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V A S I L I E V ( c o n t i n u e d )
` A c t i o n w i t h R e s p e c t t o T h r e a t s t o t h e
P e a c e , B r e a c h e s o f t h e P e a c e , a n d A c t s o f
A ggr e s s i o n . ' T h i s a r t i c l e c o n t a i n s t h e
u n d e r t a ki n g a s s u me d by me mbe r s t o
ma ke mi l i t a r y f o r c e s a va i l a bl e t o t h e
S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l
. "
F o l l o w i n g a q u o t a t i o n o f t h e t e x t o f
A r t i c l e 4 3 , t h i s S t a t e D e p a r t me n t r e p o r t
c o n t i n u e s :
" A u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e S e c u r i t y
C o u n c i l t o e mp l o y s u c h f o r c e s i s
c o n t a i n e d i n A r t i c l e 4 2 . ° ' 6
Mo s t A me r i c a n s , o f c o u r s e , a s s u me
t h a t U . S . A r my o r ga n i z a t i o n t a bl e s a n d
ba t t l e p l a n s a r e p r e p a r e d i n t h e P e n t a go n
a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C o n gr e s s .
T h e U . S . S t a t e D e p a r t me n t , h o w e ve r ,
r e ve a l s t h a t w a r p l a n s f o r t h e e mp l o yme n t
o f A me r i c a n s o l d i e r s a r e n o w p r e p a r e d by
f o r e i gn ge n e r a l s u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f
S o vi e t C o mmu n i s t s a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
mi l i t a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s .
T h e s p e c t a c l e o f a R e d A r my ge n e r a l
d r a w i n g u p p l a n s f o r t h e a s s i gn me n t o f
o u r s o l d i e r s i n a n " A r me d U n i t e d
N a t i o n s " i s a s h o c ki n g e x p o s e o f t h e
c a s u a l ma n n e r i n w h i c h o u r go ve r n me n t
h a s be c o me p a r t y t o gr o s s vi o l a t i o n s o f
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n .
B y f o l l o w i n g t h e s p o o r o f Ge n e r a l
V a s i l i e v i t c a n be r e ve a l e d h o w h e a p p l i e d
h i s p l a n s f o r " A r mi n g t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s . " T h e t r a i l n e x t l e a d s t o t h e
P e n t a go n .
O n Ma y 1 5 , 1 9 5 4 t h e O f f i c e o f P u bl i c
I n f o r ma t i o n , D e p a r t me n t o f D e f e n s e ,
r e l e a s e d a p a p e r t i t l e d , T h e T r u t h a bo u t
S o vi e t I n vo l ve me n t i n t h e K o r e a n W a r . O n
p a ge f i ve o f t h i s o f f i c i a l i n t e l l i ge n c e d i ge s t
i s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r ma t i o n :
" O n e p r i s o n e r o f w a r , a Ma j o r o f N o r t h
K o r e a n e n gi n e e r s , s a i d t h a t a s t h e f l o w o f
R u s s i a n e q u i p me n t t o K o r e a i n c r e a s e d
d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i mme d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g
t h e i n i t i a l a t t a c k, t h e f l o w o f R u s s i a n
a d vi s o r s i n c r e a s e d w i t h i t . A l l o r d e r s , h e
s a i d , c a me f r o m t h e s e a d vi s o r s , a n d h e ,
w h o s p o ke R u s s i a n , w a s gi ve n t h e j o b o f
t r a n s l a t i n g t h e m i n t o K o r e a n .
" Ma n y R u s s i a n ` a d vi s o r s ' w e r e
a t t a c h e d t o t h e N o r t h K o r e a n A r my
a d va n c e h e a d q u a r t e r s e s t a bl i s h e d i n J u n e ,
1 9 5 0 . T h e y w o r e c i vi l i a n c l o t h i n g, t h e
Ma j o r a d d e d , a n d i t w a s f o r bi d d e n t o
a d d r e s s t h e m by r a n k . T h e y w e r e
i n t r o d u c e d a s ` n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r s ' bu t
t h e y h a d s u p r e me a u t h o r i t y . T h e y t o o k t h e
l e a d i n ma ki n g o p e r a t i o n a l a n d
mo bi l i z a t i o n p l a n s , a n d i n c o mma n d i n g
a n d ma n i p u l a t i n g t r o o p s . T h e y t r e a t e d t h e
K o r e a n o f f i c e r s w h o w e r e n o mi n a l l y t h e i r
c h i e f s , t h e Ma j o r s a i d , ` l i ke t h e i r s e r va n t s ,
f i
" A r mi n g t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , " U. S . S t a t e
D e p a r t me n t B u l l e t i n 4 2 2 A , A u gu s t 3 , 1 9 4 7 , p a ge
2 3 9 .
o r c h i l d r e n . '
" T h e N o r t h K o r e a n Ma j o r i d e n t i f i e d
t w o o f t h e s e R u s s i a n ` A d vi s o r s ' a s
L i e u t e n a n t Ge n e r a l V a s i l i e v a n d C o l o n e l
D o l gi n . V a s i l i e v, h e s a i d , a p p a r e n t l y w a s
i n c h a r ge o f a l l mo ve me n t s a c r o s s t h e
t h i r t y- e i gh t h p a r a l l e l .
" A n o t h e r p r i s o n e r i n t e r r o ga t i o n r e p o r t
i d e n t i f i e d C o l o n e l Y u n , a R u s s i a n w h o
s p o ke K o r e a n h a l t i n gl y, a s a d vi s o r t o t h e
T a n k C o mma n d o f t h e N o r t h K o r e a n
A r my i n J u n e , 1 9 5 0 . I t n a me d a s h e a d o f
c o mmu n i c a t i o n s a l o n g t h e f r o n t i e r be f o r e
a n d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l a t t a c k a R u s s i a n
c o l o n e l n a me d Gr e go r . T h i s p r i s o n e r a l s o
s a i d h e a c t u a l l y h e a r d Ge n e r a l V a s i l i e v
gi ve t h e o r d e r t o a t t a c k o n J u n e 2 5 . " '
T h i s Ge n e r a l V a s i l i e v i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e
s a me A l e x a n d r e P h . V a s i l i e v o f t h e R e d
A r my w h o , a s C h a i r ma n , U . N
. Mi l i t a r y
S t a f f C o mmi t t e e , d i r e c t e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n
o f p l a n s f o r a n " A r me d U n i t e d N a t i o n s . "
H e l a t e r d i r e c t e d t h e C h i n e s e h o r d e s w h o
w e r e l e t l o o s e t o mu r d e r U n i t e d N a t i o n s
s o l d i e r s i n K o r e a - i n c l u d i n g ma n y
t h o u s a n d s o f A me r i c a n s w h o w e r e ki l l e d
o r c a p t u r e d t o be t o r t u r e d i n C h i n e s e
C o mmu n i s t P r i s o n e r o f W a r c a ge s i n
N o r t h K o r e a .
K o r e a i s a s a va ge e x a mp l e o f U n i t e d
N a t i o n s " n o n - w a r s " i n w h i c h s c e n a r i o a n d
s t a ge - ma n a ge me n t a r e u n d e r t h e e x c l u s i ve
d i r e c t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s
o p e r a t i n g be h i n d a " f r o n t " o f n a t i o n a l
mi l i t a r i s t s .
T h e s t o ma c h - c h u r n i n g c a s e o f Ge n e r a l
V a s i l i e v c o n s t i t u t e s gr o u n d s f o r A me r i c a n
vi c t i ms o f t h e K o r e a n bl o o d ba t h t o br i n g
c h a r ge s o f ma s s mu r d e r a ga i n s t me mbe r s
o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l o f t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s .
T h i s e vi d e n c e s t r o n gl y s u p p o r t s t h e
c o n vi c t i o n o f ma n y U . S . c i t i z e n s t h a t t h e
K o r e a n W a r w a s e n gi n e e r e d by t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s a n d t h e S t a t e D e p a r t me n t s o t h a t
t h e s u p r e me mi l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y o f t h e U . N .
mi gh t be e s t a bl i s h e d by f o r c e o f a r ms a n d
e n d o r s e d be f o r e t h e w o r l d . T h e r e c a n be
n o mo r e s h o c ki n g e vi d e n c e o f U n i t e d
N a t i o n s c yn i c i s m t h a n t h e c o n c e a l e d
d u p l i c i t y o f Ge n e r a l V a s i l i e v ; n o r a mo r e
t e r r i bl e i n d i c t me n t o f o u r o w n mi l i t a r y
a n d p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p .
I t i s i r o n i c t h a t V a s i l i e v w a s n o t i n
vi o l a t i o n o f t h e h i gh - s o u n d i n g U . N
.
C h a r t e r w h i c h , i n p a r a gr a p h 1 , C h a p t e r
XV , a n n o u n c e s :
" I n t h e p e r f o r ma n c e o f t h e i r d u t i e s t h e
S e c r e t a r y- Ge n e r a l a n d t h e s t a f f s h a l l n o t
s e e k o r r e c e i ve i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m a n y o t h e r
a u t h o r i t y e x t e r n a l t o t h e O r ga n i z a t i o n .
T h e y s h a l l r e f r a i n f r o m a n y a c t i o n w h i c h
mi gh t r e f l e c t o n t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s
i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s r e s p o n s i bl e o n l y t o
T h e T r u t h a bo u t S o vi e t I n vo l ve me n t i n t h e K o r e a n
W a r D O D , O f f i c e o f P u bl i c I n f o r ma t i o n , Ma y 1 5 ,
1 9 5 4 , p a ge 5 .
2
t h e O r ga n i z a t i o n .. " " T h e r e i s l i t t l e q u e s t i o n
t h a t , a s U n i t e d N a t i o n s " a d vi s o r " t o t h e
C h i n e s e C o mmu n i s t s , Ge n e r a l A l e x a n d r e
P h . V a s i l i e v o f t h e R e d A r my w a s ,
" . . . r e s p o n s i bl e o n l y t o t h e O r ga n i z a t i o n "
.
T h e r e e x i s t s t h e r a t i o n a l e t h a t K o r e a
" h a p p e n e d a l o n g t i me a go " a n d t h e
c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a p p l i e d t h e n d o n o t
t h r e a t e n A me r i c a n s t o d a y . I n r e bu t t a l t o
t h i s s p e c i o u s a r gu me n t i t i s p e r t i n e n t n o w
t o s u bmi t f o r e x a mi n a t i o n t w o p o i n t s o f
e vi d e n c e . T h e f i r s t i s S e n a t e C o n c u r r e n t
R e s o l u t i o n N u mbe r T h i r t y- t w o ,
i n t r o d u c e d by S e n a t o r J o s e p h S . C l a r k o f
P e n n s yl va n i a o n A p r i l 8 , 1 9 6 5 , r e q u e s t i n g
t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t f o r mu l a t e a s s p e e d i l y a s
p o s s i bl e " s p e c i f i c a n d d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s
f o r t h e i mp l e me n t a t i o n o f t h e f o r e i gn
p o l i c y o bj e c t i ve s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
r e ga r d i n g t h e e s t a bl i s h me n t o f a n
i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y t o ke e p t h e p e a c e
u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f ge n e r a l a n d c o mp l e t e
d i s a r ma me n t ; " s e c o n d l y, t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s W a r i n V i e t N a m .
