a t t h e c e i l i n g f i f t y - n i n e t i m e s ? T h e r e
w a s a r o a r o f l a u g h t e r i n t h e c o u r t r o o m .
Mu r p h y . W o u l d n ' t y o u s a y i t w a s i m p o r t a n t f o r a p s y
p s y c h i a t r i s t
t o h a v e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d r e l a -
t i o n s h i p s [ i n
o r d e r t o f o r m a d i a g n o s i s ] ?
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 6 3
B i n g e r . C e r t a i n l y .
Mu r p h y . Y o u
h a d t h e s u b j e c t ' s n a m e , t h e c i t y o f h i s b i r t h , t h a t
h e h a d a f a t h e r , a m o t h e r , a n d a b r o t h e r , a n d t h a t ' s a l l y o u h a d
u n t i l [ C h a m b e r s ' s i x t e e n t h y e a r ] ?
B i n g e r . T h a t w a s a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n Ih a d
u p t o t h a t t i m e .
Mu r p h y d r e w f r o m B i n g e r t h a t h e w a s a f r i e n d o f Hi s s ,
t h a t h i s w i f e a n d Mr s
. P r i s c i l l a Hi s s h a d a t t e n d e d t h e s a m e
c o l l e g e a n d t a u g h t a t t h e s a m e s c h o o l
. He g o t B i n g e r t o s t a t e
t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s t e s t i m o n y a s " i m p a r t i a l " w o u l d b e
" n o t a c c u r a t e
. "
T a k i n g u p t h e s y m p t o m s o n e b y o n e , Mu r p h y a s k e d f o r
e v i d e n c e t o b a c k t h e m
. W e r e t e n l i e s i n t w e n t y y e a r s a n
e x a m p l e o f r e p e t i t i v e l y i n g ? Mi g h t b e , s a i d B i n g e r
. C o u l d h e
n a m e o n e c a s e o f p a n h a n d l i n g i n C h a m b e r s ' l i f e ? " Y o u w i n
o n t h a t p o i n t , " B i n g e r s a i d l a u g h i n g . W e r e a n i n e t e e n - y e a r
s u c c e s s f u l m a r r i a g e a n d t e n y e a r s a s
a T i m e e d i t o r e v i d e n c e
o f i n s t a b i l i t y o f a t t a c h m e n t ? " T h a t ' s c o g e n t e v i d e n c e o f s t a -
b i l i t y , " B i n g e r a d m i t t e d
. Re t r e a t i n g o n a l l p o i n t s , h o w e v e r ,
h e s t i l l r e f u s e d t o m o d i f y h i s a n a l y s i s
. B u t Mu r p h y h a d d o n e
h i s w o r k w e l l
. Hi s q u e s t i o n i n g w a s o f s u c h p r o b i n g p e r c e p -
t i o n t h a t i t c o u l d b e c o m e a t e x t b o o k m o d e l o n t h e c r o s s -
e x a m i n a t i o n o f p s y c h i a t r i c w i t n e s s e s .
W h e n Dr . He n r y A. Mu r r a y , a Ha r v a r d c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o -
g i s t , t o o k t h e s t a n d , Mu r p h y h a d a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f a n t a g o -
n i s t . T h o u g h h e h a d n e v e r s e t e y e s o n W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s ,
Mu r r a y i n s i s t e d t h a t i t w a s e n o u g h t o r e a d a m a n ' s w r i t i n g
i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a d i a g n o s i s . T h o u g h h e h i m s e l f w a s
a f f l i c t e d w i t h a n e r v o u s t w i t c h a n d g e s t i c u l a t e d a l m o s t c o m -
p u l s i v e l y , Mu r r a y b r u s h e d t h i s a s i d e a s n o t s y m p t o m a t i c o f
a n y d i s t u r b a n c e
.
U n d e r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , Mu r r a y r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o s e c u t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e C o m m u n i s t
u n d e r g r o u n d e s p i o n a g e a p p a r a t u s w e r e v a l i d . T h o u g h h e
h a d h e l p e d a s s e s s c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e Of f i c e o f St r a t e g i c Se r v -
i c e s ' o w n u n d e r g r o u n d , b e c o u l d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h t h i n g s
w e n t o n i n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s . T h a t a C o m m u n i s t e s p i o n a g e
2 6 4

SEEDSOFT REASON
a g e n t m i g h t f l e e f r o m t h e w r a t h o f t h e NK V D, o n c e h e h a d
b r o k e n , s e e m e d " p r e p o s t e r o u s " t o Mu r r a y .
