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SPRINTHALLANDTIEDEMAN
7 5
t h i s r e s p e c t , w h i c h d o e s n o t d e n y t h e r e a l i t y o f i r r a t i o n a l f o r c e s b u t
s t i l l r e t a i n s t h e m a j o r f o c u s o n c o g n i t i v e c h o i c e p r o c e s s e s
. 3 7
Th e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r c o u n s e l -
i n g i s t h e m a j o r c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . 3 8
Ag e n e r i c t e r m " c o u n s e l i n g " e m e r g e s i m p l y i n g , a t l e a s t , s e t t i n g ,
c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , a n d p r o c e s s f o c u s . C o u n s e l i n g i n t h i s f r a m e d e -
s c r i b e s a p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i v e r o l e t h a t i s n o t a w a t e r e d - d o w n
v e r s i o n o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . Ad i s t i n c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e b e t w e e n t h e
p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y p r e v e n t i o n o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s . Th e l a t t e r c o m -
p r e h e n d s t h e t h e r a p e u t i c t r e a t m e n t o f s e r i o u s e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ,
a c o r r e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f u n c o n s c i o u s c o n f l i c t s . Th e
f o r m e r f o c u s e s o n t h e g e n e r a l p s y c h o s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f n o r m a l
p u p i l s a s t h e y p r o c e e d o n t h e p a t h f r o m d e p e n d e n c e t o e f f e c t i v e
s e l f - m a n a g e m e n t . Ma t h e w s o n ' s e m p h a s i s o n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l f r a m e -
w o r kf o r c o u n s e l i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t i n t h i s r e g a r d
. 3 s
V i e w e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l
m o v e s t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s u c c e s s i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a n d i n t e g r a -
t i o n a s h e c o n f r o n t s a n d , h o p e f u l l y , s u r m o u n t s d i s c o n t i n u i t y . Th e
c o n f r o n t a t i o n i m p l i e s t h e p o s s i b l e t i m e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f o n e ' s
p u r p o s e a n d p l a n a t s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s . Th e g o a l s a r e h i g h l y c o m -
p a t i b l e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e s c h o o l , n a m e l y , t h e g o a l o f a n e n h a n c e d
r a t i o n a l a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t o n e ' s o w n l i f e . Th e g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n i s
t h u s c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t e a c h i n g , a n d m o v e s f r o m t h e f r i n g e o f e d u -
c a t i o n t o a f u l l p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t e a c h i n g
. W e w i l l f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e
t h i s c o n c e p t o f " c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y " f o l l o w i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e
n e w d e p a r t u r e s i n t h e t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h h a v e ,
t o s o m e e x t e n t , a n t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f c o u n s e l i n g .
3 7 . Ed w a r d S. B o r d i n , Ps y c h o l o g i c a l C o u n s e l i n g . Ne w Yo r k
: Ap p l e t o n -
C e n t u r y - C r o f t s ,
1 9 5 5 -
3 8
. Th e r e a r e o t h e r a t t e m p t s a t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
f o r g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l i n g .
No t e w o r t h y i s t h e r e c e n t w o r ko f K r u m b o l t z a t St a n f o r d w h o s e e ks t o c r e a t e
a m o d e l f o r c o u n s e l i n g w h i c h s p e c i f i e s b e h a v i o r c h a n g e t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f
o p e r a n t c o n d i t i o n i n g . Se e , J o h n D. K r u m b o l t z , " Pa r a b l e o f t h e Go o d C o u n -
s e l o r , " Pe r s o n n e l a n d Gu i d a n c e J o u r n a l , X LIII ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 4 ) , 1 1 8 - 2 3 .
3 9 . Ro b e r t H
. Ma t h e w s o n , Gu i d a n c e Po l i c y a n d Pr a c t i c e . Ne w Yo r k :
Ha r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 6 2 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) .
7 6

GUIDANC EANDTHEPUPIL
Em e r g e n c e o f Th e o r y : C a r e e r De v e l o p m e n t
As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w d i r e c t i o n s f o r c o u n -
s e l i n g t h e o r y , c a r e e r - d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r y h a s d e l i n e a t e d a b r o a d e r
a n d m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e f r a m e w o r k
. Th e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f o c c u p a -
t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , o r , a s i t i s n o w t e r m e d , c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i s
r e c e n t . Pr i o r t o 1 9 5 0 m o s t s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a w e r e p r i m a r i l y o f
j o b s u c c e s s , w o r ka d j u s t m e n t , o r v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t - a s p e c t s o f a
c a r e e r , n o t t h e c a r e e r p r o c e s s i t s e l f . Da w i s , En g l a n d , a n d Lo f t q u i s t
h a v e r e c e n t l y a t t e m p t e d a b r o a d e r d e f i n i t i o n b y m e a n s o f t h e i r
t h e o r y o f w o r ka d j u s t m e n t . 4 0 Ho w e v e r , t h e i r t h e o r y a c c o u n t s f o r
a c c o m m o d a t i o n b u t n o t f o r t h e c h o i c e p r o c e s s , a c o n c e p t e s s e n t i a l
i n a t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t
.
Th e s t u d i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t p r e c u r s o r s
o f t h e p r e s e n t d i r e c t i o n b u t a r e n o t a d e q u a t e i n t h e m s e l v e s a s a
b a s i s f o r t h e o r y
. In t e r e s t s h a v e n o t b e e n s t u d i e d s o t h a t t h e y m i g h t
b e p l a c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o c h o i c e b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Re c e n t y e a r s h a v e
w i t n e s s e d a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y t o i n c l u d e t h e s i m u l -
t a n e o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f a p t i t u d e , i n t e r e s t , a n d p e r s o n a l i t y
v a r i a b l e s w i t h l a r g e g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s . 4 1 Ho w e v e r , i n t e r e s t s s t i l l
h a v e n o t b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e w h i c h m i g h t w e l l
g u i d e c h o i c e i f t h e h i s t o r y o f p r e f e r e n c e s w e r e kn o w n a n d , m o r e
c r i t i c a l l y , i f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e l e c t i o n w e r e f u l l y a s s u m e d b y t h e
i n d i v i d u a l
.
De s p i t e t h e n o t e d i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e s t u d i e s o f i n t e r e s t , j o b s u c -
c e s s , a n d a d j u s t m e n t , t h e y f o r m c o r n e r s t o n e s i n t h e e m e r g i n g t h e o r y
w e a t t e m p t t o t r a c e h e r e
. O t h e r r e c e n t a n d r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s h a v e
b e e n t h e w o r ko f
: ( a ) Gi n z b e r g , b e c a u s e o f h i s e m p h a s i s n o t o n t h e
o c c u p a t i o n i t s e l f b u t o n t h e f a c t t h a t w e r e q u i r e c h o i c e o f o c c u p a -
4 0 . Re n e V . Da w i s , Ge o r g e W . En g l a n d , a n d Ll o y d H
. Lo f t q u i s t , ATh e o r y
o f W o r kAd j u s t m e n t .
Un i v e r s i t y o f Mi n n e s o t a , B u l l e t i n 3 8 , 1 9 6 4 . Mi n n e a p o l i s ,
1 9 6 4 .
4 1 . F o r e x a m p l e , s e e : W i l l i a m W . C o o l e y ,
C a r e e r De v e l o p m e n t o f Sc i e n t i s t s
( C a m b r i d g e
: Gr a d u a t e Sc h o o l o f Ed u c a t i o n , Ha r v a r d Un i v e r s i t y , z 9 6 3 ) ; Ro b e r t
L
. Th o r n d i ke a n d El i z a b e t h Ha g e n , Te n Th o u s a n d C a r e e r s ( Ne w Yo r k : J o h n
W i l e y & So n , 1 9 5 9 ) ; a n d J o h n C . F l a n a g a n e t a l . , St u d i e s o f t h e Am e r i c a n Hi g h
Sc h o o l ( Pi t t s b u r g h : Un i v e r s i t y o f Pi t t s b u r g h Pr e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) .
SPRINTHALLANDTIEDEMAN
7 7
t i o n
; 4 2 ( b ) Ro e , 4 3 Ho l l a n d ' 4 4 a n d B o r d i n , Na c h m a n a n d Se g a l , 4 5
b e c a u s e o f t h e i r f o c u s o n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d t h e t y p e
o f c a r e e r s e l e c t e d
; a n d ( c ) Mi l l e r a n d F o r m , 4 6 a n d Su p e r ' 4 7 f o r t h e
c o n c e p t s o f c a r e e r p a t t e r n w i t h i n v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t
.
In a m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t w a y , a n d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n d e b t e d n e s s t o
Su p e r , t h e s e c h a n g e s h a v e i n t r o d u c e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a n a g e n t i n
t h e p r o c e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . It i s a m a r ko f t h e g e n i u s o f
Su p e r t h a t t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s s o f a r a d v a n c e d f r o m t h e u n d e r s t a n d -
i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h e x i s t e d b e f o r e h e i n i t i a t e d h i s
e f f o r t s t o e x p l a i n v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t
. Su p e r ' s s t u d i e s o f c a r e e r
p a t t e r n a r e m o s t n o t e w o r t h y
. Hi s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t v o c a t i o n a l
m a t u r i t y i s a p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d i s n o t
r e l a t e d t o t h e a m o u n t o f s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n o r c o n t e n t t h a t a n
i n d i v i d u a l kn o w s c o n c e r n i n g a v o c a t i o n . 4 8 An a l o g o u s t o t h e s u p e r -
4 2
. El i Gi n z b e r g , So l W . Gi n s b u r g , Si d n e y Ax e i r a d , a n d J o h n L
. He r m a ,
O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e : An Ap p r o a c h t o a Ge n e r a l Th e o r y
. Ne w Yo r k : C o l u m -
b i a Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 5 1 -
4 3
. An n e Ro e , " Ea r l y De t e r m i n a n t s o f V o c a t i o n a l C h o i c e , " i n J o u r n a l o f
C o u n s e l i n g Ps y c h o l o g y , IV ( F a l l , 1 9 5 7 ) , 2 1 2 - 1 7 -
4 4
. J o h n L. Ho l l a n d , " Ma j o r Pr o g r a m s o f Re s e a r c h o n V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , "
i n Ma n i n a W o r l d a t W o r k, p p . 2 5 9 - 8 4 . Ed i t e d b y He n r y B o r r o w . B o s t o n :
Ho u g h t o n Mi f f l i n , 1 9 6 4 -
4 5
. Ed w a r d S
. B o r d i n , B a r b a r a Na c h m a n , a n d St a n l e y J . Se g a l , " An Ar t i c u -
l a t e d F r a m e w o r kf o r V o c a t i o n a l De v e l o p m e n t , " J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g Ps y -
c h o l o g y , X ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 0 7 - 1 6 .
4 6
. De l b e r t C . Mi l l e r a n d W i l l i a m H. F o r m , In d u s t r i a l So c i o l o g y
. Ne w
Yo r k : Ha r p e r & B r o s . , 1 9 5 1 .
4 7
. Do n a l d E. Su p e r , " ATh e o r y o f V o c a t i o n a l De v e l o p m e n t , " i n Am e r i c a n
Ps y c h o l o g i s t , V III( 1 9 5 3 ) , 1 8 5 - 9 0 .
Su p e r d e n o t e s t h i s p r o c e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n
o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t w h i c h , a s K e h a s n o t e s , h a s h u e r i s t i c v a l u e b u t i s n o t b a s e d
o n a n a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e l f - c o n c e p t t h e o r y . Se e C h r i s D. K e h a s , " To t h e
Ed i t o r , " i n J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g Ps y c h o l o g y , IX ( Sp r i n g , 1 9 6 2 ) , 9 1 .
4 8
. Do n a l d E. Su p e r a n d Ph o e b e L. O v e r s t r e e t , Th e V o c a t i o n a l Ma t u r i t y
o f Ni n t h - Gr a d e B o y s . Ne w Yo r k : B u r e a u o f Pu b l i c a t i o n s , Te a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
C o l u m b i a Un i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 o .
F o r a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p l a n n i n g , s e e Ra y m o n d C
. Hu m m e l
a n d No r m a n A. Sp r i n t h a l l , " Le v e l o f Ac a d e m i c Ac h i e v e m e n t i n Re l a t i o n t o
Me a s u r e s o f In t e r e s t s , At t i t u d e s , a n d V a l u e s , " Pe r s o n n e l a n d Gu i d a n c e j o u r n a l
( i n p r e s s )
. Th i s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s t h a t a p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n w a s t h e m o s t s i g -
n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d t o a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s o f s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s
. A
p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n m a y h a v e g e n e r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e t o v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y ,
a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , a n d p u r p o s e f u l a c t i o n .
7 8

GUIDANC EANDTHEPUPIL
f i c i a l i t y o f d i r e c t i v e c o u n s e l i n g , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r -
m a t i o n f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l h a s l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e m e r g e n c e o f h i s
c a r e e r p a t t e r n .
F r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f
a t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t b e c o m e s p o s s i b l e . 4 9
Re s e a r c h c a n
s h i f t t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e e l e c t i o n a n d c u l t i v a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e b y t h e
p e r s o n
. V o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e c a n b e v i e w e d a s a p r o c e s s o f d i f f e r e n t i a -
t i o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t l i f e , w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n p r o -
v i d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e d e v e l o p i n g c a r e e r
. In a r e c e n t s t u d y b y
Ti e d e m a n a n d O ' Ha r a , t h i s p a r a d i g m i s i l l u s t r a t e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s
o f c a s e s t u d i e s . 6 0 C o g n i t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , s i m i l a r t o Su p e r ' s
c o n c e p t o f a p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n , i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o
c h o o s e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s r a t i o n a l l y
. W h e n o n e
c h o o s e s o n a r a t i o n a l b a s i s h e h a s o p p o r t u n i t y t o l a y o u t a l t e r n a -
t i v e s , t o a s s e s s b o t h w i s h e s a n d r i s ks , t o e x a m i n e f a v o r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s ,
a n d t o c o n s t r u c t a
d e f i n i t i o n o f h i m s e l f i n t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h g u i d e s
h i s p u r s u i t o f t h e e l e c t e d c o u r s e
. Th e e x i s t e n c e , v a l i d i t y , c l a r i t y ,
f o r c e , t e n t a t i v e n e s s , a n d o p e n n e s s o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a s i t s a c t u a l a n d
i m p u t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s a s e x p e r i e n c e d , a r e o f c o n c e r n i n t h e s t u d y
o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . It i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g c a r e e r
d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a c h c a s e i n t h e Ti e d e m a n a n d O ' Ha r a m o n o g r a p h
i s a n a l y z e d n o t o n l y i n t e r m s o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e b u t a l s o i n
t e r m s o f p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s e s , i n t e r e s t s , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , a n d a w a r e n e s s
o f t h e d e p t h a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n .
Th e s t u d i e s c i t e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g p a r a g r a p h s i n d i c a t e t h a t
t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e a r e b e i n g m o d i f i e d b y a n d
a n c h o r e d i n a g r o w i n g t h e o r y o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . O b v i -
o u s l y t h i s d i r e c t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e p r o v i d e s a c o n v e n i e n t
c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n c e p t s o f c o u n s e l i n g t h e o r y ;
t h e f o r g i n g o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l b r i d g e i s s t i l l t o b e m a d e
. Ho w e v e r ,
t h e d e n o t a t i o n o f t h e a g e n c y o f t h e p e r s o n i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f s t u d y
4 9 .
F o r t h e m o s t r e c e n t c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u m m a r y o f t h e o r y , p r a c t i c e ,
a n d
r e s e a r c h i n v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , s e e
Ma n i n a W o r l d a t W o r k . Ed i t e d b y
He n r y B o r o w
. B o s t o n : Ho u g h t o n Mi f f l i n , 1 9 6 4 ( 5 o t h An n i v e r s a r y v o l u m e o f
t h e Na t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Gu i d a n c e As s o c i a t i o n ) .
5 0 . Da v i d V . Ti e d e m a n a n d Ro b e r t P. O ' Ha r a ,
C a r e e r De v e l o p m e n t :
C h o i c e a n d Ad j u s t m e n t . Ne w Yo r k
: C o l l e g e En t r a n c e Ex a m i n a t i o n B o a r d ,
1 9 6 3 .
SPRINTHALLANDTIEDEMAN
a n d w o r kc l e a r l y i m p l i e s a c o n g r u e n c e t o c o u n s e l i n g a s a p p r a i s a l
w i t h a n i n d i v i d u a l o f h i s u n i q u e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r c h o i c e a n d a c t i o n
.
An o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s c o n g r u e n c e m a y b e s e e n i n t h e n e w e m -
p h a s i s o n r a t i o n a l p o w e r s , w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s c o m p r e h e n d s t h e c o m -
p l e x i t i e s o f e m o t i o n , f o r b o t h v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e
a n d g u i d a n c e
c o u n s e l i n g .
In f a c t , w e p r e d i c t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e
" t y p e s " o f g u i d a n c e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y f a d e a s t h e f u l l f o r c e o f t h e s e
c h a n g e s b e c o m e s u n d e r s t o o d a n d a c t e d u p o n . Th i s d e v e l o p m e n t
m a y a l s o a r r e s t a d r i f t t h a t Ty l e r n o t e s t o w a r d t h e p o s s i b l e r e p u d i -
a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l - e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g b y c o u n s e l o r s i n
f a v o r
o f a s t r o n g e r i n v e s t m e n t i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . 5 1
Im p l i c a t i o n s a n d F u t u r e Tr e n d s
W e e m p h a s i z e a m a j o r i m p l i c a t i o n o f c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n
t h i s s u r v e y - n a m e l y , a p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n g u i d a n c e
. Th e g r o w t h
o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p
; t h e g r a d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a
f o r r o l e , f u n c t i o n , a n d t r a i n i n g ; a n d t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s
f r o m c o u n s e l i n g a n d c a r e e r t h e o r y , a n t i c i p a t e a u n i o n t o p u s h g u i d -
a n c e f r o m i t s c u r r e n t s t a t u s a s s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o t e a c h i n g t o a p o s i -
t i o n o f b e i n g c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t e a c h i n g
. Gu i d a n c e a s a n e d u c a t i v e
f u n c t i o n w h i c h c o m p l e m e n t s t e a c h i n g b e c o m e s a
" s e p a r a t e b u t
e q u a l " b a s i s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n
. El s e w h e r e , t h e c o n c e p t o f p u r -
p o s e f u l a c t i o n h a s b e e n d e n o t e d a s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r g u i d a n c e
. 5 2 B y
e n h a n c i n g t h e p o w e r t o c h o o s e , t h e c o u n s e l o r a i d s t h e s t u d e n t ,
w h e t h e r a s v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e o r g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l i n g , t o w a r d e f -
f e c t i v e s e l f - m a n a g e m e n t
. As p e c i a l g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n d e n o t e s p r a c -
t i c e w h i c h d o e s n o t c o m p r o m i s e t h e i n i t i a t i v e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f
p u p i l s . Ra t h e r t h a n i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u r p o s e s a n d p l a n s t h a t a n a d u l t
h a s f o r t h e s t u d e n t , t h e g u i d a n c e p r o c e s s p o i n t s t o w a r d t h e s t u -
d e n t ' s p o w e r o v e r h i s o w n d e s t i n y , e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c o m -
p l e x s o c i e t y o f t h e f u t u r e .
If f r e e d o m i s t o b e g u a r a n t e e d f o r y o u t h , t h e s u b s t a n c e o f e d u -
c a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f p u r p o s e f u l
a c t i o n s h o u l d b e o f f e r e d t o y o u t h i n a d i v i d e d w a y s o t h a t t h e f r e e -
d o m f o r t h e g o a l e l e c t e d - b u t n o t o f t h e e l e c t i o n o f g o a l s - i s l e f t
5 1 . Ty l e r ,
o p . c i t .
5 2
. Ti e d e m a n a n d F i e l d , o p . c i t .
7 9
8 o

GUIDANC EANDTHEPUPIL
u n c h a l l e n g e d . Th e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e s t h a t u l t i m a t e
a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s e v e r a l p a r t s o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d b e p r i m a r i l y i n
t h e h a n d s o f e a c h y o u t h a n d t h a t e a c h o f a s u b s e t o f i t s p a r t s s h o u l d
b e p r i m a r i l y i n t h e h a n d s o f a n a d u l t w h o s u p e r v i s e s y o u t h i n t h e
m a s t e r y o f e a c h p a r t .
F r e e d o m i s p r o t e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h e s c h o o l o f
a g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t e a c h i n g r a t h e r t h a n s u p p l e -
m e n t a r y
t o t e a c h i n g . Th e p u p i l m u s t a t a l l t i m e s b e v e s t e d w i t h
a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t r u c t u r e , p r o c e s s , a n d t h e u n i o n o f
s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o c e s s t h r o u g h t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f p u r p o s e i n a c t i o n .
Th e t e a c h e r m u s t b e g i v e n a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d -
i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d f o r t r a i n i n g a p u p i l i n t h e l o g i c o f p r o c e s s .
Th e c o u n s e l o r , t h e s e c o n d p r o f e s s i o n a l
n e c e s s a r y t o o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r
l i b e r a t i o n t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , m u s t b e g i v e n a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i -
b i l i t y f o r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a p u p i l ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e l o g i c o f
p r o c e s s a n d f o r t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f p u r p o s e i n y o u t h t h r o u g h c o u n -
s e l i n g . Th e e f f i c i e n t d i s c h a r g e o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l r e q u i r e t h a t
c o u n s e l o r s o b s e r v e c h i l d r e n a s t h e y a r e b e i n g t a u g h t , c o u n s e l w i t h
t h e m q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , a n d c o n s u l t w i t h t e a c h e r s a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l
p r o b l e m s
. W o r t h e n e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y a t t h e 1 9 6 3
Ha r v a r d - Le x i n g t o n Su m m e r Pr o g r a m , w h i c h o f f e r e d a s u p e r v i s e d
p e r i o d o f s c h o o l i n g f o r e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s o r g a n -
i z e d a s t e a m s . Th e s i x - w e e ks ' p r o g r a m f o c u s e d o n p u p i l p r o b l e m -
s o l v i n g t h r o u g h f o u r b a s i c s u b j e c t s . Te a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s p r o v e d
a b l e t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n s u c h t e a m s d e s p i t e d i f -
f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n s u c h c o l l a b o r a t i v e a c t i v i t y w h e n t i m e i s a t a p r e -
m i u m . 5 3 Th e t e a m o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s o f f e r s
m e a n s w h e r e b y t h e s e r v i c e s o f t e a c h e r a n d c o u n s e l o r c a n b e ke p t
c o m p l e m e n t a r y .
5 4
In t h i s f r a m e t h e p u p i l c a n r e t a i n t h e r e s p o n s i -
b i l i t y f o r g o a l s m o r e i n c l u s i v e t h a n t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r .
Th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o u n s e l i n g a s t h e c o m p l e m e n t t o t e a c h i n g ,
r a t h e r t h a n a s i t s s u p p l e m e n t , a v o i d s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e g o a l s o f
5 3
. J o h n W o r t h e n , " Th e De v e l o p m e n t a n d Im p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a Pr o g r a m
i n Gu i d a n c e t h r o u g h t h e Po s i t i o n o f As s i s t a n t Di r e c t o r a n d
In s t r u c t o r i n t h e
Ha r v a r d - Le x i n g t o n Su m m e r Sc h o o l , " Pr o j e c t Re p o r t , Ha r v a r d Gr a d u a t e Sc h o o l
o f Ed u c a t i o n ,
1 9 6 4 -
5 4
. F o r a s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e a m - t e a c h i n g f r a m e w o r ks e e J u d s o n
T. Sh a p l i n a n d He n r y F . O l d s , J r . , Te a m Te a c h i n g
. Ne w Yo r k : Ha r p e r &
Ro w , 1 9 6 4 .
SPRINTHALLANDTIEDEMAN

8 1
y o u t h w i l l b e s e t f o r t h e m b y t e a c h e r , p s y c h o l o g i s t , o r p s y c h i a t r i s t ,
a s i s n o w p o s s i b l e u n d e r t h e p r o c e d u r e b y w h i c h p s y c h o l o g i s t s a n d
p s y c h i a t r i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f m e n t a l h e a l t h t h r o u g h
e d u c a t i o n p r e f e r t o o p e r a t e . Ps y c h o l o g i s t s a n d p s y c h i a t r i s t s n o w
a s s u m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t u t o r i n g t e a c h e r s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a -
t i o n a n d l e t t h e t e a c h e r o p e r a t e o n t h e c h i l d w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o
a t t e n d t o s t r u c t u r e , p r o c e s s , a n d p u r p o s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Th e p r o b -
l e m o f s e t t i n g g o a l s c a n b e a v o i d e d b y t h e p u p i l s w h e n p r o c e s s i s
i n t r o d u c e d i n t o s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s w a y .
Th e r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e f o r l i b e r a t i o n
t h r o u g h g u i d a n c e . F r o m c a r e e r t h e o r y , Su p e r n o t e s t h e d e v e l o p -
m e n t a l c o n c e p t , d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , o f a n e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e f o r
v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . 6 5 F r o m p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y , Er i ks o n h a s d e s i g -
n a t e d t h i s s t a g e a s t h e a d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i t y c r i s i s , a p e r i o d o f i n n e r
e x a m i n a t i o n o f n o t o n l y w h o o n e i s b u t w h a t o n e s t a n d s f o r ( i d e n -
t i t y a n d f i d e l i t y ) . Th e s e t w o s t r a n d s , c a r e e r a n d p e r s o n a l i t y , a r e n o
l o n g e r s e p a r a t e . In f a c t , Er i ks o n m a ke s p a r t i c u l a r n o t e o f c a r e e r
i d e n t i t y d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , " In g e n e r a l i t i s p r i m a r i l y t h e i n a b i l i t y
t o s e t t l e o n a n o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y w h i c h d i s t u r b s y o u n g p e o p l e . "
5 6
Th u s , p e r h a p s t h r o u g h b i o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l f o r c e s , t h e h i g h - s c h o o l
s t u d e n t i s f a c e d w i t h a p e r i o d c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n a n d
t h e p e r e m p t o r y a s p e c t s o f c h o i c e . He m u s t c h o o s e . Av o i d a n c e o f
c h o i c e , p u r p o s e , a n d p l a n e n h a n c e s t h e c h a n c e s o f a n i r r e v e r s i b l e
f u t u r e a n d d e l i m i t s f r e e d o m . Le a r n i n g t o c h o o s e e f f e c t i v e l y a n d
r e s p o n s i b l y p l a c e s t h e p u p i l i n c h a r g e o f h i s o w n l i f e , a p r o c e s s s e t
i n m o t i o n t h r o u g h g u i d a n c e i n e d u c a t i o n . Th e c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h
c h o i c e m a y b e s t b e i l l u s t r a t e d b y a g a i n t u r n i n g t o a b r i e f e x c e r p t
f r o m a c o u n s e l i n g s e s s i o n . As t u d e n t i s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e r e c o g -
n i t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e
.
Il i ke d t o h a v e m y d e c i s i o n s m a d e f o r m e , u h - h a v i n g t h i n g s
s e t u p f o r m e t o f o l l o w t h e p a t h o f o t h e r s r a t h e r t h a n f i n d m y o w n p a t h
i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s . Uh , y e t i f Ic h o o s e t h e d e c i s i o n - m a ki n g p a t h I' l l n e v e r
5 5 .
Do n a l d E. Su p e r , e t a l . , V o c a t i o n a l De v e l o p m e n t : AF r a m e w o r kf o r
Re s e a r c h . Ne w Yo r k : B u r e a u o f Pu b l i c a t i o n s , Te a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a
Un i v e r s i t y ,
1 9 5 7 -
5 6
. Er i k H. Er i ks o n , " Id e n t i t y a n d t h e Li f e C y c l e , " Ps y c h o l o g i c a l Is s u e s , I
( 1 9 5 9 ) , 9 2
.
8 2

GUIDANC EANDTHEPUPIL
b e s e t t l e d d o w n - b u t In e v e r t h o u g h t o f g o i n g b a c ks o e x p l i c i t l y - i f I
d e c i d e t o m a ke d e c i s i o n s I' m g o i n g t o h a v e t o d o t h a t a l l t h e t i m e
. . .
s e e m s l i ke a p r e t t y s h a b b y a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r .
In d e e d , t o o n e w h o f a c e s c h o i c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , i t i s a s h a b b y
a l t e r n a t i v e t o p r e s c r i p t i o n a n d a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i r e c t i o n
. Th i s f a c t
r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e a l g u i d a n c e p r o b l e m .
Th e c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e h a v e b e e n
s u b s t a n t i v e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f g u i d a n c e . It i s , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , o b -
v i o u s t h a t t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s b e a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c
e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d t h e ki n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e w e e n v i s a g e . B u t
t h i s i s h a r d l y u n i q u e t o g u i d a n c e . C e r t a i n l y t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r
t e a c h e r a s p r o f e s s i o n a l o r j o u r n e y m a n ( u n i o n i s m v s . p r o f e s s i o n a l
a s s o c i a t i o n ) i s s t i l l w i t h u s . Th e a c c e p t a n c e o f g u i d a n c e a s s o m e -
t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a n e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l s e l e c t i o n
a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r p u p i l s w i l l b e t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t . F o r , i m -
p l i c i t l y , i t m e a n s t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y f u n c t i o n s w h i c h g u i d a n c e h a s
c o m p r e h e n d e d i n t h e p a s t w i l l b e s h e d . 5 7
If t h e p u p i l i s s e e n a s t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f g u i d a n c e - a s a p e r s o n
w h o c h o o s e s f r o m a m o n g a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d , h e n c e , d i r e c t s h i s o w n
l i f e - t h e r o l e o f g u i d a n c e , a s f u n c t i o n a l f o r s o c i e t y ' s p r o b l e m s , m u s t
s h i f t t o e m p h a s i z e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r e a c h p u p i l
.
O n e o f t h e
m o s t p r o m i s i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e p t m a y
b e t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h i n g - t e a m s , i n c l u d -
i n g a g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l o r i n a n i n t e g r a l p o s i t i o n . In t h e m o r e u s u a l
s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e s e c h a n g e s i m p l y a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e n o r m a l
s t u d e n t - c o u n s e l o r r a t i o s f r o m 5 0 0 : i o r 2 5 0 : i t o Io o : I t o p e r m i t
g u i d a n c e t o f u n c t i o n a s w e h a v e o u t l i n e d . Th e p r o g r e s s t o w a r d t h i s
g o a l m a y b e s l o w , i n d e e d , b e c a u s e o f kn o t t y p r o b l e m s i n f i n a n c e .
Ye t , t h e p r o g r e s s a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d f o r g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l i n g h a s b e e n
r e m a r ka b l e , f o r e x a m p l e : t h e i n s i s t e n c e u p o n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l i n g
a s t h e m a j o r r o l e , t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f a t w o - y e a r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m ,
5 7
. Re c e n t l y t h e Le x i n g t o n ( Ma s s a c h u s e t t s ) Sc h o o l Gu i d a n c e Pr o g r a m ,
u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a b l e l e a d e r s h i p , w a s c o m p l e t e l y r e d e f i n e d i n f u n c t i o n
a n d p u r p o s e . Al l
o f t h e a n c i l l a r y t a s ks w e r e e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e c o u n s e l o r ' s
r o l e - i n c l u d i n g c o u r s e s c h e d u l i n g , p r o c t o r i n g s t u d y h a l l s
a n d l u n c h r o o m s ,
s u p e r v i s i n g d i s c i p l i n e , a t t e n d a n c e , c o u r s e t r a n s f e r s , e t c . Th i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t
t h e s e c h a n g e s a r e p o s s i b l e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s
. Th e c o u n s e l o r n e e d n o t f i l l t h e
r o l e o f s c h o o l " h a n d y m a n , " p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e
c o n t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p
.
SPRINTHALLANDTIEDEMAN

8 3
a n d t h e a d v a n c e s i n c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . W e e x p e c t d r a m a t i c
c h a n g e s i n s c h o o l p r a c t i c e a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o g r e s s . Th e f o u n d a -
t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e o f a n e w g u i d a n c e h a v e b e e n l a i d d o w n . Th e
l i b e r a t i o n o f p u p i l s t h r o u g h g u i d a n c e b e c o m e s p o s s i b l e . Th e c r i t i c a l
d a n g e r i s t h a t t h e a d u l t w o r l d a n d i t s p a r t i c u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h e
s c h o o l , w i l l n o t t r u s t , a l l o w , o r e n h a n c e t h e p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y f o r s e l f -
d i r e c t e d c h o i c e
. As Er i ks o n s o a p t l y n o t e s , t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f c h i l d -
h o o d d e p e n d e n c e e x p o s e s a d u l t s t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f c o n t r o l . " W e
h a v e l e a r n e d n o t t o s t u n t a c h i l d ' s b o d y w i t h c h i l d l a b o r ; w e m u s t
n o w l e a r n n o t t o b r e a kh i s g r o w i n g s p i r i t b y m a ki n g h i m v i c t i m o f
o u r a n x i e t i e s . " s s
5 8 . Er i ks o n , o p . c i t . , p . i o o .
C HAPTER IV
In s t r u c t i o n a l Re s o u r c e s
EDGARDALE
In s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a r e a s s u m i n g a s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i -
c a n c e i n t h e c h a n g i n g Am e r i c a n s c h o o l . Th i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e
r o l e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . It t r e a t s ( a )
a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ;
( b ) s o c i a l f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s ; ( c ) e x a m p l e s
a n d i s s u e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; a n d
( d ) t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d u s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s .
Av a i l a b l e In s t r u c t i o n a l Re s o u r c e s a n d
Th e i r Si g n i f i c a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
O n e f r u i t f u l w a y o f l o o ki n g a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s t o s e e
t h e m a s r e l a t e d t o t h e m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n : s p e a ki n g
a n d l i s t e n i n g , v i s u a l i z i n g a n d o b s e r v i n g , w r i t i n g a n d r e a d i n g . W e
c a n a l s o r e g a r d t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a s r e p r e s e n t i n g i n s t a n c e s o f p r o -
d u c i n g a n d c o n s u m i n g m e s s a g e s . Th e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s h o w s t h a t
v a r i e d c o m b i n a t i o n s c a n b e m a d e
; f o r e x a m p l e , r e a d i n g - s p e a ki n g ,
l i s t e n i n g - w r i t i n g , v i s u a l i z i n g - w r i t i n g .
TAB LE1
PRO DUC INGMESSAGES
W r i t i n g
Sp e a ki n g ( i n c l u d i n g m u s i c )
V i s u a l i z i n g ( i n c l u d i n g p l a s t i c a r t s )
8 4
Re a d i n g
C O NSUMINGMESSAGES
Li s t e n i n g
*
O b s e r v i n g
*
DALE

8 5
W h e n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r t h e f o r e g o i n g
c a t e g o r i e s , t h e w i d e r a n g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e d i a w h i c h a r e n o w
a v a i l a b l e i s c l e a r l y s e e n .
TAB LE2
Sp e a ki n g ( o r

Ra d i o , l a n g u a g e l a b o r a t o r i e s , t a p e s , r e c o r d -
c o m p o s i n g ) - Li s t e n i n g

i n g s
- - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - -
V i s u a l i z i n g - O b s e r v i n g

Te l e v i s i o n , f i l m s , v i d e o t a p e s , f i l m s t r i p s ,
2 X 2
s l i d e s , o v e r h e a d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , p i c t u r e s ,
p h o t o g r a p h s , f l a s h c a r d s , f l i p b o o ks , m a p s ,
p o s t e r s , c h a r t s , d i a g r a m s , b u l l e t i n b o a r d s ,
f l a n n e l g r a p h s , d i o r a m a s , m o d e l s , m o c k- u p s
a n d s i m u l a t i o n d e v i c e s , f i e l d s t u d y
W r i t i n g - Re a d i n g

B o o ks , n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z i n e s , p a m p h l e t s ,
s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , c h a r t s , d i a g r a m s
C o m p u t e r s a n d s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s m a y b e p l a c e d i n m o r e
t h a n o n e o f t h e s e t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
Th e w r i t e r h a s a l s o c l a s s i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a s a c o n e o f
e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h r a n g e s f r o m d i r e c t , p u r p o s e f u l , s e n s e e x p e r i e n c e s
a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e c o n e t o h i g h l y a b s t r a c t e x p e r i e n c e s a t t h e t o p .
He h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s a n d c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s n e e d t o
s e e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o n a c o n c r e t e - a b s t r a c t c o n t i n u u m i n o r d e r
t o f i t t h e m m o r e p r e c i s e l y t o t h e b a c kg r o u n d o f t h e l e a r n e r . '
As o n e s t u d i e s t h e w i d e r a n g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s n o t e d
a b o v e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t a r i c h v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r
s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s c a n n o w b e p r o v i d e d
. Re a d i n g a n d
w r i t i n g n e e d n o l o n g e r b e t h e o n l y m e t h o d s u s e d f o r c o m m u n i c a -
t i o n , a n d n e w a p p r o a c h e s t o s p e a ki n g - l i s t e n i n g a n d v i s u a l i z i n g -
o b s e r v i n g c a n b e m a d e . It w o u l d b e i n a c c u r a t e t o s t a t e t h a t t h e
s c h o o l s h a v e o v e r e m p h a s i z e d r e a d i n g a s t h e c h i e f m e t h o d o f c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n , b u t t h e y c e r t a i n l y h a v e u n d e r e m p h a s i z e d t h e u s e o f
o t h e r m e d i a w h i c h c a n b r i n g r i c h e x p e r i e n c e s t o a l l l e a r n e r s .
Th e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c h a n g i n g s c h o o l i s s e e n i n b e t t e r
i . Ed g a r Da l e , Au d i o - V i s u a l Me t h o d s i n Te a c h i n g , c h a p . i v . Ne w Yo r k :
Dr y d e n Pr e s s , 1 9 5 4 ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ) .
8 6

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


p e r s p e c t i v e i f i t i s v i e w e d a s r e l a t e d t o a c h a n g i n g a n d m o r e e f f e c -
t i v e s y s t e m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , w e c a n m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y
c r e a t e a m o d e m s c h o o l i f w e m a ke m o r e t h o u g h t f u l , b e t t e r c o -
o r d i n a t e d u s e o f t h e n e w i n s t r u m e n t s a n d c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a -
t i o n n o t e d a b o v e .
As u r v e y o f t h e ke y i n v e n t i o n s r e l a t e d t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n d i s -
c l o s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s :
I . Th e n e w m e d i a c a n c a p t u r e a n d r e c o r d a n y e v e n t f o r l a t e r
u s e . Th i s m e a n s t h a t t h e c a m e r a , t h e s o u n d r e c o r d e r , t h e v i d e o - t a p e
r e c o r d e r c a n b e u s e d t o d u p l i c a t e a n d r e - c r e a t e e v e n t s . Th e c y -
c l o p e a n e y e o f t h e s a t e l l i t e c a n b r i n g e n t i r e l y n e w m e s s a g e s t o u s .
Th e p a s t c a n b e m a d e a r e a l i s t i c a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e p a r t o f t h e
p r e s e n t . Ta p e r e c o r d i n g s c a n a l s o b e u s e d t o m a ke a r e c o r d o f
p u p i l o r t e a c h e r p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h c a n b e p l a y e d b a c ka t w i l l
.
Th e r e i s n o l o n g e r n e e d t o d e p e n d o n p r i n t a s t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f
r e c o r d s o f p a s t e v e n t s .
2 . Th e s e r e c o r d s c a n b e a m p l i f i e d o r e n l a r g e d t o m a ke t h e m
a v a i l a b l e f o r g r o u p u s e . Th e s o u n d o f a n i n s e c t c a n b e a m p l i f i e d
a n d a m o t i o n p i c t u r e o r s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h u s e d t o p u t t h e i n s e c t o n t o
a l a r g e s c r e e n f o r c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s .
3 . Re c o r d s o f h u m a n p e r f o r m a n c e o r o t h e r e v e n t s c a n b e
i n s t a n t l y t r a n s m i t t e d o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o m a ke t h e m a v a i l a b l e
f o r s t u d y , a s i n t e l e v i s i o n o r r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g o r t h e u s e o f c o m -
p u t e r s . Th r o u g h t h e g r o u p t e l e l e c t u r e , w e c a n c o n f e r w i t h s p e c i a l -
i s t s b y p h o n e f r o m a l m o s t a n y w h e r e i n t h e w o r l d . Th e l a n g u a g e
l a b o r a t o r y i s a r e a l i t y a n d m e t h o d s a r e n o w b e i n g d e v e l o p e d b y
w h i c h s t u d e n t s c a n e a s i l y t u n e i n o n o r s e l e c t r e c o r d i n g s b y a s i m p l e
d i a l i n g s y s t e m . As t u d e n t i n Sa n F r a n c i s c o m a y b e " t a u g h t " b y a
c o m p u t e r i n Ne w Yo r kC i t y
.
4
. Ma n y o f t h e n e w m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e u s i n g m u s i c ,
s p e e c h , a n d p i c t u r e s , g r e a t l y e x t e n d t h e u s e r ' s r a n g e o f u n d e r s t a n d -
i n g . Th e f o u r - y e a r - o l d c a n n o t r e a d , b u t h e c a n u n d e r s t a n d m a n y
o f t h e t h i n g s h e s e e s o n t e l e v i s i o n . Th e m u s i c o v e r r a d i o o r b y
r e c o r d i n g c a n r a i s e o r d e b a s e h i s t a s t e s .
Th e c o l o r p h o t o g r a p h o r s ke t c h o f a f l o w e r o r p l a n t h a s a h i g h
p o i n t - b y - p o i n t c o n g r u e n c y w i t h t h e r e a l o b j e c t . It s c o n c r e t e n e s s
m a ke s i t a g o o d e x a m p l e , a n e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e
o r i g i n a l . If s u c h m a t e r i a l s w e r e p l a c e d o n a c o n c r e t e - t o - a b s t r a c t
DALE

8 7
s c a l e , t h e y w o u l d o f t e n f a l l t o w a r d t h e c o n c r e t e e n d o f t h e s c a l e .
Th e y a r e m u c h e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a n i s t h e p r i n t e d w o r d
.
Ap e r c e p t u a l - c o n c e p t u a l p r o b l e m i s f a c e d i n a l l l e a r n i n g -
e s p e c i a l l y i n r e a d i n g
. Th e a l p h a b e t f u r n i s h e s a c o d e b y m e a n s o f
w h i c h s p e e c h c a n b e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o h i g h l y a b s t r a c t s y m b o l s . B u t
t o l e a r n t o r e a d , t h e c h i l d m u s t " b r e a kt h e c o d e . " Th i s i s a p e r -
c e p t u a l p r o b l e m , a m a t c h i n g o f s o u n d t o l e t t e r a n d s y l l a b l e . B u t
l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a l s o i n v o l v e s a c o n c e r n w i t h w h a t t h e w o r d s a n d
s e n t e n c e s m e a n , t h e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e y c o n c e p t u a l i z e .
Tw o c o n c l u s i o n s f l o w f r o m t h e w i d e r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h
c a n b e s e c u r e d f r o m n e w m e d i a t h a t d o n o t d e p e n d c h i e f l y o n t h e
r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e l e a r n e r
. F i r s t , t h e r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e o p e n t o
a n i n d i v i d u a l o r t o a g r o u p o f f o u r o r f i v e o r o f t w o h u n d r e d c a n b e
g r e a t l y e x t e n d e d . Th e l e a r n e r i s n o t n a r r o w l y b o u n d t o r e a d i n g
e x p e r i e n c e s
. Se c o n d , t h e s c h o o l m u s t s h o w i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n f o r
t h e o u t - o f - s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e l e a r n e r
.
So c i a l F o r c e s In f l u e n c i n g In s t r u c t i o n a l Re s o u r c e s
Th e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n p r e s e n t e d a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
m a t e r i a l s m a d e a v a i l a b l e b y m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g y
. Th e s a m e f o r c e s
t h a t p r o d u c e d m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g y a r e s t i l l a t w o r ka n d w i l l c o n -
t i n u e t o b e f a c t o r s i n c h a n g i n g t h e s c h o o l - i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , c u r -
r i c u l u m , t e a c h e r s , a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
. It i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e -
f o r e , t h a t w e u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e f o r c e s a n d a s s e s s t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g
i n f l u e n c e o n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s c h o o l
. Ma n y o f
t h e s e s o c i a l f o r c e s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s
y e a r b o o ka n d a r e r e s t a t e d h e r e o n l y t o e m p h a s i z e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n
i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s
.
C e r t a i n l y , t h e c h a n g e s c a u s e d b y m a s s p r o d u c t i o n a n d a u t o m a -
t i o n i n f l u e n c e t h e s c h o o l s b o t h d i r e c t l y a n d i n d i r e c t l y . O u r m o r e
t h a n 2 5 0
m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s , e a c h w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r
5 0 , 0 0 0 ,
a r e a d i r e c t o u t g r o w t h o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . C h a n g e s
a l s o c o m e f r o m t h e d i s l o c a t i o n o f w o r ke r s c a u s e d b y a u t o m a t i o n
a n d m a s s p r o d u c t i o n .
Te c h n o l o g i c a l u n e m p l o y m e n t w i l l i n c r e a s e , n o t d e c r e a s e . Th i s
w i l l m a ke f o r j o b u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , c a u s e i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y o f t h e
w o r ki n g f o r c e , a n d c a l l f o r c o n t i n u i n g c h a n g e s i n s c h o o l s a n d i n
a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Am e a s u r e o f t h i s j o b u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s i n d i c a t e d
8 8

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


b y s t a t i s t i c s w h i c h r e v e a l t h a t t h e t y p i c a l w o r ke r w i l l m a ke s i x o r
s e v e n j o b c h a n g e s i n h i s l i f e t i m e , t h e l a s t o n e a t a g e 5 3 2 Mo d e r n i z e d
i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s a n d m a t e r i a l s f o r r e t r a i n i n g a n d f o r c o n t i n u -
i n g e d u c a t i o n a r e a n e c e s s i t y . F u r t h e r , t h e d e m a n d s f o r h i g h - l e v e l
p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l s ki l l s w i l l i n c r e a s e a n d t h e d e m a n d
f o r l o w - l e v e l s ki l l s w i l l d e c r e a s e .
Th e r e a r e a l s o i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h w i l l
i n f l u e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
. C e r t a i n l y , t h e g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e
a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e i d e a o f p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n a f a c t o r i n s o c i a l
c h a n g e i n Am e r i c a . Th a t Am e r i c a i s a c o u n t r y i n w h i c h t h e f u t u r e
w i l l b e b e t t e r h a s a l w a y s b e e n a b a s i c p a r t o f o u r n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y
.
W e b e l i e v e t h a t c h a n g e a n d i n n o v a t i o n a r e g o o d a n d i n t h e
Am e r i c a n t r a d i t i o n .
Th e d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n t h a t e v e r y o n e s h o u l d h a v e a n e q u a l
o p p o r t u n i t y , a l t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s h o n o r e d , h a s b e e n o u r s t a t e d ,
s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d p h i l o s o p h y . Th i s h a s a f f e c t e d n o t o n l y t h e n a t u r e
a n d q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s b u t a l s o t h e i r f i n a n c i n g . F o r
e x a m p l e , f e d e r a l a i d h a s l o n g b e e n a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l
m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o g r a m s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . Th e p r o d u c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d
a m o u n t s o f f o o d a n d f i b e r w a s a s s u m e d t o b e i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r -
e s t a n d t o m e r i t f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p o r t . Th e p u b -
l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s De p a r t m e n t o f Ag r i c u l t u r e h a v e b e e n
o n e o f t h e m a j o r t o o l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s a n d a d u l t s l i v i n g
o n f a r m s .
Ho w e v e r , t h e b e n e f i t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n h a v e n o t b e e n a d e -
q u a t e l y s h a r e d b y a l l m e m b e r s o f o u r p o p u l a t i o n . Th e r e a r e g r o s s
i n e q u i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s a m o n g t h e v a r i -
o u s s t a t e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e m a s s i v e u n e m p l o y m e n t i n W e s t V i r g i n i a
c a u s e d b y a u t o m a t i o n i n c o a l m i n i n g h a s d e c r e a s e d t h e s t a t e p o p u l a -
t i o n , i n c r e a s e d t h e p o v e r t y , a n d w a s o n e o f t h e c a u s e s o f t h e
i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e v a s t Ap p a l a c h i a p r o g r a m . It i s s e e n m o r e c l e a r l y
n o w a s a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y t h a t t h e u n d e r e d u c a t e d p e r s o n
f r o m o n e s t a t e m a y b e c o m e a r e l i e f c l i e n t i n a n o t h e r s t a t e . Po o r
l o c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s n a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s .
To d a y , t h e r e i s a m a j o r n a t i o n a l t h r u s t t o r a i s e a n d e q u a l i z e t h e
2 . Ma n p o w e r Re p o r t o f t h e Pr e s i d e n t , No . i o , J u n e , 1 9 6 4 , p . z . W a s h i n g t o n :
Un i t e d St a t e s Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 4 .
DALE

8 9
q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e v a r i o u s s t a t e s , c i t i e s , a n d c o u n t i e s
. W e
a l r e a d y e q u a l i z e f a i r l y w e l l t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n c i t y
o r c o u n t y s y s t e m s b u t d o n o t d o s o u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t a s t a t e
;
a m o n g s t a t e s t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s v a r i e s w i d e l y
.
F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h NDEAf u n d s , t h r o u g h f u n d s a v a i l a b l e
u n d e r t h e Ec o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t y Ac t o f 1 9 6 4 , a n d f r o m o t h e r
s o u r c e s i s a i m e d t o p r o v i d e e v e r y c h i l d e v e r y w h e r e i n t h e c o u n t r y
w i t h e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e l i b r a r y b o o ks , f i l m s ,
r e c o r d i n g s , t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s , m a t e r i a l s f o r l e a r n i n g f o r e i g n l a n -
g u a g e , a n d t h e l i ke .
W e a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s u m i n g t h a t e x c e l l e n c e i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l
m a t e r i a l s a n d f a c i l i t i e s m u s t b e s h a r e d
. Si n c e f e d e r a l a i d i s m o v i n g
i n t o t h e a r e a o f c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a s w e l l a s g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e ,
i t m a y b e e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i m p r o v e m e n t a n d e q u a l i z a t i o n o f i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n e v e r y w h e r e w i l l b e a n i n c r e a s i n g
r e a l i t y .
Th e r e h a s b e e n m o u n t i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d
a s w e l l a s f o r s l o w l e a r n e r s
. So m e a b l e c r i t i c s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c -
t i c e s h a v e d e s c r i b e d o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s a s t y p i c a l l y a i m e d
a t t h e m i d d l e h a l f o f o u r p u p i l s , w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t n e g l e c t o f t h e
u p p e r a n d l o w e r f o u r t h s
. In t h e p a s t d e c a d e , a s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d
e f f o r t h a s b e e n m a d e t o g i v e s p e c i a l g u i d a n c e t o t h e c u l t u r a l l y
d e p r i v e d , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , a n d t h e g i f t e d , w i t h c o n s e q u e n t c h a n g e s
i n t h e ki n d s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s m a d e a v a i l -
a b l e f o r e a c h
. In d e e d , o n e o f t h e a r g u m e n t s a d v a n c e d f o r t h e i n -
c r e a s e d u s e o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s i s t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e t h e r i c h
a n d v a r i e d c o n c r e t e a n d s e m i c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s f o r c o n c e p t u a l
d e v e l o p m e n t .
Gr e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e
s y s t e m a t i c , p r o g r e s s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
. B u t t h e
l e a r n e r c a n n o t s t a r t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d
f o r m
. Ra t h e r , h e m o v e s t o w a r d a n i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g ,
i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g , a n d r e o r g a n i z i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t o i n t e r r e l a t e d
s y s t e m s o f kn o w l e d g e
. V a r i e d m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n f u r n i s h a
b a c kg r o u n d f o r a u n i f i e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h t h e p e r c e p t u a l a n d
c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g
. Th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e a r n i n g
s y s t e m s w i l l a f f e c t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , a s n o t e d
l a t e r i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f n e w c o u r s e s i n t h e s c i e n c e s
.
9 0

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


It i s l i ke l y , t o o , t h a t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l d e m a n d m o r e a c t i v e
l e a r n e r i n v o l v e m e n t , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s o v e r t p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y b u t ,
r a t h e r , i n t h e s e n s e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , i n q u i r y , a n d e x p l o r a t i o n
.
Le a r n i n g b y d i s c o v e r y w i l l h a v e g r e a t e r p r o m i n e n c e , a n d t h i s m e a n s
t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a r i c h e r v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o b l e m s . Th e r e
w i l l b e l e s s p a s s i v e s i t t i n g , l i s t e n i n g , a n d r e a d i n g . Ex p e r i e n c e s w h i c h
r e s p o n s i b l y i n v o l v e t h e l e a r n e r w i l l i n c r e a s e i n n u m b e r .
Th e f i n d i n g s o f b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s s t u d y i n g c h i l d b e h a v i o r w i l l
a f f e c t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m o f t h e s c h o o l . Th e r e i s a n a t i o n -
w i d e c o n c e r n f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e e n t i r e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c h i l d a s
o n e w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s i n q u i r y , e x p l o r a t i o n , a n d l e a r n i n g
. Th e p l a y -
g r o u n d , f o r e x a m p l e , w i l l b e c o m e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p l a n n e d
i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m o f s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n i t y .
Ap e r s i s t e n t a n d g r o w i n g s o c i a l f o r c e r e l a t e s t o t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n
- o r d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f kn o w l e d g e . W e a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t a l l p e r s o n s
r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l - t h a t t h e y b e a p a r t o f o u r Am e r i c a n d r e a m ,
n o t a p a r t f r o m i t . Ho w c a n c h a n g e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s b u i l d
t h e n e c e s s a r y c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r o f i d e a s a n d v a l u e s ?
If c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d a s t h e s h a r i n g o f i d e a s a n d f e e l i n g s
i n a m o o d o f m u t u a l i t y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t c u r r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
a r e n o t u s u a l l y c r e a t e d a n d u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h i s s h a r i n g . C o m m u n i -
c a t i o n a t i t s b e s t i s a n i n t e r a c t i o n , a t r a n s a c t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h
m o d i f i c a t i o n o f o n e ' s o w n i d e a s i s a l o g i c a l a n d o f t e n n e c e s s a r y p a r t
o f t h e p r o c e s s . So m e s o - c a l l e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s m a n i p u l a t i v e , a
o n e - w a y c o n v e y i n g o f m e a n i n g s f r o m t h e s t r o n g t o t h e w e a k, f r o m
t h e s u p e r i o r t o t h e i n f e r i o r
. Th e c o m m u n i c a t o r w a n t s t o c h a n g e t h e
o t h e r f e l l o w ' s v i e w s , n o t h i s o w n .
C o m m u n i c a t i o n m e a n s g e t t i n g i n t o t h e o t h e r f e l l o w ' s s h o e s , a n d
p e r m i t t i n g h i m t o g e t i n t o o u r s
. It m e a n s a n e m p a t h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p ,
s e n s i n g t h e w a y a g i v e n i d e a o r e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t s o t h e r p e r s o n s . In
p o l i t i c a l l i f e i t m e a n s n o t m e r e l y t h e
c o n s e n t o f t h e g o v e r n e d ( o n e
m i g h t g e t t h i s i n a d i c t a t o r s h i p ) b u t , r a t h e r , t h e
c o n s e n s u s o f t h e
g o v e r n e d
. C o m m u n i c a t i o n i s s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d i n a s c h o o l a n d
c o m m u n i t y a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h i s f r i e n d l y t o t h e g i v e - a n d - t a ke o f
i d e a s , w h i c h p r o v i d e s s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y l e a r n
t o " l i s t e n w i t h t h e t h i r d e a r , " i n Th e o d o r e Re i k' s t r e n c h a n t p h r a s e
.
Th e q u a l i t y o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d l i v e s o f t h o s e w i t h i n a s c h o o l o r
c o l l e g e i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c r i t i c a l t e s t o f t h e s u c c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n
.
DALE

9 1
W h a t s o c i a l f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l w i l l h e l p c r e a t e t h e h i g h
i d e a l h e r e s e t f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n ? O b v i o u s l y , t h e c o n c e r n w h i c h
t e a c h e r s a n d p u p i l s h a v e f o r t h e i r o w n g r o w t h a n d f u l f i l m e n t a s w e l l
a s f o r t h e g r o w t h a n d f u l f i l m e n t o f o t h e r s i s v i t a l
. To o o f t e n , t h e
a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d a r r a n g e m e n t o f a s c h o o l o r c l a s s r o o m s u g g e s t t h a t
t h e t e a c h e r i s a n a u t h o r i t a r i a n f i g u r e d i s p e n s i n g e x c a t h e d r a j u d g -
m e n t s o n a r i t h m e t i c , s p e l l i n g , g r a m m a r , a n d c u r r e n t e v e n t s . Ma n y
t e a c h e r s a s s u m e t h e r o l e o f g u a r d i a n s o f a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n ,
t h e r e d - i n ks c o u r g e r s o f e r r o r .
Th e m a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n u s e d i n t h e p a s t
t o t e a c h g r a m m a r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a t t i t u d e
. Po o r s c h o l a r s h i p c o v e r e d
i t s e l f w i t h a c l o a ko f a u t h o r i t y
; t h e p r o c e s s w a s a u t h o r i t a r i a n , n o t
a u t h o r i t a t i v e
. Ho p e f u l l y , n e w m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i n -
c r e a s i n g l y t e a c h b y h e u r i s t i c m e t h o d s , t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g b y d i s c o v -
e r y , w i l l b e f a c t o r s i n b r e a ki n g d o w n t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n q u a l i t y o f
o n e - w a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n .
Ex a m p l e s a n d Is s u e s i n t h e De v e l o p m e n t o f Ne w
In s t r u c t i o n a l Ma t e r i a l s
IMPRO V INGC LARITYO F EDUC ATIO NALGO ALS
In s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s h a v e u s u a l l y b e e n r e a d y - m a d e , r a r e l y
t a i l o r - m a d e . In s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s h a v e n o t b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o f i t
t h e g r e a t v a r i e t y o f n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s o f l e a r n e r s
. It h a s b e e n
a s s u m e d , e v e n t h o u g h t h e a s s u m p t i o n w a s kn o w n t o b e f a l s e , t h a t
n e a r l y a l l c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t f r o m t h e s a m e t e x t b o o ks a n d t h a t
r e a d i n g a n d r e c i t i n g a r e t h e b e s t m e t h o d f o r t e a c h i n g
. W e s a l v e d
o u r c o n s c i e n c e b y p e r m i t t i n g s o m e p u p i l s t o p r o g r e s s f a s t e r t h a n
o t h e r s
.
In t h e p a s t , t h e v e x a t i o u s p r o b l e m s t h u s g e n e r a t e d p a r t i a l l y
d i s a p p e a r e d b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s w h o f o u n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m i r r e l e -
v a n t a n d f r u i t l e s s d r o p p e d o u t o r , p e r h a p s m o r e a c c u r a t e l y , w e r e
p u s h e d o u t o f s c h o o l . In d e e d , e v e n t o d a y , o n e - t h i r d o f t h o s e w h o
e n t e r p u b l i c s c h o o l d o n o t g r a d u a t e f r o m h i g h s c h o o l
. Ab o u t o n e -
t h i r d o f t h e c o l l e g e F r e s h m a n c l a s s d r o p s o u t o f t h o s e s t a t e - s u p p o r t e d
u n i v e r s i t i e s w h e r e a l l h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o e n t e r .
W e h a v e u s u a l l y a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t h a s f a i l e d t h e s c h o o l . A
m o r e c a n d i d a n d d i s c e r n i n g a n a l y s i s w o u l d s h o w t h a t t h e s c h o o l
9 2

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


h a s f a i l e d t h e s t u d e n t
. Th e g o a l s s e t w e r e n e i t h e r c l e a r n o r r e a l i s t i c ,
n o r w e r e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c a r e f u l l y p r o g r a m e d t o a t t a i n
t h e s t a t e d b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s
.
Th e s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e h a s b e e n i m -
p r o v e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w c u r r i c u l a b y t h e Ph y s i c a l Sc i e n c e
St u d y C o m m i t t e e , t h e Sc h o o l Ma t h e m a t i c s St u d y Gr o u p , t h e
C h e m i c a l Ed u c a t i o n Ma t e r i a l s St u d y , t h e B i o l o g i c a l Sc i e n c e s C u r -
r i c u l u m St u d y , a n d o t h e r s . C u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s s u p p o r t e d b y t h e
Na t i o n a l Sc i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n a n d s t u d i e s i n r e a d i n g , En g l i s h , a n d
f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s s u p p o r t e d b y f u n d s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e Na t i o n a l
De f e n s e Ed u c a t i o n Ac t a r e c h a n g i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d q u a l i t y o f
i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s .
To i m p r o v e t h e m e a n s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , w e m u s t c l a r i f y t h e e n d s
o f i n s t r u c t i o n , r i g o r o u s l y s e t t i n g f o r t h w h a t w e i n t e n d t o d o
. Pa s t
g o a l s h a v e b e e n e i t h e r v a g u e a n d a b s t r a c t o r s o n a r r o w a n d p a r -
t i c u l a r i s t i c t h a t l i t t l e o r n o g e n e r a l i z i n g kn o w l e d g e w a s c r e a t e d .
In s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a n g e a n d i m p r o v e b e c a u s e
w e a r e d e l i n e a t i n g m o r e s h a r p l y t h e b e h a v i o r a l o u t c o m e s d e s i r e d a n d
a r e d e v e l o p i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t o s e c u r e t h e s e s t a t e d b e h a v -
i o r a l g o a l s . Pr o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n h a s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o
t h i s p r o c e s s .
Ma j o r a n a l y s e s o f b e h a v i o r g o a l s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g :
Ta x o n o m y o f Ed u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s .
Ha n d b o o k I: C o g n i t i v e Do -
m a i n . Ed i t e d b y B e n j a m i n S
. B l o o m . Ne w Yo r k : Lo n g m a n s , Gr e e n &
C o . , 1 9 5 6 .
Da v i d R. K r a t h w o h l , B e n j a m i n S. B l o o m , a n d B e r t r a m B . Ma s i a ,
Ta x o n o m y o f Ed u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s . Ha n d b o o k II: Af f e c t i v e Do m a i n
.
Ne w Yo r k
: Da v i d Mc K a y C o . , 1 9 6 4 .
W i l l F r e n c h , B e h a v i o r a l Go a l s o f
Ge n e r a l Ed u c a t i o n i n Hi g h Sc h o o l .
Ne w Yo r k : Ru s s e l l Sa g e F o u n d a t i o n ,
1
9 5 7

No l a n C . K e a r n e y , El e m e n t a r y Sc h o o l O b j e c t i v e s .
Ne w Yo r k :
Ru s s e l l Sa g e F o u n d a t i o n , 1
9 5 3 .
Ar t h u r Me l t o n , C a t e g o r i e s o f Hu m a n Le a r n i n g .
Ne w Yo r k : Ac a -
d e m i c Pr e s s , 1 9 6 4 .
Le t u s l o o ka t t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f o b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d b y B l o o m
( Ha n d b o o kI) . Th e s e t y p e s a r e s o d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
t h a t m a r ke d l y d i f f e r e n t ki n d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a r e r e q u i r e d
t o a c h i e v e t h e m . B l o o m d i v i d e s g o a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o t h r e e c l a s s e s :
i n f o r m a t i o n a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l , p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r , a n d v a l u e s - a t t i t u d e s .
DALE

9 3
Th e i n f o r m a t i o n a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l g o a l s ( w h i c h B l o o m d e s c r i b e s a s
c o g n i t i v e ) r a n g e f r o m r e m e m b e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o a p p l y i n g a n d
e v a l u a t i n g i t
; f r o m s i m p l e b e h a v i o r r e q u i r i n g o n l y i m i t a t i v e r e a c t i o n
t o c o m p l e x b e h a v i o r r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n
.
B l o o m ' s p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r s ki l l s r e q u i r e o v e r t p r a c t i c e f o r t h e i r
a c h i e v e m e n t
. Pu p i l s d o n o t l e a r n t o p l a y b a s ke t b a l l , t o p r e p a r e
m e a l s , t o d o h a n d w r i t i n g , o r t o o p e r a t e a t y p e w r i t e r b y j u s t r e a d i n g
a b o u t t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s o r t h e s ki l l s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t h e m , a n d
t h e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h e s ki l l , t h e m o r e v a r i e d t h e p r a c t i c e a n d
s u p e r v i s i o n w h i c h i t w i l l r e q u i r e
. In s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s m u s t ,
t h e r e f o r e , b e d e v e l o p e d t o m e e t t h e s e p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d ,
w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , b e m a d e s e l f - t e a c h i n g
. Th e s u c c e s s o f p r a c t i c e
l a b o r a t o r i e s f o r l e a r n i n g a u d i o - v i s u a l s ki l l s ( e . g . ,
t h e o p e r a t i o n o f
p r o j e c t o r s ) s h o w s c l e a r l y t h a t p r e c i o u s t e a c h e r t i m e i s b e i n g w a s t e d
i n s u p e r v i s i n g a s ki l l w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t c a n l e a r n b y h i m s e l f , g i v e n
a p p r o p r i a t e e q u i p m e n t a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s . Se l f - t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s
c a n b e u s e d i n a l l t y p e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . W e c a n a s s u m e t h a t t h e
c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e f u t u r e w i l l b e b a s e d o n r i g o r o u s s t u d i e s o f t h e
t e a c h i n g o f d e s i r e d m o t o r s ki l l s ; t h a t t h r o u g h s u c h s t u d i e s w e c a n
d i s c o v e r t h o s e s ki l l s w h i c h c a n b e t a u g h t e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h t h e u s e o f
l e s s t e a c h e r a n d p u p i l t i m e t h a n i s n o w g i v e n t o t h e m
.
B l o o m ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v a l u e s a n d a t t i t u d e s d e a l s w i t h g o a l s
r e l a t i n g t o e m o t i o n , f e e l i n g , t a s t e - t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n
. Th e
a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e g o a l s m a y r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t ki n d s o f i n s t r u c -
t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f g o a l s
d e a l i n g c h i e f l y w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n . V a l u e s m a y b e p r e s e n t w h i c h h a v e
n o t b e e n i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d o r v e r b a l i z e d . In d e e d , p r e m a t u r e v e r b a l -
i z a t i o n m a y h a v e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t , a s s u g g e s t e d b y s t u d i e s i n t h e
t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s .
Th e s t u d y b y K r a t h w o h l , B l o o m , a n d Ma s i a d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e
n e e d f o r c l a r i f y i n g g o a l s r e l a t i n g t o v a l u e o u t c o m e s . O u r s c h o o l s
h a v e e m p h a s i z e d c o g n i t i v e g o a l s a n d n e g l e c t e d g o a l s r e l a t i n g t o
e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Ap e r s o n c a n b e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o n v i n c e d
o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d o i n g s o m e t h i n g b u t l a c kt h e w i l l , t h e d r i v e ,
t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o d o i t
. Ma n y s t u d e n t s h a v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t g r e a t
l i t e r a t u r e b u t n o t a s t e f o r i t . Th e y c a n r e a d , b u t t h e y d o n o t d o s o .
O n e o t h e r p o i n t s h o u l d b e m a d e a b o u t c l a r i t y o f g o a l s . F l a n d e r s
m a ke s c l e a r t h a t a m b i g u o u s g o a l s i n c r e a s e t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e
9 4

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


l e a r n e r u p o n t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h a t , g i v e n s u c h g o a l s , " e x i s t i n g d e -
p e n d e n c y o n a n y a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s w i l l b e h i g h . " 3
W h e n t h e r e i s
a d e q u a t e t e a c h e r - p u p i l p l a n n i n g , w h e n g o a l s b e c o m e
c l e a r , t h e n
" s t u d e n t s a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o i n i t i a t e t h e i r o w n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o -
c e d u r e s a n d s e t t h e i r o w n c r i t e r i a o f ` r i g h t ' o r ` w r o n g ' a c t i o n
. " 4
C l e a r g o a l s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , a n e c e s s i t y i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n d e p e n d -
e n t l e a r n e r
. C l a r i t y o f g o a l s i s a m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r .
Ho w e v e r , s t u d e n t s m u s t a l s o l e a r n h o w t o c l a r i f y a m b i g u o u s g o a l s
s i n c e t h e y w i l l n o t a l w a y s h a v e a t e a c h e r a t h a n d t o c l a r i f y t h e m
.
It i s e v i d e n t t h a t i f c l e a r - c u t g o a l s a r e t o b e m a t c h e d w i t h l e a r n -
i n g r e s o u r c e s , m u c h m o r e v a r i e d m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e
r e q u i r e d t h a n a r e n o w a v a i l a b l e
. An d i f w e w i s h t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e
ki n d s o f m a t e r i a l s u s e d t o f i t t y p e s o f o b j e c t i v e s - i n t e l l e c t u a l -
i n f o r m a t i o n a l , p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r , a n d a f f e c t i v e - a b a s i c
c h a n g e i s
n e e d e d i n t h e w a y l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s a r e a r r a n g e d
.
THEISSUEO F EDUC ATIO NANDTRAINING
In a n u n p r e d i c t a b l e w o r l d , t h e c u r r i c u l u m m u s t p r o v i d e e x p e r i -
e n c e s w h i c h e n a b l e a n i n d i v i d u a l t o d e a l f l e x i b l y w i t h n e w p r o b l e m s
.
In s h o r t , h e m u s t b e a b l e t o t h i n kc r i t i c a l l y .
In a p r e d i c t a b l e , i m -
p e r c e p t i b l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d , t r a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r " s t a t i o n "
i n l i f e h a s s u f f i c e d . B u t i n a d e m o c r a t i c , c h a n g i n g , u n p r e d i c t a b l e
w o r l d , e d u c a t i o n ( n o t t r a i n i n g ) i s a n e c e s s i t y
. W h a t d o e s t h i s
m e a n i n r e l a t i o n t o l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s ?
Th e a i m o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e e d u c a t e d c i t i z e n i s b e i n g r e f l e c t e d
s p e c i f i c a l l y i n i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n f o r c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g ,
s p e a ki n g a n d l i s t e n i n g , v i e w i n g a n d o b s e r v i n g
. Ma r g a r e t F u l l e r , t h e
t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t , o n c e r e l u c t a n t l y a g r e e d t h a t s h e w o u l d a c c e p t t h e
u n i v e r s e . C a r l y l e i s a l l e g e d t o h a v e s a i d , " Ga d , s h e ' d b e t t e r n o t
. "
Th e t r a i n e d p e r s o n a c c e p t s t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e
; t h e e d u c a t e d p e r s o n
d o e s a c c e p t t h e u n i v e r s e , b u t u s u a l l y w i t h s o m e h a u n t i n g d o u b t s ,
a m e n d m e n t s , o r r e s e r v a t i o n s .
3 . Ne d A. F l a n d e r s , " Di a g n o s i n g So c i a l St r u c t u r e s , " i n
Th e Dy n a m i c s o f
In s t u c t i o n a l Gr o u p s , p . 2 0 7 .
F i f t y - n i n t h Ye a r b o o ko f t h e Na t i o n a l So c i e t y f o r
t h e St u d y o f Ed u c a t i o n , Pa r t II . C h i c a g o
: Di s t r i b u t e d b y t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f
C h i c a g o Pr e s s , i 9 6 o .
4 . Ib i d .
DALE

9 5
In t h e f u t u r e , w e w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t o f
a l l
t e a c h i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s o n d e v e l o p i n g t r a n s f e r a b l e p r i n -
c i p l e s
. Th e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e n o t e s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g a n d
e d u c a t i o n , a n d t h e r e a d e r c a n d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i f f e r -
e n c e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t w o t y p e s o f l e a r n -
i n g .
TAB LE3
Tr a i n i n g e m p h a s i z e s :

Ed u c a t i o n e m p h a s i z e s :
1 . Im i t a t i v e r e a c t i o n

1
. C r e a t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e ,
r e f l e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n
2 . Sh o r t - r a n g e , l i m i t e d g o a l s

- ~2 . Lo n g - r a n g e , b r o a d g o a l s
w i t h f l e x i b l e c e i l i n g s
3
. F i x e d e n d s a n d m e a n s

- - >
3 . F l e x i b l e a n d c h a n g i n g
e n d s a n d m e a n s
4 . Pa s s i v e , u n c r i t i c a l m e m o r i z a t i o n -
- - - * 4 . Th o u g h t f u l e v a l u a t i o n
a n d a p p l i c a t i o n
5 . Un t h i n ki n g c o n f o r m i t y

- > 5
. Th o u g h t f u l c o n f o r m i t y
a n d n o n - c o n f o r m i t y
W e m u s t n o t f a l l i n t o t h e e r r o r o f t h i n ki n g o f t r a i n i n g a n d e d u -
c a t i o n a s n e a t a n d e x a c t o p p o s i t e s , a s r e p r e s e n t i n g a ki n d o f b l a c k-
a n d - w h i t e , e i t h e r - o r p r o p o s i t i o n
. No r s h o u l d w e c o n c l u d e t h a t a l l
t r a i n i n g i s b a d
. Th e a r r o w s s u g g e s t t h e w i s d o m o f m o v i n g t r a i n i n g
t o w a r d t h e " e d u c a t i o n " e n d o f t h e s c a l e
. In d e e d , t h e r e i s a p l a c e
f o r s o m e t r a i n i n g w h i c h i n c l u d e s i m i t a t i v e r e a c t i o n
. Th i s i s h o w a l l
o f u s l e a r n e d t o s p e a k, t o w r i t e , t o r i d e a b i c y c l e , o r t o o p e r a t e a
m o t i o n - p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r
.
B u t w h a t i s r e c o m m e n d e d h e r e i s a n
i n c r e a s i n g l y t h o u g h t f u l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a l l m e r e l y i m i t a t i v e e x p e r i -
e n c e s . Gr e a t a r t i s t s , s u c h a s V a n Go g h , h a v e a t s o m e p o i n t i n t h e i r
c a r e e r s i m i t a t e d t h e p a i n t i n g s o f e a r l i e r g r e a t a r t i s t s .
Th e i r a i m w a s
n o t t o p a i n t l i ke t h e e a r l i e r m e n b u t , r a t h e r , t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h o s e
m e n g o t t h e e f f e c t s t h e y d i d i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g
. Th e y w a n t e d t o s e e
w h a t i t w a s l i ke t o p a i n t l i ke t h e o l d m a s t e r s a n d t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h
m a t e r i a l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e d a n d e x c i t e d t h e m
.
F u r t h e r , s t u d y o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o f r e a d i n g a n d
w r i t i n g , s p e a ki n g a n d l i s t e n i n g , v i s u a l i z i n g a n d o b s e r v i n g r e v e a l s t h a t
w e h a v e p u t h e a v y e m p h a s i s i n o u r t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s o n p a s s i v e ,
u n c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g a n d l i s t e n i n g a n d o n r e c i t i n g
. In d e e d , i t i s f a i r
9 6

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


t o s a y t h a t t r a i n i n g h a s b e e n t h e c h i e f m e t h o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r
a l l t y p e s a n d l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g . To d a y , a s t h e m a s s m e d i a f l o o d u s
w i t h p r i n t e d , s p o ke n , a n d v i s u a l i z e d m a t e r i a l , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
a r e n e e d e d w h i c h h e l p t h e s t u d e n t b e c o m e a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g r e a d e r ,
l i s t e n e r , a n d v i e w e r . No t o n l y a r e n e w i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s n e c -
e s s a r y t o m e e t c h a n g i n g o b j e c t i v e s b u t a l s o t h e
w a y s o f u s i n g s u c h
m a t e r i a l s m u s t c h a n g e . Di s c r i m i n a t i n g , c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n b y t h e
l e a r n e r i s a n e c e s s i t y .
Ef f o r t s t o p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c o n s u m p t i o n a r e
d e s c r i b e d b y J e w e t t w h o n o t e s t h a t :
. . . t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y a n d g u i d e s i n c l u d e s u g g e s t i o n s
f o r t e a c h i n g a b o u t m a g a z i n e s , n e w s p a p e r s , r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n . Th e
c h i e f a i m s o f s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n a r e t o h e l p p u p i l s b e c o m e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g
i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f m a s s m e d i a , t o e v a l u a t e w h a t t h e y r e a d a n d h e a r ,
a n d t o a p p r e c i a t e a n d e n j o y w o r t h w h i l e p r o g r a m s b a s e d o n w e l l - kn o w n
l i t e r a t u r e .
Al m o s t h a l f o f t h e c o u r s e s c o v e r i n g g r a d e s
7
t h r o u g h
1 2
h a v e o n e
o r m o r e u n i t s o n m a s s m e d i a
. Af e w c o u r s e s o f f e r u n i t s a t s u c c e s s i v e
g r a d e l e v e l s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e Mi n n e s o t a Gu i d e f o r In s t r u c t i o n i n t h e
La n g u a g e Ar t s i n c l u d e s t h e s e u n i t s : " C h o o s i n g B o o ks a n d Mo v i e s "
( g r a d e 9 ) ; " Ra d i o a n d Te l e v i s i o n " ( g r a d e i o ) ; " Th e Ro l e o f t h e Pr e s s "
( g r a d e i i ) ; a n d " Mo t i o n Pi c t u r e s " ( g r a d e
1 2 )
. B e s i d e s h a v i n g s e p a r a t e
u n i t s o n m a s s m e d i a , c o u r s e s o f s t u d y s u g g e s t m a n y a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o
n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z i n e s , m o v i e s , a n d t e l e v i s i o n i n o t h e r u n i t s w h i c h a r e
l i t e r a t u r e - o r l a n g u a g e - c e n t e r e d .
Un i t s o n t e l e v i s i o n i n r e c e n t c o u r s e s o f s t u d y o f t e n i n c l u d e t h e f o l -
l o w i n g t o p i c s f o r s t u d y
:
( 1 )
s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o g r a m s ;
( 2 ) c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g q u a l i t y o f p r o g r a m s , e s p e c i a l l y n e w s c a s t s , p a n e l s ,
a n d v a r i e t y s h o w s ; ( 3 ) t h e n a t u r e o f a d v e r t i s i n g ; ( 4 ) t h e e f f e c t o f l a n -
g u a g e ; a n d ( 5 ) t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t e l e v i s i o n o n p e o p l e
. 5
THETEX TB O O K ASALEARNINGTO O L
Th e t e x t b o o kh a s b e e n a n d i s t h e c h i e f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l o f t h e
s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e . It h a s l o n g b e e n u n d e r c r i t i c i s m a s i n f l e x i b l e , a s
_ p r o m o t i n g u n c r i t i c a l m e m o r i z a t i o n , a s o u t o f d a t e . To o o f t e n , h o w -
e v e r , c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e t e x t b o o kh a v e b e e n i n e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y
5 . Ar n o J e w e t t , " En g l i s h La n g u a g e - Ar t s i n Am e r i c a n Hi g h Sc h o o l s , " i n
Un i t e d St a t e s De p a r t m e n t o f He a l t h , Ed u c a t i o n , a n d W e l f a r e , O f f i c e o f Ed u c a -
t i o n B u l l e t i n 1 9 5 8 , No .
1 3 , p
. 9 4 .
W a s h i n g t o n : Un i t e d St a t e s Go v e r n m e n t Pr i n t -
i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 8 .
DALE