R e s o l u t i o n N u mbe r 3 2 r e ve a l s t h a t o u r
C o n gr e s s i s
s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g
e n a c t me n t o f t h e f i n a l t yr a n n y by i n s e r t i n g
i n t o f e d e r a l s t a t u t e t h e s u p r a - go ve r n me n t
p r o vi s i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r ,
i . e . :
( a ) a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i s a r ma me n t
O r ga n i z a t i o n ,
( b) a p e r ma n e n t W o r l d P e a c e F o r c e ,
( c ) W o r l d T r i bu n a l s f o r t h e p e a c e f u l
s e t t l e me n t o f a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l
d i s p u t e s ,
( d ) o t h e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s
n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e n f o r c e me n t o f
w o r l d p e a c e , a n d
( e ) a p p r o p r i a t e a n d r e l i a bl e F i n a n c i a l
A r r a n ge me n t s f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f
s u c h p e a c e ke e p i n g ma c h i n e r y . '
I t r e q u i r e s s ma l l kn o w l e d ge o f t h e
s e ma n t i c s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s
t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t R e s o l u t i o n 3 2 i s t o be
t h e l e ga l ma c h i n e r y f o r e s t a bl i s h i n g
U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o n t r o l o ve r U . S . n a t i o n a l
d e f e n s i ve a r ma me n t s a n d a t o mi c
w e a p o n s , a n d t o ma ke a bs o l u t e t h e U . N
.
p o w e r t o w a ge w a r a n d ma ke p e a c e ; t o
t r a n s f e r A me r i c a n mi l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l
u n d e r d i r e c t U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o mma n d ; t o
c r e a t e a w o r l d - w i d e bu r e a u c r a c y e n a bl i n g
t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o c o n t r o l a l l o f t h e
w o r l d ' s p e o p l e a n d r e s o u r c e s , a n d l a s t l y,
t o e s t a bl i s h a U n i t e d N a t i o n s r e ve n u e
bu r e a u w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y t o d i r e c t l y t a x
a l l A me r i c a n s s o a s t o " r e l i a bl y f i n a n c e " a
o n e - w o r l d U n i t e d N a t i o n s go ve r n me n t
.
A l l o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d l e gi s l a t i ve -
e x e c u t i ve a c t s a r e i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e
l i mi t e d a n d d e l e ga t e d p o w e r s e n u me r a t e d
( c o n t i n u e d o n p a ge 3 )
" U . N
. C h a r t e r , A r t i c l e 1 0 0 .
"
S e n a t e C o n c u r r e n t R e s o l u t i o n 3 2 , 8 9 t h C o n gr e s s ,
A p r i l 8 , 1 9 6 5 .
V A S I L I E V ( c o n t i n u e d )
i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n
. T h e
C o n s t i t u t i o n i s v e r y e x p l i c i t a b o u t t h e
p o w e r s o f m a k i n g w a r , k e e p i n g p e a c e , t h e
j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s a n d t h e m e t h o d s
o f a m e n d i n g t h o s e p o w e r s . N o w h e r e i n
t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s t o b e f o u n d t h e p o w e r
o f r e l e g a t i n g t h o s e f u n c t i o n s t o a n y o t h e r
b o d y , o r t o a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f a n y k i n d .
I t i s a p p a r e n t , t h e r e f o r e ,
t h a t
R e s o l u t i o n 3 2 s p r i n g s , n o t f r o m t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t f r o m t h e
U n i t e d N a t i o n s T r e a t y a g r e e m e n t . I t i s
i n t e n d e d t o s t r i p a w a y t h e p u b l i c p r e t e n s e
t h a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r i s m e r e l y
a " t r e a t y . " T h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r i s
t o b e p r o c l a i m e d t h e " s u p r e m e l a w o f t h e
l a n d " b y c o n g r e s s i o n a l s t a t u t e , s a y i t s
s u p p o r t e r s .
S e n a t e h e a r i n g s o n t h i s p e n d i n g w o r l d
s o c i a l i s t l e g i s l a t i o n h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d
a n d r e c o r d e d i n a p u b l i c d o c u m e n t t i t l e d ,
" P l a n n i n g f o r P e a c e . " " ' T h e t e s t i m o n y
c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n r e p r e s e n t s l a r g e l y t h e
v i e w s h e l d b y o n e - w o r l d e r s , c o l l e c t i v i s t s ,
a n d
s o c i a l i s t s w h o a r e g o v e r n m e n t
f i n a n c e d a n d / o r s u p p o r t e d b y t a x - e x e m p t
f o u n d a t i o n s . T h e r e i s a t h i n s p r i n k l e o f
o p p o s i t i o n b y c i t i z e n - b a c k e d o r g a n i z a -
t i o n s . T h i s " M i n o r i t y o p p o s i t i o n " i s
i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e t h e f i c t i o n t h a t t h e
h e a r i n g s c o n s t i t u t e a n a t i o n a l c o n s e n s u s o f
o p i n i o n a n d a g r e e m e n t
. R a n d o m e x t r a c t s
o f t e s t i m o n y , d e l i b e r a t e l y o r g a n i z e d i n t h e
o r d e r o f t h e f i v e p r i n c i p l e s p r e s e n t e d i n
R e s o l u t i o n T h i r t y - t w o , i l l u s t r a t e t h e
t e c h n i q u e :
l .
I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i s a r m a m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n :
A d r i a n F i s h e r ,
D e p u t y D i r e c t o r , A r m s
C o n t r o l a n d D i s a r m a m e n t A g e n c y ( p a g e s
1 3 5 a n d 1 3 6 ) " W e a r e , h o w e v e r , g i v i n g
c o n t i n u i n g s t u d y t o t h e k i n d s o f
o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t m o n i t o r a
c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e s t b a n t r e a t y , a f r e e z e
o n t h e n u m b e r s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
s t r a t e g i c b o m b e r s a n d m i s s i l e s , m a j o r
a r m s
r e d u c t i o n m e a s u r e s a n d
c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s a r m a m e n t . . . T h e s e
s t e p s w o u l d c l e a r l y r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e
c h a n g e i n t h e e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e a n d
a t t i t u d e s o f n a t i o n s . "
2
. P e r m a n e n t W o r l d P e a c e F o r c e :
P r o f e s s o r E m i l e B e n o i t , A m e r i c a n s f o r
D e m o c r a t i c A c t i o n ( p a g e 1 0 4 )
" T h e b a s i c u n s o l v e d i s s u e s u n d e r l y i n g
d i s a r m a m e n t
a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h o s e
i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a s u p r a -
n a t i o n a l i n s p e c t i o n
a n d d e f e n s e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t , f o r t h e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a n d t h e t r a n s f e r t o t h i s
s u p r a - n a t i o n a l i n s p e c t i o n a n d d e f e n s e
" " ' P l a n n i n g f o r P e a c e " , H e a r i n g s b e f o r e t h e
C o m m i t t e e o n F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , U S S , 8 9 t h
C o n g r e s s , o n S e n
. C o n . R e s . 3 2 , M a y 1 1 - 1 2 ,
1 9 6 5 .
e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l o b l i g a t i o n s
t o e n f o r c e n o t o n l y t h e c o n t i n u e d
d i s a r m a m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n - s t a t e s b u t a l s o
t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p o l i t i c o - m i l i t a r y s e c u r i t y
-
i n s h o r t , a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s u p r a - n a t i o n a l
s e c u r i t y g u a r a n t e e s f o r s e c u r i t y b a s e d o n
t h e n a t i o n ' s o w n d e f e n s e f o r c e s . " S h e l b y
S o u t h a r d , a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r , C o o p e r a t i v e
L e a g u e o f t h e U S A ( p a g e 1 5 2 ) " A
p e a c e k e e p i n g f o r c e i s n e e d e d t h a t w i l l b e
r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e m o r a l
c o n s c i e n c e o f f r e e d o m - l o v i n g p e o p l e
e v e r y w h e r e - o n e t h a t w i l l a c t f o r a l l o f
t h e m :
D o u g l a s M a c A r t h u r
I I , A s s i s t a n t
S e c r e t a r y f o r C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ,
f o r t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ( p a g e 5 )
" T h e e a r m a r k i n g o f s t a n d b y f o r c e s f o r
e m e r g e n c y U . N . s e r v i c e b y t h e
S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s , C a n a d a , a n d
o t h e r s i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e k i n d o f s t e p s
w h i c h a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o
t h e U . N
. ' s c a p a c i t y t o k e e p t h e p e a c e
w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f w h a t n a t i o n s a r e n o w
w i l l i n g t o u n d e r t a k e . "
H o n o r a b l e J o s e p h D
. T y d i n g s , U n i t e d
S t a t e s S e n a t o r f r o m t h e s t a t e o f M a r y l a n d
( p a g e 1 7 )
" U n t i l c a l l e d i n t o s e r v i c e b y t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s , t h e s e u n i t s w o u l d b e f i n a n c e d
a n d
c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e i r
o w n
g o v e r n m e n t s . "
3 .
W o r l d T r i b u n a l s :
H a r l a n C l e v e l a n d , A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f
S t a t e f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n
A f f a i r s ( p a g e 1 2 6 ) " T h e g o a l i s c l e a r
. . . I t
i s t o w o r k e v e r l a s t i n g l y a t t h e t o u g h ,
p r a c t i c a l j o b s o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g U . N
.
m a c h i n e r y f o r k e e p i n g t h e p e a c e a n d f o r
p e a c e f u l s e t t l e m e n t . . .
o f e x t e n d i n g t h e
r e a c h o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u r t . . . "
C . M a x w e l l S t a n l e y ,
U n i t e d W o r l d
F e d e r a l i s t s ( p a g e 5 8 )
" P e a c e d e m a n d s a w o r l d - w i d e s y s t e m o f
j u s t i c e , l a w , a n d o r d e r
. "
4 .
O t h e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s :
H o n o r a b l e J a c o b K . D a v i t s , U n i t e d S t a t e s
S e n a t o r f r o m t h e s t a t e o f N e w Y o r k ( p a g e
1 0 7 )
" F i r s t , m o s t p e o p l e a g r e e t h a t s o m e t i m e ,
s o m e h o w , s o m e w h e r e , t h e r e w i l l b e a n
i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e k e e p i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
s u p r a - n a t i o n a l i n c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h w i l l
p r o b a b l y b e b u i l t u p o n t h e n e w c o n c e p t
o f r e g i o n a l i s m i n t h e a f f a i r s o f m a n k i n d ,
w h i c h i s v e r y q u i c k l y d e v e l o p i n g r i g h t
u n d e r o u r v e r y e y e s
- a n d w e a r e
u n d o u b t e d l y g o i n g t h r o u g h a s t a g e o f
t r a n s i t i o n f r o m n a t i o n a l i s m , p e r h a p s t h e
f i r s t r e a l l y h i s t o r i c t r a n s i t i o n s i n c e
m e d i e v a l t i m e s w h i c h s a w t h e b i r t h o f
n a t i o n s , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e b i r t h o f
n a t i o n s , a n d n o w i n t o r e g i o n a l i s m
. "
5 . R e l i a b l e F i n a n c i a l A r r a n g e m e n t s :
C l a r k M . E i c h e l b e r g e r ,
c h a i r m a n ,
C o m m i s s i o n t o S t u d y t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n
3
o f P e a c e ( p a g e 5 6 )
" M y t h e o r y h a s b e e n t h a t t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s m u s t h a v e s o v e r e i g n t y o f i t s o w n
a n d i t m u s t h a v e i t s o w n t a x i n g p o w e r
. I t
m u s t h a v e t h e p o w e r o f t h e p u r s e
. "
T h e s h o c k i n g c o n t e m p t f o r
t h e
C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d f o r t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e
r e v e a l e d i n t h i s s a m p l i n g o f o f f i c i a l a n d
p r i v a t e p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i s a s h r i l l
w a r n i n g s i g n a l o f i m p e n d i n g U n i t e d
N a t i o n s w o r l d t y r a n n y .