T h a t w a s o n a Fr i d a y . As c o u r t r e c e s s e d f o r t h e w e e k - e n d ,
Mu r p h y l o o k e d g l o o m y . B u t t h a t e v e n i n g t h e FB Ig o t a
p h o n e c a l l f r o m a f r i e n d o f a f o r m e r T i m e w r i t e r . He r e p o r t e d
t h a t Mu r r a y h a d c o m e t o s e e t h e j o u r n a l i s t d u r i n g t h e p r e v i -
o u s No v e m b e r , a n d o n l y o n r e a d i n g n e w s p a p e r a c c o u n t s o f
t h e d o c t o r ' s t e s t i m o n y h a d h e r e a l i z e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s
v i s i t . He r e p o r t e d t h a t Mu r r a y h a d a s k e d a b o u t C h a m b e r s '
p e r s o n a l h a b i t s a n d h a d g r o w n v e r y i r a t e w h e n t h e w r i t e r
r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t Mu r r a y ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t C h a m b e r s w a s a
" p a t h o l o g i c a l l i a r . "
" Y o u ' r e j u s t t r y i n g t o w h i t e w a s h C h a m b e r s , " Mu r r a y h a d
s a i d t h e n .
In c o u r t t h e f o l l o w i n g Mo n d a y , Mu r p h y c a r e f u l l y g o t
Mu r r a y t o r e p e a t s e v e r a l t i m e s t h a t h e h a d b a s e d h i s d i a g n o -
s i s s o l e l y o n a s e l e c t e d l i s t o f C h a m b e r s ' w r i t i n g s a n d o n t h e
h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n " a n d n o t h i n g e l s e . " W h e n h a d h e m a d e
u p h i s m i n d , Mu r p h y a s k e d . No t u n t i l C h r i s t m a s , Mu r r a y
a n s w e r e d
. W h e n Mu r p h y q u o t e d t h e
T i m e w r i t e r ' s w o r d s ,
s h o w i n g t h a t t h e d o c t o r h a s s t a r t e d o u t c o n v i n c e d o f h i s
d i a g n o s i s e v e n b e f o r e h e h a d m a d e a n y s t u d y , a n d t h a t h e
h a d l i e d t o t h e c o u r t a b o u t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e e f f e c t o f
Mu r r a y ' s t e s t i m o n y w a s v i t i a t e d . * W h e n h e l e f t t h e s t a n d ,
t h e r e w a s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e t w o p s y c h i a t r i c w i t n e s s e s h a d
d o n e m o r e f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n t h a n f o r t h e d e f e n s e .
W h a t h a d b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d ? T h e C a t l e t t s , o n w h o m
b o t h St r y k e r a n d C r o s s d e p e n d e d m i g h t i l y , h a d m a d e b a d
w i t n e s s e s
. T h e y w e r e s h a k y i n t h e i r d a t e s a n d s u r l y u n d e r
c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . Hi s s h a d h o p e d t o c o n v i n c e t h e j u r y b y
t h e i r t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e W o o d s t o c k w a s i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n
d u r i n g l a t e 1 9 3 7 . B u t P e r r y C a t l e t t h a d n u l l i f i e d h i s o w n t e s t i -
* Af t e r t h e c l o s e o f t h e t r i a l , Dr . Mu r r a y ' s p o l i t i c a l r e c o r d w a s u n v e i l e d .
Ac c o r d i n g t o a c o n g r e s s i o n a l r e p o r t , h e h a d b e e n a s p o n s o r o f t h e W a l d o r f -
As t o r i a " p e a c e " c o n f e r e n c e i n 1 9 4 9 .