9 7
w e r e t o o g e n e r a l , l a c ki n g
i n d e p t h a n d p r e c i s i o n o f a n a l y s i s .
F u r t h e r , n o a d e q u a t e s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e t e x t b o o kh a d b e e n p r o v i d e d
.
Th e t h o u g h t f u l c r i t i c s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s u s u a l l y h a v e
n o t a t t a c ke d t h e t e x t b o o ka s s u c h
. Th e i r c h i e f c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t t o o
o f t e n i t p r o v i d e d a s t u d e n t w i t h a l e s s o n t o b e l e a r n e d w h i c h h a d
l i m i t e d r e l e v a n c e t o h i s ke y c o n c e r n s . Th e e m p h a s i s w a s o n t r a i n i n g ,
a n d i r r e l e v a n t t r a i n i n g a t t h a t . De w e y ' s c r i t i c i s m w a s o f " a c a d e m i c
a n d a l o o f kn o w l e d g e , "
6
a n d h e c a l l e d f o r m a t e r i a l s w h i c h " a t t h e
o u t s e t f a l l w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e
. " B u t De w e y ,
c o n t r a r y t o w h a t u n i n f o r m e d c r i t i c s b e l i e v e , w a s d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d
a b o u t t h e " o r d e r l y d e v e l o p m e n t t o w a r d e x p a n s i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t h r o u g h g r o w t h o f e x p e r i e n c e "
a n d n o t e d t h e
i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e " p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y o f e d u c a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , "
t h e " c o n s c i o u s a r t i c u l a t i o n o f f a c t s a n d i d e a s . "
De w e y w a s c r i t i c a l o f t h e ki n d o f p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n t h a t
f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f s e l e c t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r s t u d y a n d l e a r n i n g i s f u n d a m e n t a l . He b e -
l i e v e d i n i m p r o v i s i n g a s a w a y t o ke e p t e a c h i n g a l i v e , b u t h e p o i n t e d
o u t t h a t " t h e b a s i c m a t e r i a l o f s t u d y c a n n o t b e p i c ke d u p i n
a
c u r s o r y m a n n e r
. " 7
De w e y ' s c o n c e r n w a s t h e u n t h i n ki n g m e m o r i z i n g o f o r g a n i z e d
kn o w l e d g e w h i c h d e p r i v e d t h e s t u d e n t o f e x p e r i e n c e i n o r g a n i z i n g
t h a t m a t e r i a l h i m s e l f . De w e y w a s a n a d v o c a t e o f " a n e x p a n d i n g
w o r l d o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , a s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f f a c t s o r i n f o r m a t i o n
a n d o f i d e a s . "
As l o n g a s t h e r e a r e c o h e r e n t b o d i e s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r w h i c h
c a n b e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t a t e d a n d p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e w i l l b e t e x t b o o ks .
It m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t
a n y b o d y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , h o w e v e r p r e -
s e n t e d , c a n b e u n c r i t i c a l l y m e m o r i z e d , i s i n f l e x i b l e , a n d c a n g o o u t
o f d a t e
. B u t i s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a t u r e a n d m a ke - u p
o f t h e t e x t b o o ki t s e l f w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r i t s w e a kn e s s e s a s a n i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e ?
C e r t a i n l y t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g a n d b u y i n g s u c h b o o ks m a y
6 . J o h n De w e y ,
De m o c r a c y a n d Ed u c a t i o n : An In t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Ph i l o s o -
p h y o f Ed u c a t i o n , p . 1 6 z
. Ne w Yo r k : Ma c m i l l a n C o . , 2 9 3 1 .
7
. Ib i d .
9 8
INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES
p r e v e n t f r e q u e n t r e v i s i o n s
. Le s s e x p e n s i v e m e t h o d s o f p r o d u c t i o n
c a n b e d e v e l o p e d
. It i s a l s o t r u e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d i n a
t e x t b o o km a y n o t b e v e r y e x c i t i n g , i n t e r e s t i n g , o r f r u i t f u l
. Th e s e
w e a kn e s s e s a r e n o t i n h e r e n t i n t e x t b o o ks n o r i n t h e i r b a s i c s u b j e c t
m a t t e r b u t , r a t h e r , i n t h e i n e p t n e s s o f t h o s e w h o w r i t e , e d i t , a n d
p u b l i s h t e x t b o o ks
. F u r t h e r , t h e e x c e l l e n t t e x t b o o kc a n d e v e l o p a
s p i r i t o f i n q u i r y , a c o n c e r n f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g
.
Ho w e v e r , p l a c i n g a s i n g l e t e x t b o o ki n t h e h a n d s o f e v e r y p u p i l
w h o t h e n u s e s i t a s h i s s o l e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s i s n o t
a c c e p t a b l e a s a m e t h o d o f l e a r n i n g
. B u t p u b l i s h e r s r e c o g n i z e t h i s ,
t o o , a n d a r e s u p p l e m e n t i n g t e x t b o o ks w i t h a v a r i e t y o f a d d i t i o n a l
m a t e r i a l s a n d a r e d e v e l o p i n g a n i n t e g r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s
W e m a y c o n c l u d e t h a t w h e r e v e r t h e r e a r e u n i f i e d b o d i e s o f
s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h e r e w i l l b e a t e x t b o o k( p e r h a p s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t
f r o m p r e s e n t o n e s ) t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t i n b e c o m i n g a w a r e o f t h e
s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f i e l d
. So m e d e v i c e i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t t h i s
s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h t h e n c a n b e f u r t h e r a m p l i f i e d a n d i n t e g r a t e d b y
o t h e r r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n .
Am a j o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n a l l t e x t b o o ks , p a m p h l e t s , e n c y c l o p e d i a s ,
a n d o t h e r r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s w i l l c o m e f r o m g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o
r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s
. In t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , a b e t t e r m a t c h i s
n e e d e d b e t w e e n t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e l e a r n e r a n d t h e r e a d a b i l i t y
l e v e l o f t h e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p r e p a r e d f o r h i m
. As n o t e d e a r l i e r , o u r
c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n t y p i c a l l y r e a d y - m a d e , w i t h o n e
g a r m e n t t o f i t a l l c h i l d r e n , o n e t e x t b o o kf o r a l l p u p i l s i n t h e s a m e
g r a d e
. Se v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s h a v e b e e n m a d e t o d e v e l o p o r s e l e c t
m a t e r i a l s w h i c h b e t t e r f i t t h e l e a r n e r . Th e r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a i s
b e i n g u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l o f t h e m a t e r i a l s u n d e r
s t u d y
. Ea r l y f o r m u l a s h a v e i n c l u d e d t h o s e o f W a s h b u r n e , V o g e l ,
Le w e r e n z , Gr a y , Le a r y , Lo r g e , a n d Da l e a n d Ty l e r
. Re c e n t l y d e -
v e l o p e d f o r m u l a s a r e t h o s e o f Da l e a n d C h a l l , F l e s c h , Ta y l o r , a n d
Sp a c h e . 8
Th e f o r m u l a s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e t h e l e v e l o f r e a d i n g
8 . Se e J e a n n e C h a l l ,
Re a d a b i l i t y a n d Ap p r a i s a l o f Re s e a r c h a n d Ap p l i c a t i o n
( B u r e a u o f Ed u c a t i o n a l Re s e a r c h a n d Se r v i c e , O h i o St a t e Un i v e r s i t y , Mo n o -
g r a p h No
. 3 4 , 1 9 5 7 )
; a n d Ge o r g e R. K l a r e , Th e Me a s u r e m e n t o f Re a d a b i l i t y
( Am e s , Io w a : Io w a St a t e Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) .
DALE

9 9
o f b o o ks i n t h e b o o kl i s t s o f t h e Am e r i c a n Li b r a r y As s o c i a t i o n
.
Th u s , t h e t e a c h e r c a n m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t l y r e c o m m e n d s u c h b o o ks
t o c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s r e a d i n g l e v e l s
. Pu b l i s h e r s h a v e u s e d t h e
f o r m u l a s t o e v a l u a t e r e a d i n g g r a d e - l e v e l s o f m a n u s c r i p t s a n d a s a
b a s i s f o r m a ki n g n e e d e d c h a n g e s
. Ne c e s s a r y " h a r d " w o r d s a r e
e x p l a i n e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y i n t h e t e x t o r t h r o u g h c o n t e x t c l u e s
.
Do u b l e - t r a c kr e a d e r s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r a s i n g l e g r a d e , w i t h
o n e r e a d e r i n t e n d e d f o r t h e u p p e r h a l f o f t h e c l a s s , t h e o t h e r f o r
t h e l o w e r h a l f
.
So m e p u b l i s h e r s f i e l d - t e s t t h e i r m a t e r i a l s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r
t h e y a r e c l e a r t o s t u d e n t s o f t h e i n t e n d e d g r a d e l e v e l s a n d t o
d i s c o v e r t h o s e p h a s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t w h i c h h a v e h i g h o r l o w a p p e a l
t o t h e s t u d e n t s
. It i s i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m m o n f o r n e w - t y p e i n s t r u c -
t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t o b e g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t a l t r y o u t s i n t h e s c h o o l s a n d
f o r w e a kn e s s e s t o b e r e m e d i e d a s a r e s u l t
. Th i s a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n
u s e d w i t h n e w p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , b i o l o g y , a n d m a t h e m a t i c s m a t e -
r i a l s .
Re a d a b i l i t y s t u d i e s h a v e s o m e t i m e s r a i s e d t h e i s s u e o f c o n t r o l l e d
v o c a b u l a r y , a n d s o m e c r i t i c s h a v e q u e s t i o n e d t h e w i s d o m o f s u c h
c o n t r o l
. If u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l s i s a n e c e s s i t y - a n d i t
i s - o u r o n l y c h o i c e i s b e t w e e n s ki l f u l c o n t r o l o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d
i n e p t c o n t r o l
. Th e a i m o f v o c a b u l a r y c o n t r o l i s t o i n s u r e t h e
g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e a m o u n t o f l e a r n i n g
. If v o c a b u l a r y i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y
c o n t r o l l e d , t h e s t u d e n t w i l l b e c h a l l e n g e d a n d n o t f r u s t r a t e d
. W r i t -
i n g c a n b e s i m p l e w i t h o u t b e i n g s i m p l e - m i n d e d
.
INDIV IDUALANDGRO UPINSTRUC TIO N
Th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a s w e l l a s a
c o n c e r n f o r t h e d y n a m i c s o f g r o u p s h a s l e d t o c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e
s p e c i a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l a n d g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n
.
Le a r n i n g r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a n i n d i v i d u a l a n d a s t i m u l u s
.
Th e s t i m u l u s m a y b e t h a t o f r e a d i n g a b o o k, l o o ki n g a t a t e l e v i s i o n
p r o g r a m , l i s t e n i n g t o a r e c o r d i n g , e x p e r i m e n t i n g i n a l a b o r a t o r y , o r
t a l ki n g t o a m o r e kn o w l e d g e a b l e p e r s o n
. Th e s t i m u l u s m a y a l s o
c o m e f r o m a g r o u p , o f w h i c h o n e i s a p a r t
. In s t r u c t i o n a n d i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e f o r e , c a n b e p r e p a r e d f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l
o r f o r a g r o u p
. W h e n s h o u l d t h e a p p r o a c h b e t o i n d i v i d u a l s , t o
g r o u p s , o r t o s o m e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e t w o ? Th e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d
1 0 0

INSTRUC TIO NAL


RESO URC ES
m a n y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h i s p r o b l e m i n
Th e Dy n a m i c s o f
In s t r u c t i o n a l Gr o u p s . 9
O n e p o i n t t o b e m a d e i s t h a t a p h y s i c a l g r o u p m a y b e e i t h e r a n
a g g r e g a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s o r a " c o n g r e g a t i o n " m a d e u p
o f p e r s o n s w i t h s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s a n d p o i n t s o f v i e w
. If a l e c t u r e r
i s i n r e a l i t y s p e a ki n g t o a n a g g r e g a t e o f s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s a n d
t h e r e i s n o c l a s s i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t m i g h t j u s t a s w e l l r e c e i v e
t h e m a t e r i a l o v e r t h e p h o n e o r b y t e l e v i s i o n o r i n a l e a r n i n g b o o t h
.
So m e l e a r n i n g , h o w e v e r , r e q u i r e s a g r o u p s i t u a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n
a n d d i s c u s s i o n
. F e w p e o p l e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e a d s e r i o u s b o o ks
u n l e s s t h e r e i s s o m e o n e w i t h w h o m t o s h a r e n e w i d e a s o r c r i t i c a l
r e a c t i o n s
. F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h w e c a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e c e r t a i n p h a s e s
o f l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n b y u s e o f l a n g u a g e l a b o r a t o r i e s , t h e e s s e n t i a l
s o c i a l n a t u r e o f l a n g u a g e s u g g e s t s i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n i f e f f e c -
t i v e s p e e c h i s a n a i m o f l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n . In d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n -
s t r u c t i o n , w h e t h e r b y f o r m a l - p r o g r a m m e t h o d s o r m o r e i n f o r m a l
o n e s , i s l i ke l y t o b o g d o w n u n l e s s s o m e ki n d o f g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n
i s i n v o l v e d .
Th e r e h a s b e e n m u c h d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s a n d
i n f o r m a t i o n t o l a r g e g r o u p s b y s u c h m e a n s a s t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m , o r
o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t i o n . So m e o f t h e s e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c a n a l s o b e m a d e
w i t h i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f f i l m s t r i p s , t a p e a n d
d i s c r e c o r d i n g s , a n d m o t i o n p i c t u r e s
.
Th e s e r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l s a r e a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e t o i n -
d i v i d u a l s
. Ed i s o n f i r s t s a w h i s n e w l y i n v e n t e d m o t i o n p i c t u r e a s
a d e v i c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l v i e w i n g
. Pr o j e c t i o n o n a s c r e e n f o r g r o u p
v i e w i n g w a s a l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t
. To d a y , w i t h t h e 8 - m i l l i m e t e r
s o u n d p r o j e c t o r a n d t h e s i n g l e - c o n c e p t f i l m , w e m a y r e t u r n t o
t h e u s e o f t h e m o t i o n p i c t u r e a s a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g t o o l
. An
i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a p p r o a c h h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m a d e w i t h t h e f i l m s t r i p
a n d t h e r e c o r d i n g .
In s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s o f t h e f u t u r e m a y b e i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l e c t e d
i n t e r m s o f t h e i n t e n s i t y a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t e d e x -
p e r i e n c e s
. Th u s , g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s m a y b e p r o v i d e d , n o t p r i m a r i l y
q . Th e Dy n a m i c s o
f In s t r u c t i o n a l Gr o u p s .
F i f t y - n i n t h Ye a r b o o ko f t h e
Na t i o n a l So c i e t y f o r t h e St u d y o f Ed u c a t i o n , Pa r t II . C h i c a g o
: Di s t r i b u t e d
b y t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o Pr e s s , i 9 6 o .
DALE

1 0 1
a s a m e t h o d o f s a v i n g t e a c h e r t i m e b u t a s a w a y o f i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e
d e s i r e d i m p r e s s i o n s , o f d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . F o r
t h i s , g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n i s a n e c e s s i t y . Sc h o o l s m u s t s e t u p l e a r n i n g
e x p e r i e n c e s i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s d o i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t o g e t h e r t o g e t
t h e f e e l i n g o f w h a t i t m e a n s t o b e a p a r t o f s o m e t h i n g l a r g e r t h a n
o n e ' s s e l f .
W h a t p r e d i c t i o n c a n o n e m a ke a b o u t t h e s h a r e o f t i m e t h a t w i l l
b e d e v o t e d i n t h e f u t u r e t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e
i n d i v i d u a l a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h g r o u p l e a r n i n g ? Th e b e s t a n s w e r ,
a n d p e r h a p s a n i n a d e q u a t e o n e , i s t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n o f t i m e w i l l b e
d e t e r m i n e d b y o u r e f f o r t s t o m o r e s h a r p l y d e f i n e t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s
w h i c h c a n r e a d i l y b e l e a r n e d a l o n e , t h o s e w h i c h r e q u i r e g r o u p
e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h o s e w h i c h c o m b i n e t h e t w o . F u r t h e r , m a n y
e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h n o w r e q u i r e g r o u p p r e s e n t a t i o n m a y b e p r e s e n t e d
t o i n d i v i d u a l s t h r o u g h r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l s
.
If w e c a n d e v e l o p s u p e r i o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e r e c o r d e d
a n d a v a i l a b l e , t h e t e a c h e r n e e d n o t u s e h i s t i m e o n t h e t a s ks i n v o l v e d
i n p r e s e n t a t i o n . He c a n s p e n d t h e t i m e s a v e d i n c o u n s e l i n g , g u i d i n g
a n d m o t i v a t i n g s t u d e n t s
. In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , i f s t u d e n t s c a n l e a r n
m a n y o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a s i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e y c a n t h e n b r i n g t o t h e
g r o u p a b a c kg r o u n d o f r i c h e x p e r i e n c e s a n d b e g i n d i s c u s s i o n a t a
m u c h h i g h e r l e v e l .
O l s o n h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " t h e s o b e r t r u t h i s p r o b a b l y t h a t t h e
i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g c h i l d r e n a r e s o g r e a t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t
t o d e t e c t t h e p e r s i s t e n t e f f e c t o f a n y t h i n g w h i c h i s s o g r o s s i n
c h a r a c t e r a s t h e s i z e o f a g r o u p o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r
t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e . If a p l a n f o r g r o u p i n g i n t r o d u c e s
d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e e f f e c t s c a n b e d e m o n -
s t r a t e d . .
. . "
1 0
In a l l i n s t r u c t i o n t h e c l o s e , p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e
l i ke l y t o b e n e g l e c t e d . Hu n d r e d s o f c o l l e g e Se n i o r s a n d t e a c h e r s
q u e s t i o n e d b y t h e w r i t e r r e p o r t v e r y l i m i t e d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
w i t h t e a c h e r s . So m e f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e m e m b e r e v e n t w o o r t h r e e
s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r e n t i r e s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e c a r e e r i n w h i c h t h e r e
w a s p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a t e a c h e r o n a p l a n e o f
" e q u a l i t y . " Ye t , t h i s ki n d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y d e s i r e d b y
i o . Ib i d . , p
. 2 7 5
.
1 0 2

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


l e a r n e r s a n d i s r e p o r t e d b y t h e m t o h a v e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r
a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a t e a c h e r a n d a f i e l d o f s t u d y .
THEMULTIMEDIAAPPRO AC H
An e x a m p l e o f a m u l t i m e d i a a p p r o a c h t o i m p r o v e t h e s c i e n c e
c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l i s t h e w o r ko f t h e Ph y s i c a l Sc i e n c e
St u d y C o m m i t t e e ( PSSC ) e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r a g r a n t f r o m t h e Na -
t i o n a l Sc i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n . Th e PSSC u n d e r t o o ka c o m p r e h e n s i v e
p r o j e c t o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p r o v e m e n t i n s c h o o l p h y s i c s b y p r o d u c i n g
a v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a t e x t b o o kb a s e d
o n n e w l y d e f i n e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f h i g h - s c h o o l p h y s i c s .
Si m i l a r a p p r o a c h e s h a v e b e e n u s e d i n b i o l o g y , c h e m i s t r y , m a t h e -
m a t i c s , a n d En g l i s h
. Th e PSSC t e x t b o o k,
x t b o o k, r e v i s e d i n 1 9 6 5 , h a s a
c o m p a n i o n b o o kl e t o f l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s
. In t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e
t e x t b o o k- t o a m p l i f y c e r t a i n t o p i c s a n d t o p r e s e n t s p e c i a l i n s i g h t s -
a r e S3 p h y s i c s f i l m s c o v e r i n g t o p i c s f r o m
Ti m e a n d C l o c ks , t o
V e c t o r K i n e m a t i c s , Ph o t o n s ,
a n d Ma t t e r W a v e s .
Th e PSSC h a s g o n e e v e n f u r t h e r . F o r s t u d e n t s s t i m u l a t e d b y
t h i s n e w s c i e n c e c o u r s e a n d d e s i r o u s o f f o l l o w i n g u p t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ,
a s e r i e s o f t h i r t y o r m o r e p a p e r b a c ks o n t h e w o r l d o f s c i e n c e i n
i t s b r o a d a s p e c t s w a s c o m m i s s i o n e d f r o m t h e c o u n t r y ' s f o r e m o s t
e x p e r t s . Th e Sc i e n c e St u d y Se r i e s m o n o g r a p h s c o v e r m a n y i n t e r e s t -
i n g t o p i c s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e c o u r s e
. " Ev a l u a t i o n a i d s h a v e a l s o b e e n
p r e p a r e d , a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s a r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h a n a t i o n -
w i d e t e s t i n g s e r v i c e .
1 2
Th e C o m m i t t e e ( PSSC ) s t a t e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g
a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f s t u d e n t e x p e r i e n c e s i n s c i e n c e a s f o l l o w s :
. . . b e c a u s e l e a r n i n g i s b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e s o d i f f i c u l t , t h e C o m m i t t e e
s e e ks t o b r o a d e n a l l t h e r o a d s t o l e a r n i n g t h a t m a y b e u n r o l l e d b e f o r e
t h e s t u d e n t . Al l h i s s e n s e s s h o u l d b e a p p e a l e d t o
: h i s e y e s , h i s e a r s , h i s
s e n s e o f t o u c h , h i s s e n s e s o f m u s c u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t , a n d w h e r e i t i s a p -
p r o p r i a t e h i s s e n s e o f t a s t e a n d s m e l l . Te x t b o o ks a r e n o t e n o u g h . Th e
i i . F o r e x a m p l e , s e e Th e Ph y s i c s o f Te l e v i s i o n , Th e Re s t l e s s At o m , Ho w
O l d Is t h e Ea r t h ? Th e s e a n d o t h e r s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m Do u b l e d a y
& C o . , In c . ,
Ga r d e n C i t y , Ne w Yo r k .
1 2 . C o o p e r a t i v e Te s t Di v i s i o n , Ed u c a t i o n a l Te s t i n g Se r v i c e , In c
. , P. O . B o x
5 8 9 ,
Pr i n c e t o n , Ne w J e r s e y .
DALE

1 0 3
s t u d e n t m u s t b e o f f e r e d t h e b e s t i n f i l m s , t h e b e s t i n l a b o r a t o r y w o r k
.
If i n v e n t i o n s a r e c a l l e d f o r , t h e y m u s t b e m a d e
.
1 3
O b v i o u s l y t h e m u l t i m e d i a a p p r o a c h n e e d s t o b e c l o s e l y l i n ke d
t o i n t e n d e d b e h a v i o r a l o u t c o m e s w h i c h a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s p e c i f i c t o
m a ke p o s s i b l e t h e m a t c h i n g o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o u t c o m e s
.
In s o m e o f t h e n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h e r e h a s b e e n a v a g u e l i n ki n g w i t h
" s t r u c t u r e s , " b u t t h e v a r i e d c o n t e n t o f d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s b a s e d o n
t h e s a m e s t r u c t u r e s u g g e s t s t h e n e e d f o r m o r e d e t a i l e d b e h a v i o r a l
a n a l y s i s .
SIMULATIO N
ASANINSTRUC TIO NALTO O L
An o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e l i ke l y t o e x p e r i e n c e s h a r p g r o w t h
i s t h e u s e o f s i m u l a t i o n a s a t e c h n i q u e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . W e b s t e r
d e f i n e s a s i m u l a t o r a s " a d e v i c e i n a l a b o r a t o r y t h a t e n a b l e s t h e
o p e r a t o r t o r e p r o d u c e u n d e r t e s t c o n d i t i o n s p h e n o m e n a l i ke l y t o
o c c u r i n a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e
. " Si m u l a t o r s , o f c o u r s e , a r e f o u n d o u t -
s i d e t h e l a b o r a t o r y a s w e l l
. Te a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n i s m a ki n g i n c r e a s e d
u s e o f s i m u l a t i o n d e v i c e s .
To s i m u l a t e i s , i n p a r t , t o i m i t a t e , b u t i t i s s o m e t h i n g m o r e . A
m e r e i m i t a t i o n o f a d e v i c e w i t h a c h a n g e o f s c a l e i s c a l l e d a m o d e l :
B u t w h e n t h e t a s kt o b e f i n a l l y p e r f o r m e d i s c h a n g e d o r a m p l i f i e d
a t ke y p o i n t s t o m a ke i t m o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , t h e p r o c e s s i s t e r m e d
` . ` s i m u l a t i o n
. " Si m u l a t o r s h a v e b e e n u s e d m o s t w i d e l y i n m i l i t a r y
a c t i v i t i e s
; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e d e v i c e s n o w b e i n g d e v e l o p e d t o l a n d o n
t h e m o o n
. Th e i r u s e f u l n e s s a s t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s i n a n u m b e r o f a r e a s
s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y h a v e a n u n r e a l i z e d p o t e n t i a l f o r a l l t e a c h i n g
.
F o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s , a n e n t i r e b u s i n e s s m a y b e s i m u l a t e d , a s
i n " b u s i n e s s g a m e s
. " Si m u l a t i o n c a n b e u s e d i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s o c i a l
s t u d i e s , a s n o t e d b y C h e r r y h o l m e s
. 1 4 As p e c t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a y
b e s i m u l a t e d , a s i n t h e w i d e l y u s e d " In - B a s ke t " s i m u l a t i o n d e v e l o p e d
b y t h e Un i v e r s i t y C o u n c i l o n Ed u c a t i o n a l Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n
.
1 5
1 3 . Ph y s i c s .
F i r s t An n u a l Re p o r t o f t h e Ph y s i c a l Sc i e n c e St u d y C o m m i t t e e ,
( p r e l i m i n a r y e d i t i o n ) , V o l . 1 , p . 1 5 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 8 -
1 4 ,
C l e o C h e r r y h o l m e s , " De v e l o p m e n t s i n Si m u l a t i o n o f In t e r n a t i o n a l Re l a -
t i o n s i n Hi g h - Sc h o o l Te a c h i n g , "
Ph i De l t a K a p p a n , X LV I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 5 ) ,
2 2 7 - 3 1 .
1 5
. Un i v e r s i t y C o u n c i l o n Ed u c a t i o n a l Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n , O h i o St a t e Un i -
v e r s i t y , C o l u m b u s , O h i o .
1 0 4

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


W e s i m u l a t e t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s a n d o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h s i m p l i f y t h e
t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s a n d g i v e m o r e p r a c t i c e a t l e s s e x p e n s e t h a n w o u l d
b e t h e c a s e i f " t h e r e a l t h i n g " w e r e u s e d . Si m u l a t i o n c a n g i v e
" o n - t h e - j o b " t r a i n i n g t o p e r s o n s w h o w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e t o
l e a r n b y l e s s e f f e c t i v e , m o r e a b s t r a c t m e t h o d s
.
PRO GRAMEDINSTRUC TIO N
An e w i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s
h a s b e e n t i t l e d p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n , a u t o m a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , a u t o -
d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n , s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t h e t e a c h i n g m a c h i n e . Th e
w r i t e r s e e s " p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n " a s a s u b s y s t e m u n d e r t h e p r o -
g r a m i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n
. In d e e d , t h e p r o b l e m s i n p r e p a r i n g u n i t s o f
p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a r e t h o s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s . F o r
e x a m p l e : ( a ) W h a t t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r i s s o u g h t ? ( b ) W h a t e x p e r i -
e n c e s m u s t b e u n d e r g o n e t o r e a c h t h i s b e h a v i o r ? ( c ) Ho w a r e t h e
l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s b e s t o r g a n i z e d ? ( d ) Ho w c a n w e c h e c kt o
d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r h a s b e e n r e a l i z e d ?
Pr o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s a m e t h o d o f s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g , s e l f - i n s t r u c -
t i o n w h i c h h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
( a ) It h a s d e v e l o p e d c h i e f l y i n t h o s e f i e l d s o f l e a r n i n g w h e r e t h e
e l e m e n t s o f l e a r n i n g a r e b a s i c , s y s t e m a t i c , a n d p r e d i c t a b l e .
( b ) Th e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o s t e p s c a l l e d
f r a m e s
. Th e m o s t d e s i r a b l e s i z e o f t h e s e s t e p s i s d e b a t e d b y l e a r n i n g
t h e o r i s t s
. Ea r l y w r i t e r s i n t h e f i e l d e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f
s m a l l s t e p s . Th e w r i t e r , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t e p s s h o u l d b e
a s l a r g e a s t h e l e a r n e r i s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d . Th e r e h a s b e e n a
t e n d e n c y t o a s s u m e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t a ke n c a r e o f b y
o f f e r i n g a s m a l l o r a l a r g e s p o o n f u l o f t h e s a m e m a t e r i a l . Ho w -
e v e r , m e r e l y c h a n g i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e s t e p s o r t h e i r n u m b e r i s n o t
a n a d e q u a t e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m .
( c ) At p r e s e n t t h e p r o g r a m e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s h a v e c h i e f l y
i n v o l v e d r e a d i n g , b u t t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o c o n f i n e t h e m t o t h i s
s i n g l e m e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , m o s t e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n
u p o n i n d i v i d u a l , s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n . Ho w e v e r , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e
t h a t g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h f i l m s o r o t h e r m e d i a i s a l s o s u c c e s s f u l .
( d )
Th e s t u d e n t c h e c ks t h e a c c u r a c y o f h i s r e p l i e s a n d m o v e s
f o r w a r d e i t h e r s t e p - b y - s t e p o r b y b r a n c h i n g w h e n b a s i c w e a kn e s s e s
a r e e x p o s e d .
DALE

1 0 5
So m e ki n d s o f l e a r n i n g d o n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e n e a t a n d
s p e c i f i c s t e p - b y - s t e p a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g . An d s i n c e m o s t p r o -
g r a m i n g h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , i t i s p o s s i b l e
t h a t t h e s a m e s u p e r f i c i a l l e a r n i n g w i l l r e s u l t f r o m u s i n g p r o g r a m e d
m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e u s e o f t e x t b o o ks w h i c h e m p h a -
s i z e d u n c r i t i c a l m e m o r i z i n g . Pr o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n m u s t m a ke e x -
p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r l e a r n i n g b y d o i n g .
W e a l s o f a c e t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f p r o g r a m e d i n -
s t r u c t i o n t o l i f e
p r o b l e m s . So m e e n t h u s i a s t s o f p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n
v i s u a l i z e t h e p r o g r a m i n g o f e n t i r e c o u r s e s , b u t t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s
t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a n u n l i ke l y o n e . W e a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o h a v e
a d j u n c t p r o g r a m s w h i c h r e l a t e c l o s e l y t o o t h e r f o r m s o f i n s t r u c t i o n .
Pr o g r a m e d t e a c h i n g m a y w e l l b e p a r t o f a u n i t o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h
f o l l o w s r i c h a n d v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e
. Th e p r o g r a m i n g p h a s e m a y
t h e n p r e s e n t i n c i s i v e , t h o u g h t - c o m p e l l i n g q u e s t i o n s o n t h e s e e x p e r i -
e n c e s o r m a y r e v i e w a n d d i s t i l l c o n c e p t s o n l y p a r t l y d e v e l o p e d
.
Th e t e a c h e r c o n t r o l s t h e p r o g r a m i n g ; t h e p r o g r a m i n g d o e s n o t
c o n t r o l t h e t e a c h e r . Th e w r i t e r ' s o w n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p r o g r a m e d
i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f v o c a b u l a r y s u g g e s t s
s t r o n g l y t h e n e e d f o r c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e f u l l y t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f
t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s .
So m e h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t w e c a n r e s e r v e p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n
f o r d r i l l a n d r o t e l e a r n i n g
. To d o s o i s h a z a r d o u s a n d l a b e l s p r o -
g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a s i n f e r i o r - a s t r a i n i n g , n o t e d u c a t i o n
. Ma n y
s t u d e n t s a r e b o r e d b y t h e m e c h a n i z e d , r o t e a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g
f o u n d i n s o m e p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n
. Su c h l e a r n i n g i s n o t " s u f -
f u s e d w i t h s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , " a p r o v o c a t i v e p h r a s e o f p h i l o s o p h e r
Al f r e d No r t h W h i t e h e a d .
Ne v e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e o f w e a kn e s s e s e v i d e n t i n p r e s e n t p r o g r a m e d
i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t i t h a s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y
a s a m e t h o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . It w i l l b e w i d e l y u s e d i n b u s i n e s s a n d
e l s e w h e r e w h e r e s h o r t p r o g r a m s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e n e e d e d
. Th e
r e s p o n s e t o p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e i t h e r r e j e c t i o n n o r u n b r i d l e d
e n t h u s i a s m . W h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s a " h a r d - n o s e d " b u t c r e a t i v e a p -
p r o a c h t o t h i s n e w m e t h o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n
. W h e n d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d -
i n g t o g o o d c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e s , i t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e m o v e m e n t t o w a r d
a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r s a n d , i f t h o u g h t f u l l y
d e v e l o p e d , c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t .
Io 6

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


Th e O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d Us e o f In s t r u c t i o n a l Re s o u r c e s
Th e w r i t e r h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s n o w
a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o o l s a n d h a s d e l i n e a t e d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
.
He h a s n o t e d t h e p e r s i s t e n t a n d e m e r g i n g s o c i a l f o r c e s w h i c h h a v e
i n f l u e n c e d t h e ki n d a n d a m o u n t o f l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s a n d h a s
d e s c r i b e d s o m e s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
. Th e
q u e s t i o n n o w a r i s e s : Ho w c a n t h e s e m a t e r i a l s b e b e s t o r g a n i z e d a n d
u s e d t o i n s u r e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f g r e a t e s t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e ?
If c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s a r e s e t u p o n a d e t a i l e d b e h a v i o r a l
b a s i s , m o r e s p e c i f i c a n d m o r e v a r i e d m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n m u s t
b e s e l e c t e d a n d u s e d t o r e a c h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s
. Th i s s u g g e s t s t h e
n e e d f o r s h a r p l y i m p r o v e d d i a g n o s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l a n d g r o u p n e e d s
a n d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s t o f i t a p r e s c r i p t i o n
. F u r t h e r ,
p r o g r a m s o f c o n t i n u i n g e v a l u t i o n a r e i m p e r a t i v e i f c o n t i n u o u s p u p i l
p r o g r e s s i s a m a j o r o b j e c t i v e
. Te s t s w i l l b e u s e d b e f o r e a n d a f t e r
i n s t r u c t i o n
. W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , t h e y s h o u l d b e s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g
d e v i c e s . Pr o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l m a ke a n i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n
i n a n i n t e g r a t e d p l a n o f i n s t r u c t i o n .
W i t h c l e a r a n d r e l e v a n t r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , w i t h e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e
c o n c r e t e a n d s e m i c o n c r e t e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , w i t h b e t t e r p r o -
g r a m i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d w i t h s u g g e s t e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l
s t u d y , c o n t i n u o u s p u p i l p r o g r e s s b e c o m e s a r e a l i t y
. Th e r e w i l l b e
n o n e e d t o c o n t i n u e u n s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s t o m e e t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -
e n c e s b y a w a t e r e d - d o w n c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e l e s s - a b l e s t u d e n t s a n d
n e b u l o u s , i l l - d e f i n e d , m o r e - o f - t h e - s a m e - t h i n g e n r i c h m e n t f o r t h e
h i g h l y g i f t e d .
As d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r a l o u t c o m e s a r e b e t t e r d e f i n e d a n d r e f i n e d ,
a s s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a r e u s e d w h e r e t h e y a r e a p p r o p r i a t e ,
a n d a s s e l f - t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e a r r a n g e d , m a n y m o r e p u p i l s w i l l
a c h i e v e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c y
. Th i s h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t m a y
o c c u r i n s u b j e c t s l i ke a r i t h m e t i c , i n w h i c h p r e s e n t l y t h e r e i s l e s s
s p r e a d o f c o m p e t e n c e t h a n i n r e a d i n g . W e s h a l l h a v e t o f a c e ,
t h e r e f o r e , t h e l i ke l i h o o d o f e v e n g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g t h e
p u p i l s o f a s i n g l e g r a d e
. It w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o t r e a t g r o u p s o f
c h i l d r e n a s a f a m i l y w h o s e a g e l i ke n e s s e s m a s ks h a r p d i f f e r e n c e s i n
a b i l i t i e s a n d c o n c e r n s
. It b e c o m e s g l a r i n g l y e v i d e n t t h a t t o h a v e a l l
s t u d e n t s i n a s i n g l e g r a d e s t u d y t h e s a m e t o p i c s a t t h e s a m e t i m e i s
DALE

1 0 7
a n i m p o s s i b i l i t y . C e r t a i n l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n g e n u i t y a n d c u r r i c u l a r
i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f a h i g h o r d e r , a s d e s c r i b e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s v o l u m e ,
a r e r e q u i r e d .
F u r t h e r , i n c r e a s i n g l y v a r i e d g o a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h
g r e a t e r v a r i e t y i n m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , w i l l r e q u i r e m o r e f l e x i b l e
a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g s t y l e s o r t e c h n i q u e s . B e c a u s e a c h i l d c a n
l e a r n w e l l b y r e a d i n g d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t h e w i l l a l s o l e a r n w e l l
b y o b s e r v i n g o r l i s t e n i n g
. Ev e n t h o u g h l e a r n i n g c o m p e t e n c i e s m a y
b e c o r r e l a t e d , s o m e s t u d e n t s m a y b e a t t h e t o p o f t h e c l a s s i n o n e
a s p e c t o f l e a r n i n g a n d o n l y a v e r a g e i n a n o t h e r
. Th e c h a n g i n g s c h o o l
w i l l m a ke u s e n o t o n l y o f n e w m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n b u t a l s o o f
n e w m e t h o d s o f l e a r n i n g .
St i l l a n o t h e r c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r m u s t b e f a c e d i n o r g a n i z i n g
a n d u s i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
. Th e l e a r n i n g t h a t g o e s o n o u t s i d e
t h e s c h o o l m u s t b e t a ke n i n t o a c c o u n t
. Th i s m e a n s a c l o s e r l i n ki n g
o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e h o m e , a n d t h e
s c h o o l . As t h e e d u c a t i o n o f p a r e n t s i n c r e a s e s , t h e y w i l l b e c o m e
b e t t e r a b l e t o t a ke m o r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e f o r m a l a s w e l l a s t h e
i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .
No t o n l y w i l l p a r e n t s w o r kw i t h t h e s c h o o l i n c r e a s i n g l y o n
" f o r m a l " e d u c a t i o n - a s t h e y d o n o w i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h h o m e -
w o r k- b u t t h e r e w i l l b e m o r e p l a n n e d i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a i m e d a t
b u i l d i n g b a c kg r o u n d f o r t h e m o r e s y s t e m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e
s c h o o l . F o r e x a m p l e , n a t i o n a l , s t a t e , a n d l o c a l p a r ks a r e t a ki n g o n
a n e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n
. Li f e a n d b u i l d i n g s o f t h e p a s t h a v e b e e n
r e c o n s t r u c t e d a t s u c h p l a c e s a s My s t i c , C o n n e c t i c u t
; Gr e e n f i e l d ,
Mi c h i g a n ; C o o p e r s t o w n , Ne w Yo r k
; a n d W i l l i a m s b u r g , V i r g i n i a .
Pa r e n t s a r e t r a v e l i n g m o r e a n d f a r t h e r w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n
. An d
t h e u r g e t o h a v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n g e t e d u c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e f r o m t h e s e
t r i p s i s g r e a t , o f t e n t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y f o r " e x p e n s i v e "
v a c a t i o n s . To d a y , c o m p e n s a t o r y e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e -
p r i v e d c l o s e l y r e l a t e s t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e h o m e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e
e a r l i e r , m o r e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s .
AC AF ETERIAO F LEARNINGMATERIALS
W e h a v e u s u a l l y t h o u g h t o f b o o ks a s t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f e x c e l l e n t
i d e a s . Li t e r a c y h a s b e e n r e g a r d e d a s s y n o n y m o u s w i t h a b i l i t y t o
r e a d . It h a s b e e n h e l d t h a t t h e b e s t i d e a s i n t h e w o r l d a r e t o b e
i o 8

INSTRUC TIO NALRESO URC ES


f o u n d i n t h e b o o ks o f t h e l i b r a r y . No w w e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e m o d e r n
l i b r a r y w i l l i n c l u d e e x c e l l e n c e i n v a r i e d m e d i a , n o t p r i n t a l o n e . W e
r e a l i z e , t o o , t h a t t h e r e i s f i l m l i t e r a c y , l i t e r a c y i n t h e r e a d i n g o f
p h o t o g r a p h s , l i t e r a c y i n e v a l u a t i n g g r e a t d r a m a , l i t e r a c y i n c r i t i c a l
l i s t e n i n g .
W h a t d o e s t h i s m e a n f o r t h e s c h o o l ? It m u s t s e l e c t , c a t a l o g u e ,
d i s t r i b u t e , a n d s u p e r v i s e t h e u s e o f m a n y t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s a n d
m a ke t h e m a v a i l a b l e i n a l e a r n i n g - r e s o u r c e s c e n t e r
. Th e c e n t e r w i l l
i n c l u d e f i l m s a n d f i l m s t r i p s , r e c o r d i n g s t h a t w i l l r a n g e f r o m t h e
b e s t i n m u s i c t o t h o s e d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h c r i t i c a l l i s t e n i n g . Th e r e w i l l
b e p a c ke t s o f p r o g r a m e d m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s u n i t s t a u g h t
i n t h e s c h o o l
. Th e s e w i l l i n c l u d e p a m p h l e t s , r e a l i a o f v a r i o u s ki n d s ,
t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , r e c o r d i n g s , p h o t o g r a p h s , c h a r t s , p o s t e r s , a n d t h e
l i ke , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e s u b j e c t t o b e t a u g h t . Th e r e w i l l b e a
c o n c e r n a b o u t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s y s t e m s o f t h e t y p e d e s c r i b e d b y F i n n
a n d o t h e r s . 1 6
C o m p u t e r s w i l l b e u s e d i n c r e a s i n g l y i n g u i d i n g t h e
u s e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n
.
O b v i o u s l y , t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s y s t e m s w i l l r e q u i r e a n e w t y p e
o f a p p r o a c h t o a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
. Th e " l i b r a r i a n ' s " c o n c e r n
w i l l b e w i t h t h a t o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r
a l l m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r
t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n - t h e b e s t o f r e c o r d e d i d e a s . Th e t e a c h e r
m u s t b e c o m e ke e n l y s e n s i t i v e n o t o n l y t o t h e v a r i e d n e e d s o f c h i l -
d r e n b u t a l s o t o a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e r i c h r e s o u r c e s f o r e d u c a t i o n . An
i n s t r u c t i o n a l - s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h w i l l r e q u i r e c u r r i c u l u m c o - o r d i n a t o r s
t o w o r kw i t h t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n p l a n n i n g n e e d e d e d u c a -
t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s
. Th i s w i l l r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i s t s i n b e h a v i o r a l t e c h -
n o l o g y t o p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l s , t o h e l p a r r a n g e f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c
i n t e g r a t i o n o f v a r i e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n
.
DEV ELO PINGTHEINDEPENDENTLEARNER
Th e g o a l o f a l l l e a r n i n g i s t o d e v e l o p t h e i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n e r -
t h e m a t u r e i n d i v i d u a l w h o n o l o n g e r n e e d s t h e p r o t e c t i v e c o u n s e l
a n d g u i d a n c e o f t h e s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e . W e m a y w e l l e x p e c t , t h e r e -
f o r e , t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s w i l l b e u s e d t o
d e c r e a s e d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g a n d i n c r e a s e i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g
.
1 6 . J a m e s D. F i n n , " Ta ke - o f f t o Re v o l u t i o n , " i n Re v o l u t i o n i n Te a c h i n g :
Ne w Th e o r y , Te c h n o l o g y , a n d C u r r i c u l u m , p p . 2 3 - 3 1 . Ed i t e d b y Al f r e d d e
Gr a z i a a n d Da v i d A . So h n . Ne w Yo r k : B a n t a m B o o ks , 1 9 6 4 ( m a t r i x e d i t i o n ) .
DALE

I0 9
Ev e r y i n d i v i d u a l m u s t b e p r e p a r e d t o m e e t n e w d e v e l o p m e n t a l
t a s ks
. He m u s t b e a b l e t o r e a d , l i s t e n , a n d v i e w c r i t i c a l l y a n d
t h o u g h t f u l l y
. He m u s t b e a b l e t o u s e a l i b r a r y o f b o o ks , f i l m s , a n d
r e c o r d i n g s
. He m u s t h a v e m e t h o d s o f s t u d y a n d a t t i t u d e s w h i c h
w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o l e a r n a n d r e l e a r n a t a l l a g e l e v e l s . Se l f - d i r e c t i o n
i s t h e g o a l , a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d b e s e l e c t e d w i t h t h i s
e n d i n v i e w .
In C o n c l u s i o n
Th e r e v o l u t i o n i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t e c h n o l o g y h a s p r o d u c e d
i d e a s f a s t e r t h a n w e c a n u s e t h e m
. Th e r e i s a l a g b e t w e e n w h a t w e
kn o w h o w t o d o a n d w h a t w e h a v e d o n e
. W e kn o w f a r m o r e a b o u t
c h a n g i n g t h e t o o l s t h a n w e kn o w a b o u t c h a n g i n g t h e w o r km a n
.
In s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y i s n o e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e .
Th e n e w
t o o l s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o p i l e u p , b u t t h e h i g h l y s ki l l e d c o m p e t e n c e
n e e d e d t o s e l e c t , u s e , a n d e v a l u a t e t h e m i s l a c ki n g . O u r b i g p r o b l e m
i n m a ki n g a c h a n g e o v e r i s n o t , Ib e l i e v e , t h a t o f t e a c h e r r e j e c t i o n . It
i s r a t h e r t h e c o m p l e x i t y i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o t a ke s e r i o u s l y t h e
i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g c h i l d r e n , a n d t o d e v e l o p a s y s t e m a t i c ,
c o - o r d i n a t e d p r o g r a m f o r m e e t i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s
. It i s a t o u g h a n d
c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k, w o r t h y o f o u r b e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s ki l l a n d e f f o r t .
C HAPTER V
Sc h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n : No n g r a d i n g , Du a l Pr o g r e s s ,
a n d Te a m Te a c h i n g
GLENHEATHERS
In t r o d u c t i o n
Ed u c a t o r s d i s a g r e e c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c -
t i o n . So m e c o n t e n d t h a t a s c h o o l ' s c h o i c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n
h a s a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l o u t c o m e s , w h i l e o t h e r s h o l d
t h a t t e a c h e r s d e t e r m i n e w h a t p u p i l s l e a r n a t s c h o o l l a r g e l y w i t h o u t
r e g a r d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h t h e y t e a c h .
O b v i o u s l y , n o e d u c a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t o u r s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e
u n o r g a n i z e d o r d i s o r g a n i z e d . Te a c h e r s a n d p u p i l s m u s t b e b r o u g h t
i n t o s t r u c t u r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t t a ke a c c o u n t o f l e a r n i n g g o a l s ,
t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p u p i l s a s l e a r n e r s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e t h o d s , a n d
t e a c h e r s ' kn o w l e d g e a n d s ki l l s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s a l s o
a r e n e c e s s a r y t o m a ke e f f e c t i v e u s e o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s a n d l e a r n i n g
m e d i a . F u r t h e r , s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t t a ke c o g n i z a n c e o f f a c t o r s
a f f e c t i n g s t a f f u t i l i z a t i o n , s t a f f m o r a l e , s c h o o l c o s t s , a n d s c h o o l -
c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s .
Th e i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r i s e m a i n l y f r o m t w o
s o r t s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t
. O n e i n v o l v e s d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f s c h o o l
g o a l s
. Th e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a s c h o o l p r o g r a m t h a t
s t r e s s e s t h e p u p i l s ' p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m
t h o s e o f a p r o g r a m t h a t f o c u s e s o n a c a d e m i c a t t a i n m e n t . Th e o t h e r
t y p e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t i n v o l v e s h o w a n d t o w h a t e x t e n t i n d i v i d u a l
d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g p u p i l s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e s c h o o l p r o -
g r a m
. As Go o d l a d p o i n t s o u t , a s c h o o l m a y s e t o u t t o t e a c h t h e
s a m e b o d y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o a l l p u p i l s a n d a t t h e s a m e r a t e ; i t
m a y o f f e r a l l p u p i l s t h e s a m e s u b j e c t m a t t e r b u t p r o v i d e f o r d i f -
f e r e n t r a t e s o f a d v a n c e m e n t ; o r i t m a y v a r y s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f f e r i n g s
1 1 0
HEATHERS

III
f r o m p u p i l t o p u p i l a s w e l l a s m a ke p r o v i s i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f
p r o g r e s s . ' Th e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s
a r e d i f f e r e n t .
Pr e s e n t l y , t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n s u c h d i s a g r e e m e n t s a r e b e i n g
e x a m i n e d a n e w a s c r i t i c s o f t h e s c h o o l s a t t a c kt h e g r a d e s y s t e m a n d
t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m , a n d a s i n n o v a t o r s a d v a n c e c o m p e t i n g
p l a n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Th e s e p l a n s p r o p o s e n e w s o l u t i o n s
t o a n u m b e r o f p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m s o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , s u c h a s
p u p i l a d v a n c e m e n t , p u p i l g r o u p i n g , s c h e d u l i n g , u s e s o f s p a c e a n d
e q u i p m e n t , t e a c h e r d e p l o y m e n t , a n d t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n
. Th r e e
m a j o r t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t f o r w a r d
:
n o n g r a d i n g , d u a l p r o g r e s s , a n d t e a m t e a c h i n g . Pl a n s o f e a c h t y p e
h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e , h a v e b e e n p u t t o t e s t
i n a v a r i e t y o f s c h o o l s e t t i n g s , a n d h a v e b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f p i l o t
r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e o u t c o m e s .
Th i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e s e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s i n r e l a t i o n
t o s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s : W h a t a r e t h e p u r p o s e s a n d f e a t u r e s o f e a c h
t y p e o f p l a n ? W h a t f o r c e s a n d i d e a s i n Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y o r i n
e d u c a t i o n h a v e g i v e n r i s e t o t h e m ? W h a t a r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s
f o r t h e p l a n s ? Ho w e x t e n s i v e a n d h o w e f f e c t i v e a r e t h e l o c a l a d o p -
t i o n s ? W h a t a r e t h e p r o s p e c t s t h a t t h e s e p l a n s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o
t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f Am e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n ?
Pu r p o s e s a n d F e a t u r e s o f t h e Ne w O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Pl a n s
NO NGRADING
Th e t e r m " n o n g r a d i n g " i n d i c a t e s w h a t t h e p l a n i s n o t r a t h e r t h a n
w h a t i t i s . No n g r a d i n g i s a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r a d e d
s y s t e m f o r o r g a n i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . It r e j e c t s t h e g r a d e - l e v e l c u r -
r i c u l u m , a n d g r a d e - l e v e l p l a c e m e n t a n d p r o m o t i o n , o n t h e a s s u m p -
t i o n t h a t t h e s e f a i l t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e l y f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g p u p i l s .
Th e p u r p o s e s o f n o n g r a d i n g ( o r " c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r e s s " ) a r e i n -
d i c a t e d i n Re c o m m e n d a t i o n 2 3 o f t h e Na t i o n a l Ed u c a t i o n As s o c i a -
t i o n Pr o j e c t o n In s t r u c t i o n a s f o l l o w s :
i . Pl a n n i n g a n d O r g a n i z i n g f o r Te a c h i n g , Pr o j e c t o n t h e In s t r u c t i o n a l
Pr o g r a m o f t h e Pu b l i c Sc h o o l s . W r i t t e n b y J o h n I. Go o d l a d . W a s h i n g t o n :
Na t i o n a l Ed u c a t i o n As s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 6 3 .
1 1 2

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
Th e v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o n -
t i n u o u s , u n b r o ke n , u p w a r d p r o g r e s s i o n o f a l l l e a r n e r s , w i t h d u e r e c o g -
n i t i o n o f t h e w i d e v a r i a b i l i t y a m o n g l e a r n e r s i n e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e i r
d e v e l o p m e n t . Th e s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e f o r
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r a t e s a n d m e a n s o f p r o g r e s s i o n t o w a r d a c h i e v e m e n t o f
e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s
. 2
Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n s u r v e y e d t h e e v i d e n c e o n i n d i v i d u a l d i f -
f e r e n c e s a m o n g c h i l d r e n o f a g i v e n a g e o r g r a d e g r o u p a n d c o n -
c l u d e d t h a t t h e g r a d e - l e v e l s y s t e m i s i l l - s u i t e d f o r t a ki n g s u c h d i f -
f e r e n c e s i n t o a c c o u n t
. 3
C h i l d r e n o f a n a g e o r g r a d e d i f f e r s o g r e a t l y
i n a c h i e v e m e n t , a b i l i t i e s , a n d i n t e r e s t s t h a t i t i s a b s u r d t o p r e s e n t a l l
o f t h e m w i t h t h e s a m e l e a r n i n g f a r e a n d t o e x p e c t t h e m t o p r o g r e s s
a t t h e s a m e r a t e . In t r a i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t a n d
a b i l i t y f r o m o n e c u r r i c u l a r a r e a t o a n o t h e r a l s o a r e l a r g e a n d a r e
n o t p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m t h a t m o v e s p u p i l s t h r o u g h
t h e s e v e r a l c u r r i c u l a r a r e a s o n a n e v e n f r o n t .
Th e g r a d e d s y s t e m h o l d s b a c kt h e a d v a n c e d o r r a p i d l e a r n e r a n d
f o r c e s t h e r e t a r d e d o r s l o w l e a r n e r a h e a d , b e y o n d h i s c a p a c i t i e s t o
l e a r n . No n p r o m o t i o n , t h e d e v i c e e m p l o y e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e f a i l u r e
o f s o m e p u p i l s t o a c h i e v e g r a d e s t a n d a r d s , i s a p o o r s o l u t i o n
. It
f o r c e s t e d i o u s r e p e t i t i o n o f s o m e m a t e r i a l s a l r e a d y l e a r n e d
. It s t i g -
m a t i z e s t h e l e a r n e r b y m a r ki n g h i m a s a f a i l u r e . F u r t h e r , i t d o e s n o t
a c c o m p l i s h i t s p u r p o s e o f f o s t e r i n g p u p i l s ' a c h i e v e m e n t . Re s e a r c h
s t u d i e s h a v e s h o w n t h a t r e t a r d e d l e a r n e r s , i f p r o m o t e d , u s u a l l y
a c h i e v e a t l e a s t a s w e l l a s w h e n r e t a i n e d i n g r a d e . 4
Mo s t o f t e n , p r o v i s i o n s f o r n o n g r a d i n g o c c u r i n s u b u r b a n e l e -
m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a n d a t t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l . In t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t
t y p e o f p r o g r a m , p u p i l s m a y t a ke t w o , t h r e e , o r f o u r y e a r s t o a c -
c o m p l i s h t h e l e a r n i n g s t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a r e i n c l u d e d i n Gr a d e s
I- III
. Gr a d e - l e v e l d i v i s i o n s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m a r e e r a s e d t o a l l o w
f o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r e s s . Ty p i c a l l y , s e q u e n c e s o f l e v e l s a r e s e t u p
2 . Sc h o o l s f o r t h e Si x t i e s , p
. 1 3 2
. NEAPr o j e c t o n In s t r u c t i o n . Ne w Yo r k
:
Mc Gr a w - Hi l l B o o k C o . , 1 9 6 3 .
3 . J o h n I. Go o d l a d a n d Ro b e r t H
. An d e r s o n , Th e No n g r a d e d El e m e n t a r y
Sc h o o l s , c h a p . i . Ne w Yo r k : Ha r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , In c . , 1 9 6 3
( r e v i s e d
e d i t i o n ) .
4 . Dw a i n M. Es t e s a n d He n r y J . O t t o , " Ac c e l e r a t e d a n d Re t a r d e d Pr o g r e s s , "
En c y c l o p e d i a o f Ed u c a t i o n a l Re s e a r c h , p p . 4 - 1 1 . Ed i t e d b y C h e s t e r W . Ha r r i s .
Ne w Yo r k : Ma c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 6 o ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) .
HEATHERS

1 1 3
i n r e a d i n g a n d a r i t h m e t i c
. Pu p i l s p r o c e e d u p w a r d i n t h e s e s e q u e n c e s
a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o h o w r e a d i l y t h e y l e a r n t h e s u b j e c t
.
Th e r e a r e n o l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t a l l p u p i l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o
s a t i s f y i n a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e
. Ye a r - t o - y e a r p r o m o t i o n a n d n o n -
p r o m o t i o n a r e e l i m i n a t e d
.
Gr o u p i n g p r a c t i c e s i n n o n g r a d e d p r i m a r y s c h o o l s v a r y
. In s o m e
s c h o o l s , g r o u p s a r e s e t u p o n t h e u s u a l a g e - l e v e l b a s i s w i t h n o n -
g r a d e d i n s t r u c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d b y i n t r a c l a s s g r o u p i n g
. In o t h e r
s c h o o l s , m u l t i a g e g r o u p i n g o c c u r s w i t h g r o u p s f o r m e d o n t h e b a s i s
o f a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l
. Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n m a ke t h e i m p o r t a n t
p o i n t t h a t g r o u p i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e s e c o n d a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n n o n -
g r a d e d p r o g r a m s
. No n g r a d i n g a p p l i e s s t r i c t l y t o t h e v e r t i c a l
p r o -
g r e s s i o n o f p u p i l s , w h i l e g r o u p i n g a p p l i e s t o t h e
h o r i z o n t a l
o r g a n -
i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l t h a t b r i n g s p u p i l s a n d t e a c h e r s i n t o r e l a t i o n
.
No p a t t e r n o f g r o u p i n g e n s u r e s n o n g r a d i n g , t h o u g h s o m e g r o u p i n g
p r a c t i c e s m a y f a c i l i t a t e i t . 5
So m e s c h o o l s y s t e m s h a v e n o n g r a d e d t h e e n t i r e e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l
. Th e " C o n t i n u o u s Pr o g r e s s Pl a n " u s e d i n Ap p l e t o n , W i s -
c o n s i n , p r o v i d e s f o r n o n g r a d e d a d v a n c e m e n t i n r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g ,
a n d a r i t h m e t i c . 6
No n g r a d i n g o c c u r s t h r o u g h i n t r a c l a s s g r o u p i n g
w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m
. Ap u p i l m a y
t a ke a n a d d i t i o n a l y e a r t o c o m p l e t e t h e e l e m e n t a r y p r o g r a m
. Ra p i d
l e a r n e r s m a y a d v a n c e i n t o t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m w h i l e
s t i l l i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l
.
An u m b e r o f h i g h s c h o o l s h a v e i n t r o d u c e d n o n g r a d e d p r o g r a m s
.
Th e b e s t - kn o w n p r o g r a m w a s i n i t i a t e d i n 1 9 5 8 a t Me l b o u r n e ,
F l o r i d a . ? Th e p r o g r a m r e p l a c e s g r a d e g r o u p i n g w i t h a s y s t e m t h a t
p e r m i t s c o n t i n u o u s , n o n g r a d e d a d v a n c e m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i -
e n c e , En g l i s h , a n d h i s t o r y . W i t h i n e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s , t h e l e v e l o f
w o r kt h e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m s d e p e n d s o n t h e s c o r e s h e h a s o b t a i n e d
i n n a t i o n a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s , w h i l e t h e s e t t i n g i n
w h i c h h e l e a r n s d e p e n d s o n h i s l e a r n i n g s ki l l s
.
5 . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n ,
o p . c i t . , p p . 2 1 4 - 1 6 .
6 . Ar t h u r D. Mo r s e ,
Sc h o o l s o f To m o r r o w - To d a y !
c h a p . i i . Al b a n y : Ne w
Yo r kSt a t e Ed u c a t i o n De p a r t m e n t , i 9 6 o
. ( Av a i l a b l e a s p a p e r b a c kf r o m Do u b l e -
d a y & C o . , In c . , Ga r d e n
C i t y , Ne w Yo r k . )
7 . B . F r a n kB r o w n ,
Th e No n g r a d e d Hi g h Sc h o o l
. En g l e w o o d C l i f f s , Ne w
J e r s e y : Pr e n t i c e Ha l l , In c
. , ' 9 6 3 .
1 1 4 SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
No n g r a d i n g , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d , i s n o t a n e w p h e n o m e n o n i n
Am e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n
. Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n p o i n t t o t h e Pu e b l o ,
B a t a v i a , W i n n e t ka , a n d Da l t o n p l a n s a s p r e c u r s o r s o f t o d a y ' s n o n -
g r a d e d p l a n s a n d r e p o r t t h a t Mi l w a u ke e h a s h a d a t y p e o f n o n g r a d e d
p l a n i n o p e r a t i o n s i n c e 1 9 4 2 . 8 Al s o , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t m a n y
t e a c h e r s h a v e e m p l o y e d s o m e n o n g r a d e d a p p r o a c h e s w i t h i n t h e
g r a d e d s y s t e m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e a d i n g , a s u b j e c t i n w h i c h p u p i l s
i n e v i t a b l y b r e a kt h r o u g h t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e g r a d e s t r u c t u r e .
THESTO DDARDDUAL- PRO GRESSPLAN
In 1 9 5 6 , St o d d a r d o u t l i n e d a n e w s e m i d e p a r t m e n t a l p l a n f o r
o r g a n i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t h a t h e l a t e r d e -
s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n h i s v o l u m e , Th e Du a l Pr o g r e s s Pl a n . 9 St o d d a r d
b e l i e v e s t h a t b o t h t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m a n d t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s -
r o o m f a i l t o e m p l o y e f f e c t i v e l y w h a t i s kn o w n a b o u t c h i l d d e v e l o p -
m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , l e a r n i n g , a n d t e a c h i n g . He b e l i e v e s
a l s o t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m t h e y c a l l f o r i s n o t i n h a r m o n y
w i t h s o c i e t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n . To r e m e d y t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,
h e o f f e r s a p l a n t h a t r e j e c t s o r m o d i f i e s e a c h o f t h e f o u r m a i n f e a -
t u r e s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l
- t h e g r a d e - l e v e l c u r r i c u l u m , g r a d e - l e v e l p l a c e m e n t a n d a d v a n c e -
m e n t , t h e g e n e r a l e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r , a n d t h e g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e c l a s s -
r o o m .
In d e s i g n i n g t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n , St o d d a r d s o u g h t t o i n s u r e
t h a t a l l p u p i l s a c c o m p l i s h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l e a r n i n g s t h a t a r e r e -
q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e m e m b e r s h i p i n Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y . Th e s e " c u l -
t u r a l i m p e r a t i v e s " - r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a n d s p e a ki n g ; a n d kn o w l e d g e
o f s o c i a l v a l u e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d b e h a v i o r - l i e , h e b e l i e v e s , i n t h e
a r e a s o f t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s a n d s o c i a l s t u d i e s . Al s o , St o d d a r d d e s i r e d
t o g i v e f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t i e s a n d i n -
t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h o s e o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n w h i c h s o c i e t y
p e r m i t s a r a n g e o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , d e p e n d i n g o n p u p i l s ' t a l e n t s
a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . Th e s e " c u l t u r a l e l e c t i v e s " h e c o n s i d e r s t o b e m a t h -
8 . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n , o p . c i t
. ,
p p
. 4 9 - 5 3 -
9 . Ge o r g e D
. St o d d a r d , " Ne w W a y s t o Re a c h t h e Mi n d o f t h e C h i l d , " i n
Ed u c a t i o n 2 0 0 0 A. D. , p p . 1 4 1 - 6 4 ( Ed i t e d b y C . W
. Hu n n i c u t t . Sy r a c u s e , Ne w
Yo r k : Sy r a c u s e Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) ; Th e Du a l Pr o g r e s s Pl a n ( Ne w Yo r k
:
Ha r p e r & Ro w , 1 9 6 1 ) .
HEATHERS

1 1 5
e m a t i c s ( a s i d e f r o m t h e e s s e n t i a l a r i t h m e t i c s ki l l s ) , s c i e n c e , a r t , a n d
m u s i c . F u r t h e r , St o d d a r d s o u g h t a p l a n t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e e a c h
p u p i l i n e a c h c u r r i c u l a r a r e a w i t h a t e a c h e r w h o kn o w s h i s s u b j e c t
w e l l , e n j o y s t e a c h i n g i t , a n d kn o w s h o w t o t e a c h i t t o y o u n g c h i l -
d r e n . F i n a l l y , h e w i s h e d t o o f f e r t h e p u p i l a n e m o t i o n a l - s o c i a l h o m e
b a s e , a s e t t i n g w h e r e h e r e m a i n s w i t h o n e t e a c h e r a n d o n e g r o u p o f
h i s a g e - m a t e s f o r a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l d a y . Th e p l a n d e v i s e d
b y St o d d a r d t o m e e t t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s i s s e m i d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d ,
e m p l o y s t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m w i t h a p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d a
n o n g r a d e d s y s t e m w i t h t h e r e m a i n d e r , a n d u t i l i z e s f u l l - t i m e s p e -
c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s w i t h i n e a c h c u r r i c u l a r a r e a .
Du a l p r o g r e s s r e f e r s t o t w o d i s t i n c t b a s e s f o r a p u p i l ' s a d v a n c e -
m e n t a t s c h o o l . In t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s - s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m a r e a ,
t h e p l a n c a l l s f o r t e a c h i n g a s i n t h e u s u a l g r a d e d s y s t e m . Pu p i l s a r e
a s s i g n e d t o g r a d e - l e v e l g r o u p s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s " c o r e " s e g m e n t
o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d a r e p r o m o t e d t o t h e n e x t g r a d e w h e n t h e y
h a v e s a t i s f i e d t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e g r a d e - l e v e l c u r r i c u l u m
i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n t h e a r e a s o f m a t h e m a t i c s ,
s c i e n c e , m u s i c , a n d a r t , p u p i l s a r e t a u g h t o n a n o n g r a d e d b a s i s . F o r
i n s t r u c t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s , p u p i l s a r e a s s i g n e d t o g r o u p s o n
t h e b a s e s o f a c h i e v e m e n t a n d a b i l i t y w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o g r a d e l e v e l
.
Th e p l a n p r o v i d e s s i x m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s
s e r v i n g t h e a r e a s o f l a n g u a g e a r t s - s o c i a l s t u d i e s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ,
m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e , a r t , a n d m u s i c . Th e r e m a y b e a d d i t i o n a l s p e -
c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s o f f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , r e a d i n g , s p e e c h , a n d i n s t r u m e n -
t a l m u s i c . Ea c h t e a c h e r i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a c l a s s r o o m e q u i p p e d a s a
l a b o r a t o r y o r s t u d i o f o r h i s c u r r i c u l a r a r e a .
In t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n , a p u p i l s p e n d s a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e s c h o o l
d a y , m o r n i n g o r a f t e r n o o n , r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n l a n g u a g e a r t s -
s o c i a l s t u d i e s w i t h o n e s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r
. Du r i n g t h e s a m e h a l f d a y ,
h e h a s a p e r i o d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h t h e t e a c h e r o f t h a t a r e a .
Du r i n g t h e o t h e r h a l f d a y , h e p r o c e e d s f r o m r o o m t o r o o m , c l a s s t o
c l a s s , a n d t e a c h e r t o t e a c h e r f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e n o n g r a d e d s u b -
j e c t s .
TEAMTEAC HING
De s c r i b i n g t e a m t e a c h i n g i s m a d e d i f f i c u l t b y t h e f a c t t h a t e d u -
c a t o r s d i s a g r e e o n t h e v a r i e t i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s t o i n c l u d e
1 1 6

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
u n d e r t h e t e r m . Sh a p l i n ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s a s f o l l o w s : " Te a m t e a c h i n g
i s a t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l
a n d t h e s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e m i n w h i c h t w o o r m o r e t e a c h e r s
a r e g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w o r ki n g t o g e t h e r , f o r a l l o r a s i g n i f i c a n t
p a r t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s a m e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s . " 1 0 Go o d l a d
a n d Re h a g e w o u l d a d d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t t e a m t e a c h i n g i n v o l v e
h i e r a r c h y o f p e r s o n n e l , d i f f e r e n t i a l s t a f f f u n c t i o n s , a n d f l e x i b l e
g r o u p i n g . " An d e r s o n s p e c i f i e s t h a t t e a m t e a c h i n g m u s t i n v o l v e c o -
o p e r a t i o n a m o n g t e a m m e m b e r s i n p l a n n i n g , c o n d u c t i n g , a n d e v a l -
u a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 2 W o o d r i n g , h o w e v e r , n o t e s t h a t t h e a c t u a l
t e a c h i n g o r d i n a r i l y i s d o n e b y i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s r a t h e r t h a n b y
t h e t e a m a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t " t e a m o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p l a n n i n g " w o u l d
b e a b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l t h a n t e a m t e a c h i n g
.
1 3
In t h e p a g e s t h a t f o l l o w , Sh a p l i n ' s g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n w i l l b e u s e d .
Th i s d e f i n i t i o n e x c l u d e s a c o m m o n f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n
w h e n t w o t e a c h e r s t r a d e o f f , e a c h t e a c h i n g o n e p a r t o f t h e c u r -
r i c u l u m t o b o t h o f t h e i r c l a s s e s . O r d i n a r i l y , t h i s s o r t o f c o l l a b o r a -
t i o n i s a n i n s t a n c e o f d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n s i n c e e a c h o f t h e t w o
t e a c h e r s r e t a i n s f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s c l a s s a n d j o i n t p l a n n i n g
a n d e v a l u a t i o n d o n o t o c c u r .
Th e t e a m - t e a c h i n g p l a n s t h a t f a l l u n d e r Sh a p l i n ' s d e f i n i t i o n a r e
d i v e r s e a n d r e f l e c t a d i v e r s i t y o f p u r p o s e s . Mo s t g e n e r a l l y , t h e p l a n s
a r e i n t e n d e d t o b e n e f i t t h e s c h o o l i n r e l a t i o n t o o n e o r m o r e o f t h e
f o l l o w i n g : t h e a c a d e m i c q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n
; t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n
o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; e f f i c i e n c y o r e c o n o m y i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t a f f ,
l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , s p a c e , a n d e q u i p m e n t ; s t a f f r e c r u i t m e n t a n d r e -
t e n t i o n ; a n d s t a f f m o r a l e .
i o . J u d s o n T. Sh a p l i n , " De s c r i p t i o n a n d De f i n i t i o n o f Te a m Te a c h i n g , " i n
Te a m Te a c h i n g , p . 1 5 . Ed i t e d b y J u d s o n T. Sh a p l i n a n d He n r y F . O l d s , J r .
Ne w Yo r k : Ha r p e r & Ro w , 1 9 6 4 .
i i . J o h n I. Go o d l a d a n d K e n n e t h Re h a g e , " Un s c r a m b l i n g t h e V o c a b u l a r y
o f Sc h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n , " NEAJ o u r n a l , LI( No v e m b e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 4
-
3 6 .
1 2 . Ro b e r t H. An d e r s o n , " Te a m Te a c h i n g , "
NEAJ o u r n a l , L ( Ma r c h , 1 9 6 1 ) ,
5 2 - 5 4 .
1 3 .
Pa u l W o o d r i n g , " Re f o r m Mo v e m e n t s f r o m t h e Po i n t o f V i e w o f
Ps y c h o l o g i c a l Th e o r y , " i n Th e o r i e s o f Le a r n i n g a n d In s t r u c t i o n , p . 2 9 2 . Si x t y -
t h i r d Ye a r b o o ko f t h e Na t i o n a l So c i e t y f o r t h e St u d y o f Ed u c a t i o n , Pa r t I
.
C h i c a g o : Di s t r i b u t e d b y t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o Pr e s s , 1 9 6 4 .
HEATHERS

1 1 7
It i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o o f f e r a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t e a m - t e a c h i n g
p l a n s t h a t d o e s j u s t i c e t o t h e i r g r e a t v a r i e t y
. Th e r e a d e r w h o i s i n -
t e r e s t e d i n d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t s o f t e a m t e a c h i n g s h o u l d t u r n t o t h e
c o n t e n t s a n d b i b l i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e b o o ks w r i t t e n o r e d i t e d b y B e g g s ,
1 4
B a i r a n d W o o d w a r d , 1 ' a n d Sh a p l i n a n d O l d s . 1 6
Th e p r e s e n t a c c o u n t
i s m e a n t m e r e l y t o h i g h l i g h t f e a t u r e s o f t e a m t e a c h i n g w i t h s p e c i a l
a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l t e a m s .
Th e p u p i l g r o u p i n t e a m t e a c h i n g n o r m a l l y i s t w o o r m o r e t i m e s
l a r g e r t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s g r o u p , r a n g i n g f r o m 5 0 o r 6 o p u -
p i l s t o a s m a n y a s
2 5 0
i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a n d 4 0 0 i n t h e s e c -
o n d a r y s c h o o l . Mo s t e l e m e n t a r y - s c h o o l t e a m s t e a c h a l l t h e p u p i l s
o f o n e g r a d e l e v e l , o r o f t w o o r t h r e e a d j a c e n t g r a d e l e v e l s , a n d
e n c o m p a s s a l l a r e a s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . Se c o n d a r y - s c h o o l t e a m s m o s t
o f t e n i n v o l v e e i t h e r o n e c u r r i c u l u m a r e a o r t w o r e l a t e d a r e a s . At
t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l , a n u m b e r o f p r o g r a m s o r g a n i z e c e r t a i n t e a c h e r -
e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s u n d e r f a c u l t y t e a m s .
W h i l e a t e a m m a y h a v e o n l y t w o s t a f f m e m b e r s , m o s t h a v e t h r e e
o r m o r e , a n d t h e l a r g e s t t e a m s h a v e a s m a n y a s t e n
. So m e t e a m s a r e
c o m p o s e d o f e q u a l - s t a t u s t e a c h e r s p l a y i n g s i m i l a r r o l e s . Ma n y p r o -
v i d e a h i e r a r c h y o f p o s i t i o n s a n d a d i v e r s i t y o f r o l e s
. In s o m e s c h o o l
s y s t e m s - No r w a l k, C o n n e c t i c u t , f o r e x a m p l e - a t e a c h e r a i d e i s u s e d
o n a t e a m i n l i e u o f a c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r a n d t h e s a l a r y s a v i n g i s u s e d
t o p r o v i d e s a l a r y i n c r e m e n t s f o r t h e t e a m l e a d e r a n d t h e " c o - o p e r a t -
i n g t e a c h e r s . "
1 7
In t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l t e a m , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f r o l e u s u a l l y a p p l i e s t o
a l l m e m b e r s o f t h e t e a m
. Th e t e a m l e a d e r a s s u m e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
c o - o r d i n a t i n g t e a m f u n c t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g a n d c o n d u c t i n g i n s t r u c -
t i o n , f o r p r i n c i p a l - t e a m l i a i s o n , a n d f o r t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s
w i t h i n t h e t e a m . He m a y b e r e l i e v e d o f p a r t o f t h e n o r m a l t e a c h i n g
1 4 . Te a m Te a c h i n g - B o l d
Ne w V e n t u r e . Ed i t e d b y Da v i d W . B e g g s .
In d i a n a p o l i s , In d i a n a
: Un i f i e d C o l l e g e Pr e s s , In c . , 1 9 6 4 .
1 5 . Me d i l l B a i r a n d Ri c h a r d G . W o o d w a r d , Te a m Te a c h i n g i n Ac t i o n
.
B o s t o n : Ho u g h t o n Mi f f l i n C o . , 1 9 6 4 .
1 6 .
Te a m Te a c h i n g . Ed i t e d b y J u d s o n T. Sh a p l i n a n d He n r y F . O l d s , J r .
Ne w Yo r k : Ha r p e r & Ro w , 1 9 6 4 .
1 7 . Th e No r w a l kPl a n o f Te a m Te a c h i n g , Th i r d Re p o r t , p . 3 6 . No r w a l k,
C o n n e c t i c u t : No r w a l kB o a r d o f Ed u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 1 .
1 1 8

SC HO O L O RGANIZATIO N
l o a d t o p r o v i d e t i m e f o r h i s s p e c i a l d u t i e s
. Te a c h e r s o n t h e t e a m
u s u a l l y s p e c i a l i z e i n o n e a r e a o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m
. At t h e s e c o n d a r y
l e v e l , t e a c h e r s m a y d e v e l o p s p e c i a l t i e s w i t h i n o n e s u b j e c t , s u c h a s
En g l i s h o r h i s t o r y . Te a c h e r s a l s o m a y s p e c i a l i z e i n l a r g e - g r o u p i n -
s t r u c t i o n , t e l e v i s i o n l e c t u r i n g , o r t e a c h i n g w i t h p r o g r a m e d m a t e r i -
a l s
. Te a c h e r a i d e s o r c l e r ks r e l i e v e t e a c h e r s o f s u c h n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l
d u t i e s a s t a ki n g a t t e n d a n c e , s u p e r v i s i n g s t u d y g r o u p s , p r e p a r i n g m a -
t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p m e n t , ke e p i n g r e c o r d s , t y p i n g r e p o r t s , a n d s o o n
.
So m e t e a m - t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s m a ke e x t e n s i v e u s e o f t e a c h e r
i n t e r n s . Th e W i s c o n s i n Im p r o v e m e n t Pr o g r a m , f o r e x a m p l e , e m -
p l o y s o n e o r m o r e i n t e r n s - i n - t r a i n i n g e a c h s e m e s t e r a s a s s i s t a n t s t o
t e a m t e a c h e r s . Th e i n t e r n s r e c e i v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f - s a l a r y . Th e
i n t e r n s h i p i s p a r t o f a p r o g r a m a t t h e m a s t e r ' s l e v e l a t t h e Un i v e r s i t y
o f W i s c o n s i n .
1 8
As a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f m a n y t e a m - t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s i s f l e x i b i l i t y
i n g r o u p i n g , i n s c h e d u l i n g , a n d i n t h e u s e s m a d e o f s p a c e a n d e q u i p -
m e n t . In b o t h e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , g r o u p s i z e i s
c h a n g e d f r o m v e r y l a r g e t o v e r y s m a l l , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s u b j e c t
m a t t e r b e i n g p r e s e n t e d a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p u p i l s a s l e a r n e r s .
Te a c h e r s m a y a l s o w o r kw i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . In s o m e t e a m -
t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s , s t r e s s i s p l a c e d o n i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y , p e r h a p s
w i t h t h e u s e o f p r o g r a m e d m a t e r i a l s , t a p e s , o r f i l m s t r i p s . In c r e a s -
i n g l y , n o n g r a d i n g a c c o m p a n i e s t e a m t e a c h i n g . Ma n y t e a m s i n c l u d e
p u p i l s d r a w n f r o m m o r e t h a n o n e g r a d e o r a g e l e v e l . F l e x i b l e
g r o u p i n g f a c i l i t a t e s s e t t i n g u p m u l t i a g e g r o u p s f o r n o n g r a d e d i n -
s t r u c t i o n .
La r g e - g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d , c o n t r i b u t e s i n a
m a j o r w a y t o p r o g r a m f l e x i b i l i t y
. Du r i n g p e r i o d s i n w h i c h o n e
t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t s a l a r g e g r o u p , o t h e r t e a m m e m b e r s a r e f r e e d t o
w o r kw i t h s m a l l g r o u p s o r w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , o r f o r p l a n n i n g
o r c o n f e r e n c e s . Te a c h e r s m a y b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e f o r s u c h a c t i v i t i e s
a l s o w h e n p u p i l s s t u d y i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f
t e a c h e r a i d e s .
In s o m e t e a m - t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e p e r s u b j e c t
i 8 . Ma ki n g Te a c h i n g a n d Le a r n i n g B e t t e r
: Th e W i s c o n s i n Im p r o v e m e n t
Pr o g r a m , 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 6 1 . Ma d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : W i s c o n s i n Im p r o v e m e n t Pr o g r a m ,
1 9 6 2 .
HEATHERS

1 1 9
i s v a r i e d t o m e e t t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s . Tr u m p r e c -
o m m e n d s t h a t a s m u c h a s o n e - t h i r d o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l p u p i l ' s t i m e
s h o u l d b e f l e x i b l e , t o p e r m i t i t s u s e f o r t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t b e s t s u i t
h i s i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s . 1 9
Ah i g h l y v i s i b l e a s p e c t o f m a n y t e a m - t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s i s t h e i r
d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e u s u a l " e g g - c r a t e " a r r a n g e m e n t o f s c h o o l s p a c e
i n t o s t a n d a r d - s i z e d c l a s s r o o m s . Sc h o o l s d e s i g n e d o r m o d i f i e d t o a c -
c o m m o d a t e t e a m t e a c h i n g p r o v i d e " l e a r n i n g s p a c e " f o r l a r g e - g r o u p ,
s m a l l - g r o u p , a n d i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g , i n p a r t t h r o u g h s l i d i n g o r f o l d -
i n g p a r t i t i o n s t h a t m a ke t h e u s e o f s p a c e f l e x i b l e
. 2 0
Te a m t e a c h i n g i n v o l v e s t e a m w o r ki n p l a n n i n g a n d c o n d u c t i n g
i n s t r u c t i o n . Th e a m o u n t a n d t y p e s o f t e a m w o r kv a r y g r e a t l y f r o m
o n e t e a m p r o j e c t t o a n o t h e r . Mo s t t e a m w o r ko c c u r s i n p l a n n i n g
r a t h e r t h a n i n c o n d u c t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n
. Th e b u l ko f t e a c h i n g i s p e r -
f o r m e d b y i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s
. F u r t h e r , m o s t p l a n n i n g o f i n s t r u c -
t i o n i n a g i v e n c u r r i c u l u m a r e a i s d o n e b y t h e o n e o r t w o t e a c h e r s
w h o s p e c i a l i z e i n t h a t a r e a
. W h o l e - t e a m p l a n n i n g i s m a i n l y a m a t t e r
o f s e t t i n g u p t h e o v e r - a l l t e a m s c h e d u l e , s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
p u p i l s n e e d e d f o r d i a g n o s i s a n d l e s s o n p l a n n i n g , a n d m a ki n g t h e
n e e d e d a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r u s e s o f s p a c e , e q u i p m e n t , a n d l e a r n i n g
m a t e r i a l s .
F o r c e s a n d Id e a s Re s h a p i n g Sc h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n
Th e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e c e p t i o n o f n e w p l a n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e
s c h o o l s a r e i n p a r t o u t g r o w t h s o f g r e a t s o c i e t a l f o r c e s t h a t a r e i m -
p o s i n g c h a n g e s o n a l l o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s , n o t a b l y s u c h f o r c e s a s c h a n g e s
i n j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s , m o u n t i n g u n e m p l o y m e n t , r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n
g r o w t h , a n d t h e c i v i l - r i g h t s r e v o l u t i o n
. Th e r o u t e s a l o n g w h i c h
t h e s e f o r c e s h a v e c o m e t o b e a r o n s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e n a r e i n -
d i r e c t , a n d a t t e m p t s t o t r a c e t h e m a r e b a s e d , n e c e s s a r i l y , o n c o n -
s i d e r a b l e s p e c u l a t i o n .
Th e n a t i o n ' s c o n c e r n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t a l e n t
h a v e a b e a r i n g o n s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . To i m p r o v e a n d h a s t e n t h e
i q . J . Ll o y d Tr u m p a n d Do r s e y B a y n h a m ,
F o c u s o n C h a n g e : Gu i d e t o
B e t t e r Sc h o o l s , p p .
5 3 - 5 7 .
C h i c a g o : Ra n d Mc Na l l y & C o
. , 1 9 6 1 .
z o . C y r i l G . Sa r g e n t , " Th e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Sp a c e , " i n Te a m Te a c h i n g ,
o p . c i t . , c h a p . v i i .
1 2 0