U n l e s s t h e
r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s a c t q u i c k l y t o
a s s e r t t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e p e o p l e w i l l b e
c o m m i t t e d t o s u p p o r t a n d o b e y t h e o n e -
w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t p l a n s
o f t h e
i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s i n W a s h i n g t o n
. S e n a t o r
J o h n P
. S p a r k m a n ( D - A l a . ) ,
f o r e x a m p l e ,
i s w h o l l y f a v o r a b l e t o d i s m a n t l i n g t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
S p a r k m a n ' s a n t i - A m e r i c a n c o n v i c t i o n
w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s e a r l y a s J u l y 2 1 , 1 9 5 8 ,
w h e n , p r a c t i c a l l y
s i n g l e - h a n d e d , h e
s u c c e e d e d i n p a s s i n g a S e n a t e r e s o l u t i o n
c a l l i n g f o r a p e r m a n e n t U n i t e d N a t i o n s
p o l i c e f o r c e
.
S e n a t o r W i l l i a m J e n n e r d e n o u n c e d t h e
m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e r e s o l u t i o n w a s
s l i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e S e n a t e b y S p a r k m a n
a n d w a r n e d t h a t " t h e p l a n i s t o b u i l d u p
U . N . m i l i t a r y p o w e r s t e p b y s t e p a n d c u t
d o w n U . S
. m i l i t a r y p o w e r s t e p b y s t e p .
" H o w l o n g , " h e a s k e d , " b e f o r e t r o o p s
f r o m P o l a n d a n d C z e c h o s l o v a k i a o r
I n d o n e s i a w i l l b e p o s t e d a t k e y p o i n t s o n
A m e r i c a n s o i l ? "
T h e " P l a n n i n g f o r " P e a c e " t e s t i m o n y
b e f o r e t h e U . S
. S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s
C o m m i t t e e h a s a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n t h e
c o n d u c t o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s w a r i n V i e t
N a m a s t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e S E A T O
a g r e e m e n t r e v e a l
.
T h e
S o u t h e a s t A s i a T r e a t y
O r g a n i z a t i o n ( S E A T O ) , s i g n e d a t M a n i l a
S e p t e m b e r 8 , 1 9 5 4 , b i n d s t h e s i g n a t o r y
n a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t o t h e
U n i t e d - - N a t i o n s O r g a n i z a t i o n - a n d - - t o t h e
p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r .
" R e i t e r a t i n g t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e p u r p o s e s a n d
i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s s e t f o r t h
i n t h e C h a r t e r o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "
s t a t e s A r t i c l e o n e o f S E A T O , t h e
p a r t i c i p a n t s " u n d e r t a k e t o r e f r a i n i n t h e i r
i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s f r o m t h e t h r e a t o r
u s e o f f o r c e i n a n y m a n n e r i n c o n s i s t e n t
w i t h t h e
p u r p o s e s o f t h e
U n i t e d
N a t i o n s . " "
U n d e r A r t i c l e I V , p a r a g r a p h o n e , t h e
S E A T O a g r e e m e n t f u r t h e r d i r e c t s t h a t ,
" m e a s u r e s t a k e n u n d e r t h i s p a r a g r a p h
s h a l l b e i m m e d i a t e l y r e p o r t e d t o t h e
S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
. "
I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y t h a t
N A T O a n d C E N T O t r e a t i e s c o n t a i n
i d e n t i c a l w o r d i n g
. A
( c o n t i n u e d o n p a g e 4 )
" S o u t h e a s t A s i a T r e a t y O r g a n i z a t i o n , A r t i c l e 1
.
V A S I L I E V ( c o n t i n u e d )
S E A TO i s , t h e r e f o r e , a " f r o n t "
o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e g i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t f o r
t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d i n
N e w Y o r k C i t y a n d A r t i c l e s 5 3 a n d 5 4 o f
t h e U . N . C h a r t e r a p p l y a s t h e y d i d i n
K o r e a ; i . e . : " Th e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l s h a l l a t
a l l t i m e s b e k e p t f u l l y i n f o r m e d . " 1 2
Op e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e U . N .
S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , t h e U . N
. m i l i t a r y
h e a d q u a r t e r s , i s e x e r c i s e d b y i t s e x e c u t i v e
o f f i c e r , w h o a l s o h o l d s t h e t i t l e Q f
" U n d e r s e c r e t a r y f o r P o l i t i c a l a n d S e c u r i t y
C o u n c i l A f f a i r s . " Th i s e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r i s
t h e c u s t o d i a n o f a l l U n i t e d S t a t e s p l a n s f o r
s e l f - d e f e n s e a n d h e c o n t r o l s a l l m i l i t a r y
f o r c e s p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h U . N . C h a r t e r
A r t i c l e s 4 4 , 4 5 , a n d 4 6 . Th e U n d e r -
s e c r e t a r y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l
A f f a i r s i s e a s i l y t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l m a n i n
t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s .
Th e i n d i v i d u a l n o w h o l d i n g t h i s U . N .
m i l i t a r y p o s t , a s w i l l b e
n o t e d
s u b s e q u e n t l y , i s V l a d i m i r P
. S u s l o v , a
S o v i e t C o m m u n i s t . S u s l o v i s a l s o t h e t h i r d
m e m b e r o f t h e U . N . M a r x i s t " t r o i k a , "
c o n s i s t i n g o f U Th a n t , R a l p h B u n c h e a n d
S u s l o v .
Th e a u t h o r i t y e x e r c i s e d b y t h e U . N .
S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l i n t h e V i e t N a m " w a r o f
l i b e r a t i o n " h a s b e e n c o n f i r m e d b y t h e
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
i n W a s h i n g t o n . On
Tu e s d a y , J u l y 1 3 , 1 9 6 5 , P r e s i d e n t J o h n s o n
t o l d t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e t h a t A m e r i c a n
t r o o p s a r e d y i n g i n V i e t N a m b e c a u s e o f
o u r c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e S E A TO
a g r e e m e n t . " . .
. w e e x p e c t t o k e e p t h a t
c o m m i t m e n t , " s a i d t h e P r e s i d e n t . " Ou r
n a t i o n a l h o n o r i s a t s t a k e . " "
Th e a c c u r a c y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s
s t a t e m e n t i s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n , f o r A r t i c l e
2 5 , U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r , s t a t e s
:
" Th e M e m b e r s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
a g r e e t o a c c e p t a n d c a r r y o u t t h e d e c i s i o n s
o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l i n a c c o r d a n c e
w i t h t h e p r e s e n t C h a r t e r . "
A m e r i c a ' s s o l d i e r s o n s i n V i e t N a m
a r e , t h e r e f o r e , a g a i n c o m m i t t e d t o a
U n i t e d N a t i o n s " n o w i n " w a r u n d e r t h e
s a m e k i n d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - p r o g r a m m e d
s c e n a r i o a s e x i s t e d i n t h e K o r e a n c o n f l i c t .
Th e m e n a n d t h e s y s t e m w h i c h h a s
t r a n s f e r r e d t h e U . S . m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h - m e n t
t o U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o n t r o l w i l l b e c r i t i c a l l y
e x a m i n e d i n s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s .
A
E x h i b i t - N A TO " Th e N o r t h A t l a n t i c Tr e a t y "
1 z U . N . C h a r t e r , C h a p t e r V I I I , " R e g i o n a l
A r r a n g e m e n t s , " A r t i c l e 5 4
.
" I n c r e a s e d C o n g A c t i o n m a y f o r c e S t e p - u p b y
U . S . " ,
D e n v e r P o s t , W e d n e s d a y , J u l y 1 4 , 1 9 6 5 .
U N I TE D N A TI ON S ON E - W OR L D GOV E R N M E N T
A m e r i c a n s m u s t h a l t t h e b u i l d - u p o f a U n i t e d N a t i o n s A r m y , o r w e w i l l s o o n f i n d o u r s e l v e s
s u p e r v i s e d b y s o c i o l o g i c a l d r o v e r s o n a o n e - w o r l d a n i m a l f a r m .
M y i n t e r e s t i n U n i t e d N a t i o n s
c a b a l i s t i c n u a n c e b e g a n i n K o r e a w h e r e I
o b s e r v e d t h e A m e r i c a n f l a g a n d t h e
U n i t e d N a t i o n s b a n n e r f l y i n g s i d e b y s i d e
a t t h e P u s a n h e a d q u a r t e r s , S u p r e m e
U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o m m a n d , K o r e a . I t w a s
a l s o i n K o r e a t h a t , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , I
o b s e r v e d A m e r i c a n d e a d b e i n g b u r i e d
u n d e r a f o r e i g n d e v i c e i n a U n i t e d N a t i o n s
c e m e t e r y
.
Th i s c u r i o s i t y i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e
c o u r s e o f m y s t r u g g l e t o c o m p l y w i t h
m i l i t a r y o r d e r s w h i c h d i r e c t e d t h e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p r o - A m e r i c a n t r o o p
e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s i n Ge r m a n y . Th e s e
m i l i t a r y d i r e c t i v e s , I f o u n d , w e r e
s a b o t a g e d b y c o n c e a l e d f o r c e s i n t h e
P e n t a g o n a n d i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e .
I w a s t o d i s c o v e r l a t e r t h a t t h e s e p o l i c y
m o v e s o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
u n d e r a u t h o r i t y o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
C h a r t e r .
A d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e o f a s t r a n g e
a m b i v a l e n c e r e g a r d i n g o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t s
c o n c e r n i n g t r o o p i n f o r m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s
a n d t h e f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h o s e
p r i n c i p l e s w a s r e v e a l e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e
o f t h e S e n a t e " m i l i t a r y m u z z l i n g "
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h s p r a n g f r o m t h i s
s t r u g g l e . I t t h e n b e c a m e a p p a r e n t t h a t
h i d d e n p o l i c y p l a n n e r s a t a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l
l e v e l w e r e i n f a c t d i r e c t i n g a p r o p a g a n d a
c a m p a i g n w h i c h o p p o s e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s
s e t f o r t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n ;
t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h I h a v e s w o r n t o
" d e f e n d a n d p r e s e r v e
. "
C o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e d i v i d e d a l l e g i a n c e
d e m a n d e d b y t h e n e w , m i l i t a r y m o r a l i t y I
d e t e r m i n e d t o t r a c e t h e o r i g i n s o f t h i s
m i s c h i e f a n d t o m a k e i t m y m i s s i o n t o
s e e k t h e m e a n s f o r c o r r e c t i n g t h e
m i s d i r e c t i o n o f a r m e d f o r c e s p o l i c y a n d
w h i c h w o u l d e n d t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f
A m e r i c a ' s s o l d i e r s o n s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l
a d v e n t u r e s .
Th e i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d d u r i n g t h e
c o u r s e o f m y p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , a n d
t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h p r o d u c e d s u c h
e v i d e n c e , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s b o o k . Th i s
c o m p e n d i u m o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e c e i t i s
d r a w n f r o m a c t i o n s i n w h i c h I w a s
p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d o r w h i c h a r e t h e r e s u l t
o f r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h a n d e x a m i n a t i o n o f
p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e d o c u m e n t s .