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 6 5
m o n y b y a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t t h e t y p e w r i t e r h a d b e e n g i v e n
t o h i m b y Mr s
. Hi s s a f t e r h i s f a m i l y m o v e d t o a h o u s e o n
P St r e e t . Su r p r i s i n g l y e n o u g h , a d e f e n s e w i t n e s s - a n e m -
p l o y e e o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n g a s c o m p a n y - p i n n e d d o w n t h a t
d a t e . It w a s i n t h e m i d d l e o f J a n u a r y . Se r g e a n t Ro u l h a c ,
s i g n e r o f t h e l e a s e f o r t h a t h o u s e a n d w h o h a d l i v e d w i t h t h e
C a t l e t t s , m a d e t h e Hi s s c a s e e v e n w o r s e b y t e s t i f y i n g t h a t
h e h a d n o t s e e n t h e m a c h i n e u n t i l m i d - Ap r i l i n 1 9 3 8 , a f t e r
t h e l a s t d a t e o n a n y o f t h e d o c u m e n t s .
In a b l a z e o f i n d e c i s i v e n e s s , t h e d e f e n s e c a l l e d a n o t h e r
b r a c e o f c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s e s a n d r e s t e d i t s c a s e .
T h e n Mu r p h y c o v e r e d h i m s e l f w i t h g l o r y
. On t h e T u e s d a y
o f t h e w e e k t h e t r i a l e n d e d , h e c a l l e d i n h i s r e b u t t a l w i t n e s s e s
w i t h a c a n n i n e s s a n d a n e y e f o r t h e d r a m a t i c w o r t h y o f a
m a s t e r
. Fi r s t h e p u t o n a n FB Im a n , a t y p i s t , w h o r a p i d l y
c o p i e d o n e o f t h e d o c u m e n t s r i g h t b e f o r e t h e j u r y
. T h e Hi s s
c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e y h a d g i v e n t h e t y p e w r i t e r a w a y b e c a u s e
i t w a s a w r e c k v a n i s h e d i n t o t h i n a i r
. T h e n h e c a l l e d h i s
s u r p r i s e w i t n e s s
. Sh e w a s Ed i t h Mu r r a y , t h e C h a m b e r s ' m a i d
i n 1 9 3 6
. As m a l l , p e r s o n a b l e , a n d f r i e n d l y - f a c e d w o m a n , Mr s
.
Mu r r a y w a s s i m p l e h o n e s t y p e r s o n i f i e d
. In a c l e a r , q u i e t
v o i c e s h e t o l d t h e c o u r t t h a t s h e h a d w o r k e d f o r Mr
. a n d Mr s .
L l o y d C a n t w e l l ( a C h a m b e r s p s e u d o n y m ) w h e n t h e y l i v e d
a t Eu t a w P l a c e i n B a l t i m o r e
. T h e C a n t w e l l s h a d o n l y t w o
v i s i t o r s " t h a t Ik n o w o f , " s h e s a i d , a l a d y a n d h e r h u s b a n d
.
" St a n d u p o u t o f t h a t c h a i r , " Mu r p h y t o l d h e r g e n t l y , " a n d
p o i n t h e r o u t . " Su d d e n l y , t h e i m p o r t o f w h a t s h e w a s a b o u t
t o d o h i t t h e c o u r t r o o m . Re p o r t e r s s t o p p e d t a k i n g n o t e s a n d
s t r a i n e d f o r w a r d . St a n d i n g u p , Mr s . Mu r r a y p o i n t e d u n h e s i -
t a t i n g l y a t P r i s c i l l a Hi s s
. " T h i s l a d y , r i g h t t h e r e , " s h e
. s a i d .
Mr s . Hi s s t u r n e d d e a t h l y w h i t e , b u t n o t a m u s c l e o f h e r f a c e
t w i t c h e d . Fo r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a c o u r t o f l a w , a w i t n e s s h a d
t e s t i f i e d t o t h e f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Hi s s e s a n d t h e C h a m -
b e r s e s - a f r i e n d s h i p r u n n i n g w e l l p a s t t h e t i m e w h e n b o t h
Al g e r a n d P r i s c i l l a h a d s w o r n t h e y
h a d s t o p p e d s e e i n g
C r o s l e y
.