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
e d u c a t i o n o f t a l e n t e d y o u n g p e o p l e , a d v a n c e d p l a c e m e n t p r o g r a m s
h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t e n a b l e g i f t e d h i g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o u n -
d e r t a ke c o l l e g e - l e v e l w o r k . Th e s e p r o g r a m s i m p o s e s t r a i n s o n t h e
c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f h i g h - s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , s i n c e t h e y c a l l
f o r n o n g r a d i n g a n d p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y .
C o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d , l i ke w i s e , a r e
i n f l u e n c e s t o w a r d s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Pr o g r a m s , s u c h a s Ne w
Yo r kC i t y ' s Hi g h e r Ho r i z o n s a n d v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o
r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r o f h i g h - s c h o o l d r o p o u t s , a r e c h a l l e n g i n g c o n -
v e n t i o n a l p l a n s o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t m a ke l i m i t e d p r o v i s i o n s
f o r d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i a l g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s . Th e g r e a t m o v e m e n t
t o i n t e g r a t e t h e n a t i o n ' s s c h o o l s p r o b a b l y w i l l i n f l u e n c e s c h o o l o r -
g a n i z a t i o n . Th e p r o b l e m w h i c h t h i s m o v e m e n t p o s e s t o t h o s e w h o
o r g a n i z e t h e s c h o o l s i s h o w t o t e a c h b o t h t h e p r i v i l e g e d a n d t h e
d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n t h e s a m e s c h o o l w i t h o u t d e f a c t o s e g r e g a t i o n i n
g r o u p i n g f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a n d o n t h e b a s i s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t a u g h t .
So c i e t a l f o r c e s a r e h a v i n g a n i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n s c h o o l r e o r -
g a n i z a t i o n b y l e a d i n g t o a n e w f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l g o a l s o f
e d u c a t i o n . Re f o r m s p o ke s m e n h a v e d e v e l o p e d a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e
e d u c a t i o n t h a t i s n e e d e d t o p r e p a r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r e f f e c t i v e m e m -
b e r s h i p i n a s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y r a p i d a n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e c h a n g e .
Th e n e e d i s f o r e d u c a t i o n f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y , t h a t p l a c e s i t s e m p h a s e s
o n s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s , o n
p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h i n ki n g , a n d o n d e v e l o p i n g s ki l l s o f i n d e p e n d e n t
s t u d y .
Th e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n o n s c h o o l o r -
g a n i z a t i o n i s b e i n g m e d i a t e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w c u r r i c u l a
i n m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e . Th e s e c u r r i c u l a r e q u i r e t h a t t e a c h e r s
u n d e r s t a n d , a n d b e a b l e t o t e a c h , t h e o r y a n d m e t h o d s o f i n q u i r y i n
t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s
. Si n c e m a n y o f t o d a y ' s t e a c h e r s d o n o t m e e t s u c h
r e q u i r e m e n t s , n e w p a t t e r n s f o r d e p l o y i n g t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g r e s o r t e d
t o a s o n e w a y o f i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e t w o s u b j e c t s .
So c i e t a l f o r c e s a r e h a v i n g a r e l a t i v e l y d i r e c t i m p a c t o n s c h o o l
o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e n e w m e d i a o f i n s t r u c t i o n
. Sc i -
e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s t h a t p r o d u c e d t e l e v i s i o n , m a g n e t i c
t a p e s , a n d e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s a r e l e a d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n ,
l e s s o n s o n t a p e s , a n d c o m p u t e r - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n . Th e s e m e d i a , i n
t u r n , a r e s t i m u l a t i n g c e r t a i n c h a n g e s i n s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i n -
HEATHERS

1 2 1
v o l v e t h e r e d e p l o y m e n t o f p u p i l s a n d t e a c h e r s . O t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l
a d v a n c e s w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n t h a t a r e a f f e c t i n g s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e
p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t c a l l s f o r s e t t i n g s f o r i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n -
i n g a n d n e w d e s i g n s f o r s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s t o a c c o m m o d a t e s c h e d u l e
m o d i f i c a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n t h e Tr u m p Pl a n f o r t h e
h i g h s c h o o l .
So m e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s l e a d i n g t o s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r i s e
f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t s i n b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e . In o f f e r i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r
n o n g r a d i n g , Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n r e f e r t o f i n d i n g s f r o m i n v e s t i g a -
t i o n s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s , l e a r n i n g , a n d p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t
t h a t s u p p o r t t h e n o n g r a d e d c o n c e p t
. 2 1
B r u n e r ' s b o o k,
Th e Pr o c e s s
o f Ed u c a t i o n , r e p o r t s t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f a c o n f e r e n c e t h a t e x a m -
i n e d p r i n c i p l e s o f b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e i n t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o e d u c a t i o n a l
p r a c t i c e . 2 2 W h i l e t h i s r e p o r t i s m o r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m ,
i t h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a s n o n g r a d i n g
a n d s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h i n g .
C e r t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p a s t t w o o r
t h r e e d e c a d e s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r e a d i n e s s i n t h e s c h o o l s f o r o r -
g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t
i n d i c a t e s t h a t , b y 1 9 5 0 , m a n y e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t o r s w e r e b e c o m i n g
d i s c o u r a g e d a b o u t t h e p r o s p e c t o f t a ki n g p r o p e r a c c o u n t o f p u p i l
d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m . 2 3
Hu n d r e d s o f r e s e a r c h s t u d -
i e s h a d f a i l e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e e f f e c t i v e w a y s o f a c c o m m o d a t i n g t h e s e
d i f f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h s u c h d e v i c e s a s w i t h i n - g r a d e g r o u p i n g a n d p r o -
m o t i o n o r n o n p r o m o t i o n . 2 4
Al s o , t h e r e h a v e b e e n s i g n s o f a g r o w -
i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m
. F o r e x a m p l e ,
Ac ke r l u n d r e p o r t e d i n
1 9 5 9
t h a t m o s t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s o f
Gr a d e s III- V Ii n o n e l a r g e u r b a n s c h o o l s y s t e m w e r e o p p o s e d t o
t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m
. Ma n y o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t
t h e y d i s l i ke d t e a c h i n g c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s , a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m
2 r . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n , o p . c i t
. ,
c h a p s . i i i a n d v .
2 2 . J e r o m e S. B r u n e r , Th e Pr o c e s s o f Ed u c a t i o n . C a m b r i d g e , Ma s s a c h u s e t t s :
Ha r v a r d Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 6 1 .
2 3 . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n , o p . C i t . , p .
2 0 5 -
2
4 -
Ib i d
. , p p .
3 4 - 3 9 .
1 2 2

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t w e l l p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h r e a d i n g , h i s t o r y ,
g e o g r a p h y , s c i e n c e , a r t , a n d m u s i c .
2 5
Th e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h a
n a t i o n a l s h o r t a g e o f w e l l - t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s , i s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n
t h e g r o w i n g r e c e p t i v i t y o f s c h o o l l e a d e r s t o n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l
p l a n s . Ma n y s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , b e s e t w i t h p r o b l e m s o f t h e
b u d g e t a n d o f s t a f f i n g t h e i r s c h o o l s , a r e a t t r a c t e d t o p l a n s t h a t
p r o m i s e t o a i d i n t e a c h e r r e c r u i t m e n t a n d r e t e n t i o n , o r t h a t p r o m i s e
t o u t i l i z e t e a c h e r s ' s ki l l s m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y
.
W e t u r n n o w t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s t h a t t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f
n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s b e a r t o t h e f o r c e s a n d i d e a s o u t l i n e d i n t h e
f o r e g o i n g p a r a g r a p h s . It a p p e a r s t h a t t h e m o v e m e n t t o n o n g r a d e
t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l h a s a r i s e n m o r e f r o m e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n
e d u c a t i o n , l e s s f r o m s o c i e t a l c h a n g e s o u t s i d e e d u c a t i o n , t h a n h a s
b e e n t h e c a s e w i t h t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n o r t e a m t e a c h i n g
. To a
m a r ke d e x t e n t , t h e t r e n d t o w a r d n o n g r a d i n g r e s u l t s f r o m e d u c a t o r s '
f a i l u r e s t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d b y i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n
t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m .
Th r o u g h i t s p r o v i s i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e s o f p r o g r e s s , n o n -
g r a d i n g c a n h e l p m e e t t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f t a l e n t e d
s t u d e n t s , s l o w l e a r n e r s , a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . B y
f r e e i n g t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e s h a c kl e s o f t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m ,
n o n g r a d i n g a l l o w s t h e m t o p r o g r e s s m o r e r a p i d l y t o w a r d a c h i e v i n g
t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . Th r o u g h r e m o v i n g g r a d e l a b e l s a n d t h r o u g h e l i m -
i n a t i n g a n n u a l p r o m o t i o n o r n o n p r o m o t i o n , a n o n g r a d e d p r o g r a m
l e s s o f t e n s t i g m a t i z e s t h e r e t a r d e d o r s l o w l e a r n e r
. It s e e m s l i ke l y
t h a t n o n g r a d i n g w i l l b e r e s o r t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g l y i n r a c i a l l y i n t e -
g r a t e d s c h o o l s a s a m e a n s o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d r a n g e o f
i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a n d w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l - s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f i n t e -
g r a t e d s c h o o l i n g .
O n e i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t t h a t n o n g r a d i n g c a n h a v e o n t h e q u a l i t y o f
l e a r n i n g i s t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l l e a r n e r s a c h i e v e t h e e s s e n t i a l g o a l s o f
e a c h u n i t o f s t u d y b e f o r e a d v a n c i n g t o t h e n e x t
. Th i s w o u l d b e e x -
p e c t e d t o r e d u c e p u p i l s ' e x p e r i e n c e s o f f a i l u r e a t s c h o o l , i n s u r e
r e a d i n e s s f o r h i g h e r l e v e l s o f w o r k, a n d m i n i m i z e t h e n e e d f o r r e m e -
2 5 . Ge o r g e Ac ke r l u n d , " So m e Te a c h e r V i e w s o n t h e Se l f - c o n t a i n e d C l a s s -
r o o m , " Ph i De l t a K a p p a n , X L
( Ap r i l , 1 9 5 9 ) , 2 8 3 - 8 5 .
HEATHERS

1 2 3
d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e p u r p o s e s o f n o n g r a d e d
p r o g r a m s , i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o d i a g n o s i n g s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g n e e d s
a n d a b i l i t i e s i s r e q u i r e d .
At Me l b o u r n e Hi g h Sc h o o l ( F l o r i d a ) , a c c o r d i n g t o B r o w n ' s r e -
p o r t , i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g i s s t r e s s e d , a n d s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t s a r e
m a d e t o i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p e t e n c i e s i n s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n . 2 6 Th i s
e m p h a s i s o n i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o t h e n e w c o n -
c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y . Al s o , i m p r o v e d s e l f - i n s t r u c -
t i o n l e a d s t o u t i l i z i n g t e a c h e r s m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y s i n c e , w h e n s t u d e n t s
l e a r n i n d e p e n d e n t l y , t e a c h e r s m a y u s e t h e i r t i m e f o r p l a n n i n g , f o r
c o n f e r e n c e s , o r f o r g u i d i n g t h e l e a r n i n g o f s t u d e n t s e i t h e r i n d i v i d -
u a l l y o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s .
Th e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n r e p r e s e n t s a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o g e a r
t h e s c h o o l ' s p r o g r a m t o s o c i e t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e d -
u c a t i o n . Th u s , t h e g r a d e d s y s t e m i s u s e d w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l i m p e r a -
t i v e s t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l p u p i l s m a s t e r t h e r e q u i r e d l e a r n i n g s i n l a n -
g u a g e a r t s a n d s o c i a l s t u d i e s . St o d d a r d r e c o g n i z e s t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s
a n d s c i e n c e a r e b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y v i t a l i n o u r s o c i e t y . Th e d u a l -
p r o g r e s s p l a n , b y p l a c i n g m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e o n a n o n g r a d e d
b a s i s , g i v e s t a l e n t e d p u p i l s f u l l e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r c a -
p a b i l i t i e s i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s w h i l e f r e e i n g l e s s c a p a b l e p u p i l s o f t h e
r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e y s t u d y t h e s e s u b j e c t s a t a d v a n c e d l e v e l s .
To s t r e n g t h e n i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h i m p e r a t i v e s a n d e l e c t i v e s , t h e
d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s o f e a c h c u r r i c u l a r
a r e a . Th i s f e a t u r e o f t h e p l a n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e
t e a c h i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e , a r e a s i n w h i c h m o s t g e n e r a l
e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s h a v e l i t t l e p r e p a r a t i o n o r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t .
St o d d a r d b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p l a n o f u s i n g s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s i n t h e
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l w i l l h e l p d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e n a t i o n a l
s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h e r s . F o r o n e t h i n g , i t m a y u t i l i z e t e a c h e r s ' s t r e n g t h s
m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n . F o r a n o t h e r , t h e p r o -
p o s e d p l a n m a y o f f e r e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s m o r e d e s i r a b l e c a r e e r s ,
t h e r e b y a t t r a c t i n g a b l e r p e o p l e i n t o e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h i n g a n d h o l d -
i n g s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s l o n g e r .
Te a m - t e a c h i n g p l a n s h a v e t h e i r m o s t e v i d e n t r e l a t i o n s t o s o c i e t a l
z 6 . B r o w n , o p . c i t . , c h a p . v .
1 2 4

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
f o r c e s t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n s t h e y m a ke f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e n a -
t i o n a l s h o r t a g e o f w e l l - q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . Th e s e p r o v i s i o n s a r e d e -
s i g n e d t o m a ke m o r e e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t o d a y ' s t e a c h e r s , t o o f f e r t e a c h -
e r s m o r e a t t r a c t i v e c a r e e r s , a n d t o i m p r o v e t h e i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n
o f t e a c h e r s . Th e f e a t u r e s o f t e a m - t e a c h i n g p l a n s t h a t a r e m e a n t t o
i m p r o v e t e a c h e r u t i l i z a t i o n a r e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l a r a r e a s a n d
i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ; t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f t e a c h e r a i d e s a n d c l e r ks
t o r e l i e v e t e a c h e r s o f n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l c h o r e s
; t h e u s e o f t e c h n o l o g i -
c a l a i d s s u c h a s TV , p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n , t a p e s , a n d o v e r h e a d
p r o j e c t o r s
; a n d t h e i n c r e a s e d e m p l o y m e n t o f p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s .
Th e s e a l l a r e w a y s o f s t r e t c h i n g o r f o c u s i n g t e a c h e r t a l e n t s t h a t a r e
i n s h o r t s u p p l y .
Ne w c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e t h e r o l e s o f t e a m
l e a d e r a n d m a s t e r t e a c h e r . Sa l a r y i n c r e m e n t s t h a t s o m e t e a m p l a n s
o f f e r a r e a d d e d a t t r a c t i o n s
. Th e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s p o s i -
t i o n i s e n h a n c e d a l s o b y t h e u s e o f n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l a i d e s , b y e n a b -
l i n g t e a c h e r s t o s p e c i a l i z e , a n d b y g i v i n g t e a c h e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r
i n d i v i d u a l o r t e a m p l a n n i n g d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l d a y
. Pr o p o n e n t s o f
t e a m t e a c h i n g b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t e a m o f f e r s a s u p e r i o r s e t t i n g f o r t h e
i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a n d n e w l y c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r s
.
If s o , t h i s m e a n s t h a t t e a m t e a c h i n g i s a w a y o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e
n a t i o n ' s c o m p l e m e n t o f b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s
.
Te a m - t e a c h i n g p l a n s o f f e r e x c e p t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r o v i d e
f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n e r s t h r o u g h f l e x i b l e g r o u p i n g a n d
f l e x i b l e u s e s o f t e a c h e r s a n d o f l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s
. W h e n n o n g r a d -
i n g i s e m p l o y e d w i t h i n a t e a m - t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m , p r o v i s i o n s f o r
a c c o m m o d a t i n g p u p i l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e n h a n c e d
.
Mo r e t h a n o t h e r t y p e s o f n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s , t e a m t e a c h -
i n g h a s i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e n e w e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y
. Nu m e r o u s
s c h o o l s w i t h t e a m t e a c h i n g m a ke e x t e n s i v e u s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l TV ,
t a p e s , f i l m s t r i p s , a n d p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n
.
In d e v e l o p i n g , t e s t i n g , a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l
p l a n s , t h e s c h o o l - u n i v e r s i t y p a r t n e r s h i p h a s b e e n a m a j o r c o n t r i b -
u t o r
. Pa r t i c u l a r l y h a s t h i s b e e n t h e c a s e w i t h t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n
a n d t e a m t e a c h i n g . Sc h o o l - u n i v e r s i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g t h e
Ex p e r i m e n t a l Te a c h i n g C e n t e r a t Ne w Yo r kUn i v e r s i t y h a v e b e e n
HEATHERS1 2 5
l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w o r ko n t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n
. 2 7 In c o n -
n e c t i o n w i t h t e a m t e a c h i n g , Ha r v a r d Un i v e r s i t y , t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f
W i s c o n s i n , C l a r e m o n t Gr a d u a t e Sc h o o l , t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f Ha w a i i ,
t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f Ma i n e , t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n , a n d o t h e r i n s t i -
t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g h a v e w o r ke d w i t h t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e i r
r e g i o n s
. Ap r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e o f p r o j e c t s t o d e v e l o p t h e d u a l - p r o g -
r e s s p l a n a n d t e a m t e a c h i n g h a s b e e n t h a t t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n p r o -
g r a m s c o n d u c t e d b y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s
h a v e p r e p a r e d
t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r r o l e s i n t h e p l a n s .
To s u m u p , w e h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s b e a r
i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s o m e o f t h e s o c i e t a l f o r c e s a n d i d e a s t h a t
a r e r e s h a p i n g Am e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n
. Th e c l e a r e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t o
t h e i n f l u e n c e s c a l l i n g f o r b e t t e r w a y s o f d e a l i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g l e a r n e r s , f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e a n d m a t h -
e m a t i c s , a n d f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h
o u r s h o r t
s u p p l y o f w e l l - q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i s b e i n g e m p l o y e d
.
It i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t n o n e o f t h e n e w p l a n s b e a r s d i -
r e c t l y o n i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h d e v e l o p m e n t
o f t e a c h i n g t h e o r y , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h i n ki n g ,
a n d s ki l l s i n s e l f -
i n s t r u c t i o n
. Th e p r i m a r y r o u t e s t o w a r d s u c h i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e
t h r o u g h i n n o v a t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l u m a n d t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n .
At m o s t ,
a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n c a n p r o v i d e b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e m p l o y -
i n g c u r r i c u l a a n d t e a c h e r ' s c o m p e t e n c i e s t o g o o d e f f e c t
. 2 8 Pr o v i -
s i o n s o f p l a n s t h a t p r o v i d e f o r n o n g r a d i n g , f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l i n g a n d
g r o u p i n g , t h e u s e o f n e w l e a r n i n g m e d i a , t e a c h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , a n d
t e a m w o r k, a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d t h a t e n d
.
Th e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f
t h e Ne w Pl a n s
In d e s c r i b i n g t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s , t h e i r p u r -
p o s e s w e r e i n d i c a t e d a n d t h e i r f e a t u r e s o u t l i n e d
. Pu r p o s e s s h o u l d
n o t b e c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e o r y
. Th e t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g a p l a n s h o u l d
b e a s y s t e m a t i c s e t o f a s s u m p t i o n s o r p r i n c i p l e s l i n ki n g t h e f e a t u r e s
2 7
. " Th r e e - Ye a r Re p o r t o f t h e Ex p e r i m e n t a l Te a c h i n g C e n t e r , 1 9 5 8 - 6 1 . "
Ne w Yo r k : Ex p e r i m e n t a l Te a c h i n g C e n t e r , Ne w Yo r kUn i v e r s i t y , No v e m b e r
1 , 1 9 6 1 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) .
2 8 . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r a s r e l a t e d t o t e a m t e a c h i n g , s e e Gl e n
He a t h e r s , " Te a m Te a c h i n g a n d t h e Ed u c a t i o n a l Re f o r m Mo v e m e n t , " i n
Te a m
Te a c h i n g , o p
. c i t . , p p .
3 4 7 - 5 2 .
1 2 6

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
o f t h e p l a n w i t h i t s i n t e n d e d o u t c o m e s . J u d g e d a g a i n s t t h i s c r i t e r i o n ,
n o n e o f t h e p l a n s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b l e s s e d w i t h a n a d e q u a t e
b a s i s i n w e l l - f o r m u l a t e d t h e o r y
. Th i s l a c ko f a f o u n d a t i o n i n t e s t e d
t h e o r y c h a r a c t e r i z e s e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e g e n e r a l l y . Th u s , c u r r i c u -
l u m t h e o r y a n d t h e o r y o f t e a c h i n g a r e i n e a r l y s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p -
m e n t .
To s a y t h a t t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s l a c ks y s t e m a t i c b a s e s
i n t h e o r y i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e y a r e d e v o i d o f t h e o r y
. In f a c t , e a c h
o f t h e p l a n s r e s t s o n a n u m b e r o f t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s , o f t e n
i m p l i e d r a t h e r t h a n s t a t e d . Th e n a t u r e o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s m e r i t s
e x a m i n a t i o n .
Th e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g n o n g r a d i n g a r e t h a t l e a r n i n g
e f f e c t i v e n e s s , m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n , a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h a l l w i l l b e e n -
h a n c e d i f t h e s t u d e n t ' s r a t e o f a d v a n c e m e n t i n e a c h c u r r i c u l u m a r e a
i s g e a r e d t o h i s c a p a c i t i e s
. No n g r a d i n g , i t i s a s s u m e d , w i l l r e d u c e
s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s o f f a i l u r e a n d r e j e c t i o n b e c a u s e t h e p a c e i s t o o
f a s t , o r o f b o r e d o m a n d c h e a p s u c c e s s b e c a u s e t h e p a c e i s t o o s l o w .
F o r t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f l e a r n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n ,
a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h , n o n g r a d e d p l a n s a s s u m e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a d a p t e d
t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l r e s u l t f r o m e r a s i n g g r a d e - l e v e l b o u n d -
a r i e s , s e t t i n g u p n o n g r a d e d c u r r i c u l a r s e q u e n c e s , a n d e m p l o y i n g
s u c h p r a c t i c e s a s m u l t i a g e o r a c h i e v e m e n t - l e v e l g r o u p i n g . Th e r a -
t i o n a l e s o f n o n g r a d e d p l a n s w o u l d b e s t r e n g t h e n e d i f t h e y a d d e d
a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t e a c h e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n t o c o n d u c t n o n g r a d e d w o r k
a n d t h e i r s ki l l s i n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e t e a c h e r s m u s t b e
d e p e n d e d u p o n t o c a r r y n o n g r a d i n g f r o m p l a n i n t o r e a l i t y
.
W o o d r i n g c i t e s t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n a s b e i n g " c l o s e l y r e l a t e d
t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . " 2 9
Th i s i s t r u e f o r s o m e o f t h e f e a t u r e s
o f t h e p l a n , s u c h a s t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r a n e m o t i o n a l - s o c i a l h o m e b a s e
i n t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s - s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s , f o r d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g e x -
p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e " b r i g h t " a n d t h e " d u l l , " a n d f o r s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s
w h o kn o w a n d l i ke t h e s u b j e c t s t h e y a r e a s s i g n e d t o t e a c h . Hc . v -
e v e r , i n c o m m o n w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s , t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s
p l a n l a c ks a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n t h a t t a ke s a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f
2 9 . Pa u l W o o d r i n g , " Re f o r m Mo v e m e n t s f r o m t h e Po i n t o f V i e w o f
Ps y c h o l o g i c a l Th e o r y , " i n Th e o r i e s o f Le a r n i n g a n d In s t r u c t i o n , o p . c i t . ,
P
. 3 0 3 .
HEATHERS

1 2 7
t h e c o m p l e x o f v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g o u t -
c o m e s i n g r a d e d a n d n o n g r a d e d s u b j e c t s . Tr u e , i n h i s v o l u m e o n
t h e p l a n , St o d d a r d d e v o t e d c h a p t e r s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c u r -
r i c u l u m a n d t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n t h a t a r e n e e d e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e
p l a n . 3 0 B u t h e h a s n o t o f f e r e d a s y s t e m a t i c r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p l a n
t h a t a r t i c u l a t e s h i s i d e a s a b o u t s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m , a n d
t e a c h i n g a s t h e y b e a r o n i n t e n d e d o u t c o m e s o f t h e p l a n
.
Th e v o l u m e o n t e a m t e a c h i n g e d i t e d b y Sh a p l i n a n d O l d s r e p -
r e s e n t s t h e m o s t s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t t h a t h a s b e e n m a d e t o d e v e l o p
a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n . Sh a p l i n p r e s e n t s a
c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " To w a r d a Th e o r e t i c a l Ra t i o n a l e f o r Te a m Te a c h -
i n g , " w h i l e o t h e r c h a p t e r s i n t h e b o o kc o n s i d e r t h e t a x o n o m y o f
t e a m t e a c h i n g , t e a m t e a c h i n g a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m w i t h s p e c i a l r e f -
e r e n c e t o l a r g e - g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r , a n d p r o b -
l e m s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Th e a u t h o r s o f t h e s e v e r a l
c h a p t e r s h a v e l o o ke d t o t h e t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e f o r m o d e l s
t h a t c a n b e a p p l i e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r a t i o n a l e f o r t e a m t e a c h -
i n g . B u t t h e t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e r e l a t i n g t o g r o u p s a n d
o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s n o t w e l l d e v e l o p e d , a s B r a y h a s n o t e d . 3 1 Al s o , t h e
t a s ko f a d a p t i n g s u c h p r i n c i p l e s a s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n b e h a v -
i o r a l s c i e n c e t o t h e v a r i a b l e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f t e a m t e a c h i n g i s a
d i f f i c u l t o n e t h a t h a s n o t y e t b e e n s o l v e d .
Sc h o o l Re o r g a n i z a t i o n To d a y : It s Ex t e n t a n d Si g n i f i c a n c e
To d a y ' s m o v e m e n t t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e s c h o o l s h a s d e v e l o p e d a l -
m o s t e n t i r e l y s i n c e 1 9 5 7 , t h o u g h a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f n o n -
g r a d e d p r o g r a m s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r . In
1 9 5 7 , t h e f i r s t m a j o r t e a m - t e a c h i n g p r o j e c t s w e r e l a u n c h e d
. In
1 9 5 8 ,
t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n w a s f i r s t p l a c e d i n o p e r a t i o n a n d t h e f i r s t
n o n g r a d e d h i g h - s c h o o l p r o g r a m w a s i n t r o d u c e d .
Da t a o n t h e n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s e m p l o y i n g t h e n e w p l a n s o f o r -
g a n i z a t i o n a r e s c a n t y a n d u n r e l i a b l e . Th e m o s t e x t e n s i v e d a t a c o m e
f r o m a 1 9 6 1 s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d b y t h e NEAPr o j e c t o n In s t r u c t i o n
i n w h i c h a s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e o f t h e n a t i o n ' s e l e m e n t a r y - a n d s e c o n d -
3 0 . St o d d a r d ,
Th e Du a l Pr o g r e s s Pl a n , o p . c i t . , c h a p s . , v i i i a n d
i x .
3 1 . C h a r l e s W
. B r a y , " To w a r d a Te c h n o l o g y
o f Hu m a n B e h a v i o r f o r
De f e n s e Us e , "
Am e r i c a n Ps y c h o l o g i s t , X V II
( Au g u s t , 1 9 6 2 ) , 5 3 4
- 3 6 .
1 2 8

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
a r y - s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s r e s p o n d e d t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o n p r a c t i c e s i n
t h e i r s c h o o l s
. 3 2 Th e p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t e d l o c a l p r a c t i c e s a s o f 1 9 5 6
a n d
1 9 6 1 a n d p r e d i c t e d w h a t t h e p r a c t i c e s w o u l d b e i n
1 9 6 6 .
Ac c o r d i n g t o t h e NEAs u r v e y , s o m e n o n g r a d i n g e x i s t e d i n
6
p e r c e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n 1 9 5 6 ,
i n 1 2 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 6 1 . Th e
i n c i d e n c e e s t i m a t e d f o r 1 9 6 6 w a s 2 6
p e r c e n t
. 3 3
No c o m p a r a b l e
s u r v e y d a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d o n n o n g r a d i n g i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l
. Ho w -
e v e r , t h e Ad v a n c e d Pl a c e m e n t Pr o g r a m w a s c r e d i t e d w i t h a n i m -
p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e o n h i g h - s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n b y
1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s e c o n d a r y p r i n c i p a l s a n d w i t h a s l i g h t i n f l u e n c e b y a n a d d i t i o n a l
4 4
p e r c e n t . 3 4
Th e s e s u r v e y f i n d i n g s o n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f n o n g r a d -
i n g g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f t h e b r e a kd o w n o f t h e
g r a d e d s y s t e m . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n f o u n d i n t h e i r
1 9 6 o s u r v e y
t h a t m a n y s c h o o l s c a l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s n o n g r a d e d w e r e
c o n f u s i n g
h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g w i t h c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r e s s
. 3 5 Al s o , m o s t o f
t h e n o n g r a d e d p r o g r a m s t h a t e x i s t a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l
a n d p r o v i d e f o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r e s s o n l y i n t h e s ki l l s s e q u e n c e s o f
r e a d i n g a n d a r i t h m e t i c .
Th e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n , a s o f
1 9 6 5 , i s i n o p e r a t i o n i n a b o u t o n e
d o z e n c o m m u n i t i e s , m a i n l y i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s o f t h e e l e -
m e n t a r y s c h o o l
. It a p p e a r s t h a t a n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s y s t e m s h a s
a d o p t e d t h e p l a n b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s i n t h e a r e a s
o f m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e
. In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , f i n d i n g s o f t h e NEA
s u r v e y o n t h e e x t e n t o f d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l
a r e o f i n t e r e s t , s i n c e s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h i n g a n d
d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n
u s u a l l y g o h a n d i n h a n d
. Ev i d e n t l y t h e r e i s a t r e n d t o w a r d d e p a r t -
m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n t h e u p p e r g r a d e s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , s i n c e
z o p e r c e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t e d t h a t s o m e d e p a r t -
m e n t a l i z a t i o n e x i s t e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l s i n 1 9 5 6 , 3 6
p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d
s o m e i n 1 9 6 1 , a n d
4 9 p e r c e n t p r e d i c t e d t h a t s o m e w o u l d b e p r e s e n t
3 2
. Th e Pr i n c i p a l s Lo o ka t t h e Sc h o o l s
: ASt a t u s St u d y o f Se l e c t e d In s t r u c -
t i o n a l Pr a c t i c e s . NEAPr o j e c t o n t h e In s t r u c t i o n a l Pr o g r a m
o f t h e Pu b l i c
Sc h o o l s
. W a s h i n g t o n : Na t i o n a l Ed u c a t i o n As s o c i a t i o n , Ap r i l ,
1 9 6 2 .
3 3 .
Ib i d . ,
PP- 3 9 - 4 0 -
3 4 - Ib i d . , p . 2 6 .
3 5 .
J o h n I. Go o d l a d a n d Ro b e r t H
. An d e r s o n , " Ed u c a t i o n a l Pr a c t i c e s i n
No n g r a d e d Sc h o o l s : ASu r v e y o f Pe r c e p t i o n s , "
El e m e n t a r y Sc h o o l J o u r n a l ,
LX III( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 8 .
HEATHERS

1 2 9
i n 1 9 6 6 . 3 6
Ad o p t i o n s o f t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n a l s o a r e c o n s i s t e n t
w i t h t h e t r e n d t o w a r d n o n g r a d i n g , s i n c e n o n g r a d e d g r o u p i n g a n d
a d v a n c e m e n t a r e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a n .
W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s h a v i n g
s o m e t e a m t e a c h i n g , t h e NEAs u r v e y r e p o r t e d
5
p e r c e n t f o r 1 9 5 6 ,
1 5 p e r c e n t f o r 1 9 6 1 , a n d
3 0
p e r c e n t ( e s t i m a t e d ) f o r 1 9 6 6 . At t h e
s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t s w e r e 5 ,
1 2 , a n d
3 1
. 3 7
As i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e s u r v e y d a t a o n n o n g r a d i n g , i t i s l i ke l y t h a t
t h e s e p e r c e n t s o v e r e s t i m a t e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t e a m t e a c h i n g i n t h e
n a t i o n ' s s c h o o l s
. Pr o b a b l y m a n y p r i n c i p a l s l a b e l e d a n y t y p e o f
t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a s t e a m t e a c h i n g
. In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , i t m a y
b e n o t e d t h a t 5 p e r c e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y p r i n c i p a l s
r e p o r t e d s o m e t e a m t e a c h i n g i n t h e i r s c h o o l s a s o f 1 9 5 6 - o n e y e a r
b e f o r e t h e f i r s t m a j o r p r o j e c t s i n t e a m t e a c h i n g w e r e l a u n c h e d
.
Al s o , t h e NEAs u r v e y f o u n d t h a t , i n s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g t e a m t e a c h -
i n g , t h e p r a c t i c e u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f p u p i l s
a n d t e a c h e r s .
It i s h a z a r d o u s t o p r e d i c t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e n e w o r g a n i z a -
t i o n a l p l a n s w i l l g a i n a c c e p t a n c e i n Am e r i c a ' s s c h o o l s
. C e r t a i n l y
t h e r e a r e g o o d r e a s o n s f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r a d e d
s y s t e m w i l l n o t s u r v i v e t h e c u r r e n t t i d e o f c h a n g e i n s c h o o l o r g a n -
i z a t i o n
. W i t h r e s p e c t t o v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , Go o d l a d a n d An d e r -
s o n s t a t e t h a t " t h e r e a r e p r o b a b l y n o t v e r y m a n y s c h o o l s i n t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s w h i c h h a v e n o t b e e n m o v i n g ( c o n s c i o u s l y o r o t h e r -
w i s e ) i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a n o n g r a d e d p r o g r a m
. "
In s u p p o r t o f t h i s
p o s i t i o n , t h e y w r i t e
: " W i t n e s s t h e a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t i n r e p o r t
c a r d r e f o r m , i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f p r o m o t i o n
v s . n o n p r o m o t i o n , i n
p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i n p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e n e e d s o f
a t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , a n d i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o n e e d s
o f t h e c h i l d . "
3 3
Th e r e a r e s t r o n g r e a s o n s f o r p r e d i c t i n g a l s o t h a t t h e s e l f - c o n -
t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m w i l l b e r e p l a c e d w i t h o t h e r p a t t e r n s o f h o r i z o n t a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n
. Th e t r e n d s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n v o l v e
3 6
. Th e Pr i n c i p a l s Lo o ka t t h e Sc h o o l s . . . ,
o p . c i t . , p
. 1 3 -
3 7 - Ib i d . , p . i 8
.
3 8 . Go o d l a d a n d An d e r s o n ,
Th e No n g r a d e d El e m e n t a r y Sc h o o l , o p . c i t
. ,
p . 1 7 8 .
1 3 0

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
p r o v i s i o n s f o r n e w p a t t e r n s o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; f o r g r e a t e r f l e x i -
b i l i t y i n t h e u s e s o f p e r s o n n e l , t i m e , s p a c e , a n d e q u i p m e n t ; a n d f o r
g r e a t e r t e a c h e r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g a n d c o n d u c t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n .
Ap p r a i s i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t o d a y ' s m o v e m e n t t o r e o r g a n i z e
t h e s c h o o l s c a l l s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h r e e r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s : Ar e t h e
p l a n s w e l l d e s i g n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r i n t e n d e d e d u c a t i o n a l o u t -
c o m e s ? Ho w f u l l y a r e t h e p l a n s b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d i n l o c a l p r o -
g r a m s ? W h a t e v i d e n c e i s t h e r e t h a t t h e p l a n s c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d t h e
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n ?
Ev i d e n c e t h a t t h e p l a n s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n h a v e n o t b e e n
a d e q u a t e l y d e s i g n e d w a s o f f e r e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , w h e r e i t
w a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t n o n e o f t h e p l a n s h a s a f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d r a t i o n a l e
t h a t l i n ks i t s f e a t u r e s w i t h i n t e n d e d o u t c o m e s . In t h e e a r l i e r s e c t i o n
r e l a t i n g t h e p l a n s t o s o c i e t a l f o r c e s a n d i d e a s , i t w a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t
t h e p l a n s b e a r m a i n l y i n d i r e c t a n d t e n u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e
e m e r g e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y
. Pe r h a p s t h e
m o s t s e r i o u s w e a kn e s s i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e p l a n s i s t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e
s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s w h e r e b y t h o s e
f e a t u r e s a r e t o b e b r o u g h t t o l i f e i n t h e c o n d u c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Th i s
s h o r t c o m i n g i n t e a m - t e a c h i n g p l a n s h a s b e e n a n a l y z e d i n s o m e d e t a i l
b y t h e w r i t e r .
3 9
Th e b u l ko f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e o n s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n
w o u l d l e a d t h e o u t s i d e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f
n o n g r a d i n g , d u a l p r o g r e s s , a n d t e a m - t e a c h i n g p l a n s i s t h e r u l e i n
s c h o o l s t h a t h a v e i n t r o d u c e d t h e m . C e r t a i n l y i t i s t r u e t h a t m a n y
s c h o o l s h a v e p l a c e d t h e m a i n s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a n s i n
o p e r a t i o n a n d w i t h s o m e s u c c e s s i n t h a t t h e p l a n s u s u a l l y h a v e b e e n
r e t a i n e d i n t h e s c h o o l s t h a t t r i e d t h e m
. Al s o , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s ,
p u p i l s , a n d p a r e h t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r y o u t s o f t h e p l a n s h a v e u s u a l l y
b e c o m e a n d r e m a i n e d f a v o r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o w a r d t h e m . De s p i t e
t h e s e p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s , t h e e v i d e n t f a c t i s t h a t s e l d o m , i f e v e r ,
h a s o n e o f t h e p l a n s b e e n p l a c e d i n f u l l a n d e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n .
Ev e n i n l o c a l p r o j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f s c h o o l - u n i v e r s i t y
c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d h e a v y f o u n d a t i o n s u p p o r t , t h e p r o b l e m s o f i m p l e -
m e n t a t i o n h a v e b e e n o n l y p a r t i a l l y s o l v e d .
; 9 . He a t h e r s , " Te a m Te a c h i n g a n d t h e Ed u c a t i o n a l
Re f o r m Mo v e m e n t , "
O P. c i t . ,
PP. 3 5 7 -
6 2 .
HEATHERS
1 3 1
Im p l e m e n t i n g a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n t h a t i s i n t e n d e d t o i m p r o v e
t h e q u a l i t y o r e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n e v i t a b l y g o e s b e y o n d
s t r i c t l y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t t e r s t o i n v o l v e p r o b l e m s o f c u r r i c u l u m
c o n t e n t a n d s t r u c t u r e , p u p i l d i a g n o s i s a n d e v a l u a t i o n , a n d t e a c h e r
e d u c a t i o n . Th e a t t e m p t t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p l a n , i t p r o v e s , c a n n o t b e
s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l a l l e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , a s
s y s t e m , h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t i n t o e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
Ha v e t h e n e w p l a n s b e e n s h o w n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e q u a l i t y o f
i n s t r u c t i o n ? Th e g r e a t b u l ko f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e b e e n
p u b l i s h e d h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p l a n u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a d n o
s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o n p u p i l a c h i e v e m e n t a s m e a s u r e d b y n a t i o n a l l y
s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s
. O n l y a s c a t t e r i n g o f s t u d i e s o f n o n g r a d i n g , d u a l
p r o g r e s s , o r t e a m t e a c h i n g h a v e y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n
p u p i l a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t f a v o r e d t h e n e w p l a n s
. 4 0 An u m b e r o f
r e p o r t s o f t e s t s o f t h e n e w p l a n s h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p l a n s h a v e
i m p r o v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o s u c h a i m s a s t e a c h i n g p r o b l e m -
s o l v i n g t h i n ki n g a n d i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y
. Ho w e v e r , t h e s e c l a i m s h a v e
n o t b e e n s u b s t a n t i a t e d s i n c e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s u s e d - t h e St a n -
f o r d , Io w a , C a l i f o r n i a , Me t r o p o l i t a n , a n d t h e l i ke - s t r e s s t h e
m e a s u r e m e n t o f t e r m s , t o o l s ki l l s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o r y , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h i n ki n g , o r s e l f - d i r e c t e d
l e a r n i n g . Th e g e n e r a l f a i l u r e o f t h e n e w p l a n s t o i n c r e a s e p u p i l
a c h i e v e m e n t m a y w e l l b e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t b e e n
e f f e c t i v e l y i m p l e m e n t e d
. Im p l e m e n t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f
a p l a n i s n o t l i ke l y t o a f f e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l o u t c o m e s u n t i l t h e c o n t e n t
a n d m e t h o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n h a v e b e e n a d a p t e d t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f
t h e p l a n .
O n e f i n d i n g w i t h a l l t h r e e t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s i s t h a t
t h e y a r e n o t d e l e t e r i o u s t o p u p i l s ' p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t
.
Ma n y d e f e n d e r s o f t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m h a v e w a r n e d t h a t
e l e m e n t a r y - s c h o o l p u p i l s w o u l d b e h a r m e d b y p l a n s t h a t r e q u i r e d
t h e m t o m o v e f r o m c l a s s t o c l a s s , r o o m t o r o o m , a n d t e a c h e r t o
4 0 .
Gl e n He a t h e r s , " Re s e a r c h o n Te a m Te a c h i n g , " i n
Te a m Te a c h i n g , o p .
c i t . , p p . 3 2 6 - 3 1 ; Ph i l i p
La m b e r t e t . a l . , C l a s s r o o m In t e r a c t i o n , Pu p i l Ac h i e v e -
m e n t a n d Ad j u s t m e n t i n Te a m Te a c h i n g a s C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e Se l f - c o n t a i n e d
C l a s s r o o m ( Ma d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n
: Un i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 6 4 ) ; Th r e e - Ye a r
Re p o r t o f t h e Ex p e r i m e n t a l Te a c h i n g C e n t e r , 1 9 5 8 - 6 1 , o p
. c i t . , p p . 8 - 1 4 ;
Ro b e r t
F . C a r b o n e , " A C o m p a r i s o n o f
Gr a d e d a n d No n - g r a d e d El e m e n t a r y Sc h o o l s , "
El e m e n t a r y Sc h o o l J o u r n a l , LX II( No v e m b e r ,
1 9 6 1 ) , 8 2 - 8 8 .
1 3 2

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
t e a c h e r
. Th e w e i g h t o f t h e e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e g r e a t
m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s l i ke t h e n e w p l a n s , e n j o y c h a n g i n g c l a s s e s a n d
t e a c h e r s , a n d a d j u s t w e l l t o t h e v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g s t h e p l a n s
p r o v i d e
. 4 1
Im p o r t a n t p u r p o s e s o f t h e d u a l - p r o g r e s s p l a n a n d t e a m - t e a c h i n g
p l a n s a r e t o i m p r o v e t h e e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h o u r l i m i t e d s u p p l y
o f w e l l - q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i s u s e d , a s w e l l a s t o p r o v i d e n e w c a r e e r
o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a t t r a c t a n d h o l d s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s
. Ho w e f f e c t i v e
t h e p l a n s h a v e b e e n i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s c a n o n l y b e g u e s s e d a t , s i n c e
r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s p r o v i d e s c a r c e l y a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e e f f e c t s
o f t h e p l a n s o n t e a c h e r r e c r u i t m e n t a n d r e t e n t i o n o r o n t h e c o s t s o f
i n s t r u c t i o n . Th u s , i n h i s r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h o n t e a m t e a c h i n g a s o f
1 9 6 2 , t h e w r i t e r f o u n d v i r t u a l l y n o r e p o r t s b e a r i n g o n t h e s e p o i n t s
. 4 2
Th e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s s h o u l d b e
c o n s i d e r e d a s o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e o u t c o m e s t o b e
e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s . Mo s t o f t h e r e s e a r c h
s t u d i e s o n w h i c h t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e b a s e d w e r e p o o r l y d e s i g n e d
.
F e w o f t h e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d m e a s u r e s o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a n s
b e i n g c o m p a r e d a s i m p l e m e n t e d
. Mo s t o f t h e s t u d i e s l a c ke d a d e q u a t e
c o n t r o l s o f p u p i l , t e a c h e r , a n d g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s
. F o r
i l l u s t r a t i v e e v i d e n c e o n t h e s e p o i n t s , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e
w r i t e r ' s r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o n t e a m t e a c h i n g
. 4 3
Th e Pr o s p e c t s f o r St r e n g t h e n i n g Ed u c a t i o n
b y Sc h o o l Re o r g a n i z a t i o n
To d a t e , t h e m o v e m e n t t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e s c h o o l s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d
m o r e b y q u a n t i t y t h a n b y q u a l i t y
. Mo s t o f t h e t h o u s a n d s o f l o c a l
p r o g r a m s t h a t e m p l o y t h e n e w p l a n s i n v o l v e a h a s t y a n d s u p e r f i c i a l
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f a p l a n w i t h o u t m a ki n g
a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e n e e d e d c h a n g e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
a n d p r o c e d u r e s a n d w i t h o u t p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e r e q u i r e d s t a f f r e -
t r a i n i n g . As a r e s u l t , w e h a v e n u m e r o u s n o n g r a d e d s c h o o l s t h a t
4 1
. He a t h e r s , " Re s e a r c h o n Te a m Te a c h i n g , " o p
. c i t . , p p
. 3 3 1 - 3 5
; Th r e e -
Ye a r Re p o r t o f t h e Ex p e r i m e n t a l Te a c h i n g C e n t e r , 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 6 1 , o p
. c i t . , p p . 1 4 - z o
;
C a r b o n e , o p . c i t .
4 2
. He a t h e r s , " Re s e a r c h o n Te a m Te a c h i n g , " o p
. c i t . , p p
. 3 3 9 - 4 1 -
4 3 - ] b i d
. , PP. 3 2 2 - 4 1 .
HEATHERS

1
3 3
e r a s e g r a d e l a b e l s b u t f a i l t o p r o v i d e n o n g r a d e d i n s t r u c t i o n , d u a l -
p r o g r e s s - p l a n s c h o o l s i n w h i c h p u p i l s a r e g r o u p e d i n g r a d e d a n d
n o n g r a d e d c l a s s e s u n d e r s p e c i a l i s t - t e a c h e r s b u t w i t h f e w c h a n g e s
i n i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d s c h o o l s w i t h t e a m t e a c h i n g t h a t e m p l o y l i t t l e
t e a m w o r ki n p l a n n i n g a n d m a ke f e w c h a n g e s i n p r o c e d u r e s o f
g r o u p i n g a n d t e a c h i n g f r o m t h o s e o f t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m .
Ev e n t h e m a j o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s o n t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s ,
d e s p i t e l e a d e r s h i p f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d l a r g e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ,
h a v e s e r i o u s w e a kn e s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e d e s i g n ,
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p l a n s u n d e r s t u d y . Q u i t e a
n u m b e r o f t h e s e s c h o o l - u n i v e r s i t y p r o j e c t s a r e s t a f f e d w i t h a b l e
l e a d e r s i n b o t h t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d t h e c o - o p e r a t i n g s c h o o l s
. Th e
s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t e d u c a t o r s d o n o t y e t
kn o w h o w t o d e s i g n a n d c o n d u c t e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m s o f o r g a n i z a -
t i o n a l c h a n g e .
Av e r y r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n t h a t m a y h e l p r e m e d y
t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e g i o n a l Ed u c a t i o n a l Re s e a r c h
a n d De v e l o p m e n t C e n t e r s u n d e r t h e f i n a n c i a l s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s O f f i c e o f Ed u c a t i o n . Ac t i v i t i e s o f t h e c e n t e r s w i l l
p r o c e e d f r o m b e h a v i o r a l - s c i e n c e t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h t h r o u g h a p -
p l i e d r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i -
a l s , e q u i p m e n t , p r o c e d u r e s , o r p r o g r a m s w h i c h t h e y h a v e d e v e l o p e d
a n d t e s t e d . If t h e r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t e r s a r e s u c c e s s f u l ,
e d u c a t i o n w i l l h a v e , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , a b a s i s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g
f u n d a m e n t a l r e f o r m s o n a t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l .
Re s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t e r s t h a t f o c u s o n p r o b l e m s o f
s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t t a ke a c c o u n t o f t h e f a c t t h a t s u c c e s s f u l
s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e f u n c -
t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g a l l o f t h e m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e
s c h o o l a s a d y n a m i c s y s t e m
. Th i s m e a n s t h a t t h e c e n t e r s s h o u l d
e n c o m p a s s i n t h e i r w o r k, a l o n g s i d e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a n d
p r o c e d u r e s , m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l u m , i n p u p i l d i a g n o s i s a n d
e v a l u a t i o n , a n d i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f l o c a l s c h o o l l e a d e r s a n d t e a c h e r s
.
Ake y f u n c t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u l d b e t o p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g
p r o g r a m s f o r s c h o o l l e a d e r s t h a t w i l l p r e p a r e t h e m t o p l a n a n d
c o n d u c t l o c a l i m p r o v e m e n t p r o j e c t s . Th e w e a kn e s s e s i n t h e d e s i g n
a n d e x e c u t i o n o f m o s t l o c a l p r o j e c t s i n s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t e s t
t o t h e f a c t t h a t s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d p r i n c i p a l s g e n e r a l l y l a c k
1 3 4

SC HO O LO RGANIZATIO N
t h e t r a i n i n g n e e d e d f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e
.
Ac h a l l e n g i n g t a s kf o r u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t e r s
i s t o d e s i g n a n d c o n d u c t a d e q u a t e p r e s e r v i c e a n d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g
p r o g r a m s f o r l o c a l s c h o o l l e a d e r s i n t h e i r r o l e s a s a g e n t s o f c h a n g e
.
Al e s s o n l e a r n e d b y l e a d e r s o f p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e n e w
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s i s t h a t m o s t t e a c h e r s h a v e h a d v e r y l i t t l e t r a i n -
i n g i n h o w t o d i r e c t t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n t o w a r d s u c h l e a r n i n g g o a l s
a s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h i n ki n g a n d s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , o r h o w t o
i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n . In c o n s e q u e n c e , p r o j e c t l e a d e r s f i n d t h a t
t e a c h e r s a r e u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e n e w
p l a n s i n t h e c o n d u c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n
. F o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h e r s w h o d i d
a n i n a d e q u a t e j o b o f i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d
c l a s s r o o m a r e i l l - p r e p a r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n i n a n o n g r a d e d
s c h o o l
. B e f o r e t h e n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s c a n b e i m p l e m e n t e d
s u c c e s s f u l l y , s u c h s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t e a c h e r s ' p r e p a r a t i o n m u s t b e
r e m e d i e d t h r o u g h r a d i c a l l y n e w p r o g r a m s o f p r e s e r v i c e a n d i n -
s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n .
Th e p r o s p e c t t h a t t h e n e w a p p r o a c h e s t o s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l
i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y d e p e n d s g r e a t l y o n
w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s a c h i e v e a h i g h p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l i n
t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t r a i n i n g f u n c t i o n s .
Th e p u r p o s e s a n d f e a t u r e s o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f p l a n s u n d e r c o n -
s i d e r a t i o n b e a r i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s t o s o c i e t a l f o r c e s c a l l i n g f o r
e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e , t o d e v e l o p m e n t s i n b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e t h a t c a n
c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c o n d u c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t o p r e s s u r e s t o w a r d
r e f o r m a r i s i n g w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n
. Ac r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , s c h o o l a d m i n -
i s t r a t o r s a n d t e a c h e r s , a s w e l l a s c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s , a r e s h o w i n g a
r e a d i n e s s t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e s c h o o l s i n t e r m s o f n o n g r a d i n g , s c h e d u l e
m o d i f i c a t i o n s , n e w p a t t e r n s o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , a n d t e a c h e r t e a m -
w o r k
. It i s t h e t a s ko f t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , w o r ki n g i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n
w i t h l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s , t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t , e v a l u a t i o n , a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s u c h c h a n g e s i n
s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n .
C HAPTER V I
Sc h o o l h o u s e i n Tr a n s i t i o n
HARO LDB . GO RES
Sc h o o l h o u s e s a r e t h e m o s t n u m e r o u s o f a l l p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s -
t h e r e a r e m o r e t h a n i o o , o o o s c a t t e r e d a c r o s s t h e l a n d . An d o f a l l
p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , t h e s c h o o l h o u s e i s t h e o n e w h i c h m o r e p e o p l e c a r e
a b o u t a n d a r g u e a b o u t t h a n a n y o t h e r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g . Ho w i t
s h o u l d s e r v e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , w h a t i t s h o u l d b e , i s t o d a y a l i v e l y i s s u e
.
Th e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s i s s u e m a y c o m e a s a s u r p r i s e t o t h e r e a d e r s
o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h d e a l s l a r g e l y w i t h c h a n g e i n
s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d h o w t e a c h e r s a n d c h i l d r e n s h o u l d r e l a t e t o e a c h
o t h e r . Th i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e
. Af t e r a l l , n o t m u c h w a s h a p p e n i n g
t o t h e s c h o o l h o u s e u n t i l r e c e n t l y . An d b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s a n d c h i l -
d r e n a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e a b o u t a s c h o o l , c o n c e r n
a b o u t t h e b u i l d i n g s , t h e e q u i p m e n t , a n d t h e t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t h a s
o f t e n b e e n l e f t t o a r c h i t e c t s a n d o f f i c i a l s " i n c h a r g e o f s c h o o l p l a n t
. "
Th e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e p u n d i t s , a n d m a n y p r a c t i c i n g e d u c a t o r s h a v e
i g n o r e d t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n , b e l i e v i n g i t t o b e
- w i t h o u t h a v i n g l o o ke d t o s e e - m o s t l y a m a t t e r o f n u t s a n d b o l t s .
Th e p h i l o s o p h i c a l n e g l e c t o f t h e Am e r i c a n s c h o o l h o u s e h a s r e s u l t e d
i n t h e f o r c i n g o f e d u c a t i o n t o f i t t h o u s a n d s o f Pr o c r u s t e a n b e d s .
B u t t h e r e i s m o v e m e n t n o w i n a n e w d i r e c t i o n . Su p e r i n t e n d e n t s ,
h e a d m a s t e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , a n d t e a c h e r s , t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h e d u c a t i n g
t h e y o u n g , h a v e c o m e t o r e a l i z e i t i s p r o p e r a n d n e c e s s a r y t o s p e n d
t i m e a n d t h o u g h t o n h o w t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s
o f e d u c a t i o n m a y b e s t b e s h e l t e r e d a n d s e r v e d . Ev e n t h e m a n i n t h e
s t r e e t kn o w s t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l h o u s e a f f e c t s h i s c h i l d r e n ' s
l e a r n i n g a n d , w a n t i n g t h e m o s t f o r h i s m o n e y , w i l l v o t e - i f g i v e n
t h e f a c t s - f o r s c h o o l s t h a t s e r v e t h e i r p r o p e r f u n c t i o n .
Ha p p i l y f o r o u r n a t i o n , t h e d a y i s g o n e w h e n t h e s c h o o l h o u s e
w a s r e g a r d e d p r i m a r i l y a s a n a n t i s e p t i c , i n d e s t r u c t i b l e c o n t a i n e r f o r
1 3 5
1 3 6

SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
g r a d e s a n d c l a s s e s , a c e r a m i c e g g - c r a t e o f u n i f o r m b o x e s
. Th e
a n c i e n t ( c i r c a 1 9 5 7 ) c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f b u i l d i n g s
n o l o n g e r s u f f i c e
: t h e l i f e e x p e c t a n c y o f c o n c r e t e f l o o r s , t h e n u m b e r
o f g e n e r a t i o n s o f s e r v i c e g i v e n b y a n i r o n c h a i r , c h e a p n e s s o f
m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d , l o o m i n g o v e r a l l , t h e i n i t i a l c o s t p e r s q u a r e f o o t ,
p e r h e a d , o r p e r s e a t
.
F o r t u n a t e l y , m o r e c o m m u n i t i e s n o w c a r e m o r e a b o u t p e r f o r m -
a n c e t h a n p e r m a n e n c e , m o r e a b o u t e c o n o m y i n t h e l o n g r u n t h a n
c h e a p n e s s i n f i r s t c o s t
. An d m a n y c o m m u n i t i e s c a r e m o r e d e e p l y
a b o u t t h e w a s t e o f u n f u l f i l l e d p o t e n t i a l i n t h e s c h o o l h o u s e t h a t d o e s
n o t s u p p o r t l e a r n i n g t h a n a b o u t t h e c o s t o f o n e w h i c h d o e s
.
Th e c h a n g e i n t o d a y ' s s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s d e r i v e s , a s i t s h o u l d ,
f r o m t h e c h a n g e i n e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f .
Te a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s a r e
m e e t i n g i n a c h a n g i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a t m o s p h e r e . Th e s t u d e n t i s
l e a r n i n g n e w w a y s t o l e a r n , t o s e a r c h o u t i n f o r m a t i o n o n h i s o w n ,
t o u s e n e w t o o l s . Ma j o r r e v i s i o n s i n c o n t e n t , i m p r o v e d kn o w l e d g e
a b o u t l e a r n i n g , a n d a d v a n c e s i n t e a c h i n g t e c h n o l o g y a r e a f f e c t i n g
t h e f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n . Th e s e , i n t u r n , a r e a f f e c t i n g
t h e f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l h o u s e .
Th e f a c t s b e h i n d t h i s n e w v i t a l i t y a r e e n d l e s s l y e x p o u n d e d i n
o u r d a i l y n e w s p a p e r s a n d o t h e r m e d i a : u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a -
t i o n w i t h i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f c h i l d r e n i n s i n g l e
s c h o o l s y s t e m s ; m o r e c h i l d r e n a n d y o u t h o f s c h o o l a g e a n d m o r e o f
t h e m a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l ( 9 o p e r c e n t o f t h e y o u t h o f h i g h - s c h o o l a g e
i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t o d a y c o m p a r e d t o II p e r c e n t i n I g o o ) ; t h e
y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g e x t e n d e d d o w n w a r d f r o m ki n d e r g a r t e n a n d
u p w a r d f r o m t h e c o l l e g e ; a l a c ko f q u a l i f i e d p e o p l e t o t e a c h t h e m -
t h e u n m e t c u r r e n t s h o r t a g e s o a r i n g i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d o f o v e r
5 0 , 0 0 0 a b l e t e a c h e r s ; a n d t h e r e s t l e s s , r a p i d g r o w t h i n t h e b o d y o f
kn o w l e d g e , w i t h a n a c c u m u l a t i o n o f f a c t s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n u n -
d r e a m e d o f a b r i e f t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a g o a n d a l r e a d y t o o g r e a t t o
b e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e f o r m a l a l l o t m e n t o f s c h o o l y e a r s
. Th e
p r o b l e m s g r o w i n g o u t o f t h e s e f a c t s a n d t h e n e w i d e a s a b o u t h o w
t o d e a l w i t h t h e m a r e t h e f o r c e s c r e a t i n g t h e p r e s e n t f e r m e n t i n
e d u c a t i o n .
Mo r e t h a n o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o , t h e f e r m e n t o f i d e a s a n d
n e e d s o f t h a t t i m e g a v e r i s e t o a n e w t y p e o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g - t h e
g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m b u i l d i n g . Th e f i r s t s u c h b u i l d i n g , p u t i n t o u s e
C O RES

1 3 7
i n B o s t o n ( Q u i n c y Sc h o o l ) i n 1 8 4 8 , s e t t h e p a t t e r n f o r s c h o o l h o u s e s
f o r t h e c e n t u r y t h a t f o l l o w e d . It s b a s i c u n i t w a s a b o x - a r o o m o f
m o r e o r l e s s f i x e d s i z e a n d s h a p e
. W i t h i n t h e r o o m , o n e t e a c h e r
w a s a l l t h i n g s t o a s e t n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s , g r o u p e d b y a g e r a t h e r
t h a n b y a b i l i t y , a l l o f t h e m l e a r n i n g t h e s a m e t h i n g a t t h e s a m e
t i m e a n d a l l t a ki n g p r e s c r i b e d s u b j e c t s d u r i n g p r e s c r i b e d y e a r s .
Th e
c l a s s m i g h t b e l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r , t h e s t u d e n t s m i g h t b e s u b d i v i d e d
i n t o m o r e m a n a g e a b l e g r o u p s , o r t h e y m i g h t b e s h i f t e d f r o m r o o m
t o r o o m a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s
. Th e r o o m s t h e m s e l v e s c o u l d b e
a r r a n g e d i n s q u a r e s , s t r u n g o u t i n r o w s , p i l e d o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r ,
b u t t h e y r e m a i n e d b o x e s
. An d a s t h e y m u l t i p l i e d , m o r e s o l i t a r y
b o x e s a c c o m m o d a t e d m o r e s o l i t a r y t e a c h e r s , e a c h w i t h a s e t n u m b e r
o f c h a r g e s .
An d s o t h e p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e d - n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y m o d i f i e d b u t
o f t e n q u e s t i o n e d - u n t i l t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y
.
Th e n s u d d e n l y i t b e c a m e p o s s i b l e f o r e i g h t - y e a r - o l d s t o u s e e l e c -
t r o n i c d e v i c e s t o l e a r n a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . Hi g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s
c o u l d b u i l d n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s , g e t t i n g u p - t o - t h e - m i n u t e t e l e v i s e d
i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m p r a c t i c i n g s c i e n t i s t s r a t h e r t h a n f r o m t e x t s t h a t
h a d b e c o m e o b s o l e t e b y t h e t i m e t h e y a p p e a r e d i n p r i n t . W i t h
i n c r e a s e d w a y s o f g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d , w h e t h e r
b y
b o o k, t a p e , d i s c , s l i d e , o r s h a d o w s o n a t u b e , t e a c h e r s c o u l d b e c o m e
c a t a l y s t s o f i d e a s r a t h e r t h a n d i s p e n s e r s o f f a c t s .
Th e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e u r g e n c i e s o f t h e d a y ,
h a v e l e d e d u c a t o r s t o a n e w a p p r a i s a l o f t h e o l d a r r a n g e m e n t s .
An d
f r o m t h a t a p p r a i s a l c o m e s t h e n o n g r a d e d s c h o o l ( n o t t h e u n g r a d e d
s c h o o l t h a t p r e c e d e d t h e g r a d e d s c h o o l ) , t h e t e a c h e r t e a m , l a r g e -
g r o u p l e c t u r e s , s m a l l - g r o u p s e m i n a r s , i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y , a d v a n c e d
s t a n d i n g , h o n o r s c l a s s e s , p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n ,
e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e -
v i s i o n , a n d o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n s , s o m e u n h e a r d o f a n d o t h e r s n o t
c o m m o n b e l o w t h e c o l l e g i a t e l e v e l u n t i l b a r e l y a d o z e n y e a r s a g o
.
B u t t h e m o t i o n i n t o w h i c h t h e l o n g - i n e r t b o d y o f e d u c a t i o n h a s
f i n a l l y b e e n p r o d d e d i s s t o p p e d b y t h e t y r a n n i c a l c l a s s r o o m b o x
. To
d e p l o y p e o p l e a n d t h i n g s i n a n e w w a y r e q u i r e s s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s
w i t h n e w ki n d s o f s p a c e t h a t c a n a d a p t t o c h a n g e .
Th e s t o r y o f h o w o u r s c h o o l s a r e r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e n e e d s i s
t o l d b y t h e e v o l v i n g s h a p e o f t h e Am e r i c a n s c h o o l h o u s e
. He r e a r e
s o m e o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h a t s t o r y .
1 3 8

SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
Th e Si z e o f Sc h o o l s
Th e a g e - o l d f o r m u l a s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s i z e o f a " g o o d
s c h o o l , " t i m e w o r n y e t r e v e r e d , h a v e p e r s i s t e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y . In
t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s t h e p r e v a i l i n g m y s t i q u e f o r h i g h s c h o o l s w a s " n o t l e s s
t h a n 7 5 0 p u p i l s t o b e e f f i c i e n t , a n d n o t o v e r 1 , 2 5 0 t o b e s e n s i t i v e . "
Th e s m a l l s c h o o l , i t w a s h e l d , c o u l d n o t o f f e r a b r o a d r a n g e o f
s t u d i e s w i t h o p e r a t i n g e c o n o m y , a n d i n t h e l a r g e s c h o o l t h e i n d i -
v i d u a l w o u l d b e l o s t . As v i e w e d t o d a y , b o t h l i m i t s a r e u n t e n a b l e .
Th e l o w e r l i m i t a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l w o u l d s t a n d a l o n e ,
u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s a n d w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n s t r u c -
t i o n , a n d t h a t a s t u d e n t c o u l d n o t h a v e a c c e s s t o s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c -
t i o n u n l e s s a g r o u p c o u l d b e f o r m e d . B u t t o d a y i t i s p o s s i b l e ,
t h r o u g h s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a s t h o s e i n i t i a t e d b y t h e W e s t e r n St a t e s
Sm a l l Sc h o o l s Pr o j e c t , t h e C a t s ki l l Ar e a Pr o j e c t , a n d o t h e r c o - o p e r a -
t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s , f o r m o r e a n d m o r e s m a l l s c h o o l s t o j o i n f u n c t i o n a l l y
w i t h n e i g h b o r i n g s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s . W o r ki n g t o g e t h e r , t h e y a r e
a b l e t o s h a r e t h e s e r v i c e s o f s p e c i a l i z e d t e a c h e r s , t o p r o v i d e a d v a n c e d
w o r kf o r a b l e s t u d e n t s , a n d t o e x p a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h r o u g h t h e
u s e o f t e l e v i s i o n , t a p e s , a n d f i l m .
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e u p p e r l i m i t a s s u m e d t h a t l a r g e s c h o o l s
w o u l d b e o r g a n i z e d f o r a m o n o l i t h i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - o n e a d m i n -
i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y a n d o n e f a c u l t y o f t e a c h e r s - a s a d m i r e d b y
Ho r a c e Ma n n m o r e t h a n a c e n t u r y a g o i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s o n
Pr u s s i a n s c h o o l s . B u t a g a i n , w i t h n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s -
h o u s e p l a n s a n d s c h o o l s - w i t h i n - s c h o o l s - a s c h o o l c a n b e a s g o o d
a n d y e t a s l a r g e a s i t n e e d s t o b e . If , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s s i z e , a s c h o o l
i s o p e r a t e d a s t h o u g h i t w e r e s m a l l , z o n e d i n t o s e p a r a t e s u b s c h o o l s
o r h o u s e s i n s u c h m a n n e r t h a t t h e p u p i l i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h s o m e
r e c o g n i z a b l e u n i t o f , s a y , 4 0 0
p u p i l s , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s " h i s o w n
s c h o o l " a n d i n w h i c h h e i s kn o w n a n d
kn o w s h e i s kn o w n b y s o m e -
o n e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i m , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e s n o l o n g e r a p p l y .
Gi v e n d e c e n t r a l i z e d r a t h e r t h a n m o n o l i t h i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e p r i m a r y
c r i t e r i o n f o r s c h o o l s i z e b e c o m e s a m a t t e r o f l o g i s t i c s : h o w m a n y
c h i l d r e n c a n s a f e l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y b e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n o n e
p l a c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l .
Re l a t e d t o t h e s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l i s t h e s i z e o f i t s s i t e . Ag a i n t h e
o l d f o r m u l a s , b a s e d o n t h e s u b u r b a n s c h o o l i m a g e a n d c a l l i n g f o r
" 2 o
a c r e s p l u s a n a c r e f o r e a c h h u n d r e d p u p i l s , " a r e o u t m o d e d .
GO RES

1
3 9
In d e e d , t o a p p l y t h e o l d f o r m u l a s i n s o m e s e c t i o n s o f o u r b i g c i t i e s
t o d a y w o u l d r e s u l t i n w i p i n g o u t t h e h o m e s o f t h e s t u d e n t b o d y
.
W i t h t h e s t e a d y u r b a n i z a t i o n o f Am e r i c a ' s p o p u l a t i o n , n e w w a y s
o f p r o v i d i n g p l a y i n g f i e l d s ( a n d p a r ki n g ) h a v e t o b e f o u n d , a n d
a r e b e i n g f o u n d . F i e l d s o n t h e r o o f a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g d e v e l o p e d ,
a n d s o o n , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a r t i f i c i a l t u r f a n d m e m b r a n e e n c l o s u r e s ,
a n a c r e o f p l a y i n g f i e l d w i l l d o t h e w o r ko f s e v e r a l a c r e s o f n a t u r e ' s
u n c e r t a i n g r a s s . An d b e s t o f a l l , b l a c ka s p h a l t , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l
s u b s t i t u t e f o r g r a s s , w i l l h a v e g i v e n w a y t o r e s i l i e n t , s h o c k- a b s o r b -
i n g , e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g p l a s t i c s . Th i s t y p e o f p l a y s p a c e m a y j a r
t h e s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h o s e w h o y e a r n f o r p r o g r e s s w i t h o u t c h a n g e ,
b u t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r t h e c h i l d a t p l a y i s t o d a y ' s h a r s h a n d a b r a s i v e
s u r f a c e
.
Th e C l a s s r o o m
W h i l e t h e b a s i c d e s i g n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m b o x h a s g o n e u n c h a l -
l e n g e d f o r a h u n d r e d y e a r s , s o m e o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a v e b e e n
s u b j e c t e d t o q u e s t i o n . Mo s t l y , t h e q u e s t i o n s d e b a t e d w e r e w h e t h e r
i t s h o u l d b e s q u a r e o r r e c t a n g u l a r , a n d h o w b i g . Ag a i n , f o r m u l a s
d e v e l o p e d - e . g . , t h o u g h w e n e v e r w e r e s u r e h o w l a r g e a c l a s s r o o m
s h o u l d b e , a ki n d e r g a r t e n , i t w a s b e l i e v e d , s h o u l d a l w a y s b e o n e a n d
a h a l f t i m e s a s l a r g e . In d e e d , m a n y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( n o t t o m e n t i o n
t h e Ai r F o r c e Ac a d e m y ) d e l i b e r a t e l y s p e c i f i e d
s m a l l c l a s s r o o m s i n
o r d e r t o p r e v e n t l a t e r i n c r e a s e s i n c l a s s s i z e . Th i s g a m b i t w a s e m -
p l o y e d i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t o v e r c r o w d i n g w o u l d b e o b v i o u s t o t h e
l a t e r a u t h o r i t i e s .
B u t t o d a y ' s c l a s s r o o m , s m a l l o r l a r g e , i s b r e a ki n g u p . In i t s
p l a c e i s e m e r g i n g z o n e s o f s p a c e , t h o u s a n d s o f s q u a r e f e e t i n a r e a ,
t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f f o u r o r f i v e c l a s s r o o m s , g r e a t b o d i e s o f m u t a b l e ,
m a l l e a b l e , u n i v e r s a l l o f t s p a c e . Th e s e g r e a t s p a c e s , e a s i l y d i v i d e d
i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e p l a n n e d
t o d o t o g e t h e r a t a n y p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , s e r v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n
i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y , t h e s e m i n a r g r o u p w h e n a t e a c h e r a n d a d o z e n
c h i l d r e n d i s c u s s i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s t o g e t h e r , t h e s t a n d a r d c l a s s ,
a n d t h e l a r g e r g r o u p s a s s e m b l e d f o r a c o m m o n e x p e r i e n c e - a d e m o n -
s t r a t i o n , a f i l m , a t a l ko r o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n b y a s e l e c t e d v i s i t o r .
Th i s i s u n i v e r s a l s p a c e ; s c h o o l s
, w i t h o u t
w a l l s . . , It e n d s t h e
a n c i e n t c u s t o m o f e n c l o s i n g a t e a c h e r a n d z 5 o r 3 5 c h i l d r e n i n 7 8 o
1 4 0 SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
s q u a r e f e e t o f s p a c e f r o m Se p t e m b e r t o J u n e , t h e r e t o w o r ko u t
i n s o l i t u d e a y e a r ' s e d u c a t i o n
. Th e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e z o n e o f s p a c e
i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o u g h t f u l s c h o o l s a r e r e v e r s i n g t h e h a l l o w e d a r r a n g e -
m e n t o f i s o l a t e d t e a c h e r s a n d g r o u p e d c h i l d r e n . Th e e m e r g i n g
a r r a n g e m e n t u n g r o u p s t h e c h i l d r e n a n d g r o u p s t h e t e a c h e r s .
Su c h d i s p o s i t i o n s o f p e o p l e a n d s p a c e a r e m o r e t h a n s t r a w s i n
t h e w i n d . C a l i f o r n i a ' s Re e d a n d C u p e r t i n o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e a l -
r e a d y d e s i g n i n g s p a c e f o r e a c h h u n d r e d p u p i l s , b e l i e v i n g t h i s w i l l
b e m o r e s e n s i t i v e t h a n t h e c u s t o m a r y s p a c e a l l o t t e d t o f o u r t e a c h e r s ,
e a c h w o r ki n g a l o n e . In d e e d , z o p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e s c h o o l s n o w o n
t h e d r a w i n g b o a r d s i n t h a t s t a t e a r e d e s i g n e d o n t h e s o - c a l l e d " o p e n
p l a n . " Ne w Yo r kC i t y w i l l s h o r t l y o p e n a s c h o o l f o r t h e " e a r l y
c h i l d h o o d c y c l e . " Th e ki n d e r g a r t e n a n d Gr a d e s I a n d IIw i l l
o c c u p y 7 , 8 5 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f u n i n t e r r u p t e d f r e e w h e e l i n g s p a c e f o r
1 5 0 f r e e w h e e l i n g y o u n g s t e r s . As p e n , C o l o r a d o , i s p l a n n i n g a h i g h
s c h o o l i n w h i c h
5 0
p e r c e n t o f a c a d e m i c s p a c e w i l l b e l i b r a r y - t y p e .
Al l o f t h e s e a r e s c h o o l s w i t h a v i s i o n o f t h e s e l f - e d u c a t i n g c h i l d
e s c a p i n g h i s i n d e n t u r e t o t h e g r o u p
. Te a c h e r s w i l l b e m e m b e r s o f a
t e a m , a n d t h e y w i l l p l o t a n d s m o o t h t h e a c a d e m i c p a t h s o f i n d i v i d u a l
s t u d e n t s . Th e s c h o o l s w i l l b e t h e g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s p r o -
c e e d i n g a t t h e i r o w n r a t e s .
An d j u s t a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m s a r e m e l t i n g i n t o a l a r g e r
z o n e o f s p a c e , s o a r e o t h e r s p e c i a l a r e a s o f t h e s c h o o l m o v i n g t o w a r d
g e n e r a l i z e d s p a c e .
Th e Li b r a r y
Mo r e o f t e n t h a n n o t a s c h o o l l i b r a r y h a s b e e n s o m e m u l t i p l e
o f a c l a s s r o o m - t h a t i s , i f t h e r e w a s a l i b r a r y
. In 1 9 6 5 , t e n m i l l i o n
c h i l d r e n w e r e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l s t h a t c o n t a i n e d n o l i b r a r y a t a l l , a n d
6 o
p e r c e n t o f a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w e r e b a r e o f a n y t h i n g t h a t
e v e n r e s e m b l e d a c e n t r a l l i b r a r y . W h e r e a l i b r a r y d i d e x i s t , m o s t
o f t e n i t w a s t u c ke d a w a y i n a d u s t y c o r n e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g w h e r e i t
w o u l d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e o r d e r l y d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e
s c h o o l . O r , i n t h e f e w e r b u t m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d c e n t e r s , w h e r e
s c h o o l m e n h e l d w i t h t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e l i b r a r y s h o u l d b e " t h e
h e a r t o f t h e s c h o o l , " i t w a s l i t e r a l l y b u r i e d i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e
s c h o o l - i n i t s v e r y c e n t e r . An d t h i s w a s t h e l o g i c a l p l a c e f o r i t i n
GO RES