Th e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s w i l l b e d i s c l o s e d
a s h a v i n g a m a t e r i a l b e a r i n g o n t h e a b u s e
o f A m e r i c a n f i g h t i n g f o r c e s a n d t h e
u n d e r m i n i n g o f t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s
C o n s t i t u t i o n :
a
. Th e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Or g a n i z a t i o n i s
t h e p r o d u c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t s w h o s e
o b j e c t i v e i s S o v i e t - s t y l e c o n t r o l o v e r
t h e w o r l d ' s p e o p l e a n d r e s o u r c e s .
4
b . A p r i m e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t
o f o n e - w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r t h e
U . N . f l a g i s U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o m m a n d
o f U . S
. m i l i t a r y f o r c e s .
c . Te c h n i q u e f o r a c h i e v i n g U . N .
C o m m a n d o f t h e U . S . m i l i t a r y
e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n c l u d e U . N . m a n i p u -
l a t i o n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c i e s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n t e r -
l o c k i n g p r o p a g a n d a m e d i a , a n d t h e
e m p l o y m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d
a g e n t s w h o a r e i n s y m p a t h y w i t h o n e -
w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y
.
Th e p u r p o s e o f t h e d i s c l o s u r e i s t w o -
f o l d ; f i r s t , t o i n d i c t p u b l i c l y t h e U n i t e d
N a t i o n s Or g a n i z a t i o n a n d , s e c o n d , t o
i l l u s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i m m e d i a t e
a c t i o n t o r e s o l v e t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f d i r e
p e r i l .
A m a j o r o b j e c t i v e o f t h e w o r k i s t h e
p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a C o n s t i t u t i o n - c e n t e r e d
c i t i z e n a c t i o n p l a n w h i c h w i l l l e a d t o t h e
r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
C o n s t i t u t i o n a s t h e " S u p r e m e L a w o f t h e
L a n d
. " Th e c o n c l u d i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e
b o o k w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a
p r o p o s a l t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e l i m i t s o f t h e
U . S
. C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e r e s p e c t e d w i t h i n t h e
b o r d e r s o f t h e s o v e r e i g n s t a t e s .
I t w i l l b e s h o w n t h a t A m e r i c a n s c a n a c t
t o a v e r t t e r m i n a l p a s s a g e o f o u r C h r i s t i a n
n a t i o n i n t o a S o v i e t t w i l i g h t z o n e u n d e r
t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s b a n n e r .
Of c o u r s e , t h e P l a n n e r s t e l l u s t h a t t h e
U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s t h e h o p e o f t h e w o r l d .
B u t w e k n o w t h a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s
n o t w h a t U . N . p r o p a g a n d i s t s s a y i t i s
.
W e k n o w t h a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s n o t
w h a t U . N . s u p p o r t e r s t h i n k i t i s
.
Th e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s w h a t t h e a r t i c l e s
o f t h e U . N . C h a r t e r s a y i t i s :
Th e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s a n
a g e n c y f o r i m p o s i n g a o n e - w o r l d
g o v e r n - m e n t o n t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e
w o r l d ; b y p e a c e f u l m e a n s i f
p o s s i b l e
; b y f o r c e a n d v i o l e n c e i f
n e c e s s a r y .
Th e l a w o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n d e m a n d s
t h a t A m e r i c a n s l e a r n a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e
a b o u t t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n
; a n
a g e n c y w h i c h i s g e a r e d f o r a t a k e - o v e r o f
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
. W e m u s t k n o w i t s
o r i g i n s
; w e m u s t s t u d y i t s c h a r t e r , a n d w e
m u s t e x a m i n e i t s e f f e c t o n o u r n a t i o n a l
p o l i c y .
Ou r s t u d y w i l l b e a c a n d i d e x a m i n a t i o n
o f a n e w d i m e n s i o n i n w a r f a r e . I t w i l l
s h o w t h a t t h e w e a p o n s e m p l o y e d b y o u r
e n e m y a r e d u p l i c i t y , s u b v e r s i o n , a n d
t r e a s o n .
H o w e v e r , b e f o r e e x p l o r i n g t h e e v e n t s
w h i c h p l a c e d o u r s o l d i e r s u n d e r U . N .
( c o n t i n u e d o n p a g e 5 )
U N V E I L I N G ( c o n t i n u e d )
c o m m a n d , i t m a y b e p e r t i n e n t t o e x p l a i n
w h y m a n y a r m y m e n h a v e e l e c t e d t o
b e c o m e p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s
p s y c h o - p o l i t i c a l w a r . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t
d i r e c t m e a n s o f d e f i n i n g o u r p o s i t i o n i s t o
p r e s e n t t h e o a t h e a c h o f f i c e r t a k e s u p o n
b e i n g c o m m i s s i o n e d i n t o t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s A r m y .
Th i s w a s , a n d i s t h e m i l i t a r y c r e e d
:
" I , . . . , d o s o l e m n l y s w e a r t h a t I w i l l
s u p p o r t a n d d e f e n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s a g a i n s t a l l e n e m i e s , f o r e i g n
a n d d o m e s t i c ; Th a t I w i l l b e a r t r u e f a i t h
a n d a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e s a m e
; Th a t I t a k e
t h i s o b l i g a t i o n f r e e l y , w i t h o u t a n y m e n t a l
r e s e r v a t i o n o r p u r p o s e o f e v a s i o n , a n d
t h a t I w i l l w e l l a n d f a i t h f u l l y d i s c h a r g e
t h e d u t i e s o f t h e o f f i c e o n w h i c h I a m
a b o u t t o e n t e r . S o h e l p m e , Go d . "
A p e r s o n a l r e a s o n f o r r e s i s t a n c e t o a
U n i t e d N a t i o n s t a k e - o v e r l i e s i n t h e f a c t
t h a t m y a n c e s t o r s h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n
t h i s b o u n t i f u l l a n d , " t h e b e s t f o r m o f
g o v e r n m e n t e v e r d e v i s e d b y t h e h a n d o f
m a n . "
W e m u s t n o t r e l i n q u i s h t h e h e r i t a g e o f
f r e e d o m s o d e a r l y w o n b y t h e s w e a t a n d
b l o o d o f o u r f o r e f a t h e r s .
A n d , b e c a u s e r e s i s t a n c e t o c o l l e c t i v i s m
i s n o t a p o p u l a r p o s t u r e i n A m e r i c a t o d a y ,
I o f f e r m y c r e d e n t i a l s o f c i t i z e n s h i p .
M y g r e a t - g r e a t - g r e a t - g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r
w a s W i l l i a m R o b e r t s o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a .
W i l l i a m i n i t i a t e d o u r f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n o f
a r m y s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h e A m e r i c a n W a r f o r
I n d e p e n d e n c e .
P r i v a t e R o b e r t s , w h o w a s b o r n i n
C o n n e c t i c u t , e n l i s t e d i n S h a r p ' s
C o m p a n y , Te n t h R e g i m e n t o f N o r t h
C a r o l i n a i n N o v e m b e r 1 0 , 1 7 7 8 , a n d
s e r v e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e
R e v o l u t i o n a r y W a r .
Th i s C o l o n i a l f a r m e r , C o n t i n e n t a l
s o l d i e r , a n d A m e r i c a n p i o n e e r n o w l i e s
b u r i e d i n W a s h i n g t o n
P r e s b y t e r i a n
C h u r c h C e m e t e r y n e a r K n o x v i l l e ,
Te n n e s s e e .
A n o t h e r l i n e a l a n c e s t o r , J o h n B r o w n
( s i r e t o m y g r e a t - g r e a t g r a n d m o t h e r ,
A l i c e ) a l s o s e r v e d i n t h e a r m y o f Ge n e r a l
Ge o r g e W a s h i n g t o n . R e c o r d s o f t h e
Te n n e s s e e S o c i e t y , D a u g h t e r s o f t h e
A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , s h o w t h a t J o h n w a s
a P r i v a t e F i r s t C l a s s i n C a p t a i n S h e l b y ' s
C o m p a n y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a V o l u n t e e r s .
A c o l l a t e r a l a n c e s t o r , J o s i a h R o b e r t s ,
s a w s e r v i c e i n t h e W a r o f 1 8 1 2 . J o s i a h
e n l i s t e d f r o m S t . C l a i r C o u n t y , I l l i n o i s i n
1 8 1 1 a n d m a r c h e d w i t h t h e f a m o u s To m
B e n t o n R e g i m e n t . H e w a s i n m a n y
e n g a g e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g H o r s e s h o e B e n d
a n d Ti p p e c a n o e .
Th i s U n i t e d S t a t e s s o l d i e r n o w l i e s i n
R o b e r t ' s C e m e t e r y ,
H o n e y B e n d
( f o r m e r l y R o b e r t ' s L a n d i n g ) , I l l i n o i s .
M y g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r , J o h n C o r w i n
R o b e r t s , w a s a v e t e r a n o f b o t h t h e
M e x i c a n W a r a n d t h e C i v i l W a r .
J o h n , w h o w a s b o r n i n M a r i o n
C o u n t y ,
Te n n e s s e e , m i g r a t e d t o
M o n t g o m e r y C o u n t y , I l l i n o i s i n 1 8 4 2 .
H e e n l i s t e d f o r t h e M e x i c a n W a r o n
A u g u s t 1 1 , 1 8 4 7 a t H i l l s b o r o , I l l i n o i s
w h e n s e v e n t e e n y e a r s o l d a n d s e r v e d
w i t h Tr o o p H , U . S . R e g i m e n t o f
M o u n t e d R i f l e s .
J o h n w a s w o u n d e d a t C h a p u l t e p e c ,
M e x i c o a n d w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s c h a r g e d
a t J e f f e r s o n B a r r a c k s , M i s s o u r i o n
A u g u s t 2 6 , 1 8 4 8 i n t h e g r a d e o f s e r g e a n t .
R e c a l l e d t o a c t i v e d u t y o n A u g u s t 8 ,
1 8 6 2 , J o h n s e r v e d a s F i r s t S e r g e a n t ,
C o m p a n y F , 1 2 6 t h R e g i m e n t o f I l l i n o i s
V o l u n t e e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e C i v i l W a r . H e
w a s d i s c h a r g e d a t P i n e B l u f f , A r k a n s a s
o n J u l y 1 2 , 1 8 6 5 .
J o h n C o r w i n R o b e r t s , s o l d i e r , f a r m e r ,
p r e a c h e r , n o w
r e s t s i n H o p e w e l l
C e m e t e r y , L i t c h f i e l d , I l l i n o i s .
Th e f a t h e r o f m y g r a n d m o t h e r A n n a
w a s l e s s f o r t u n a t e i n t h e W a r B e t w e e n
t h e S t a t e s . C h a r l e s E . L a n c a s t e r , a p r i v a t e
i n C o m p a n y E 1 1 8 t h R e g i m e n t o f
P e n n s y l v a n i a V o l u n t e e r s , w a s c a p t u r e d
b y C o n f e d e r a t e f o r c e s a t Ga i n s v i l l e ,
Ge o r g i a o n J u n e 2 , 1 8 6 4 . H e d i e d t h e
f o l l o w i n g Oc t o b e r a t A n d e r s o n v i l l e
P r i s o n a n d i s b u r i e d i n P l o t N u m b e r
1 0 5 4 8 , A n d e r s o n v i l l e N a t i o n a l
C e m e t e r y .