2 6 6

SEEDSOFT REASON
Al m o s t
c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l y , Mr s . Mu r r a y c o n t i n u e d
: " Sh e
c a m e a n d s t a y e d o v e r n i g h t o n e t i m e w h e n Mr s
. C a n t w e l l w a s
p r e g n a n t a n d h a d t o g o t o t h e d o c t o r i n Ne w Y o r k
. " C h a m -
b e r s h a d b e e n a w a y , a n d P r i s c i l l a h a d c o m e u p f r o m W a s h -
i n g t o n t o t a k e c a r e o f h i s s m a l l d a u g h t e r
. " T h e l i t t l e g i r l ' s
n a m e w a s El e a n o r o r El l e n
; w e u s e d t o c a l l h e r P e e g e e . "
W h a t d i d s h e c a l l t h e v i s i t o r , Mu r p h y a s k e d
. " Mi s s P r i s c i l l a , "
s a i d Ed i t h
. An d c o u l d s h e i d e n t i f y t h e m a n ? Ed i t h Mu r r a y
s t o o d u p a g a i n a n d p o i n t e d o u t Hi s s w h o s m i l e d a s i f u n s e e n
h a n d s h a d t u g g e d a t h i s c h e e k s
. Ra m b l i n g a l i t t l e , s h e m u s e d
t h a t t h e C a n t w e l l s w e r e " v e r y n i c e p e o p l e t o w o r k f o r " a n d
C h a m b e r s " a v e r y n i c e m a n . " Si c k w i t h t h e e f f e c t s h e w a s
h a v i n g o n t h e j u r y , C r o s s w e n t o v e r a n d o v e r h e r s t o r y
. He r
t r u t h w o u l d n o t b e b u d g e d
.
L a t e t h a t a f t e r n o o n , Se n a t o r J o h n Fo s t e r Du l l e s p u t t h e
f i n i s h i n g s t o u c h e s o n t h e g o v e m m e n t ' s c a s e
. As h e m o u n t e d
t h e s t a n d , h e g a v e Hi s s o n e c o l d l o o k
. T h e n , t h r o u g h o u t h i s
t e s t i m o n y , h e p o i n t e d l y k e p t h i s e y e s a w a y f r o m h i s e x - c o l -
l e a g u e
. Fo r t h r i g h t l y , t h e m a n w h o h a d h e l p e d m a k e Hi s s
p r e s i d e n t o f t h e C a r n e g i e En d o w m e n t p u t h i s f i n g e r o n f i v e
l i e s t h e d e f e n d a n t h a d t o l d a b o u t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s
. He t o l d o f
w a r n i n g s h e h a d r e c e i v e d i n 1 9 4 6 f r o m v a r i o u s p e o p l e t h a t
Hi s s w a s a C o m m u n i s t
. An d h e s h o w e d t h a t Hi s s h a d b e e n
v i r t u a l l y a s k e d t o r e s i g n f r o m t h e En d o w m e n t i n 1 9 4 8 b u t
h a d s t a l l e d u n t i l t h e d o c u m e n t s w e r e p r o d u c e d
. W i t h t h i s ,
Mu r p h y r e s t e d .
T h e s u m m a t i o n a n d t h e c h a r g e t o t h e j u r y w e r e , i n a s e n s e ,
s y m b o l i c
. C r o s s e t e r n a l l y p l e a d e d h i s c l i e n t ' s i n n o c e n c e .
Mu r p h y e m p l o y e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p o i n t e d e x p o s i t i o n , l e g a l
h i s t r i o n i c s , a n d h o n e s t l n d i g n a t i o u
. J u d g e Go d d a r d ' s c h a r g e
w a s l u c i d , i m p a r t i a l t o a f a u l t , a n d s t e r n
. C r o s s d e m o n s a t e d
w h a t h a d b e e n i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t a s t h e e a s e m o v e d
a l o n g - t h a t h i s s t r a t e g y h a d b e e n t o w e i g h d o w n t h e j u r y
w i t h i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l , t o r e a d l o n g l i s t s o f c a n c e l l e d c h e c k s
a n d m i n u t e s o f m e e t i n g s i n t o t h e r e c o r d . He h a d a l s o t r i e d t o
t h r o w t h e b l a m e a n y w h e r e b u t o n h i s c l i e n t . C l y t i e C a t l e t t ,
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 6 7
h i s o w n w i t n e s s , h a d b e e n b r i b e d b y Ge o r g e C r o s l e y , h e
h i n t e d . " Hi d d e n c o n f e d e r a t e s " w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e
. P e r h a p s
L e o P a s v o l s k y , a s u s p i c i o u s Ru s s i a n n a m e , h a d b e e n t h e r e a l
c u l p r i t
. P e r h a p s i t m i g h t h a v e b e e n a f r a m e - u p . He t o l d t h e
j u r y , ` " T h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s f a i l e d e n t i r e l y t o s u g g e s t a m o t i v e
f o r Mr
. Hi s s t o c o m m i t e s p i o n a g e , u n l e s s i t b e t h i s v a g u e
s u g g e s t i o n
t h a t h e w a s a C o m m u n i s t [ It a l i c s o u r s ] . " C h a m -
b e r s , h e i n s i s t e d , h a d t o l d t h e t r u t h a b o u t W a d l e i g h a n d t h e
o t h e r s , b u t h e h a d l i e d a b o u t Hi s s
. W h y h e s h o u l d h a v e
s e l e c t e d Hi s s f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w a s n e v e r d e m o n s t r a t e d .