1 4 1
t h e s i m p l e r d a y s w h e n t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y w a s t o s e r v e o n l y d u r i n g
t h e a c a d e m i c d a y .
B u t n o w , t h i s i s c h a n g i n g . In Pa r m a , O h i o , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e
h i g h - s c h o o l l i b r a r y i s p l a c e d o n t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e b u i l d i n g . It i s
p r a c t i c a l l y o n i t s f r o n t l a w n , t h e r e t o b e m o s t a c c e s s i b l e t o s t u d e n t s
w h o d e s i r e a c c e s s i n t h e e v e n i n g , o n w e e ke n d s , a n d d u r i n g s c h o o l
v a c a t i o n s . In C l a r ks v i l l e , Te n n e s s e e , t h e l i b r a r y i s
a m u l t i a r m e d
o r g a n i s m , e a c h a r m e x t e n d i n g i n t o a n a m o e b a - s h a p e d z o n e o f c l a s s -
r o o m s p a c e
. Th u s , i n t h e p l a c e s w h e r e w o r ki s c a r r i e d o n , b e i t i n
s c i e n c e - m a t h e m a t i c s , i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s , o r i n t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s , t h e
r e l e v a n t l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s a r e o n h a n d , a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i -
t i e s i n t h a t s u b j e c t
. If a c c e s s t o m a t e r i a l s i s t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e
l o c a t i o n o f a s c h o o l l i b r a r y , Pa r m a a n d C l a r ks v i l l e h a v e t a ke n a s t e p
i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i s w r o n g .
An t i c i p a t i n g t h a t t h e n e e d f o r l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s w i l l g r o w a s
s c h o o l s ( a n d c o l l e g e s ) d e c r e a s e t h e n u m b e r o f g r o u p - c o n t a c t h o u r s
a n d f r e e t h e i r m o r e a v i d s c h o l a r s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y , s c h o o l s
t o d a y a r e p l a c i n g t h e l i b r a r y s o i t m a y a b s o r b s u r r o u n d i n g c l a s s -
r o o m s a s i t g r o w s t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s
. If d e s i g n e r s p o s s e s s a s e n s e
o f t r u s t e e s h i p , r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g e r e c t e d t o d a y w i l l b e o n l y
a t m i d - l i f e i n t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 , t h e y w i l l c o n t r i v e t o h e l p t h e l i b r a r y
g r o w o r g a n i c a l l y b y a b s o r b i n g s u r r o u n d i n g c e l l s .
Th e y w i l l a n t i c i -
p a t e a n i n c r e a s i n g e x p a n s i o n o f t h e b o d y o f m a t e r i a l s f o r l e a r n i n g
a n d t h e c o n t i n u a l r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c a r r i e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ;
t h e l i b r a r y w i l l b e p l a n n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n
.
Th e Gy m n a s i u m
Un t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , t h e Am e r i c a n g y m n a s i u m w a s a r e c t a n g u l a r
b o x w h o s e d i m e n s i o n s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e r u l e s o f b a s ke t b a l l
.
Th e b a s ke t b a l l b o x h a s s e r v e d e d u c a t i o n w e l l
. Th o u g h i t h a r d l y
a c c o m m o d a t e d t h e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d p e r s i s t i n t o
a d u l t h o o d , i t w a s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a u s e f u l s h e l t e r i n t h e y e a r s w h e n
s c h o o l s p o s s e s s e d n o y e a r - r o u n d , o u t d o o r p l a y s p a c e .
Th o u g h t h e Am e r i c a n c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s t h e p l a y i n g o f b a s ke t b a l l ,
m a n y s c h o o l s t o d a y , a s i n W a y l a n d ( Ma s s a c h u s e t t s ) a n d Ho l l a n d
( Mi c h i g a n ) a r e p r o v i d i n g s p a c e i n t h e
. i j n j . Ta ki n g a d v a n t a g e o f
t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a r c h n e v e r s l e e p s , t h a t g e o m e t r y i s t h e c h e a p e s t
w a y t o f i g h t g r a v i t y ,
g r e a t d o n Ns o f f i e l d h o u s e s p a c e a r e r e p l a c i n g
1 4 2
SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
t h e g y m n a s i u m b o x . Th e v i r t u e s a r e o b v i o u s : n o t o n l y i s m o n e y
s a v e d , b u t t h e d o m e r e q u i r e s n o i n t e r i o r s u p p o r t s , n o p o s t s t o
o b s t r u c t b o t h m o t i o n a n d v i s i o n . An d e s t h e t i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h o s e
w h o f e e l t h a t a p h y s i c a l - e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y w i t h a s c o o p o f t h e
s ky s o m e h o w b r i n g s v i s u a l r e l i e f f r o m t h e o t h e r w i s e C a r t e s i a n
g e o m e t r y o f o u r s ky l i n e s .
Th e Au d i t o r i u m
Ev e n t h e a u d i t o r i u m i s n o t w h a t i t o n c e w a s . Hi s t o r i c a l l y , i t
h a s b e e n a g r e a t c o f f i n - s h a p e d h a l l o c c u p i e d o n F r i d a y m o r n i n g s f o r
a s s e m b l i e s a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t h e e v e n i n g f o r p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e s .
F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g g o p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e , i t s t o o d i d l e o r w a s
m i s u s e d . In r e a c t i o n t o t h i s c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n o f s p a c e ,
e c o n o m y - m i n d e d s c h o o l s d e s i g n e d i t a s a m u l t i - u s e f a c i l i t y : a u d i -
t o r i u m c u m g y m n a s i u m c u m c a f e t e r i a c u m t o w n h a l l - a s o l u t i o n
w h i c h w a s a l l u r i n g e n o u g h b u t i n e f f i c i e n t , i f n o t h a z a r d o u s . Th e
c o s t i n s t a f f t i m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e o f t h e b u i l d i n g i n s e t t i n g u p
t h e r o o m a n e w f o r e a c h d i f f e r e n t u s e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e , a n d a l u n c h -
t i m e g r e a s e s p o t o n t h e f l o o r c o u l d c a u s e a b r o ke n l e g a t g y m t i m e .
No r d i d t h e s p a c e s e r v e i t s s e p a r a t e p u r p o s e s w e l l , s i n c e t h e c o m -
b i n a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d c o m p r o m i s e s i n a c o u s t i c s , f l o o r s h a p e ,
r o o m s h a p e , a n d o t h e r d e t a i l s .
To d a y , t h e r e i s a n e w , _ s e n s i b l e w a y f o r a u d i t o r i u m s t o e a r n
t h e i r ke e p : t h a t i s , a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s p a c e . O w i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t
o f o p e r a b l e p a r t i t i t i o n s w h i c h c a n i m m e d i a t e l y d i v i d e s p a c e i n t o
a c o u s t i c a l l y p r i v a t e s u b s p a c e s , a t h o u s a n d - s e a t a u d i t o r i u m c a n b e ,
a t a n y t i m e i n t h e d a y , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l i t t l e t h e a t e r a n d s e v e r a l
s t u d i o - d e m o n s t r a t i o n - l e c t u r e r o o m s f o r s m a l l e r g r o u p s
. Th u s , d i v i s i -
b i l i t y h a s s a v e d t h e a u d i t o r i u m , r e s t o r i n g i t f r o m i t s w h i t e - e l e p h a n t
s t a t u s a n d i t s e v e r y t h i n g - n o t h i n g d i s r e p u t e b y r e n d e r i n g i t u s e f u l
f o r i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l d a y .
C l a s s r o o m s , l i b r a r i e s , g y m n a s i u m s , a n d a u d i t o r i u m s a r e t h e m a j o r
s p a c e s w h o s e s i z e s a n d s h a p e s a r e r e s p o n d i n g m o s t s e n s i t i v e l y t o
e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e . In e a c h c a s e , n e w d e m a n d s o n t h e f a c i l i t y h a v e
p r o m p t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w w a y s t o m e e t t h e m .
O n e o f t h e s e w a y s i s t o p r o v i d e f l e x i b i l i t y - t h e a b i l i t y o f a s p a c e
t o c h a n g e i t s s i z e , s h a p e , a n d u s e . F o r y e a r s f l e x i b i l i t y h a s b e e n
s o u g h t a n d a c h i e v e d i n c o m m e r c i a l o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e r e s e a r c h
GO RES

1 4 3
l a b o r a t o r i e s o f i n d u s t r y
. It i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t b u s i n e s s a n d i n -
d u s t r y , b e i n g u n s u r e o f f u t u r e p r o d u c t s a n d p r o c e s s e s , w o u l d s e e k
t o m i n i m i z e t h e c o s t o f a l t e r i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o a c c o m m o d a t e u n kn o w n
b u t c e r t a i n c h a n g e .
B y c o n t r a s t , e d u c a t i o n h a s a s s u m e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y t h a t t h e
c e n t u r y - o l d , u n i f o r m t e a c h e r - t a u g h t g r o u p s w o u l d p r e v a i l t h r o u g h -
o u t t h e l i f e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a n d t h a t w h a t e v e r c h a n g e o c c u r r e d i n
e d u c a t i o n w o u l d b e c o n f i n e d t o i t s c o n t e n t a n d n o t i t s a r r a n g e m e n t
.
F o r t h e l a s t d o z e n y e a r s , e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n l e s s s u r e o f i t s f u t u r e
p r a c t i c e s , a n d t h a t u n c e r t a i n t y h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e m a n d f o r
f l e x i b i l i t y o f s p a c e . No l o n g e r d o w e s e e n e w s c h o o l s d e s i g n e d a s
a c h a m b e r e d n a u t i l u s w i t h i m m o v a b l e c a l c i u m p a r t i t i o n s d i c t a t i n g
h o w t e a c h e r s a n d c h i l d r e n s h a l l e v e r a f t e r m e e t e a c h o t h e r , a n d
w i t h t h e c h a n g e o f i n t e r i o r d e p e n d e n t o n t h e d i s t r i c t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s
t o d e s t r o y t h e w a l l s .
Li ke n a t u r e , t h e f r e e e n t e r p r i s e s y s t e m a b h o r s a v a c u u m
. W h e n
e d u c a t i o n , i n t h e l a t e 1 9 5 o ' s , a s ke d f o r f l e x i b i l i t y , i n d u s t r y r e s p o n d e d
;
t o d a y , t h e s c h o o l d e s i g n e r h a s a c c e s s t o s e v e r a l ki n d s o f r e l a t i v e l y
i n e x p e n s i v e a n d r e a s o n a b l y s o u n d - t i g h t p a r t i t i o n s , w h i c h a r e e i t h e r
m o v a b l e a s a p a n e l o r , i n d e e d , i m m e d i a t e l y o p e r a b l e i f t h e s p a c e
h a s t o b e d i v i d e d q u i c kl y a n d f r e q u e n t l y
.
No t o n l y a r e t h e s h a p e s o f r o o m s c o m i n g t o b e e a s i l y a l t e r a b l e ,
b u t t h e t o n e , t h e s p i r i t , t h e c o m f o r t a n d a m e n i t y o f t h e r o o m s a r e
c h a n g i n g .
C o m f o r t w i t h o u t Gu i l t
Sc h o o l s a r e j u s t n o w c o m i n g o u t o f t h e e r a o f d e s i g n f o r
i n d e s t r u c t i b i l i t y . W i t h a p r e m i u m p l a c e d o n h o w w e l l t h e s c h o o l
p e r f o r m s i t s t a s ko f h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n l e a r n , a n d a c kn o w l e d g i n g a t
l o n g l a s t w h a t b u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r y h a v e kn o w n f o r a g e n e r a t i o n -
t h a t q u a l i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t i n f l u e n c e s p r o d u c t i v i t y - e d u c a t o r s a n d
t h e i r a r c h i t e c t s a r e s p e c i f y i n g s u r f a c e s a n d m a t e r i a l s w h i c h i n c r e a s e
t h e c h a n c e s t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l l e a r n .
Q u i e t i n g t h e s c h o o l . - Ev e r y o n e
h a s a l w a y s kn o w n t h a t l e a r n i n g
i s i m p e d e d i f o n e d o e s n o t h e a r w e l l
. Ye t , w e h a v e t h o u s a n d s o f
s c h o o l s w h o s e i n t e r i o r s a r e m a d e o f n o i s e - v e n t i n g m a t e r i a l s - h a r d ,
r e v e r b e r a t i v e f l o o r s
; s t e e l a n d p l a s t i c f u r n i t u r e ; p l a s t e r o r p a i n t e d
c e m e n t - b l o c kw a l l s ; w i t h o n l y t o ke n r e l i e f i n t h i s e c h o i n g c h a m b e r
1 4 4

SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
s u p p l i e d b y a c o u s t i c t i l e i n t h e c e i l i n g . As t h e d a y w e a r s o n a m i d
r i s i n g a m b i e n t n o i s e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n a m o n g c h i l d r e n a n d t e a c h e r s
b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r a i n e d a s v o i c e s r i s e t o o v e r c o m e t h e r i s i n g
s o u n d . Ad d t o t h i s t h e s t e a d y h u m o f v e n t i l a t o r f a n s , a n d t h e s u m
t o t a l i s n o i s e .
Sc h o o l s t o d a y a r e s e e ki n g q u i e t . Th e s c r a p i n g o f c h a i r s a n d
t h e r e v e r b e r a t i o n f r o m t h e f l o o r a r e b e i n g s u b d u e d b y c a r p e t i n g .
B e c a u s e h o u s e h o l d c a r p e t i n g h a s b e e n s o l d t o t h e Am e r i c a n p u b l i c
a s a s t a t u s s y m b o l - i n d e e d , a n y t h i n g w a l l - t o - w a l l s m a c ks o f t h e
g o o d l i f e - t h e r e h a s b e e n r e s i s t a n c e i n s o m e q u a r t e r s t o t h e u s e o f
c a r p i n g - f o r _ _ q u i e t i t i g t h e s c h o o l . Ye t s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s c a n n o w b e
c a r p e t e d w i t h o u t r e p r i s a l a t t h e p o l l s , a n d t h e f l o o r s o f o t h e r
e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f t h e s c h o o l a r e g r a d u a l l y r e c e i v i n g a c o u s t i c
t r e a t m e n t - f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r n o i s y p u b l i c b a t t l e .
C o o l i n g t h e s c h o o l . - As l o n g a s s c h o o l s s e r v e d a n a g r a r i a n c a l e n -
d a r , t h e t h e r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f d e s i g n w e r e s i m p l e : s u p p l y h e a t
.
In a p r i m i t i v e s o r t o f w a y t h i s d e a l t w i t h f u n d a m e n t a l s - a c h i l d ' s
n a t u r a l r i g h t n o t t o b e c o l d
.
Ac h i l d ' s n a t u r a l r i g h t n o t t o b e h o t w a s l e s s c l e a r , e s p e c i a l l y i f
e v e r y o n e e l s e w a s a l s o " s u f f e r i n g f r o m t h e h e a t . " If t h e w a r m d a y s
o f e a r l y f a l l o r l a t e s p r i n g r a i s e d t h e c l a s s r o o m ' s t e m p e r a t u r e i n t o
t h e q o ' s , t h o u g h t f u l a r c h i t e c t s h a d a r r a n g e d t h e w i n d o w s t o c a p t u r e
a n y v a g r a n t b r e e z e
. An d i n m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s t h e r e h a s b e e n m e -
c h a n i c a l v e n t i l a t i o n t o s t i r a n d m i x t h e a i r . As l o n g a s s c h o o l s w e r e
c l o s e d d u r i n g J u l y a n d Au g u s t , t h i s w o r ke d r e a s o n a b l y w e l l i n
n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s , b u t n o t s o w e l l i n t h e w a r m e r a n d m o r e h u m i d
z o n e s o f t h e So u t h .
B u t w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f s u m m e r s c h o o l s , t h e b r e e z e s o f J u l y a n d
Au g u s t w e r e f o u n d w a n t i n g , e v e n w h e n a s s i s t e d b y m e c h a n i c a l
v e n t i l a t i o n . St r a n g e l y e n o u g h t h e v e r y o l d e s t b u i l d i n g s , t h e f o r t r e s s -
l i ke s t r u c t u r e s l e f t o v e r f r o m t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t u r n e d o u t t o
b e b e s t f o r s u m m e r u s e . Th e i r t h i c km a s o n r y w a l l s , s t i l l h o l d i n g
t h e c o l d o f t h e w i n t e r a n d c o o l e d b y t h e s u m m e r n i g h t , w e r e e x -
c e l l e n t i n s u l a t o r s w h i c h h e l p e d p r e v e n t s u d d e n c h a n g e s i n t e m p e r a -
t u r e a n d ke p t t h e r o o m s r e a s o n a b l y c o o l u n t i l t h e w a l l s w e r e t h o r -
o u g h l y w a r m e d t h r o u g h b y t h e s u m m e r ' s s u n . Le a s t e f f e c t i v e
a g a i n s t t h e s u n ' s h e a t a r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y n e w g l a s s b o x s c h o o l s w h o s e
GO RES

1 4 5
g r e e n h o u s e e f f e c t o n a h o t s u m m e r ' s d a y m a ke t e a c h i n g o r l e a r n i n g
a d i f f i c u l t e x p e r i e n c e .
Th o u g h t h e r a p i d l y m o u n t i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g i s
a t t r i b u t a b l e p r i n c i p a l l y t o t h e d e s i r e t o r u n s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e
e n t i r e y e a r , t h e r e i s a m p l e r e a s o n i n m o s t c o m m u n i t i e s t o c o o l a s
w e l l a s t o h e a t t h e s c h o o l . Ev e n i n w i n t e r , s c h o o l s a r e g e n e r a l l y
t o o h o t . Th e b o i l e r i s s t o ke d t o w a r m t h e s c h o o l f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s
a r r i v a l , b u t b y 1 0 : 0 0 A. M. o n m a n y w i n t r y m o r n i n g s i n t h e No r t h ,
a n d o n m o s t i n t h e So u t h , t h e t h e r m a l p r o b l e m h a s r e v e r s e d i t s e l f .
Th e c l a s s r o o m s n e e d t o b e c o o l e d t o o f f s e t t h e h e a t o f t h e s u n a n d
t h e h e a t f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , e a c h g i v i n g o f f t h e h e a t o f a
l o o - w a t t b u l b . Th e n e e d f o r c o o l i n g i n t h e w i n t e r t i m e i n t h e d e n s e l y
o c c u p i e d s c h o o l h o u s e i s n o t r a r e ; i t i s f r e q u e n t . To a i r - c o n d i t i o n
b e c a u s e o f a n t i c i p a t e d s u m m e r t i m e u s e i s t o a r r i v e a t t h e r i g h t a n -
s w e r , b u t f o r t h e l e s s e r r e a s o n .
If e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i s t o b e m a x i m i z e d ,
c o m f o r t i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n . If t h e c h i l d ( a n d h i s t e a c h e r ) i s
f o r c e d t o e x p e n d e n e r g y t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f a g a i n s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l
i r r i t a t i o n s , w h e t h e r t h e r m a l , s o n i c , v i s u a l , o l f a c t o r y , o r e s t h e t i c ,
h i s t o t a l c a p a c i t y t o r e s p o n d i s l e s s e n e d . B u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r y kn o w
t h i s ; e d u c a t i o n i s l e a r n i n g i t .
In m a n y c o m m u n i t i e s t o d a y , c l i m a t e c o n t r o l i n n e w s c h o o l s i s
p r e s c r i b e d
. Th e c o o l i n g o f o l d e r s c h o o l s a w a i t s t h e r i s i n g c o n s c i o u s -
n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e s e t o o s h o u l d b e m a d e e f f i c i e n t . In t h e
m e a n t i m e , t h e a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g i n d u s t r y c o u l d s p e e d t h e p r o c e s s b y
d i s p l a y i n g t h e s a m e e n t h u s i a s m f o r e c o n o m i c a l l y c o o l i n g e x i s t i n g
s c h o o l h o u s e s t h a t i t h a s s h o w n f o r c o o l i n g t h o s e o n t h e p l a n n i n g
b o a r d s .
An d i t i s n o t i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t s o m e d a y , i n o u r i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s ,
t h e c a s e f o r c l i m a t e c o n t r o l w i l l r e s t a s m u c h o n c l e a n i n g t h e a i r t h e
c h i l d b r e a t h e s a s o n c o n t r o l l i n g t e m p e r a t u r e a n d h u m i d i t y .
F o r t h e F u t u r e
Hi s t o r i c a l l y , t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g h a s n o t l o o m e d l a r g e i n t h e
c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d , w h i l e h o m e - b u i l d i n g , c o m m e r c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
a n d r o a d s h a v e o f f e r e d m u l t i b i l l i o n - d o l l a r m a r ke t s . B u t n o w t h e
b u r g e o n i n g s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n h a s s e t o f f a s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e b u i l d -
i n g b o o m o f t h e o r d e r o f $ 6 b i l l i o n a n n u a l l y f o r a t l e a s t t h e n e x t
1 4 6

SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
_ t e n y e a r s . Th i s i s n o t a n i n c o n s i d e r a b l e m a r ke t , a n d b u s i n e s s a n d
i n d u s t r y h a v e d i s c o v e r e d i t . Po v e r t y , a s s o m e w a g h a s a s s e r t e d ,
m a y b e t h e n e w g r o w t h i n d u s t r y , b u t a s e r i o u s c a s e c a n b e m a d e
t h a t e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g i t s c a p i t a l o u t l a y s , m a y w e l l b e t h e d y -
n a m i c w h i c h w i l l e n e r g i z e t h e Am e r i c a n e c o n o m y o f t h e
1 9 6 o ' s .
Li ke t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n t h e 1 9 2 o ' s , r e l i e f i n t h e ' 3 o ' s , w a r i n t h e ' 4 0 ' s ,
a n d t h e b a c kl o g o f d e m a n d f o r c o n s u m e r g o o d s i n t h e ' 5 0 ' s , t h e e x -
p a n s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e t h e f o c u s f o r t h i s d e c a d e ' s e c o n -
o m y . Li ke t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n t h e ' 2 o ' s , e d u c a t i o n i s t o d a y s o m e t h i n g
t h a t a l o t o f p e o p l e w a n t a n d t h a t t a ke s a l o t o f p e o p l e t o p r o v i d e .
Am o n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s j u s t n o w e m e r g i n g , t h e C a l i f o r n i a
Sc h o o l C o n s t r u c t i o n Sy s t e m s De v e l o p m e n t , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w -
i n g p a r a g r a p h s , i s r e l e v a n t .
C o - o p e r a t i v e B u i l d i n g s
Am e r i c a h a s 3 0 , 0 0 0 s c h o o l b o a r d s . It i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e y
h a v e p r o b l e m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Ea c h p r i z e s i t s a u t o n o m y , a s i t
s h o u l d , a n d s e e s t h e e x e r c i s e o f i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e a s t h e b e s t g u a r a n -
t e e t h a t t h e n a t i o n w i l l n o t s o m e d a y h a v e a c e n t r a l i z e d , m o n o l i t h i c ,
f e d e r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s c h o o l s y s t e m . An y o n e t h i n ks t w i c e b e f o r e
s u g g e s t i n g t h a t 3 0 , 0 0 0 u n i t s , r a n g i n g i n s i z e f r o m t h o s e w i t h p r a c -
t i c a l l y n o c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e i r g o v e r n a n c e t o a d i s t r i c t e n c o m p a s s i n g
m o r e t h a n a m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n , r e p r e s e n t s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n a p e r -
f e c t a r r a n g e m e n t f o r s o l v i n g a c o m m o n p r o b l e m . Ho w e v e r , t h e
Am e r i c a n s c h o o l b o a r d i s o n e o f t h e u n i q u e a s p e c t s o f Am e r i c a n
g o v e r n m e n t , h a s a f i r s t - r a t e r e c o r d o f c i v i c a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , a n d
s e e m s t o h a v e a t t r a c t e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
d e d i c a t e d p e o p l e a n d f e w e r r a s c a l s t h a n a n y o t h e r o f t h e l a r g e r
o f f i c e s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e .
Ne v e r t h e l e s s c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n o t g o o d . B i g c i t i e s s p e a kt o
b i g c i t i e s ; t h e s u b u r b s s p e a kt o t h e i r f e l l o w - B r a h m i n s ; a n d t h e r u r a l
d i s t r i c t s c o m m u n e w i t h t h e i r s t a t e d e p a r t m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n . C o m -
m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n c o n t i g u o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y
d i f f e r i n s i z e a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s , i s s o m e t i m e s n o n e x i s t e n t . Un d e r
t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g o f a
s c h o o l h o u s e b e c o m e s a p u r e l y l o c a l p r o j e c t a n d t a ke s b u t s m a l l a d -
v a n t a g e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s c h o o l h o u s e
i s a s s e m b l e d t y p i c a l l y f r o m t h e b i t s a n d p i e c e s l y i n g o n t h e i n d u s -
GO RES

1 4 7
t r i a l s h e l f , a n d f i n a l a s s e m b l y r e q u i r e s a n i m m e n s e a m o u n t o f h a n d -
c r a f t i n g .
Un d e r t h i s o n e - a t - a - t i m e s y s t e m o f b u i l d i n g , a s c h o o l i s i n e v i t a b l y
a s m a l l p r o j e c t
. Ev e n a $ 5 m i l l i o n s c h o o l i s h a r d l y w o r t h s p e c i a l a t -
t e n t i o n f r o m t h e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h m a ke i t s p a r t s a n d p i e c e s
. Sc h o o l s
a r e b o u g h t o n e a t a t i m e a n d a t r e t a i l p r i c e .
J u s t e m e r g i n g n o w i n t h e f i e l d o f s c h o o l d e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n
i s t h e c o n s o r t i u m o f n e i g h b o r i n g d i s t r i c t s , e a c h m a i n t a i n i n g i t s r i g h t -
f u l a n d p r e c i o u s a u t o n o m y , y e t p o o l i n g i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s t o s e c u r e
t h e b e n e f i t s o f v o l u m e - p u r c h a s e .
Th e f i r s t Am e r i c a n c o n s o r t i u m t o c o n s t r u c t s c h o o l s - $ 3 o m i l l i o n
w o r t h - i s i n C a l i f o r n i a , w h e r e 1 3 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s n e e d i n g
2 2 s c h o o l s
a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e t i m e h a v e p l a n n e d t o g e t h e r , b i d t o g e t h e r ,
a n d w i l l n o w c o n s t r u c t t o g e t h e r
. Th e s c h o o l s t o b e c o n s t r u c t e d a r e
n o t s t o c k- p l a n s c h o o l s , a n d n o t w o o f t h e m w i l l l o o ka l i ke
. O n l y
5 4 p e r c e n t o f e a c h b u i l d i n g w i l l c o n s i s t o f t h e m o d u l a r c o m p o n e n t s
c r e a t e d b y i n d u s t r y t o m e e t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i m p o s e d
b y t h e 1 3 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a n d t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i n g a r c h i t e c t s .
Th e c o m p o n e n t s - a s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m , h e a t i n g - v e n t i l a t i n g - a i r -
c o n d i t i o n i n g s y s t e m , c e i l i n g - l i g h t i n g s y s t e m , d e m o u n t a b l e p a r t i t i o n s ,
a n d t w o t y p e s o f o p e r a b l e w a l l s - m a y b e p i e c e d t o g e t h e r t o m e e t
a n y s e t o f f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s
. An d t h e y p r o v i d e f r e e d o m o f
e x t e r i o r d e s i g n b r o a d e n o u g h t o s a t i s f y a n y b o d y ' s a e s t h e t i c
. Th e
s l e e k, m a c h i n e - a g e i n t e r i o r w o r ki n g s c a n b e s h e a t h e d i n a n y t h i n g
f r o m V i c t o r i a n g i n g e r b r e a d t o Gr e e kr e v i v a l t o t h e p r i s t i n e p r e c i -
s i o n o f a Mi e s V a n d e r Ro h e .
O n c e p i e c e d t o g e t h e r , t h e i n t e r i o r s p a c e s c a n b e r e a r r a n g e d a t
m i n i m u m e f f o r t a n d e x p e n s e
. Th e w a l l s c a n b e m o v e d b y t h e c u s -
t o d i a l s t a f f o v e r n i g h t , b e t w e e n t e r m s , o r b e t w e e n c l a s s e s , b e c a u s e
n o m a j o r o v e r h a u l o f t h e l i g h t i n g
. _ a n a l _ a i r - h a n d l i n g , s y s t e m s i s r e -
q u i r e d
. In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c o m p o n e n t s p r o v i d e a l e v e l o f i n t e r i o r
f l e x i b i l i t y o r m u t a b i l i t y o f s p a c e h i t h e r t o u n o b t a i n a b l e
.
Th i s a d a p t a b i l i t y i s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e t h e s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m p e r -
m i t s c l e a r s p a n s o f l o f t s p a c e u p t o 7 5 f e e t b y
3 0
f e e t w i t h o u t o b -
s t r u c t i n g w a l l s o r c o l u m n s , a n d b e c a u s e a l l o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s a r e
d e s i g n e d t o b e c o m p a t i b l e a n d t o p e r m i t r e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f p a r t i -
t i o n s o n a f o u r - i n c h m o d u l e .
Th e s y s t e m , d e v e l o p e d b y t h e Sc h o o l C o n s t r u c t i o n Sy s t e m s De -
1 4 8

SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
v e l o p m e n t Pr o j e c t ( SC SD) w i t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e Ed u c a -
t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s La b o r a t o r i e s , m a ke s p o s s i b l e s p e e d i e r e r e c t i o n o f t h e
s c h o o l
. An d i t m e a n s t h a t b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l s p a c e c a n b e c r e a t e d
a t c o s t s e q u a l t o a n d o f t e n l o w e r t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n a b l e u n d e r c o n -
v e n t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n m e t h o d s .
Al t h o u g h t h e f i r s t C a l i f o r n i a c o n s o r t i u m i n v o l v e s o n l y
1 3
s c h o o l
d i s t r i c t s , i t i s a p r o m i s i n g m o v e t o w a r d c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g a m o n g
s c h o o l b o a r d s g e n e r a l l y
. J u s t a s t h e s h a r i n g o f p e r s o n n e l a n d f a c i l i -
t i e s a c r o s s p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s i s g a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e , s o c a n t h e s a m e
p r i n c i p l e b e a p p l i e d n o w t o t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s n e e d f o r s c h o o l b u i l d -
i n g s
. B e n e f i t s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a p r o j e c t h a v e a l r e a d y s t a r t e d t o f l o w
t o o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s
. B a r r i n g t o n , Il l i n o i s , h a s a d a p t e d t h e SC SD
s y s t e m t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i t s n e w m i d d l e s c h o o l , a n d t h e C l a r k
C o u n t y , Ne v a d a , s c h o o l s y s t e m i s c o n s t r u c t i n g a n e w s c h o o l u s i n g
a c o m p a n i o n s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n s p o n s o r e d b y t h e
C a l i f o r n i a p r o j e c t .
In t h e l o n g r u n , i t m a y b e t h a t t h e e n d u r i n g v a l u e o f t h e c o n -
s o r t i u m , a s h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d i n En g l a n d , i s t h e s t i m u l a t i o n
g i v e n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y t o d e v e l o p b e t t e r p r o d u c t s f o r t h e s c h o o l
m a r ke t , n o w t h a t t h e s i z e o f t h e o r d e r - t h e v o l u m e - i s s u f f i c i e n t t o
j u s t i f y t h e c o s t o f r e s e a r c h
. It m a y w e l l r e v e r s e t h e f l o w o f i n v e n -
t i o n , w h i c h h e r e t o f o r e h a s a l w a y s b e e n f r o m b u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r y
t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n
. In d e e d , s o m e d a y t h e s c h o o l m a r ke t m a y p r o v i d e
t h e n e w i d e a s a n d i n v e n t i o n s w h i c h t h e c o m m e r c i a l w o r l d w i l l s e i z e
u p o n , a n d t o i t s b e n e f i t .
Th e Ur b a n Sc h o o l
Sc h o o l s a r e c a u g h t i n a c r o s s - r i p o f p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t
. B a c k
w h e r e t h e c r e e ks f o r k, t h e r u r a l s c h o o l i s b e i n g a b a n d o n e d o r b e i n g
m e r g e d w i t h i t s n e i g h b o r - o n e - r o o m s c h o o l s h a v e d e c l i n e d i n n u m -
b e r t o a b o u t i o , o o o f r o m n e a r l y z o o , o o o a h a l f - c e n t u r y a g o
. Th e
b u r g e o n i n g s u b u r b s a n d e x u r b s a r e b u i l d i n g s c h o o l s - f r e q u e n t l y
v e r y g o o d o n e s .
It i s t h e g r e a t c e n t r a l c i t y s c h o o l t h a t i s m o s t i n a g o n y
. Th e
f l i g h t o f m i d d l e - c l a s s l e a d e r s h i p t o t h e s u b u r b s , a r c h a i c r e g u l a t i o n s
d i c t a t i n g d e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n ( m a n y o f w h i c h a r e t o b e f o u n d
i n t h e s c h o o l b o a r d ' s o w n e n c r u s t e d r u l e s , i f n o t i n t h o s e o f t h e c i t y
GO RES

1 4 9
h a l l ) , t h e e r o s i o n o f t h e t a x b a s e , a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f d e c i s i o n -
m a ki n g - a l l t h e s e f r u s t r a t e t h e b u i l d i n g o f f i r s t - r a t e s c h o o l s
.

~
W i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s - t h e Ne w Ha v e n p r o g r a m i s c o n s p i c u -
o u s l y a n e x c e p t i o n - u r b a n - r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s h a v e f o c u s e d o n a b o u t
e v e r y v i t a l a r t e r y o f c i t y l i f e - h o u s i n g , h i g h w a y s , a n d t h e m a r ke t -
p l a c e - b u t h a v e l e f t t h e s c h o o l h o u s e " b y t h e r o a d , a r a g g e d b e g g a r
s u n n i n g . " O n l y n o w i s t h e s c h o o l h o u s e ( t h e c h i e f d e t e r m i n a n t o f
w h e r e m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l c h o o s e t o l i v e o r c o n -
t i n u e t o l i v e ) b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e p r i n c i p a l c o u n t e r v a i l i n g f o r c e
f o r f a m i l i e s w h i c h e n j o y t h e l u x u r y o f m o b i l i t y
. Th e i m p o r t a n c e o f
t h e s c h o o l h o u s e t o t h e s t a b i l i t y a n d e q u a n i m i t y o f c i t y l i f e w a s w e l l
s t a t e d t o Ne w Yo r kC i t y i n 1
9 5 9 ` 7
In t h e n e c e s s a r y a n d c o n t i n u a l q u e s t i o n i n g o f m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i o n s ,
t h e n a t u r e a n d w o r t h o f a s c h o o l h o u s e d e f y s i m p l e a n a l y s i s
. Th o u g h i t
l o o m s a s t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c r e a t e d o f a l l c l a s s e s o f m u n i c i p a l s t r u c -
t u r e s , a n d t h e r e f o r e i n t h e a g g r e g a t e i s t h e m o s t e x p e n s i v e i t e m o f c a p i -
t a l o u t l a y , i t i s b u r d e n e d b y h a v i n g t o p e r f o r m m o r e t h a n t h e c o m m o n l y
r e c o g n i z e d f u n c t i o n o f s e r v i n g w e l l t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e y o u n g .
If t h e
s c h o o l h o u s e i s t o p r o d u c e t o t h e m a x i m u m , i t m u s t a l s o p e r f o r m t h e l e s s
c o m m o n l y r e c o g n i z e d , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s v i t a l , f u n c t i o n o f l e a d i n g t h e c i t y
t o w a r d a b e t t e r a n d h i g h e r p l a n e o f l i v i n g
.
Th e s c h o o l h o u s e t h a t i s o n l y a p l a c e w h e r e c h i l d r e n a r e t a u g h t d u r -
i n g t h e d a y f u l f i l l s i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n . Ma n y c i t i e s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h
t h i s m u c h a n d o n l y t h i s m u c h . B u t t h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o e x p e c t t h e
s c h o o l h o u s e t o s e r v e i t s c i t y i n a d d i t i o n a l w a y s : i t m u s t s e r v e t o
s t r e n g t h e n t h e w h o l e f a b r i c o f c i t y l i f e b y s e r v i n g i t s w h o l e c o m m u n i t y
;
i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e s h o u l d l e a d t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d o n t o i t s o w n r e n e w a l
;
a n d i t m u s t h e l p t o a n c h o r t h o s e f a m i l i e s w h o a r e n e e d e d t o ke e p a c i t y
i n b a l a n c e c u l t u r a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y , a n d w h o a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o
d e s e r t t o t h e s u b u r b s i f t h e c i t y ' s s c h o o l s a r e d r e a r y a n d c h e e r l e s s
.
C i t i e s a r e o r g a n i c
; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y m u s t c o n t i n u a l l y r e n e w t h e m s e l v e s .
Th e i r g r o w t h a n d g r e a t n e s s m a y h a v e c o m e a b o u t b y a c c i d e n t o r g o o d
f o r t u n e ; b u t t h e i r d e c l i n e c a n b e f o r e s t a l l e d o n l y b y d e s i g n .
O f a l l
m u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e s , t h e s c h o o l h o u s e , b e i n g t h e m o s t n u m e r o u s ,
h o l d s
t h e ke y t o a c i t y ' s p h y s i c a l a n d , i n d e e d , s o c i o l o g i c a l f u t u r e
.
C e r t a i n l y o n e c o u l d n e v e r c l a i m t h a t g o o d s c h o o l h o u s e s a l o n e
a r e
t h e a n s w e r t o t h e c o u n t r y ' s o r t o t h e c i t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . B u t
t h e s p i r i t l e s s s c h o o l h o u s e c a n m a ke a l l t h e p r o b l e m s m o r e d i f f i c u l t
.
Th e n a t u r e a n d c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l h o u s e s u g g e s t t o t h e c o m -
m u n i t y a n d t o t h e c h i l d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e f o r w h i c h i t
1 5 0

SC HO O LHO USEINTRANSITIO N
w a s b u i l t . Th e b u i l d i n g s a y s t o t h e m w h a t Pl a t o s a i d t o a l l o f u s
: " W h a t
i s h o n o r e d i n a c o u n t r y w i l l b e c u l t i v a t e d t h e r e . " 1
Gr a n t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s ,
t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e w o r n - o u t s c h o o l h o u s e w h i c h d o t s t h e c i t y -
s c a p e i n s c a n d a l o u s n u m b e r s c a n d i m i n i s h t h e t e a c h e r ' s c a p a c i t y t o
t e a c h , u n d e r m i n e n e i g h b o r h o o d m o r a l e , d e p r e c i a t e r e a l - e s t a t e v a l u e s
a n d s p e e d t h e m o b i l e f a m i l i e s o n t h e i r w a y . If t o t h e g e n e r a l d e -
p r e s s i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s a d d e d t h e n e w t h r e a t o f p h y s i c a l
d a n g e r i n t h e s t r e e t s , t h e b a s i c f o r c e s a r e p r e s e n t f o r e v e n t u a l l y
e m p t y i n g t h e c i t y o f i t s y o u n g f a m i l i e s .
Th e n e g l e c t o f t h e c i t y s c h o o l h o u s e h a s h a s t e n e d t h e d a y o f
f e d e r a l r e l i e f , a n d m a n y c i t i e s a r e n o w i m p e l l e d t o s e e kn e w s o l u -
t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o n e o f h a s t i l y r e p l a c i n g t h e o l d
s c h o o l s , o n e b y o n e . Ne w f o r m s a n d n e w a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e e r u p t -
i n g : Ne w Ha v e n ( C o n n e c t i c u t ) c o n v e r t e d t o t h e
4 - 4 - 4
o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
a n d a s p e c i a l c o m m i s s i o n h a s r e c o m m e n d e d i t t o Ne w Yo r kC i t y ;
Ea s t O r a n g e ( Ne w J e r s e y ) i s c o n s i d e r i n g a n " e d u c a t i o n p l a z a "
w h i c h w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e o n o n e s i t e t h e t h i r t e e n s c h o o l
b u i l d i n g s i t n o w o p e r a t e s . Pi t t s b u r g h ( Pe n n s y l v a n i a ) i s s t u d y i n g t h e
" e d u c a t i o n p a r k" f o r a m a j o r d i s t r i c t o f t h e c i t y . B r o w a r d C o u n t y
( F l o r i d a ) i s g a t h e r i n g t h o u s a n d s o f s t u d e n t s o n a f o r m e r Ai r F o r c e
b a s e a n d w i l l s o m e d a y e n r o l Gr a d e s K - X X u n d e r a m i x t u r e o f p u b -
l i c a n d p r i v a t e a u s p i c e s . Ti t l e IIIo f t h e Ed u c a t i o n Ac t o f 1 9 6 5 p r o -
v i d e s $ i o o m i l l i o n o f f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r " Su p p l e m e n t a r y Ed u c a -
t i o n a l C e n t e r s " - a n e w a g e n c y c a l c u l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h e n i n s t r u c t i o n
i n c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l s b y c r e a t i n g c e n t e r s , s a t u r a t e d w i t h t a l e n t
a n d t o o l s , t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n f r o m b o t h p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e s c h o o l s
c a n b e b r o u g h t . At t h i s t i m e o f w r i t i n g , C l e v e l a n d ( O h i o ) a p p e a r s
t o b e t h e f i r s t c i t y t o e s t a b l i s h a m a j o r s u p p l e m e n t a r y c e n t e r f o r t h e
s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 - i n a c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g c o n v e r t e d t o s c h o o l
u s e .
Th e Su p p l e m e n t a r y Ed u c a t i o n a l C e n t e r r e p r e s e n t s a m a j o r e f f o r t
i n t h e s e a r c h f o r n e w f o r m s . It a t t e m p t s t o d o f o r a c l u s t e r o f
s c h o o l s w h a t n o o n e s c h o o l c a n d o f o r i t s e l f . An d , i n m a n y i n s t a n c e s ,
i . Sc h o o l C o n s t r u c t i o n i n Ne w Yo r kC i t y . Re p o r t o f t h e St a t e Ed u c a t i o n
C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s C o m m i t t e e o n In q u i r y i n t o C h a r g e s o f W a s t e a n d Ex t r a v a g a n c e
i n t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Sc h o o l B u i l d i n g s i n Ne w Yo r kC i t y , Ma y ,
1 9 5 9 .
Al b a n y :
Un i v e r s i t y o f t h e St a t e o f Ne w Yo r k, 1 9 5 9 .
GO RES

1 5 1
w h i l e i m p r o v i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , i t c a n , b e c a u s e i t e n l a r g e s
t h e a t t e n d a n c e d i s t r i c t , p r o v i d e a h e t e r o g e n e o u s s t u d e n t b o d y
i n
r a c i a l l y i m b a l a n c e d n e i g h b o r h o o d s .
In Su m
Af t e r a h u n d r e d y e a r s o f e s s e n t i a l l y s t a n d a r d d e s i g n , d i c t a t e d b y
s t a n d a r d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , t h e s c h o o l h o u s e h a s b r o ke n o u t o f i t s b o x e s
.
Ed u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e h a s b r o u g h t a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e s
. In d e -
s t r u c t i b i l i t y , a n t i s e p s i s , a n d c h e a p n e s s a r e n o l o n g e r t h e f i r s t c o n d i -
t i o n s o f d e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n .
Ma n y p e r s o n s s e n s e t h e c h a n g e a n d , i n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r , h a v e
c o m e t o e x p e c t a n d t o b e w i l l i n g t o p a y f o r f u n c t i o n a n d b e a u t y
.
F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w e a r e c o n n e c t i n g t h e n a t i o n ' s f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y
w i t h t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l o c a l s c h o o l h o u s e a n d n o w g i v e
c o n s e n t f o r b u i l d i n g s c h o o l s w h i c h p r o v i d e c o m f o r t a n d a m e n i t y
.
Th e n e w s c h o o l p r o p o s e s t o n o u r i s h t h e c h i l d ' s s p i r i t a n d d i g n i t y
.
W e a r e c o m i n g t o a c c e p t t h e s c h o o l h o u s e a s m o r e t h a n s h e l t e r f o r
t h e y o u n g
; i t i s a f a c i l i t y f o r l i v i n g a n d f o r l e a r n i n g h o w t o l i v e .
SEC TIO N II
F O RC ESANDIDEASHO LDINGPO TENTIALF O R
INF LUENC INGTHESC HO O LS
In s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e W r i t e r s
J O HNI. GO O DLAD
Yo u a r e t o i d e n t i f y , d e s c r i b e , a n d a n a l y z e t h o s e c e n t r a l s o c i a l ,
e c o n o m i c , a n d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s o r m a j o r i d e a s f r o m t h e b e h a v i o r a l
s c i e n c e s , f r o m r e s e a r c h o n i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d f r o m p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n -
q u i r y t o w h i c h s c h o o l s m i g h t ( o r e v e n s h o u l d ) h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d
t o r e s p o n d s i n c e W o r l d W a r II. Yo u n e e d n o t s p e c i f y w h a t t h e
s c h o o l s ' r e s p o n s e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n , b u t y o u m u s t c l a r i f y y o u r r e a -
s o n s f o r e x p e c t i n g a r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e s c h o o l s . Th i s m a y n e c e s s i t a t e
t h e u s e o f s p e c i f i c s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s t o c l a r i f y y o u r p o s i t i o n . Th e
n a t u r e o f y o u r t a s kw i l l d e m a n d , n o d o u b t , a n a l y s e s o f f o r c e s o r
i d e a s t h a t g o b a c km u c h f a r t h e r t h a n W o r l d W a r II . No n e t h e l e s s ,
y o u s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e p a s t t w o d e c a d e s , d r a w i n g o n t h e
m o r e d i s t a n t p a s t o n l y t o i l l u m i n a t e t h i s m o r e r e c e n t p e r i o d .
C HAPTERSEV EN
W i t h r e s p e c t t o s o m e o f t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t s c h o o l p r o b l e m s , e d -
u c a t i o n h a s b e c o m e a l m o s t i n e x t r i c a b l y e n t w i n e d w i t h c o m p l e x
s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , a n d e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s . Th e s c h o o l i n t e g r a t i o n p r o b -
l e m o f t h e So u t h a n d o f t h e b i g c i t i e s i s a s t r i ki n g c a s e i n p o i n t . Yo u r
t a s ki s t o p u l l o u t a n d m a ke e x p l i c i t t h o s e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , a n d e c o -
n o m i c f o r c e s t h a t a p p e a r t o h a v e a b e a r i n g , a c t u a l l y o r p o t e n t i a l l y ,
o n w h a t s c h o o l s d o o r s h o u l d d o .
It p r o b a b l y w i l l b e d e s i r a b l e t o b e g i n w i t h s o m e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f
r e a l i t y ( s o m e f a c t s o f o u r s o c i e t y ) : p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , u r b a n i z a -
t i o n , a u t o m a t i o n , o v e r s u p p l y a n d u n d e r s u p p l y o f m a n p o w e r , t h e
s u r g e o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s f o r r i g h t s a n d r e c o g n i t i o n , i n c r e a s e d
c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n , c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e s c h o o l s , r a p i d
e x p a n s i o n o f kn o w l e d g e i n s o m e f i e l d s , a n d s o o n . To b e a d e q u a t e l y
1 5 5
s e l e c t i v e , w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n m i n d , i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . B u t
t o s t a n d b a c kf r o m t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o r d e r t o f i n d i n t h e m a
c e n t r a l f o c u s a n d s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n s t h a t s h o u l d h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s
f o r t h e s c h o o l s ' r o l e i s d o u b l y d i f f i c u l t
. Li m i t a t i o n s i n s p a c e n e c e s -
s i t a t e c h o i c e a n d t h e r i g o r o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f c r i t e r i a f o r c h o i c e
.
C HAPTEREIGHT
Th e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s g i v e u s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f m a n
a n d h o w h e b e h a v e s i n s m a l l g r o u p s , a s w e l l a s i n t o t h o s e l a r g e r s o -
c i a l f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g o u r l i v e s ( c h a p . v i i ) . Si g n i f i c a n t i d e a s h a v e
c o m e f r o m b i o l o g y , b i o c h e m i s t r y , p s y c h i a t r y , p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , a n d
p s y c h o l o g y , t o n a m e o n l y a f e w f i e l d s . An d s c h o o l s h a v e r e s p o n d e d
t o s o m e o f t h e s e i d e a s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , i n t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s o f
g r o u p i n g s t u d e n t s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , m o t i -
v a t i n g l e a r n i n g a n d r e w a r d i n g r e s p o n s e s , s e l e c t i n g p e d a g o g i c a l p r o -
c e d u r e s , a n d s o o n . Un d o u b t e d l y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a g a p b e t w e e n
p r e s e n t s c h o o l p r a c t i c e a n d w h a t p r a c t i c e m i g h t b e w e r e i t t o r e f l e c t
p r e s e n t kn o w l e d g e a d e q u a t e l y .
W h a t a r e s o m e o f t h e ke y i d e a s f r o m t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s
( i d e a s n o t a l r e a d y c o v e r e d i n c h a p t e r v i i ) t o w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s
s h o u l d h a v e r e s p o n d e d ?
C HAPTERNINE
Ad v a n c e s i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e o f
i n s t r u c t i o n a p p e a r t o b e o f h i g h r e l e v a n c e t o t h e c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s
o f s c h o o l s . W h a t a r e t h e e m e r g i n g t h r u s t s i n t h i s i m p o r t a n t f i e l d ?
He l p u s t o g e t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e s e a r c h w o r kn o w
u n d e r w a y , r e s e a r c h w h i c h a l r e a d y s h o u l d h a v e i n f l u e n c e d s c h o o l
p r a c t i c e o r w h i c h s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e i t i n t h e f u t u r e .
C HAPTERTEN
F e w e d u c a t o r s q u e s t i o n t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s ,
e s p e c i a l l y p s y c h o l o g y , f o r s c h o o l i n g . Th e y a r e l e s s r e a d y t o a c -
kn o w l e d g e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p h i l o s o p h y . An d y e t , t h e q u e s t i o n s
t o w h i c h p h i l o s o p h e r s a d d r e s s t h e m s e l v e s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l t o q u e s -
t i o n s o f w h a t t h e s c h o o l s a r e f o r , w h a t i s w o r t h kn o w i n g , a n d h o w
w e kn o w . F u r t h e r , b r a n c h e s o f p h i l o s o p h y p r o v i d e t h e t o o l s f o r
1 5 6
d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f o u r d e d u c t i o n s a n d t h e v a l u e s i m -
p l i c i t i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n s .
No p h i l o s o p h e r o r p h i l o s o p h y s i n c e De w e y h a s b e e n c h a r g e d
w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s c h o o l s . An d y e t , p h i l o s o p h e r s
h a v e b e e n a t w o r ka n d t h e i r r e c e n t i n q u i r y s u r e l y h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s
f o r s c h o o l i n g
. W h a t a s p e c t s o f t h e i r t h i n ki n g a r e r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l -
i n g ? To w h a t t r e n d s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t m i g h t t h e s c h o o l s
h a v e r e s p o n d e d s i n c e W o r l d W a r II?
1 5 7
C HAPTER
V II
Ec o n o m i c , So c i a l , a n d Po l i t i c a l F o r c e s
J . STEELE
c o w , J R.
B URK ARTHO LZNER, a n d W ILLIAM
C . PENDLETO N
In t r o d u c t i o n
Su p p o s e t h a t o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ke p t p e r f e c t l y a t t u n e d t o
o u r c u l t u r e a n d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s r e s p o n d e d c r i s p l y t o o u r d y n a m i c
s o c i e t y ' s n e w n e e d s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s
. W o u l d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n -
t e r p r i s e l o o ka s i t d o e s ? W o u l d w e b e m a ki n g t h e c h a n g e s i n i t t h a t
w e a r e m a ki n g ? W o u l d t h e a l t e r a t i o n s a n d i n n o v a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d
e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s v o l u m e b e t h e ki n d t o r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n ?
Ev e n t o b e g i n e x p l o r i n g f o r a n s w e r s t o s u c h q u e s t i o n s , w e f i r s t
o u g h t t o s t e p o u t o f t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f f o r o t h e r p e r s p e c -
t i v e s o n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e b e e n o c c u r -
r i n g i n o u r c u l t u r e a n d s o c i e t y , Th i s c h a p t e r a t t e m p t s t o t a ke t h a t
f i r s t s t e p , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s o m e c u l t u r a l t h e m e s
a n d s o c i a l f o r c e s t h a t s e e m t o u s t o b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o c e s s o f
c h a n g e i n t h e s c h o o l s
. Th e n t h e t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f e c o n o m i c s ,
s o c i o l o g y , a n d p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e a r e e m p l o y e d s e p a r a t e l y ,
a n d t h e
c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h s o m e o b s e r v a t i o n s o n w h a t t h o s e p e r s p e c -
t i v e s s e e m t o r e v e a l a b o u t t h e s c h o o l s ' r o l e i n s h a p i n g
s o c i e t a l
c h a n g e .
C u l t u r a l Th e m e s a n d So c i a l F o r c e s
THEEMERGENC EO F ANEW C ULTURE
Am e r i c a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , d u r i n g t h e l a s t f e w d e c a d e s , h a s b e c o m e
t h e l e a d i n g f o r c e i n m a n y s p h e r e s o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e
. Am e r i c a n
i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i n a d i a l o g u e o f i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t y w i t h t h e i n t e l l e c -
t u a l s o f Eu r o p e a n d o f o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d
g r e a t l y t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e w p a t t e r n o f c u l t u r e
. Th i s c u l t u r e o f
1
5
9
1 6 o SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
t h e m o d e r n a g e b u i l d s , t o b e s u r e , u p o n t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e p a s t
a n d p r e s e r v e s i m p o r t a n t c o n t i n u i t i e s , b u t t h e t o t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s
n e w a n d d i s t i n c t i v e . Mo d e r n c u l t u r e h o l d s o u t n e w p r o m i s e s a n d
p o s e s n e w p r o b l e m s w h i c h a f f e c t n o t o n l y t h e f e w , h i g h l y e d u c a t e d ,
c r e a t i v e m e n w h o w o r k a t t h e e d g e o f c u l t u r a l g r o w t h b u t a l l o f
s o c i e t y . W h i l e t h i s n e w c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t i l l i s e m e r g i n g a n d
i s n o t n e a r l y i n a f i n i s h e d
s t a t e , w e c a n r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n o f i t s s a l i -
e n t f e a t u r e s .
An e w a n d p e r v a s i v e v i e w o f t h e w o r l d h a s d e v e l o p e d , o n e
w h i c h c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e a c c u s t o m e d p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t
f o u n d i n Eu r o p e a n d Am e r i c a i n p r i o r p e r i o d s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e
i m a g e s o f s o c i e t y a n d o f t h e w o r l d a s f i x e d s t r u c t u r e s , s o c h a r a c -
t e r i s t i c o f e a r l i e r p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e o l o g y , a r e b e i n g a b a n d o n e d .
Al s o , t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f a p r o c e s s o f i n e v i t a b l e e v o l u t i o n t o w a r d a n
e v e r g r e a t e r s o c i e t y , t h e i d e a o f p r o g r e s s , h a s b e e n f o u n d m i s l e a d i n g .
Ho w e v e r , t h e e a r l i e r r e a c t i o n s t o n a i v e p r o g r e s s i v i s m , t h e g r e a t
p e s s i m i s m a n d c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m o f t h e p e r i o d
o f t h e g r e a t w a r s ,
h a v e p r o v e d t h e i r f a i l u r e a s w e l l .
Th e m o d e r n i n t e l l e c t u a l s e e s h i m s e l f c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e t s o f
e v e n t s , n o t w i t h f i x e d a n d i m m u t a b l e s t r u c t u r e s n o r w i t h p r o c e s s e s
t h e d i r e c t i o n o f w h i c h i s p r e d e t e r m i n e d a n d u n c h a n g i n g . He o r i -
e n t s h i m s e l f t o p r o b a b i l i t i e s , n o t c e r t a i n t i e s , t h u s
f a c i n g u p t o t h e
f a c t t h a t m a n i s c o m p e l l e d
t o m a ke r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n s
i n t h e f a c e
o f u n c e r t a i n t y
.
He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t c e r t a i n t y
i s u n a t t a i n a b l e i n a n y
f i e l d o f h u m a n kn o w l e d g e o r o f b e l i e f . Mo d e r n m a n , b e i n g o p e n i n
h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d , i s a w a r e o f t h e v a s t r a n g e o f t h e u n -
f o r e s e e a b l e a n d h a s l e a r n e d t o a c c e p t c h a n g e a s t h e r u l e r a t h e r t h a n
t h e e x c e p t i o n . Th e m o d e r n p o l i c y - m a ke r i s e x p l i c i t l y a w a r e t h a t h i s
d e c i s i o n s a r e b a s e d o n t h e w e i g h i n g o f p r o b a b i l i t i e s a n d d e s i r a b i l i t i e s .
He r e l i e s l e s s o n e s t a b l i s h e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e r i g h t
c o u r s e o f a c t i o n a t a l l t i m e s , a n d m o r e o n r a t i o n a l a n d w o r ke d - o u t
m e t h o d s f o r s o l v i n g t h e a c t i o n p r o b l e m s h e c o n f r o n t s .
Th u s , m o d e r n m a n f e e l s t h a t p r o g r e s s , i f i t i s t o o c c u r , h a s t o b e
f a s h i o n e d - a n d t h a t i t i s , a t b e s t , p r e c a r i o u s . He r e c o g n i z e s t h e
s e v e r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e m a n d s m a d e u p o n h i m b y h i s s t a n c e t o w a r d
s o c i e t y a n d t h e w o r l d . He r e q u i r e s a h i g h l e v e l
o f t o l e r a n c e f o r u n -
c e r t a i n t y a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o o v e r c o m e t h r o u g h a c t i o n t h e a n x i e t y
n a t u r a l l y a r i s i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s o f c r i s e s ; a n d h e i s o f t e n f e a r f u l l e s t
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 6 1
t h e s e d e m a n d s p r o v e t o o m u c h f o r h i m a n d h i s f e l l o w - m e n . W i t h
h i s i n t e n s e l y h u m a n i s t i c i m a g e o f t h e w o r l d , h e r e l i e s a l m o s t a l o n e
u p o n m a n a n d h i s r a t i o n a l i t y . Ye t , r e c e n t h i s t o r y h a s t a u g h t h i m
w e l l j u s t h o w f r a g i l e t h i s r a t i o n a l i t y o f f r e e m e n m a y b e , h o w m i l -
l i o n s m a y a b d i c a t e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h a s i g h o f r e l i e f t o b e -
c o m e s e r v a n t s o f t h e d a r kf o r c e s o f p a s s i o n
. Th e s h o c ko f t h e Na z i
c a t a s t r o p h e i n Ge r m a n y a n d t h e c o n t i n u i n g c o n f l i c t w i t h t o t a l i t a r i -
a n i s m s h a s d r i v e n t h e Am e r i c a n i n t e l l e c t u a l , l i ke m a n y o f h i s Eu r o -
p e a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , t o s t r u g g l e f o r a n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e f r e e a n d
r e s p o n s i b l e m a n i n a n u n c e r t a i n w o r l d .
In t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u g g l e , m a n h i m s e l f h a s b e c o m e a n o b j e c t
o f c l o s e s c r u t i n y
. He kn o w s t h a t h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e a n d t r u t h d e -
p e n d o n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e o b s e r v e r , t h a t t h e y a f f o r d n o a b s o -
l u t e s i n t h e m s e l v e s . Mo d e r n Am e r i c a n c u l t u r e , m u c h l i ke t h a t i n
t h e o t h e r n a t i o n s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d W e s t t o d a y , e n c o m p a s s e s a n
u n p r e c e d e n t e d d i v e r s i t y o f v i e w s
. Th e s e c l a s h o f t e n e n o u g h , b u t
t h e r e e x i s t s a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n i n t e l l e c t u a l o p p o n e n t s m a d e p o s s i b l e
b y t h e a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , a s i n t h e
g r e a t d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s t o d a y .
Th e n e w w o r l d - v i e w i s 2 e r v a s i v e a n d a p p e a r s a l r e a d y i n v i r t u a l l y
a l l f i e l d s o f c u l t u r e , i n s c i e n c e a n d a r t , i n p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e o l o g y .
It h a s t r a n s f o r m e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , f o r e x a m p l e ,
b y c h a n g i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s . At l e a s t s i n c e t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n e w p h y s i c s , b a s e d o n t h e w o r ko f m e n l i ke
Al b e r t Ei n s t e i n a n d Ma x Pl a n c k, n a t u r a l s c i e n c e i s o r i e n t e d n o t t o
f i x e d o b j e c t s , a s s u c h , b u t t o e v e n t s r e c o r d e d b y a n o b s e r v e r w h o s e
p o s i t i o n a n d m e t h o d o f r e c o r d i n g p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e h i s r e s u l t s .
Mo d e r n a r t , w i t h i t s e a g e r n e s s t o e x p e r i m e n t a n d w i t h i t s m u l t i p l i c -
i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s a m e p o i n t
: f i x e d a n d s t a n d a r d
f o r m s , a s s u c h , a r e n o t a c c e p t a b l e , b u t , i n s t e a d , t h e r e i s a c o n s t a n t
s t r u g g l e t o f i n d m o r e a n d m o r e a d e q u a t e m e d i a f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n
o f t h e e v e r c h a n g i n g r a n g e o f h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e s
. Mo s t e x p l i c i t l y
t h e n e w v i e w i s f o u n d i n p h i l o s o p h y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e m o v e m e n t o f
e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , w h i c h u n d e r l i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e h u m a n c o n d i t i o n
a s t h a t o f t h e a g e n t w h o c o n f r o n t s p r o b l e m s o f r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n
i n t h e f a c e o f u n c e r t a i n t y
. It i s f o u n d , t o o , i n t h e o l o g y w i t h i t s i n -
c r e a s e d o p e n n e s s a n d r e n u n c i a t i o n o f d o g m a t i s m i n f a v o r o f t h e
c e n t r a l r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h
1 6 2
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
h i s Go d
. Mo d e r n r e l i g i o n , l i ke s c i e n c e a n d l i t e r a t u r e , i s a w a r e o f
t h e m a n y p o s s i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n w h i c h t h i s c e n t r a l e x p e r i e n c e m a y
b e d e s c r i b e d a n d e x p r e s s e d
. Th i s a w a r e n e s s m a ke s i t s t h e o l o g y m o r e
c o m p l e x t h a n t h e d o g m a t i s m s w h i c h i t r e p l a c e s , b u t i t a l s o m a ke s
f o r f l e x i b i l i t y a n d s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
.
As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s n e w h u m a n i s m , t h e c u l t u r a l p o s i t i o n o f
m o d e r n m a n h a s b e c o m e m u c h m o r e p r o b l e m a t i c t h a n i t e v e r w a s
b e f o r e
. Ex p o s e d t o a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d r a n g e o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y
a n d u n a b l e t o r e l y o n t h e g u i d e p o s t s o f a n o w l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t
t r a d i t i o n , m a n i s s e a r c h i n g f o r n e w , m o r e r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i a o f j u d g -
m e n t a n d i s r e f l e c t i n g m o r e a n d m o r e u p o n h i m s e l f
. s e l f . In d e e d , m o d -
e r n c u l t u r e i s r e f l e c t i v e i n t h e e x t r e m e
. Th i s i s e x p r e s s e d a l s o i n t h e
t r e m e n d o u s i m p a c t o f b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y p s y c h o l o g y a n d
s o c i o l o g y , o n m o d e r n c u l t u r e
. Th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l
a n d s o c i a l f o r c e s g o e s d e e p e r a n d d e e p e r
. It s r e s u l t s a r e b e i n g a b -
s o r b e d , o f t e n i n d i s t o r t e d f o r m , i n t o p o p u l a r c u l t u r e
. To d a y , a l e v e l
o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s t a ke n f o r g r a n t e d i n p u b l i c d i s c u s -
s i o n , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n q u i t e u n t h i n ka b l e o n l y a f e w d e c a d e s
a g o
. Th e m a n y - f a c e t e d n a t u r e o f h u m a n m o t i v a t i o n a n d a c t i o n i s
r e a d i l y a c kn o w l e d g e d
; r a r e l y i s a m o t i v e o r a n a c t i o n a c c e p t e d
p u r e l y a t f a c e v a l u e , a n d c o m p l e x a n d d e v i o u s a t t e m p t s a t m a n i p u -
l a t i n g h u m a n m o t i v a t i o n h a v e b e c o m e c o m m o n p l a c e
. Th e n e w r e -
f l e c t i v e n e s s o f m o d e r n c u l t u r e t a ke s i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t h u m a n b e -
h a v i o r a n d m o t i v a t i o n c a n b e a n d m u s t b e i n t e r p r e t e d o n s e v e r a l
l e v e l s a t o n c e .
Th i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e m a n y l a y e r s o f t h e h u m a n p r o b l e m h a s l e d
t o a n e w r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s c i e n c e s o f m a n ,
r a n g i n g f r o m t h e m e d i c a l f i e l d s t h r o u g h p s y c h o l o g y t o t h e s o c i a l
s c i e n c e s , a n d o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f e a c h a p p r o a c h a s w e l l a s o f i t s
c o n t r i b u t i o n s
. Th e a w a r e n e s s h a s b e e n h e i g h t e n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t
i n t h e l a s t f e w d e c a d e s t h e s c i e n c e s o f m a n h a v e a c q u i r e d a h i g h
r e l e v a n c e i n a l l p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r s o f p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n s a n d p u b l i c
p o l i c y
. It h a s b e c o m e a m a t t e r o f c o m m o n r o u t i n e , a n d o f g r e a t
p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , t o t a ke t h e p u l s e o f s o c i a l l i f e n o t m e r e l y t h r o u g h
t h e ke e p i n g o f v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s b u t t h r o u g h t h e d e t a i l e d a n d o f t e n
s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s i s a n d m o n i t o r i n g o f s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c -
e s s e s , s u c h a s c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s o r m o t i v a t i o n s
. Ev e n t h e p r e d i c -
- t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s h a s b e c o m e p o s s i b l e w i t h
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 6 3
a n a m a z i n g d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y . Th u s , a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l l i f e h a v e b e -
c o m e m a t t e r s o f p u b l i c , e m p i r i c a l kn o w l e d g e , w h i c h i n p r e v i o u s
p e r i o d s w e r e e n t i r e l y h i d d e n f r o m v i e w , o r a t b e s t w e r e o b j e c t s o f
c l o u d y , m o r a l i s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n . Th i s d e v e l o p m e n t i l l u s t r a t e s b e s t t h e
d i l e m m a s o f o u r r e f l e c t i v e , s e l f - a n a l y z i n g c u l t u r e , i n w h i c h m a n
kn o w s h i m s e l f a s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a ki n g a g e n t , w h o t h i n ks o f h i m s e l f
a s f r e e , a n d r e c o g n i z e s a s w e l l t h a t h e i s a n o b j e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y
a n d p r e d i c t i o n . Th e m o r a l i s s u e s o f s u c h a s i t u a t i o n c a n n o t b e s o l v e d
b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m o r a l i t y o f t h e p a s t . Th e s e p r o b l e m s a r e n e w
a n d t h e i r s o l u t i o n i s a t a s kw h i c h o n l y m o d e r n m a n h a s f a c e d
.
Th e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , e x p r e s s i o n s o r i g i n a l l y o f m a n ' s s e l f - a w a r e n e s s
a n d r e f l e c t i o n u p o n h i m s e l f , a l s o h a v e b e c o m e t o o l s o f m a n i p u l a t i o n
a n d m a y b e u s e d u n s c r u p u l o u s l y t o d e p r i v e m a n y o f t h e i r r e f l e c -
t i v i t y a n d a b i l i t y t o t h i n kf o r t h e m s e l v e s . O n t h e w h o l e , h o w e v e r ,
t h e i m p a c t h a s b e e n l e s s t o c r e a t e " a n a t i o n o f s h e e p " t h a n t o m a ke
r o o m f o r a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l o f s o c i a l l i f e a n d i t s f o r c e s a n d h a s p r o -
v i d e d t h e c l i m a t e i n w h i c h c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s a t s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a n d
s o c i a l r e f o r m h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t a n d a r e b e i n g d r i v e n f o r w a r d .
C o n t r a r y t o t h e p e s s i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l s g i v e n b y s o m e o b s e r v e r s o f
t h e Am e r i c a n s c e n e , i t i s n o w a w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d f a c t t h a t , t h r o u g h
t h e r i s e o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e Am e r i c a n i n t e l l e c t u a l i n p a r t i c u l a r
h a s c o m e i n t o h i s o w n . He , i n t u r n , h a s u s e d s o c i a l s c i e n c e a s a f i g h t -
i n g w e a p o n , o f t e n e n d a n g e r i n g i t s c l a i m t o s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y , i n
b u i l d i n g h i s n e w v i e w o f m a n a n d s o c i e t y , i n t h e d e f e n s e o f h i s
v a l u e s o f e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m a n d l i b e r t y , a g a i n s t d o g m a t i s m a n d p r e j u -
d i c e , a n d i n t h e s h a p i n g o f p u b l i c p o l i c y . Th e m o d e r n Am e r i c a n
i n t e l l e c t u a l i s a l l t o o a w a r e o f t h e d a n g e r s o f i r r a t i o n a l i s m , n o t o n l y
i n Na z i Ge r m a n y a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m s b u t a l s o h e r e
a t h o m e , a n d h e h o p e s t o d e f e n d h i s c o m m i t m e n t t o r a t i o n a l i t y a n d
l i b e r t y w i t h t o o l s p r o v i d e d b y s o c i a l s c i e n c e .
Th e i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s
h a s r e a c h e d e v e r i n c r e a s i n g c i r c l e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . No t t h a t i t
h a s b e c o m e g e n e r a l , o r e v e n i n c l u d e d m o s t Am e r i c a n s ; i t h a s n o t .
B u t i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n i s n o l o n g e r c o n f i n e d t o t h e n a r r o w c i r -
c l e s o f t h e h i g h l y e d u c a t e d f e w . Th e r i s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f
Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e p a p e r b a c ks ,
b o o kc l u b s , a n d o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g e v e n t h e m a s s m e d i a ,
l o w a s t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l i s m o s t o f t h e t i m e , h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d
1 6 4
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
t o t h e i n c l u s i o n o f l a r g e n u m b e r s i n t h e c i r c l e o f t h o s e c o n c e r n e d
w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h a t d r i v e s c u l t u r a l g r o w t h o n w a r d .
Th e r e h a s e m e r g e d a n e w w o r ki n g c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s s o c i e t y , a c o n c e p t i o n n o t n a i v e l y c o n f i d e n t l i ke
t h a t o f t h e " r u g g e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m " o f t h e h i g h c a p i t a l i s t p e r i o d i n
w h i c h Am e r i c a n i n d u s t r y w a s b e i n g b u i l t . Th e n , t h e s t a t e a n d p o l i t -
i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n y ki n d w e r e v i e w e d n e g a t i v e l y - a s t h r e a t s t o
i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e
. Th e t r u e " i n d i v i d u a l i s t " w a s t h e m a n w h o c o u l d
s u c c e s s f u l l y f i g h t h i s w a y t o t h e t o p t h r o u g h h i s e n e r g y a n d , o f t e n ,
h i s r u t h l e s s n e s s
. Th e n e w i n d i v i d u a l i s m h a s e m e r g e d t h r o u g h t h e
c o n c e r n f o r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y t o i t s m e m b e r s a n d o f t h e
c i t i z e n t o h i s s t a t e . It i s b a s e d o n t h e h u m a n i s t i c w o r l d - v i e w d i s -
c u s s e d e a r l i e r a n d o n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Th i s
v i e w o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e m o v e m e n t t o p r o v i d e e q u a l
o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , t o o v e r c o m e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a n d t o
b u i l d a n e w c o n c e p t i o n o r t h e s t a t e a s t h e p r o t e c t o r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
C o u n t e r c u r r e n t s t o t h e s e g r e a t t r e n d s e x i s t , a s i s w e l l kn o w n .
Th e y a r e s t r o n g a n d s i g n i f i c a n t . Ho w e v e r , t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e d o c u -
m e n t s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l t r e n d o f c u l t u r a l g r o w t h i n t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s , f o r t h e y a r e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e m o v e m e n t j u s t d e s c r i b e d
a n d d o n o t s h o w n e w d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e i r o w n . Th e t r e n d t o t h e n e w
i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d t o t h e n e w c u l t u r e o f w h i c h i t i s a p a r t i s t h e r e ,
a n d i t s e e m s u n l i ke l y t h a t i t w i l l b e r e v e r s e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e .
Mo d e r n c u l t u r e h a s b e c o m e e n o r m o u s l y d i v e r s i f i e d . Sc i e n c e , a s
a p a r t o f c u l t u r e , i s s o e x t e n d e d a n d s p e c i a l i z e d t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e
f o r t h e e d u c a t e d t o c o m p r e h e n d m o r e t h a n a f e w o f i t s m a j o r p r i n -
c i p l e s a n d r e s u l t s
. Mu c h t h e s a m e h o l d s t r u e f o r o t h e r a r e a s o f c u l -
t u r a l a c t i v i t y e v e n t h o u g h n o t a l l o f t h e m h a v e d e v e l o p e d w i t h e q u a l
v i g o r .
Sp e c i a l i z a t i o n h a s b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s t a r t l i n g i n c r e a s e i n
o u r p o w e r o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n a n d s y m b o l m a n i p u l a t i o n . Th e m o s t
o b v i o u s e x a m p l e i s t h e i n v e n t i o n , r e f i n e m e n t , a n d w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f
t h e c o m p u t e r
. It m a ke s p o s s i b l e c o m p l e x m a t h e m a t i c a l a n d l o g i c a l
o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p r a c t i c a b l e e v e n a f e w y e a r s
a g o . Th e s e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c o m p u t e r a l r e a d y h a v e e x t e n d e d t h e
r e a l m o f t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l b e y o n d t h e m o s t f a n t a s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n s o f
e a r l i e r y e a r s a n d , s i m i l a r l y , h a v e e x t e n d e d o u r r a n g e o f s c i e n t i f i c
u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Th e c o m p u t e r i s b u t o n e r e s u l t o f s c i e n t i f i c a n d
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 6 5
m a t h e m a t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s m a d e p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d s o -
p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e u s e o f a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s w h i c h w e n o w p o s s e s s
.
Ma t h e m a t i c s h a s m a d e g r e a t s t r i d e s a n d h a s d e v e l o p e d e n t i r e l y n e w
t o o l s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f s e r i e s o f e v e n t s a n d o f s t r u c t u r e s , e x t e n d i n g
t h e r a n g e o f r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s i n t o r e a l m s p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d t o
b e i n a c c e s s i b l e t o a n a l y s i s
. Mo d e r n p h i l o s o p h y h a s m a d e c o n t r i b u -
t i o n s w h i c h m a y b e a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h o s e o f m a t h e m a t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y
t h r o u g h i t s c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e a n d o f l o g i c a l s y s t e m s
. In a n -
o t h e r r e a l m , m o d e r n a r t h a s c r e a t e d n e w m e d i a o f s y m b o l i c e x p r e s -
s i o n i n p a i n t i n g , i n s c u l p t u r e , i n m u s i c , a n d e v e n i n l i t e r a t u r e
. Th e r e
i s , t h e n , a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a n g e o f s y m b o l i c s y s t e m s , c o n -
c e p t u a l t o o l s , o r e x p r e s s i v e m e d i a a v a i l a b l e t o u s
. Th r o u g h t h e m , o u r
p o w e r s o f a n a l y s i s a n d r e f l e c t i o n h a v e m u l t i p l i e d m a n y t i m e s
.
Th e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n a n d o f a n a l y s i s
b y m e a n s o f s y m b o l s w a s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s e q u e n c e
o f t h e g e n e r a l t u r n i n g a w a y i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t f r o m c o n c e r n s
w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e m e t a p h y s i c s t o t h e e m p h a s i s o n m e t h o d o l o g i e s
. Th e
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s s h i f t c a n b e o b s e r v e d b o t h i n t h e s o m e w h a t
e s o t e r i c r e a l m j u s t d i s c u s s e d a n d i n t h e g e n e r a l l i f e o f s o c i e t y
. Su b -
s t a n t i v e p r e s c r i p t i o n s a n d n o r m s h a v e g i v e n w a y t o r e f l e c t i o n a b o u t
m e t h o d s f o r t h e s o l v i n g o f p r o b l e m s
. Th e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t h a s
r i s e n i n s t a t u s
. He i s c o n s u l t e d n o w a d a y s i n a g r e a t m a n y a r e a s o f
s o c i a l l i f e i n w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y p r e v i o u s l y w a s t h e o n l y
g u i d e
. Ex p e r t i s e i t s e l f h a s c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y t o m e a n n o t o n l y t h e
a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e " s o l u t i o n s " b u t a l s o t h e a b i l i t y t o o f f e r m e t h o d s
f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e p r o b l e m u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w h i c h a f f o r d t h e
p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d f o r r a t i o n a l d e c i -
s i o n s .
W e h a v e p u t f o r t h , i n t h i s o v e r v i e w , o u r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e
i s e m e r g i n g a n e w c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a n e w v i e w o f m a n a n d o f
s o c i e t y , a n d a n e w r a n g e o f " l a n g u a g e s " o r s y m b o l i c s y s t e m s f o r
a n a l y s i s a n d e x p r e s s i o n
. Th i s n e w c u l t u r e h a s l i t t l e p l a c e f o r d o g m a -
t i s m s a n d c e r t a i n t i e s
. It i s b u i l t o n t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l i t y
o f m a n a c t i n g i n u n c e r t a i n t y , a n d i t i s c r e a t i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s r a t h e r
t h a n m e t a p h y s i c s
. It i s i n t r i g u i n g , i n d e e d , t h a t t h i s g r e a t t r a n s f o r m a -
t i o n c a n b e s e e n s o c l e a r l y i n v i r t u a l l y a l l a r e a s o f c u l t u r a l e n d e a v o r
t h a t w e m a y s p e a ko f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a n e w c u l t u r e
.
1 6 6 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
THEDEV ELO PMENTO F ANEW SO C IALSTRUC TURE
Th e c h a n g e i n W e s t e r n , a n d e s p e c i a l l y Am e r i c a n , c u l t u r e h a s
h a d a n i n t e n s i v e a n d p e r v a s i v e i m p a c t o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Am e r i c a n
s o c i e t y , j u s t a s p r o f o u n d s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s h a v e l e f t t h e i r i m p r i n t o n
c u l t u r a l c r e a t i v i t y . Am e r i c a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e h a s c h a n g e d d u r i n g
t h e l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e o r t h i r t y y e a r s i n w a y s t h a t c a n b e c o m p a r e d i n
h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m w h i c h t r a n s -
f o r m e d a g r i c u l t u r a l Am e r i c a i n t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l g i a n t w e kn o w . It
w a s b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e d y n a m i c s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c
d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h i n t u r n w e r e m a d e p o s s i b l e b y t h e h i g h r a t e
o f d i s c o v e r y i n s c i e n c e , b y t h e c h a n g e d r o l e o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s i n
w o r l d p o l i t i c s a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e W o r l d W a r s a n d o f t h e C o l d
W a r , a n d b y t h e f o r c e s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h a n d t h e d y n a m i c s o f
m i g r a t i o n .
J u s t h o w f u n d a m e n t a l t h e c h a n g e o f Am e r i c a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e
h a s b e e n i s r a r e l y r e c o g n i z e d i n f u l l . Th i s u n a w a r e n e s s i s , i n i t s e l f ,
a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t w h i c h m a y b e c o m e d a n g e r o u s i n t h e f u t u r e
.
So c i a l c h a n g e i s n o t m e r e l y s t i l l o c c u r r i n g b u t , i n f a c t , i s a c c e l e r -
a t i n g e v e n t h o u g h t h e p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e p a s s e d a n d
t h e o u t l i n e s o f t h e n e w s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e h a v e b e c o m e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e
.
No t t o s e e t h i s , o r t o i n t e r p r e t t h e p r e s e n t a n d t h e r e c e n t p a s t i n
t e r m s o f i d e a s t h a t w e r e a d e q u a t e o n l y p r i o r t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n -
t u r y , l e a d s i n t o s e r i o u s e r r o r a n d p o s s i b l y i n t o g r i e v o u s m i s t a ke s
i n p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , o r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n .
W h i l e t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s d a n g e r o u s i n s o m e r e s p e c t s , i t h a s
i t s o w n a d v a n t a g e s . As w e w i l l s h o w , c h a n g e h a s b e e n s o d r a s t i c
t h a t i t m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t t o p r e s e r v e c u l t u r a l
c o n t i n u i t y a n d i d e n t i t y , a s e n s e o f s a m e n e s s b e t w e e n p r e s e n t a n d
p a s t , e v e n t h o u g h i t m a y , i n p a r t , b e i l l u s o r y
. Th r o u g h o u t Am e r i c a n
h i s t o r y w e f i n d m a j o r v a l u e t h e m e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n u s e d a s i m -
p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n a n d s e l f - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
. Th e y
h a v e b e c o m e f u s e d w i t h a v e r y s t a b l e i m a g e o f Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y
w h i c h o f t e n e n o u g h h a s c l a s h e d w i t h t h e f a c t s , b u t w h i c h i s t e n a -
c i o u s l y u p h e l d . Mu c h o f t h i s i m a g e i s m y t h , b u t v a l u e s a n d m y t h s
a r e n o t s i m p l y i r r e l e v a n t
; t h e y a r e t h e m s e l v e s m a j o r s o c i a l f o r c e s .
Am o n g o u r e n d u r i n g v a l u e s a r e t h o s e o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d p e r s o n a l
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , o f f r e e d o m f r o m s t a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s ,
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 6 7
o f l o c a l i s m , o f e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n
. Th e s e v a l u e t h e m e s
c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e m a j o r p o l i t i c a l d o c u m e n t s o f Am e r i c a n h i s t o r y
.
Th e y c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e p o p u l a r i d e o l o g y
. Th e y h a v e i n s p i r e d
m u c h o f Am e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e .
To b e s u r e , t h e v a l u e t h e m e s , i f c a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e d , c a n b e s h o w n
t o b e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r
. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t
a n d h a v e h e l p e d t o i n s p i r e t h e p o p u l a r m y t h o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s a s
a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e s e v a l u e s a r e r e a l i z e d , w h e r e u n l i m i t e d o p p o r -
t u n i t i e s a r e o p e n t o a l l , w h e r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n u n f o l d h i s c a p a c i -
t i e s t o t h e u t m o s t t h r o u g h f r e e e n t e r p r i s e a n d p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e
w h i c h l e a d t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y
. Th i s m y t h , o r i d e o l -
o g y i f y o u w i s h , d e v e l o p e d i n a n e a r l i e r Am e r i c a w h i c h w a s d o m i -
n a t e d b y a s o c i e t y o f i n d e p e n d e n t f a r m e r s a n d p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s
.
Th a t e v e n t h e n s e r v i l e m i n o r i t i e s - s l a v e s a n d
r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t
g r o u p s - w e r e i g n o r e d i n t h e m y t h - m a ki n g d i d n o t w e a ke n t h e m y t h
w h i c h , t o t h i s d a y , h a s p r o v i d e d t h e c o n t i n u i n g s o u r c e o f s o c i a l s e l f -
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f Am e r i c a n s
.
Th e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e m y t h h a s l e d t o a c u r i o u s s p l i t b e t w e e n s o -
c i a l r e a l i t y a n d i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
. Th u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d a y f o r t h e
p u b l i c t o d e b a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d a i d
e d u c a t i o n w h e n i n f a c t , a l b e i t s o m e w h a t d i s g u i s e d i n v a r i o u s p r o j -
e c t s , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i s s p e n d i n g m o r e t h a n t w o a n d a h a l f
b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a y e a r i n a i d t o e d u c a t i o n
. It i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e p r e -
s e n t a t i v e s o f l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s , d o i n g m o s t a n d s o m e t i m e s a l l
o f
t h e i r b u s i n e s s w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o t h a t t h e y a r e v i r t u a l l y p u b l i c
i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o p r a i s e t h e s y s t e m o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a n d e n t e r p r i s e
a n d t o d e m a n d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t l i m i t i t s e c o n o m i c r o l e
. Th e o l d
i m a g e s o f Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y a r e b e i n g a p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s e n t s c e n e
b y m a n y a n d , w h i l e t h e r e s u l t i n g d i s t o r t i o n s h a v e s e r i o u s l y h a m -
p e r e d i n t e l l i g e n t a d j u s t m e n t s o r r a t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t i o n s o f s o c i a l
c h a n g e , t h e y h a v e p r o v i d e d a s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y a n d c u l t u r a l i d e n -
t i t y , w h i c h i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n d e e d .
Th e r e e x i s t , o f c o u r s e , c o u n t e r - i d e o l o g i e s w h i c h
d i s p u t e t h e
d o m i n a n t p a t t e r n o f t h o u g h t
. W e h e a r s o c i a l i s t - i n s p i r e d c o n c e p t i o n s
o f s o c i e t y a s a v a s t b a t t l e f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s a n d s o c i a l
c l a s s e s , b u t t h e s e c o n c e p t s o r i g i n a t e d a l s o i n a d i f f e r e n t , e a r l i e r a g e
.
Th e y , t o o , a r e o f n o p a r t i c u l a r a i d t o d a y
. Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y , a n d
t h i s c a n b e s h o w n w i t h a n y d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e d , d o e s n o t
1 6 8 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
f i t t h e m o d e l o f Ma r x i a n c l a s s a n a l y s i s , n o r t h e m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d
d e r i v a t i o n s t h e r e o f w h i c h w e e n c o u n t e r t o d a y . Th e c o n f u s i o n o f
i d e o l o g i e s h a s r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t m a n y d e b a t e s i n w h i c h s e m a n t i c s
b e c l o u d t h e p i c t u r e a n d p r e v e n t a r e a l i s t i c g r a s p o f s o c i a l c h a n g e .
Th e c e n t r a l d i f f i c u l t y i s j u s t t h i s : W h a t w e a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i s a
p r o c e s s o f f u n d a m e n t a l , s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h i c h , w h i l e i t
p r e s e r v e s i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t i e s , h a s i n t r o d u c e d a n e w
p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l l i f e w h i c h c a n n o t b e g r a s p e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s
o f t h e p a s t .
W h a t , t h e n , i s t h e t r e n d o f s o c i a l c h a n g e i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t a n d
i n t h e p r e s e n t ? It i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d a s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e
e c o n o m y o f t h e o p e n m a r ke t a n d t h e c l a s s s o c i e t y o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m
i n t h e s t e a m a n d i r o n a g e t o t h e h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d e c o n o m y a n d t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i e t y o f t h e a g e o f a u t o m a t i o n . O f c o u r s e , t h e
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s n o t c o m p l e t e , a n d t h e o l d e r s t r u c t u r e s s u r v i v e
v i g o r o u s l y i n s o m e a r e a s ; b u t i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , p r o f o u n d a n d c l e a r l y
d i s c e r n i b l e . W e m u s t n o w r e c o g n i z e t h a t d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s o f s o c i a l
s t r u c t u r e c o - e x i s t w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n t h e s a m e s o c i e t y , s o t o s p e a k-
t h e o l d a s t h e s e d i m e n t s o f s o c i a l h i s t o r y a l o n g w i t h t h e n e w . Th e
s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f r u r a l , s m a l l - t o w n Am e r i c a d i d n o t y i e l d c o m -
p l e t e l y t o t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r i s i n g i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w i t h
i t s n e w c l a s s e s o f l a b o r a n d e n t r e p r e n e u r s a n d i t s e t h n i c s t r a t a , a n d
t h i s , i n t u r n , h a s n o t y i e l d e d c o m p l e t e l y t o t h e n e w s t r u c t u r e o f
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . In Eu r o p e , t h e s a m e p r o c e s s e x i s t s w i t h c h a r -
a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s
: t h e o p e n - c l a s s s y s t e m o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y
s u p e r s e d e d o n l y p a r t i a l l y t h e s t a t u s - g r o u p s y s t e m o f f e u d a l s o c i e t y
a n d i s t o d a y , l i ke i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s , y i e l d i n g t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . Th e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n Eu r o p e a n d t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s r e m a i n a s r e s u l t s o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i e s a n d v a l u e s ,
b u t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e i s t h e s a m e .
In t h e Un i t e d St a t e s , t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a s -
p e c t s : c o n t i n u e d u r b a n i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f m a m m o t h m e t r o -
p o l i t a n a g g l o m e r a t i o n s a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f c i t y l i f e ; t h e
g r o w t h o f c o m p l e x , a n d i n t e r l o c ki n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e p u b l i c a n d
p r i v a t e d o m a i n s , a c c o m p a n i e d b y i n c r e a s i n g l y o r g a n i z e d r e g u l a t i o n
o f s o c i a l l i f e ; g r e a t e r h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h a r e -
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h , t h e r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e o f e t h n i c s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ,
a n d a d e c l i n e i n t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l c l a s s e s ; i n c r e a s i n g s i m -
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 6 9
i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e g r e a t r e g i o n s o f Am e r i c a a n d a n e n o r m o u s i n -
c r e a s e i n t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e w h o l e n a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l ,
e c o n o m i c , a n d c u l t u r a l f i e l d s . Al l o f t h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p -
m e n t o f n e w p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e
l i f e c h a n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t ki n d s o f s ki l l s f o r
s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s o c i e t y , t h u s a f f e c t i n g d i r e c t l y e v e r y
p e r s o n .
Ur b a n i s m t o m e t r o p o l i t a n i s m . - Si n c e
1 9 4 0 ,
t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s h a s g r o w n f r o m a b o u t 1 3 2 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s t o u p w a r d
o f 1 9 o m i l l i o n . Th e n e t i n c r e a s e i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f
s o m e o f t h e g r e a t n a t i o n s o f Eu r o p e . Th e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e h a s
r e s u l t e d , o f c o u r s e , i n a d e n s e r i n h a b i t a t i o n o f t h e l a n d m a s s o f t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s . B y i t s e l f , t h i s i s n o t a s s i g n i f i c a n t a s t h e c h a n g i n g
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . In
1 9 4 0 ,
a b o u t 5 6
p e r c e n t o f t h e
Am e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n p l a c e s w h i c h t h e c e n s u s d e f i n e d a s
u r b a n . In 1 9 6 4 , a b o u t
7 0
p e r c e n t l i v e d i n s u c h p l a c e s . Mo s t o f t h e
i n c r e a s e i n t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s i n t h e s u b u r b s o u t s i d e t h e c e n -
t r a l c i t i e s o f t h e b i g m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . F r o m 1 9 5 0 t o
1 9 6 0
a l o n e ,
t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t i e s i n c r e a s e d b y 1 0 . 7 p e r c e n t , b u t
t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s t a n d a r d m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l
c i t i e s i n c r e a s e d b y 4 8 . 6 p e r c e n t .
Th e s e f i g u r e s s h o w a c h a n g e i n t h e Am e r i c a n p a t t e r n o f l i v i n g .
B u t , i n f a c t , t h e y o n l y h i n t a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e c h a n g e
. W e n o
l o n g e r c a n d e a l w i t h t h e s i m p l e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f u r b a n a n d r u r a l
p l a c e s , b e c a u s e t h e u r b a n w a y o f l i f e h a s i n v a d e d m a n y o f t h e r u r a l
a r e a s a n d i n i t s e l f i s m o r e c o m p l e x , m o r e i n f l u e n c e d b y n a t i o n a l
f o r c e s . Th e g r e a t g r o w t h o f t h e Am e r i c a n s u b u r b s , m a d e p o s s i b l e
b y t h e a u t o m o b i l e - u s u a l l y a t t h e e x p e n s e o f u r b a n t r a n s i t s y s t e m s
- a n d f o s t e r e d b y l a r g e - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s o n a c o m m e r c i a l b a s i s ,
h a s s u p p o r t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s n e w u r b a n s t y l e o f l i f e w h i c h
c a r r i e s u r b a n i s m i n t o t h e c o u n t r y .
Su b u r b a n i t e s , g e n e r a l l y d e p e n d e n t f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s o n t h e
c e n t r a l c i t y , o f t e n w e r e n o t s o m u c h l u r e d b y t h e s u b u r b a s r e p e l l e d
b y t h e e c o n o m i c a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e c e n t r a l c i t y
f a c e d . Th e s u b u r b o f f e r e d , f o r m a n y , a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r e a t e a
s a t i s f y i n g c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e i d e a l s o f i n d i v i d u a l h o m e o w n e r -
s h i p o r " r o o t e d n e s s i n t h e l a n d " t h a t c a m e f r o m t h e p a s t a n d a c c e s s
t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . O f t e n , h o w e v e r , s u b u r b a n i s m h a s a c c e n t u a t e d
1 7 0
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y
. Th e p o l i t i c a l p a t t e r n s o f c o m m u -
n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d n o t ke e p p a c e w i t h t h e r a t e o f g r o w t h , s o
t h a t m a n y u r b a n a r e a s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a " c r a z y q u i l t " o f c i t i e s , v i l -
l a g e s , t o w n s h i p s , b o r o u g h s , a l l o f w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o g o v e r n t h e m -
s e l v e s a s t h e y d i d i n a n e a r l i e r a g e , i n t e n s i f y i n g p r o b l e m s o f m e t r o -
p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g
. Th i s i s a n o b v i o u s p r o b l e m i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
e d u c a t i o n
. O f t e n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o p -
u l a t i o n i n i t a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e p a u c i t y o f i t s t a x r e v e n u e s , i s l e f t
w i t h t h e m o s t s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s
. At t i m e s , i t e v e n s e e m e d a s t h o u g h
Am e r i c a n c i t i e s m i g h t d i s s o l v e u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e s u b u r b a n
d e v e l o p m e n t a n d n o l o n g e r b e r e c o g n i z a b l e e n t i t i e s o f t h e i r o w n b u t
b e c o m e , i n s t e a d , s p r a w l i n g m a s s e s o f d e n s e s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h o u t
a
v i t a l c e n t e r
. Mo r e r e c e n t l y , s t r o n g e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n m a d e t h r o u g h
u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g t o a r r e s t a n d r e -
v e r s e t h i s t r e n d .
Th e o f t e n a n t i q u a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d p o l i t i c a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n
o f t h e l a r g e u r b a n c e n t e r s o f Am e r i c a i s t h e m o r e s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e
c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f b o t h t h e p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e ki n d h a v e d e -
v e l o p e d a p e r v a s i v e n e t w o r ko f i n t e r l o c ki n g r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t l e a v e
l i t t l e o f s o c i a l l i f e t o c h a n c e .
In t e r l o c ki n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . - In
t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d , t h e t r e n d t o
b i g n e s s i n c o r p o r a t e e n t e r p r i s e h a s n o t , a s m a n y f e a r e d , s p e l l e d t h e
e n d o f t h e s m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r a n d s m a l l b u s i n e s s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e
f e w s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s t h a t a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e l a r g e b u s i -
n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s
. Th e r e a r e m a n y w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d " s m a l l e n -
t e r p r i s e s " a n d a r e s u c h i n n a m e o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h
l a r g e c h a i n s , a n d o t h e r s w h i c h e x i s t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s u p p l i e r s
o f l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s
. Th e Am e r i c a n e c o n o m i c s c e n e i s d e f i n i t e l y
a n d s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e
l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d i s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e s t r u c t u r e
o f
t h e s e c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s
.
In t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e , g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s h a v e g r o w n e v e n
m o r e t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n
. In ' 9 4 o , t h e r e w e r e 4 . 2 m i l l i o n n o n m i l i -
t a r y g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s a t t h e f e d e r a l , s t a t e , a n d l o c a l l e v e l s a s
c o m p a r e d w i t h m o r e t h a n n i n e m i l l i o n i n 1 9 6 4
. Th e i n c r e a s e o f g o v
e r n m e n t a c t i v i t y i n m a n y a r e a s o f s o c i a l l i f e a l s o i s d o c u m e n t e d b y
t h e g r o w t h o f t a x a t i o n
. Si n c e t h e e n d o f W o r l d W a r II, t h e a m o u n t
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 7 1
o f f e d e r a l t a x e s c o l l e c t e d h a s d o u b l e d , w h i l e s t a t e a n d l o c a l t a x e s
h a v e i n c r e a s e d s i x f o l d .
Al t h o u g h i t w o u l d b e a n e x a g g e r a t i o n t o s a y t h a t e v e r y Am e r i -
c a n t o d a y i s i n v o l v e d i n s o m e b u r e a u c r a c y , i t i s t r u e t h a t a l m o s t a l l
Am e r i c a n s a r e d e p e n d e n t o n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e m o s t s p e -
c i f i c w a y s . O n e i m p o r t a n t a r e a i n w h i c h t h e t r e n d t o w a r d t h e e l a b -
o r a t i o n a n d g r o w t h o f c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a s b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y
p r o n o u n c e d i s t h e a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n a n d , m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t o f
h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . In 1 9 3 8 , i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g o p e r a t e d
p l a n t s o f t h e t o t a l v a l u e o f z . 6 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . In 1 9 5 8 , h o w e v e r , t h e
t o t a l p l a n t v a l u e o f t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s w a s 1 2 . 1 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Th i s
g r o w t h i s e v e n m o r e d r a m a t i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i n c r e a s e i n o p e r -
a t i n g c o s t s o f c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s . C u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n s i n 1 9 3 8
r e q u i r e d a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f
4 7 5
m i l l i o n d o l l a r s b y c o l l e g e s a n d u n i -
v e r s i t i e s , w h i l e i n 1 9 5 8 , t h e y i n v o l v e d a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f
4 . 5
b i l l i o n
d o l l a r s . Th e g r o w t h o f c o l l e g e e n r o l m e n t i s a f a m i l i a r s t o r y , a s i s
t h e g r o w t h o f f a c u l t i e s .
Th e Am e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v e t h u s e m e r g e d a s m a j o r f o r c e s ,
n o t o n l y i n t e r m s o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l w e i g h t b u t a l s o i n t e r m s o f
t h e i r s h e e r s i z e . An d t h e y h a v e n o t b e e n e x e m p t f r o m t h e t r e n d o f
b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . Th e y h a v e , i n f a c t , e v o l v e d a n e w f o r m o f u n i -
v e r s i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h n o l o n g e r r e s e m b l e s t h e o l d e r m o d e l s o f
t h e c l a s s i c Eu r o p e a n p a t t e r n . Th e m o d e m Am e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y i s
e n g a g e d i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s t u d e n t s , a l o n g w i t h
c o m p l e x r e s e a r c h a n d c o n s u l t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e l a t e i t t o g o v e r n -
m e n t a n d i n d u s t r y a t a l l l e v e l s a n d w h i c h o f t e n m a ke i t a m a j o r
f o r c e i n t h e e c o n o m y o f a r e g i o n o r e v e n t h e n a t i o n , a s K e r r 1 h a s
d o c u m e n t e d .
Th e c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d b u r e a u c r a -
c i e s a t a l l l e v e l s o f p u b l i c l i f e a n d i n m a n y p r i v a t e s p h e r e s h a s i n -
c r e a s e d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y . Ma n y m a t t e r s
w h i c h f o r m e r l y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i s s u e s o f p u r e l y i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n
a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b e c o m i n g s u b j e c t s o f o r g a n i z e d p l a n n i n g a n d r e g u -
l a t i o n . Th e g r o w i n g w e i g h t o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e s e a f f a i r s i s c l e a r .
z . C l a r kK e r r , Th e
Us e s o f t h e Un i v e r s i t y . C a m b r i d g e , Ma s s a c h u s e t t s :
Ha r v a r d Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 6 3 .
1 7 2 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
B u t g o v e r n m e n t , i n t u r n , i s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f
b u s i n e s s , l a b o r , a n d e d u c a t i o n s o t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s n o w , f o r b e t t e r o r
w o r s e , a n e x t e n d e d n e t w o r ko f i n t e r l o c ki n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h
w h i c h p o l i c y m u s t b e e f f e c t e d .
Ho m o g e n i z i n g o f
p o p u l a t i o n . - Th e h o m o g e n e i t y o f Am e r i c a n
s o c i e t y h a s b e e n i n c r e a s e d b y a r i s e i n i n c o m e l e v e l s a n d a c e r t a i n
r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n c o m e s
. As Ta b l e 1 s h o w s , t h e r e a l i n c o m e l e v e l s
o f f a m i l i e s a n d u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s , a s m e a s u r e d i n
1 9 6 3 d o l l a r s ,
i m p r o v e d s t e a d i l y o v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e s . In 1 9 4 1 , 1 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e
f a m i l i e s a n d u n a t t a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e i n t h e b r a c ke t b e t w e e n
$ 6 , o o o
. o o a n d $ i o , o o o . o o , w h e r e a s i n 1 9 6 3 , 3 0 p e r c e n t a r e f o u n d i n
t h a t r a n g e
. Th e i n c o m e c h a n g e s , a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e u n p r e c e -
d e n t e d p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e p o s t w a r y e a r s , h a v e m o r e t h a n d o u b l e d
t h e m e d i a n f a m i l y i n c o m e f r o m $ z , 6 z i . o o i n
1 9 4 5
t o $ 5 , 6 2 5 . 0 0
i n
1 9 6 0
( i n c u r r e n t d o l l a r s ) .
TAB LE1
DISTRIB UTIO NO F C O NSUMERUNITSB YREALINC O MELEV EL
F AMILYPERSO NALIN-
C O MEIN1 9 6 3 DO LLARS
( B EF O REINC O METAX ES)
Un d e r $ 2 , 0 0 0
$ 2 , 0 0 0 - 3 , 9 9 9
4 , 0 0 0 - 5 , 9 9 9
6 , 0 0 0 - 7 , 9 9 9