To b r i n g t h i s m i l i t a r y l i n e a g e q u i c k l y
t o t h e p r e s e n t , I w i l l c o n c l u d e t h e R o b e r t s '
s e r v i c e r e c o r d w i t h t h a t o f m y b r o t h e r , t h e
l a t e M a j o r R i c h a r d A . R o b e r t s , U n i t e d
S t a t e s A i r F o r c e , R e s e r v e .
R i c h a r d v o l u n t e e r e d f o r t h e A r m y A i r
C o r p s s h o r t l y a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o r . U p o n
g r a d u a t i o n f r o m p i l o t t r a i n i n g h e e l e c t e d
t o f l y c o m b a t m i s s i o n s w i t h Ge n e r a l
C h e n n a u l t ' s F l y i n g Ti g e r s i n C h i n a .
L i e u t e n a n t R o b e r t s ' P - 4 0 w a s s h o t
d o w n b y J a p a n e s e Z e r o f i r e o v e r
J a p a n e s e - h e l d C h i n a o n h i s t w e n t y - t h i r d
m i s s i o n . W e e k s l a t e r C h i n e s e p a r t i s a n s
c a r r i e d h i m b a c k t o h i s b a s e a t C h u n
K i n g o n a l i t t e r .
H e w a s d i s c h a r g e d i n t h e r a n k o f
c a p t a i n u p o n t e r m i n a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s
-
s o l e s u r v i v o r o f h i s o r i g i n a l v o l u n t e e r
g r o u p .
Th i s p e r s o n a l d a t a m a y s e r v e t o
i d e n t i f y t h e o r i g i n s o f m y p o l i t i c a l
c o n v i c t i o n s . . . On e h u n d r e d e i g h t y - f i v e
y e a r s o f a r m y s e r v i c e i s f i r m e v i d e n c e
t h a t m e m b e r s o f m y f a m i l y a r e m o t i v a t e d
b y n o " i s m " . . . e x c e p t A m e r i c a n i s m
. Th i s
f a m i l y m o t i v a t i o n a l s o e x p l a i n s m y
c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n t o e x a m i n e a n
i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h d i r e c t l y
t h r e a t e n s t h e p r i n c i p l e s
t o w h i c h
g e n e r a t i o n s o f A m e r i c a n s h a v e d e d i c a t e d
t h e i r l i v e s , t h e i r f o r t u n e s , a n d t h e i r s a c r e d
h o n o r .
Th e U . N . C h a r t e r i s s u c h a f a n t a s t i c
5
d o c u m e n t t h a t i t m u s t b e o f f i r s t c o n c e r n
t o e s t a b l i s h a c r i t e r i o n f o r c r e d i b i l i t y .
P e r h a p s t h i s c a n b e s t b e d o n e b y
i d e n t i f y i n g t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o f t h i s
i m p r o b a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n
.
M a n y p r o m i n e n t m e m b e r s o f U . S .
g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s w e r e i n v o l v e d
i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
C h a r t e r . To m e n t i o n a f e w :
D e a n A c h e s o n , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e .
A c h e s o n , o n D e c e m b e r 2 2 , 1 9 4 1 , b e c a m e
o n e o f f o u r t e e n " i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e "
s e l e c t e d b y S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e C o r d e l l
H u l l t o s e r v e o n a P r e s i d e n t i a l A d v i s o r y
C o m m i t t e e o n P o s t - W a r F o r e i g n P o l i c y
w h i c h w a s o r g a n i z e d t o p r e p a r e f o r
e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f
" v a s t a n d c o m p l i c a t e d p r o b l e m s o f
i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h w i l l
c o n f r o n t " t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d t h e w o r l d
a f t e r " t h e f i n a l d e f e a t o f t h e f o r c e s o f
a g g r e s s i o n . "
I n a l e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n D .
R o o s e v e l t e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
o f t h i s U n i t e d N a t i o n s P l a n n i n g
C o m m i s s i o n , H u l l
s a i d , " I t ( t h e
C o m m i t t e e ) w i l l , a c c o r d i n g l y , w o r k i n t h e
i n s e p a r a b l y i n t e r r e l a t e d f i e l d s o f g e n e r a l
s e c u r i t y , l i m i t a t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s , s o u n d
i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d
o t h e r p h a s e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n ,
t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l
t o e n d u r i n g w o r l d p e a c e a n d t o e c o n o m i c
p r o g r e s s . "
A l l r e s e a r c h , i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l
g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n , a n d
i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n w a s s e t u p i n
t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e " o r u n d e r i t s
l e a d e r s h i p . "
I n a d d i t i o n t o h i m s e l f a s c h a i r m a n ,
C o r d e l l H u l l l i s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g
m e m b e r s f o r h i s s u p r a - g o v e r n m e n t
" b r a i n t r u s t " :
M r . S u m n e r W e l l e s ( U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y o f
S t a t e ) V i c e C h a i r m a n
M r . N o r m a n H . D a v i s ( P r e s i d e n t o f
C o u n c i l o n - F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s a n d
C h a i r m a n A m e r i c a n R e d C r o s s )
M r . M y r o n C . Ta y l o r
M r . D e a n A c h e s o n ( A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y
o f S t a t e )
M r . H a m i l t o n F i s h A r m s t r o n g ( E d i t o r ,
F o r e i g n A f f a i r s )
M r . A d o l f A . B e r l e , J r . ( A s s i s t a n t
S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e )
M r . I s a i a h B o w m a n ( P r e s i d e n t , J o h n
H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y )
M r . B e n j a m i n V . C o h e n ( Ge n e r a l
C o u n s e l , N a t i o n a l P o w e r P o l i c y
C o m m i t t e e )
M r . H e r b e r t F e i s ( D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e
A d v i s o r o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c
R e l a t i o n s )
M r . Gr e e n N
. H a c k w o r t h ( D e p a r t m e n t o f
S t a t e L e g a l A d v i s o r )
M r . H a r r y C . H o p k i n s ( C h i e f o f t h e
D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e D i v i s i o n o f
( c o n t i n u e d o n p a g e 6 )
ONE-WORLD(continued)
C om m er cia l P ol icy )
Mr s
. A nneO' H a r eMcC or m ick (Editor ia l
S ta f f , T h eNew Y or k T im es)
Mr . LeoP a sv ol sk y (S p ecia l A ssista ntto
th eS ecr eta r y of S ta tea ndC h ief of th e
Dep a r tm ent' s
Div ision of S p ecia l
Resea r ch )'
Onor a boutDecem ber 28, 1941, th e
P r esidentw r oteonth isl etter : " I h ea r til y
a p p r ov e
.
F
. D
. R
. "
Mr . A dol f A
. B er l e, J r . tol dth eH ouse
C om m itteeonU n-A m er ica nA ctiv itieson
A ugust30, 1948, th a tA ch esonw a s,
" . .
. h ea dof th ep r o-Russia ngr oup inth e
S ta teDep a r tm ent
. " A ch esoniscr edited
w ith m a k ingim p or ta ntcontr ibutionsto
th ep l a nsf or th eU nitedNa tions, a nd, " in
1945 w or k edsuccessf ul l y f or C ongr ess-
iona l a p p r ov a l of th eB r ettonWoods
Moneta r y A gr eem ent . " Ma jor Gener a l
P a tr ick H ur l ey , f or m er A m ba ssa dor to
C h ina , l ink edA ch eson, inDecem ber ,
1945 , w ith a gr oup inth e" S ta te
Dep a r tm entw h ich w a ntedtoa r m th e
C h ineseC om m unistsa ndbr inga boutth e
def ea tof C h ia ngK a i-sh ek
. " B eca useh e
h a dbeena ssocia tedw ith A l ger H iss,
a ccusedof com m unista f f il ia tionsby
Wh itta k er C h a m ber s, A ch eson w a s
obl iga tedtounder goq uestioningby th e
S ena teFor eignRel a tionsC om m itteea sto
h isconnectionsw ith Dona l da ndA l ger
H issa ndh isl a w f ir m ' sa ctiv ity inth e
inter na tiona l f iel d
. " A l ger H issw a sth e
p r incip a l a ssista nttoDea nA ch eson, w h o
ca m etoth ef ir m def enseof H issdur ing
H iss' str ia l f or esp iona ge . '
H a r r y Dexter Wh ite, A ssista nt
S ecr eta r y of th eT r ea sur y . Recor dsof th e
Feder a l B ur ea uof I nv estiga tionsh ow th a t
Wh itew a sa m em ber of th eP er l o
C om m unistcel l inWa sh ington, D . C . a nd
a nesp iona gea gentf or th eS ov iets
. Wh ite
r ep r esentedth eT r ea sur y Dep a r tm enton
eigh teeninter -dep a r tm enta l a ndinter -
na tiona l bodies
. ' H ew a sth ech ief
a r ch itectof th eU . N.
I nter na tiona l
Moneta r y Funda tB r ettonWoodsa nda t
S a nFr a ncisco . Wh ite, identif iedby
Wh itta k er C h a m ber s a s a S ov iet
esp iona gea gent, iscitedextensiv el y in
m a ny U . S . S ena teinv estiga tionsa nd
r ep or tsdea l ingw ith C om m unista ctiv ity
a ndsubv er sioninth eU nitedS ta tes .
H a r ol dGl a sser , T r ea sur y Dep a r tm ent .
T h isS ov ietA gentw a ssetby esp iona ge
l ea der B y k ov to" contr ol " H a r r y Dexter
Wh ite . ' Gl a sser w a s th e T r ea sur y
Dep a r tm entsp ok esm a nonth ea f f a ir sof
U NRRA * " th r ough outitsw h ol el if e" a nd
" P ostw a r For eignP ol icy P r ep a r a tion1939-1945 , "
Dep a r tm ent
of S ta teP ubl ica tion # 35 80, Gener a l
For eignP ol icy S er ies15 , Rel ea sedFebr ua r y
195 0, p a ges6 3-6 4 .
2
C ur r entB iogr a p h y , 1949, p a ges3-5 .
T h eU . N. Recor d, C h esl y Ma nl y , p a ge106 .
h eh a da " p r edom ina ntv oice"
in
deter m iningw h ich countr iessh oul d
r eceiv ea ida ndw h ich sh oul dnot . Gl a sser
w a sa consta ntconsul ta nttoDea n
A ch esononU NRRA p r obl em s' a ndw a sa
m em ber of th eP er l oC om m unistcel l in
Wa sh ington .
Na th a nGr egor y S il v er m a ster , T r ea sur y
Dep a r tm ent, El iz a beth B entl ey , f or y ea r sa
top cour ier f or th eRussia nS ecr etP ol icein
A m er ica , identif iedS il v er m a ster a sth e
h ea dof th e" S il v er m a ster S ov ietsp y r ing
inWa sh ington, D
. C . " H ew a sa ssocia ted
w ith H a r r y Dexter Wh itea tB r ettonWoods
a ndiscitedinth eH ouseC om m itteeon
U n-A m er ica nA ctiv itiesh ea r ingson
Esp iona ge .
S il v er m a ster ' s testim ony
bef or eth eU S S I nter na l S ecur ity S ub-
com m ittee r ega r ding h is
esp iona ge
a ctiv itiesinth eU nitedS ta tescom p r ises
17 5 p a gesof inter r oga tiona ndexh ibits . '
V ir giniusFr a nk C oe,
T r ea sur y Dep a r t-
m ent
. C oew a stech nica l secr eta r y a tth e
B r ettonWoodsC onf er encein1944a nd
S ecr eta r y of th eI nter na tiona l Moneta r y
Fundesta bl ish edby H a r r y Dexter Wh ite
.