Mu r p h y h e l d u p e a c h a r g u m e n t a s a b e a c o n t o t h e
j u r y ,
e a r n e s t l y e m p h a s i z i n g s o m e p o i n t s , d r i v i n g o t h e r s h o m e w i t h
a s w e e p o f h u m o r , c o m p a s s i o n a t e y e t r i g h t e o u s
. W h e n h e
s p o k e o f C h a m b e r s , t h e r e w a s a m o v i n g d i g n i t y t o h i s w o r d s ,
a h u m a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s m a n w h o h a d s a c r i f i c e d l i v e l i -
h o o d a n d r e p u t a t i o n i n d e f e n s e o f a c a u s e
. He w a s e x p l a i n i n g ,
n o t d e b a t i n g , a n d h i s o v e r w h e l m i n g e a r n e s t n e s s w a s a l i v e i n
t h e c o u r t r o o m
. Ag a i n s t h i s w o r d s , Go d d a r d ' s c h a r g e t o t h e
j u r y w a s a n t i p h o n a l , n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y .
T h e j u r y t o o k j u s t u n d e r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s t o a r r i v e a t a
d e c i s i o n
. Se v e n t e e n m o n t h s a n d s e v e n t e e n d a y s a f t e r C h a m -
b e r s h a d m a d e h i s f i r s t o p e n s t a t e m e n t i n W a s h i n g t o n , t h e
e i g h t w o m e n a n d f o u r m e n f i l e d b a c k t o t h e j u r y b o x
. As t h e y
p a s s e d Hi s s , h e e a g e r l y s o u g h t t o c a t c h t h e i r e y e s
. T h e y
l o o k e d a w a y
. T h e b l o o d d r a i n e d o u t o f a r e p o r t e r ' s f a c e a s i f
h e h i m s e l f w e r e o n t r i a l .
" Ma d a m Fo r e m a n , h a v e y o u a n d t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e j u r y
a g r e e d o n a v e r d i c t ? " t h e c l e r k a s k e d
. Hi s v o i c e s o u n d e d
h o l l o w i n t h e h u s h e d r o o m .
" Ih a v e , " s a i d Mr s
. Ad a C o n d e l l n e r v o u s l y
.
" Ho w s a y y o u ? "
" If i n d t h e d e f e n d a n t g u i l t y o n t h e f i r s t c o u n t a n d g u i l t y
o n t h e s e c o n d c o u n t , " s h e s a i d .
" Y o u h a v e r e n d e r e d a j u s t v e r d i c t , " Go d d a r d t o l d t h e j u r y .
Hi s s t u r n e d p a l e . T h e n e r v e s o n Mr s
. Hi s s ' n e c k t w i t c h e d .