8 , 0 0 0 -
1 0 , 0 0 0 -
9 , 9 9 9
1 4 , 9 9 9
1 5 , 0 0 0 a n d o v e r
To t a l
}
Nu m b e r
F AMILIESANDUNATTAC HEDINDIV IDUALS( MILLIO NS)
1 1 . 1
1 1
. 8
9 . 2
4 . 9
1 . 9
2 . 5
4 1 . 4
1 9 4 1
Pe r
C e n t
2 7
2 8
2 2
1 2
5
6
1 0 0
Nu m b e r
7 . 1
1 2 . 4
1 1 . 8
6 . 0
3 . 2
2 . 7
1 . 5
4 4
. 7
1 9 4 7
Pe r
C e n t
1 6
2 8
2 6
1 4
7
6
3
1 0 0
1 9 6 3 * *
Nu m b e r
6 . 7
1 0 . 2
1 1 . 7
1 0 . 6
7 . 2
7 . 7
4
. 6
5 8 . 7
Pe r
C e n t
1 1
1 8
2 0
1 8
1 2
1 3
8
1 0 0
* Ad a p t e d f r o m J e a n n e t t e M. F i t z w i l l i a m s , " Si z e Di s t r i b u t i o n o f In c o m e , 1 9 6 3 , "
Su r v e y o f
C u r r e n t B u s i n e s s , X LI ( Ap r i l , 1 9 6 4 ) , 4 .
* * In c l u d e s Al a s ka a n d Ha w a i i .
Ma n y o b s e r v e r s h a v e i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n c o m e a s
a g i
g a n t i c g r o w t h o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s , a n d i t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t
m o r e p e o p l e t h a n - e v e r a r e n o w i n t h e m i d d l e - r a n g e i n c o m e b r a c ke t .
As u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , h o w e v e r , h a s n o t s h a r e d i n
t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t b u t c o n t i n u e s t o l i v e i n c o m p a r a t i v e p o v e r t y , e v e n
t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t a g e s t o d a y a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e y
w e r e i n t h e
1 9 4 o ' s . O n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s t i m u l a t o r s o f c o n s c i o u s
c o n c e r n o v e r t h i s p o v e r t y a m i d p l e n t y h a s b e e n Ha r r i n g t o n ' s b o o k,
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N
1 7 3
Th e O t h e r Am e r i c a 2 No w e v e n o u r s o - c a l l e d " h i d d e n " p o v e r t y ,
a f t e r t o o l o n g n e g l e c t , h a s c o m e u n d e r c o n c e r t e d a t t a c kb y a s o c i e t y
t h a t r e a l i z e s t h e p o v e r t y c y c l e n o l o n g e r n e e d b e t o l e r a t e d a s t h e
i n e v i t a b l e l o t o f a n y o f i t s p e o p l e . O n t h e w h o l e , t h e g e n e r a l r i s e
i n t h e l e v e l o f i n c o m e s h a s m a d e i n c o m e d i f f e r e n t i a l s w i t h i n t h e v a s t
m i d d l e r a n g e l e s s n o t i c e a b l e t h a n t h e y u s e d t o b e . Th e g r o w t h o f
a n e n o r m o u s m a s s m a r ke t a n d n e w p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s h a v e
b r o u g h t f o r m e r p r e s t i g e i t e m s , s u c h a s t h e a u t o m o b i l e a n d t h e f a m -
i l y h o m e , i n t o t h e r e a c h o f a g r e a t m a n y m o r e f a m i l i e s , s o t h a t s o c i a l
d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b y c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n s , w h i l e s t i l l o b v i o u s , i s f a r
l e s s p r o n o u n c e d t h a n i t w a s i n t h e p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g W o r l d W a r II,
d u r i n g w h i c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s , a h u g e
w o r ki n g c l a s s l i v e d i n c o n s p i c u o u s l y d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s f r o m
t h e t h e n m u c h n a r r o w e r m i d d l e a n d u p p e r c l a s s e s . In t h i s s e n s e , i t
i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e a ko f t h e g r o w t h o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s .
W e m u s t n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f Am e r i c a n s ,
w h o b y i n c o m e c r i t e r i a m u s t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s " m i d d l e c l a s s , " a r e d i f -
f e r e n t i a t e d i n t e r m s o f d i s t i n c t c r i t e r i a o f s o c i a l s t a t u s s u c h a s o c c u -
p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a n d e d u c a t i o n . In f a c t , t h e e m p h a s i s o n s t a t u s h i e r -
a r c h i e s h a s c e r t a i n l y i n c r e a s e d , o f t e n u s i n g n o n m o n e t a r y r e w a r d s
a s s t a t u s s y m b o l s .
Et h n i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , b y c o n t r a s t , h a s d e c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e
o v e r t h e y e a r s . Th i s i s s i m p l y t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i -
l a t i o n a n d o f t h e h i s t o r y o f i m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e Un i t e d St a t e s . Th e
l a r g e m a s s e s o f i m m i g r a n t s w h o c a m e t o t h i s c o u n t r y e a r l y i n t h i s
c e n t u r y a r e a s s i m i l a t e d a n d t h e n e w i m m i g r a t i o n i s m u c h s m a l l e r .
At t h e p e a ko f i m m i g r a t i o n , i n t h e f i v e y e a r s o f 1 9 0 6 - 1 0 , a l m o s t f i v e
m i l l i o n i m m i g r a n t s c a m e t o t h e Un i t e d St a t e s . In t h e f i v e y e a r s f r o m
1 9 3 6 - 4 0 , h o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e o n l y 3 0 8 , 0 0 0 i m m i g r a n t s . In t h e l a s t
s e v e r a l y e a r s , i m m i g r a t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d a l i t t l e , b u t t h e s o c i a l c o m -
p o s i t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t s h a s c h a n g e d s o m e w h a t i n t h a t i t n o w i s m o r e
s i m i l a r t o t h e s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s a s a w h o l e .
In 1 9 4 0 , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e u r b a n c e n t e r s , t h e r e w e r e l a r g e n u m b e r s
o f f o r e i g n - b o r n a n d f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n c i t i z e n s . Th e y f o r m e d c o h e s i v e
2 .
Mi c h a e l Ha r r i n g t o n , Th e O t h e r Am e r i c a : Po v e r t y i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s .
Ne w Yo r k : Ma c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 6 2 .
1 7 4
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
s o c i a l s t r a t a , o f t e n u n i t e d b y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e m f r o m t h e
o u t s i d e a n d b y t h e h a r d s t r u g g l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n a n e w
s o c i e t y
. W h i l e e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s t e n d t o r e m a i n i n e x i s t e n c e e v e n t o -
d a y i n s o m e f a s h i o n , o n t h e w h o l e t h e y n o l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t s h a r p l y
d i s t i n c t s u b c u l t u r e s .
O n e c o n s p i c u o u s e x e m p t i o n f r o m t h i s p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n u n -
t i l r e c e n t l y w a s t h e l a r g e Am e r i c a n Ne g r o p o p u l a t i o n
. In t h e s i x t i e s ,
t h e s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y , o n t h e p a r t o f t h e Ne g r o a n d h i s o r g a n i z a -
t i o n s , h a s r e a c h e d a c l i m a x o f i n t e n s i t y a n d h a s s c o r e d c o n s p i c u o u s
s u c c e s s e s w h i c h , h o w e v e r , h a v e n o t y e t o v e r c o m e t h e p a t t e r n o f
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h i s g r o u p .
Th e Ne g r o ' s n o w p o w e r f u l m o v e m e n t t o w a r d e q u i t a b l e p a r t i c -
i p a t i o n i n t h e Am e r i c a n w a y o f l i f e i s n o t t o b e c a t e g o r i z e d w i t h t h e
s u c c e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n s o f e t h n i c g r o u p s i n t h e p a s t
. F o r o n e t h i n g ,
t h e Ne g r o i s n o n e w c o m e r a m o n g u s a s w e r e t h o s e i n t h e w a v e s o f
i m m i g r a t i o n , s o t h a t h e h a s a l o n g , b i t t e r m e m o r y o f s u b j u g a t i o n i n
o u r l a n d . F o r a n o t h e r , h e h a s h a d t o s t o r m h i s w a y i n t o t h e r a n ks o f
t h e e q u a l a n d h a s d e v i s e d h i s o w n p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g i e s f o r d o i n g s o .
Th e r e a r e s i g n s t h a t o t h e r s o f t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d a m o n g u s a r e a d o p t i n g
s i m i l a r s t r a t e g i e s , a n d t h i s m a y h a v e g r e a t c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r o u r s o c i -
e t y a n d i t s s c h o o l s
. At p r e s e n t , h o w e v e r , t h e r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n
" p r o b l e m " o u t r a n ks a l l o t h e r s f o r s e r i o u s n e s s i n t h e m i n d s o f m o s t
s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s .
De c r e a s e i n r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s
. - Th e t r e n d t o w a r d i n c r e a s e d
h o m o g e n e i t y o f Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i n t h e g r a d u a l
d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f s o m e o f t h e m o s t c o n s p i c u o u s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n
t h e m a j o r r e g i o n s
. W e m u s t q u a l i f y t h i s s t a t e m e n t b e c a u s e r e g i o n a l -
i s m , b o t h p o l i t i c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y , s t i l l p l a y s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e
.
Ne v e r t h e l e s s , t h e Am e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h w a s e a r l i e r c o n c e n -
t r a t e d i n t h e Ea s t , h a s s p r e a d t o t h e W e s t
. Th e Pa c i f i c r e g i o n h a s
e x p e r i e n c e d r e c e n t l y t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h
. In t h e
y e a r s f r o m
1 9 4 0 - 5 0 ,
t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Pa c i f i c r e g i o n g r e w b y
4 7 . 8
p e r c e n t a n d i n t h e y e a r s f r o m I9 5 o - 6 o ,
b y 4 0 . 2 p e r c e n t -
a b o u t t w i c e t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e n a t i o n a s a w h o l e
.
Th e i n c o m e l e v e l s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s h a v e , o n t h e w h o l e ,
b e c o m e m o r e s i m i l a r , w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w - i n c o m e a r e a s o f t h e
So u t h e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e
.
Th e s t a t e o f Mi s s i s s i p p i , f o r i n s t a n c e , h a d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t i n -
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 7 5
c r e a s e i n t h e m e d i a n i n c o m e i n t h e y e a r s f r o m 1 9 4 9 - 5 9 , n a m e l y ,
1 3 4 .
9 p e r c e n t
. Si m i l a r l y h i g h a r e t h e i n c r e a s e s i n Ge o r g i a , Ar ka n s a s ,
Al a b a m a , a n d o t h e r s o u t h e r n s t a t e s
.
O n t h e w h o l e , t h e Un i t e d St a t e s h a s b e c o m e a h i g h l y i n t e r d e -
p e n d e n t s o c i e t y w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s o n e v a s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t a n d
o n e v a s t i n t e g r a t e d m a r ke t
. O n e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s , o f t e n b e -
m o a n e d b y o b s e r v e r s , i s t h a t o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f
l i f e
. Th o s e Am e r i c a n r e g i o n s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n c o n s p i c u o u s l y e x -
e m p t f r o m t h i s o v e r - a l l t r e n d a n d h a v e r e m a i n e d o r b e c o m e " p o c k-
e t s o f p o v e r t y , " n o w a r e t h e o b j e c t o f p u b l i c l y p l a n n e d e f f o r t s t o
h e l p t h e m c a t c h u p w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e n a t i o n
. Th e r e i s n o d o u b t
t h a t t h e s e e f f o r t s w i l l r e s u l t i n a n e v e n i n c r e a s e d h o m o g e n e i t y i n
t h e s t a n d a r d s a n d p a t t e r n s o f l i f e t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n
.
Sh i f t i n
s o c i a l m o b i l i t y c h a n n e l s . - As
a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e
c h a n g e s i n t h e Am e r i c a n e c o n o m y a n d t e c h n o l o g y a n d i n t h e e x -
t e n t o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Am e r i c a n l i f e , t h e r e h a v e o c c u r r e d
m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n
s y s t e m o f t h e c o u n t r y
. It i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f f o r m a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f l i v i n g a n d w o r ki n g i n a w o r l d
d o m i n a t e d b y f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e l e f t a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i m -
p r i n t
. Th e s h i f t s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s y s t e m a r e d i s c u s s e d i n m o r e
d e t a i l l a t e r b u t a r e r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f u r -
b a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e m o r e c o m p l e x t e c h n o l o g y a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t d e -
m a n d s i t m a ke s u p o n t r a i n i n g a n d s ki l l s .
Th e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a c o m p l e x t e c h n o l o g y , c o u p l e d w i t h t h o s e
o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t o f t h e
c h a n n e l s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . Th e u s u a l p a t t e r n i n Am e r i c a o n l y a
f e w y e a r s a g o w a s t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d a n d
i n t h e m a r ke t b r o u g h t w i t h i t l a r g e r e w a r d s , e v e n l a t e i n l i f e
. Ea r l y
f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n w a s o f l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e o c -
c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d i t s e l f
. Ev e n i n t h e d a y s f o l l o w i n g W o r l d W a r II,
i n 1 9 4 6 , o l d e r , m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d w o r ke r s e n j o y e d s o m e w h a t h i g h e r
i n c o m e s t h a n y o u n g e r w o r ke r s w i t h m o r e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . To d a y ,
o c c u p a t i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t d e p e n d s u p o n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e d u c a -
t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h t h e e m p h a s i s o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n
. J o b
e x p e r i e n c e a l o n e c a r r i e s l e s s w e i g h t t h e s e d a y s
. It c a n , i n d e e d b e -
c o m e o b s o l e t e o v e r n i g h t d u e t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e
. O n l y w h e n
e x p e r i e n c e i s b a c ke d u p w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s c h o o l i n g , a s i n m a n y
1 7 6 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
p r o f e s s i o n s , d o e s t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e l e a d t o s u b s t a n t i a l
i n c r e a s e s i n i n c o m e . In I9 6 I, t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l i n c o m e o f m a l e
c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s t w e n t y - f i v e t o t h i r t y y e a r s o l d w a s $ 6 , 6 4 0 a n d
w a s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f m a l e h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s f o r t y - f i v e t o
f i f t y - f o u r y e a r s o l d ( $ 5 , 5 8 9 ) e v e n t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r g r o u p h a d a t
l e a s t t w e n t y y e a r s o f a d d i t i o n a l w o r ke x p e r i e n c e
. 3 Th e s e f i g u r e s
r e v e a l a v e r y i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e i n t h e c h a n n e l s o f e c o n o m i c m o -
b i l i t y .
In f a c t , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i e t y n o w r e q u i r e s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t
s ki l l s a n d t y p e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h a r e m a r ke d l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m
t h o s e r e q u i r e d i n e a r l i e r i n d u s t r i a l i s m . In a d d i t i o n t o s p e c i f i c o c c u -
p a t i o n a l s ki l l s , s o c i a l t e c h n i q u e s o f r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s , o f a d j u s t i n g t o
t h e i m p e r a t i v e s o f l i f e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d b e t w e e n f o r m a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t
. Mo d e m m a n
m u s t b e a b l e t o p r e s e n t h i m s e l f w e l l , h e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s u b t l e -
t i e s o f m a n i p u l a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W h i l e t h e r e h a s
b e e n t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s h i f t i n t h e c h a n n e l s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y a n d t h e
s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s u c c e s s , Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y h a s n o t b e c o m e
a c l o s e d s o c i e t y
. So c i a l m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r a t i o n s h a s r e -
m a i n e d h i g h , a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e l e v e l w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s o v e r m a n y d e c a d e s
. It i s t r u e , h o w e v e r , a n d e s p e -
c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t c h a n c e s t o d a y f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d t h e r e b y
s o c i a l a d v a n c e m e n t a r e u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d e a r l y i n l i f e b y t h e
a m o u n t a n d q u a l i t y o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d .
W i t h t h e c h a n g e i n t h e c h a n n e l s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y a n d i n t h e
p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f h i g h s t a t u s , t h e r e h a s o c c u r r e d a b r o a d e n i n g i n t h e
a c c e s s t o m a n y o f t h e i m p o r t a n t c h a n n e l s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . To d a y
m o r e c h i l d r e n o f l o w e r - c l a s s p a r e n t s r e c e i v e a d v a n c e d e d u c a t i o n
t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , a n d s i m i l a r l y , w e f i n d a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e p a r t i c i p a -
t i o n o f e d u c a t e d p e r s o n s f r o m l o w e r - a n d m i d d l e - c l a s s b a c kg r o u n d s
i n t h e p o w e r f u l d e c i s i o n - m a ki n g e l i t e s o f t h e n a t i o n a s a w h o l e .
Th e s e m o d e r n e l i t e s a r e , i n f a c t , q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e
p a s t
. W h i l e i t w a s d e f e n s i b l e t o s p e a ko f a " r u l i n g c l a s s " i n t h e s o -
3 . De n n i s F . J o h n s t o n , " Up t r e n d s i n W o r ke r s ' Ed u c a t i o n , "
O c c u p a t i o n a l
O u t l o o kQ u a r t e r l y , V o l . V II, No . 3 ( Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 ) .
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1
7 7
c i e t y o f e a r l i e r i n d u s t r i a l i s m , i n w h i c h t h e g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t e n t r e p r e -
n e u r s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r p o w e r a n d i m p o s e d t h e i r w i l l o f t e n t h r o u g h
p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , t h e " r u l i n g c l a s s , " t o d a y , i s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p l a c e d b y
t h e i n f l u e n t i a l " f u n c t i o n a l e l i t e s , " t h a t i s , p e r s o n s w h o , w h i l e t h e m -
s e l v e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w e a l t h y , o c c u p y p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n s i n t h e
f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e d o m a i n s .
Th e r o u t e s i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e e l i t e h a v e a l s o b e c o m e o b v i -
o u s l y d i f f e r e n t , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g c l e a r - c u t c a r e e r c h a n n e l s w i t h f o r -
m a l a g e n c i e s e n g a g e d i n r a t i n g a n d r a n ki n g o f p e r s o n n e l . " Ge t t i n g
t h r o u g h " s u c h c h a n n e l s o f t e n r e q u i r e s s o c i a l p o l i s h i n a d d i t i o n t o
t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e . Th e s ki l l s o f m a n a g i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
h a v e b e c o m e m o r e s u b t l e a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t s u r -
p r i s i n g t h a t t o d a y a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l t y p e a l t o g e t h e r o c c u p i e s t h e
p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p . Re c e n t s t u d i e s o f t h e Am e r i c a n m i l i t a r y
e l i t e s , f o r e x a m p l e , h a v e s h o w n h o w g r e a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e b e -
t w e e n t h e m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s o f t o d a y a n d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e
p a s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e d u c a t i o n , a n d t e c h -
n i c a l t r a i n i n g . So m e t h i n g q u i t e s i m i l a r h a s o c c u r r e d i n b o t h t h e
b u s i n e s s w o r l d a n d i n t h e e x p a n d i n g r e a l m o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a n d g o v e r n m e n t . It i s t h e s o c i a l t y p e o f t h e h i g h l y e d u c a t e d a n d
t e c h n i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l w h o e m e r g e s i n c r e a s i n g l y a s
a m e m b e r o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l e l i t e s i n s t e a d o f t h e f o r m e r , o f t e n c o l o r -
f u l a n d f l a m b o y a n t l e a d e r s o f Am e r i c a . Hi s p o s i t i o n o f p o w e r t e n d s
t o b e t e m p o r a r y , d e p e n d e n t o n h i s t e n u r e i n t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n .
Th e c h a n g e d s t y l e o f l e a d e r s h i p h a s a l r e a d y a f f e c t e d p r o f o u n d l y t h e
i m a g e w h i c h t h e Un i t e d St a t e s p r e s e n t s t o t h e w o r l d .
W e h a v e t r i e d t o s ke t c h , i n t h e f o r e g o i n g , t h e m a j o r c u l t u r a l a n d
s o c i a l c h a n g e s i n Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y o v e r t h e l a s t t w o o r t h r e e d e c -
a d e s . W e h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e p r o f o u n d e n o u g h t o
p e r m i t u s t o s p e a ko f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a n e w c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n
a n d a n e w t y p e o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h m i g h t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d
w i t h t h e s l o g a n o f " t h e e m e r g e n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i e t y
. " B u t
n o w , m o r e m o d e s t l y , l e t u s t r y l o o ki n g t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f t o d a y ' s
h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e a t s o m e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e s i t u a t i o n h e c o n -
f r o n t s d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m w h a t h i s p r e d e c e s s o r o f t w o d e c a d e s
a g o f a c e d . W e s h o u l d b e a l e r t t o i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c h a n g e i n t h e
s c h o o l s a s w e a d o p t i n o r d e r , t h e e c o n o m i c , t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l , a n d
t h e p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .
1 7 8
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
Ex a m p l e s f r o m Th r e e Pe r s p e c t i v e s o n C h a n g e
EC O NO MIC PERSPEC TIV E
In t h e I9 4 0 ' s , w i t h t h e Gr e a t De p r e s s i o n a r e c e n t a n d m i n d s e a r -
i n g m e m o r y , t h e Se c o n d W o r l d W a r ' s a p p a r e n t l y t e m p o r a r y b o o m
a n d i m p e n d i n g e c o n o m i c c o l l a p s e
c o l o r e d a l l p r o s p e c t s . Th e h i g h -
s c h o o l g r a d u a t e o f t h e p e r i o d h a d a m p l e e x c u s e f o r h a r b o r i n g a n x i -
e t i e s a b o u t t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m h e w a s e n t e r i n g . So , t o o , d o e s t o -
d a y ' s h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e , b u t w h a t a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f a n x i e t i e s h e
h a s . B e h i n d h i m a r e , o n t h e o n e h a n d , t w o d e c a d e s o f m o u n t i n g
p r o s p e r i t y a n d c o n s i s t e n t p r o g r e s s f o r t h e n a t i o n , t a ke n a s a w h o l e ,
a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , b e w i l d e r i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l p a t -
t e r n o f t h e n a t i o n ' s e c o n o m y w h i c h h a v e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o s e d o n
i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s u n p r e c e d e n t e d d e m a n d s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y a n d a d a p t a -
b i l i t y . Th e d i f f e r e n c e i n a n x i e t i e s , w e c a n a n t i c i p a t e , w i l l b e h i g h l y
s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e s c h o o l s .
Th e e c o n o m y h a d p e r f o r m e d e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y w e l l d u r i n g W o r l d
W a r IIa n d w a s c o n t i n u i n g t o o p e r a t e a t n e a r l y f u l l c a p a c i t y d e s p i t e
m a s s i v e c u t b a c ks i n g o v e r n m e n t s p e n d i n g . J o b s , w h i l e n o t a s p l e n t i -
f u l a s d u r i n g t h e p e a kp r o d u c t i o n y e a r s o f t h e w a r , w e r e n o t h a r d
t o f i n d , a n d t h e h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e w h o c h o s e ( a n d w a s p e r -
m i t t e d ) t o e n t e r t h e l a b o r f o r c e w a s q u i c kl y a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e
b u o y a n t e c o n o m y .
B u t t h e t h r i v i n g p r e s e n t d i d l i t t l e t o d i s p e l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f d o o m
i n t h e f u t u r e
. Ec o n o m i s t s a n d b u s i n e s s m e n a l i ke d o u b t e d t h a t t h e
p r i v a t e e c o n o m y c o u l d r e b o u n d f r o m t h e s t a g g e r i n g r e d u c t i o n
i n
w a r t i m e d e m a n d a n d
s u c c e s s f u l l y a d j u s t t o t h e n e w p a t t e r n o f
p e a c e t i m e s p e n d i n g . Me m o r i e s o f t h e I9 3 0 ' s w e r e s t i l l v i v i d ; t h e
e c o n o m i c l o g i c t h a t c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r b o t h t h e
1 5
p e r c e n t u n e m -
p l o y m e n t r a t e o f 1 9 4 0 a n d t h e I p e r c e n t r a t e f o u r y e a r s l a t e r w a s
s t i l l b u t d i m l y p e r c e i v e d , a n d n e i t h e r t h e p r o c e s s n o r t h e p r o p r i e t y
o f a f e d e r a l s t a b i l i z a t i o n p o l i c y c o u l d b o a s t m a n y a d v o c a t e s
. W e
w e r e w a r n e d t h a t w e m u s t e x p e c t a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f s e r i o u s u n -
e m p l o y m e n t a n d l o w e r e d n a t i o n a l o u t p u t b e f o r e t h e e c o n o m i c s y s -
t e m a d j u s t e d t o a n t i c i p a t e d s l a s h e s i n t h e f e d e r a l b u d g e t a n d t h e
i n v a s i o n o f r e t u r n i n g s e r v i c e m e n l o o ki n g f o r j o b s .
Th e s e d i r e p r e d i c t i o n s p r o v e d t o b e w i d e o f t h e m a r k . W h i l e a
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 7 9
s l u m p d i d m a t e r i a l i z e , i t w a s s h o r t , m i l d , a n d s c a r c e l y v i s i b l e t o p e r -
s o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l r e c o r d - ke e p e r s . Th e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e
e c o n o m y , i n t h e a g g r e g a t e , h a s b e e n h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , i f n o t s p e c -
t a c u l a r .
Se v e r a l i n d e x e s t e s t i f y t o o v e r - a l l p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g t h e p a s t
t w e n t y y e a r s . Gr o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t ( m e a s u r e d i n d o l l a r s o f c o n -
s t a n t p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r ) h a s g r o w n m o r e r a p i d l y t h a n o u r e x p l o d -
i n g p o p u l a t i o n , r i s i n g f r o m b e l o w $ 2 , 0 0 0
. 0 0
p e r c a p i t a i n t h e l a t e
f o r t i e s t o n e a r l y
$ 2 , 7 0 0 . 0 0 t o d a y . Th e n u m b e r o f j o b s , l i ke w i s e , h a s
r a c e d m o r e o r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t a r e l e n t l e s s l y g r o w i n g l a b o r
f o r c e . W h i l e u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e s h a v e f r e q u e n t l y e x c e e d e d l e v e l s
w e w o u l d p r e f e r , 6 . 8 p e r c e n t i s t h e h i g h e s t a n n u a l r a t e f o r t h e p o s t -
w a r p e r i o d , a n d t h e t w e n t y - y e a r a v e r a g e i s j u s t o v e r 4 . 6 p e r c e n t .
Ev e n t h e m u c h - m a l i g n e d r a t e o f g r o w t h , a l t h o u g h b e l o w t h a t o f
s e v e r a l n a t i o n s m o r e r a v a g e d b y W o r l d W a r II, h a s a v e r a g e d a b o u t
3 p e r c e n t a n n u a l l y s i n c e t h e W a r . Ad d i t i o n a l d a t a c o u l d b e m a r -
s h a l l e d t o a d d d e t a i l t o t h i s p i c t u r e - h o u r l y w a g e r a t e s i n m a n u f a c -
t u r i n g u p n e a r l y
5 0
p e r c e n t , * a n i n c r e a s e i n a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i v i t y
p e r m a n h o u r o f s o m e 6 o p e r c e n t , c o r p o r a t e p r o f i t s r i s i n g t o r e c o r d
h i g h s . Al l a t t e s t t o t h e b a s i c p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e p a s t t w o d e c a d e s .
B u t p r o s p e r i t y d o e s n o t b e n e f i t a l l e q u a l l y . F o r m a n y , i n f a c t ,
i t m a y p o s e p r o b l e m s t h a t a l e s s e b u l l i e n t e c o n o m y m i g h t h a v e p o s t -
p o n e d o r c r e a t e d m o r e s l o w l y . Hi g h a n d r i s i n g i n c o m e s g i v e r e i n
t o t h e w h i m s i e s o f p o p u l a r t a s t e s a n d a c c e l e r a t e t h e c h a n g e s i n c o n -
s u m p t i o n t h a t a r e t i e d t o t h e l e v e l o f i n c o m e . As a r e s u l t , s o m e
i n d u s t r i e s r e a p a r i c h h a r v e s t , w h i l e o t h e r s , b y - p a s s e d , s e e t h e i r
p r o f i t s d w i n d l e a n d e m p l o y m e n t s h r i n k . Ne w l y a c q u i r e d a n d w e l l -
f i n a n c e d l e i s u r e h o u r s d e m a n d a p r o c e s s i o n o f m o t o r b o a t s t h a t
c o u l d h a v e e v a c u a t e d Du n ki r ko n e h u n d r e d t i m e s o v e r . An e w -
f o u n d t a s t e f o r a l m o s t a n y s o u n d t h a t c a n b e c o m m i t t e d t o t h e w a x
d i s c v i r t u a l l y c r e a t e s a n e w , l a r g e , a n d t h r i v i n g i n d u s t r y . At t h e
s a m e t i m e , a h o s t o f v e r s a t i l e s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s , u n h e a r d o f b e f o r e
W o r l d W a r II, m o v e i n t o t h e d o m a i n s o f c o t t o n a n d w o o l , a n d n e w
m e t h o d s o f p r o d u c i n g a n d t r a n s p o r t i n g g a s , f u e l o i l , a n d e l e c t r i c i t y
d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e t h e o u t l o o kf o r t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y . Su c h c h a n g e s
i n c o n s u m p t i o n c a l l f o r m a s s i v e t r a n s f e r s o f r e s o u r c e s , b o t h h u m a n
a n d n o n h u m a n - t r a n s f e r s t h a t m a y b e i m p e d e d b y l e t h a r g y , i g n o -
r a n c e , a n d t h e v e r y r e a l c o s t s o f m o v e m e n t
.
ISo SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
Pr o s p e r i t y a l s o e n c o u r a g e s t h e s e a r c h f o r n e w t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o -
d u c t i o n . It o p e n s n e w m a r ke t s , f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e s t h e c o s t s o f t r a d i -
t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f p r o d u c i n g , a n d p r o v i d e s a r e s e r v o i r o f e a r n i n g s t o
f i n a n c e t h e " g l a m o u r b o y s " o f p o s t w a r i n d u s t r y - r e s e a r c h a n d
d e v e l o p m e n t . Au t o m a t e d p r o d u c t i o n l i n e s , c o m p u t e r - m o n i t o r e d
c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s , e l e c t r o n i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d r e c o r d - ke e p i n g , a n d
l e s s d r a m a t i c b u t f u l l y a s s i g n i f i c a n t , m e c h a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e - a l l o f
t h e s e c h a n g e s i n t e c h n o l o g y h a v e e m b e d d e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e
Am e r i c a n p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s d u r i n g t h e p a s t t w o d e c a d e s . Th e i r
i m p a c t h a s b e e n t o a l t e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t s o f p r o d u c -
t i o n o f a w i d e r a n g e o f g o o d s a n d t o c h a n g e d r a s t i c a l l y e m p l o y -
m e n t d e m a n d s
.
To t h e s e d y n a m i c f o r c e s m u s t b e a d d e d t h e v a g a r i e s o f f o r e i g n
c o m m e r c e a n d t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e d e m a n d s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n -
m e n t t h a t d i r e c t l y d e t e r m i n e t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f o n e - s i x t h o f t h e n a -
t i o n a l o u t p u t . Ha v i n g c o m m i t t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o i m p l e m e n t i n g a
p o l i c y o f f r e e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , r e c e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h a v e
w a r m e d t h e s o u l s o f e c o n o m i s t s w i t h t h e i r s u c c e s s i n l o w e r i n g t a r -
i f f s , a c h i e v i n g f r e e r f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e s , a n d i n c r e a s i n g t h e f l o w o f
g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , a n d c a p i t a l b e t w e e n n a t i o n s . B u t a g a i n , t h e d o m e s -
t i c e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s a r e n o t e q u a l l y s h a r e d . Am e r i c a n p r o d u c e r s
m u s t n o w a d d t o d o m e s t i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s t h e c h a n g e s i n d e m a n d a n d
r e v o l u t i o n s i n t e c h n o l o g y t h a t o c c u r a b r o a d
. W h i l e Am e r i c a n m a n -
u f a c t u r e r s o f c o m p u t e r s f i n d t h e i r m a r ke t s w e l l e d b y Eu r o p e a n d e -
m a n d , Am e r i c a n p r o d u c e r s o f s t e e l , g l a s s , a n d p e t r o l e u m h a v e b e e n
m a d e p a i n f u l l y a w a r e o f l o w - c o s t c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m o v e r s e a s . Th e
c h a n g i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e h a v e s i m i l a r e f f e c t s . A
f i f t y - b i l l i o n - d o l l a r b u d g e t i n i t s e l f i m p l i e s s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e r a g e , b u t
w h e n i t i s w i e l d e d a t t h e f r o n t i e r s o f t e c h n o l o g y , i t s i m p a c t s r e v e r -
b e r a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e c o n o m y .
Th u s , t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s , r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e
e x p a n s i o n o f f o r e i g n t r a d e a n d t h e g r o w t h o f f e d e r a l e x p e n d i t u r e s ,
h a s i m p o s e d o n t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m u n p r e c e d e n t e d d e m a n d s f o r
c h a n g e a n d a d j u s t m e n t t o c h a n g e . C h a n g i n g w a n t s , c h a n g i n g c o s t s ,
a n d c h a n g i n g i n c o m e s s e t i n m o t i o n m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l b u t f r e -
q u e n t l y l e s s o b v i o u s c h a n g e s i n t h e e a r n i n g s , l o c a t i o n , a n d i n d u s t r i a l
o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n ' s p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s . C a p i t a l m u s t b e
e a s e d o u t o f c o a l m i n i n g a n d i n t o e l e c t r o n i c s . La n d m u s t b e t r a n s -
No
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 8 1
f e r r e d f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d r e c r e a -
t i o n a l u s e s , a n d w o r ke r s m u s t f i n d t h e i r w a y f r o m t h e t e x t i l e m i l l s
o f Ne w En g l a n d i n t o t e a c h i n g , s e l l i n g , o r o n e o f t h e b u r g e o n i n g
p e r s o n a l - s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s .
To g a u g e f u l l y t h e e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s s i n c e t h e W a r , w e m u s t
l o o kb e y o n d t h e i m p r e s s i v e n a t i o n a l t o t a l s
a n d e x a m i n e s o m e
c h a n g e s i n e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e - t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h e c o m p o s i -
t i o n o f n a t i o n a l o u t p u t , s h i f t s i n t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f m a j o r
i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s , c h a n g e s i n t h e m a ke - u p o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e - a n d
t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e c h a n g e s f o r t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e s e v e r a l
e c o n o m i c r e g i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y
. O n l y b y d e l i n e a t i n g c h a n g e s o f
t h i s s o r t c a n w e c o m p r e h e n d t h e e c o n o m y o f t o d a y a n d g r a s p t h e
d i r e c t i o n s o f m o v e m e n t f o r t h e f u t u r e .
Au s e f u l i n d i c a t o r o f r e c e n t c h a n g e s i n e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e i s t h e
r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s t o g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t
.
Ta b l e 2 p r e s e n t s f o r 1 9 4 7 a n d 1 9 6 3 t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l o u t p u t
a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e e l e v e n m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g s c o m m o n l y
u s e d i n a g g r e g a t i n g e m p l o y m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n d a t a . W h i l e m a s -
s i v e a g g r e g a t e s s u c h a s t h e s e m o v e s l o w l y a n d c o n c e a l d r a m a t i c
s h i f t s w i t h i n t h e i r c o m p o n e n t s , t h e c h a n g e s i n r e l a t i v e s h a r e s a r e
m o s t i n s t r u c t i v e . An d t h e s e i n c r e a s e s a n d d e c r e a s e s a c q u i r e a d d i -
t i o n a l m e a n i n g i n v i e w o f t h e n e a r l y
7 5
p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l
r e a l GNPt h a t t o o kp l a c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Se v e r a l t r e n d s e m e r g e
c l e a r l y - t r e n d s t h a t w e r e v i s i b l e b e f o r e W o r l d W a r II, b u t t h a t
h a v e b e e n i m m e a s u r a b l y a c c e l e r a t e d b y t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e p a s t
q u a r t e r - c e n t u r y
. O n e i s t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e " e x t r a c t i v e " i n d u s t r i e s ,
a g r i c u l t u r e a n d m i n i n g
. No t o n l y h a v e t h e y f a i l e d t o g r o w a s t h e
e c o n o m y e x p a n d e d b u t n o w r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l e r
a b s o l u t e c o n t r i b u -
t i o n t o n a t i o n a l o u t p u t . Th e t w o l a r g e s t s e c t o r s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d
t r a d e , w h i l e g r o w i n g , h a v e n o t ke p t u p w i t h t h e r a t e o f a g g r e g a t e
g r o w t h
. Th e h e a l t h i e s t i n d u s t r i e s a r e c l e a r l y t h e " s e r v i c e " c a t e g o r i e s
- f i n a n c e a n d r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s - p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s
c o m p l e x , s e r v i c e s , a n d t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . Al l h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r
r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e , e x p a n d i n g f a s t e r t h a n t o t a l o u t p u t a n d ,
t h u s ,
t a ki n g u p s o m e o f t h e s l a c kl e f t b y t h e g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g s e c t o r s .
Mu c h t h e s a m e p a t t e r n e m e r g e s - b u t i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a b o r -
f o r c e d e m a n d s b e c o m e c l e a r e r - w h e n w e l o o ka t r e c e n t c h a n g e s i n
e m p l o y m e n t b y i n d u s t r y a n d a t s h i f t s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
1 8 2 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
TAB LE2
INDUSTRIALC O MPO SITIO NO F GRO SSNATIO NALPRO DUC T, 1 9 4 7 AND1 9 6 3
INDUSTRY
PERC ENTO F TO TAL
1 9 4 7 1 9 6 3
Ag r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , f i s h e r i e s
9 . 1