T h isf or m er Dir ector of th eDiv isionof
Moneta r y Resea r ch w a sna m edinth e
or igina l B er l enotesf r om C h a m ber sa s
inv ol v edinth eC om m unistunder gr ound .
H ew a sa m em ber of th eH a r ol dWa r e
C om m unistC el l . C oew a sS ecr eta r y of th e
inter na tiona l Moneta r y Fundf r om 1946 to
195 2 . H e, a l so, took r ef ugeinth eFif th
A m endm entunder q uestioning .
V ictor P er l o,
T r ea sur y Dep a r tm ent . A
" Wa r e" C om m unistcel l m em ber , P er l o
l a ter h ea dedth e" P er l o" C om m unistcel l in
Wa sh ington . H eenter edth eGov er nm ent
in1938v ia th eDep a r tm entof C om m er ce .
H isjobw a stoa ccum ul a tea ndp r esent
f a ctsf or ba siceconom icdecisionsby
S ecr eta r y of C om m er ceH a r r y H op k ins
.
P er l ol a ter tr a nsf er r edtoth eDiv isionof
Moneta r y Resea r ch w h osedir ector sw er e
H a r r y Dexter Wh ite, f ol l ow edby V . Fr a nk
C oe a nd H a r ol d
Gl a sser . H e l ef t
gov er nm entser v icein1947 a nda uth or ed
th ebook , A m er ica nI m p er ia l ism .
Wil l ia m L . U l l m a n, T r ea sur y Dep a r t-
m ent . U l l m a nw a sa m em ber of th e
A m er ica n
Del ega tion a tth e U . N . -
sp a w ningS a nFr a nciscom eeting, a sa n
" a ssista nttoMr . Wh ite . " H e h a d
p r ev iousl y a ssistedH a r r y Dexter Wh itea t
B r ettonWoods . U l l m a nw a sa p er ennia l
h ouseguest
of Na th a n Gr egor y
S il v er m a ster a nd
w a s th e
ch ief
p h otogr a p h er of stol en gov er nm ent
docum entsf or th eS il v er m a ster esp iona ge
r ing . U l l m a n, th ena Ma jor , Ma ter ia l a nd
° Witness, by Wh itta k er C h a m ber s, p a ge430 .
* U NRRA (U nitedNa tionsRel ief a nd
Reh a bil ita tionA dm inistr a tion) .
Rep or t, U S S I nter na l S ecur ity S ubcom m ittee,
A p r il 14, 195 3
.
6
" I nter l ock ingS ubv er sioninGov er nm ent
Dep a r tm ents, " U S S I S S , P a r t3, A p r il 16 , 195 3
.
6
S er v iceDiv ision, A r m y A ir C or p s,
H ea dq ua r ter sth eP enta gon, p a ssedda teof
D-Da y th r ough El iz a beth B entl ey , toth e
S ov iets
. '
I r v ingK a p l a n,
T r ea sur y Dep a r tm ent .
K a p l a nw a sth ech ief a dv isor toth e
Mil ita r y Gov er nm entof Ger m a ny on
f ina ncia l a ndeconom icm a tter s
. H e
r eceiv eda n" E" r a tingf r om H a r ol d
Gl a sser . H ew a sa ssocia tedw ith both th e
P er l oa ndS il v er m a ster cel l sa ndw a s
em p l oy edby Da v idWeintr a ubinth e
U nitedNa tionsDiv isionof Econom ic
S ta bil ity a ndDev el op m entf r om Febr ua r y ,
1946 th r ough Nov em ber , 195 2
. T h e
Feder a l B ur ea uof I nv estiga tionh a s
subm ittedeigh teena dv er ser ep or tson
K a p l a n .
La ur ence Dugga n, Dep a r tm entof
S ta te . Dugga nw a sh ea dof th eLa tin
A m er ica n
Div ision of th e S ta te
Dep a r tm enta ndw a sr ecr uitedintoth e
S ov ietesp iona gea p p a r a tusby H ede
Ma ssing . '
Noel Fiel d . Dep a r tm entof S ta te
. Fiel d
h ea dedth eWester nEur op ea nDiv ision,
S ta teDep a r tm ent . H e, a l so, w a sr ecr uited
intoS ov ietesp iona gew or k by H ede
Ma ssing . ' Fiel ddisa p p ea r edbeh indth e
I r onC ur ta indur ingth eA l ger H isstr ia l .
H enr y J ul ia nWa dl eigh ,
Dep a r tm entof
S ta te . Wa dl eigh w a sh ea dof th eT r a des
A gr eem entDiv ision, Dep a r tm entof S ta te .
Dur ingth eH issT r ia l h econf essedto
beinga m em ber of th eB y k ov -C h a m ber s-
H issS ov ietesp iona gegr oup .
J oh nC a r ter V incent, Dep a r tm entof
S ta te . V incentw a sC h ief of th eC h inese
A f f a ir sDiv ision . H ew a sidentif ieda sa
C om m unistinh ea r ingsconductedby th e
U nitedS ta tesS ena teI nter na l S ecur ity
S ubcom m ittee . " V incentw a sa m em ber of
th eA m er ica nDel ega tiona tS a nFr a ncisco
.
Da v idWeintr a ub, Dep a r tm entof S ta te .
Weintr a ubw a sh ea dof th eOf f iceof
For eign Rel ief a nd Reh a bil ita tion
Op er a tions . H ew a sa k ey f igur einth e
195 2S ena teinv estiga tionsof com m unism
inth eU nitedNa tions . " Weintr a ub
occup ieda uniq uep ositioninsettingup
th estr uctur eof C om m unistp enetr a tionin
gov er nm enta l a genciesby indiv idua l s
w h oh a v ebeenidentif iedby w itnessesa s
under gr ounda gentsof th eC om m unist
P a r ty .
T h er ea r em a ny m or esim il a r ca ses . A l l
of th ese Gov er nm ent Dep a r tm ent
em p l oy eescontr ibutedtoth ea uth or sh ip of
th eU nitedNa tionsC h a r ter . A nd, a l l w er e
a gentsf or I nter na tiona l C om m unism
.
Web of S ubv er sion, by J a m esB ur nh a m , p a ge
17 2 .
" " I nstituteof P a cif icRel a tions, " U S S I S S , p a ge
403
.
" I P R, " U S S I S S , p a ges235 -237 .
" ' " I P R, " U S S I S S , p a ge403 .

" The trail next leads to the Pentagon . Charter which. however. They were introduced as `newspaper reporters' but they had supreme authority. " Senate Concurrent Resolution 32. The stomach-churning case of General Vasiliev constitutes grounds for American victims of the Korean blood bath to bring charges of mass murder against members of the Security Council of the United Nations . They treated the Korean officers who were nominally their chiefs. (continued on page 3) . `like their servants. On May 15. 89th Congress. the same Alexandre Ph . he said. It named as head of communications along the frontier before and during the initial attack a Russian colonel named Gregor . citizens that the Korean War was engineered by the United Nations and the State Department so that the supreme military authority of the U . as advisor to the Tank Command of the North Korean Army in June." Following a quotation of the text of Article 43.S . might be established by force of arms and endorsed before the world .N . 1954. requesting that the President formulate as speedily as possible "specific and detailed proposals for the implementation of the foreign policy objectives of the United States regarding the establishment of an international authority to keep the peace under conditions of general and complete disarmament . a Major of North Korean engineers. Vasiliev of the Red Army who. They took the lead in making operational and mobilization plans. (d) other International Institutions necessary for the enforcement of world peace. to create a world-wide bureaucracy enabling the United Nations to control all of the world's people and resources. announces : "In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any other authority external to the Organization . Department of Defense." He later directed the Chinese hordes who were let loose to murder United Nations soldiers in Korea . the Major said. 1947. All orders. " . By following the spoor of General Vasiliev it can be revealed how he applied his plans for "Arming the United Nations . and to make absolute the U . This prisoner also said he actually heard General Vasiliev give the order to attack on June 25 . directed the preparation of plans for an "Armed United Nations . 2 the Organization . The spectacle of a Red Army general drawing up plans for the assignment of our soldiers in an "Armed United Nations" is a shocking expose of the casual manner in which our government has become party to gross violations of the United States Constitution . i . (b) a permanent World Peace Force. (c) World Tribunals for the peaceful settlement of all international disputes. May 15. They wore civilian clothing. Chapter XV. he said. The Truth about Soviet Involvement in the Korean War. "Another prisoner interrogation report identified Colonel Yun. It is ironic that Vasiliev was not in violation of the high-sounding U . as Chairman. of course. . fi "Arming the United Nations.e . 1950 . page 5. In rebuttal to this specious argument it is pertinent now to submit for examination two points of evidence . 1954 the Office of Public Information. or children . State Department. in paragraph 1.' "The North Korean Major identified two of these Russian `Advisors' as Lieutenant General Vasiliev and Colonel Dolgin . was given the job of translating them into Korean .S . Resolution Number 32 reveals that our Congress is seriously considering enactment of the final tyranny by inserting into federal statute the supra-government provisions of the United Nations Charter. . said that as the flow of Russian equipment to Korea increased during the period immediately preceding the initial attack. The U . All of these proposed legislativeexecutive acts are in contradiction to the limited and delegated powers enumerated " U . 1965. and it was forbidden to address them by rank .S .S . Korea is a savage example of United Nations "non-wars" in which scenario and stage-management are under the exclusive direction of professional internationalists operating behind a "front" of national militarists . This evidence strongly supports the conviction of many U .N . to transfer American military personnel under direct United Nations Command . power to wage war and make peace . : (a) an International Disarmament Organization. apparently was in charge of all movements across the thirty-eighth parallel .. Office of Public Information. On page five of this official intelligence digest is the following information : "One prisoner of war. Military Staff Committee. page 239 ."" There is little question that. reveals that war plans for the employment of American soldiers are now prepared by foreign generals under the direction of Soviet Communists at the United Nations military headquarters . assume that U . national defensive armaments and atomic weapons. Charter.responsible only to the Organization" . General Alexandre Ph .N ."' This General Vasiliev is. and he. released a paper titled. and (e) appropriate and reliable Financial Arrangements for the support of such peacekeeping machinery .N . 1965 .N ." U. 1950 .S. the United Nations War in Viet Nam . Vasiliev. this State Department report continues : "Authorization for the Security Council to employ such forces is contained in Article 42 . and in commanding and manipulating troops . came from these advisors. April 8. There can be no more shocking evidence of United Nations cynicism than the concealed duplicity of General Vasiliev .including many thousands of Americans who were killed or captured to be tortured in Chinese Communist Prisoner of War cages in North Korea. to establish a United Nations revenue bureau with the authority to directly tax all Americans so as to "reliably finance" a one-world United Nations government . and Acts of Aggression . The first is Senate Concurrent Resolution Number Thirty-two. and lastly. Breaches of the Peace.' It requires small knowledge of the semantics of professional internationalists to understand that Resolution 32 is to be the legal machinery for establishing United Nations control over U . introduced by Senator Joseph S . August 3.VASILIEV (continued) `Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace. "Many Russian `advisors' were attached to the North Korean Army advance headquarters established in June.' This article contains the undertaking assumed by members to make military forces available to the Security Council . the Major added. Article 100." secondly. the flow of Russian advisors increased with it . nor a more terrible indictment of our own military and political leadership . They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to The Truth about Soviet Involvement in the Korean War DOD. who spoke Russian. a Russian who spoke Korean haltingly. Army organization tables and battle plans are prepared in the Pentagon at the direction of the Congress . State Department Bulletin 422A. of course. U . There exists the rationale that Korea "happened a long time ago" and the conditions which applied then do not threaten Americans today .°'6 Most Americans. Vasiliev of the Red Army was. Clark of Pennsylvania on April 8. as United Nations "advisor" to the Chinese Communists.