T h e n t h e m o r b i d r i g i d i t y o f t h e i r f a c e s h i d a l l e m o t i o n
. It
2 0 S
SEEDSOFT REASON
w a s o v e r , a l l o v e r
. T h e g r e a t d e c e p t i o n h a d f a i l e d
. B u t Al g e r
Hi s s d i d n o t g i v e u p
. P e r h a p s h e w i l l n e v e r g i v e u p
. On t h e
d a y o f s e n t e n c i n g , J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 5 0 , h i s l a w y e r w a s s t i l l p r o -
t e s t i n g t h a t t h e w h o l e t r u t h h a d n o t
y e t b e e n t o l d
. An d j u s t
b e f o r e j u d g e Go d d a r d i m p o s e d s e n t e n c e - f i v e y e a r s f o r e a c h
p e r j u r y c o u n t , t h e s e n t e n c e s t o r u n c o n c u r r e n t l y - Al g e r Hi s s
r o s e t o h i s f e e t
. In a l o u d , c l e a r , v e n o m - f i l l e d v o i c e , h e
s o u n d e d a n u n r e g e n e r a t e ' s c a l l , " Ia m c o n f i d e n t t h a t i n t h e
f u t u r e t h e f u l l f a c t s o f h o w W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s w a s a b l e t o
c a r r y o u t f o r g e r y b y t y p e w r i t e r w i l l b e d i s c l o s e d
. " In t h e
a u d i e n c e , a s e n t i m e n t a l w o m a n w e p t e a s i l y
.
Do w n o n h i s W e s t m i n s t e r f a r m w h e r e h e h a d r e m a i n e d
t h r o u g h o u t m o s t o f t h e t r i a l , W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s s a i d , " My
w o r k i s f i n i s h e d
. . . "
B u t w a s i t f i n i s h e d ? W a s i t e v e n s t a r t e d ? Ev e n a s t h e l a s t
s t o r i e s o f t h e c o n v i c t i o n a n d s e n t e n c i n g w e r e a p p e a r i n g i n
t h e n e w s p a p e r s , a n a t o n a l , a n t i p h o n a l s h o u t i n g b e g a n a s
Hi s s ' s u p p o r t e r s r e t i r e d t o p r e p a r e d p o s i t i o n s
. He r e w a s t h e
c h o r u s o f s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , t h e p a r a d e o f t h e w e e p i n g , t h e
a p p l a u s e o f t h e i n n o c e n t s w h o b e l i e v e i n T i n k e r B e l l , t h e b i l -
l o w i n g o f t h e w i d e s k i r t s b e h i n d w h i c h t h e c y n i c a l a n d p e r -
f i d i o u s h i d e . Y e t t o c o m e w a s Hi s s ' a p p e a l t o t h e h i g h e r
c o u r t s . W o u l d t h i s s t i l l t h e c l a m o r ?
In t w o l o n g t r i a l s , t h e t a l l y o f t r e a s o n h a d b e e n m a d e
. T h e
e v i d e n c e h a d b e e n c l e a r a n d d a m n i n g , t h e p r o o f o f w i d e -
s p r e a d e s p i o n a g e i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e
. Ag a i n s t t h i s w a s o n e t h i n g
- Al g e r Hi s s ' b e a u x y e u x .
As p y i s a s p y i s a s p y , u n l e s s h e c a n
s t a n d u p i n a w e l l - t a i l o r e d s u i t a n d p o i n t t o a n i l l - d r e s s e d
a c c u s e r . T h e n , t o t h e W a s h i n g t o n a n d P a r k Av e n u e t h e o r -
i z e r s , t h e a c c u s a t i o n v a n i s h e s
. Mo r e t h a n t h r e e m i l l i o n w o r d s
o f t e s t i m o n y , p i n n i n g t h e l i e o n Hi s s , b e c o m e j u s t a g e n t l e
z e p h y r r u m p l i n g h i s h a i r .
T h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e Ha r v a r d c h e e r i n g s e c t i o n w h i c h r o o t e d
f o r Hi s s , o f t h e C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y i n t e l l e c t u a l s
w h o
T W OST RIK ESAREOU T

2 6 9
g n a s h e d t h e i r t e e t h a t t h e p r o s e c u t i o n , m i g h t w e l l h a v e b e e n
s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r s e r i o u s s t u d y b y Do c t o r s B i n g e r a n d Mu r -
r a y
. It e x p l a i n s m u c h , i n c l u d i n g t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s s u i c i -
d a l C h i n a p o l i c y w h i c h t u r n e d o v e r h a l f o f As i a t o t h e C o m -
m u n i s t s . T h e p a r a l l e l i s a l m o s t t o o s i m p l e : Al g e r Hi s s i s a n
i n n o c e n t m a n , d e s p i t e h i s c o n v i c t i o n ; a n d t h e C h i n e s e C o m -
m u n i s t s a r e " a g r a r i a n r e f o r m e r s , " d e s p i t e t h e i r w o r d s a n d
d e e d s . In t h i s n e v e r - n e v e r l a n d , t h e r e i s n o e v i l a n d t h e t h r e e
l i t t l e m o n k e y s r e i g n s u p r e m e .