4 . 0
Mi n i n g
2
. 7

2 . 0
C o n t r a c t C o n s t r u c t i o n

3 . 8

4 . 6
Ma n u f a c t u r i n g 2 8 . 4

2 7 . 5
W h o l e s a l e a n d Re t a i l Tr a d e 1 9 . 8

1 7 . 6
F i n a n c e , In s u r a n c e , a n d Re a l Es t a t e 9 . 4

1 2 . 3
Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n 5 . 9

4 . 2
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s 1 . 4

2 . 1
Pu b l i c Ut i l i t i e s 1 . 7

2 . 6
Se r v i c e s 9 . 1

1 1 . 3
Go v e r n m e n t 8 . 2

1 1 . 2
O t h e r 0 . 3

0 . 5
So u r c e : Un i t e d St a t e s De p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , O f f i c e o f B u s i n e s s Ec o n o m i c s , Su r v e y o f
C u r r e n t B u s i n e s s , X LII, No . 1 0 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 4 ; a n d X LIV , No . 9 ( Se p t e m b e r ,
1 9 6 4 ) , 2 0 .
o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e . C o m p a r e d w i t h a n 1 8 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l
e m p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n 1 9 4 7 a n d 1 9 6 3 , w e f i n d t h a t e m p l o y m e n t i n
a g r i c u l t u r e f e l l 3 9 p e r c e n t ; m i n i n g w a s d o w n 3 4 p e r c e n t ; a n d
m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d t r a d e w e r e u p 9 a n d 3 1 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y
.
B u t t h e r e a l s t a r s w e r e g o v e r n m e n t , u p 7 3 p e r c e n t ; f i n a n c e , u p 6 2
p e r c e n t ; a n d s e r v i c e s , a l s o u p 6 2 p e r c e n t . Pe r h a p s a s t e l l i n g a s a n y
o t h e r i n d i c a t o r w a s t h e d e c l i n e i n t h e " g o o d s " i n d u s t r i e s ' s h a r e o f
e m p l o y m e n t f r o m 4 2 p e r c e n t t o 3 6 p e r c e n t , w i t h " s e r v i c e t y p e "
e m p l o y m e n t j u m p i n g f r o m 5 8 t o 6 4 p e r c e n t .
Sl i c i n g t h e l a b o r f o r c e f r o m a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e - t h a t o f o c c u p a -
t i o n - p e r m i t s u s t o v i e w s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e i n a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n .
Ta b l e 3 s e t s f o r t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c i v i l i a n p o p -
u l a t i o n i n 1 9 5 0 a n d 1 9 6 2 a n d i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n
n u m b e r s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . Ag a i n t h e p a t t e r n i s c l e a r . Th e m o s t
r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g o c c u p a t i o n s a r e i n t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r g r o u p , w i t h
t h e h i g h l y s ki l l e d , h i g h - i n c o m e , p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r y s h o w i n g a n
a m a z i n g 7 8 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t w e l v e y e a r s . Mo r e g e n e r a l l y , i t
w a s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r ke r s e x -
c e e d e d t h e b l u e - c o l l a r g r o u p f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n o u r h i s t o r y .
Su c h a r e t h e b r o a d o u t l i n e s o f s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e . B u t t h e p i c t u r e
t h e y p r e s e n t i s i n c o m p l e t e . De t a i l s - a n d v e r y i m p o r t a n t o n e s - a r e
o b s c u r e d b y t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e s t h a t w e r e u s e d . B e c a u s e
t h e y a r e n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l i m p a c t o n t h e r e g i o n a l
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N
TAB LE3
EMPLO YMENTINMAJ O RO C C UPATIO NS, 1 9 5 0
AND 1 9 6 2
MAJ O RO C C UPATIO NGRO UP
To t a l
W h i t e C o l l a r
Pr o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , e t c
Ma n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s
C l e r i c a l , e t c
Sa l e s
B l u e C o l l a r
C r a f t s m e n , f o r e m e n , e t c
O p e r a t i v e s , e t c
La b o r e r s
Se r v i c e
F a r m
NUMB ER( MILLIO NS)
1 9 5 0
5 9 . 6
2 2 . 4
4 . 5
6 . 4
7 . 6
3 . 8
2 3 . 3
7 . 7
1 2 . 1
3 . 5
6 . 5
7 . 4
1 9 6 2
6 7 . 8
2 9 . 9
8 . 0
7 . 4
1 0 . 1
4 . 3
2 4 . 3
8 . 7
1 2 . 0
3 . 6
8 . 8
4 . 9
PERC ENT
O F C HANGE
1 9 5 0 - 6 2
+1 4
+3 3
+7 8
+1 6
+3 3
+1 3
+4
+1 3
- 1
+3
+3 5
- 3 5
So u r c e : Na t i o n a l In d u s t r i a l C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d , Th e Ec o n o m i c Al m a n a c , 1 9 6 4 p p . 4 4 , 4 6 .
" l i t t l e e c o n o m i e s " i s c o n c e a l e d . B e c a u s e t h e i n d u s t r i a l a n d o c c u p a -
t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s a r e s o b r o a d , t h e h a r d s h i p s a n d s p e c t a c u l a r s u c -
c e s s e s o f m o r e s p e c i f i c g r o u p i n g s t e n d t o c a n c e l e a c h o t h e r o u t , a n d
a r e r e f l e c t e d o n l y w e a kl y i n t h e a g g r e g a t e s
. F o r i n s t a n c e , n o t o n l y
d o e s u n e m p l o y m e n t r e s u l t f r o m i n a d e q u a t e a g g r e g a t e d e m a n d , b u t
i t m a y a l s o p e r s i s t i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s , o c c u p a t i o n s , a g e g r o u p s ,
a n d r e g i o n s , d e s p i t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b a s i c a l l y t h r i v i n g n a t i o n a l
e c o n o m y . Ab r e a kd o w n o f r e c e n t u n e m p l o y m e n t f i g u r e s s u g g e s t s
t h a t j u s t s u c h a s t r u c t u r a l d i s e q u i l i b r i u m d o e s e x i s t . Du r i n g 1 9 6 3 ,
f o r e x a m p l e , o v e r - a l l u n e m p l o y m e n t a v e r a g e d
5 . 7
p e r c e n t . Th e
d i s t r i b u t i o n a m o n g i n d u s t r i e s , h o w e v e r , w a s v e r y u n e q u a l , w i t h
p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s a p p e a r i n g i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , m i n i n g ,
f o r e s t r y a n d f i s h e r i e s , a n d t r a d e
. Lo w e r t h a n a v e r a g e r a t e s w e r e
o b s e r v e d i n t h e s e r v i c e t r a d e s , g o v e r n m e n t , f i n a n c e , a n d p u b l i c u t i l -
i t i e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y , t h e p a t t e r n
c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h t h e l o n g e r - t e r m , r a t e - o f - g r o w t h c h a r a c t e r -
i s t i c s n o t e d e a r l i e r .
Ev e n m o r e p r e c i s e i s t h e i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n u n e m p l o y -
m e n t b y o c c u p a t i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t e s o f g r o w t h . La b o r e r s ,
o p e r a t i v e s , a n d f a r m w o r ke r s d i s p l a y a b o v e - a v e r a g e u n e m p l o y m e n t ,
w h i l e i n v o l u n t a r y i d l e n e s s a m o n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , a n d
m a n a g e r i a l g r o u p s i s v i r t u a l l y u n kn o w n . Pe r h a p s t h e m o s t d i s t u r b -
i n g d a t a a r e t h e p e r c e n t a g e s f o r y o u n g w o r ke r s a n d n o n w h i t e s w h o
a r e u n a b l e t o f i n d w o r k . F o r t h e f i r s t a g e b r a c ke t , f o u r t e e n t o n i n e -
1 8 3
1 8 4 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , t h e a v e r a g e 1 9 6 3 r a t e w a s 1 5
. 6 , n e a r l y t r i p l e t h e
n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e
. Am o n g n o n w h i t e s i t w a s
1 o . 9 ,
m o r e t h a n d o u b l e
t h e f i g u r e f o r w h i t e w o r ke r s . C l e a r l y , t h e n e w e n t r a n t s t o t h e l a b o r
f o r c e d o n o t d o v e t a i l n e a t l y w i t h j o b o p e n i n g s ; e v e n l e s s d o a v a i l -
a b l e j o b s m e e t t h e d e m a n d o f t h e n o n w h i t e c o m p o n e n t o f t h e l a b o r
f o r c e f o r t h e m .
An a d d i t i o n a l b u t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i m b a l a n c e i s
t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f e x c e s s i v e l y l o w i n c o m e s - t h e p r o b l e m o f p o v e r t y .
Ev e n a f t e r m a ki n g a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e i l l , t h e a g e d , a n d o t h e r s o u t s i d e
t h e l a b o r f o r c e , t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f f a m i l y i n c o m e s b e l o w t h e $ 3 , 0 0 0 -
l e v e l i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f t h e p o o r f i t b e t w e e n j o b s a n d j o b - s e e ke r s .
Th e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s i n f a r m i n g - t h e i n d u s t r y u n d e r t h e
g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e t o c o n t r a c t - i n w h i c h f u l l y h a l f o f a l l f a m i l i e s h a v e
i n c o m e s b e l o w $ 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . In t h e u r b a n s e t t i n g , p o v e r t y i s i n c r e a s -
i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h r e e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n :
u n e m p l o y m e n t , r a c e , a n d e d u c a t i o n . Da t a f r o m t h e 1 8 6 0 c e n s u s
s h o w c l e a r l y , c e n s u s t r a c t b y c e n s u s t r a c t , h o w t h e l e v e l o f f a m i l y
i n c o m e v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e r a t e o f u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d w i t h
t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t i s n o n w h i t e , a n d h o w i t v a r i e s
d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f s c h o o l y e a r s c o m p l e t e d . W h i l e
s u c h a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e b y n o m e a n s u n e x p e c t e d o r n e w , t h e y a p p e a r
t o h a v e b e c o m e m o r e c o n s i s t e n t d u r i n g t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d .
O f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h e v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e a r n -
i n g s a n d e d u c a t i o n . Du r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e e c o n o m i s t s h a v e b e e n
a b l e t o d o c u m e n t h o w e d u c a t i o n h a s o p e r a t e d a s a m a j o r d e t e r m i -
n a n t o f b o t h p e r s o n a l i n c o m e a n d n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n . Th e e v i d e n c e
i s u n a m b i g u o u s o n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n i n c o m e b r a c ke t a n d y e a r s
o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d . Ma ki n g g e n e r o u s a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e c o s t s i n -
c u r r e d i n a c q u i r i n g e d u c a t i o n a n d h o l d i n g o t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f
e a r n i n g s c o n s t a n t , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n
t o i n v e s t m e n t i n e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i s i n t h e n e i g h -
b o r h o o d o f 1 o t o 1 5 p e r c e n t . W h i l e c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n i s s u b j e c t t o
i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s , t h e n e t r e t u r n h a s s t i l l b e e n c a l c u l a t e d t o b e a b o u t
1 o p e r c e n t
. Th e s e e s t i m a t e s u n d e r s c o r e t h e s t r a t e g i c i m p o r t a n c e o f
f o r m a l p r e p a r a t i o n i n m e e t i n g t h e n e w s e t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s i m p o s e d
b y t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m o n j o b - s e e ke r s
. Th e y a l s o p o i n t c l e a r l y t o
e d u c a t i o n a s a m a j o r i n s t r u m e n t f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e c a p a c i t y f o r a d -
j u s t m e n t i n a n e c o n o m y s o s u b j e c t t o c h a n g e .
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 8 5
It m a y b e u s e f u l t o s u m m a r i z e b r i e f l y s o m e o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s
o f t h e s e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e p a s t t w o d e c a d e s
. Pe r h a p s
m o s t o b v i o u s a r e t h e n e w s ki l l s , a b i l i t i e s , a n d a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d o f
t h e l a b o r f o r c e . Te c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e - b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n r e c e n t
y e a r s b y t h e c o n g e r i e s o f n e w p r o c e s s e s w e t e r m a u t o m a t i o n - b o t h
c u t s d o w n t h e d e m a n d f o r u n s ki l l e d m a n u a l w o r ke r s a n d e x p a n d s
t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w o r ke r s w i t h s p e c i f i c b u t o f t e n c o s t l y s ki l l s
.
Li ke w i s e , t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s h a s p l a c e d n e w
d e m a n d s o n t h a t s e g m e n t o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e - n o t l e a s t o f w h i c h a r e
f a r h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s o f l i t e r a c y a n d a r t i c u l a t e n e s s
. B u t a t t h e s a m e
t i m e t h e e c o n o m y d e m a n d s n e w a n d e x p e n s i v e s ki l l s , i t w i t h h o l d s
t h e p r o m i s e t h a t w o r ke r s w i l l i n d e f i n i t e l y b e p e r m i t t e d t o e x e r c i s e
t h e m . W e l l b e f o r e t h e s u p p l y o f ke y - p u n c h o p e r a t o r s h a s c a u g h t
u p w i t h t h e d e m a n d , w e a r e w a r n e d t h a t t h e n e x t d e c a d e w i l l r e n d e r
t h i s o c c u p a t i o n o b s o l e t e . Th e p r e m i u m i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t o n s ki l l s
p e r s e , b u t o n t h e c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e s ki l l s , t o m o d i f y t h e m , a n d
p e r h a p s t o b e g i n a g a i n . Ad a p t a b i l i t y a n d f l e x i b i l i t y a r e t h e ke y
q u a l i t i e s d e m a n d e d o f t o d a y ' s w o r ke r
. An d t o t h e s e w e s h o u l d a d d
m o b i l i t y - f o r t h e m u l t i p l a n t f i r m , t h e n e w g e o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s o f
p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e e x p a n s i o n o f o v e r s e a s o p e r a t i o n s a l l p o i n t t o t h e
d e m a n d f o r a h i g h l y m o b i l e w o r ki n g p o p u l a t i o n
.
An o t h e r a r e a w h e r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f e c o n o m i c c h a n g e h a v e
m a d e t h e m s e l v e s f e l t i s t h e o l d p r o b l e m - b u t n e w f i e l d o f s t u d y -
o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t
. St a n d a r d a n a l y s e s e m p h a s i z i n g n a t u r a l r e -
s o u r c e s , r i v e r a n d r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o r c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s f a v o r i n g
s p e c i f i c m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s m a y a c c o u n t f o r h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s
o f d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t o t h e r v a r i a b l e s m u s t e n t e r o u r t h e o r i e s a b o u t
t h e l o c a t i o n a l c h a n g e s t h a t a r e n o w t a ki n g p l a c e
. Th e g i f t s o f n a t u r e
a r e a d w i n d l i n g s o u r c e o f n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t
; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s b o t h
c h e a p e r a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r v a s i v e ; a n d , a s s e r v i c e s c o m e t o d o m i -
n a t e t h e p a t t e r n o f o u t p u t , t r a n s p o r t c o s t s p l a y a n e v e r s m a l l e r r o l e
i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f j o b s .
Th e i d e n t i t y o f t h e n e w d e t e r m i n a n t s o f r e g i o n a l g r o w t h i s n o t
a t a l l c l e a r , b u t s o m e s p e c u l a t i o n s a r e i n o r d e r . As t h e p h y s i c a l i n -
p u t s t o p r o d u c t i o n d e c l i n e i n i m p o r t a n c e , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e l a b o r
f o r c e a s s u m e s a n e w a n d e n l a r g e d r o l e
. Th i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n
t h e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s e c t o r .
No t o n l y
d o e s t h e l e v e l o f s ki l l o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e , i n t h e u s u a l s e n s e , l o o m
1 8 6 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
l a r g e r b u t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f h i g h l y t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s
a n d f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s i s b e c o m i n g a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r .
O n l y i n r e -
c e n t y e a r s h a v e u n i v e r s i t i e s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e m s e l v e s g i a n t i n d u s t r i a l
c o m p l e x e s l i ke t h a t w h i c h h a s c o m e t o t h e e n v i r o n s o f B o s t o n
. Ev i -
d e n c e i s a l s o a c c u m u l a t i n g t h a t c e r t a i n a m e n i t i e s , b o t h p h y s i c a l a n d
c u l t u r a l , a r e a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . Th e
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , a n a d e q u a t e m e d i c a l c o m p l e x , a n
e f f i c i e n t a n d f o r w a r d - l o o ki n g p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , a n d e s p e c i a l l y a s u p e -
r i o r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m - a l l e n t e r i n t o t h e n e w m o d e l o f l o c a t i o n
d e c i s i o n - m a ki n g .
F i n a l l y , t o r e t u r n t o o u r p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , t h e n a t i o n ' s e c o n -
o m y c a n r e a l i z e i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l o n l y i f w e a r e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l t h a n
i n t h e p a s t i n d e v i s i n g w a y s t o a c c o m m o d a t e s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e
. O n e
a p p r o a c h , o f c o u r s e , h a s b e e n t o f i g h t i t .
Ag e n e r a t i o n o f a g r i c u l -
t u r a l p r i c e s u p p o r t s a n d a d o z e n v a r i e t i e s o f " f e a t h e r b e d d i n g " e l o -
q u e n t l y t e s t i f y t o o u r r e l u c t a n c e t o f a c e s q u a r e l y t h e n e e d t o a d j u s t .
B u t t h e p r e s s u r e s o f c h a n g i n g d e m a n d s a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l i m p r o v e -
m e n t w i l l n o t b e d e n i e d
. F e w c h a l l e n g e s o f f e r a g r e a t e r t e s t o f t h e
v i s i o n a n d i n g e n u i t y o f o u r b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y , o u r g o v e r n m e n t ,
a n d , w e m u s t e m p h a s i z e , o u r s c h o o l s
.
SO C IO LO GIC ALPERSPEC TIV E
F o r t h e h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e o f 1 9 4 0 , h i s d i p l o m a w a s m o r e v a l u -
a b l e i n e n t e r i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d t h a n i t i s t o d a y , s i m p l y b e -
c a u s e a t t h a t t i m e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c h i l d r e n o f h i g h - s c h o o l a g e
a c t u a l l y e n r o l l e d i n h i g h s c h o o l w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n i t i s
t o d a y . ( It w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 7 p e r c e n t , w h i l e t o d a y i t i s o v e r
9 o p e r c e n t
. ) B u t h e c o u l d n o t b e c e r t a i n o f f i n d i n g a j o b , a n d a
g o o d d e a l o f a n x i e t y u n d o u b t e d l y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h i s q u e s t i o n
.
Un e m p l o y m e n t s t i l l r a n h i g h , b e i n g a l m o s t 1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a b o r
f o r c e . Th i s m a d e t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a r t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e y o u n g .
O n l y a m i n o r i t y o f h i g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w e n t o n t o c o l l e g e , t h e
n u m b e r b e i n g a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s
a n d
a b o u t 1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n e n r o l l e d i n f i f t h g r a d e
. To d a y ,
m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a -
t i o n i n c o l l e g e o r j u n i o r c o l l e g e . Th i s r e p r e s e n t s a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f
t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e f i f t h g r a d e .
Th u s , t o a n t i c i p a t e m a n y y e a r s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n u s e d t o b e a
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 8 7
s o m e w h a t e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h i n g f o r a h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e
. He w a s
i n c l i n e d t o s t o p h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h h i s c o m p l e t i o n o f h i g h
s c h o o l a n d t o b e c o m e a w o r ki n g m e m b e r o f s o c i e t y . Th o s e w h o d i d
g o o n t o c o l l e g e c a m e , m o r e o f t e n t h a n i s t h e c a s e t o d a y , f r o m t h e
m i d d l e a n d h i g h e r s o c i a l c l a s s e s
. In f a c t , t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e f o r t i e s
w a s a h i g h l y s t r a t i f i e d o n e , n o t i n t e r m s o f c o n s c i o u s c l a s s " i d e o l -
o g i e s " b u t i n t e r m s o f p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g a n d s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s .
In c o m e a n d o c c u p a t i o n a s w e l l a s e t h n i c b a c kg r o u n d p l a y e d a m a -
j o r r o l e i n p l a c i n g a p e r s o n i n h i s s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . F o r
t h e m a j o r i t y , t h e i d e a o f a n o r g a n i z e d c a r e e r w i t h f o r e s e e a b l e f u -
t u r e s a n d d i s t i n c t s t e p s a h e a d w a s a s t r a n g e o n e
. O n c e e n t r y i n t o
t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d w a s a c h i e v e d , o n e w o r ke d o n e ' s w a y u p
t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e o n t h e j o b a n d t h r o u g h t h e t a ki n g o f o p p o r t u -
n i t i e s w h e n t h e y o c c u r r e d .
W a r n e r , w h o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e
o f a n
Am e r i c a n c o m m u n i t y r e v e a l e d t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m o f t h i s p e -
r i o d , d e s c r i b e d s i x c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 4 In t h e s m a l l c o m -
m u n i t y w h i c h h e d e s c r i b e d i n 1 9 4 1 , t h e r e w a s a v e r y n a r r o w u p p e r
c l a s s , l i t t l e m o r e t h a n i p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t -
i n g t h e o l d - f a m i l y e l i t e w i t h l o n g t r a d i t i o n s a n d p r i d e i n t h o s e t r a -
d i t i o n s . So m e w h a t l o w e r i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , a c c o u n t i n g
f o r
a l m o s t 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , w a s t h e l o w e r - u p p e r c l a s s , a
g r o u p u s u a l l y s o m e w h a t r i c h e r t h a n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s , b u t
t h e y w e r e p e o p l e w h o h a d a r r i v e d a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n s m o r e r e c e n t l y
s o t h a t t h e y d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t a s o - w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , c u l t u r e d ,
a n d
g e n e r a l l y r e s p e c t e d c l a s s . Th e u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s ,
w i t h a p p r o x i -
m a t e l y 1 o p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , c o n s i s t e d o f s u c c e s s f u l b u s i -
n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n o f s o m e e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , w h o h a d
o n t h e w h o l e a r r i v e d i n t h e i r s t a t u s t h r o u g h h a r d w o r ka n d t h e
b u i l d i n g o f a c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g
. Th e l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s , w i t h z 8
p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , c o m p r i s e d t h e p e t t y b u s i n e s s m e n , s c h o o l
t e a c h e r s , a n d f o r e m e n i n i n d u s t r y . Th e s e w e r e p e o p l e w i t h a n a r r o w
s o c i a l l i f e , d o m i n a t e d b y a Pu r i t a n f u n d a m e n t a l i s m , a n d t h e y w e r e
r i g i d l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Al m o s t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p o p -
4 . W
. Ll o y d W a r n e r a n d Pa u l S
. Lu n d , Th e So c i a l Li f e o f a Mo d e r n C o m -
m u n i t y . Ne w Ha v e n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Ya l e Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 4 1 .
1 8 8
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
u l a t i o n w a s p l a c e d i n t h e u p p e r - l o w e r c l a s s - t h e s o l i d , r e s p e c t a b l e ,
l a b o r i n g p e o p l e - w a g e w o r ke r s w h o t o o ks o m e p r i d e i n t h e i r r e l i -
a b i l i t y a n d l o o ke d d o w n u p o n t h e l o w e r - l o w e r c l a s s o f t h e v e r y
p o o r , a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , o r a b o u t
2 5
p e r c e n t .
If o u r h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e w a s b o r n i n t o a n y o n e o f t h e s e
c l a s s e s , t h e c h a n c e s w e r e a l i t t l e l e s s t h a n e v e n t h a t h e w o u l d r e -
m a i n i n t h e s o c i a l c l a s s o f h i s f a t h e r . Th i s m e a n s t h a t h e c o u l d , a f t e r
a l l , e x p e c t s o c i a l m o b i l i t y t h r o u g h h i s o w n i n i t i a t i v e a n d a s s e r t i o n ,
t h r o u g h a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e o n h i s j o b , t h r o u g h t h e s ki l f u l t a k-
i n g o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h e n t h e y o f f e r e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e m a r ke t -
p l a c e . In m a n y i n s t a n c e s t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d t h e m s e l v e s b e -
c a u s e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n , a n d t h e f a c t
t h a t t h e f a m i l i e s a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s t e n d e d t o h a v e f e w e r c h i l d r e n
t h a n t h o s e a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s i n t h e s o c i a l s c a l e .
Th e p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s w a s o c c u p a t i o n a n d i n c o m e ,
w i t h e d u c a t i o n b e i n g o f l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e . V e r y o f t e n e d u c a t i o n
w a s n o t s o m u c h a m e a n s o f a d v a n c e m e n t a s a s y m b o l o f o n e ' s p a r -
e n t ' s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Th e c h i l d r e n o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e m i d d l e a n d
u p p e r c l a s s e s w e r e t h e n , a s n o w , m o r e l i ke l y t o g o t o c o l l e g e o r t o
a t t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l d e g r e e s t h a n t h o s e o f l o w e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s . Th e
t r e n d s i n c e h a s b e e n t o w a r d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l , a s
m o r e a n d m o r e c h i l d r e n o f a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s a t t e n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s
a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g .
O n t h e w h o l e , o u r h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e o f
1 9 4 0
c o u l d e x p e c t a
h i g h e r i n c o m e o v e r h i s l i f e t i m e t h a n t h e p e r s o n w h o h a d n o t g r a d -
u a t e d f r o m h i g h s c h o o l , a n d h e c o u l d i n c r e a s e h i s e x p e c t e d l i f e e a r n -
i n g s i f h e w e n t o n t o c o l l e g e . Ho w e v e r , o n c e h e h a d e n t e r e d t h e
o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d w i t h o u t p u r s u i n g f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , i t w a s q u i t e
l i ke l y t h a t h i s f i n a l i n c o m e l e v e l w o u l d b e m u c h h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f
t h e c o l l e g e m a n w h o j u s t e n t e r e d h i s f i r s t j o b . To d a y , h o w e v e r , a s
i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e b e g i n n i n g i n c o m e o f c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s i s
g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i n c o m e o f h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s a f t e r a s m u c h a s
t w e n t y y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o n t h e i r j o b s .
Th e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e o f Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y a r o u n d I9 4 o , t h e n , d i d
n o t e m p h a s i z e t h e f o r m a l c h a n n e l s o f s o c i a l a d v a n c e m e n t ( s u c h a s
f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a n d d i s t i n c t l y r e g u l a t e d c a r e e r p a t t e r n s ) t o t h e
s a m e e x t e n t a s d i d t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i 9 6 o ' s . Th e t i m e s p a n
f o r w h i c h t h e y o u n g w o r ke r o f t h e f o r t i e s w o u l d p l a n h i s l i f e w a s ,
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 8 9
a c c o r d i n g l y , s h o r t e r t h a n i t i s t o d a y
. As a r u l e , h e w o u l d b e o r i -
e n t e d t o h i s j o b a n d p o s s i b l y w o r r y a b o u t t h e n e x t o n e , b u t o n l y
t h e m i n o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d a s t h i n ki n g o f
d i s t i n c t c a r e e r p a t t e r n s .
In t h e i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d , t h e c h a n g e o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c -
t u r e a n d t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g p r o c e s s e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n t h e
o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e s o m e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g a n d i n c r e a s e d f o r m a l
s t r u c t u r i n g o f c a r e e r s t a g e s i n m a n y o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e a l t e r e d
t h e p i c t u r e
. Th e e f f e c t o f t h e l a b o r u n i o n s i n t h e m a n u a l o c c u p a -
t i o n s m u s t b e m e n t i o n e d a s w e l l
. It h a s i n c r e a s e d j o b s e c u r i t y o v e r
t h e y e a r s , a n d i n t h e s i x t i e s t h e u n i o n s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o c o n c e i v e a
d e g r e e o f l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g a n d r e g u l a t i o n , w h i c h m a ke s i t l i ke l y
t h a t t h e w a g e e a r n e r o f t h e f u t u r e w i l l t h i n ko f h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l l i f e
i n t e r m s o f a d i s t i n c t c a r e e r , s u p p o r t e d b y t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f
" f r i n g e b e n e f i t s " o v e r t i m e .
Mo d e r n o c c u p a t i o n a l l i f e r e q u i r e s , o n t h e w h o l e , t h e a b i l i t y t o
p l a n a h e a d , t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d u s e t o a d v a n t a g e t h e m a n y r e g u l a -
t i o n s , s u p p o r t s , a n d b e n e f i t s b u i l t u p t h r o u g h t h e i n c r e a s e d f o r m a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a n y o c c u p a t i o n s
. It r e q u i r e s , t h e n , c o m p l e x s o c i a l
s ki l l s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e j o b .
Th e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i 9 6 o ' s i s a r r a n g e d s o t h a t i t p l a c e s a p r e -
m i u m o n t h e s o c i a l s ki l l s o f s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r -
p l a n n i n g , a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e s m o o t h l y t o o t h e r s
. It r e q u i r e s o f
t h e y o u n g p e r s o n e n t e r i n g t h i s w o r l d a m u c h m o r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i e t y a n d a m u c h l a r g e r t i m e p e r s p e c t i v e o n h i s
o w n f u t u r e .
In m a n y i n s t a n c e s , t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f a p e r s o n i s n o l o n g e r d e -
f i n e d b y a d i f f u s e p r o c e s s o f p l a c e m e n t i n t h e c o m m u n i t y b u t , r a t h e r ,
t h r o u g h t h e v e r y p r e c i s e a w a r d i n g o f s t a t u s t h r o u g h f o r m a l o r g a n -
i z a t i o n s
. Th i s h o l d s t r u e i n t h e c a r e e r l i n e s o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e a n d
e s p e c i a l l y , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r l d
. Th e p a t t e r n , h o w -
e v e r , i s s p r e a d i n g t o o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h f o r m e r l y w e r e n o t a t a l l
s i m i l a r t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n s
. Th e p r o c e s s h a s o f t e n b e e n
d e s c r i b e d a s t h e s p r e a d i n g o f " p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n " t o t h e t e c h n i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s a n d t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e s ki l l e d c r a f t s m a n
. B u t t h i s
l a b e l i s s o m e w h a t m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e t h e a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l p r o -
f e s s i o n s t h e m s e l v e s h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s e p a r a t e i d e n -
t i t y a n d h a v e c o l l e c t i v e l y e v e n e n h a n c e d t h e i r p r e s t i g e a n d i n f l u e n c e
Ig o
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e
. W h a t w e a r e w i t n e s s i n g , m o r e a c c u r a t e l y ,
i s s i m p l y t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f m a n y o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s t o t h e n e w
w o r ke n v i r o n m e n t i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i c h m a ke s i t q u i t e
r e a l i s t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e m t o p e g t h e i r c l a i m t o s o c i a l p r e s t i g e
a n d s t a t u s a t a p r e c i s e l e v e l . Th e w h i t e c o a t a s a s t a t u s s y m b o l o f
t h e t e c h n i c i a n , t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f f o r m a l w o r ks t a n d a r d s a n d t h e
j e a l o u s g u a r d i n g o f t h e s e r u l e s b y t h e u n i o n i z e d c r a f t s m a n , t h e u s e
o f o f f i c i a l s o u n d i n g t i t l e s f o r m i n o r o c c u p a t i o n s - t h e s e a r e n o t
s i m p l y i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s b u t a t t e m p t s t o p l a c e a n o r g a n -
i z e d w o r kg r o u p i n t o a c l e a r s t a t u s w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i e s .
It i s q u i t e i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h o u t Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y t o d a y t h a t ,
t h r o u g h f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f c l e a r s t a t u s - h i e r -
a r c h i e s h a s b e c o m e p e r v a s i v e e v e n i n c o m m u n i t y l i f e . Am e r i c a n
s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e , b y b e c o m i n g m o r e o r g a n i z e d a n d c l e a r l y s t r u c -
t u r e d , h a s a l s o b e c o m e m o r e s t a t u s - c o n s c i o u s t h a n i t w a s b e f o r e ,
a n d t h e c o n c e r n w i t h s t a t u s e v e n i n m i n o r d i s t i n c t i o n s h a s r e a c h e d
i n t o a l m o s t a l l l e v e l s o f t h e s o c i e t y
. At t h e s a m e t i m e , i t h a s r e t a i n e d
a v e r y h i g h r a t e o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , i n d e e d
; b u t i f a h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d -
u a t e o f t h e Ig 6 o ' s h o p e s t o a d v a n c e b e y o n d t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f h i s
f a t h e r , h e w i l l m o s t p r o b a b l y d o i t t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d
c h a n n e l s o f a d v a n c e m e n t .
Ho w e v e r , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x t h a t i s s o
c e n t r a l t o m o d e r n s o c i e t y h a s n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n
.
Pa r t i c i p a t i o n e v e n a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s m a ke s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e m a n d s
o n a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l s ki l l a n d r e a l i s m , o n h i s l e v e l o f g e n e r a l e d u c a -
t i o n
. Al a r g e s e g m e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , c l u s t e r i n g i n t h e l o w e r
c l a s s e s a n d i n c l u d i n g t h e d i s c r i m i n a t e d - a g a i n s t e t h n i c a n d r a c i a l
g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e Ne g r o , h a s f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o e n t e r i n t o
t h i s s y s t e m
. In d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e g a p w i l l n o t n a r r o w b y i t s e l f ,
t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , a s i t d i d i n t h e p a s t , p r i m a r i l y
b e c a u s e m o d e r n s o c i e t y d e m a n d s c o m p l e x d e c i s i o n s e a r l y i n l i f e ,
f o r w h i c h l o w e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s r a r e l y , i f e v e r , p r e p a r e t h e i r c h i l d r e n .
O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g r o w t h
p r o c e e d a t a r a p i d p a c e a n d m a ke f o r a n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y
w i t h i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l d e m a n d s o n t h e p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e m
.
If l e f t t o i t s e l f , t h e g a p b e t w e e n t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e n e w s o c i -
e t y a n d t h o s e l e f t o u t w i l l w i d e n , a s i t a p p e a r s t o h a v e d o n e i n t h e
p h e n o m e n o n w e n o w c a l l " t h e p o v e r t y c y c l e . " Th i s i s a n a r e a i n
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 9 1
w h i c h t h e Am e r i c a n s c h o o l s h a v e r e c e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d a m a j o r r e -
s p o n s i b i l i t y .
Th e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h W a r n e r d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e p a s t
c a n s t i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n o u r s o c i e t y t o d a y
. In c r e a s i n g l y , h o w e v e r ,
t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l o w e r - u p p e r , u p p e r - m i d d l e , a n d l o w e r - m i d d l e
c l a s s e s c h a n g e t o a d i f f e r e n t f o r m o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i s
b e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y " l a d d e r h i e r a r c h i e s " t h a n b y s o c i a l c l a s s e s
.
Th e y p r e s e n t , t h e n , a c o n t i n u u m o f s t a t u s g r a d a t i o n s w h i c h , n e v e r -
t h e l e s s , a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n d e e d t o t h e p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d
. Ho w -
e v e r , t h e m a j o r g a p l i e s b e t w e e n t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g , n o m a t t e r i n
h o w m i n o r a f o r m , i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i e t y a n d
t h o s e w h o a r e l e f t o u t a l t o g e t h e r .
Th e r e i s h a r d l y a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p h e r e o f Am e r i c a n s o c i e t y t h a t
i s m o r e d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d b y r e c e n t s o c i a l c h a n g e t h a n t h e e d u c a -
t i o n a l s y s t e m a t a l l l e v e l s
. Ea r l i e r , i t w a s a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e
p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o c r e a t e a h o m o g e n e o u s n a t i o n o u t o f d i v e r s e e t h n i c
g r o u p s a n d t o p r e p a r e c h i l d r e n f o r l i f e i n a n o p e n s o c i e t y
. To d a y ,
t h i s f u n c t i o n h a s c h a n g e d
. Th e s c h o o l s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a s t r a t e g i c
p l a c e i n t h e Am e r i c a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e b y b e i n g n o t o n l y t h e a g e n -
c i e s t h a t p r o v i d e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e m a s s e s b u t a l s o t h a t s e l e c t
p e r s o n s a n d , a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s , e v e n a w a r d s o c i a l s t a t u s t h r o u g h
a c a d e m i c d e g r e e s , w h i c h h a v e a v e r y r e a l m e a n i n g i n m o d e r n s o -
c i e t y
. Th i s d e v e l o p m e n t h a s t h r u s t u p o n t h e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y a t
t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e b o t h a n e d u c a t i o n f o r
l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s t u d e n t s a n d a r e l i a b l e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e q u a l i f i e d
.
Th a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m b e a n d r e m a i n d e s i g n e d f o r m a s s e d u -
c a t i o n h a s b e e n m a d e m o r e i m p o r t a n t b y t h e r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s
b e c a u s e o n l y t h r o u g h s u c h a s y s t e m c a n t h e m a x i m u m n u m b e r o f
p e r s o n s b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f m o d e r n s o c i e t y .
PO LITIC ALPERSPEC TIV E
Ah i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e o f t w o d e c a d e s a g o l o o ke d o u t u p o n a
p o l i t i c a l s c e n e i n w h i c h o u r n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t w a s e x e r c i s i n g
p o w e r s a n d p e r f o r m i n g f u n c t i o n s v a s t l y e x p a n d e d b y t h e
Gr e a t
De p r e s s i o n a n d W o r l d W a r II
. At t h a t t i m e , t h e g r a d u a t e s t i l l r e a -
s o n a b l y c o u l d w o n d e r h o w l a s t i n g w o u l d b e t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t g e n -
e r a t e d b y t w o s u c h e x t r a o r d i n a r y e v e n t s
. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t o -
d a y ' s h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e h a s l i t t l e r o o m t o d o u b t t h a t t h e n o w
1 9 2
SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
s t i l l g r e a t e r p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e p o w e r s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e n a t i o n a l
g o v e r n m e n t i s h e r e t o s t a y
. Th e n a t i o n ' s l e a d e r s h i p r o l e a b r o a d a n d
t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d i r e c t i o n - s e t t i n g d o m i n a n c e a t h o m e h a v e
b e c o m e e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t s o f l i f e f o r t h o s e g r o w i n g u p i n t h e l a s t t w o
d e c a d e s .
Th e c o n d u c t o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s b e i n g t h e b u s i n e s s e x c l u s i v e l y o f
t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t , o f c o u r s e , t h e v a s t e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Un i t e d
St a t e s ' l e a d e r s h i p r o l e a b r o a d h a s h a d i t s i m p a c t o n t h e f e d e r a l s y s -
t e m a t h o m e
. Ma j o r w a r s i n t h e p a s t h a v e h a d a s i m i l a r e f f e c t , b u t
t h e i r i m p a c t c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d t e m p o r a r y a n d r e v e r s i b l e
.
No t
t h a t t h e y a c t u a l l y w e r e , b u t t h e y c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y b e c o n s i d e r e d
l i ke l y t o b e s o b y c o n t e m p o r a r i e s
. To d a y ' s h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e , i n
c o n t r a s t , h a s d i f f i c u l t y i m a g i n i n g a f u t u r e i n w h i c h h i s n a t i o n ' s g o v -
e r n m e n t i s n o t d e e p l y i n v o l v e d a n d h e a v i l y c o m m i t t e d a l l o v e r t h e
w o r l d , a n d h e h a s t o e x p e c t t o l i v e w i t h a g o v e r n m e n t g e a r e d t o
t h e r o l e .
F o r o u r p u r p o s e s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n ' s c o n t i n u o u s ,
w i d e i n v o l v e m e n t a n d c o m m i t m e n t a b r o a d d o e s n o t l i e a l o n e
i n
w h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t d o e s o r s h o u l d m e a n f o r t h e s u b s t a n t i v e c o n -
t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s i n s c h o o l s - i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , w o r l d
c u l t u r e s , f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s - i m p o r t a n t a s t h a t m a y b e
. Th e c o n s e -
q u e n t m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e h a s s i g n i f i -
c a n c e a l s o f o r t h e s c h o o l s a s c r e a t u r e s o f s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s i n a
f e d e r a l s y s t e m
. F e w o f o u r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d c e r t a i n l y n o t o u r
s c h o o l s , c a n e s c a p e t h e i m p a c t o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t
.
In d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s , m o s t o f t h e e v i d e n c e o f f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i t i -
c a l c h a n g e i n o u r s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t o v e r t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s
i s t o o f a m i l i a r t o r e q u i r e d o c u m e n t a t i o n h e r e
. It i n c l u d e s t h e p r a c -
t i c e , b y n o w w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t m a n i p u -
l a t i n g t h e e c o n o m y t o m a i n t a i n s t a b l e p r o s p e r i t y a n d r a t e o f g r o w t h
.
Th i s f u n c t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t n o w c a n n o t r e a s o n a b l y b e c o n -
s i d e r e d a s o n l y a t e m p o r a r y r e s p o n s e t o a c r i t i c a l e m e r g e n c y , a s p e r -
h a p s i t c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g t h e Gr e a t De p r e s s i o n a n d
t h e e c o n o m i c d i s l o c a t i o n s o f W o r l d W a r II
. No t s i m p l y r e g u l a t i o n
o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y b y g o v e r n m e n t b u t a l s o m a s s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
b y g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e e c o n o m i c p r o c e s s , a s b o t h p r o d u c e r a n d c o n -
s u m e r , h a v e b e c o m e f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d
. Ma i n t e n a n c e o f a p e r m a -
n e n t l y l a r g e m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d p r o s e c u t i o n o f s p a c e e x p l o r a -
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1
9 3
t i o n a n d i t s a t t e n d a n t s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e
p u t t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e e c o n o m y a s n e v e r b e f o r e , w h i l e s i m u l -
t a n e o u s l y g o v e r n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m y h a s g r o w n , s o
t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s l e v e r a g e f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e e c o n o m y n o w
i s o f a f a r g r e a t e r o r d e r t h a n e v e n t w o d e c a d e s a g o .
Me a n w h i l e , s u c c e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a n d c o n g r e s s e s , w i t h b i -
p a r t i s a n c o n s i s t e n c y i n p r a c t i c e d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r y , h a v e
f i r m l y r o o t e d i n t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t n o t o n l y p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l
w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s b u t a d o m i n a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e t t i n g t h e
d i r e c t i o n s a n d d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r i o r i t i e s f o r o u r s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n
g e n e r a l
. Th i s m a j o r p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f a n y
e c o n o m i c c r i s i s o r w a r e m e r g e n c y , w a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e 1 9 6 2 So c i a l
Se c u r i t y a m e n d m e n t s a n d m a d e e v e n m o r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e 1 9 6 4
Ec o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t y Ac t . F o r o u r p u r p o s e s h e r e , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e
o f b o t h i s t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t t o o kt h e i n i t i a t i v e , d e c i d e d
t h e p r i o r i t i e s , s e t t h e d i r e c t i o n s , a n d l e f t t h e s t a t e s v e r y l i t t l e t o d o
b u t t o g o a l o n g a n d t o l e t t h e i r l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s f o l l o w t h e l e a d
g i v e n b y t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t .
In t h e m a t t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , a l s o , t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t
w i t h i n t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s h a s e n h a n c e d i t s r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e
s t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s e r i e s o f Su p r e m e C o u r t d e c i s i o n s . Ex a m p l e s
a r e t h e Gi d e o n a n d Es c o b e d o c a s e s r e d e f i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t s
b e f o r e s t a t e c o u r t s , t h e s c h o o l - p r a y e r d e c i s i o n , t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h e
" s e p a r a t e b u t e q u a l " d o c t r i n e i n t h e r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n i s s u e , a n d t h e
Re y n o l d s ' g r o u p o f c a s e s r e q u i r i n g " o n e m a n , o n e v o t e " r e p r e s e n t a -
t i o n i n s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s . Th e f i r s t a n d l a s t o f t h e s e i m p o s e n a t i o n a l
s t a n d a r d s u p o n t h e j u d i c i a l a n d l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f
t h e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . Th e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d i n t e r p o s e
n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s b e t w e e n t h e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s a n d t h e i r i n s t i t u -
t i o n a l c r e a t u r e s , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . W h i l e t h e l a t t e r p a i r h a s t h e
m o r e d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n t h e s c h o o l s , a l l a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e l i n e o f
a n a l y s i s w e a r e p u r s u i n g h e r e
. Th a t i s t o s a y , t h e s e a n d n u m e r o u s
o t h e r d e c i s i o n s t h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n c i t e d h a v e b r o u g h t u s a l o n g
w a y t o w a r d a n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s o v e r r i d i n g s t a t e
a n d r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
Do m e s t i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , i n r e g a r d t o t h r e e i m p o r t a n t ,
s a m p l e
a r e a s - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , a n d i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s -
1 9 4 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
t h e t r e n d o f p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h a s b e e n i n t h e s a m e g e n e r a l d i -
r e c t i o n .
In a s e n s e , t h e 1 9 6 4 n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n c o n f i r m e d w h a t
a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e n e t p r o d u c t o f p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r e v i -
o u s t w o d e c a d e s . No t o f t e n h a v e c a m p a i g n s b e e n a s c l e a r - c u t a s t h a t
o n e i n s e r v i n g s u c h a p u r p o s e . Th a t c a m p a i g n h e l p e d t o c l a r i f y , f o r
i n s t a n c e , t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e b o d y o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n w h i c h w o u l d
p o s i t s t a t e s r i g h t s a g a i n s t n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y o n i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g
i n d i v i d u a l c i v i l r i g h t s , w h i c h w o u l d c u t b a c kt h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n -
m e n t ' s p o w e r s a n d f u n c t i o n s i n t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l w e l f a r e
r e a l m s , a n d w h i c h w o u l d s i m p l i f y t h e n a t i o n ' s w o r l d - l e a d e r s h i p r o l e
t o t h a t o f i m p o s i n g d e c i s i o n s i n c o n f l i c t s r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t e d i o u s
p o l i c i n g o f s t a b i l i t y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Pr e v i o u s r e g i o n a l a n d
s o c i a l - c l a s s a l i g n m e n t s w e r e b r e a c h e d b y b o t h p a r t i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s
o f s y n t h e s i z i n g a n e w n a t i o n a l c o n s e n s u s o u t o f t h e w e l t e r o f u n -
p r e c e d e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p o s t - W o r l d W a r IIp e r i o d , f r o m t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t o f n u c l e a r - p o w e r c a p a c i t y f o r h u m a n d e s t r u c t i o n t o
t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t e c h n i c a l p o t e n t i a l f o r e l i m i n a t i n g h u m a n p o v e r t y .
W h i l e m a n y o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s f o r t h e
c h a n g i n g Am e r i c a n s c h o o l m a y b e a p p a r e n t , o u r a n a l y s i s m u s t g o
o n e s t e p f u r t h e r b y e x a m i n i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e t w o s o c i a l
i n s t i t u t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d s c h o o l i n r e g a r d t o t h e p r o c e s s o f
p u b l i c p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Po l i t i c a l f o r c e s o f t h e l a s t t w o d e c -
a d e s h a v e b e e n r e s h a p i n g n o t o n l y t h e t w o i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s
b u t t h e p a t t e r n s o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n a n d i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
Th e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n o u r n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e
s c h o o l s h a s n e v e r b e e n e n t i r e l y c l e a r - c u t . O n t h e o n e h a n d , w e h a v e
b e l i e v e d w i t h J e f f e r s o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i s e s s e n t i a l t o
t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f o u r f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h a t t h e v i a -
b i l i t y o f t h i s g o v e r n m e n t d e p e n d s u p o n a n i n f o r m e d c i t i z e n r y
. O n
t h e o t h e r h a n d , o u r f e d e r a l s y s t e m a s s i g n e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n -
m e n t n o s p e c i f i c p o w e r t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e p u b l i c ' s e d u c a t i o n , r e -
s e r v i n g t h a t f o r t h e s t a t e s . At t h e s t a t e l e v e l , w e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a v e
b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e ke p t o u t o f p o l i t i c s , e v e n t o t h e
e x t e n t o f p r o v i d i n g i n m o s t j u r i s d i c t i o n s a g o v e r n a n c e o f t h e s c h o o l s
s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e g e n e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s .
F o r a f a r l o n g e r p e r i o d t h a n w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g i n t h i s c h a p t e r ,
h o w e v e r , t h e s c h o o l s h a v e s e r v e d t h e n a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . Th e y h a v e
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 9 5
b e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i e t y f o r a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e d i v e r s e
p e o p l e s w h o n o w c o n s t i t u t e t h e c i t i z e n r y . Th e y h a v e b e e n t h e
m e a n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e c o m p e t e n c i e s r e q u i r e d a s t h e n a t i o n p r o -
g r e s s e d f r o m a n a g r i c u l t u r a l t o a n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . In m a n y w a y s ,
f r o m l a n d g r a n t s f o r c o l l e g e s t o s u p p o r t o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e
n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t l o n g h a s h a d a h a n d i n s h a p i n g o u r e d u c a t i o n a l
s y s t e m a n d , d e s p i t e t h e a b s e n c e o f s p e c i f i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y
i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , h a s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e
s c h o o l s . Tw o s u c h b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y c o u l d n o t c o e x i s t
w i t h o u t s o m e i n t e r a c t i o n .
Ne v e r t h e l e s s , u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y , w e c o u l d t h i n ka n d g e n -
e r a l l y h a v e t h o u g h t o f o u r s c h o o l s a s q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p o l i t -
i c a l p r o c e s s e s b y w h i c h s p e c i f i c n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w e r e f o r m u l a t e d
a n d i m p l e m e n t e d . W h i l e s c h o o l s s e r v e d b a s i c n a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , t h e y
d i d s o l a r g e l y a s p a r a l l e l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e s a m e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e
p o l i t i c a l a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f u n c t i o n e d , p u r s u i n g t h e
s a m e s o c i a l g o a l s b e c a u s e t h e y r e f l e c t e d t h e v a l u e s a n d a i m s o f
t h e s a m e s o c i e t y .
W h e t h e r w e r e a s o n a b l y c a n c o n t i n u e t o t h i n ki n t e r m s o f p a r -
a l l e l c o e x i s t e n c e i s m u c h l e s s c l e a r n o w a s t h e r e s u l t o f p o l i t i c a l
d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s . W i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d , w e h a v e
h a d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l De p a r t m e n t o f He a l t h , Ed u c a t i o n , a n d
W e l f a r e a n d s u c h e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t Un i t e d St a t e s O f f i c e
o f Ed u c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n s e r i o u s t h o u g h t g i v e n t o t h e e s t a b -
l i s h m e n t o f a s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n . Th e v e t e r a n s ' e d u -
c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , t h e Na t i o n a l De f e n s e Ed u c a t i o n Ac t , a n d t h e e d u -
c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e Na t i o n a l Sc i e n c e
F o u n d a t i o n a n d v a r i o u s o f f i c e s o f t h e De f e n s e De p a r t m e n t h a v e e v i -
d e n c e d t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s c h a n g i n g p o s t u r e t o w a r d t h e
s c h o o l s .
W h a t s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n h a p p e n i n g i s n o t s o m u c h a c h a n g e i n
t h e n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y r e g a r d i n g p a r a l l e l c o e x i s t e n c e o f a n e d u c a -
t i o n a l s y s t e m a n d a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m a s i t i s a p r a g m a t i c a d j u s t m e n t
t o c e r t a i n f a c t s o f l i f e i n m i d - t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Am e r i c a
. Th e r e i s
l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p e o p l e b e l i e v e a n y l e s s s t r o n g l y n o w t h a n
b e f o r e t h a t , i n p r i n c i p l e , t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e ke p t o u t o f p o l i t i c s ,
t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s h a s a n i n t e g r i t y o f i t s o w n t o b e p r e -
s e r v e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s .
1 9 6 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
O f c o u r s e t h e r e h a s b e e n t a l ki n t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s , a s t h e r e h a s
f o r m a n y d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h a t , o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t r u l y n a t i o n a l
e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , s h a p e d a n d d i r e c t e d b y n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a u -
t h o r i t y . Ho w e v e r , n o m a j o r c a n d i d a t e y e t h a s h a d t h e t e m e r i t y t o
r u n o n a n y s u c h p l a t f o r m p l a n k, n o r i s a n y o n e l i ke l y t o d o s o s o o n
.
Lo c a l i s m a n d i n d e p e n d e n t c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m
s e e m s t i l l t o b e f i r m l y e m b e d d e d i n o u r n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y .
Hi s t o r i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e p e o p l e o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s h a v e d e m -
o n s t r a t e d a r e m a r ka b l e c a p a c i t y f o r p r e s e r v i n g i n t a c t i d e o l o g i c p r i n -
c i p l e s w h i l e d e v i s i n g p r a g m a t i c p r a c t i c e s t h a t p e r m i t a d j u s t i n g t o
c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l f a c t s o f l i f e . Th e r e i s a g o o d d e a l o f e v i d e n c e t h a t
s o m e t h i n g o f t h e s o r t h a s b e e n h a p p e n i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p a t t e r n
o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l s , o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d t h e
p o l i t i c a l - g o v e r n m e n t a l s y s t e m , o n t h e o t h e r .
Am o n g t h e r e l e v a n t s o c i e t a l f a c t s o f l i f e i s t h e p r e v i o u s l y d i s -
c u s s e d , v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e p o w e r s a n d f u n c t i o n s
o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t , i n b o t h i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d d o m e s t i c
d i m e n s i o n s . Th e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t
c a n n o t h e l p b u t i m p i n g e , o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r , u p o n t h e s c h o o l s -
w i t h o r w i t h o u t a n y c h a n g e i n t h e i d e o l o g i c o r f o r m a l i s t i c p a t t e r n
o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p .
Th e n a t i o n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t a n d c o m m i t m e n t i n f a r c o r n e r s o f t h e
w o r l d h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a l m o s t t w o d e c a d e s o f " p e a c e t i m e " d r a f t ,
i n v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e i n l a r g e s t a n d i n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e s a s a n a l t e r n a t e
c a r e e r c o u r s e , a n d i n t h e Pe a c e C o r p s - a l l f a c t s o f l i f e f o r t h e y o u n g
a d u l t s c o m i n g u p t h r o u g h o u r s c h o o l s . In t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n i n
s p a c e e x p l o r a t i o n a n d t e c h n o l o g y d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e r a d i c a l l y a l -
t e r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s r a n ki n g s a n d p r i o r i t y a m o n g c o m p e t e n c i e s
n e e d e d t o i m p l e m e n t p u b l i c p o l i c y . Su c h e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s
a t t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t l e v e l h a v e d e m a n d e d a p p r o p r i a t e r e -
s p o n s e s f r o m t h e s c h o o l s , r e g a r d l e s s o f a n y i d e o l o g i c o r f o r m a l i s t i c
p a t t e r n o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e n a -
t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e s c h o o l s .
Do m e s t i c a l l y , t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s b e g u n t o c o n t e n d ,
a l b e i t b e l a t e d l y , w i t h s o m e o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f a d v a n c e d u r b a n i z a -
t i o n o r m e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n o f o u r s o c i e t y , w i t h a u t o m a t i o n h a r d o n
t h e h e e l s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e p o c ke t s o f s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g
p o v e r t y a n d i n a b i l i t y t o c o p e w i t h l i f e ' s d e m a n d s i n a c o m p l e x s o -
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1 9 7
c i e t y , w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l s u b s t a n c e a s w e l l a s l e g a l i s t i c f o r m s o f r a c i a l
e q u a l i t y . Th e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s m a r s h a l e d b e h i n d p u b l i c p o l i c i e s r e -
g a r d i n g t h e s e n a t i o n a l i s s u e s p r e s s h a r d u p o n t h e s c h o o l s , a g a i n r e -
g a r d l e s s o f w h a t t h e i d e o l o g i c o r f o r m a l i s t i c p a t t e r n o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n -
s h i p m a y c o n t i n u e t o b e .
Th e f a c t i s t h a t m a s s i v e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s o f t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s
h a v e c a l l e d u p o n t h e s c h o o l s t o s e r v e a s p r i n c i p a l ,h a n g e a g e n t s , f o r
t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p u b l i c p o l i c i e s . Th e l o n g - r u n n i n g
d e b a t e a s t o w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d r e f l e c t o r s h o u l d r e s h a p e
t h e i r s o c i e t y h a s b e c o m e l a r g e l y a c a d e m i c . Th e s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n
d r i v e n b y p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f s p e a r h e a d i n g s o c i e t a l
c h a n g e a s t h a t c h a n g e i s e m b o d i e d i n p o l i t i c a l l y f o r m u l a t e d p u b l i c
p o l i c y .
As s t r i ki n g a n e x a m p l e a s a n y i s t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s
h a v e b e e n d r a f t e d i n t o t h e r o l e o f p r i n c i p a l c h a n g e a g e n t t o e f f e c t
r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Se g r e g a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n o u r g r e a t m e t r o p o l i t a n
c e n t e r s , h a s b e e n f i r m l y e m b e d d e d i n g h e t t o - h o u s i n g p a t t e r n s . So
f i r m l y e m b e d d e d h a s i t b e e n t h e r e t h a t , w h e n d e s e g r e g a t i o n b e c a m e
a n a c t i v e p u b l i c p o l i c y n a t i o n a l l y , n o t h o u s i n g i t s e l f b u t t h e s c h o o l s
w e r e m a d e t h e l e v e r
. Pr o g r a m s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d
s c h o o l s , e v e n i f i t m e a n t b u s s i n g c h i l d r e n i n t o a n d o u t o f r a c i a l -
g h e t t o n e i g h b o r h o o d s , h a v e b e e n u s e d a s t h e m e a n s f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g
t h e m o r e d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m o f a l t e r i n g h o u s i n g p a t t e r n s
.
Th e c a s t i n g o f t h e s c h o o l s i n s u c h a r o l e m a y b e d e c r i e d a n d ,
i n d e e d , i t i s d e c r i e d i n m a n y q u a r t e r s w i t h d e e p s i n c e r i t y . Ma n y
v e r y r e a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n c o n s e r v a -
t o r s a m i d t h e w h i r l a n d c h a n g e a m o n g o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i e t y
m a y b e s e r i o u s l y i m p e r i l e d a s t h e s c h o o l s p e r f o r m t h i s i m m e d i a t e
f u n c t i o n o f i m p l e m e n t i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y . Al o t m o r e t h a n La t i n a n d
Gr e e kc o u l d b e s a c r i f i c e d i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p r e s s u r e o f p o l i t i c a l
f o r c e s g e n e r a t e d i n t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s .
Th e p o i n t i n t e n d e d t o b e e m p h a s i z e d i s t h a t , w i t h i n t h e l a s t t w o s
d e c a d e s , t h e s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n c a s t i n t h e r o l e o f a p r i n c i p a l c h a n g e
a g e n t f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y a s . f o r m u l a t e d b y p o l i t i c a l
p r o c e s s e s o f a p e r v a s i v e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . Th i s h a s o c c u r r e d
l a r g e l y w i t h o u t c h a n g e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e o l o g i c o r f o r m a l i s t i c
\ r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e s c h o o l s . Lo c a l s c h o o l
\ , b o a r d s , e x e r c i s i n g a u t h o r i t y d e l e g a t e d f r o m t h e s t a t e s , s t i l l o p e r a t e
1 9 8 SO C IAL, PO LITIC AL, ANDEC O NO MIC F O RC ES
t h e s c h o o l s . In c r e a s i n g l y , h o w e v e r , p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s a c t i n g t h r o u g h
t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s e t t h e d i r e c t i o n t h e s c h o o l s a r e t o g o
.
C o n c l u s i o n
If w e g l a n c e b a c kw a r d n o w t h r o u g h t h e f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s , i n
t h e p r o c e s s o f s u m m a r i z i n g , w e o u g h t t o f i n d o u r s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i o n
t o b e g i n e x p l o r i n g f o r a n s w e r s t o s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s t h o s e p o s e d i n
t h i s c h a p t e r ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n .
F r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g p e r -
v a s i v e n e s s o f n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t o u r w a y o f
' '
l i f e i s h a v i n g t h e e f f e c t o f m a ki n g s c h o o l s t h e p r i n c i p a l a g e n t s o f
c h a n g e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p u b l i c p o l i c i e s a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l l y
p r o c e s s e s . Th i s i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h o u t o p e n r u p t u r e o f o u r t r a d i t i o n a l
i d e o l o g y o f p l u r a l i s t i c s t a t e - l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a n d c o n t r o l o f
e d u c a t i o n , b u t i t i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e " l e v e r " r o l e a s s i g n e d t o t h e
s c h o o l s o n s u c h n a t i o n a l p o l i c y m a t t e r s a s r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , w a r o n
p o v e r t y , p e r m a n e n t o v e r s e a s c o m m i t m e n t s , a n d s c i e n t i f i c c o n q u e s t
o f s p a c e .
B o t h t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c p e r s p e c t i v e s r e v e a l e d u c a t i o n
a n d t h e s c h o o l s s e r v i n g m o r e t h a n e v e r b e f o r e a s s e l e c t o r s i n d e t e r -
m i n i n g t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o f p e r s o n s a n d t h e
p r o s p e c t s f o r p r o g r e s s o f c o m m u n i t i e s a n d r e g i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y .
St r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s i n t h e e c o n o m y a n d i n t h e s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y a r e
p l a c i n g o n t h e s c h o o l s a m a j o r b u r d e n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n c u l c a t -
i n g f l e x i b i l i t y , a d a p t a b i l i t y , a n d a h i g h t o l e r a n c e f o r u n c e r t a i n t y a n d
a m b i g u i t y a m o n g o u r p e o p l e t o e n a b l e t h e m t o c o p e w i t h r a p i d
c h a n g e a s a n i n t e g r a l a s p e c t o f l i f e .
In t h e n e w s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t w e a r e d e v e l o p i n g a n d i n t h e
n e w c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h a t i s e m e r g i n g , t h e e m p h a s i s i s o n
m e t h o d o l o g i e s r a t h e r t h a n m e t a p h y s i c s , o n n e w s y m b o l i c s y s t e m s
f o r a n a l y s i s a n d e x p r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n d o g m a t i c " s o l u t i o n s , " a n d
o n t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f m a n a c t i n g i n u n c e r t a i n t y . In d i v i d u a l i s m a c -
q u i r e s a n e w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a n d a
f a r g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e
p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i e t y a n d i n t h e c u l t u r a l a d v a n c e . C h a r a c t e r i z e d b y
m e t r o p o l i t a n i s m , g r e a t i n t e r l o c ki n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a h o m o g e n i z i n g
o f p o p u l a t i o n a n d r e g i o n s , a n d n e w c h a n n e l s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , o u r
e m e r g e n t p a t t e r n o f l i v i n g c a l l s f o r c o p i n g s ki l l s o r c o m p e t e n c i e s
GO W , HO LZNER, ANDPENDLETO N

1
9 9
t h a t m a y b e a r l i t t l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o w h a t w e h a v e b e e n a c c u s t o m e d
t o a c kn o w l e d g e a s t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n o u r s c h o o l s .
Su c h , w e w o u l d c o n t e n d , i s a m e a s u r e o f t h e s o c i a l f o r c e s t o
w h i c h o u r s c h o o l s a r e c a l l e d u p o n t o r e s p o n d , n o t s i m p l y a s c o n -
s e r v a t o r s a n d t r a n s m i t t e r s b u t a s e x p e d i t e r s a n d s h a p e r s .
C HAPTER V III
Th e B e h a v i o r a l Sc i e n c e s a n d t h e Sc h o o l s
RALPHW . TYLER
Th e u s e o f t h e t e r m " b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s " h a s l a r g e l y d e v e l o p e d
w i t h i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s a s a l a b e l t o c o v e r m o s t o f t h e s c i e n c e s
t h a t a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t u d y o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r .
Th e y i n c l u d e b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , s u c h a s n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , p s y c h i -
a t r y , h u m a n e c o l o g y ; s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s u c h a s a n t h r o p o l o g y , e c o n o m -
i c s , h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y ; a n d s o m e s c i -
e n t i f i c s t u d i e s o f b e h a v i o r i n h u m a n i s t i c f i e l d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s p e c t s
o f p h i l o s o p h y a n d l i t e r a t u r e . In i t s n a r r o w e s t u s a g e , t h e t e r m " b e -
h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s " r e f e r s t o a n t h r o p o l o g y , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l -
o g y , a n d r e l a t e d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d s . Si n c e t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r
h a s d e a l t w i t h e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , a n d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , t h i s o n e g i v e s
p r i m a r y a t t e n t i o n t o c u r r e n t w o r ki n o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Du r i n g
t h e p a s t d e c a d e o r t w o , m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y
t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n n u m b e r s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r
a n d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n f i n d i n g s b u t a l s o t h e e m e r g i n g c o n -
c e p t i o n s o f t h e h u m a n b e i n g , o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d o f t h e
i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . Th e s e i d e a s a n d t h e n e w d a t a p e r -
t a i n i n g t o t h e m h a v e i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f e d -
u c a t i o n .
Th e Na t u r e o f t h e In d i v i d u a l
In t h e e f f o r t a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t o t r a n s f o r m p s y c h o l o g y
f r o m a s p e c u l a t i v e s t u d y t o a s c i e n c e , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s o f
s o u l , s p i r i t , a n d e v e n m i n d w e r e d i s c a r d e d . Th e h u m a n b e i n g i n -
c r e a s i n g l y w a s r e g a r d e d a s a n o r g a n i s m r e s p o n d i n g t o s t i m u l i r a t h e r
t h a n i n i t i a t i n g e n c o u n t e r s w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , e x c e p t f o r r e c o g n i -
t i o n o f p h y s i c a l d r i v e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n o t h e r a n i m a l s . Th e d e s i g n
2 0 0
TYLER

2 0 1
o f
m o s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s a s s u m e d t h a t h u m a n s w e r e
l a r g e l y i n c a p a b l e o f a u t o n o m o u s a c t i o n ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r b e h a v -
i o r c o u l d b e l a r g e l y , i f n o t w h o l l y , u n d e r s t o o d a s r e s p o n s e t o a s p e c t s
o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h w e r e o u t s i d e o f t h e i r c o n t r o l . It w a s
a s s u m e d t h a t t h e d r i v e s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d e a s i l y b e s e t i n
m o t i o n b y o u t s i d e m a n i p u l a t i o n . It i s s t i l l r e c o g n i z e d , o f c o u r s e ,
t h a t t h e b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f a h u m a n o r g a n i s m l a r g e l y g u a r a n -
t e e s d r i v e s t o s a t i s f y i n a d e q u a t e b i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . W h e n h u n g r y ,
m a n w i l l g e n e r a l l y s e e kf o o d
; i f t h i r s t y , s e e kw a t e r
; i f d e n i e d o p p o r -
t u n i t y f o r s e x u a l e x p r e s s i o n , w i l l s e e ki t
. B u t t h e s e b i o l o g i c a l d r i v e s
r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f h u m a n m o t i v a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r
m e n w h o s e b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s n o t l i m i t e d b y s h o r t a g e o f f o o d ,
w a t e r , o r o t h e r e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s .
In v e s t i g a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s h u m a n m o t i v a t i o n a n d t h e d i r e c -
t i o n a n d e n e r g y u s e d i n b e h a v i o r i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a
d y n a m i c o r g a n i s m ; h e b r i n g s t o s i t u a t i o n s i n l i f e a n a c t i v e p e r s o n a l -
i t y d i r e c t e d n o t o n l y b y b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l d r i v e s a n d n e e d s b u t a l s o b y
v a l u e s a n d p u r p o s e s . V a l u e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o b e l e a r n e d b e c a u s e t h e y
a r e d e v e l o p e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l o v e r t i m e a r e f o u n d t o f u r n i s h a
m a j o r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r w h e n t h e
i n d i v i d u a l i s i n s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s
h a v e b e e n m e t . Th e v a l u e s h e l d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e n o t a s e a s i l y
m a n i p u l a t e d b y o t h e r s a s a r e t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r t h e c o n -
t r o l o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w o r ki n g -w i t h - a r i l m a Is . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e
h u m a n i n d i v i d u a l w h o s e b i o l o g i c a l n e e d s a r e m e t a c t i v e l y e x p l o r e s
h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s e e ks e n c o u n t e r s w i t h i t r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g d i -
r e c t e d c h i e f l y b y e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i
.
Th e p i c t u r e o f t h e h u m a n i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h i s n o w e m e r g i n g i s
o n e o f a d y n a m i c o r g a n i s m , a c t i n g i n w a y s w h i c h h e l p h i m a t t a i n
h i s v a l u e s a s w e l l a s s e e ki n g t o m e e t b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l n e e d s . Al t h o u g h
i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e t u p c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h h e a c t s a s t h o u g h h e
w e r e s i m p l y a p a w n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e , m a n i p u l a t e d b y p e r s o n s a n d
f o r c e s o u t s i d e o f h i s c o n t r o l , m u c h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r c a n
b e e x p l a i n e d a s a n a c t i v e e f f o r t o n h i s p a r t t o m a n i p u l a t e h i s e n v i r o n -
m e n t t o a t t a i n h i s v a l u e s . Th i s c o n c e p t i o n h a s l e d t o m a n y n e w i n -
v e s t i g a t i o n s o f p e r c e p t i o n s i n c e t h e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l
p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f a n d t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t
:
t a p p e a r t o b e i m -
p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d i r e c t i n g h i s b e h a v i o r . It h a s l e d a l s o t o n e w
2 0 2

B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


r e s e a r c h o n p e r s o n a l i t y a n d p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n e f f o r t s t o
u n d e r s t a n d t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
C u r r e n t St u d i e s o f Pe r c e p t i o n
W h a t o n e p e r c e i v e s h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t h o u g h t t o b e a
s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o m e o r a l l o f t h e s e n s a t i o n s r e -
c e i v e d f r o m t h e s e n s e o r g a n s . It w a s c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t t h a t o n e ' s
p e r c e p t i o n o f a c l a s s o f o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s d e v e l o p e d g r a d u a l l y o v e r
a l o n g p e r i o d , b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d a c c u r a t e
a s o n e h a d m o r e a n d m o r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e t h e p h e n o m e n a .
Th i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n w a s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . Mo r e r e c e n t l y ,
h o w e v e r , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l ki n d s h a v e g i v e n n e w u n d e r s t a n d -
i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n a n d a n a p p r e c i a t i o n b o t h o f i t s c e n t r a l r o l e i n b e -
h a v i o r a n d o f i t s c o m p l e x i t y .
St u d i e s i n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t p e r c e i v i n g s u c h
b a s i c f a c t o r s a s d i s t a n c e , d e p t h , a n d v e r t i c a l o r h o r i z o n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n
i s l e a r n e d a n d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n r e l e a r n s o a s t o i n t e r p r e t a c -
c u r a t e l y e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s w h e n w e a r i n g l e n s e s w h i c h m a r ke d l y
d i s t o r t t h e v i s u a l s t i m u l i r e a c h i n g t h e e y e s . Un d e r s u c h c i r c u m -
s t a n c e s h e l e a r n s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s
a c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h a t i s , h e l e a r n s t o s e e t h e
e n v i r o n m e n t i n a w a y t h a t e n a b l e s h i m s u c c e s s f u l l y t o m a ke t h e
m o v e m e n t s h e i s a t t e m p t i n g , i n s p i t e o f i n t e r v e n i n g d i s t o r t i o n s .
As e c o n d l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f
o b j e c t s , p e r s o n s , o r e v e n t s t a ke s s h a p e d u r i n g e a r l y c o n t a c t w i t h
t h e m a n d c o m m o n l y r e m a i n s f a i r l y s t a b l e i n s p i t e o f m a n y l a t e r o p -
p o r t u n i t i e s t o c h e c kt h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n . Th u s ,
c h i l d r e n m a y d e v e l o p e a r l y t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e s e a i s b l u e p a r t l y ,
p e r h a p s , f r o m o b s e r v i n g i t w h e n i t w a s b l u e a n d p a r t l y b y t h e s u g -
g e s t i o n s o f o t h e r s , a s i n p a i n t i n g s .
It i s f o u n d t h a t m o s t c h i l d r e n
c o n t i n u e t o " s e e " a b l u e s e a e v e n w h e n a s ke d t o o b s e r v e i t w h e n i t
i s c l e a r l y g r a y , o r b r o w n , o r g r e e n
. O r , c h i l d r e n a t a n e a r l y a g e
m a y d e v e l o p t h e n o t i o n o f a j a n i t o r a s a t h i n , s t e r n , a n d c o m p l a i n -
i n g m a n
. Th i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t e n c o n t i n u e s t o o p e r a t e e v e n w h e n
a s ke d t o o b s e r v e j a n i t o r s w h o a r e , t o a n o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v e r , f a t a n d
j o l l y
. Pe r c e p t i o n o f b o t h p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a i s q u i t e
l i ke l y t o b e s t e r e o t y p e d , i n s p i t e o f m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o r r e c t -
i n g t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n s .
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An o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f h u m a n p e r c e p t i o n i s t h e f a c t t h a t
i t c a n b e i n f l u e n c e d b y o t h e r s . St u d i e s i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y d e m o n -
s t r a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n b o t h o f p h y s i -
c a l a n d s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a i s a f f e c t e d b y t h e w a y i n w h i c h f r i e n d s o r
r e s p e c t e d a s s o c i a t e s p e r c e i v e t h e m . F o r e x a m p l e , i n a t y p i c a l e x p e r i -
m e n t , a n e v e n t i s e n a c t e d b e f o r e a g r o u p . Ea c h m e m b e r o f t h e
g r o u p i s a s ke d t o w r i t e d o w n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g s h e o b s e r v e d . Th e
r e p o r t s d o n o t v a r y g r e a t l y f r o m t h e o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d
. O n t h e o t h e r
h a n d , w h e n t h e s a m e e v e n t i s e n a c t e d b e f o r e a g r o u p a n d a n i n f l u -
e n t i a l m e m b e r , w h o i s o n e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s , r e p o r t s a l o u d c e r -
t a i n f e a t u r e s h e " s a w " w h i c h w e r e n o t a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t , a c o n s i d e r -
a b l e f r a c t i o n o f t h e g r o u p w i l l t h e n r e p o r t t h e s a m e p e r c e p t i o n o f
t h e e v e n t .
Th e i m p o r t a n c e o f g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n l i e s i n
t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e a l s w i t h t h e w o r l d a s h e p e r c e i v e s i t .
He a l s o i s i n f l u e n c e d i n h i s b e h a v i o r b y t h e w a y i n w h i c h h e p e r -
c e i v e s h i m s e l f
. Hi s e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s a p e r s o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s d e p e n d e n t
t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t u p o n t h e v a l i d i t y a n d a c c u r a c y o f b o t h h i s
s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n a n d h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t .
V a l i d a n d a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e v e l o p t h r o u g h
m a n y o r l o n g - c o n t i n u e d e x p e r i e n c e s . In i t i a l f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s t e n d
t o r e m a i n . F o r t u n a t e l y , m o r e a d e q u a t e w a y s o f p e r c e i v i n g c a n b e
l e a r n e d a n d t h i s s u g g e s t s a r o l e o f e d u c a t i o n i n a s s i s t i n g w i t h t h e
l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .
Pe r s o n a l i t y Re s e a r c h
In c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n i -
t i a t e s a c t i v i t y a n d a t t e m p t s t o m a n i p u l a t e h i s e n v i r o n m e n t h a s h e i g h t -
e n e d s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g m o r e a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d
o p e r a t i o n o f t h e h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y . C u r r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h i s
p r o c e e d i n g o n m a n y f r o n t s . O n e , m o s t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h
i n p e r c e p t i o n , i s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f a n d o f t h e
e n v i r o n m e n t h e l d b y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s
. An i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e
a m o n g p e o p l e i s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y s e e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a s
s o m e t h i n g o u t o f t h e i r c o n t r o l a n d t o w h i c h t h e y m u s t a d j u s t , o r a s
s o m e t h i n g w h i c h t h e y c a n h a n d l e f o r t h e i r o w n p u r p o s e s
. Ev e n
a m o n g s m a l l c h i l d r e n , d i f f e r e n c e s a r e f o u n d w h i c h a p p e a r t o b e r e -
l a t e d t o t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s
. Th i s v i e w o f s e l f a f f e c t s
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B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


t h e a p p r o a c h t h e c h i l d m a ke s t o t h e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t i s , i n
s e e i n g h i s r o l e a s a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e .
An o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s t h e d e g r e e o f
f l e x i b i l i t y o r r i g i d i t y e v i d e n c e d i n t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l
s h i f t s h i s m e t h o d o f a t t a c ki n g p r o b l e m s w h e n t h e i n i t i a l a t t a c kd o e s
n o t s u c c e e d , o r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h h e c h a n g e s h i s p e r s p e c t i v e o r
p o i n t o f v i e w i n h a r m o n y w i t h n e w i n f o r m a t i o n o r t o u n d e r s t a n d
t h e p o i n t s o f v i e w o f o t h e r p e o p l e . Ri g i d i t y , a s t h u s a s s e s s e d , i s r e -
l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i e w o f t h e w o r l d i n t e r m s o f s h a r p l y d e -
f i n e d o p p o s i t e s , s u c h a s b l a c ka n d w h i t e , r i g h t a n d w r o n g , o r c o r r e c t
a n d i n c o r r e c t , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f
t h e w o r l d a n d t h e c h a n g i n g a n d d e v e l o p i n g n a t u r e o f kn o w l e d g e .
Th e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , w h o i s a s s e s s e d a s r i g i d , t h i n ks o f
l e a r n i n g a s f i n d i n g a n d r e m e m b e r i n g t h e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s . Th e r e
a r e r i g h t a n s w e r s w h i c h s c h o l a r s h a v e d i s c o v e r e d , a n d t h e s t u d e n t ' s
r o l e i s t o f i n d t h e s e a n s w e r s i n b o o ks , l e c t u r e s , o r i n l a b o r a t o r y e x e r -
c i s e s a n d t o r e m e m b e r t h e m . Th e f l e x i b l e s t u d e n t i s m o r e l i ke l y t o
a p p r o a c h l e a r n i n g a s a t a s ko f c o n s t r u c t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s o r s o l v i n g
p r o b l e m s a n d t o b e c r e a t i v e a n d i m a g i n a t i v e .
So m e p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l
i n t e r e s t s a n d v a l u e s b e c a u s e t h e s e t h r o w l i g h t o n m o t i v a t i o n a n d t h e
d i r e c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r . Pe r s o n s d i f f e r i n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s
i n o b j e c t s , p e o p l e , c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s , p r a c t i c a l
p r o b l e m s , a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s , a l t r u i s t i c t a s ks , s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n , a n d
t h e l i ke . Th e s e i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e v a l u e s i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e m a r e f o u n d
t o b e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s a n d w i t h
t h e ki n d s o f a c h i e v e m e n t r e c o r d e d i n s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e .
O n e a r e a o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v i n g
m u c h a t t e n t i o n i s t h a t o f i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n t o a c h i e v e ; t h a t i s ,
t o b e s u c c e s s f u l i n w h a t o n e u n d e r t a ke s . St u d i e s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n
s h o w t h a t s o m e m o t h e r s w i t h h o l d i m m e d i a t e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l -
d r e n ' s n e e d s u n t i l a n a s s i g n e d t a s kh a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d . As t h e c h i l d
c o m p l e t e s t h e t a s k, h e i s r e w a r d e d w i t h a s h o w o f a f f e c t i o n a n d
c o m m e n t s o n h o w g o o d h e i s . C h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h i s s o r t
a r e t h o u g h t t o e x p l a i n t h e g r e a t e r e x t e n t o f a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n
a m o n g c h i l d r e n f r o m m i d d l e - c l a s s h o m e s t h a n a m o n g c h i l d r e n f r o m
w o r ki n g - c l a s s h o m e s w h e r e s u c h , a r e g i m e n i s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d .
B y t h e t i m e c h i l d r e n e n t e r s c h o o l , w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e
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d e g r e e o f a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n , t h e ki n d o f m o t i v a t i o n o n w h i c h
m o s t t e a c h e r s h e a v i l y d e p e n d t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o s c h o o l l e a r n i n g .
St i l l a n o t h e r l i n e o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e c h a r -
a c t e r i s t i c w a y s i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s u t i l i z e e m o t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a n d
c h a n n e l t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g s w h i c h a r e s o c i a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e
o r u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l
. So m e p e r s o n s a r e a b l e t o d r a w o n
t h e i r e m o t i o n s f o r e n e r g y u s e d i n t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n a n d f o r t h e
c o l o r a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n o f e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s . O t h e r s a p p e a r t o b e
i n c o n t i n u o u s c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r e m o t i o n s , s o m e t i m e s f i n d i n g t h e i r
e x p r e s s i o n e n e r v a t i n g a n d s o m e t i m e s f e a r i n g t h a t t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n
w i l l b e u n a c c e p t a b l e
. Ef f e c t i v e c h a n n e l i n g o f a g g r e s s i o n , a n g e r ,
l o v e , a n d f e a r , i s d i f f i c u l t f o r m a n y . F r e u d i a n t h e o r y h a s b e e n t h e
b a s i s o f m u c h r e s e a r c h o n e m o t i o n s , b u t t h e r e a r e o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l
p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a l s o a r e g u i d i n g c u r r e n t s t u d i e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i m -
p o r t a n c e o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a , t h e y a r e c e r t a i n t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g
o f e d u c a t i o n
. Th e s c h o o l i s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n l i v e
a n i m p o r t a n t f r a c t i o n o f t h e i r l i v e s
. It s h o u l d b e a n e n v i r o n m e n t
w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r i c h e m o t i o n a l l i f e a n d h e l p s
e a c h c h i l d f i n d a c c e p t a b l e w a y s o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s g e n u i n e e m o t i o n s .
Th e f i v e a r e a s o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e -
c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s a r e n o t a l l t h e f i e l d s n o w u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n
.
Th e y a r e m e n t i o n e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r i e t y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u n d e r
w a y a n d t o s u g g e s t t h e ki n d s o f s t u d i e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o h a v e i m p l i -
c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e s c h o o l
. O n e o t h e r ki n d o f f i n d i n g a p -
p e a r i n g f r e q u e n t l y i n c u r r e n t w o r ki s t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s d o
c h a n g e a n d d e v e l o p a n d t h a t p a t t e r n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c a n b e l e a r n e d ,
a l t h o u g h n o t a s e a s i l y a s s p e c i f i c h a b i t s c a n b e a c q u i r e d
. He n c e ,
p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s c a n b e v i e w e d a s a m o n g t h e e n d s o f e d u c a t i o n
a s w e l l a s i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s u p o n t h e d i r e c t i o n a n d e x t e n t o f
l e a r n i n g .
Re s e a r c h a n d Le a r n i n g
Ar e c e n t y e a r b o o ko f t h e Na t i o n a l So c i e t y f o r t h e St u d y o f
Ed u c a t i o n i p r o v i d e s a n e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h o n
i . Th e o r i e s o f Le a r n i n g a n d In s t r u c t i o n .
Si x t y - t h i r d Ye a r b o o ko f t h e Na -
t i o n a l So c i e t y f o r t h e St u d y o f Ed u c a t i o n , Pa r t I
. Ed i t e d b y Er n e s t R. Hi l g a r d
a n d He r m a n G . Ri c h e y . C h i c a g o : Di s t r i b u t e d b y t h e Un i v e r s i t y
o f C h i c a g o
Pr e s s , 1 9 6 4 .
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B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


l e a r n i n g a n d s u g g e s t s m a n y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n
. B e c a u s e
t h i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e , i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y i n t h i s
c h a p t e r t o d o m o r e t h a n c o m m e n t o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d i e s i n
l e a r n i n g i n p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f c u r r i c u l u m a n d
i n s t r u c t i o n . Hi l g a r d ' s c h a p t e r i n t h i s y e a r b o o k
2
o u t l i n e s p r o m i s -
i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e
t e c h n o l o g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n . In s u m m a r y h e s t a t e s
:
In o r d e r t o b u i l d a s o u n d b r i d g e f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s o f
l e a r n i n g t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , w e n e e d a s e r i e s o f s t e p s , f o r a p p l i e d s c i e n c e
c o n s i s t s o f m o r e t h a n a p p l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s t o p r a c t i c e . Th e m a i n p o i n t s
a r e t h a t i n t h e r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e s a c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s c a l l e d
f o r b e t w e e n p s y c h o l o g i s t , s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t , a n d t e a c h e r
; b e y o n d
t h i s , c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n h a s t o b e g i v e n t o t e c h n i q u e s o f i n n o v a t i o n
.
If w e a c h i e v e s u c c e s s i n i n t e g r a t i n g t h e s e p h a s e s , w e w i l l m o v e t o w a r d
t h a t i m p r o v e m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h w i l l b e s a t i s f y i n g t o u s a l
l
. 3
Th e n e e d f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n , w h i c h Hi l g a r d r e c o g n i z e s , g r o w s
o u t o f t h e f a c t t h a t e f f e c t i v e d i r e c t i o n a n d c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o c e s s o f
l e a r n i n g a r e d i f f e r e n t w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t , d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l
o b j e c t i v e s , a n d d i f f e r e n t l e a r n e r s
. Th e r e a r e s o m e c o m m o n f e a t u r e s
o f a l l l e a r n i n g ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t f o r o n e t o l e a r n h e m u s t c a r r y o n
t h e b e h a v i o r t o b e l e a r n e d a n d m u s t o b t a i n r e w a r d f o r c a r r y i n g i t
o n s u c c e s s f u l l y . B u t t h i s g e n e r a l f o r m u l a d o e s n o t a n s w e r m a n y
q u e s t i o n s a b o u t p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s : Un d e r w h a t c o n d i -
t i o n s w i l l t h e l e a r n e r a t t e m p t t o c a r r y o n a c e r t a i n ki n d o f b e h a v i o r ?
Ho w d o e s h e d i s c o v e r t h e c u e s t h a t a r e u s e f u l i n g u i d i n g h i s b e -
h a v i o r ? W h a t ki n d s o f l e a r n i n g t a s ks w i l l b e a t a l e v e l a t w h i c h h e
c a n s u c c e e d a n d y e t r e q u i r e h i m t o g o b e y o n d w h a t h e h a s p r e v i -
o u s l y b e e n a b l e t o d o ? An e v e n m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n i s t h e
d e g r e e o f g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e b e h a v i o r w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s t o l e a r n ,
t h a t i s , h o w g e n e r a l o r s p e c i f i c s h o u l d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s b e
f o r t h i s s u b j e c t a n d t h e s e s t u d e n t s ?
W h e n l e a r n i n g w a s c o n c e i v e d b y p s y c h o l o g i s t s a n d b y e d u c a t o r s
a s r e s t r i c t e d t o b u i l d i n g a c o n n e c t i o n t o e l i c i t a s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e t o
a s p e c i f i c s t i m u l u s , e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s w e r e d e t a i l e d a n d s p e c i f i c ,
a n d l e a r n i n g w a s p r a c t i c e o r d r i l l i n m a ki n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e
2 . Ib i d . ,
c h a p . x v i i , " APe r s p e c t i v e o n t h e Re l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Le a r n i n g
Th e o r y a n d Ed u c a t i o n a l Pr a c t i c e s , " p p . 4 0 2 - 4 1 5 .
; . Ib i d . , p
. 4 1 5 .
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t o t h e s p e c i f i c s t i m u l u s . As r e s e a r c h h a s s h o w n t h a t h u m a n b e i n g s
c a n l e a r n m o r e g e n e r a l b e h a v i o r , s u c h a s p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a p p l y t o
m a n y s i t u a t i o n s , t e c h n i q u e s f o r a t t a c ki n g p r o b l e m s , a p p r o a c h e s t o
d i s c o v e r d a t a a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d w a y s o f s e a r c h i n g n e w s i t u a t i o n s
f o r f a c t o r s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t a n d a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r p u r p o s e s , t h e
n e e d f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h a n d i n d e v e l o p i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p r a c t i c e s h a s b e c o m e m u c h m o r e o b v i o u s
. It i s n o l o n g e r p o s s i b l e
t o s t a t e f o r a l l a f o r m u l a t i o n o f a t t a i n a b l e o b j e c t i v e s , a l i s t o f g o o d
t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , a n d t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s o f
i n s t r u c t i o n . Th e s e a r e m a t t e r s t o b e w o r ke d o u t c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y ,
u s i n g r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e d u r e s .
In a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n t h e Si x t y - t h i r d Ye a r b o o k,
o t h e r c u r r e n t s t u d i e s v e r i f y t h e c o m m o n v i e w t h a t t h e r e a r e i m -
p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g l e a r n i n g w h i c h a r e n o t d i r e c t l y u n d e r
t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e t e a c h e r . Th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a s p e r -
c e i v e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e p e e r g r o u p s t o w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t b e l o n g s
o r w h o s e m e m b e r s h e r e s p e c t s , a n d t h e a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i t h
w h o m h e i d e n t i f i e s a r e f o u n d t o e x e r t a n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e d i r e c t i o n
a n d a m o u n t o f l e a r n i n g . Mo s t s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s i m p r e s s u p o n t h e
s t u d e n t s t h e ki n d s o f p e r s o n s v a l u e d b y t h e m a n d t h e ki n d s o f
a c h i e v e m e n t s e x p e c t e d o f t h e m . In s o m e p l a c e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l a c h i e v e -
m e n t s a r e h i g h l y v a l u e d ; i n s o m e , a t h l e t i c p r o w e s s
; i n s o m e , s o c i a l
s ki l l s ; i n s o m e , f r i e n d l i n e s s
. In g e n e r a l , i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t h e i n s t i -
t u t i o n a l e m p h a s i s w h i c h i s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s a f f e c t s t h e n a -
t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f t h e i r e f f o r t s , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y
.
In m o s t s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s , t h e f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s
a r e v a r i e d i n t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n , a n d e a c h g r o u p m a y o p e n l y o r t a c -
i t l y i n d o r s e d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s . So m e m a y s u p p o r t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
p u r p o s e s o f t h e s c h o o l ; s o m e m a y e m p h a s i z e s o c i a l a c t i v i t y o r o t h e r
b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e w o r ko f t h e s c h o o l a n d
o f t e n d i s t r a c t s i t s m e m b e r s f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s . Pe e r g r o u p s
s o m e t i m e s a r e i n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e s c h o o l o r m e m b e r s o f t h e s t a f f .
Th e a t t i t u d e s o f f r i e n d s c a n s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t o n e ' s a c t i o n s , m a t e -
r i a l l y f a c i l i t a t i n g o r i m p e d i n g l e a r n i n g .
As c h i l d r e n g r o w u p , t h e y c o m m o n l y f i n d p e r s o n s i n t h e i r e n -
v i r o n m e n t t o w h o m t h e y a r e a t t r a c t e d a n d f r e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t t o
e m u l a t e t h e i r b e h a v i o r . Th i s p r o c e s s c a n e x e r t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e
o n l e a r n i n g a n d i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p o t e n t i n h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p
2 0 8

B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


n e w a t t i t u d e s a n d a t t e m p t n e w a c t i v i t i e s a s h e o b s e r v e s t h e b e h a v i o r
o f p e r s o n s a t t r a c t i v e t o h i m .
C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o n l e a r n i n g i s p r o v i d i n g n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g
o f t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e n e w b e h a v i o r b o t h
w i t h i n a n d o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m
. It i s n o w p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e
t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e s c h o o l i n s e e ki n g t o i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e -
n e s s a n d e f f i c i e n c y o f l e a r n i n g .
Re s e a r c h o n So c i a l Gr o u p s
Du r i n g t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , t h e s t u d y o f s o c i a l g r o u p s h a s
o c c u p i e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f m a n y b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s . Th i s r e s e a r c h
h a s g r e a t l y c l a r i f i e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h u m a n g r o u p s i n t h e i r r e l a -
t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r . Ma n i s b o r n i n t o a f a m i l y
. Al l o f h i s
e a r l i e s t p o t e n t e x p e r i e n c e s i n v o l v e a t l e a s t o n e o t h e r p e r s o n , u s u a l l y
h i s m o t h e r
. Mu c h o f h i s e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e h o m e t a ke s
p l a c e w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n o f h i s o w n f a m i l y o r o f t h e i m m e d i a t e n e i g h -
b o r h o o d . Th e s c h o o l , t h e c h u r c h , t h e p l a y g r o u n d , t h e w o r ki n g
s i t u a t i o n , t o e n u m e r a t e o n l y a f e w , a r e a l l c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h l i f e i s
l i v e d , a n d t h e y a r e a l l g r o u p c o n t e x t s . Th e b u l ko f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
s h o w t h a t g r o u p s
i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r p r o f o u n d l y a s t h e
i n d i v i d u a l , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , i s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e g r o u p
.
St u d i e s h a v e s h o w n t h a t m o s t g r o u p s a t t e n d b o t h t o t h e r e c o g -
n i z e d p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h t h e y e x i s t a n d t o t h e e m o t i o n a l i z e d s o c i a l
r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . W h e n t h e g r o u p s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e
u n d e r t e n s i o n , o r w h e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e u n c e r t a i n o r u n h a p p y
a b o u t t h e i r s t a t u s i n t h e g r o u p , t h e r e i s l i t t l e p r o g r e s s i n a t t a i n i n g
g r o u p p u r p o s e s . W h e r e g r o u p r e l a t i o n s a r e s t a b l e a n d i n d i v i d u a l s
a r e c l e a r a b o u t t h e i r s t a t u s a n d f i n d i t a c c e p t a b l e , g r o u p m o r a l e i s
h i g h ; t h e g r o u p i s i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r p u r s u i n g i t s b a s i c p u r -
p o s e s
. Re c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r e f -
f e c t i v e g r o u p a c t i o n o f t h e c o n g r u i t y b e t w e e n a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s a n d
t h e g r o u p ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l r o l e . If i n d i v i d u a l A
t h i n ks o f h i m s e l f a s t h e o n e t o c o n t r i b u t e i d e a s t o t h e g r o u p a n d i f
t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e g r o u p c o n s i d e r t h a t t o b e h i s r o l e , h i s i d e a s
a r e q u i c kl y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o g r o u p t h i n ki n g ; b u t i f t h e y t h i n ko f
h i m a s a g g r e s s i v e , t r y i n g t o s h o w o f f r a t h e r t h a n t o h e l p t h e g r o u p ,
h i s i d e a s a r e r i d i c u l e d o r a t t a c ke d r a t h e r t h a n a c c e p t e d , a n d t h e
g r o u p b e n e f i t s l i t t l e f r o m t h e m . O r , i f i n d i v i d u a l B t h i n ks o f h i m -
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s e l f a s t h e g r o u p " d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , " t h e o n e w h o w h i p s t h e o t h e r s " i n t o
l i n e " a n d i f t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e g r o u p c o n s i d e r t h a t t o b e h i s
r o l e , t h e g r o u p g e t s " i n t o l i n e " w h e n h e " g o e s a f t e r t h e m " a n d i s
m o b i l i z e d q u i c kl y f o r a c t i o n
. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f o t h e r m e m b e r s
o f t h e g r o u p t h i n ko f h i m a s a " b u l l y " o r a " f a l s e f r o n t , " h i s e f f o r t s
b r i n g g r e a t e r c o n f u s i o n r a t h e r t h a n m o b i l i z a t i o n o f f o r c e s .
St u d i e s a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s c o m m o n l y i n t h e v a r i o u s s m a l l
g r o u p s o f w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l i s a m e m b e r t h a t g r e a t e s t d e v e l o p -
m e n t a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r t a ke s p l a c e . Pu r e l y f o r m a l m e m -
b e r s h i p i n a s c h o o l , o r c h u r c h , o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , o r l a b o r u n i o n , ' o r
o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n m e a n s l i t t l e c o m p a r e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
f a m i l y , t h e g a n g , t h e f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p , t h e s m a l l " o u t f i t " w i t h w h i c h
h e w o r ks , a n d t h e l i ke . Th e s e g r o u p s p r o v i d e t h e v i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t
i n w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s , h a b i t s , a n d p r a c t i c e s m a y
t a ke p l a c e . Aw e a l t h o f d e t a i l i s d e v e l o p i n g f r o m c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h
r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h g r o u p s f o r m , t h e t y p o l o g y
o f g r o u p s , h o w t h e i r d i r e c t i o n s a r e s e t , h o w t h e y g r o w a n d c h a n g e ,
a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y d i e . Si n c e e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s
t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s m a l l g r o u p s i n m a n y c o n t e x t s , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s t u d -
i e s o f t h i s s o r t c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p l a n n i n g a n d o p e r a t i o n o f
s c h o o l s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s .
So c i a l C l a s s a n d O c c u p a t i o n
Gr o u p s o f s m a l l s i z e a r e n o t t h e o n l y o n e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e h u -
m a n b e h a v i o r . Su c h g r o u p s a s s o c i a l c l a s s e s , l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a -
t i o n s , a n d t h o s e b a s e d o n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t
.
In c h a p t e r v i i , s e v e r a l c o m m e n t s w e r e m a d e o n t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e
o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n m o d e r n s o c i e t y
. Me n t i o n w a s m a d e a l s o o f
t h e f a c t t h a t t o d a y a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f Am e r i c a n s w h o , b y i n c o m e
c r i t e r i a , m u s t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s " m i d d l e c l a s s " a r e s t i l l f u r t h e r d i f f e r -
e n t i a t e d i n t e r m s o f d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e o n t h e b a s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d
e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s
. C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m o d e r n c o m -
m u n i t y u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s w i t h i n i t s e v e r a l s o c i a l c l a s s e s , t y p i c a l l y
t h r e e o r m o r e
. As o c i a l c l a s s i s d e f i n e d a s a c o l l e c t i o n o f p e o p l e o f
s i m i l a r l e v e l o f s o c i a l p r e s t i g e a n d p u b l i c r e s p e c t , b u t a c l a s s s o d e -
f i n e d c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d m o s t r e a d i l y a c c o r d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s
a n d t h e ki n d s o f o c c u p a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d
. Th e f a m i l i e s o f s ki l l e d a n d
u n s ki l l e d l a b o r e r s w i t h l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c kg r o u n d c o m m o n l y
2 1 0

B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


c o m p r i s e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s o - c a l l e d l o w e r - m i d d l e a n d u p p e r -
l o w e r c l a s s e s , w h i l e t h e f a m i l i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d m a n a g e r i a l
p e o p l e , m o s t o f w h o m h a v e a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , a r e c o m m o n l y i n
t h e u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s
. F r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n
h u m a n b e h a v i o r , t h e r e a r e t w o m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s o c i a l
c l a s s s t r u c t u r e
: ( a ) e a c h s o c i a l c l a s s s e t s a p a t t e r n o f " c o n v e n t i o n a l "
o r a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r f o r i t s m e m b e r s , a n d ( b ) t h e h i e r a r c h y o f
s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o r p u b l i c r e s p e c t f o r m s a
l a d d e r t o d i r e c t t h e a c t i o n s o f m e m b e r s o f a l o w e r s o c i a l c l a s s w h o
s e e kt o r i s e i n p u b l i c e s t e e m a n d s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n .
Th e p a t t e r n o f a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r i n a g i v e n s o c i a l c l a s s i s o f t e n
c a l l e d i t s " c u l t u r e
. " It i n c l u d e s c e r t a i n v a l u e s w h i c h a r e p r e f e r r e d
t o o t h e r s , c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s m e m b e r s , c e r t a i n
l a n g u a g e p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g v o c a b u l a r y , a n d c e r t a i n w a y s o f g e t t i n g
t h i n g s d o n e
. Th e c u l t u r e o f o n e c l a s s d i f f e r s i n v a r i o u s r e s p e c t s f r o m
t h a t o f a n o t h e r
. Am o n g c h i l d r e n o f l o w e r c l a s s e s , f i g h t i n g i s a n a p -
p r o v e d f o r m o f b e h a v i o r
. Th e u s e o f c e r t a i n f o u r - l e t t e r w o r d s i s
a c c e p t a b l e i n s o m e c l a s s e s a n d n o t i n o t h e r s
. Sh a r p d i f f e r e n c e s i n
e t i q u e t t e , d r e s s , t a b l e m a n n e r s , a n d t h e l i ke , a r e n o t i c e a b l e
. Ma n y
p a r e n t s i n l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s e s d e s i r e h i g h e r p r e s t i g e f o r t h e i r c h i l -
d r e n
. Th e y o f t e n f i n d c u e s f o r e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n f o r u p p e r - m i d d l e -
c l a s s s t a t u s b y o b s e r v i n g t h e m o d e l s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s b e h a v i o r s h o w n
i n m o v i e s , t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o , m a g a z i n e s , n e w s p a p e r s , a n d t h e l i ke
.
Th u s , t h e h i e r a r c h y o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s e x e r t s a p o w e r f u l d i r e c t i v e i n -
f l u e n c e o n t h o s e w h o s e e kt o c l i m b t h e " s o c i a l l a d d e r
. " Th e i n f l u -
e n c e o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s d o e s n o t n e g a t e t h e e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t t h a t s m a l l
g r o u p s c o m m o n l y e x e r t t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o n i n d i v i d u a l
b e h a v i o r
. Pa t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r s e t b y s o c i a l c l a s s e s u s u a l l y r e a c h t h e
i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a t i o n o f s m a l l g r o u p s
. Ty p i c a l l y , t h e
m e m b e r s o f a s m a l l g r o u p a r e o f t h e s a m e s o c i a l c l a s s a n d r e i n f o r c e
t h e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r o f t h a t c l a s s
.
O c c u p a t i o n s e x e r t p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s o n t h e i r m e m b e r s t h r o u g h
t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t g a i n f u l l y e m p l o y e d a d u l t s i d e n t i f y s t r o n g l y w i t h
t h e o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e e n g a g e d , a n d e a c h o c c u p a t i o n d e -
v e l o p s c e r t a i n " e t h i c s " - c o n v e n t i o n a l b e h a v i o r e x p e c t e d o f i t s m e m -
b e r s , a t l e a s t w h i l e t h e y a r e a t w o r k
. Re c e n t s t u d i e s o f t h e s o c i o l o g y
o f v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s , s u c h a s l a w , t e a c h i n g , a n d m e d i c i n e , i n d i c a t e
h o w e x t e n s i v e l y t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s g u i d e t h e b e h a v i o r
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o f t h e i r m e m b e r s
. As w i t h s o c i a l c l a s s e s , s m a l l g r o u p s o f t e a c h e r s , o r
l a w y e r s , o r c a r p e n t e r s , o r f a r m e r s , o f t e n s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e t h e " c u l -
t u r e " o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n .
Th e St u d y o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s
An o t h e r g r o u p s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h h a s i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s , i s t h e
f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n - t h e b u s i n e s s f i r m , t h e g o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u , o r
t h e s c h o o l s t a f f . In c h a p t e r v i i , a m a j o r p o i n t w a s m a d e t h a t f o r
s o m e y e a r s Am e r i c a h a s b e e n m o v i n g f r o m a s o c i e t y b a s e d o n t h e
o p e n m a r ke t a n d o n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l c l a s s e s t o o n e w h i c h i s m o r e
h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d , w i t h t h e c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s , i n g e n e r a l , p e r f o r m e d
b y f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . As t h i s c h a n g e h a s b e e n t a ki n g p l a c e , a n
i n c r e a s i n g a m o u n t o f r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n f o c u s e d o n t h e n a t u r e o f
f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W e kn o w , o f c o u r s e , t h a t m o s t Am e r i c a n s
a r e e m p l o y e d , m o r e o r l e s s d i r e c t l y , b y l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t h a t
m o s t o f t h e g o o d s w e c o n s u m e a r e p r o d u c e d b y o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
In c r e a s i n g l y , o u r l e i s u r e a n d o u r c u l t u r a l l i f e a r e p r o v i d e d b y l a r g e
o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d w e l i v e i n c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h , a s p o l i t i c a l u n i t s ,
a r e t h e m s e l v e s l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . B u t w e a r e o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o
l e a r n h o w o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n s o a s t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r p u r p o s e s ,
c a r r y o n p l a n n i n g a n d e x e c u t i o n , i n f l u e n c e a n d d i r e c t t h e b e h a v i o r
o f t h e i r m e m b e r s , a n d p r o v i d e a m i l i e u i n w h i c h m e m b e r s o b t a i n r e -
w a r d s
.
In i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e v e a l e d s o m e o f t h e a n a t -
o m y o f t h e l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o v e r e m p h a s i z e d t h e p o w e r o f
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d i t s e f f e c t s o n t h e " o r g a n i z a t i o n m a n . " C u r -
r e n t r e s e a r c h i s m o r e l i ke l y t o b e g u i d e d b y t h e m o d e l o f a n o p e n
s y s t e m , l i ke a l i v i n g s y s t e m i n b i o l o g y , a n d s e e ks t o f i n d t h e f e a t u r e s
w h i c h p r o v i d e m u t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r a n d w o r ke r .
In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n t u r n s o u t t o b e v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n
a n o r g a n i z a t i o n , n o t o n l y t o g i v e s o m e c o h e r e n c e t o t h e w o r ku n d e r -
t a ke n b u t a s a m e a n s t o p r o v i d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n o r r e w a r d . C h a n n e l s
o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b o t h f o r m a l a n d i n f o r m a l , n e e d t o b e i d e n t i f i e d .
Th e c o n t e n t a n d e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t h r o u g h
t h e s e c h a n n e l s n e e d t o b e d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e w a y
i n w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o p e r a t e s e l e c t i v e l y t o h o l d t h e o r g a n i z a -
t i o n t o g e t h e r o r t o d e s t r o y i t s u n i t y , t o r e w a r d s o m e m e m b e r s a n d
2 1 2

