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J e f f e r s o n v i l l e i n D i s t r i c t N o . 1 9
. The bas e pr i c e o f
" s l ac k " c o al i n N e w A l ban y w as f i x e d at $ 1 . 4 5 pe r t o n
an d i n J e f f e r s o n v i l l e at $ 1 . 0 5 pe r t o n
. The bas e pr i c e o f
6 - i n c h l u m p i n I n d i an apo l i s w as f i x e d at $ 2o i o pe r t o n
an d i n B e n D av i s , a s u bu r b, bu t l o c at e d be t w e e n I n d i an -
apo l i s an d t he m i n e s , t he pr i c e w as f i x e d at $ 2 . 3 0 pe r t o n .
S o w i d e s pr e ad w as t he pr o t e s t ag ai n s t t hi s N e w D e al
f r au d an d s o n u m e r o u s t he i n j u n c t i o n s g r an t e d t hat al l
pr i c e s an d al l r e g u l at i o n s af f e c t i n g pr i c e s w e r e c an c e l l e d
by t he C o m m i s s i o n as o f F e br u ar y 25 , 1 9 3 8 . The c o al
i n d u s t r y al r e ad y u n d e r s t an d s t he m e an i n g o f r e g i m e n t a-
t i o n an d c hao s .
N e w D e al m e t ho d s i n t he r e g i m e n t at i o n o f bu s i n e s s
r e c al l t he c l as s i c s t o r y o f C l y d e F i t c h an d a t r o u pe o f
s t r an d e d ac t o r s i n L o u i s v i l l e , K e n t u c k y . The s ho w had
f l o ppe d an d t he t r o u pe l ac k e d s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s t o r e ac h
B r o ad w ay . F i t c h, a g o o d po k e r pl ay e r , c o l l e c t e d al l f u n d s
av ai l abl e , f o u n d a g am e t o hi s l i k i n g an d af t e r a l o n g
t i m e had w o n j u s t abo u t e n o u g h m o n e y f o r t he r e t u r n
t r i p
. H e t ho u g ht he w as pl ay i n g hi s l as t han d . H e had
t hr e e ac e s ag ai n s t an o ppo n e n t w ho l ai d d o w n t w o c l u bs
an d t hr e e s pad e s . W he n he w as abo u t t o t ak e t he po t , he
w as s t o ppe d an d hi s at t e n t i o n c al l e d t o a s i g n o n t he w al l
at hi s bac k , " A n O l d K e n t u c k y B e at s A n y H an d i n t he
D e c k . " I t w as t he n e x pl ai n e d t hat an " O l d K e n t u c k y "
c o n s i s t e d o f t w o c l u bs an d t hr e e s pad e s . I t t o o k ho u r s
t o r e c o u p hi s l o s s t o " O l d K e n t u c k y , " bu t f i n al l y he d r e w
o n e hi m s e l f . W he n he w as abo u t t o t ak e t he po t , hi s
at t e n t i o n w as c al l e d t o an am e n d m e n t w hi c h, t o hi s
s u r pr i s e , had be e n m ad e t o t he s i g n . The r e had be e n
ad d e d i n f i n e pr i n t " O n c e E ac h N i g ht . "
B u s i n e s s i s n o m o r e t han a po k e r g am e i n w hi c h t he
r u l e s ar e be i n g c han g e d e v e r y d ay
. The v as t i n d u s t r i al
e n t e r pr i s e s o f t he c o u n t r y ar e be i n g s u bj e c t e d t o t he
j u v e n i l e c apr i c e o f s c r i v e n e r s , s u d d e n l y e l e v at e d t o t o p
' r an k an d i m po r t an c e , w ho he r e t o f o r e w o u l d hav e be e n
c o n s i d e r e d bad r i s k s f o r a t ho u s an d d o l l ar l o an i n t he i r
ho m e t o w n s . O n e o f t he W hi t e H o u s e s t at e s m e n o w e s
8 3
hi s i m po r t an c e an d pr e s t i g e t o hi s abi l i t y t o pl ay t he
pi an o
. V e r y l i t t l e i s y e t t o be d o n e t o c o m pl e t e a F as c i s t
s t at e . The r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e be t w e e n t he s t at u s o f
i n d u s t r y he r e an d i n I t al y , o r G e r m an y , bu t t he ad v an t ag e
o f abi l i t y i n t he s t at e ad m i n i s t r at i o n o f i n d u s t r y i s i n
R o m e an d B e r l i n , n o t i n W as hi n g t o n . I t i s har d t o be -
l i e v e an y m an , e n j o y i n g t he s u pr e m e po w e r , as d o e s
F r an k l i n I , c o u l d hav e as s e m bl e d s o m an y s t u pi d c o u r t i e r s
;
o r r at he r t hat hav i n g as s e m bl e d t he m , he w o u l d hav e
e n t r u s t e d t he m w i t h s u c h v as t r e s po n s i bi l i t i e s . I n I t al y
an d G e r m an y , t he s t at u s o f i n d u s t r y i s t hat o f m i l i t ar y
s o c i al i s m , i
. e . ,
d i c t at o r s hi p o r C ae s ar i s m , bu t i n n e i t he r
c o u n t r y i s t he r e an y t hi n g appr o ac hi n g t he c hao s t hat
o bt ai n s i n t he s o f t c o al i n d u s t r y .