T h i s i s t h e m e a n i n g a n d t h e m e s s a g e o f t h e Hi s s - C h a m b e r s
c a s e . P u t a s i d e t h e c o n v u l s i v e s t r u g g l e o f t h e t w o m e n .
Dr a m a t i c t h o u g h i t i s , t h e i r d u e l r e p r e s e n t s t h e f l u s h o f a c t i o n
w h i c h l a u n c h e s a Sh a k e s p e a r e a n t r a g e d y . T h e a r g u m e n t o f
t h e p l a y i s m o r e p r o f o u n d . T h e r e i s t h e " c o n c e a l e d e n e m y "
b u r r o w i n g f e v e r i s h l y . An d t h e r e i s t h e p u s h i n g p h a l a n x o f
s y m p a t h i z e r s w h o h a v e c o m e t o t h e d e f e n s e o f Hi s s b e c a u s e
t h e y a r e s u b c o n s c i o u s l y a w a r e t h a t h i s g u i l t i s t h e i r s . W h o i s
t h e m o r e g u i l t y , t h e m a n w h o p a s s e s d o c u m e n t s t o a So v i e t
s p y r i n g o r t h e m a n w h o , f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , s p o n s o r s t h e
c u l p r i t ?
Hi s s i s o n e m a n , c a u g h t i n a t r a g e d y o f a r r o g a n c e a n d s e l f -
d e c e p t i o n . B u t t h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o a i d e d a n d a b e t t e d h i m i n
t h e i r b l i n d n e s s ; a n d t h e i r n a m e i s l e g i o n . In s t e a d o f c r u s h i n g
t h e s e e d s o f t r e a s o n , t h e y s c a t t e r e d t h e m i n t h e g o o d Am e r i -
c a n e a r t h . T h e c o n v i c t i o n o f Al g e r Hi s s i s a f l a r e , l i g h t i n g u p
t h e i r s o r d i d p a s t u r e . In a w a r r i n g w o r l d , w i t h t h e U n i t e d
St a t e s f a c i n g t h e g r e a t e s t t h r e a t i n i t s h i s t o r y , t h e y r e f u s e t o
s e e . T h i s i s t h e t r a g e d y o f h i s t o r y . B e f o r e i t , t h e f a t e o f W h i t -
t a k e r C h a m b e r s , t h e a c c u s e r , a n d Al g e r Hi s s , t h e a c c u s e d ,
p a l e s i n t o i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e Hi s s - C h a m b e r s d r a m a c a n b e a
c u r t a i n r a i s e r o f a n e w s t e a d f a s t n e s s
. Or i t c a n b e t h e l a s t
w h i m p e r o f a t i r e d a n d d e m o r a l i z e d w o r l d
.
W h i t t a k e r C h a m b e r s ' w o r k i s f i n i s h e d
. He h a s b e e n l i b -
e r a t e d f r o m s o m e o f t h e i n d i g n i t i e s f o r c e d o n h i m b y a n
u n t h i n k i n g a n d u n t h a n k f u l p u b l i c
. T h e r e a r e m e n o f g o o d
2 7 0 SEEDSOFT REASON
w i l l e v e r y w h e r e , b u t w h e n t h e t i m e c a m e f o r t h e m t o s t a n d
u p a n d b e c o u n t e d , t h e y w e r e e l s e w h e r e d e t a i n e d . T h o s e
w h o s h o u l d h a v e s t r u c k o u t f o r h i m w e r e o t h e r w i s e o c c u p i e d .
Fo r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a l w o r k h a s b a r e l y b e g u n . T h o u g h t h e
f i e l d l i e s f a l l o w , i t c a n y e t b e b r o u g h t i n t o c u l t i v a t i o n
. T h e r e
i s a t i m e t o p l a n t a n d a t i m e t o p l u c k u p w h a t i s p l a n t e d
.
T h e t i m e i s n o w .