B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


n o t o t h e r s , a n d , m o r e g e n e r a l l y , t o d i s t o r t t h e i n t e n d e d m e s s a g e s .
F o u r f u n c t i o n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n a l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e
f r e q u e n t l y n o t e d : ( a ) To c o m m u n i c a t e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e j o b
b e i n g d o n e b y a m e m b e r o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t e r m s t h a t g i v e
m e a n i n g a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e t o i t f o r h i m ; ( b ) t o f u r t h e r i n t e r p e r s o n a l
r e l a t i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n b y p r o v i d i n g t w o - w a y c h a n n e l s b y
w h i c h t h e m e m b e r s m a y e x c h a n g e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i r i d e a s a n d
f e e l i n g s
; ( c ) t o c o m m u n i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s w h i c h g u i d e t h e
m e m b e r ' s w o r k- t h e w o r kl o a d , a c c e p t a b l e w a y s o f d o i n g t h e j o b ,
a n d s o o n
; a n d ( d ) t o p r o v i d e a t w o - w a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n b y w h i c h
t h e m e m b e r c a n f i n d o u t h o w w e l l h e i s d o i n g .
O n e o f t h e a r e a s o f s t u d y i n w h i c h w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s a r e
g u i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h i s t h a t o f t h e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a l a r g e -
s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Th i s i s a n a r e a o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n u n d e r -
s t a n d i n g h o w a n o r g a n i z a t i o n w o r ks o r f a i l s t o w o r k, b u t t h e r e m a y
b e n o s i n g l e m o d e l w h i c h w i l l b e u n i f o r m l y h e l p f u l i n t h e e x p l a n a -
t i o n , b e c a u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i f f e r a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s i n s e v e r a l r e -
s p e c t s w h i c h m a y b e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s . So m e o r -
g a n i z a t i o n s , l i ke t h e p o s t o f f i c e o r t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , a r e m o n o p o l i e s
t h a t n e e d s p e n d l i t t l e e n e r g y i n m e e t i n g e x t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n . So m e
a r e a l m o s t c l o s e d s y s t e m s w h e r e c h a n g e i s r e l a t i v e l y s l o w ; o t h e r s ,
s u c h a s a g r a d u a t e d e p a r t m e n t o f p s y c h o l o g y , a r e o p e n s y s t e m s ,
o p e n t o n e w kn o w l e d g e , n e w s t a f f m e m b e r s , a n d n e w s t u d e n t s
.
So m e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h a s a m e d i c a l c l i n i c , a r e b u i l t a r o u n d a h i g h
d e g r e e o f e x p e r t n e s s ; o t h e r s , s u c h a s a c h a i n g r o c e r y , r e q u i r e f e w ,
i f a n y , h i g h l y t r a i n e d s p e c i a l i s t s . So m e s t u d i e s a s s u m e t h a t , i n o n e
s e n s e , p o w e r i s a b a r g a i n i n g v a l u e s o t h a t p o w e r e x e r c i s e d b y s o m e
h a s b e e n g r a n t e d b y t h o s e a s s e n t i n g t o p o w e r b e c a u s e t h e y e x p e c t
t o g a i n s o m e t h i n g o f e q u a l v a l u e . O n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , d i f f e r e n t
ki n d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e d i f f e r e n t n e e d s f o r p o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y
a n d m a y p r o v i d e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s t o t h o s e a c c e p t i n g t h e p o w e r r e -
l a t i o n s h i p
.
C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s
i s v e r y a c t i v e a n d c a n b e s e e n t o h a v e m a n y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a -
t i o n a s w e l l a s f o r t h e g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o u r d e v e l o p i n g s o -
c i e t y . No d o u b t , t h e m o s t o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s l i e i n t h e o r g a n i z a -
t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s .
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Re s e a r c h o n Le a d e r s h i p
Al t h o u g h t h e s t u d y o f l e a d e r s a n d l e a d e r s h i p i s a r e l a t i v e l y o l d
i t e m o n t h e a g e n d a o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , r e c e n t w o r kh a s t a ke n
s o m e n e w d i r e c t i o n s
. Th e e a r l y w o r ko f p s y c h o l o g i s t s s o u g h t t o
f i n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r
. Th e o n l y t r a i t
w h i c h w a s f o u n d a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y a m o n g l e a d e r s o f b u s i n e s s , e d -
u c a t i o n , p o l i t i c s , a n d t h e m i l i t a r y w a s a h i g h e r - t h a n - a v e r a g e l e v e l
o f e n e r g y . No t r a i t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g
w e r e i d e n t i f i e d . Ef f o r t s t o d i s c o v e r o t h e r t r a i t s w h i c h m i g h t
b e
c o m m o n t o e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s i n a s i n g l e f i e l d w e r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l
.
Ea r l y s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s s o u g h t u n i f o r m i t i e s a b o u t l e a d e r s h i p b a s e d
o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h o s e l e d o r o f t h e s i t u a t i o n
. B u t t h e s e i n v e s t i -
g a t i o n s a l s o w e r e r e l a t i v e l y b a r r e n
. C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i s b a s e d u p o n
a m o r e d e t a i l e d c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p s i t u a t i o n . So m e
i n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e s t u d y i n g l e a d e r s h i p a s a n e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f a l a r g e -
s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n
. He n c e , t h e y o u t l i n e t h e a n a t o m y o f a g i v e n t y p e
o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , i d e n t i f y p l a c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h e r e l e a d e r s h i p
i s e x p e c t e d t o f u n c t i o n , a n d t h e n o b s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e
" l e a d e r " a n d t h e b e h a v i o r h e e x h i b i t s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n
. Th i s a p p r o a c h
p r o v i d e s a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e a n a t -
o m y a n d t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p e r m i t s i d e n t i f i c a -
t i o n o f v a r i o u s ki n d s o f l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s .
As e c o n d ki n d o f a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s c o m m o n i n s t u d y i n g l e a d e r -
s h i p i n a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o v i e w t h e o f f i c e , l i ke t h a t o f t h e
p r e s i d e n t , a s r e q u i r i n g l e a d e r s h i p a n d t h e n t o a n a l y z e t h e v a r i o u s
l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n t e r m s o f a g r o u p o r t e a m o f p e r s o n s f i l l i n g t h o s e
r o l e s
. Th i s p e r m i t s l e a d e r s h i p t o b e v i e w e d a c c o r d i n g t o c o n f l i c t i n g
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s a n d t r a i t s s i n c e t h e y c a n b e f i l l e d
b y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l p e o p l e .
At h i r d a p p r o a c h i s t h a t o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s s t u d y i n g l e a d e r -
s h i p a s f o u n d i n s m a l l g r o u p s - t h e b e h a v i o r i n v o l v e d i n t a ki n g i n i -
t i a t i v e , i n a l l o c a t i n g r e w a r d s , a n d s o o n
. F i n a l l y , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e
s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g o n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s
u s i n g t h e g u i d i n g h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e t y p e s o f l e a d e r s h i p s i t u -
a t i o n s , e a c h o f w h i c h m a y e v o ke i t s o w n s p e c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s
.
Re s e a r c h o n l e a d e r s h i p i s l i ke l y t o b e o f c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t t o
e d u c a t o r s b e c a u s e s c h o o l s d e p e n d u p o n l e a d e r s h i p n o t o n l y f o r t h e i r
2 1 4

B EHAV IO RALSC IENC ESANDTHESC HO O LS


f o r m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u t a l s o f o r t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t e a c h e r o r g a n -
i z a t i o n s , c l a s s r o o m g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r p r o g r a m s , a n d
c i v i c g r o u p s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n
. Pr e s e n t kn o w l e d g e p r o -
v i d e s h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s t u d y w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t ,
a n d n e w p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e l i ke l y t o a d d t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g
.
O t h e r Re s e a r c h Ar e a s
Th e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s
w h i c h h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t e x h a u s t t h e l i s t i n g o f
a c t i v e i n q u i r i e s u n d e r w a y . C h a p t e r v i i o u t l i n e d s o m e i m p o r t a n t
w o r ki n e c o n o m i c s , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , d e m o g r a p h y , s o c i a l c h a n g e ,
a n d d e c i s i o n - m a ki n g . Ma t h e m a t i c a l g a m e t h e o r y a n d i n f o r m a t i o n
t h e o r y c u r r e n t l y a r e u s e d t o s u g g e s t m o d e l s f o r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -
m a ki n g u n d e r d i f f e r i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e l e v a n t i n -
f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . Th e f i e l d s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s r e s e a r c h a n d o f
o p e r a t i o n s a n a l y s i s a r e v e r y m u c h a l i v e
. St u d i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t
o f h u m a n r e s o u r c e s i n t h e n e w l y e m e r g i n g n a t i o n s , b y e c o n o m i s t s ,
a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a r e r e v e a l i n g a v a r i -
e t y o f i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s , g r o u p s , a n d a g e n c i e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s u b -
s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n o f y o u t h a n d a d u l t s . C l e a r l y ,
t h e c o n c e p t s a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s
a p p e a r t o h a v e i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g o n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e d u c a -
t i o n . Mo r e a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i n t u r n , p r o v i d e s u s w i t h f u r t h e r
b a s e s f o r g u i d i n g w o r ki n t h e s c h o o l s .
C HAPTER IX
Th e De s i g n o f In s t r u c t i o n '
RO B ERTGLASER
Th e u s e o f m o d e r n s c i e n c e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f s o c i e t y h a s b e c o m e
a n i m p o r t a n t o b l i g a t i o n o f o u r t i m e s . Th i s i s t r u e n o l e s s i n e d u c a t i o n
t h a n i t i s i n m e d i c i n e a n d e n g i n e e r i n g . As i n c r e a s i n g kn o w l e d g e i s
a c c u m u l a t e d i n p s y c h o l o g y a n d t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s i n g e n e r a l ,
a f o u n d a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r a g r o w i n g s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l
b a s e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e
. Th e t r a n s l a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c kn o w l -
e d g e i n t o p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h a n d t e c h n o l o g -
i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Ho w e v e r , a t t h i s t i m e , a n e n t i t y t o c a r r y o u t t h e
f u n c t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t h a r d l y e x i s t s . If a
p e r s o n ( o r o r g a n i z a t i o n ) w e r e t o c a r r y o u t s u c h a f u n c t i o n , h o w
w o u l d h e b e g i n t o w o r k, a n d i n w h a t s o r t o f c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k
w o u l d h e p e r f o r m h i s j o b ? Th i s c h a p t e r s p e c u l a t e s a b o u t a n d d i s -
c u s s e s s u c h a f r a m e w o r ka n d d e s c r i b e s s o m e o f t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t a n
" i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r " m i g h t u s e i n t h i n ki n g a b o u t h i s w o r k . Th e
t a s ks h e m u s t p e r f o r m i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n t h e o r y , r e -
s e a r c h , a n d a p p l i c a t i o n . Th i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s , n o t a p p l i c a t i o n a s
s u c h , b u t a s p e c t s o f t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h
c a n e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o i n n o v a t i o n a n d r e d e s i g n i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c -
t i c e . Ev i d e n c e s o f s u c h i n n o v a t i o n a n d r e d e s i g n a r e b e g i n n i n g t o
m a r kt h e c h a n g i n g Am e r i c a n s c h o o l
.
It i s a p p a r e n t t h a t f o r c e s a r e a t w o r kw h i c h a r e e n c o u r a g i n g t h e
i n c r e a s i n g g r o w t h o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f e d u c a t i o n a l
p r a c t i c e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " e n g i n e e r i n g " e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t b a c k
u p t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . In m a n y w a y s t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s a r e l i ke
i . Th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f
t h e Le a r n i n g Re s e a r c h a n d De v e l o p m e n t C e n t e r , Un i v e r s i t y o f Pi t t s b u r g h , w i t h
s u p p o r t f r o m t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Re s e a r c h Pr o g r a m o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s O f f i c e o f
Ed u c a t i o n .
2 1 5
2 1 6

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


t h e " e n g i n e e r i n g " o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h a s p h a r m a c e u t i c a l m a n u f a c -
t u r e r s a n d i n d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s , t h a t p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r
u s e b y t h e m e d i c a l a n d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n s
. Th e f o r c e s e n c o u r -
a g i n g r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t b a s i c t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e a r e
t h e f o l l o w i n g
: ( a ) t h e i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n a m o n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s
t h a t t h e i r w o r kh a s b e e n t o o r e m o t e f r o m t h e m a n y p r o b l e m s o f
c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g , t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n b e i n g s p u r r e d o n , f o r e x a m p l e ,
b y t h e b a s i c r e s e a r c h t h a t h a d l e d t o p r o g r a m e d l e a r n i n g i n t h e
f o r m o f p r o g r a m e d t e x t s a n d t e a c h i n g m a c h i n e s ; ( b ) t h e i n c r e a s -
i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h i s f o r c i n g t h e
b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t t o p r o v i d e i t w i t h kn o w l e d g e r e l e v a n t t o t h e e d -
u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; a n d ( c ) t h e i n c r e a s i n g n a t i o n a l s p o n s o r s h i p o f
c e n t e r s a n d l a b o r a t o r i e s d e d i c a t e d t o m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i n g r e l a t i o n -
s h i p s b e t w e e n b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e .
O u t o f t h e s e t r e n d s w i l l g r o w t h e " i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r " m e n -
t i o n e d a b o v e , a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r s u g g e s t s s o m e
t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h w h i c h c a n i n f l u e n c e h i s a c t i v i t i e s . If t h e i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r , w o r ki n g i n a r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s e t t i n g ,
d i d e x i s t , t h e n i t c a n b e a s s u m e d t h a t h e w o u l d o p e r a t e i n t h e f o l -
l o w i n g m a n n e r : F i r s t , h e w o u l d a n a l y z e t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d o m a i n
u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n - r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s , o r o t h e r . He w o u l d
t h i n ko f a d o m a i n i n t e r m s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c o m p e t e n c i e s w h i c h
c o m p r i s e i t . He w o u l d a n a l y z e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t a n c e s o f s u b j e c t -
m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e
c o n t e n t i n v o l v e d a n d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t h e s t u d e n t
m a ke s t o t h e c o n t e n t . ( Re s p o n s e i s u s e d h e r e t o m e a n b r o a d a c t i v i t y
r a n g i n g f r o m m e m o r i z i n g t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . ) He w o u l d f u r t h e r
a n a l y z e t h e s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d o m a i n , p e r h a p s a c c o r d -
i n g t o i t s c o n c e p t u a l h i e r a r c h i e s a n d o p e r a t i n g r u l e s
. Se c o n d , t h i s
i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r w o u l d t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t a r e t o b e t a u g h t
. He w o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e e x -
t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y h a v e a c q u i r e d s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s
t o b e l e a r n e d , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e c e r t a i n c o n t e n t p r e -
r e q u i s i t e s , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t l e a r n i n g s m i g h t f a -
c i l i t a t e o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e n e w l e a r n i n g , a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h
t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e c e r t a i n a p t i t u d e - l i ke p r e r e q u i s i t e s c o n s i s t i n g o f
n e c e s s a r y s e n s o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s a n d m o t o r s ki l l s .
Th e s e f i r s t t w o s t e p s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d e -
GLASER

2 1 7
s i g n e r a b o u t t h e t a r g e t p e r f o r m a n c e t o b e o b t a i n e d a n d t h e e x i s t i n g
p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e l e a r n e r . Th e d e s i g n e r m u s t t h e n
p r o c e e d t o g e t f r o m o n e s t a t e t o t h e o t h e r . Th i s s e t s u p h i s t h i r d t a s k .
Th i s t a s kc o n s i s t s o f h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t g o f r o m t h e p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e t o a s t a t e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e . Th i s r e -
q u i r e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s a n d m a t e r i a l s t o b e
e m p l o y e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . As p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s , h e
m u s t t a ke a c c o u n t o f m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t s a n d t h e a b i l i t y o f h u m a n s
t o g e n e r a l i z e a n d e x t r a p o l a t e ; t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y p r o v i d i n g c o n -
d i t i o n s w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e a n d e x t e n s i o n o f t h e
c o m p e t e n c e b e i n g t a u g h t . F i n a l l y , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i g n e r m u s t
m a ke p r o v i s i o n f o r a s s e s s i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o m -
p e t e n c e a n d ki n d o f kn o w l e d g e a c h i e v e d b y t h e l e a r n e r i n r e l a t i o n
t o s o m e p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a t h a t h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d .
To m a n y p r e s e n t - d a y e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n
o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n m a y s o u n d h a r s h l y t e c h n o l o g -
i c a l , a n d i n d e e d , p e r h a p s s o m e e l e g a n c e h a s b e e n l o s t i n a n a l y s i s .
B u t , p r e s u m a b l y , o n c e b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d , t h e t e a c h e r
c a n u s e t h e t o o l s o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a r t i s t r y , a n d
s e n s i t i v i t y
. Th e d e s i g n c o m p o n e n t s t h a t h a v e j u s t b e e n d e s c r i b e d
a r e ( a ) a n a l y z i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e ,
( b ) d i a g n o s i n g p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , ( c ) c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , a n d ( d ) m e a s u r i n g l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s
. Th i s
c h a p t e r c o m m e n t s f u r t h e r a b o u t e a c h o f t h e s e
.
An a l y z i n g t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Su b j e c t - Ma t t e r C o m p e t e n c e
W h e n t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t t u r n s h i s a t t e n t i o n f r o m a n a l y s i s o f t h e
b e h a v i o r i n v o l v e d i n s t a n d a r d i z e d , a r b i t r a r y t a s ks u s e d i n t h e l a b o r a -
t o r y t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t h e
n o n a r b i t r a r y b e h a v i o r g e n e r a l l y t a u g h t i n o u r c u l t u r e , h e r u n s h e a d
o n i n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t a s ks . Th e s i g -
n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p r o b l e m w a s h i g h - l i g h t e d b y p s y c h o l o g i s t s w h e n
t h e y t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , a s t h e y d i d i n t h e
Ai r F o r c e p r o g r a m u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Ar t h u r W
. Me l t o n . Th e
c o n c e r n w i t h t a s ka n a l y s i s i s a r e a c t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t , w h i l e t h e l a b -
o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t o r d e c i d e s u p o n a n d c o n s t r u c t s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l
t a s kp e r t i n e n t t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e s , h e i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o
d o t h i s i n t h e o n g o i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . In t h e l a b o r a t o r y , b y
2 1 8

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


p r e s e l e c t i n g h i s t a s kt o f i t a p r o b l e m , h e h a s i n a s e n s e a n a l y z e d i t s
s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
. Ho w e v e r , w h e n w o r ki n g w i t h
n o n a r b i t r a r y b e h a v i o r , h e i s f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g
t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e b e h a v i o r i n v o l v e d s o t h a t h e c a n p r o c e e d t o
o p e r a t e i n h i s u s u a l w a y
. As a b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t h e i s a c c u s t o m e d
t o w o r ki n g w i t h s p e c i f i e d b e h a v i o r , a n d h e n e e d s t o d o s o i n t h e i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n
. Th e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e l a b o r a t o r y t o a p p l i c a -
t i o n f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e s t h i s a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n
. Th e r e c e n t
w r i t i n g s a n d e x p l o r a t i o n s o f B r u n e r , 2
f o r e x a m p l e , c o n t i n u o u s l y
e m p h a s i z e a c o n c e r n w i t h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s t r u c t u r e , a n d t h i s m o s t
l i ke l y d e v e l o p s o u t o f h i s c o n c e r n w i t h r e a l - l i f e s u b j e c t m a t t e r
.
Th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a n a l y s i s i s e m p h a s i z e d w h e n
a p s y c h o l o g i s t , s i n v o l v i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f a s e c o n d l a n -
g u a g e , d i s c o v e r s t o h i s g o o d f o r t u n e t h a t m u c h t i m e a l r e a d y h a s b e e n
d e v o t e d t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r s o f
l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n
. B y c o n t r a s t , w o r ki n g i n t h e f i e l d o f En g l i s h ,
a n o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i s t
4
i n d i c a t e s t h a t a m a j o r p r o b l e m i s t h e n e e d
f o r b e t t e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o r t o b e t a u g h t b y En g l i s h
t e a c h e r s
. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o p o i n t o u t t h a t , i n En g l i s h , t h e p r e s c r i p -
t i v e n a t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l g r a m m a r h a s " a p p a r e n t l y s e t t l e d i n p r e -
s c r i p t i v e m e t h o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . "
a
In t h i s c a s e , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a f f e c t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , a n d d e t a i l e d
a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p r o p e r t i e s , i n t u r n , p r o b a b l y w i l l d e m a n d
a d v a n c e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e . So m e i l l u s t r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f
2 . J e r o m e S. B r u n e r , Th e Pr o c e s s
o f
Ed u c a t i o n
( C a m b r i d g e , Ma s s a c h u s e t t s :
Ha r v a r d Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , i g 6 o )
; a n d " So m e Th e o r e m s o n In s t r u c t i o n Il l u s -
t r a t e d w i t h Re f e r e n c e t o Ma t h e m a t i c s , " i n Th e o r i e s
o f Le a r n i n g a n d In s t r u c -
t i o n ( Th e Si x t y - t h i r d Ye a r b o o ko f t h e Na t i o n a l So c i e t y f o r t h e St u d y o f Ed u -
c a t i o n , Pa r t I. Ed i t e d b y E
. R. Hi l g a r d . C h i c a g o : Un i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o Pr e s s ,
1 9 6 4 ) .
3 . H. L. La n e , " Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g o f a Se c o n d La n g u a g e , " i n
Te a c h i n g
Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , I1 : Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s .
Ed i t e d b y Ro b e r t
Gl a s e r . W a s h i n g t o n : Na t i o n a l Ed u c a t i o n As s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 6 5
.
4
. Su s a n M
. Ma r kl e , " Pr o g r a m e d In s t r u c t i o n i n En g l i s h , " i n Te a c h i n g Ma -
c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , II: Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p . c i t .
S. Ib i d .
GLASER 2 1 9
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u p o n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a n d
i n s t r u c t i o n a r e s u g g e s t e d b e l o w .
F i r s t i s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e s a n d c o n -
t e n t r e p e r t o i r e s . C o n t e n t r e p e r t o i r e r e f e r s t o a s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r i -
e n t e d a n a l y s i s . C o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e r e f e r s t o a b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s .
As u b j e c t - m a t t e r e x p e r t c a n g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e h i s s u b j e c t i n t o s u b -
t o p i c s , p r i m a r i l y o n t h e b a s i s o f c o n t e n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l o g i c a n d a r r a n g e m e n t . B y c o n t r a s t , a p s y c h o l o g i s t
c o n s i d e r s c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s l e s s a n d b e h a v i o r a n a l y s i s m o r e
.
Pa r t i c u -
l a r l y , h e l o o ks f o r t h e ki n d s o f s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d .
Th e c o n c e r n o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i t h t a x o n o m i e s
6
r e f l e c t s i n i t i a l a t -
t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p s c h e m e s f o r d e s c r i b i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g c o m p o n e n t
r e p e r t o i r e s .
F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e p r a c t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t
f o r c o m p o n e n t - r e p e r t o i r e a n a l y s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e ki n d o f b e h a v i o r
i n v o l v e d s o t h a t t h e l e a r n e r c a n b e p r o v i d e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o -
c e d u r e s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h b e s t f a c i l i t a t e t h e l e a r n -
i n g o f t h a t ki n d o f b e h a v i o r
. Th e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e
l e a r n i n g o f v a r i o u s ki n d s o f c o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e s r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t
ki n d s o f t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s , a n d a r e s e a r c h t a s ki s t o i d e n t i f y t h e
l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s a n d a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s a s s o c i -
a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e s . Th i s ki n d o f t h i n ki n g
u n d e r l i e s Ga g n e ' s ' a n a l y s i s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e d e -
s i g n o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h e n h e l i s t s r e s p o n s e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , a s s o c i a t i o n ,
m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , b e h a v i o r c h a i n s , c l a s s c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s ,
a n d s t r a t e g i e s a s c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r a n d a t t e m p t s t o s u g g e s t l e a r n -
i n g c o n d i t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o e a c h c a t e g o r y .
De s i g n i n g o p t i m a l i n s t r u c t i o n m a y b e a m a t t e r o f c h o o s i n g t a c -
t i c s a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r i m p l i e d b y t h e n o n c o n t e n t
6 . Ar t h u r W . Me l t o n , " Th e Sc i e n c e o f Le a r n i n g a n d t h e Te c h n o l o g y o f
Ed u c a t i o n a l Me t h o d s , " Ha r v a r d Ed u c a t i o n a l Re v i e w , X X IX ( Sp r i n g , 1 9 5 9 ) ,
9 6 - 1 0 6 . ( Al s o i n Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g . Ed i t e d b y A.
A. Lu m s d a i n e a n d Ro b e r t Gl a s e r
. W a s h i n g t o n : Na t i o n a l Ed u c a t i o n As s o c i a -
t i o n , 1 9 6 0 . )
7 . Ro b e r t M
. Ga g n e , " Th e An a l y s i s o f In s t r u o t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e
De s i g n o f In s t r u c t i o n , " i n Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , 1 1 :
Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p . c i t . ; a n d Ro b e r t M. Ga g n 6 , Th e C o n d i t i o n s o f Le a r n -
i n g ( Ne w Yo r k : Ho l t , Ri n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 5 ) .
2 2 0

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . 8 In t h i s c o n t e x t , s u c h
f i e l d s a s l i n g u i s t i c s a n d l o g i c , d e v o t e d t o a n a l y s i s o f o r g a n i z e d
kn o w l e d g e , s h o u l d b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t s
i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e b e -
h a v i o r a l s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d f o r l e a r n i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , a c o n t r a s t i v e
a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a s t u d e n t ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e
a n d t h e t a r g e t s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t o b e l e a r n e d c a n p r o v i d e d e t a i l s f o r
a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n .
Se c o n d i s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p r o d u c t a n d p r o c e s s . Th e
t r e n d t o w a r d t h e b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s h a s
l e d t o t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m , " p r o c e s s " o b j e c t i v e s . Th e c u r r i c u l u m
f o r s c i e n c e i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s , " d e v e l o p e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s
o f t h e Am e r i c a n As s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Ad v a n c e m e n t o f Sc i e n c e , c o n -
s i d e r s p r o c e s s o b j e c t i v e s , s u c h a s o b s e r v a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r e d i c -
t i o n , a n d i n f e r e n c e . Th e c o n t e n t a s s u c h , w h e t h e r m a g n e t i s m , s o u n d ,
l i g h t o r h e a t p h e n o m e n a , o r b i o l o g i c a l e v e n t s , i s o f s e c o n d a r y i m -
p o r t a n c e i n t h i s c u r r i c u l u m . Th e l e a r n i n g o f " p r o c e s s e s " i s m o r e
i m p o r t a n t . Al s o , a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g , t h e r e i s
i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n w i t h m o r e t h a n " f o r m a l a n d d e s c r i p t i v e kn o w l -
e d g e " o f t h e c u r r e n t b o d y o f s c i e n c e . Em p h a s i s i s p l a c e d o n s u c h
b e h a v i o r s a s g e n e r a t i n g h y p o t h e s e s , s e l e c t i n g f r u i t f u l h y p o t h e s e s ,
t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s e s a n d d e c i d i n g u p o n e x p e r i m e n t s , a n d t h e m o r e
g e n e r a l i z e d t r a i t s o f a s c i e n t i s t , s u c h a s p e r s e v e r a n c e a n d c u r i o s i t y
.
Th e t r e n d t o w a r d t h e s t a t e m e n t o f s o - c a l l e d p r o c e s s o b j e c t i v e s r e -
f l e c t s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e .
It s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e w o r d " p r o c e s s " i n
p r o c e s s o b j e c t i v e c a n b e s o m e w h a t m i s l e a d i n g
. As t a t e m e n t o f a n
o b j e c t i v e r e f e r s t o a b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e w h i c h i s s o m e p e r f o r m a n c e b y
t h e s t u d e n t , a n d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i t s e l f , o r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p e r -
f o r m a n c e , c a n b e m e a s u r e d i n s o m e w a y . It i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n -
g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f a t t a i n i n g t h e
b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e , w h i c h i s c a r r i e d o u t b y a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e .
Pe r h a p s n o w h e r e i n r e c e n t y e a r s h a s t h e c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n p r o c e s s
8 . Th o m a s F . Gi l b e r t , " Ma t h e t i c s : Th e Te c h n o l o g y o f Ed u c a t i o n , " j o u r n a l
o f Ma t h e t i c s , I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 2 ) , 7
-
7 3 -
9 . Sc i e n c e - APr o c e s s Ap p r o a c h
.
Am e r i c a n As s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Ad v a n c e -
m e n t o f Sc i e n c e , 1 9 6 ; .
GLASER

2 2 1
a n d s t a t e b e e n m o r e r a m p a n t t h a n i n t h e r e c e n t e m p h a s i s o n " d i s -
c o v e r y l e a r n i n g
. " In b o t h t h e p r a c t i c a l a n d t h e r e s e a r c h w o r ki n
t h i s a r e a , t h e r e i s a c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n t w o ki n d s o f e v e n t s
: o n e
e v e n t h a s t o d o w i t h l e a r n i n g b y
d i s c o v e r y ( p r o c e s s ) , t h a t i s , t e a c h -
i n g c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s b y a d i s c o v e r y m e t h o d
; t h e o t h e r e v e n t h a s t o
d o w i t h l e a r n i n g
t o d i s c o v e r ( a b e h a v i o r a l s t a t e ) , o r t e a c h i n g f o r a
t e r m i n a l s t a t e w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t e d b y t h e a b i l i t y t o m a ke d i s c o v e r i e s
.
Th i r d i s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f
t r a n s f e r a n d c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n
.
Su b j e c t - m a t t e r p r o p e r t i e s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r m i n e t h e d i m e n -
s i o n s a l o n g w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t m u s t b e t a u g h t t o g e n e r a l i z e a n d
t r a n s f e r h i s kn o w l e d g e
. Pr e s u m a b l y t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e a n d t o
t r a n s f e r i s a f u n c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a v a r i e t y o f e x a m p l e s a n d
d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i n s t a n c e s
. B u t w h a t d e f i n e s v a r i e t y a n d
w h a t d e f i n e s d i f f e r e n t i n s t a n c e s t h a t l e a d t o g e n e r a l i z a b l e kn o w l -
e d g e ? F o r s o m e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a s p e c t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a m b i g u i t y
a b o u t w h e t h e r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e e x a m p l e s p r e s e n t e d t o a s t u d e n t a r e
i n s t a n c e s o f a b a s i c r u l e
. Ho w e v e r , a s a s u b j e c t m a t t e r b e c o m e s
c o m p l e x , d e f i n i t i o n o f a r a n g e o f e x a m p l e s m a y b e c o m e d i f f i c u l t ,
a n d p r o b l e m s a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g w h e t h e r t r a i n i n g i n v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s
d o e s , i n d e e d , c a r r y o v e r t o n e w s i t u a t i o n s .
Ge n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o n e n t o f c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n ,
a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d i m e n s i o n s c a n
b e m a d e m o s t c l e a r l y w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n c e p t s
.
Ma n y p s y c h o l o g i s t s w o u l d a g r e e t h a t t h e b a s i c p r o c e d u r e f o r t e a c h -
i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e s t e a c h i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o g e n -
e r a l i z e w i t h i n c l a s s e s a n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n c l a s s e s
. Th e s t u -
d e n t m u s t l e a r n t o m a ke t h e s a m e r e s p o n s e s t o a l l m e m b e r s f a l l i n g
.
w i t h i n a c l a s s a n d t o m a ke d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s t o m e m b e r s o f d i f f e r -
e n t c l a s s e s
. Th e p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d c a n b e i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e s i m p l e
c a s e o f t e a c h i n g a c h i l d t h e c o n c e p t s o f r e d a n d b l u e
. Di s c r i m i n a -
t i o n a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t r i a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e c o l o r s r e d
a n d b l u e
. O t h e r p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e o b j e c t s a r e v a r i e d r a n d o m l y s o
t h a t t h e s t u d e n t l e a r n s t o g e n e r a l i z e a m o n g o b j e c t s h a v i n g i n c o m -
m o n n o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o t h e r t h a n t h e i r c o l o r
. F o r e x a m p l e : F i r s t , t h e
c h i l d i s s h o w n s u c c e s s i v e s e t s o f t h r e e o b j e c t s , t w o r e d o n e s a n d o n e
n o t r e d
. Ea c h t i m e t h e s e t h r e e o b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d t h e q u e s t i o n i s
a s ke d , " W h i c h i s n o t r e d ? " Th i s i s r e p e a t e d a n u m b e r o f t i m e s w i t h
o n l y t w o b l u e o b j e c t s
. In t h i s w a y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d
2 2 2

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


b e t w e e n r e d a n d n o t r e d , a n d b l u e a n d n o t b l u e
. Th e c h i l d m i g h t
t h e n b e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t w o o b j e c t s , o n e r e d a n d o n e b l u e a n d a s ke d
" W h i c h o n e i s r e d ? " o r " W h i c h o n e i s b l u e ? " Th e n u m b e r o f n o n -
r e d a n d n o n b l u e o b j e c t s c o u l d t h e n b e i n c r e a s e d s o t h a t o n l y o n e
o u t o f a n u m b e r o f o b j e c t s i s r e d o r b l u e . In o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t
t r a i n i n g f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , o b j e c t s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e q u e n c e o f c o l o r - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t r a i n i n g
- l a r g e a n d s m a l l o b j e c t s , d a r ka n d l i g h t o n e s , r o u g h a n d s m o o t h
o n e s , n e a r a n d f a r o n e s , s q u a r e , t r i a n g u l a r , a n d i r r e g u l a r l y - s h a p e d
o n e s , a n d s o f o r t h
. Th i s w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e r e s p o n s e s " r e d " a n d
" b l u e " f r o m b e i n g a t t a c h e d t o s t i m u l i o t h e r t h a n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e
o n e s
. W i t h t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e o b j e c t s v a r i e d , t h e c h i l d w o u l d
l e a r n t o g e n e r a l i z e a m o n g o b j e c t s i n w h i c h t h e c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r -
i s t i c i s c o l o r
. In t h i s w a y t h e c h i l d i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f p r o -
g r e s s i v e l y g r a d e d e x p e r i e n c e s b y w h i c h h e a c q u i r e s t h e c o n c e p t s
o f r e d n e s s a n d b l u e n e s s
.
Th i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s b e c o m e s c o m p l i c a t e d w h e n t h e s u b j e c t -
m a t t e r p r o p e r t i e s t o b e g e n e r a l i z e d a n d d i s c r i m i n a t e d a r e n o t c l e a r
c u t o r b e c o m e v e r y s u b t l e a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e c o n c e p t s c l a s s i c
a n d n e o c l a s s i c a r t o r e a r l y Mo z a r t a n d l a t e Mo z a r t . 1
Am a j o r
p r o b l e m i n t e a c h i n g s u c h s u b t l e a n d c o m p l e x c o n c e p t s i s t h e d e f i n i -
t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c l a s s e s
. Th i s b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o b -
l e m a t i c a l w h e n t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t a m o n g e x p e r t s a n d w h e r e t h e r e
a r e s e m a n t i c i m p r e c i s i o n s
. So m e t i m e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n c l a s s e s
i s n o t c l e a r t o t h e l e a r n e r b e c a u s e h e d o e s n o t h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y
t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d
. At o t h e r t i m e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y l i e s w i t h s u b j e c t -
m a t t e r i m p r e c i s i o n .
In t h e t h r e e p o i n t s m a d e s o f a r , t h e a t t e m p t h a s b e e n t o s h o w
t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s i s a n a r e a t h a t c a n n o t b e
o v e r l o o ke d i n r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o n l e a r n i n g t h a t l e a d s t o
e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e
. To e m p h a s i z e t h e p o i n t , o n e c a n
r e s o r t t o t e s t i m o n i a l q u o t e s
. " So i m p o r t a n t i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r o -
g r a m i n g t h a t i t i s o f t e n r e g a r d e d a s t h e m a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e
t e a c h i n g - m a c h i n e m o v e m e n t , b u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f b e -
z o . V i d e F r a n c i s Me c h n e r , " Sc i e n c e Ed u c a t i o n a n d B e h a v i o r a l Te c h n o l o g y , "
i n
Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , 1 1 : Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p
.
c i t .
GLASER

2 2 3
h a v i o r h a s m u c h m o r e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a t e c h n o l o g y o f e d u c a t i o n . "
1 1
Th i s i s f r o m Ski n n e r , a n d w h i l e h e m e a n s s o m e w h a t m o r e t h a n o n l y
t h e a n a l y s i s o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s , h i s p o i n t i s c e r t a i n l y r e l a t e d
t o t h a t o f t h e w r i t e r . In a n a l y z i n g En g l i s h t e a c h i n g , Ma r kl e s a y s ,
" In t h e c a s e o f c r i t i c a l a n d e v a l u a t i v e s ki l l s i n l i t e r a t u r e , t h e t e c h -
n o l o g y o f t a s ka n a l y s i s i s c r u c i a l . No t t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f d e s i g n i n g
f r a m e s
. " 1 2
Ga g n e , w i t h h i s e m p h a s i s o n s e q u e n t i a l o b j e c t i v e s , s a y s ,
" Th e e n t i r e s e q u e n c e o f o b j e c t i v e s
. . .
i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e m o s t
i m p o r t a n t s e t o f v a r i a b l e s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , o u t w e i g h i n g
a s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r m o r e f a m i l i a r v a r i a b l e s l i ke s t e p s i z e , r e s p o n s e
m o d e , a n d o t h e r s . " 1 3 C r a w f o r d , i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e e x -
p e r i e n c e s o f t h e Hu m a n Re s o u r c e s Re s e a r c h O f f i c e o f Ge o r g e
W a s h i n g t o n Un i v e r s i t y i n a r m y m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g , s a y s t h a t " p e r -
h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f
t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f m e t h o d s
f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n
. "
1 4
Di a g n o s i n g Pr e i n s t r u c t i o n a l B e h a v i o r
O n c e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r b e h a v i o r h a v e b e e n a n a -
l y z e d , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r t u r n s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r -
i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r w h o i s t o a t t a i n t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . Th i s b r i n g s u p
t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n d i a g n o s i n g t h e p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r
o r t h e e n t e r i n g r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e l e a r n e r . F o r m e a s u r e m e n t p s y c h o l -
o g i s t s , t h i s h a s b e e n a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n . F o r p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n t e r e s t e d
i n l e a r n i n g , p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n r e l e -
g a t e d , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , t o e r r o r v a r i a n c e i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n .
It i s i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s , h o w e v e r , t h a t a p s y c h o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g
r e l e v a n t t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e c a n n o t c o n s i d e r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -
e n c e s a s e r r o r v a r i a n c e . C l a s s r o o m a n d l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s a r e c o n -
s t a n t r e m i n d e r s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s o n e o f t h e m o s t i m -
i 1 . B
. F
. Ski n n e r , " Re f l e c t i o n s o n a De c a d e o f Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e s , " i n
Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , 1 1 : Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p . c i t .
1 2 . Ma r kl e , o p . c i t .
1 3 . Ga g n e , o p . c i t .
1 4 . Me r e d i t h P. C r a w f o r d , " C o n c e p t s o f Tr a i n i n g , " i n Ps y c h o l o g i c a l Pr i n -
c i p l e s i n Sy s t e m De v e l o p m e n t . Ed i t e d b y Ro b e r t M. Ga g n e . Ne w Yo r k : Ho l t ,
Ri n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 2 .
2 2 4

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


p o r t a n t b u t l e a s t a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e s o f b o t h l e a r n i n g t h e o r y a n d
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t e a c h i n g .
1 5
In r e s e a r c h o n p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n , o n e i s u n i f o r m l y i m -
p r e s s e d w i t h t h e e x t e n t o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g r a t e s . 1 6
Ra t e o f l e a r n i n g , h o w e v e r , i s o n l y o n e r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n o f i n d i -
v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s
. It i s t h e d i m e n s i o n w h i c h p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n
h a s e m p h a s i z e d , a n d i t i s p r o b a b l y t h e e a s i e s t o n e t o a c c o m m o d a t e
( e v e n t h o u g h i t s a d e q u a t e r e c o g n i t i o n c e r t a i n l y c a n u p s e t t h e o r -
g a n i z a t i o n o f a s c h o o l ) . Th e r e a r e o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l
d i f f e r e n c e s o f e q u a l o r g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t h e
c o m p o n e n t a n d c o n t e n t r e p e r t o i r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t , i . e . , a p t i t u d e p a t -
t e r n , s ki l l l e v e l , e t c e t e r a . At l e a s t f o u r c l a s s e s o f p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
v a r i a b l e s a r e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e c o u r s e o f a c h i e v e m e n t : 1 7 ( a ) t h e
e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a l r e a d y h a s a c q u i r e d t h e r e s p o n s e s
s o u g h t , e . g . , a p p r o p r i a t e m o t o r s ki l l s ; ( b ) t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e
i n d i v i d u a l h a s a c q u i r e d t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r l e a r n i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s
t o b e a c q u i r e d , e . g . , kn o w i n g h o w t o a d d b e f o r e l e a r n i n g t o m u l t i -
p l y ; ( c ) t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s a c q u i r e d t h e l e a r n i n g -
s e t v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a n t e c e d e n t l e a r n i n g s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r
i n t e r f e r e w i t h n e w l e a r n i n g u n d e r c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ,
e . g . , p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a ; a n d ( d ) t h e
i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o m a ke t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o f i t
f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n , e . g . , a p t i t u d e i n s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n .
In t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , j u s t a s o b j e c t i v e s d e f i n e t h e t a r g e t
b e h a v i o r s w h i c h a r e a c c e p t e d a s g i v e n s t o b e a t t a i n e d , s o m u s t p r e -
i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r b e a c c e p t e d a s a g i v e n , i f w e d o n o t o r c a n n o t
r i g o r o u s l y c o n t r o l o r d e l i m i t s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r u p t o t h e p o i n t o f
e n t r y i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n . Th e a r r a y o f c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e -
1 5 . V i d e
Pa t r i c kSu p p e s , " Mo d e r n Le a r n i n g Th e o r y a n d t h e El e m e n t a r y -
Sc h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , "
Am e r i c a n Ed u c a t i o n a l Re s e a r c h J o u r n a l , I ( Ma r c h , 1 9 6 4 ) ,
7 9 - 9 3 -
0
. Ro b e r t Gl a s e r , J a m e s H. Re y n o l d s , a n d Ma r g a r e t G
. F u l l i c k, Pr o -
g r a m m e d In s t r u c t i o n i n t h e In t a c t C l a s s r o o m . Pi t t s b u r g h
: Le a r n i n g Re s e a r c h
a n d De v e l o p m e n t C e n t e r o f t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f Pi t t s b u r g h , 1 9 6 3
. ( Re p o r t i s s u e d
u n d e r C o o p e r a t i v e Re s e a r c h Pr o j e c t No
. 1 3 4 3 . )
1 7 . Ro b e r t M. W
. Tr a v e r s , Es s e n t i a l s o f Le a r n i n g : An O v e r v i e w f o r St u -
d e n t s o f Ed u c a t i o n . Ne w Yo r k
: Ma c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 6 3 .
GLASER

2 2 5
i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e a s u r e m e n t a n d d i a g n o s e s o f a p t i t u d e , r e a d i n e s s , a n d
a c h i e v e m e n t m u s t b e s y s t e m a t i z e d f o r t h e o r e t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d
f o r u s e i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n
. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l o n g - t e r m p r e d i c -
t i o n b y a p t i t u d e t e s t s o f a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a t t h e e n d o f a c o u r s e
m i g h t b e s u p p l e m e n t e d b y m e a s u r e s o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h p r e d i c t
w h e t h e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n a c h i e v e t h e n e x t i m m e d i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
s t e p . " In c e r t a i n o f t h e n e w c u r r i c u l a , t h e r e a r e d a t a t o s u g g e s t t h a t
a p t i t u d e m e a s u r e s c o r r e l a t e m u c h l e s s w i t h e n d - o f - c o u r s e a c h i e v e -
m e n t t h a n t h e y d o w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t i n e a r l y u n i t s
. " 1 8
W h i l e m o s t o f t h e a v a i l a b l e p r o d u c t s i n p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n
s h o w a n a p p a l l i n g l a c ko f r e c o g n i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n t e r i n g b e -
h a v i o r , r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n s o f p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a r e v e r y m u c h
c o n c e r n e d w i t h i t
. Ma r kl e , 1 9 i n c o m m e n t i n g o n En g l i s h t e a c h i n g ,
p o i n t s o u t t h a t s t u d e n t v a r i a b i l i t y r a n g e s f r o m n o i n f o r m a t i o n t o
m i s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e p r o -
g r a m s i n En g l i s h m a ke n o p r o v i s i o n f o r d i a g n o s i n g a n d t h e n u s i n g
t h i s d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n
. Sh e s a y s , " Th e En g l i s h i n s t r u c t o r . . .
m u s t b e g i n a t m a n y p o i n t s a n d g o a t m a n y p a c e s w h i l e c o v e r i n g a
m u l t i t u d e o f p o i n t s . . . . Th e t a s ki s i m p o s s i b l e . . . . Th e r e c a n b e
l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s a n e c e s s i t y , n o t a l u x -
u r y , i n En g l i s h c l a s s . " C a r r o l l , 2 0
d i s c u s s i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h -
i n g o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n c h i l d r e n , s a y s ,
" Te a c h e r s m u s t
p o n d e r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y c a n a t t e m p t t o a l t e r a s y s t e m o f
h a b i t s w h i c h a r e n o t o n l y h i g h l y p r a c t i c e d , b u t w h i c h a l s o p r o b a b l y
s e r v e a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e i n t h e c h i l d ' s a d j u s t m e n t t o h i s n o n - s c h o o l
e n v i r o n m e n t . "
If t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e
t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a n e n t e r i n g b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e w h i c h t h e
i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s d e s i g n e d t o g u i d e a n d m o d i f y , t h e n r e s e a r c h
b e c o m e s r e o r i e n t e d i n a n u m b e r o f a r e a s . In t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e a d i -
n e s s , f o r e x a m p l e , m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e f a c t t h a t r e a d i n e s s f a c t o r s
1 8 . Le e J
. C r o n b a c h , " C o u r s e Im p r o v e m e n t t h r o u g h Ev a l u a t i o n , "
Te a c h e r s
C o l l e g e Re c o r d , LX IV ( Ma y , 1 9 6 3 ) , 6 7 5 .
1 9 . Ma r kl e , o p . c i t .
2 0 . J o h n B
. C a r r o l l , " La n g u a g e De v e l o p m e n t i n C h i l d r e n , " i n Ps y c h o l i n g u i s -
t i c s : A B o o ko f Re a d i n g s . Ed i t e d b y S
. Sa p o r t a . Ne w Yo r k : Ho l t , Ri n e h a r t &
W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 3 .
2 2 6

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


d i f f e r w i t h a g e a n d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s m u s t b e s u p p l e m e n t e d b y a n a l -
y s e s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d t h e c o n -
t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s t o l e a r n i n g .
Th e a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l n o r m s r e q u i r e s r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
Pr e v a i l i n g n o r m s n e c e s s a r i l y a s s u m e p r e v a i l i n g l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s
;
h o w e v e r , n e w l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s c a n c h a n g e t h e n o r m s . O n e
a p p r o a c h f o r r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n i s t o a d j u s t a
l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t o p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d
t h e n t o s t u d y m a t u r a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s .
Re s e a r c h o n a p t i t u d e s m i g h t b e r e o r i e n t e d . If d e s i g n i n g i n s t r u c -
t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r e a r l y a g e s i s c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e
t h a t t h e " c u r r i c u l u m " w i l l n o t b e f o r m a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r s l i ke m a t h -
e m a t i c s o r s p e l l i n g b u t , r a t h e r , i n s t r u c t i o n i n b e h a v i o r s w h i c h l o o k
m o r e l i ke a p t i t u d e s . Th e g e n e r a l ki n d o f e x p e r i m e n t t h a t m i g h t b e
c o n s i d e r e d i s t o t r e a t a p t i t u d e s a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n a
s e q u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s . Ski l f u l t e a c h i n g o f t h e b e h a v i o r s
t h a t c o m p r i s e a p t i t u d e s h o u l d t h e n e n h a n c e s u b s e q u e n t l e a r n i n g
a c h i e v e m e n t .
W i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e p e r t o i r e s , t h e i m p o r t a n t p r o b -
l e m i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s
a n d l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d , m o r e p r a c t i c a l l y , t o d e v e l o p t e c h n i q u e s
f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
W o r ka l o n g t h e s e l i n e s p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p e r t i n e n t
e n t e r i n g b e h a v i o r c a n b e a c o m p l e x a n d s u b t l e t a s k
. En t e r i n g b e -
h a v i o r t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e n e x t l e a r n i n g s t e p i s r e l a t e d t o s u c h d i f f i c u l t
p r o b l e m s a s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t r a n s f e r h i e r a r c h i e s o f l e a r n i n g .
F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e -
i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , w h e n o n e s t u d e n t l e a r n s a n d a n o t h e r s t u d e n t
d o e s n o t , m a y b e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o m p l i s h . Id e n t i f i c a t i o n
i n n o n s p e c i f i c t e r m s , s u c h a s " i n a d e q u a t e a p t i t u d e l e v e l " o r " p o o r
m o t i v a t i o n , " d o e s n o t p r o v i d e t h e b e h a v i o r a l d e t a i l r e q u i r e d f o r t h e
d e s i g n o f a n a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g s e q u e n c e .
C a r r y i n g O u t t h e In s t r u c t i o n a l Pr o c e s s
' O n c e t h e c o n t e n t a n d c o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e s i n v o l v e d i n t e r m i -
n a l b e h a v i o r o b j e c t i v e s a n d s u b o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e s c r i b e d , a n d o n c e
t h e e n t e r i n g b e h a v i o r o f t h e s t u d e n t a l s o i s d e s c r i b e d , a p r e c i s e i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s c a n b e i m p l e m e n t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a s t u d e n t
GLASER

2 2 7
i s l e a r n i n g t o s o u n d o u t p h o n e m e s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o d i s p l a y e d
g r a p h e m e s , a n d h e d o e s n o t h a v e t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f p h o n e m e s
i n h i s r e p e r t o i r e , h e m u s t f i r s t b e t a u g h t t h i s b e h a v i o r . If i t a l r e a d y
h a s b e e n l e a r n e d , t h e n i n s t r u c t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s o n b r i n g i n g t h e p r o -
n u n c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h e m e s .
In s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l e a r n i n g , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s c a n b e d e f i n e d
a s a w a y o f a r r a n g i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s e n v i r o n m e n t t o e x p e d i t e l e a r n -
i n g s w h i c h c o m p r i s e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e .
At l e a s t t h r e e ki n d s o f p r o c e s s e s s e e m t o b e i n v o l v e d : ( a ) s e t t i n g
u p n e w f o r m s o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r , s u c h a s n e w s p e a ki n g p a t t e r n s
o r a n e w s ki l l l i ke h a n d w r i t i n g ; ( b ) s e t t i n g u p n e w ki n d s o f s t i m u l u s
c o n t r o l , f o r e x a m p l e , l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a f t e r h a v i n g l e a r n e d t o s p e a k,
s o t h a t t h e a l r e a d y - l e a r n e d r e s p o n s e o f m a ki n g s p e e c h s o u n d s i s a t -
t a c h e d t o p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l s y m b o l s ; a n d ( c ) m a i n t a i n i n g t h e b e h a v -
i o r o f t h e s t u d e n t . Th i s t h i r d c a t e g o r y i s l e s s i n v o l v e d w i t h b e h a v i o r
c h a n g e a n d m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s l i ke l i h o o d
t o b e h a v e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , o f t e n f a l l s u n d e r t h e l a b e l o f m o t i v a t i o n .
B r i e f e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e s e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s f o l l o w s .
Se t t i n g u p n e w f o r m s o f b e h a v i o r . - A v e r y e v i d e n t c h a r a c t e r -
i s t i c o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h l e a d s t o s u b j e c t - m a t t e r m a s t e r y i s t h e i n c r e a s -
i n g p r e c i s i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e s p o n s e s . In l e a r n i n g c o m p l e x b e -
h a v i o r , t h e s t u d e n t ' s i n i t i a l p e r f o r m a n c e i s v a r i a b l e a n d q u i t e c r u d e ,
r a r e l y m e e t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e . Ef f e c t i v e
i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e t o l e r a t e s t h e s t u d e n t ' s i n i t i a l l y c r u d e r e -
s p o n s e s a n d g r a d u a l l y t a ke s h i m t o w a r d m a s t e r y . Th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p r o c e s s , t h e n , m u s t i n v o l v e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s u c c e s s i v e l y m o r e
r i g o r o u s c r i t e r i a i n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f l e a r n e r p e r f o r m a n c e . In c r e a s -
i n g c o m p e t e n c e i n n e w l e a r n i n g i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y g r a d u a l l y c o n -
t r a c t i n g t h e p e r m i s s i b l e m a r g i n o f e r r o r
. F o r e x a m p l e , i f p r e c i s e
t i m i n g a n d t e m p o w e r e b e i n g t a u g h t t o a s t u d e n t o f m u s i c , i t
w o u l d b e u n r e a l i s t i c t o r e w a r d t h e s t u d e n t o n l y o n t h o s e r a r e
o c c a s i o n s w h e n h e b r i e f l y m a i n t a i n e d a n a c c u r a t e r e s p o n s e . Si n c e
t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t w i l l b e q u i t e v a r i a b l e ,
s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d b e i n i t i a l l y g r o s s , a n d p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a s h o u l d
b e c h a n g e d a t a r a t e w h i c h i n s u r e s c o n t i n u i n g p r o g r e s s t o w a r d m a s -
t e r y . Ea c h s u c c e s s i v e r a n g e o f a c c e p t a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u l d i n -
c l u d e a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e r a n g e o f v a r i a t i o n s a l r e a d y i n t h e s t u -
d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s o t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r
2 2 8

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f s u c c e s s . O v e r t h e s e q u e n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e
r a n g e o f o b s e r v e d p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l a l i g n i t s e l f w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r
r a n g e o f a c c e p t a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e d e f i n e d a s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e -
t e n c e
. In t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e , a s u d d e n o r i n a p -
p r o p r i a t e c o n s t r i c t i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a i s o n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l
c h a n g e w h i c h c a n l e a d t o f r u s t r a t i o n o r l o s s o f i n t e r e s t .
Se t t i n g u p n e w ki n d s o f s t i m u l u s c o n t r o l . - C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e
p r o c e s s j u s t d e s c r i b e d , a n e q u a l l y i f n o t m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o c e s s i n
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l e a r n i n g i s t h e s t i m u l u s c o n t r o l o f p e r f o r m a n c e .
Le a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , f o r e x a m p l e , h a s s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r -
t a n c e o f t h e t r a n s f e r f r o m a n i n i t i a l r e p e r t o i r e t o a t a r g e t r e p e r t o i r e .
Th e r e i s o f t e n t h e d i f f i c u l t y , s a y , i n t e a c h i n g t r a n s l a t i o n , o f t r a n s -
f e r r i n g f r o m o n e s t i m u l u s c l a s s t o a n o t h e r . Th e o r a l r e s p o n s e
" f l o w e r " h a s t o b e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e En g l i s h w o r d " f l o w e r " t o
t h e Ge r m a n w o r d " d i e B l u m e . " Th e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s
e n t e r i n g r e p e r t o i r e i s t h e p e r t i n e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k, a n d t h i s i n -
v o l v e s t e a c h i n g n e w f o r m s o f r e s p o n s e a n d t r a n s f e r r i n g s t i m u l u s
c o n t r o l t o n e w s u b j e c t m a t t e r . As a n o t h e r s i m p l i f i e d e x a m p l e o f
t h e t r a n s f e r o f s t i m u l u s c o n t r o l , c o n s i d e r a c h i l d l e a r n i n g c o l o r
n a m e s . Th e c h i l d c a n s a y t h e w o r d s " r e d " a n d " b l u e " ; t h e s e r e -
s p o n s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o u s e . Th e t e a c h e r m u s t n o w
b r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o p e r c o l o r s t i m u l i ,
r e d a n d b l u e , s o t h a t c o l o r s c a n b e c a l l e d b y t h e i r n a m e s . Th e t r a n s -
f e r o f s t i m u l u s c o n t r o l i s a m a j o r p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g s t u -
d e n t s t o m a ke r e s p o n s e s t o m o r e p r e c i s e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d i s c r i m i n a -
t i o n s a n d i n t e a c h i n g t h e m t o u s e p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d s ki l l s i n r e s p o n s e
t o n e w s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l 2
1
Ma i n t a i n i n g b e h a v i o r . - Th e p r o c e s s e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d , s e t t i n g u p
n e w f o r m s o f r e s p o n s e a n d n e w ki n d s o f s t i m u l u s c o n t r o l , a s s u m e
o n l y t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r o f a n e x p e r t i n a g i v e n s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s c h a r -
a c t e r i z e d b y t h e f a c i l i t y w i t h w h i c h t h i s b e h a v i o r i s c a l l e d o u t b y
p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e x t s
. Af u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a n
e x p e r t ' s b e h a v i o r i s t h a t i t i s a p p a r e n t l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . Th e e x p e r t
m a y c o n t i n u e t o r e s p o n d f o r r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e w i t h o u t
2 1 . V i d e J u l i a n I
. Ta b e r , Ro b e r t Gl a s e r , a n d Ha l m u t h H . Sc h a e f e r , Le a r n -
i n g a n d Pr o g r a m e d In s t r u c t i o n ,
c h a p . i i i . Re a d i n g , Ma s s a c h u s e t t s : Ad d i s o n -
W e s l e y Pu b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 5 .
GLASER

2 2 9
a p p a r e n t e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t a n d w i t h o u t s u p p o r t f r o m a i d s a n d r e f -
e r e n c e s t h a t a r e n e e d e d b y t h e n o v i c e . No t o n l y i s t h e e x p e r t ' s
b e h a v i o r g u i d e d o r c o n t r o l i e d b y t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r b u t , w i t h
i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t e n c e i n b e h a v i o r , i t c a n b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s s e l f -
s u s t a i n i n g a n d h i g h l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p p o r t s .
Re s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g o f s u c h
s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g s e q u e n c e s i s a n i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m - a p r o b l e m t h a t
i s r e l a t e d t o s u c h b e h a v i o r - m a i n t a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s a s t h o s e w h i c h
c o m e u n d e r t h e l a b e l s o f m o t i v a t i o n a n d c u r i o s i t y .
SO MEC O NDITIO NSINF LUENC INGTHEINSTRUC TIO NALPRO C ESS
If i t c a n b e a s s u m e d t h a t l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s t h e ki n d s o f p r o c e s s e s
j u s t d e s c r i b e d , a t t e n t i o n c a n b e t u r n e d t o s o m e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h
i n f l u e n c e t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . Th e c o n d i t i o n s t o b e d e s c r i b e d a r e t h o s e
s u g g e s t e d b y t h e w o r ko f e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a n d b y p r a c -
t i c a l a t t e m p t s a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m i n g . In d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e c o n -
d i t i o n s , i t i s u s e f u l t o i n t r o d u c e a n o t h e r t e r m , n a m e l y " t r a n s i t i o n a l
b e h a v i o r . " If a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o d i f y -
i n g s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i n o r d e r t o g e t f r o m e n t e r i n g b e h a v i o r t o
s p e c i f i e d t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r , t h e n t r a n s i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s d e f i n e d a s
t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e s t u d e n t i n t h e c o u r s e o f a t t a i n -
i n g c o m p e t e n c e i n t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r . Ef f i c i e n t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s
f o r t r a n s i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r m a y b e r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e e v e n -
t u a l c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e o c c u r s .
As i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s
w h i c h c a n b e s u b j e c t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e
c o n s i d e r e d : s e q u e n c i n g , s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e f a c t o r s , p r a c t i c e , a n d
r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s .
Se q u e n c i n g . - Th e s e q u e n c i n g o f t r a n s i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s a c o n -
d i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . Th e i d e a o f
g r a d u a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s a r e l a t e d n o t i o n .
Ho w e v e r , m o r e s u b t l e a n a l y s e s a r e r e q u i r e d . Sc h o l a r s f r e q u e n t l y
p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t i s n o t o r g a n i z e d a s s e q u e n t i a l l y a s , s a y ,
m a t h e m a t i c s , a n d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n c a n n o t b e s o c a r e f u l l y s e q u e n c e d .
F u r t h e r , t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r r e q u i r e s t h a t m a n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e
h a n d l e d a t o n e t i m e s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t c a n p e r f o r m i n a n i n t e g r a t e d
f a s h i o n . Ho w e v e r , w h e n o n e u n d e r t a ke s t o l a y o u t d e t a i l s i n i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s a n d t o e s t a b l i s h p a r t i a l a t t a i n m e n t g o a l s , t h e
2 3 0

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


" a l l t h i n g s a t o n c e " i d e a 2 2
s e e m s t o f a l l
. De c i s i o n s n e e d t o b e m a d e ,
o n s o m e b a s i s , a b o u t w h a t i s t o b e l e a r n e d b e f o r e w h a t
. Th e s e -
q u e n c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t c u t s a c r o s s m a n y a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t i n p s y c h o -
l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , c e r t a i n l y t h e a r e a o f t r a n s f e r - p a r t i c u l a r l y t r a n s f e r
f r o m t h e l e a r n i n g o f o n e s u b o b j e c t i v e t o t h e e n t e r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s
f o r l e a r n i n g t h e n e x t s u b o b j e c t i v e . As Su p p e s
2 3 h a s p o i n t e d o u t ,
t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s u b c o n c e p t s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
n a t u r e o f t r a n s f e r i s a c e n t r a l p r o b l e m i n l e a r n i n g t h e o r y r e l a t e d t o
i n s t r u c t i o n .
Se q u e n c i n g c u t s a c r o s s t h e n o t i o n o f a g r a d u a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f
d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g h i e r a r c h i e s
. An a n a l y s i s o f w h a t i s m e a n t b y
" d i f f i c u l t y " a n d o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e " l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y "
c a n i n v o l v e a n a m a z i n g n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f a c t o r s
. Si l b e r -
m a n ' s 2 4
a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s e q u e n c i n g i n l e a r n i n g
t o r e a d i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y i n v o l v e d
. Th e v a r i a b l e s h e l i s t s
i n c l u d e w o r d f r e q u e n c y , l e t t e r
f r e q u e n c y , s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ,
m e a n i n g f u l n e s s , r e d u n d a n t p a t t e r n s , p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y ,
w o r d a n d
s e n t e n c e l e n g t h , w o r d f a m i l i a r i t y , s t i m u l u s s i m i l a r i t y , a n d g r a p h e m e -
p h o n e m e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s
.
Se q u e n c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s p o i n t u p a t l e a s t t h r e e g e n e r a l p r o b -
l e m s i n d e s i g n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s
: ( a ) r e g u l a r i t y o f s t r u c -
t u r e , ( b ) r e s p o n s e a v a i l a b i l i t y , a n d ( c ) s t i m u l u s s i m i l a r i t y a n d d i s -
s i m i l a r i t y
. Re g u l a r i t y o f s t r u c t u r e r e f e r s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o n c e p t
d e v e l o p m e n t
. Th e n e g l e c t o f t h i s a r e a i s v e r y f o r c e f u l l y b r o u g h t
o u t w h e n o n e e x a m i n e s m o s t p r e s e n t - d a y m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g r e a d -
i n g
. Th e r e s e e m s t o b e l i t t l e r e g u l a r i t y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f , s a y ,
p h o n e m i c c o n c e p t s , o r m o r p h e m i c r e g u l a r i t i e s a s t h e f o r m e r
a r e
t a u g h t i n t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m b y B u c h a n a n
2 a
o r t h e l a t t e r i n t h e
w o r d a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m b y Ma r kl e . 2 6
2 2 . Ma r kl e , o p . c i t .
2 3 . Su p p e s ,
o p . c i t
.
2 4 . Ha r r y F . Si l b e r m a n , " Re a d i n g a n d Re l a t e d V e r b a l Le a r n i n g , " i n
Te a c h -
i n g Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , 1 1
: Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p . c i t .
2 5 . C y n t h i a D. B u c h a n a n , Pr o g r a m m e d Re a d i n g . Ne w Yo r k
: Mc Gr a w - Hi l l
B o o kC o . ,
1 9 6
3 -
2 6 . Su s a n M. Ma r kl e , W o r d s : APr o g r a m e d C o u r s e i n V o c a b u l a r y De v e l -
o p m e n t . C h i c a g o : Sc i e n c e Re s e a r c h As s o c i a t e s ,
1 6 z .
GLASER

2 3 1
Re s p o n s e a v a i l a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s t o
b e l e a r n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s h o u l d b e a v a i l -
a b l e a t t h e t i m e t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e t o b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r c o m e
u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f r e l e v a n t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s t i m u l i
. Th i s i s a n a r e a
i n v e s t i g a t e d i n s t u d i e s o f v e r b a l l e a r n i n g ; f o r e x a m p l e , Un d e r w o o d
a n d Sc h u l z 2 7 c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p r o n o u n c e a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n v e r b a l
u n i t s w a s a p r e d i c t o r o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e u n i t s w e r e l e a r n e d
i n e x p e r i m e n t s o n w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n
. Re s p o n s e a v a i l a b i l i t y w o u l d
s e e m t o b e n e g l e c t e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n
. In t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g ,
f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e i s o f t e n l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n l a n g u a g e a n d s y n t a c -
t i c p a t t e r n s b e t w e e n t h e o r a l l a n g u a g e o f c h i l d r e n a n d t h e m a t e r i a l
b y w h i c h t h e y l e a r n t o r e a d . It h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c l o s e r
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o c a n p r o f i t f r o m t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n i n -
v o l v e d i n r e s p o n s e a v a i l a b i l i t y
. In e v e r y d a y s c h o o l p r a c t i c e , t h e
e x p e r i e n c e c h a r t s b y t e a c h e r s t a ke a c c o u n t o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f
a l r e a d y s t r o n g r e s p o n s e s
. In Ga g n e ' s h i e r a r c h i c a l c h a r t s o n s u b -
o b j e c t i v e s , 2 8 a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s r e s p o n s e a v a i l a b i l i t y , w h i c h
f a c i l i t a t e s t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e n e x t s u b o b j e c t i v e
.
St i m u l u s s i m i l a r i t y a n d d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e s e q u e n c i n g o f i n s t r u c -
t i o n r e l a t e s t o s u c h p r o c e d u r e s a s i n t r o d u c i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n -
t e n t a c c o r d i n g t o i n c r e a s i n g s i m i l a r i t y o f f o r m o r m e a n i n g
. Si m p l e
d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n i t i a l l y a n d , a s t h e s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s
b e c o m e l e a r n e d , m o r e d i f f i c u l t o n e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d
. In l e a r n i n g
g r a p h e m e - p h o n e m e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , s o m e p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p r o c e d u r e s 2 9 t a ke a c c o u n t o f t h i s b y i n t r o d u c i n g n o t a l l o f t h e
l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t i n e a r l y r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , b u t o n l y t h e
m a x i m a l l y d i s c r i m i n a b l e l e t t e r s . Mo r e d i f f i c u l t l e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s
a r e r e s e r v e d u n t i l a s i z a b l e r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y h a s b e e n b u i l t u p
w i t h t h e i n i t i a l l y l e a r n e d l e t t e r s .
St i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e f a e t o r s
. - In a d d i t i o n t o s e q u e n c i n g c o n -
d i t i o n s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y i n i n s t r u c t i o n t o d e c i d e u p o n t h e w a y s i n
2 7 . B e n t o n J . Un d e r w o o d a n d Ru d o l p h W
. Sc h u l z , Me a n i n g f u l n e s s a n d
V e r b a l Le a r n i n g . Ne w Yo r k : J
. B . Li p p i n c o t t C o . , i 9 6 o .
2 8
. Ro b e r t M
. Ga g n b , " Th e Ac q u i s i t i o n o f K n o w l e d g e , " Ps y c h o l o g i c a l Re - ,
v i e w , LX IX ( J u l y , 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 5 5 - 6 5 -
2 9 . B u c h a n a n , o p . c i t .
2 3 2

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t c a n p e r f o r m a n d t o d e t e r m i n e h o w s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
m a t e r i a l w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d t o h i m . Th i s p o i n t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n -
t i o n e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e n t
. Th e
s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e a s p e c t s o f a s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d o m a i n d e t e r m i n e
t h e d i m e n s i o n s a l o n g w h i c h a s t u d e n t c a n i n t e r a c t w i t h i t . In p r e s e n t -
d a y i n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s c a r r y s o m u c h o f t h e b u r d e n
o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , e d u c a t o r s h a v e s c a r c e l y b e g u n t o i n -
v e s t i g a t e n e w p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
s t u d e n t a n d h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e d i c t a t e d b y t h e
s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s u b j e c t m a t t e r . It s e e m s
p o s s i b l e t o b e a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e l e a r n e r w i t h w a y s o f s e e i n g a n d
m a n i p u l a t i n g h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t e x t e n d a n d e n r i c h h i s c o n t a c t
w i t h i t a n d t o f o r m a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
d i m e n s i o n s n e e d n o t b e s o d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d a s t h e y m a y b e w h e n
f o r c e d i n t o a p r i m a r i l y p a p e r - a n d - p r i n t l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . En g i -
n e e r i n g a n d e n g i n e e r i n g p s y c h o l o g y h a v e w o r ke d o n t h e e x p e r i -
m e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s p l a y a n d r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y w h i c h
a h u m a n c a n c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . Si m i l a r c o n c e r n s
m u s t b e e x p r e s s e d i n e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n
s t u d e n t a n d s u b j e c t m a t t e r . W e n e e d t o e x a m i n e t h e d i s p l a y a n d
r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y w h i c h a s t u d e n t c a n i n t e r a c t w i t h a
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d i s c i p l i n e 3 0 An e x a m p l e o f t h i s e x c i t i n g t r e n d i s t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t o f g r a p h i c a l i n p u t a n d o u t p u t f a c i l i t i e s i n a u t o m a t e d
i n s t r u c t i o n a l s y s t e m s w h i c h c a n r e m o v e t h e s t u d e n t f r o m t h e r e s t r i c -
t i o n s o f ke y b o a r d s a n d o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l i n p u t s . In c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d
i n s t r u c t i o n , a m a j o r i n n o v a t i o n s e e m s t o b e r e q u i r e d i n t h e f o r m o f
i n p u t a n d o u t p u t c o n s o l e s w h i c h a r e p o s s i b l e w i t h e x i s t i n g t e c h n o l -
o g y .
Pr a c t i c e . - Ma n y o f t h e e a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s i n p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c -
t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e n u m b e r o f s t e p s i n a p r o g r a m
s o t h a t p r o g r a m s w i t h d i f f e r e n t n u m b e r s o f f r a m e s , b u t t e a c h i n g t h e
s a m e t h i n g s , w e r e c o m p a r e d . Th e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m s e v e r a l s t u d -
i e s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s a r e a m b i g u o u s . 3 1 Ho w e v e r , t h e y s e r v e t o m a ke
3 0
. Ro b e r t Gl a s e r , W i l l i a m W . Ra m a g e , a n d J o s e p h I. Li p s o n , Th e In t e r f a c e
b e t w e e n St u d e n t a n d Su b j e c t Ma t t e r . Pi t t s b u r g h : Le a r n i n g Re s e a r c h a n d De -
v e l o p m e n t C e n t e r , Un i v e r s i t y o f Pi t t s b u r g h , 1 9 6 4 .
3 1 . J a m e s G. Ho l l a n d , " Re s e a r c h o n Pr o g r a m i n g V a r i a b l e s , " i n
Te a c h i n g
Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , 1 1
: Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p . c i t .
GLASER

2 3 3
o n e a w a r e o f h o w l i t t l e i s kn o w n t h a t c a n b e a p p l i e d a b o u t t h e
v a r i a b l e o f p r a c t i c e , w h i c h i s a n o l d a n d r e s p e c t a b l e t o p i c i n l e a r n i n g .
In d e s i g n i n g p r o g r a m s , t h e a m o u n t o f p r a c t i c e a n d r e v i e w e m p l o y e d
n e e d s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d e m p i r i c a l l y a n d c e r t a i n l y i s a f f e c t e d b y i n d i -
v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Ap i l o t s t u d y b y Ha w ke r
8 2
s h o w s t h a t , a f t e r a
p r o g r a m i s c o m p l e t e d , a t l e a s t o n e - f i f t h o f t h e f r a m e s c a n b e r e -
m o v e d w i t h o u t c h a n g e i n t h e a v e r a g e p e r f o r m a n c e a t t a i n e d b y a
g r o u p .
As t u d y c o m p l e t e d b y Re y n o l d s a n d Gl a s e r ,
8 S i n w h i c h e x p e r i -
m e n t a l s e q u e n c e s i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g e n e r a l s c i e n c e w e r e i m -
b e d d e d i n a l a r g e r g e n e r a l s c i e n c e p r o g r a m , i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a m o u n t
o f r e p e t i t i o n o f s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f t e c h n i c a l
t e r m s a n d a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s p a c i n g o f r e v i e w s e q u e n c e s
. Th e
r e s u l t s , m e a s u r e d f o r i m m e d i a t e l e a r n i n g a n d r e t e n t i o n , s h o w e d t h a t
v a r i a t i o n s i n r e p e t i t i o n h a d o n l y t r a n s i t o r y e f f e c t s b u t t h a t s p a c e d
r e v i e w i n t h e c o u r s e o f a p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s i g n i f i -
c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e d r e t e n t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w e d m a t e r i a l .
Si m i l a r r e s u l t s
i n a l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e
l e a r n i n g w i t h
m a s s e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d r e p e t i t i o n s o f i t e m s h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d b y
Gr e e n o 3 4
Th e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o f t e n - c r i t i c i z e d m o n o t o n y
o f r e p e t i t i o n f o u n d i n m a n y e a r l y p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s
m a y , i n f a c t , b e o f l i t t l e v a l u e i n e n h a n c i n g r e t e n t i o n a n d m a y p r o f i t -
a b l y b e r e p l a c e d b y a s e r i e s o f s h o r t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s i n s e v -
e r a l r e l a t e d t o p i c s , e a c h i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h r e v i e w s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g
m a t e r i a l
. Th e g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n o f p r a c -
t i c e , r e v i e w , a n d r e t e n t i o n w i t h
m e a n i n g f u l a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r
n e e d s t o r e c e i v e m o r e h e l p f r o m e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y a n d r e -
q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n b o t h l a b o r a t o r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l
c o n t e x t s .
Re s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s - e r r o r s a n d
c o r r e c t i o n . - Th e f a c t i s t h a t
3 2 .
Pe r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 . .
3 3 .
J a m e s H. Re y n o l d s a n d Ro b e r t Gl a s e r , " Ef f e c t s o f Re p e t i t i o n a n d Sp a c e d
Re v i e w u p o n Re t e n t i o n o f a C o m p l e x Le a r n i n g Ta s k, " J o u r n a l o
f Ed u c a t i o n a l
Ps y c h o l o g y ,
LV ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 4 ) ,
2 9 7 - 3 0 8 -
3 4 -
J a m e s G
. Gr e e n o , " Pa i r e d - As s o c i a t e Le a r n i n g w i t h Ma s s e d a n d Di s -
t r i b u t e d Re p e t i t i o n s o f It e m s , "
J o u r n a l o f Ex p e r i m e n t a l Ps y c h o l o g y ,
LX V II
( Ma r c h , 1 9 6 4 ) , 2 8 6 - 9 5
.
2 3 4
DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N
p r a c t i c e , a s s u c h , d o e s n o t c h a n g e b e h a v i o r b u t p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s
w h i c h s u p p l y c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i o n s s e r v e t o m o d i f y
h i s b e h a v i o r . Th e s e r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e o f
l e a r n i n g
. B e c a u s e t h e r e a r e s o m a n y t h i n g s t h a t a r e n o t kn o w n , t h e
s t u d y o f t h e c o n t i n g e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n b e h a v i o r a n d c o n s e -
q u e n t e v e n t s i s a ke y a r e a f o r b o t h b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h i n
l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t t o i n s t r u c t i o n . Al t h o u g h m a n y s t u d i e s
h a v e s h o w n t h e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f v a r i o u s r e i n f o r c i n g o p e r a -
t i o n s , 8 5
Sw e t s a n d h i s c o - w o r ke r s , Ss t u d y i n g a t a s ko f c a t e g o r i z i n g
t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i f f e r e n t s o u n d s , c o n c l u d e t h a t " f a i r l y e x t e n -
s i v e f e e d b a c km a y b e d e t r i m e n t a l
. . . a n d p r o v i d e n o s u p p o r t f o r
t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e f f i c i e n c y o f l e a r n i n g v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e
p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t
. " Su c h n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s m a y b e a t -
t r i b u t e d t o m a n y s o u r c e s a n d n e e d t o b e a n a l y z e d c a r e f u l l y , p a r -
t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t e r m i n a l c o m p o n e n t
r e p e r t o i r e a n d t h e s e q u e n c i n g b e t w e e n t r a n s i t i o n a l
a n d t e r m i n a l
b e h a v i o r
.
Re s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s f a l l i n t o s e v e r a l c l a s s e s , r e i n f o r c i n g e v e n t s
b e i n g o n e c l a s s , a n d o t h e r s b e i n g e x t i n c t i o n , p u n i s h m e n t , a n d c o r -
r e c t i o n
. It i s kn o w n , a t l e a s t o n a c o m m o n - s e n s e b a s i s , t h a t i n d i -
v i d u a l s l e a r n f r o m m a ki n g e r r o r s , b u t v e r y l i t t l e i s kn o w n a b o u t t h e
p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d a n d h o w t o u s e e r r o r b e h a v i o r e f f i c i e n t l y
. C o r r e c -
t i o n i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o i n s t r u c t i o n b u t h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n n e g l e c t e d
i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s
. C o r r e c t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e c o n t i n g e n c y
w h e r e b y a n i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e i s f o l l o w e d b y a s t i m u l u s
e v e n t
w h i c h s e r v e s t o i n f o r m t h e s t u d e n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o r r e c t r e -
s p o n s e i n s u c h w a y s a s t e l l i n g h i m t h e r i g h t a n s w e r , s h o w i n g h i m
h o w t o g e t t h e r i g h t a n s w e r , m a ki n g h i m p e r f o r m t h e c o r r e c t r e -
s p o n s e , a n d s o f o r t h
. Ho w d o s t u d e n t s l e a r n f r o m t h e i r e r r o r s ?
3 5
. F o r e x a m p l e , F r e d S
. K e l l e r a n d W i l l i a m N. Sc h o e n f e l d ,
Pr i n c i p l e s o f
Ps y c h o l o g y ( Ne w Yo r k
: Ap p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s ,
1 9 5 o ) ;
a n d C . B
. F e r s t e r
a n d B . F . Ski n n e r ,
Sc h e d u l e s o f Re i n f o r c e m e n t ( Ne w Yo r k : Ap p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -
C r o f t s ,
1 9 5 7 ) .
3 6 . J . A. Sw e t s a n d O t h e r s , " Le a r n i n g To Id e n t i f y No n v e r b a l So u n d s
: An
Ap p l i c a t i o n o f a C o m p u t e r a s a Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e , "
J o u r n a l o f t h e Ac o u s t i c a l
So c i e t y o f Am e r i c a , X X X IV ( J u l y , 1 9 6 2 ) , 9 2 8
- 3 5 .
GLASER

2
3 5
So m e i n v e s t i g a t o r s , l i ke K a e s s a n d Ze a m a n , R
7 a f t e r s t u d y i n g l e a r n -
i n g i n m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d
t o t h e s t u d e n t , c o n c l u d e t h a t i n c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s i n c r e a s e
t h e
p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e s t u d e n t w i l l r e p e a t h i s e r r o r
. Su p p e s a n d Gi n s -
b e r g 3 8
r e p o r t t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f o v e r t c o r r e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o
f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n
. Th e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e a p p e a r s t o s u g -
g e s t t h a t t h e r e m a y b e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e f f e c t s o f c o r r e c t i o n b e -
t w e e n a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n a n d a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e
b e h a v i o r b e i n g l e a r n e d
. Ho w e v e r , t h e s e a r e m a t t e r s f o r i n v e s t i g a -
t i o n
. Th e m a i n p o i n t i s t h a t a n i m p o r t a n t a r e a f o r l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h
r e l e v a n t t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i s t h e c l a s s o f r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n -
c i e s c a l l e d c o r r e c t i o n .
In r e c e n t s t u d i e s , t h e r e h a v e b e e n p r o v o c a t i v e c o n t r a s t s i n t h e
f i n d i n g s o n t h e s u b j e c t o f l e a r n i n g w i t h e r r o r s v e r s u s l e a r n i n g w i t h -
o u t e r r o r
. Ski n n e r ' s w o r kw i t h t h e t e a c h i n g m a c h i n e h a s e m p h a -
s i z e d t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n o f e r r o r
. Th e r e h a s b e e n s o m e q u e s t i o n i n g o f
t h e o r i e s i n w h i c h r e s p o n d i n g t o a n i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l u s ( a n d h e n c e
t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f e r r o r s ) i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n
o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s
. Th e g e n e r a l r a t i o n a l e f o r e r r o r m i n i m i z a t i o n i n
i n s t r u c t i o n s e e m s t o b e t h e f o l l o w i n g
: F i r s t , w h e n e r r o r s o c c u r ,
t h e r e i s l a c ko f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , a n d o p p o r t u n i t y i s
p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s .
Th i s r e s u l t s i n i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o
e x t i n c t i o n .
Se c o n d , f r u s t r a t i o n a n d e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t s t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l
a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x t i n c t i o n a n d i n t e r f e r e n c e f r o m e r r o r
. An d
t h i r d , r i c h e r l e a r n i n g , t h a t i s , r i c h e r i n a s s o c i a t i o n s , t a ke s p l a c e w h e n
t h e a s s o c i a t i v e h i s t o r y o f t h e l e a r n e r i s a p p l i e d t o e x t e n d h i s l e a r n i n g
.
Th i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y m e d i a t o r s o r t h e m a t i c p r o m p t i n g w h i c h
m a ke p o s i t i v e u s e o f e x i s t i n g kn o w l e d g e a n d s e r v e t o g u i d e l e a r n i n g
.
Pe r h a p s a n o t h e r r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e d r i v e t o m i n i m i z e e r r o r i s , a s h a s
b e e n s a i d , t h a t t h e u s e o f e r r o r s a n d t h e p o s s i b l e v a l u e o f i n c o r r e c t
3 7 . W . K a e s s a n d D
. Ze a m a n , " Po s i t i v e a n d Ne g a t i v e K n o w l e d g e o f Re s u l t s
o n a Pr e s s e y - Ty p e Pu n c h b o a r d , " J o u r n a l
o f Ex p e r i m e n t a l Ps y c h o l o g y , LX
( J u l y ,
1 9 6 0 ) , 1 2
- 1 7 -
3 8 -
Pa t r i c kSu p p e s a n d Ro s e Gi n s b e r g , " Ap p l i c a t i o n o f a St i m u l u s Sa m p l i n g
Mo d e l t o C h i l d r e n ' s C o n c e p t F o r m a t i o n w i t h a n d w i t h o u t O v e r t C o r r e c t i o n
Re s p o n s e , " J o u r n a l o f Ex p e r i m e n t a l Ps y c h o l o g y , LX III ( Ap r i l , 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 3 0 - 3 6 .
2 3 6