assistant director. Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations. not from the United States Constitution." The shocking contempt for the Constitution and for the American people revealed in this sampling of official and private political philosophy is a shrill warning signal of impending United Nations world tyranny. supra-national in character. Sparkman (D-Ala . United States Senator from the state of Maryland (page 17) "Until called into service by the United Nations. a substitution of supra-national security guarantees for security based on the nation's own defense forces . There is a thin sprinkle of opposition by citizen-backed organizations . machinery for keeping the peace and for peaceful settlement .VASILIEV (continued) in the United States Constitution . on Sen . It is apparent. . It must have the power of the purse . Canada. that Resolution 32 springs. deliberately organized in the order of the five principles presented in Resolution Thirty-two. military power step by step and cut down U . . Nowhere in the Constitution is to be found the power of relegating those functions to any other body. . Cooperative League of the USA (page 152) "A peacekeeping force is needed that will be responsive to the collective moral conscience of freedom-loving people everywhere . "Reiterating their faith in the purposes and in agreement with the principles set forth in the Charter of the United Nations. Eichelberger. Americans for Democratic Action (page 104) "The basic unsolved issues underlying disarmament are essentially those involved in the substitution of a supranational inspection and defense establishment. 89th Congress. which is very quickly developing right under our very eyes .A (continued on page 4) " Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. a freeze on the numbers and characteristics of strategic bombers and missiles. Senator William Jenner denounced the manner in which the resolution was slipped through the Senate by Sparkman and warned that "the plan is to build up U." C. the jurisdiction of the courts and the methods of amending those powers .N.N . . service by the Scandinavian countries.N . collectivists. binds the signatory nations. however. the SEATO agreement further directs that. Senate hearings on this pending world socialist legislation have been completed and recorded in a public document titled." 5. Davits. Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations. United World Federalists (page 58) "Peace demands a world-wide system of justice. "before troops from Poland and Czechoslovakia or Indonesia will be posted at key points on American soil?" The "Planning for "Peace" testimony before the U . Con . . . and socialists who are government financed and/or supported by tax-exempt foundations . practically single-handed." 2. or to an international organization of any kind . May 11-12. Maxwell Stanley. 32. the people will be committed to support and obey the oneworld government plans of the internationalists in Washington . keeping peace. .These steps would clearly require considerable change in the existing practice and attitudes of nations . there will be an international peacekeeping organization. for example. Res . practical jobs of strengthening U . paragraph one. Unless the respective state legislatures act quickly to assert their sovereignty. therefore. Commission to Study the Organization 3 of Peace (page 56) "My theory has been that the United Nations must have sovereignty of its own and it must have its own taxing power . say its supporters . giving continuing study to the kinds of organization which might monitor a comprehensive test ban treaty. and the transfer to this supra-national inspection and defense ""'Planning for Peace". when. the beginning of the birth of nations. for the Secretary of State (page 5) "The earmarking of standby forces for emergency U. including the United States." The United Nations Charter is to be proclaimed the "supreme law of the land" by congressional statute. which will probably be built upon the new concept of regionalism in the affairs of mankind. It is intended to strip away the public pretense that the United Nations Charter is merely a "treaty . "How long. The Constitution is very explicit about the powers of making war.in short. This "Minority opposition" is intended to create the fiction that the hearings constitute a national consensus of opinion and agreement . USS.S ." he asked. of extending the reach of the international Court . and others is an example of the kind of steps which are contributing significantly to the U . is wholly favorable to dismantling the United States military establishment . . United States Senator from the state of New York (page 107) "First. Permanent World Peace Force : Professor Emile Benoit. the participants "undertake to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations." 4. Southeast Asia Treaty The Organization (SEATO)." Honorable Joseph D . these units would be financed and controlled by their own governments. establishment of the essential obligations to enforce not only the continued disarmament of the nation-states but also their continued politico-military security ." Shelby Southard. somewhere. somehow."" Under Article IV. but from the United Nations Treaty agreement .It is to work everlastingly at the tough. 1958." states Article one of SEATO.'s capacity to keep the peace within the limits of what nations are now willing to undertake . Senator John P. Deputy Director. 1965 . major reduction measures and arms comprehensive disarmament . Sparkman's anti-American conviction was identified as early as July 21." It should be noted parenthetically that NATO and CENTO treaties contain identical wording ." "' The testimony contained therein represents largely the views held by one-worlders.S . he succeeded in passing a Senate resolution calling for a permanent United Nations police force . for the national defense establishments. most people agree that sometime.N. Random extracts of testimony. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (pages 135 and 136) "We are. "Planning for Peace . 1954.one that will act for all of them: Douglas MacArthur II.).and we are undoubtedly going through a stage of transition from nationalism. perhaps the first really historic transition since medieval times which saw the birth of nations. signed at Manila September 8. International Disarmament Organization : Adrian Fisher. and now into regionalism ." 3. Reliable Financial Arrangements: Clark M. and order . World Tribunals : Harlan Cleveland. . Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (page 126) "The goal is clear . illustrate the technique : l . chairman. to the United--Nations Organization -and--to the provisions of the United Nations Charter . Other International Institutions : Honorable Jacob K. Article 1 . Senate Foreign Relations Committee has a direct bearing on the conduct of the United Nations war in Viet Nam as the provisions of the SEATO agreement reveal . law. "measures taken under this paragraph shall be immediately reported to the Security Council of the United Nations . Tydings. military power step by step .

propagandists say it is . Suslov is also the third member of the U . July 14.N. The United Nations is what the articles of the U.N. The information gleaned during the course of my personal investigations. Wednesday." This executive officer is the custodian of all United States plans for self-defense and he controls all military forces placed at the disposal of the United Nations in consonance with U. a Soviet Communist." The concluding portion of the book will. Our study will be a candid examination of a new dimension in warfare ." Article 54 . by peaceful means if possible . and we must examine its effect on our national policy. 1965 . : "The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed . supporters think it is .N. "Our national honor is at stake . manipulation of United States government agencies. Marxist "troika. Charter Articles 44. It was also in Korea that.S. We must know its origins . second. c. President Johnson told the American people that American troops are dying in Viet Nam because of our commitment to the SEATO agreement. Denver Post.e. is Vladimir P ." America's soldier sons in Viet Nam are. Additional evidence of a strange ambivalence regarding official statements concerning troop information objectives and the field application of those principles was revealed during the course of the Senate "military muzzling" investigations which sprang from this struggle ."" The accuracy of the President's statement is beyond question. who also holds the title Qf "Undersecretary for Political and Security Council Affairs . The Undersecretary of Political and Security Council Affairs is easily the most powerful man in the United Nations . or we will soon find ourselves supervised by sociological drovers on a one-world animal farm . and treason . I found. Charter. Charter say it is : The United Nations is an agency for imposing a one-world govern-ment on the nations of the world . It will show that the weapons employed by our enemy are duplicity. It then became apparent that hidden policy planners at an international level were in fact directing a propaganda campaign which opposed the principles set forth in the United States Constitution . However." 12 Operational control of the U. This compendium of international deceit is drawn from actions in which I was personally involved or which are the result of related research and examination of public and private documents .VASILIEV (continued) SEATO is. Exhibit . by force and violence if necessary . an agency which is geared for a take-over of the United States . for the first time. Chapter VIII. The men and the system which has transferred the U. But we know that the United Nations is not what U .N. The purpose of the disclosure is twofold . first. and the situations which produced such evidence. 1965. states : "The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter. United Nations Charter. be concerned with a proposal to insure that the limits of the U. These military directives.N.N. to illustrate the importance of immediate action to resolve this condition of dire peril .N. the Planners tell us that the United Nations is the hope of the world .NATO "The North Atlantic Treaty" 1 z U .N. A (continued on page 5) .N . for Article 25. therefore." Confronted with the divided allegiance demanded by the new. " . The following factors will be disclosed as having a material bearing on the abuse of American fighting forces and the undermining of the United States Constitution : a. the Constitution which I have sworn to "defend and preserve . i.N.S . military post. Of course. b. the U . Security Council in the Viet Nam "war of liberation" has been confirmed by the administration in Washington . Constitution are respected within the borders of the sovereign states . I observed American dead being buried under a foreign device in a United Nations cemetery . It will be shown that Americans can act to avert terminal passage of our Christian nation into a Soviet twilight zone under the United Nations banner. were sabotaged by concealed forces in the Pentagon and in the Department of State . again committed to a United Nations "no win" war under the same kind of internationally-programmed scenario as existed in the Korean conflict. UNITED NATIONS ONE-WORLD GOVERNMENT My interest in United Nations cabalistic nuance began in Korea where I observed the American flag and the United Nations banner flying side by side at the Pusan headquarters. Korea . flag is United Nations command of U. military headquarters. 4 Americans must halt the build-up of a United Nations Army. July 13. establishment of interlocking propaganda media.N. military forces . therefore." consisting of U Thant. . Technique for achieving U .". I was to discover later that these policy moves originated in the United Nations under authority of the United Nations Charter.N ." said the President . military establish-ment to United Nations control will be critically examined in succeeding chapters . therefore. before exploring the events which placed our soldiers under U . a "front" organization or regional arrangement for the United Nations military command in New York City and Articles 53 and 54 of the U . A major objective of the work is the presentation of a Constitution-centered citizen action plan which will lead to the reestablishment of the United States Constitution as the "Supreme Law of the Land . The United Nations Organization is the product of internationalists whose objective is Soviet-style control over the world's people and resources .N . we must study its charter. as will be noted subsequently.S. "Increased Cong Action may force Step-up by U . 45. . The law of self-preservation demands that Americans learn as much as possible about this international organization . subversion. are presented in this book. The authority exercised by the U . Command of the U . The individual now holding this U .S . Ralph Bunche and Suslov. Charter apply as they did in Korea. Supreme United Nations Command. On Tuesday.N. is exercised by its executive officer. to indict publicly the United Nations Organization and.S .N. and 46 . We know that the United Nations is not what U. military morality I determined to trace the origins of this mischief and to make it my mission to seek the means for correcting the misdirection of armed forces policy and which would end the exploitation of America's soldier sons in international adventures . military establishment include U . Security Council. Suslov.we expect to keep that commitment. This curiosity increased during the course of my struggle to comply with military orders which directed the establishment of pro-American troop educational programs in Germany . and the employment of politically oriented agents who are in sympathy with oneworld government policy. A prime requisite for the achievement of one-world government under the U. "Regional Arrangements.