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


r e s p o n s e s h a s b e e n n e i t h e r a s w i d e l y n o r a s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v e s t i -
g a t e d a s o t h e r r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s .
In d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o r e a d a p t i v e t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s
t h a n t h e Ski n n e r - t y p e l i n e a r p r o g r a m m a ke t h e c a s e t h a t e r r o r s m u s t
b e u s e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n
. 3 9 Th e i r p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e
t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e v e a l , b y m a ki n g s o m e s o r t o f e r r o r , t h e ki n d o f
i n s t r u c t i o n h e s h o u l d r e c e i v e n e x t
. If a d a p t i v e c o n t r o l i s c o m p e -
t e n t l y d e s i g n e d , s t u d e n t w e a kn e s s e s a r e r e v e a l e d b y h i s s e l e c t i o n o f
r e s p o n s e a l t e r n a t i v e s
. W h e r e n o a d a p t i v e p r o c e d u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e
f o r d e a l i n g w i t h e r r o r , t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n o f e r r o r i s f o r c e d u p o n t h e
t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e
. Th e a d v o c a t e s o f e r r o r m i n i m i z a t i o n r e c o g n i z e
t h e p r e s e n c e o f e r r o r b u t a t t e m p t t o c u e o r p r o m p t i t o u t o f e x i s t -
e n c e i n t h e c o u r s e o f d e s i g n i n g a p r o g r a m f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a -
t i o n o f s t u d e n t s
. Su c h n o n a d a p t i v e p r o g r a m s a t t e m p t t o r e m o v e
e r r o r w i t h o u t a l l o w i n g i t t o b e m a n i f e s t e d i n o v e r t m i s t a ke s
. Th e s e
p r o g r a m s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h a t t e m p t t o f o r e s t a l l e r r o r , n e e d t o
m a ke p r o v i s i o n s f o r f a r m o r e e r r o r p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a n a n y o n e s t u d e n t
i s l i ke l y t o h a v e , a n d p r o b a b l y w i n d u p w i t h l e s s t h a n a n o p t i m a l
s e r i e s o f c h a l l e n g i n g t a s ks
. Th e s u m m a r y p o i n t t o b e m a d e i s t h a t
a n i n t e r e s t i n g a r e a f o r l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p r a c t i c e i s s t u d y o f t h e r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e
o c c u r r e n c e o f i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s
.
Re s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s - e f f e c t i v e r e i n
f o r c e r s . - An o t h e r g e n e r a l
p r o b l e m w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e
e f f e c t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s i n a s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l e a r n i n g s e q u e n c e
. Th e r e i s
a l s o t h e r e l a t e d p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m o f w h a t r e i n f o r c i n g c o n t i n g e n c i e s
c a n b e e m p l o y e d i n d e s i g n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n
. As i s kn o w n , r e i n f o r c e -
m e n t c a n b e q u i t e s u b t l e
. F o r e x a m p l e , Ski n n e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t c e r -
t a i n " c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e u s e d t o m o t i v a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r w h e n
a t e x t b o o ki s d e s i g n e d t o b e ` i n t e r e s t i n g
. ' Su c h r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s n o t ,
h o w e v e r , c o n t i n g e n t u p o n a c c u r a c y o f r e s p o n s e i n t h e
m a n n e r
n e e d e d t o s h a p e s ki l l f u l b e h a v i o r
. " 4 0
Th e p o i n t i s t h a t a n i n t e r e s t -
3 9 . B r i a n N
. Le w i s a n d Go r d o n Pa s k, " Th e Th e o r y a n d Pr a c t i c e
o f Ad a p -
t i v e Te a c h i n g Sy s t e m s , " i n
Te a c h i n g Ma c h i n e s a n d Pr o g r a m e d Le a r n i n g , I1
:
Da t a a n d Di r e c t i o n s , o p
. c i t .
4 0 . B . F
. Ski n n e r . V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , p
. 6 6 . Ne w Yo r k
: Ap p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -
C r o f t s , 1 9 5 7
.
GLASER
2 3 7
i n g t e x t m a y r e i n f o r c e t h e b e h a v i o r i n v o l v e d i n o b t a i n i n g m e a n i n g
f r o m p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l b u t m a y n o t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e c o r r e c t
p h o n e m i c r e s p o n s e s . 4 1
Re i n f o r c i n g e v e n t s m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d o n
t h e b a s i s o f d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d
c o m p o n e n t r e p e r t o i r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s
. J u s t a s o n e i d e n t i f i e s w h a t s t i m -
u l i f e e l h o t o r c o l d , p l e a s a n t o r f r i g h t e n i n g , o n e n e e d s t o i d e n t i f y
w h a t e v e n t s c a n s e r v e a s r e i n f o r c e r s f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o u r s e o f
l e a r n i n g c e r t a i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r s
.
St u d i e s i n l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n d o s u g g e s t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s
o f c e r t a i n e v e n t s a s g e n e r a l r e i n f o r c i n g c o n d i t i o n s
. As a n e x a m p l e ,
a n a p p a r e n t l y p o w e r f u l r e i n f o r c e r i n l e a r n i n g i s o v e r t c o n t r o l o f
t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t
. Th i s h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y b y
t h e w o r ko f Mo o r e 4 2
o n w h a t h e c a l l s a r e s p o n s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t
.
Th i s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e n t , e s p e c i a l l y
w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t u d y o f b e h a v i o r g e n e r a l l y l a b e l e d a s c u r i o s i t y
a n d e x p l o r a t i o n . 4 3
An i n c r e a s i n g a m o u n t o f r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d i -
r e c t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f t h i s a r e a w i t h i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e .
4 4
In i n f r a h u m a n s t u d i e s , r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n a i m e d a t t h e d i s c o v e r y
a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h s e r v e t o e l i c i t a n d m a i n t a i n
c u r i o s i t y a n d e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r i n t h e a b s e n c e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l
l a b o r a t o r y m o t i v e s , s u c h a s h u n g e r o r t h i r s t o r o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f
d e p r i v a t i o n
. Th e s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d a r e
s u c h b e h a v i o r s a s o r i e n t i n g , a p p r o a c h i n g , i n v e s t i g a t i n g , a n d m a n i p u -
l a t i n g . Th e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g s u c h e x p l o r a t o r y r e -
s p o n s e s h a v e b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s o r p a t t e r n s t h a t
a r e n o v e l , u n f a m i l i a r , c o m p l e x , s u r p r i s i n g , i n c o n g r u o u s , a s y m e t r i c a l ,
a n d s o f o r t h . Al l t h e s e a s p e c t s g e n e r a l l y c a n b e d e s c r i b e d a s a
c h a n g e i n t h e s t i m u l u s d i s p l a y e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l
. Re s e a r c h h a s
4 1 . Si l b e r m a n ,
o p .
c i t .
4 2 . O m a r K
. Mo o r e , " Au t o t e l i c Re s p o n s i v e En v i r o n m e n t s a n d Ex c e p t i o n a l
C h i l d r e n , " i n Th e Sp e c i a l C h i l d i n C e n t u r y
2 1 . Se a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n : Sp e c i a l
C h i l d Pu b l i c a t i o n s ,
1 9 6
4 -
4 3
. Th e s e c o m m e n t s o n c u r i o s i t y a n d e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r w e r e s i g n i f i -
c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e w o r ko f t h e a u t h o r ' s c o l l e a g u e , Pr o f e s s o r Ha r r y
F o w l e r , a t t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f Pi t t s b u r g h
.
4 4 . Ha r r y F o w l e r , C u r i o s i t y a n d Ex p l o r a t o r y B e h a v i o r
( Ne w Yo r k : Ma c -
m i l l a n C o
. , 1 9 6 5 ) ; a n d D. E. B e r l y n e ,
C o n f l i c t , Ar o u s a l , a n d C u r i o s i t y ( Ne w
Yo r k : Mc Gr a w - Hi l l B o o kC o . , 1 9 6 o ) .
2 3 8

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r t h a t i s e l i c i t e d
i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d , w i t h i n l i m i t s , t o t h e d e g r e e o f c h a n g e i n t h e
s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . To o g r e a t o r
t o o a b r u p t a c h a n g e , h o w e v e r , i s d i s r u p t i n g a n d m a y p r e c l u d e e x -
p l o r a t i o n .
In c o m p l e x s i t u a t i o n s , a n i n d i v i d u a l e n c o u n t e r s c h a n g e b y w a y
o f h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f a s t i m u l u s
p a t t e r n . Su c h i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e s t i m u l u s c h a n g e w h i c h c a n
e l i c i t c u r i o s i t y a n d e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r . In v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e d e m -
o n s t r a t e d t h a t b e h a v i o r s a r e l e a r n e d w h e n t h e y l e a d t o a c h a n g e i n
t h e s t i m u l u s d i s p l a y . Th u s , i n a d d i t i o n t o s t i m u l u s c h a n g e e l i c i t i n g
e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r , e x p e r i m e n t s s h o w t h a t o r g a n i s m s w i l l r e s p o n d
i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e n o v e l , u n f a m i l i a r s t i m u l i . In g e n e r a l , t h e s e f i n d -
i n g s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t s t i m u l u s c h a n g e o r s e n s o r y v a r i a t i o n m a y b e
e m p l o y e d t o s e l e c t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t i n s t i m u l u s
c h a n g e , a n d t h a t t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n w i l l s e r v e
c o n c o m i t a n t l y t o e l i c i t e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r . W h e n s t i m u l u s c h a n g e
i s u s e d a s a r e i n f o r c i n g s t i m u l u s , i t s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e
t h a t l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d e x t i n c t i o n
w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d e x t i n c t i o n o f e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r
a n d c u r i o s i t y a s t h e y d o o t h e r l e a r n e d b e h a v i o r . Th i s s u g g e s t s t h a t
a s t u d e n t ' s c u r i o s i t y a n d e x p l o r a t i o n s m a y b e b o t h e l i c i t e d a n d s e l e c -
t i v e l y m a i n t a i n e d i n a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h p r o v i d e s
f o r a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a t i o n a n d c h a n g e i n b o t h t h e s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r -
i s t i c s o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e s t u d e n t a n d t h e r e -
s p o n s e s h e m u s t m a ke t o t h e s e m a t e r i a l s
.
Me a s u r i n g Le a r n i n g O u t c o m e s
An e f f e c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n r e l i e s h e a v i l y u p o n t h e
e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e m e n t o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e a t t h e b e g i n -
n i n g , i n t h e c o u r s e o f , a n d a t t h e e n d o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s
.
Th e m a s t e r y o f t h e s ki l l s a n d kn o w l e d g e s r e q u i r e d t o b e g i n a n i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e a n d t o c o n t i n u e a l o n g i t s c o u r s e i n s u r e s t h e
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e s t u d e n t c a n r e l y
o n f o r u s e i n s u b s e q u e n t l e a r n i n g . El s e w h e r e t h e a u t h o r 4 5 h a s
4 5
. Ro b e r t Gl a s e r , " In s t r u c t i o n a l Te c h n o l o g y a n d t h e Me a s u r e m e n t o f
Le a r n i n g O u t c o m e s : So m e Q u e s t i o n s , " Am e r i c a n Ps y c h o l o g i s t , X V II ( Au g u s t ,
1 9 6 3 ) ,
5 1 9 - 2 1 .
GLASER

2
3 9
p o i n t e d o u t t h a t r e c e n t w o r ki n i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n , s u c h a s p r o -
g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n , h a s r a i s e d i n t o p r o m i n e n c e a n u m b e r o f q u e s -
t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f m e a s u r e s o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t a n d
t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e ( a s i t m a y b e d e f i n e d
b y r e c o g n i z e d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s c h o l a r s )
. Ac h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e m e n t
c a n b e d e f i n e d a s t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r i n v o l v i n g t h e
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h
r e s p e c t t o s p e c i f i e d s t a n d a r d s . Ac h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e m e n t i s d i s t i n -
g u i s h e d f r o m a p t i t u d e m e a s u r e m e n t i n t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o
a s s e s s a c h i e v e m e n t a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f
p r e s e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h e m p h a s i s o n t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f i t s
c o n t e n t . B y c o n t r a s t , a p t i t u d e m e a s u r e s d e r i v e t h e i r m e a n i n g f r o m
a d e m o n s t r a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r e s e n t p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e
f u t u r e a t t a i n m e n t o f s p e c i f i e d kn o w l e d g e a n d s ki l l . In c e r t a i n c i r -
c u m s t a n c e s , o f c o u r s e , t h i s c o n t r a s t i s n o t q u i t e s o c l e a r - f o r e x -
a m p l e , w h e n a c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e s a r e u s e d a s p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s .
Th e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m a n a c h i e v e m e n t h i e v e m e n t t e s t c a n p r o v i d e p r i -
m a r i l y t w o ki n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . O n e i s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e
s t u d e n t h a s a t t a i n e d c r i t e r i o n p e r f o r m a n c e - f o r e x a m p l e , w h e t h e r
h e c a n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p r e p a r e a n e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t o r s o l v e c e r t a i n
ki n d s o f w o r d p r o b l e m s i n a r i t h m e t i c
. Th e s e c o n d t y p e o f i n f o r m a -
t i o n t h a t a n a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c o r e p r o v i d e s i s t h e r e l a t i v e o r d e r i n g
o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e - f o r e x a m p l e ,
w h e t h e r St u d e n t Ac a n s o l v e h i s p r o b l e m s m o r e q u i c kl y t h a n St u -
d e n t B . Th e p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o ki n d s o f i n f o r -
m a t i o n l i e s i n t h e s t a n d a r d u s e d a s a r e f e r e n c e
. Th e s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t
w h i c h a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i s c o m p a r e d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e
f i r s t ki n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r w h i c h d e f i n e s i n -
c r e a s i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m o f a c h i e v e -
m e n t . C r i t e r i o n l e v e l s o f c o m p e t e n c e c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d a t a n y p o i n t
i n i n s t r u c t i o n w h e r e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e
a d e q u a c y o f a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . B e h a v i o r a l l y d e f i n e d o b j e c -
t i v e s d e s c r i b e t h e s p e c i f i c t a s ks a s t u d e n t m u s t b e c a p a b l e o f p e r -
f o r m i n g i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a p a r t i c u l a r kn o w l e d g e o r c o m p e t e n c e
l e v e l
. Th e s t u d e n t ' s s c o r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e t a s ks p r o v i d e s e x p l i c i t
i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o w h a t h e c a n o r c a n n o t d o a n d i n d i c a t e s t h e c o r -
r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n w h a t t h e s t u d e n t d o e s a n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t
c r i t e r i a a t t h a t p o i n t i n h i s l e a r n i n g . Me a s u r e s c a s t i n t e r m s o f s u c h
2 4 0

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


c r i t e r i o n s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e d e g r e e o f c o m p e -
t e n c e o b t a i n e d b y a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t w h i c h i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f r e f -
e r e n c e t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f o t h e r s .
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e s a l s o c o n v e y i n f o r m a -
t i o n a b o u t t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f a s t u d e n t c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c a p a b i l i t y
o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s
. In i n s t a n c e s w h e r e a s t u d e n t ' s r e l a t i v e s t a n d i n g
i s t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f m e a s u r e m e n t , r e f e r e n c e n e e d n o t b e m a d e
t o c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r
. Ed u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s , f o r
e x a m p l e , a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d f r e q u e n t l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m i n -
i n g t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s t a n d i n g o f s t u d e n t s i n a c l a s s o r s c h o o l r a t h e r
t h a n f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t o f s p e c i f i e d c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s
.
W h e n s u c h n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d m e a s u r e s a r e u s e d , a p a r t i c u l a r s t u -
d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t i s e v a l u a t e d i n t e r m s o f a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n
h i s p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e
g r o u p
. Su c h m e a s u r e s n e e d p r o v i d e l i t t l e o r n o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
t h e d e g r e e o f p r o f i c i e n c y a c t u a l l y e x h i b i t e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l
. Th e y
t e l l t h a t o n e s t u d e n t i s m o r e o r l e s s p r o f i c i e n t t h a n a n o t h e r b u t d o
n o t t e l l h o w p r o f i c i e n t e i t h e r o f t h e m i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u b j e c t -
m a t t e r t a s ks i n v o l v e d
. In l a r g e p a r t , a c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e s c u r r e n t l y
e m p l o y e d i n e d u c a t i o n a r e n o r m r e f e r e n c e d , a n d w o r kn e e d s t o
b e d o n e w h i c h w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c r i t e r i o n -
r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e o u t c o m e s o f l e a r n i n g
. C r i t e r i o n -
r e f e r e n c e d m e a s u r e s c a n p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t b o t h d e g r e e o f
c o m p e t e n c e a n d r e l a t i v e s t a n d i n g .
Af u r t h e r p o i n t a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s r e l a t e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t a c h i e v e -
m e n t t e s t s a r e u s e d n o t o n l y t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t u -
d e n t b u t a l s o t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t
t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n s
. It s e e m s l i ke l y t h a t
t e s t s w h i c h a r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o b e s e n s i t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t d i f -
f e r e n c e s m a y n o t b e t h e s a m e ki n d s o f t e s t s t h a t a r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e
d i f f e r e n c e s p r o d u c e d b y d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s
. Te s t
t h e o r y , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , h a s b e e n c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e s t s t h a t a r e m a x i m a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f -
f e r e n c e s
. Le s s w o r kh a s b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t f o r
t h e p u r p o s e o f c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n a n d c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n
. Th i s
p o i n t i s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e a r t i c l e r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e
4 6
a n d
4 6 . Ib i d .
GLASER

2 4 [
m o r e f u l l y i n a n a r t i c l e b y C r o n b a c h
4 7
c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o u r s e i m -
p r o v e m e n t t h r o u g h e v a l u a t i o n
. C r o n b a c h w r i t e s , ` Ia m b e c o m i n g
c o n v i n c e d t h a t s o m e t e c h n i q u e s a n d h a b i t s o f t h o u g h t o f t h e e v a l u -
a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t a r e i l l - s u i t e d t o c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s
. . . . h o w
m u s t w e d e p a r t f r o m t h e f a m i l i a r d o c t r i n e s a n d r i t u a l s o f t h e t e s t -
i n g g a m e ? " ( p . 6 7 2 ) a n d , " Th e t h r e e p u r p o s e s - c o u r s e i m p r o v e -
m e n t , d e c i s i o n s a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n -
c a l l f o r m e a s u r e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s h a v i n g s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t q u a l i -
t i e s " ( p . 6 7 7 ) .
C o n c l u s i o n
Th i s c h a p t e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o g i v e s o m e o f t h e r e s e a r c h a p -
p r o a c h a n d p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i s l i ke l y t o b e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e d e s i g n
o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e f u t u r e , a s b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e a n d
e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e b e g i n t o b e r e l a t e d i n a m u t u a l l y h e l p f u l w a y
.
It i s f a i r t o s a y t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m o d e r n
e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y i s r a r e l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f
i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s
. It i s h y p o t h e s i z e d
t h a t , i n t h e f u t u r e , f o u r m a i n a r e a s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s w i l l
b e i n f l u e n c e d : ( a ) In s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s w i l l b e a n a l y z e d i n t e r m s o f
b o t h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e n t a n d c a t e g o r i e s o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r t h a t
s u g g e s t s t r a t e g i e s o f t e a c h i n g . ( b ) Th e d i a g n o s i s o f t h e l e a r n e r ' s
s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a kn e s s e s p r i o r t o i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a p p r o p r i a t e p e d a -
g o g i c a l g u i d a n c e w i l l b e c o m e a m o r e d e f i n i t i v e p r o c e s s s o t h a t i t
c a n a i d i n t h e d e s i g n o f a c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t
i n v o l v e d . ( c ) Th e t e c h n i q u e s a n d m a t e r i a l s e m p l o y e d b y t h e t e a c h e r
w i l l u n d e r g o s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . ( d ) Th e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e o u t -
c o m e s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e a s s e s s e d , b o t h f o r s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n a n d
c u r r i c u l u m i m p r o v e m e n t , w i l l r e c e i v e m o r e a t t e n t i o n
.
As t h e s e c h a n g e s o c c u r , i t i s l i ke l y t h a t t h e y w i l l r e s u l t i n c e r t a i n
c h a n g e s i n s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n
. F i r s t , t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r w i l l b e
r e s t r u c t u r e d . It s e e m s l i ke l y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w i l l b e a b l e t o b e c o m e
m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t g u i d a n c e a n d i n d i v i d u a l
p r o g r e s s t h a n h e i s l i ke l y t o b e a t p r e s e n t i n h i s r o l e a s g r o u p m e n t o r
.
4 7 . C r o n b a c h , o p . c i t .
2 4 2

DESIGNO F INSTRUC TIO N


Se c o n d , t h e e d u c a t o r s ' g o a l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p r o g -
r e s s b a s e d u p o n s t u d e n t b a c kg r o u n d , a p t i t u d e , a n d a c h i e v e m e n t w i l l
c o m e c l o s e r t o r e a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h s c h o o l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e
a d o p t i o n o f n e w p r a c t i c e s
. Th i r d , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d d e v i c e s
s u p p l i e d b y i n d u s t r y w i l l c o m e u n d e r c l o s e s c r u t i n y a s t o t h e i r i n -
s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( j u s t a s t e s t s c a m e u n d e r c l o s e s c r u t i n y w i t h
r e s p e c t t o r e p o r t s o n t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y )
. F o u r t h , s u b j e c t -
m a t t e r c o m p e t e n c e w i l l b e e a s i e r t o a t t a i n f o r a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f
p u p i l s i n o u r s c h o o l s , a n d t e s t s w h i c h m e a s u r e p r o g r e s s t o w a r d m a s -
t e r y w i l l b e c o m e i m p o r t a n t a i d s f o r t h e q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o f e d u c a -
t i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e
. Th e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , n e c e s s a r i l y b a s e d o n a d e v e l -
o p i n g b o d y o f p e d a g o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , s h o u l d a d v a n c e t e a c h i n g
t o w a r d t h e s t a t u s o f a p r o f e s s i o n n u r t u r e d b y u n d e r l y i n g b e h a v i o r a l
s c i e n c e s w h i c h a r e b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e e d u c a -
t i o n a l p r o c e s s .
C HAPTER X
Ph i l o s o p h i c a l In q u i r y
W ILLIAMK . F RANK ENA
In t r o d u c t i o n
W h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s o r d e v e l o p m e n t s a f t e r W o r l d W a r II
h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s c h o o l s a n d m i g h t o r s h o u l d h a v e b e e n
r e s p o n d e d t o b y t h e m ? W h a t i s t h e r e i n " t h e n e w w o r l d o f p h i l o s -
o p h y " t h a t m i g h t o r s h o u l d h a v e b e e n t a ke n a s a b a s i s f o r c o n c l u -
s i o n s a b o u t e d u c a t i o n i n o u r s c h o o l s o r a b o u t t h e s c h o o l s t h e m s e l v e s ?
Th a t i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . Th u s s t a t e d , h o w e v e r , i t i s
s o m e w h a t t o o b r o a d a n d v a g u e t o p e r m i t a v e r y p r o f i t a b l e r e s p o n s e .
Si n c e Ic a n w r i t e p r o f i t a b l y o n l y a b o u t t h e w o r ko f p r o f e s s i o n a l
p h i l o s o p h e r s , a n d s i n c e , e v e n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s , Ic a n s a y l i t t l e
t h a t i s n e w a b o u t t h e w o r ko f De w e y a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s o r o f t h e
Th o m i s t s , Is h a l l r e s t a t e t h e q u e s t i o n i n a c l e a r e r a n d n a r r o w e r f o r m
.
W h a t i s t h e r e i n r e c e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l n o n - De w e y a n a n d n o n -
Th o m i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y I t o w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s m i g h t w e l l h a v e r e -
s p o n d e d i n s o m e p o s i t i v e w a y , a t l e a s t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , i . e
. ,
w h a t i s
t h e r e t h a t h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t w e l l b e t a ke n s e r i o u s l y b y
t h o s e w h o p h i l o s o p h i z e a b o u t t h e s c h o o l s a n d s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , b y
t h o s e w h o p l a n t h e c u r r i c u l a , a n d b y t h o s e w h o a d m i n i s t e r o r t e a c h
i n s c h o o l s ? ' Th e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s a t w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s r
m i g h t r e s p o n d , a n d Is h a l l t r y t o ke e p t h e m a l l i n m i n d , a l t h o u g h
i t w i l l t u r n o u t , a s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d , t h a t Is h a l l f i n d a g o o d d e a l
m o r e t o s a y t o e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r s t h a n t o t e a c h e r s , c u r r i c u l u m -
p l a n n e r s , o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
In o r d e r t o g e t a p u r c h a s e o n o u r q u e s t i o n , w e m u s t f i r s t s e e j u s t
h o w a n d w h e r e p h i l o s o p h y a r i g h t c o m e t o b e a r o n q u e s t i o n s a b o u t
i
. He r e a f t e r , b y " r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y " I s h a l l m e a n " r e c e n t n o n - De w e y a n a n d
n o n - Th o m i s t i c ( a n d n o n - Ma r x i s t ) p h i l o s o p h y : '
2 4 3
2 4 4

PHILO SO PHIC ALINQ UIRY


s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . Ed u c a t i o n w a s d e f i n e d b y B e r t r a n d Ru s s e l l a s
" t h e f o r m a t i o n , b y m e a n s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , o f c e r t a i n m e n t a l h a b i t s a n d
a c e r t a i n o u t l o o ko n l i f e a n d t h e w o r l d " ; a n d b y J o h n De w e y a s
" t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g f u n d a m e n t a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d
e m o t i o n a l , t o w a r d n a t u r e a n d f e l l o w m e n . " 2 Th e t a s ko f e d u c a t i o n ,
i f w e a c c e p t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s , i s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f d e s i r a b l e a b i l i t i e s ,
d i s p o s i t i o n s , h a b i t s , a n d t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r - o f w h a t t h e Gr e e ks
c a l l e d e x c e l l e n c e s . If t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n t h e t h e o r y o f s c h o o l e d u c a -
t i o n m u s t a n s w e r t w o q u e s t i o n s . ( a ) W h i c h a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s ,
a n d h a b i t s a r e t o b e c u l t i v a t e d b y t h e s c h o o l s ? ( b ) Ho w a r e s c h o o l
e d u c a t o r s t o f o s t e r t h e s e a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , o r h a b i t s a n d b y w h a t
m e t h o d s , t h r o u g h w h a t c u r r i c u l a , a n d i n w h a t ki n d o f a n a t m o s -
p h e r e ?
No w , a n y o n e w h o s e e ks t o g i v e r e a s o n e d a n s w e r s t o s u c h q u e s -
t i o n s m u s t r e s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s o n p r e m i s e s o f t w o ki n d s :
( a ) n o r m a t i v e p r e m i s e s , e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , o r b a s i c v a l u e j u d g m e n t s , i . e . ,
p r e m i s e s a b o u t t h e e n d s , v a l u e s , o r p r i n c i p l e s t o b e p u r s u e d o r a c t e d
o n ;
( b ) n o n n o r m a t i v e o r f a c t u a l p r e m i s e s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f m a n , t h e r e -
s u l t s o f c e r t a i n m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g , t h e ki n d s o f kn o w l e d g e , a n d
s o o n
.
Ap a r t i a l a n s w e r t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n m i g h t r e a d :
( i ) W e o u g h t t o p r o m o t e t h e g r e a t e s t g e n e r a l h a p p i n e s s .
( z ) Ho n e s t y w i l l p r o m o t e t h e g r e a t e s t g e n e r a l h a p p i n e s s .
( 3 ) Th e r e f o r e , w e o u g h t t o f o s t e r h o n e s t y
.
An o t h e r a n s w e r m i g h t b e :
( 4 ) Th e a i m o f e d u c a t i o n i s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f kn o w l e d g e .
( 5 ) Re l i g i o n a n d t h e o l o g y a r e n o t f o r m s o f kn o w l e d g e . P
( 6 ) Th e r e f o r e , t h e y s h o u l d n o t b e t a u g h t .
An d a r e p l y t o t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n m i g h t r u n :
( 7 ) Sc h o o l s s h o u l d f o s t e r h o n e s t y .
( 8 )
Th e i n d i r e c t m e t h o d i s m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n c u l t i v a t i n g h o n e s t y t h a n
t h e d i r e c t m e t h o d
.
2 . B e r t r a n d Ru s s e l l , My s t i c i s m a n d Lo g i c , p
. 3 7 ( Lo n d o n
: Al l e n & Un w i n ,
Lt d . , 1 9 1 7 ) ; J o h n De w e y ,
De m o c r a c y a n d Ed u c a t i o n , p . 3 8 3 ( Ne w Yo r k : Ma c -
m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 1 6 ) .
F RANK ENA

2
4 5
( q ) Th e r e f o r e , s c h o o l s s h o u l d u s e t h e i n d i r e c t m e t h o d i n f o s t e r i n g h o n -
e s t y .
In t h e s e e x a m p l e s , p r e m i s e s ( 1 ) , ( 4 ) , a n d ( 7 ) a r e n o r m a t i v e ,
w h i l e
( 2 ) , ( 5 ) ,
a n d ( 8 ) a r e n o t .
Pr e m i s e s o f b o t h ki n d s m a y b e s u p p l i e d b y p h i l o s o p h y . F o r i n -
s t a n c e , p r e m i s e s l i ke ( i ) a n d ( 4 ) w o u l d b e p r o v i d e d b y e t h i c s , v a l u e
t h e o r y , o r s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y , a n d p r e m i s e s l i ke ( 5 ) b y e p i s t e m o l o g y
o r m e t a p h y s i c s . Th u s , o n e w a y i n w h i c h p h i l o s o p h y m a y e n t e r i n t o
o u r t h i n ki n g a b o u t s c h o o l s a n d t h e i r p r a c t i c e s i s b y f u r n i s h i n g s o m e
o f i t s p r e m i s e s , n o r m a t i v e o r n o n n o r m a t i v e . Ho w e v e r , p h i l o s o p h y
m a y e n t e r i n a n o t h e r w a y
. F o r a l l s u c h t h i n ki n g i n v o l v e s c o n c e p t s
o r t e r m s ; i n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n , t h e r e a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g
: " h a p p i -
n e s s , " " h o n e s t y , " " t e a c h i n g , " " kn o w l e d g e , " " r e l i g i o n , " " t r u t h , "
" Go d , " a n d " e d u c a t i o n " i t s e l f . No n e o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s o r t e r m s i s
e n t i r e l y c l e a r a n d u n a m b i g u o u s . Th e y a l l n e e d s o m e ki n d o f a n a l y -
s i s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,
o r
d e f i n i t i o n , e l s e o u r t h i n ki n g a b o u t s c h o o l s a n d
e d u c a t i o n c a n n o t h a v e t h e a c c u r a c y , r i g o r , o r c e r t a i n t y t h a t i t o u g h t
t o h a v e . It i s j u s t h e r e t h a t p h i l o s o p h y c a n m a ke i t s s e c o n d ki n d o f
c o n t r i b u t i o n . F o r o n e o f t h e m a i n t a s ks o f p h i l o s o p h y , e s p e c i a l l y
a s i t i s c o n c e i v e d t o d a y , i s t h a t o f a n a l y z i n g o r c l a r i f y i n g t h e ke y
c o n c e p t s o r t e r m s o f h u m a n t h o u g h t , o r t h e c e n t r a l p h e n o m e n a o f
h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e , a s p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t s p r e f e r t o s a y , i n c l u d i n g
m a n y o f t h o s e t h a t a p p e a r o v e r a n d o v e r i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .
Al o n g t h e s a m e l i n e , p h i l o s o p h y c a n a l s o m a ke a c o n t r i b u t i o n b y
a n a l y z i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g t h e l o g i c o f t h e s l o g a n s a n d a r g u m e n t s
u s e d i n t h e d i s c o u r s e o f e d u c a t i o n
.
Ph i l o s o p h y m i g h t , t h e n , i n f l u e n c e t h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e o f t h e
s c h o o l s i n t h e s e w a y s :
i
. It m i g h t s u p p l y i t s b a s i c n o r m a t i v e p r e m i s e s .
z . It m i g h t s u p p l y s o m e o f i t s o t h e r p r e m i s e s ( s t i l l o t h e r s w o u l d c o m e
f r o m p s y c h o l o g y , t h e o l o g y , a n t h r o p o l o g y , e t c . ) .
3
. It m i g h t p r o v i d e a n a l y s e s o f c o n c e p t s a n d s l o g a n s , e v a l u a t i o n s o f a r -
g u m e n t s , a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t e r m s .
Ac t u a l l y , t h e r e a r e t w o o t h e r w a y s i n w h i c h p h i l o s o p h y m i g h t
b e r e l a t e d t o t h e s c h o o l s :
4 . It m i g h t b e m a d e p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l .
2 4 6

PHILO SO PHIC ALINQ UIRY


5 .
It m i g h t b e m a d e p a r t o f t h e t r a i n i n g o f s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s -
t r a t o r s .
Is h a l l t a ke o c c a s i o n l a t e r t o s a y s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e s e l a s t t w o
p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s c h o o l s t o p h i l o s o p h y b u t s h a l l d e v o t e m o s t
o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e
.
Re c e n t Ph i l o s o p h y a n d No r m a t i v e Pr e m i s e s f o r t h e Sc h o o l s
ANALYTIC ALPHILO SO PHYANDEX ISTENTIALISM
Le t u s a s k, t h e n , w h e t h e r r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f f e r s t h e e d u c a t o r
a n y n o r m a t i v e ( e t h i c a l o r v a l u e ) p r e m i s e s f o r a n s w e r i n g t h e t h r e e
q u e s t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d e a r l i e r . In r e p l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b s e r v e , t o
b e g i n w i t h , t h a t b o t h o f t h e n e w e r m o v e m e n t s i n p h i l o s o p h y , a n a -
l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , h a v e t e n d e d t o a v o i d l a y i n g
d o w n n o r m a t i v e p r e m i s e s f o r h u m a n t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n .
An a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s - t h o s e b e l o n g i n g t o " t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n
p h i l o s o p h y " s t e m m i n g f r o m G . E. Mo o r e , B e r t r a n d Ru s s e l l , a n d
Lu d w i g W i t t g e n s t e i n - h a v e t e n d e d t o r e g a r d t h e m a ki n g o f n o r m a -
t i v e o r v a l u e j u d g m e n t s a s n o t a p r o p e r p a r t o f p h i l o s o p h y a n d h a v e
s o u g h t t o l i m i t p h i l o s o p h y t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o n c e p t s a n d t h e e l u c i -
d a t i o n o f t h e l o g i c o f v a r i o u s ki n d s o f t e r m s , s e n t e n c e s , o r r e a s o n i n g
.
So m e o f t h e m h a v e w r i t t e n a t l e n g t h i n e t h i c s o r v a l u e - t h e o r y , a n d
e v e n i n s o c i a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , b u t e v e n t h e n t h e i r c o n -
c e r n h a s n o t b e e n w i t h m a ki n g a n d d e f e n d i n g a n y b a s i c e t h i c a l
p r i n c i p l e s o r v a l u e j u d g m e n t s , i . e . , n o t w i t h a n s w e r i n g n o r m a t i v e
q u e s t i o n s b u t w i t h a n s w e r i n g m e t a e t h i c a l o n e s , s u c h a s " W h a t i s t h e
m e a n i n g o r u s e o f e x p r e s s i o n s l i ke ` g o o d , ' ` o u g h t , ' ` p r o m i s e , ' ` f r e e
w i l l , ' ` c h o i c e , ' ` a c t i o n , ' ` t e a c h i n g , ' e t c . ? " a n d " W h a t i s t h e l o g i c o f
j u s t i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t s i n w h i c h s u c h e x p r e s s i o n s a r e u s e d ? " It c a n b e
p l a u s i b l y a r g u e d t h a t s o m e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s h a v e b e e n m o r e
n o r m a t i v e t h a n t h e y c l a i m e d t o b e , b u t , a t a n y r a t e , i f t h e y h a v e ,
i t w a s b y i n a d v e r t e n c e f r o m t h e i r o w n p o i n t o f v i e w
.
Th i s t e n d e n c y o f a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s t o a v o i d t a ki n g n o r m a -
t i v e p o s i t i o n s h a s , a t l e a s t s o m e t i m e s , t h e e f f e c t o f l e a v i n g t h e n o r m a -
t i v e p r e m i s e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t t o b e p r o v i d e d b y o t h e r s - p s y -
c h o l o g i s t s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , o r t h e o l o g i a n s - o r b y t h e p r e v a i l i n g
m o r e s o r p o p u l a r d e m a n d . Th i s s e e m s t o m e , f o r e x a m p l e , t o b e t h e
n e t e f f e c t o f Da n i e l J . O ' C o n n o r ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f
F RANK ENA

2 4 7
e d u c a t i o n a n d e s p e c i a l l y t o h i s " t e n t a t i v e l i s t o f t h e a i m s o f e d u c a -
t i o n . " 3
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e h e d i s l i ke s " t h e e n d l e s s t a l ka b o u t
t h e a i m s o f e d u c a t i o n , " Ri c h a r d S
. Pe t e r s b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e
t o s h o w b y p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t c e r t a i n " p r e t t y f o r m a l " p r i n -
c i p l e s , w h i c h h e c a l l s " p r o c e d u r a l , " a r e " p r e s u p p o s e d b y t h e v e r y
a c t i v i t y o f g i v i n g r e a s o n s i n p r a c t i c a l d i s c o u r s e , " n a m e l y , t h e p r i n -
c i p l e s " o f i m p a r t i a l i t y , t r u t h - t e l l i n g , l i b e r t y , a n d t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n
o f i n t e r e s t s
. " F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i m p a r t i a l i t y t e l l s u s t h a t
p e o p l e a r e t o b e t r e a t e d e q u a l l y u n l e s s t r e a t i n g t h e m u n e q u a l l y i s
j u s t i f i e d , i . e . ,
t h a t e q u a l i t y m u s t b e a s s u m e d a n d i n e q u a l i t y j u s t i f i e d .
Th e s e p r i n c i p l e s h e t h e n o f f e r s u s a s p r o v i d i n g v e r y g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a
f o r j u s t i f y i n g o r r u l i n g o u t m o r e s p e c i f i c j u d g m e n t s a n d p r a c t i c e s
.
He a r g u e s a l s o ( a ) t h a t i n m o r a l e d u c a t i o n i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r -
t a n t t o p a s s o n t h e s e p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s , a n d ( b ) t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f
t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s r e q u i r e s e d u c a t i o n t o b e c o n c e r n e d
w i t h t h e p r o m o t i o n o f g o o d o r w o r t h - w h i l e a c t i v i t i e s a s w e l l a s w i t h
t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f r u l e s f o r s o c i a l c o n d u c t . 4
He r e , a t l e a s t , w e h a v e
a n e x a m p l e o f a n a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s e e ki n g i n a n o v e l w a y t o
e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h m i g h t w e l l b e t a ke n s e r i o u s l y a s a
b a s i s f o r t h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e o f t h e s c h o o l s
.
An o t h e r p o i n t m a y b e m a d e h e r e
. Ev e n w h e n t h e y m o s t c o m -
p l e t e l y a v o i d m a ki n g n o r m a t i v e c o m m i t m e n t s , a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o -
p h e r s a r e s t i l l p r e s u p p o s i n g t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s o r
t r a i t s o f m i n d
: c l a r i t y o f t h o u g h t , r i g o r o f r e a s o n i n g , a w a r e n e s s o f
a s s u m p t i o n s , a kn o w l e d g e o f t h e s t a n d a r d s t o b e a p p l i e d i n e a c h a r e a ,
a n d a n a b i l i t y t o j u d g e i n t e l l i g e n t l y b y t h e m ( w h i c h Ar i s t o t l e r e -
g a r d e d a s t h e m a r ks o f a n e d u c a t e d m a n )
. Th e i n s i s t e n c e o n s u c h
a b i l i t i e s a n d t r a i t s i s s o m e t h i n g - i n m y o p i n i o n , o n e o f t h e m a i n
t h i n g s - t h a t s c h o o l e d u c a t o r s a n d t h e i r t e a c h e r s c o u l d l e a r n f r o m
r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y
. He r e , s u r e l y , i s a f a m i l y o f d i s p o s i t i o n s ( n o t
e n o u g h i n s i s t e d u p o n b y De w e y a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s ) , w h i c h t h e
s c h o o l s o u g h t t o p r o m o t e
. F u r t h e r m o r e , t e a c h e r s a n d e d u c a t o r s
3 . Da n i e l J
. O ' C o n n o r , An In t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Ph i l o s o p h y
o f
Ed u c a t i o n ,
c h a p . i
. Lo n d o n : Ro u t l e d g e & K e g a n Pa u l , 1 9 5 7
.
4 . Ri c h a r d S. Pe t e r s , " Re a s o n a n d Ha b i t
: Th e Pa r a d o x o f Mo r a l Ed u c a t i o n , "
i n Mo r a l Ed u c a t i o n i n a C h a n g i n g So c i e t y , p p
.
5 1 - 5 3
. Ed i t e d b y W . R
. Ni b l e t t .
Lo n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , Lt d . , ' 9 6 3
.
2 4 8

PHILO SO PHIC ALINQ UIRY


c a n l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l f r o m t h e w o r ko f a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s
a b o u t w h a t i t i s l i ke t o b e c l e a r a n d r i g o r o u s a n d a b o u t t h e s t a n d -
a r d s t o b e u s e d i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y a n d t h o u g h t , e v e n i f t h e y
c a n n o t l e a r n a n y t h i n g t h a t t h e y c a n t a ke b o d i l y i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m .
Ex i s t e n t i a l i s t s r e j e c t t h e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r ' s n o t i o n o f n e u -
t r a l a n d o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . Th e y r e g a r d a p h i l o s o p h e r a s i n e v i t a b l y
c o m m i t t e d , e n g a g e d , a n d n o r m a t i v e , a n d t h e y c a l l u p o n u s a l l t o
c h o o s e a n e t h i c s , a n x i o u s l y p e r h a p s , b u t w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y a n d w i t h -
o u t s e l f - d e c e i t . Ye t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e y h e s i t a t e t o h e l p u s b y p r e -
s e n t i n g u s w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s o r e n d s w h i c h w e m i g h t
e s p o u s e a n d u s e a s a b a s i s o f t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n , w h e t h e r i n t h e f i e l d
o f e d u c a t i o n o r e l s e w h e r e
. Th e y t e n d t o s t r e s s t h e f o r m o r m a n n e r
o f o u r a p p r o a c h t o l i f e - i t i s t o b e a u t h e n t i c o r e x i s t e n t i a l r a t h e r
t h a n u n a u t h e n t i c a n d u n a n x i o u s , e t c e t e r a - r a t h e r t h a n i t s c o n t e n t
o r s u b s t a n c e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d e x i s t e n t i a l -
i s m , t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y s o h o s t i l e t o o n e a n o t h e r , a r e c u r i o u s l y s i m i l a r
i n o u t c o m e : b o t h a v o i d l a y i n g o u t a n o r m a t i v e e t h i c s f o r u s t o g o b y .
St i l l , j u s t a s t h e p r a c t i c e o f a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n v o l v e s a f a m -
i l y o f d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h m a y b e t a ke n a s p a r t o f t h e g o a l o f s c h o o l
e d u c a t i o n , j u s t s o d o e s e x i s t e n t i a l i s m p r e s e n t a g r o u p o f d i s p o s i t i o n s
f o r u s t o f o s t e r
. It i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g a u t h e n t i c i t y ,
d e c i s i o n , c o m m i t m e n t , c o u r a g e , a u t o n o m y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d e v o t i o n ,
a n d s o o n . Th e s e m a y b e c a l l e d m o r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h
t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l o r l o g i c a l o n e s e m p h a s i z e d b y a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o -
p h e r s , b u t t h e y a r e m o r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e m o d e
o f w h a t w e d o i n l i f e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h i t s c o n t e n t ( a s d o s u c h d i s -
p o s i t i o n s a s b e n e v o l e n c e , j u s t i c e , e t c e t e r a ) . Th e y a r e d i s p o s i t i o n s
w h i c h e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s n o t s o m u c h i n w h a t w e d o , b e i n g c o m -
p a t i b l e w i t h d o i n g a l l s o r t s o f a c t i o n s , g o o d o r b a d b y c o n v e n t i o n a l
s t a n d a r d s , b u t i n h o w w e d o i t . To q u o t e W i l d :
V a l u e l i e s n o t s o m u c h i n w h a t w e d o a s i n h o w w e e x i s t a n d m a i n -
t a i n o u r s e l v e s i n t i m e
. To e x p r e s s t h i s n e w s e n s e o f e x i s t e n t i a l v a l u e , a
n e w t e r m i n o l o g y i s r e q u i r e d
. . . w o r d s l i ke a u t h e n t i c , g e n u i n e , r e a l , a n d
r e a l l y . . . e x p r e s s t h o s e m o r e b a s i c ` e x i s t e n t i a l v a l u e s ' . . . w h i c h u n d e r l i e
a l l t h e v a l u a b l e t h i n g s w e d o o r s a y . Si n c e t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e o u r w a y s
o f e x i s t i n g i n t h e w o r l d , t h e y
. . .
a p p l y t o e v e r y p h a s e a n d r e g i o n o f
o u r c a r e . Th e r e i s n o t h i n g . . . t h a t m a y n o t b e d o n e e i t h e r a u t h e n t i c a l l y
. . . o r u n a u t h e n t i c a l l y . . . . Th e y a r e n o t " v a l u e s " a t a l l , i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
F RANK ENA
2 4 9
s e n s e o f t h i s t e r m
.
. . . Th e y a r e p a t t e r n s o f o u r l i v e d e x i s t e n c e i n t h e
w o r l d . 5
It i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e r e i s a p l a c e f o r a s t r e s s i n e d u c a -
t i o n , b o t h i n a n d o u t o f s c h o o l , o n s u c h e x i s t e n t i a l v i r t u e s , a s w e l l a s
o n t h e a n a l y t i c a l o n e s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e . Th e t w o f a m i l i e s o f d i s p o -
s i t i o n s a r e n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e , f o r a l l t h e o p p o s i t i o n t h e r e m a y b e b e -
t w e e n t h e t w o ki n d s o f p h i l o s o p h y a d v o c a t i n g t h e m . Ev e n t h e
Ha t f i e l d s a n d t h e Mc C o y s h a v e l e a r n e d t o l i v e t o g e t h e r
. In d e e d ,
i f w e w e r e t o a d d t h e s e t w o g r o u p s o f e x c e l l e n c e s t o t h o s e s t r e s s e d
e a r l i e r b y De w e y - s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d , r e g a r d f o r e m p i r i c a l f a c t a n d
e x p e r i m e n t a l v e r i f i c a t i o n , d e m o c r a c y , a n d b e n e v o l e n c e - t h e n
w e
s h o u l d h a v e a l i s t o f m o s t o f t h e d i s p o s i t i o n s o u r s c h o o l s c o u l d b e
e x p e c t e d t o h e l p i n c u l t i v a t i n g . In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , De w e y a n p r a g -
m a t i s m , p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s , a n d e x i s t e n t i a l i s m p r e s e n t u s w i t h
t h r e e c o m p l e m e n t a r y ( a n d e v e n o v e r l a p p i n g ) s e t s o f a t t i t u d e s o r
t r a i t s f o r t h e s c h o o l s t o a i m a t .
O THERREC ENTPHILO SO PHERS
So m e r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s , h o w e v e r , h a v e s o u g h t t o b e m o r e d i -
r e c t l y n o r m a t i v e t h a n t h e a n a l y s t s a n d t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s a n d t o l a y
d o w n e n d s o r p r i n c i p l e s f o r h u m a n c o n d u c t , s o c i a l o r i n d i v i d u a l .
Li ke De w e y , t h e y h a v e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , b e e n u t i l i t a r i a n s i n e t h i c s ,
t h o u g h n o t h e d o n i s t s
. In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y w o u l d h o l d t h a t e d u c a -
t i o n s h o u l d f o s t e r t h o s e a b i l i t i e s a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h m o s t p r o -
m o t e t h e g o o d l i f e f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d
. Th i s g r o u p i n c l u d e s Ra l p h
B a r t o n Pe r r y , B r a n d B l a n s h a r d , P. B . Ri c e , Ar t h u r C a m p b e l l Ga r -
n e t t , A. C
. Ew i n g , J . J
. C
. Sm a r t , a n d p r o b a b l y Ri c h a r d B . B r a n d t .
( So m e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s a r e a t l e a s t v e r y c l o s e t o u t i l i t a r i a n -
i s m , e . g . , St e p h e n To u l m i n , R. M
. Ha r e , a n d P. H. No w e l l - Sm i t h . )
In f a c t , s u c h p h i l o s o p h e r s w o u l d p r o b a b l y s a y t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d
f o s t e r ( a ) t h o s e a b i l i t i e s a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h p u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l
i n a p o s i t i o n t o l i v e t h e b e s t l i f e h e i s c a p a b l e o f , a n d ( b ) t h o s e
w h i c h e q u i p a n d d i s p o s e h i m t o r e s p e c t t h e l i v e s o f o t h e r s a n d p e r -
h a p s e v e n t o h e l p m a ke t h e m a s g o o d a s p o s s i b l e , t o o
5
. J o h n D. W i l d , Ex i s t e n c e a n d t h e W o r l d o f F r e e d o m , p p
. 1 6 4 - 6 5 . En g l e -
w o o d C l i f f s , Ne w J e r s e y : Pr e n t i c e - Ha l l , In c . , 1 9 6 3
.
2 5 0

PHILO SO PHIC ALINQ UIRY


It s h o u l d b e o b s e r v e d i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t o n e m u s t d i s t i n -
g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e m o r a l l y g o o d l i f e a n d t h e g o o d l i f e , e v e n i f t h e y
t e n d t o c o i n c i d e . O n s u c h v i e w s a s w e a r e d i s c u s s i n g , t h e m o r a l l y
g o o d l i f e i s o n e o f s e e ki n g t h e g o o d l i f e f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d a s f a r a s
p o s s i b l e , b u t t h e g o o d l i f e t o b e p r o m o t e d i s n o t s i m p l y t h e m o r a l l y
g o o d l i f e
. W h a t , t h e n , d o t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s i n q u e s t i o n r e g a r d a s t h e
g o o d l i f e ? As i n d i c a t e d , t h e y h a v e u s u a l l y n o t b e e n h e d o n i s t s . Th a t
i s , t h e y u s u a l l y r e f u s e t o e q u a t e t h e g o o d w i t h p l e a s u r e , f o r r e a s o n s
w e c a n n o t g o i n t o h e r e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y h a v e g e n e r a l l y
n o t g o n e t o a n y a n t i h e d o n i s t e x t r e m e
. Th e y m i g h t b e t h o u g h t o f
a s q u a s i - h e d o n i s t s
; f o r m o s t o f t h e m , t h e g o o d o r t h e g o o d l i f e c o n -
s i s t s i n t h e e n d o f w h a t i s d e s i r e d , e n j o y e d , s a t i s f y i n g , o r f o u n d
w o r t h w h i l e , e i t h e r f o r i t s o w n s a ke o r ( a s f o r De w e y ) o n a r e f l e c -
t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e v e r y t h i n g i n v o l v e d . So m e o f t h e m , e . g . ,
Ri c e
a n d C l a r e n c e Ir v i n g Le w i s , t a ke t h e a f f e c t i v e t o n e o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d
e x p e r i e n c e s ( n o t t o b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p l e a s a n t n e s s ) a s t h e c r i t e r i o n
o f t h e i r v a l u e ; o t h e r s , e . g . , Pe r r y a n d De W i t t H. Pa r ke r , t a ke a s t h e
c r i t e r i o n o f t h e i r v a l u e t h e f a c t o f t h e i r b e i n g d e s i r e d o r o f s a t i s f y -
i n g d e s i r e ; a n d s t i l l o t h e r s , e . g . , B l a n s h a r d a n d Ga r n e t t , a r g u e t h a t
t h e c r i t e r i o n i s a ki n d o f s y n t h e s i s o f a f f e c t i v e t o n e w i t h b e i n g d e -
s i r e d o r s a t i s f y i n g d e s i r e . Pe r h a p s t h e r e i s n o t h i n g b a s i c a l l y n e w i n
a l l t h i s , b u t Id o t h i n kt h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s
w o u l d a t l e a s t b e u s e f u l t o t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f
e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s .
Th e r e i s o n e f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e w h i c h h a s f o u n d m u c h f a v o r w i t h
b o t h a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d m o r e n o r m a t i v e o n e s - t h o u g h n o t
w i t h t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s . Th i s i s a p r i n c i p l e w h i c h i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e
g o l d e n r u l e a n d i n K a n t ' s c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a t i v e a n d i s n o w u s u a l l y
r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o r u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n . Th e
i d e a b e h i n d i t i s t h a t , w h e n o n e j u d g e s a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n t o b e
r i g h t , o n e i s t h e r e b y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t a n a c t i o n
o f t h e s a m e ki n d w o u l d b e r i g h t f o r e v e r y o n e i n t h e s a m e ki n d o f
s i t u a t i o n , a n d t h a t o n e c a n n o t r e g a r d a n a c t i o n a s m o r a l l y r i g h t f o r
o n e p e r s o n i n a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n u n l e s s h e i s r e a d y t o s e e i t u n i v e r -
s a l l y a c t e d o n b y o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s
. " W h a t i s r i g h t f o r o n e
p e r s o n m u s t b e r i g h t f o r e v e r y s i m i l a r p e r s o n i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m -
s t a n c e s . " So m e t i m e s t h i s i s r e g a r d e d a s a s u b s t a n t i v e m o r a l p r i n -
c i p l e , e . g . , b y Ma r c u s Ge o r g e Si n g e r ; s o m e t i m e s a s a l o g i c a l " f e a t u r e
F RANK ENA

2 5 1
o f m o r a l l a n g u a g e " w h i c h , b y i t s e l f , h a s n o m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ,
e . g . ,
b y Ha r e , No w e l l - Sm i t h , B e r n a r d Ma y o , a n d p o s s i b l y Le w i s
. In a n y
c a s e , h o w e v e r , i t i s i n s i s t e d t h a t , i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t o n e
s h o u l d d o A, o n e m u s t a s kw h e t h e r o r n o t o n e i s r e a d y t o s e e i t
b e c o m e a u n i v e r s a l l a w
. If o n e i s n o t , t h e n o n e m u s t j u d g e At o b e
w r o n g , o r a t l e a s t a d m i t t h a t h e i s n o t t r y i n g t o d e c i d e t h e q u e s t i o n
o n m o r a l g r o u n d s
. Th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e m a y n o t b e a
s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a n a c t i o n i s r i g h t o r
w h e t h e r o n e ' s a p p r o a c h i s m o r a l , b u t i t i s a n e c e s s a r y o n e
.
Ho w e v e r t h i s m a y b e , i f t h e
p r i n c i p l e o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s
c o r -
r e c t , a s i t s e e m s t o m e t o b e , t h i s f a c t h a s a n i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n
f o r m o r a l e d u c a t i o n w h i c h m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l s
. F o r
i t m e a n s t h a t w e m u s t c u l t i v a t e , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , a d i s p o s i t i o n
t o b e c o n s i s t e n t i n o u r a c t i o n s a n d j u d g m e n t s a n d t o a s ko u r s e l v e s
w h a t m a x i m s w e a r e r e a d y t o s e e u n i v e r s a l l y a d o p t e d - n o t i g n o -
r a n t l y , b u t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f a c t s
.
Re c e n t Ph i l o s o p h y a n d O t h e r ( No n n o r m a t i v e ) Pr e m i s e s
No w , l e t u s s u p p o s e t h a t w e h a v e o u r a x i o l o g i c a l a n d e t h i c a l
p r e m i s e s f o r a n s w e r i n g o u r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e s c h o o l s , w h e t h e r
w e f i n d t h e m i n r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y o r n o t
. Th e n e x t q u e s t i o n i s
w h e t h e r r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f f e r s t h e s c h o o l e d u c a t o r a n y n o n -
n o r m a t i v e p r e m i s e s t h a t b e a r o n h i s p r o b l e m s - p r e m i s e s a b o u t t h e
n a t u r e o f m a n a n d t h e u n i v e r s e , o r a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d l i m i t s o f
kn o w l e d g e
. It m u s t b e p o i n t e d o u t a t o n c e t h a t n o s u c h p r e m i s e s
c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s h a v i n g b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n a n y f i n a l w a y o r e v e n
a s a g r e e d o n b y a l l c o n t e m p o r a r y p h i l o s o p h e r s
. In a s e n s e , t h e n ,
i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e a n y e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l o r m e t a -
p h y s i c a l d o c t r i n e s i n r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y t o w h i c h t h e s c h o o l s m u s t
r e s p o n d b y d r a w i n g o u t t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d p u t t i n g t h e m i n t o
p r a c t i c e
. It m a y b e a d d e d , m o r e o v e r , t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t o r s
m u s t , i n a n y c a s e , b e w a r y o f p r e s u p p o s i n g a n y p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o -
s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h e i s t i c o r o t h e r w i s e , a s a b a s i s f o r t h e i r c o n c l u -
s i o n s a b o u t w h a t i s t o b e t a u g h t o r h o w
.
6
. F o r m o r e a b o u t r e c e n t m o r a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d m o r a l e d u c a t i o n , s e e W i l -
l i a m K
. F r a n ke n a , " To w a r d a Ph i l o s o p h y o f Mo r a l Ed u c a t i o n , "
Ha r v a r d Ed u -
c a t i o n a l Re v i e w s ,
X X V III( F a l l ,
1 9 5 8 ) ,
3 0 0 - 3 1 3 .
2 5 2

PHILO SO PHIC ALINQ UIRY


O n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y i s i n a v e r y b r o a d s e n s e
e m p i r i s t i c i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f r a t i o n a l i s m p r e v a i l -
i n g i n t h e p a s t . It w o u l d r e q u i r e s o m e t e m e r i t y , t h e r e f o r e , f o r a n
e d u c a t o r t o r e s t a n y o f h i s t h e o r i e s o r p r a c t i c e s o n r a t i o n a l i s t i c
p r e m i s e s , e . g . , o n a r a t i o n a l i s t i c v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f m a t h e m a t i c s .
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h e v a r i o u s e m p i r i c i s m s o f
t o d a y , e x c e p t p e r h a p s f o r e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , w o u l d r e q u i r e a n y v e r y
d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l s f r o m t h o s e a l r e a d y
m a d e . An a l y t i c a l l y m i n d e d p h i l o s o p h e r s a r e p e r h a p s m o r e i n s i s t e n t
t h a n e v e r b e f o r e t h a t s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n s a r e t o b e a n s w e r e d b y s c i -
e n t i f i c m e t h o d s , h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s b y h i s t o r i c a l m e t h o d s , a n d s o
f o r t h . Th e y t e n d , h o w e v e r , t o a v o i d s e e ki n g f o r s u b s t a n t i v e e p i s t e -
m o l o g i c a l o r m e t a p h y s i c a l d o c t r i n e s f r o m w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l c o n -
c l u s i o n s c a n b e d r a w n a n d t o l i m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o m o r e p u r e l y a n a -
l y t i c a l a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s , s u c h a s w e s h a l l l o o ka t i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . As f o r e x i s t e n t i a l i s m - i n i t s m o r e e x t r e m e f o r m s ,
a t l e a s t - i t s e e m s t o o f f e r a v i e w o f m a n w h i c h m a ke s i t h a r d t o s e e
h o w e d u c a t i o n c a n p l a y a n y i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n h i s f o r m a t i o n
. It i s
s o a n t i d e t e r m i n i s t i c , s o i n s i s t e n t t h a t m a n i s a c r e a t u r e o f h i s o w n
f r e e u n g u i d e d c h o i c e , t h a t i t e v e n t a l ks a s i f a n i n d i v i d u a l c h o o s e s
h i s n a t u r e a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d t r a i n i n g
o r e v e n o f h e r e d i t y . Th e r e a r e , a s w e s a w , c e r t a i n d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h
i t a d v o c a t e s , b u t i t s a s s e r t i o n o f t h e p r i o r i t y o f e x i s t e n c e t o e s s e n c e
i s s u c h a s t o r e n d e r t h e r o l e o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r f o r m a t i o n u n c l e a r .
In a n y c a s e , h o w e v e r , e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , i n s o f a r a s i t i s w e d d e d t o t h e
p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l m e t h o d , i s s u r p r i s i n g l y l i ke a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y
i n b e i n g a v e r s e t o s p e c u l a t i v e m e t a p h y s i c s i n t h e g r a n d s t y l e . To
q u o t e W i l d a g a i n , t h e f u n c t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y i s " n o t t o e s t a b l i s h
a n o b j e c t i v e s c i e n c e o f b e i n g " o r " a g r e a t s u p e r - s c i e n c e o f t h e u n i -
v e r s e " b u t t o b e " a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e b a s i c , n o e t i c f r e e d o m o f m a n ,
r e f u s i n g t o b e l o c ke d u p p e r m a n e n t l y i n a n y f i x e d f r a m e
. . . " 7
Ph i l o s o p h i c a l An a l y s i s a n d t h e Sc h o o l s
GENERALREMARK S: HO O K ' SC RITIQ UE
In t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , Iw a s l o o ki n g , n o t v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y ,
f o r s w e e p i n g s u b s t a n t i v e p r e m i s e s o r " w o r l d - h y p o t h e s e s , " e s t a b -
7 . W i l d , o p
. c i t
. , p p
. z 2 1 , 1 3
1
.
F RANK ENA 2
5 3
l i s h e d b y r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h m i g h t w e l l b e t a ke n a s p r e m i s e s
f o r d e d u c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s c h o o l s
. No w w e
m u s t l o o ka t t h e w o r ks o f s o - c a l l e d a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s t o s e e
w h a t r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s , i f a n y , t h e y m a y c o n t a i n .
W e m u s t r e m e m b e r h e r e t h a t t h e p u r e r a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s
d o n o t t h i n ko f t h e m s e l v e s a s s e a r c h i n g f o r o r d i s c o v e r i n g a n y s u b -
s t a n t i v e i n s i g h t s o r s y n t h e t i c t r u t h s , f a c t u a l o r n o r m a t i v e . Th i s t h e y
l e a v e t o t h e e m p i r i c a l s c i e n t i s t , t h e h i s t o r i a n , t h e t h e o l o g i a n , t h e
a r t i s t , a n d t h e m o r a l i s t , t h o u g h t h e y a r e , o f c o u r s e , q u i t e r e a d y t o
t r y t o a n a l y z e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s ki n d s o f i n s i g h t s a n d t r u t h s
a t w h i c h t h e s e p e o p l e m a y a r r i v e . Ri g h t l y o r w r o n g l y , t h e y t y p i -
c a l l y t h i n ko f t h e m s e l v e s a s s e e ki n g a n d g a i n i n g i n s i g h t s o f a d i f -
f e r e n t s o r t , v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d a s a n a l y t i c a l , l o g i c a l , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ,
f o r m a l , c o n c e p t u a l , o r l i n g u i s t i c
. To b o r r o w a n e x a m p l e f r o m o n e
o f t h e m
: It i s a n e m p i r i c a l t r u t h t h a t h u m a n b e i n g s o f t e n d r e a m a t
n i g h t , b u t i t i s a c o n c e p t u a l o r l i n g u i s t i c t r u t h t h a t s t o n e s c a n n o t
d r e a m
. Th e v a l i d i t y o f a n y s u c h s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t w o o r
m o r e ki n d s o f i n s i g h t s w o u l d b e q u e s t i o n e d b y s o m e De w e y a n s ;
i t i s , i n f a c t , q u e s t i o n e d b y s o m e a n a l y t i c a l o r n e a r - a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s -
o p h e r s w h o s e v i e w s m a y b e t h o u g h t o f a s p r a g m a t i c o r e v e n a s
" b e y o n d p r a g m a t i s m . " 8 W e c a n n o t d i s c u s s t h i s i s s u e h e r e , o f
c o u r s e , a n y m o r e t h a n w e c a n d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a n a -
l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s a r e m e r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e a n d e l u c i d a t o r y i n w h a t
t h e y d o o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e l e g i s l a t i v e a n d n o r m a t i v e . O u r j o b i s
t o s e e w h a t b e a r i n g t h e i r a n a l y s e s h a v e o n t h e t h i n ki n g a n d p r a c t i c e
o f t h e s c h o o l e d u c a t o r , i f a n y .
Th e i m p o r t a n c e o f a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y f o r t h e s c h o o l e d u c a t o r
h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d a n d s o m e w h a t i m p u g n e d b y Ho o ki n t h e s e c o n d
e d i t i o n o f Ed u c a t i o n f o r Mo d e r n Ma n .
9 In p a r t , h i s c o m p l a i n t i s
t h a t w h a t i s w a n t e d i s a n s w e r s t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s o f a n o r m a -
t i v e s o r t a b o u t t h e a i m s , m e t h o d s , a n d c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t h a t
8 . Mo r t o n Ga b r i e l W h i t e , To w a r d Re u n i o n i n Ph i l o s o p h y , c h a p
. v i i i ( C a m -
b r i d g e , Ma s s a c h u s e t t s : Ha r v a r d Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) ; W i l l a r d V
. 0 . Q u i n e ,
F r o m a Lo g i c a l Po i n t o f V i e w , Es s a y 2 ( C a m b r i d g e , Ma s s a c h u s e t t s
: Ha r v a r d
Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s ,
1 9 5 3 )
9 . Si d n e y Ho o k, Ed u c a t i o n f o r Mo d e r n Ma n , p p .
4 5 - 5 1
. Ne w Yo r k
: Al f r e d
A. K n o p f ,
1 9 6 3 .
2 5 4

PHILO SO PHIC ALINQ UIRY


a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y d o e s n o t a n d c a n n o t p r o v i d e a n s w e r s t o s u c h
p r o b l e m s - e v e n " a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n " c a n n o t d o s o .
He i s r i g h t , i n m y o p i n i o n , i n b o t h p a r t s o f t h i s c o m p l a i n t , b u t i t
d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n i s " m i s c o n -
c e i v e d . " F o r a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s w o u l d b e t h e f i r s t t o s a y t h a t
a n a l y s i s d o e s n o t b y i t s e l f a n s w e r n o r m a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s .
Ne i t h e r d o e s i t f o l l o w t h a t a n a l y s i s i s i r r e l e v a n t t o " t h e t h e o r y a n d
p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n , " f o r , e v e n i f i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o a n s w e r t h e
q u e s t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e , i t m a y s t i l l b e
h e l p f u l
i n d o i n g s o o r e v e n n e c e s s a r y
.
Ho o kd o e s n o t d e n y , i n f a c t h e a d -
m i t s , t h a t c o n c e p t u a l a n d l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s m a y b e v e r y
h e l p f u l i n
p r e v e n t i n g c o n f u s i o n a n d l o o s e n e s s i n e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n ki n g a n d w r i t -
i n g a n d i n e n a b l i n g u s " t o e x p r e s s t h i n g s i n a w a y t h a t l e a d s t o
g r e a t e r s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r t o r e a d i e r i n q u i r y a n d t e s t . " An d t h i s
i s m o s t , i f n o t a l l , o f w h a t a n a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r w o u l d c a r e t o
c l a i m . Al l t h a t n e e d s t o b e a d d e d i s t h a t t h e a n a l y s t s c o u l d c o n f e r
a n u n t o l d b e n e f i t a l o n g t h i s l i n e , a t l e a s t i n t h e a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n a l
t h e o r y , a s a n y o n e c a n s e e b y l o o ki n g a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h o u g h t a n d
e x p r e s s i o n t h a t i n f e c t s s o m u c h o f o u r l i t e r a t u r e o n e d u c a t i o n .
F o r t h e r e s t , Ho o ka r g u e s ( a ) t h a t l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s i s n o t
n e e d e d f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , a n d ( b ) t h a t t h e
f i n d i n g s o f s u c h a n a l y s i s a r e s o m e t i m e s b i z a r r e a n d i n e p t . O n t h e
l a t t e r p o i n t h e i s c e r t a i n l y r i g h t ; b u t h e d o e s n o t c i t e t h e b e s t e x -
a m p l e s o f a n a l y t i c a l w o r ko n s l o g a n s o r o n t h e c o n c e p t o f t e a c h i n g .
Th e a n a l y s e s o f Sc h e f f l e r i n
Th e La n g u a g e o f Ed u c a t i o n 1 0 a n d o f
K o m i s a r i n La n g u a g e a n d C o n c e p t s i n Ed u c a t i o n
1 1 d o n o t e x h i b i t
t h e f a u l t s Ho o kf i n d s i n o t h e r s
. Th e s e a u t h o r s a r e n o l e s s a n a l y t i c a l ,
b u t t h e i r a n a l y s e s a r e m o r e c o m p l e t e . As a c o n t e m p o r a r y F r a n c i s
B a c o n m i g h t p u t i t , t h e r e m e d y f o r a l i t t l e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i s
n o t s o m e t h i n g e l s e b u t g r e a t e r d e p t h i n i t
. Ia l s o f i n d i t h a r d t o b e -
l i e v e t h a t s u c h a n a l y s e s w o u l d n o t b e h e l p f u l i n t h e t h i n ki n g o f
e d u c a t o r s a n d t e a c h e r s
. It w o u l d , n o d o u b t , b e t o o m u c h t o c l a i m
i o . Is r a e l Sc h e f l i e r , Th e La n g u a g e o f Ed u c a t i o n . Sp r i n g f i e l d , Il l i n o i s
: C h a r l e s
C Th o m a s , Pu b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 0 .
i i . B . P
. K o m i s a r , " Ne e d a n d t h e Ne e d s - C u r r i c u l u m , " i n La n g u a g e a n d C o n -
c e p t s i n Ed u c a t i o n , c h a p .
i i . Ed i t e d b y B . O t h a n e l Sm i t h a n d Ro b e r t H . En n i s .
C h i c a g o : Ra n d Mc Na l l y & C o . , 1 9 6 1 .
F RANK ENA

2 5 5
t h a t a n y t e a c h e r n e e d s " t h e b e n e f i t o f l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s t o r e a l i z e
t h a t a c h i l d m a y l e a r n t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s o n t h e d u t i e s o f a g o o d
c i t i z e n c o r r e c t l y y e t h a b i t u a l l y d i s r e g a r d t h e m . . . , " e t c e t e r a . B u t
t h i s i s b e c a u s e h e h a s a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d s o m e c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y , b e -
s i d e s e x p e r i e n c i n g s o m e e m p i r i c a l f a i l u r e . W o u l d i t a l s o b e t o o m u c h
t o c l a i m t h a t m a n y t e a c h e r s ( a n d t h e i r t e a c h e r s ) n e e d m o r e c o n -
c e p t u a l a n d l i n g u i s t i c c l a r i t y t h a n t h e y s h o w w h e n t h e y t a l ka b o u t
w h a t t h e y d o a n d w h y t h e y d o i t ? O r t h a t l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s i s
s o m e t i m e s n e c e s s a r y a t t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , i f n o t o f
p r a c t i c e ? O n t h i s l a s t p o i n t , i t m a y b e e n o u g h t o r e m a r kt h a t Ho o k
h i m s e l f o f t e n f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y t o d o w h a t i s a c t u a l l y a ki n d o f c o n -
c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s . Di d h e n o t , h i s t h o u g h t w o u l d b e m u c h l e s s c l e a r
a n d h i s a r g u m e n t s m u c h l e s s c o g e n t .
SO MEC O NTRIB UTIO NS, AC TUALO RPO SSIB LE
Ho w e v e r t h i s m a y b e , t h e r e i s a t a n y r a t e a g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n
a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a m o n g e d u c a t o r s , a n d i t i s b y n o m e a n s a l l
n e g a t i v e , t h o u g h a p h i l o s o p h e r c a n o n l y s h u d d e r a t s o m e o f t h e
f o r m s i t t a ke s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e v o l u m e , La n g u a g e a n d C o n c e p t s
i n Ed u c a t i o n , t h i s i n t e r e s t i s a t t e s t e d t o i n b o o ks e d i t e d b y J o e Pa r k,
T. H. B . Ho l l i n s , Re g i n a l d D
. Ar c h a m b a u l t , J . E. Mc C l e l l a n , a n d
B . P. K o m i s a r , a s w e l l a s i n p a p e r s b y G . L. Ne w s o m e , C . D. Ha r d i e ,
a n d o t h e r s . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i t i s n o t h a r d t o f i n d p l a c e s i n e d u -
c a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n w h e r e t h e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r c a n m a ke a
c o n t r i b u t i o n .
C o n s i d e r , f o r e x a m p l e , De w e y ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c r i t e r i a o f a n
e d u c a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n Ex p e r i e n c e a n d Ed u c a t i o n
. 1 2
He c o r r e c t l y
p o i n t s o u t t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l e d u c a t i o n c o m e s a b o u t t h r o u g h e x p e -
r i e n c e , n o t a l l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e e d u c a t i v e . Th e n h e s t a t e s t w o g e n e r a l
p r o p o s i t i o n s a b o u t e x p e r i e n c e s , ( a ) t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y ,
w h i c h s a y s t h a t e v e r y e x p e r i e n c e i s a f f e c t e d b y p r e v i o u s e x p e r i -
e n c e s a n d a f f e c t s t h e n a t u r e o f s u b s e q u e n t e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d ( b ) t h e
p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e r a c t i o n , w h i c h s a y s t h a t e v e r y e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e r e -
s u l t o f a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s . B u t ,
1 2 . J o h n De w e y , Ex p e r i e n c e a n d Ed u c a t i o n , c h a p s . n a n d i i i . Ne w Yo r k :
Ma c m i l l a n C o
. , 1 9 3 8 .
2 5 6

PHILO SO PHIC AL INQ UIRY


e v e n t h o u g h h e s e e s t h a t t h e s e t w o p r i n c i p l e s a r e t r u e o f a l l e x p e r i -
e n c e s , De w e y p e r s i s t s i n s p e a ki n g a s i f t h e y c a n a l s o s e r v e a s c r i t e r i a
" b y w h i c h t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h a r e e d u c a t i v e
a n d t h o s e w h i c h a r e m i s - e d u c a t i v e . " He d o e s n o t n o t i c e t h a t t h e
t w o p r i n c i p l e s a r e p u r e l y f a c t u a l , a n d t h a t a n o r m a t i v e p r i n c i p l e i s
a l s o n e e d e d i f o n e i s t o b e a b l e t o t e l l w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e s a r e e d u c a -
t i v e a n d w h i c h a r e n o t ; e . g . , t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a n e x p e r i e n c e m u s t
c o n t r i b u t e t o g r o w t h r a t h e r t h a n t o i t s o p p o s i t e . An a n a l y t i c a l p h i -
l o s o p h e r m i g h t n o t b e a b l e t o s h o w t h a t De w e y i s m i s t a ke n h e r e i n
a n y m a t t e r o f s u b s t a n c e , b u t h e w o u l d h a v e l i t t l e t r o u b l e i n s h o w i n g
t h a t De w e y i s c o n f u s e d a b o u t t h e f o r m i n w h i c h h e p u t s w h a t h e
i s s a y i n g .
C o n s i d e r , a l s o , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n t f r o m Hu t c h i n s , o n e o f
De w e y ' s c r i t i c s : " Ed u c a t i o n i m p l i e s t e a c h i n g . Te a c h i n g i m p l i e s
kn o w l e d g e . K n o w l e d g e i s t r u t h . Th e t r u t h i s e v e r y w h e r e t h e s a m e .
He n c e e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d b e e v e r y w h e r e t h e s a m e . " 1 3 It t a ke s o n l y
a l i t t l e l o g i c t o s h o w t h a t Hu t c h i n s n e e d s a t l e a s t o n e m o r e p r e m i s e
t o e s t a b l i s h h i s c o n c l u s i o n , n a m e l y , t h e n o r m a t i v e p r e m i s e t h a t e v -
e r y o n e s h o u l d b e t a u g h t t h e s a m e t r u t h s , w h i c h i s j u s t t h e q u e s t i o n
a t i s s u e . B u t a l i t t l e m o r e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y - c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s e s
o f " e d u c a t i o n , " " t e a c h i n g , " " kn o w l e d g e , " a n d " t r u t h , " a n d o f t h e i r
r e l a t i o n s t o o n e a n o t h e r - w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w w h e t h e r o r
n o t t h e o r i g i n a l f o u r p r e m i s e s a r e t r u e . It w o u l d t h e n t u r n o u t , I
t h i n k, t h a t t h e y a r e e i t h e r f a l s e o r i n n e e d o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f s u c h
a ki n d a s t o r e n d e r t h e a r g u m e n t q u i t e i n c o n c l u s i v e .
O n e h e s i t a t e s , i n a c a s e l i ke t h i s , t o m e n t i o n o n e ' s o w n w o r k, a n d
Id o s o o n l y b e c a u s e m y a r t i c l e , " Pu b l i c Ed u c a t i o n a n d t h e Go o d
Li f e , " 1 4 h a s f o u n d s o m e f a v o r w i t h e d u c a t o r s
. In i t , Id i s c u s s a
p r o b l e m w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t f o r b o t h " t h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e o f
e d u c a t i o n " i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , n a m e l y , t h e t e a c h i n g o f v a l u e s a n d
m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , a n d m u c h , t h o u g h n o t a l l , o f w h a t Id o i s a n a l y s i s .
Is e e kt o s h o w t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s c a n n o t t e a c h r e -
1 3 . Ro b e r t M. Hu t c h i n s , Th e Hi g h e r Le a r n i n g i n Am e r i c a , p
. 6 6 . Ne w
Ha v e n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Ya l e Un i v e r s i t y Pr e s s ,
1 9 3 6 , 1 9 6 2 .
1 4 . W i l l i a m K . F r a n ke n a , " Pu b l i c Ed u c a t i o n a n d t h e Go o d Li f e , "
Ha r v a r d
Ed u c a t i o n a l Re v i e w , X X X I( F a l l ,
1 9 6 , ) , 4 1 3 - 2 6 .
F RANK ENA

2 5 7
l i g i o n , t h e y c a n s t i l l d o s o m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e t o w a r d p r o m o t i n g
t h e g o o d a n d t h e m o r a l l i f e , a n d t h e a n a l y s i s Iu s e s e e m s t o m e n o t
o n l y h e l p f u l b u t n e c e s s a r y i n m a ki n g t h i s p o i n t . Th e r e s e e m t o m e
t o b e m a n y m o r e e d u c a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h w h i c h
c o n c e p t u a l a n d l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s w o u l d b e u s e f u l
.
An o t h e r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r i s
i n d i c a t e d b y t h e Ed u c a t i o n a l Po l i c i e s C o m m i s s i o n ' s b o o kl e t ,
Mo r a l
a n d Sp i r i t u a l V a l u e s i n t h e Pu b l i c Sc h o o l s
. 1 5 Is ki p o v e r t h e v a g u e -
n e s s o f t h e w o r d " s p