S. This Colonial farmer. Dean Acheson (Assistant Secretary of State) Mr. 126th Regiment of Illinois Volunteers throughout the Civil War . Norman H . soldier." In addition to himself as chairman. Reserve .UNVEILING (continued) command. Hopkins (Chief of the Department of State Division of (continued on page 6) . Josiah enlisted from St . the late Major Richard A .N. This family motivation also explains my compelling reason to examine an international organization which directly threatens the principles to which generations of Americans have dedicated their lives. Davis (President of Council on -Foreign Relations and Chairman American Red Cross) Mr. and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. Perhaps this can best be done by identifying the founding fathers of this improbable organization .S. . Hull said. . William initiated our family tradition of army service during the American War for Independence . Weeks later Chinese partisans carried him back to his base at Chun King on a litter. Roberts. and their sacred honor. Acheson. Another lineal ancestor. foreign and domestic . on December 22." All research. was captured by Confederate forces at Gainsville. To mention a few : Dean Acheson. John served as First Sergeant. A collateral ancestor. Sumner Welles (Under-Secretary of State) Vice Chairman Mr. John Corwin Roberts." In a letter to President Franklin D . who was born in Marion County. That I take this obligation freely. Alice) also served in the army of General George Washington . Cohen (General Counsel. do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies. This United States soldier now lies in Robert's Cemetery. interdepartmental government agency coordination. U . . enlisted in Sharp's Company. and served throughout the remainder of the Revolutionary War. Jr. Tennessee. sound international economic relationships. the implementation of which is essential to enduring world peace and to economic progress . Andersonville National Cemetery. including Horseshoe Bend and Tippecanoe. it may be pertinent to explain why many army men have elected to become personally involved in this psycho-political war . My great-great-great-great grandfather was William Roberts of North Carolina . This personal data may serve to identify the origins of my political convictions . (Assistant Secretary of State) Mr. 1847 at Hillsboro. Recalled to active duty on August 8. Berle. Honey Bend (formerly Robert's Landing). National Power Policy Committee) Mr. Adolf A . The father of my grandmother Anna was less fortunate in the War Between the States. John Hopkins University) Mr. . "the best form of government ever devised by the hand of man . So help me. John was wounded at Chapultepec. 1848 in the grade of sergeant. That I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same . Harry C. He enlisted for the Mexican War on August 11. Hackworth (Department of State Legal Advisor) Mr. Missouri on August 26. Daughters of the American Revolution. Litchfield. a private in Company E 118th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. 1862. 1865 . Company F. accordingly. without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion. John Brown (sire to my great-great grandmother. John. Roosevelt explaining the responsibilities of this United Nations Planning Commission. The U ." A personal reason for resistance to a United Nations take-over lies in the fact that my ancestors helped to establish in this bountiful land. Richard volunteered for the Army Air Corps shortly after Pearl Harbor. Josiah Roberts. . My great-grandfather. Green N . and American pioneer now lies buried in Washington Presbyterian Church Cemetery near Knoxville. government departments were involved in the preparation of the United Nations Charter. and international cooperation was set up in the Department of State "or under its leadership . Upon graduation from pilot training he elected to fly combat missions with General Chennault's Flying Tigers in China . Private Roberts. Lancaster. John Corwin Roberts. Mexico and was subsequently discharged at Jefferson Barracks. show that John was a Private First Class in Captain Shelby's Company of North Carolina Volunteers . preacher. Illinois in 1811 and marched with the famous Tom Benton Regiment . 1864 . Arkansas on July 12. who was born in Connecticut. Tenth Regiment of North Carolina in November 10. Georgia on June 2." We must not relinquish the heritage of freedom so dearly won by the sweat and blood of our forefathers . Herbert Feis (Department of State Advisor on International Economic Relations) Mr. Charter is such a fantastic 5 document that it must be of first concern to establish a criterion for credibility . . Illinois when seventeen years old and served with Troop H. This was. "It (the Committee) will. Illinois . And. was a veteran of both the Mexican War and the Civil War. Clair County. He died the following October at Andersonville Prison and is buried in Plot Number 10548. migrated to Montgomery County. Myron C . To bring this military lineage quickly to the present. Isaiah Bowman (President. Illinois . their fortunes. and other phases of international cooperation. He was in many engagements. limitation of armaments. farmer. 1778. Perhaps the most direct means of defining our position is to present the oath each officer takes upon being commissioned into the United States Army. and is the military creed : "I. work in the inseparably interrelated fields of general security. Taylor Mr. He was discharged in the rank of captain upon termination of hostilities sole survivor of his original volunteer group. . Many prominent members of U . Secretary of State . Benjamin V. Illinois in 1842 .One hundred eighty-five years of army service is firm evidence that members of my family are motivated by no "ism". Hamilton Fish Armstrong (Editor. I offer my credentials of citizenship . became one of fourteen "intellectual elite" selected by Secretary of State Cordell Hull to serve on a Presidential Advisory Committee on Post-War Foreign Policy which was organized to prepare for effective participation in the solution of "vast and complicated problems of international relations which will confront" the United States and the world after "the final defeat of the forces of aggression. now rests in Hopewell Cemetery. because resistance to collectivism is not a popular posture in America today. Regiment of Mounted Rifles.except Americanism . Charles E . United States Air Force. I will conclude the Roberts' service record with that of my brother. Continental soldier. 1941. Foreign Affairs) Mr. Tennessee. Lieutenant Roberts' P-40 was shot down by Japanese Zero fire over Japanese-held China on his twenty-third mission . . Records of the Tennessee Society. saw service in the War of 1812 . He was discharged at Pine Bluff. Cordell Hull listed the following members for his supra-government "brain trust" : Mr. God .

Leo Pasvolsky (Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Chief of the Department's Division of Special Research)' On or about December 28.D . former Ambassador to China. then a Major. This former Director of the Division of Monetary Research was named in the original Berle notes from Chambers as involved in the Communist underground . All of these Government Department employees contributed to the authorship of the United Nations Charter . pages 235-237 . There are many more similar cases ." USS ISS. told the House Committee on Un-American Activities on August 30." Department of State Publication #3580. American Imperialism . took refuge in the Fifth Amendment under questioning . the President wrote on this letter : "I heartily approve . Department of State .' Irving Kaplan. 6 "Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments." He had previously assisted Harry Dexter White at Bretton Woods . Kaplan was the chief advisor to the Military Government of Germany on financial and economic matters ." USS ISS. 2 . also. Berle. Glasser was a constant consultant to Dean Acheson on UNRRA problems' and was a member of the Perlo Communist cell in Washington . Wadleigh was head of the Trades Agreement Division. Department of State . Record. Army Air Corps. " "Institute of Pacific Relations. He was a member of the Harold Ware Communist Cell . Assistant Secretary of the Treasury . Perlo later transferred to the Division of Monetary Research whose directors were Harry Dexter White. And. Henry Julian Wadleigh. Department of State . During the Hiss Trial he confessed to being a member of the Bykov-ChambersHiss Soviet espionage group . White. Frank Coe and Harold Glasser. . The New York Times) Mr. Silvermaster's testimony before the USS Internal Security Subcommittee regarding his espionage activities in the United States comprises 175 pages of interrogation and exhibits. Department of State . 1953 . Nathan Gregory Silvermaster." Alger Hiss was the principal assistant to Dean Acheson. . linked Acheson. This Soviet Agent was set by espionage leader Bykov to "control" Harry Dexter White . Coe was Secretary of the international Monetary Fund from 1946 to 1952 . D . Web of Subversion. page 403. 1946 through November. who came to the firm defense of Hiss during Hiss's trial for espionage . General Foreign Policy Series 15. Material and ° Witness. Ullman. pages 63-64. He was a key figure in the 1952 Senate investigations of communism in the United Nations . Chesly Manly. 1941. followed by V. Ullman was a perennial house guest of Nathan Gregory Silvermaster and was the chief photographer of stolen government documents for the Silvermaster espionage ring . * UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) . 6 Service Division. passed date of D-Day through Elizabeth Bentley. He left government service in 1947 and authored the book. is cited extensively in many U . He entered the Government in 1938 via the Department of Commerce . Laurence Duggan. He was associated with both the Perlo and Silvermaster cells and was employed by David Weintraub in the United Nations Division of Economic Stability and Development from February. identified Silvermaster as the head of the "Silvermaster Soviet spy ring in Washington. page 403 . A "Ware" Communist cell member.' Harry Dexter White. pages 3-5. "' "IPR. Department of State . He was identified as a Communist in hearings conducted by the United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee . State Department . Treasury Department. by James Burnham. Headquarters the Pentagon. 1949.N. White . Acheson was obligated to undergo questioning by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee as to his connections with Donald and Alger Hiss and his law firm's activity in the international field . Current Biography.' Noel Field . and an espionage agent for the Soviets . John Carter Vincent. His job was to accumulate and present facts for basic economic decisions by Secretary of Commerce Harry Hopkins . that Acheson was. Department of State . was recruited into Soviet espionage work by Hede Massing . Weintraub was head of the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations . Treasury Department. accused of communist affiliations by Whittaker Chambers.C .N. F. Part 3.' Glasser was the Treasury Department spokesman on the affairs of UNRRA* "throughout its whole life" and "Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation 1939-1945." He was associated with Harry Dexter White at Bretton Woods and is cited in the House Committee on Un-American Activities hearings on Espionage .ONE-WORLD (continued) Commercial Policy) Mrs ." Major General Patrick Hurley. Harold Glasser. Released February 1950. as an "assistant to Mr . Ullman was a member of the American Delegation at the U . April 14. He. identified by Whittaker Chambers as a Soviet espionage agent. Coe was technical secretary at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 and Secretary of the International Monetary Fund established by Harry Dexter White .C ." Weintraub occupied a unique position in setting up the structure of Communist penetration in governmental agencies by individuals who have been identified by witnesses as underground agents of the Communist Party.' Field disappeared behind the Iron Curtain during the Alger Hiss trial ." USS ISS. "IPR. Vincent was Chief of the Chinese Affairs Division . 1952 .R. page 430. White represented the Treasury Department on eighteen inter-departmental and international bodies .S . The U.head of the pro-Russian group in the State Department . Adolf A . Treasury Department . page 106 . by Whittaker Chambers. David Weintraub." Because he had been associated with Alger Hiss. Report. with a group in the "State Department which wanted to arm the Chinese Communists and bring about the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek . Perlo later headed the "Perlo" Communist cell in Washington . The Federal Bureau of Investigation has submitted eighteen adverse reports on Kaplan . page 172 . Treasury Department . to the Soviets . Field headed the Western European Division." Vincent was a member of the American Delegation at San Francisco . and. 1945. April 16." Mr.' He was the chief architect of the U . he had a "predominant voice" in determining which countries should receive aid and which should not . also.' Virginius Frank Coe. Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation show that White was a member of the Perlo Communist cell in Washington. He. 1953 . Senate investigations and reports dealing with Communist activity and subversion in the United States . " .spawning San Francisco meeting. Anne O'Hare McCormick (Editorial Staff.N . International Monetary Fund at Bretton Woods and at San Francisco ." USS ISS. He received an "E" rating from Harold Glasser. in December. Elizabeth Bentley. Treasury Department . Treasury Department . Duggan was head of the Latin American Division of the State Department and was recruited into the Soviet espionage apparatus by Hede Massing . Victor Perlo. Jr. D . 1948." Acheson is credited with making important contributions to the plans for the United Nations. USS Internal Security Subcommittee. all were agents for International Communism . "in 1945 worked successfully for Congressional approval of the Bretton Woods Monetary Agreement . Ullman. William L . for years a top courier for the Russian Secret Police in America.