L abo r has be e n r e g i m e n t e d w hi l e i n pu r s u i t o f w ag e s
an d ho u r s bai t d an g l e d be f o r e i t by t he N e w D e al
. D e
L o s s W al k e r o n c e s i l e n c e d a l abo r r ac k e t e e r w ho w as
d i r e c t i n g a s t r i k e an d w ho had c o m pl ai n e d abo u t t he
hi g h s al ar i e s pai d e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s f o r m an ag e m e n t ,
e n g i n e e r i n g , l e g al c o u n s e l , ad v e r t i s i n g an d s al e s . The
t o t al am o u n t w as f o u n d t o appr o x i m at e $ 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
. 0 0
an n u al l y w hi c h, had i t be e n d i v i d e d e q u al l y am o n g t he
c o m pan y ' s o t he r e m pl o y e s , w o u l d hav e i n c r e as e d t he
d ai l y w ag e o f e ac h pe r s o n e x ac t l y f o u r c e n t s
. W al k e r
s i l e n c e d a ho s t i l e au d i e n c e by o f f e r i n g a t w e n t y d o l l ar
bi l l t o an y o n e w ho w o u l d n am e a s i n g l e m an o r w o m an
w ho e v e r be c am e a s u c c e s s i n l i f e by w o r k i n g o n l y t hi r t y
ho u r s a w e e k . '
The f ar m e r s ar e i n pr o c e s s o f be i n g c o m pl e t e l y r e g i -
m e n t e d i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f s u bs i d i e s , c o n t r o l l e d ac r e ag e
an d pr i c e s an d n u m e r o u s f i n an c i al g r at u i t i e s d i s t r i bu t e d
by Mr
. W al l ac e . A n y n at i o n w hi c h w o u l d s pe n d m o n e y
o n e d u c at i o n f o r ag r i c u l t u r e , o n s o i l c o n s e r v at i o n an d
i r r i g at i o n , o n t he e r ad i c at i o n o f pl an t pe s t s an d , at t he
s am e t i m e , m ai n t ai n a s y s t e m o f c r o p c o n t r o l an d c o m pe l
1 " Me n an d Man ag e m e n t , " an ad d r e s s by D e L o s s W al k e r , as s o c i at e e d i t o r ,
L i be r t y .
8 4
t he d e s t r u c t i o n o f s u r pl u s pr o d u c t s , n o t o n l y i s d e c ad e n t
bu t i t s l e ad e r s hi p i s i n s an e .
The u n e m pl o y e d hav e be e n r e g i m e n t e d as a c o n s e -
q u e n c e o f t he d o l e , r e s e t t l e m e n t s , e m pl o y m e n t o n g o v -
e r n m e n t pr o j e c t s an d e n t e r pr i s e s o f d i v e r s c har ac t e r
e s t abl i s he d by t he g o v e r n m e n t . A n o t abl e be g i n n i n g
has be e n m ad e t o r e g i m e n t y o u t h .
A l l i n d u s t r y e n j o y i n g a n at i o n al m ar k e t has be e n
par t i al l y r e g i m e n t e d t hr o u g h t he o pe r at i o n s o f t he N a-
t i o n al L abo r R e l at i o n s B o ar d an d t he s o - c al l e d S o c i al
S e c u r i t y A c t . L o n g ag o , t he c o m m e r c i al ban k s w e r e
c o m pl e t e l y r e g i m e n t e d i n a pr o g r am o f r e g u l at i o n an d
t hr o u g h l o an s an d e n f o r c e d r e q u i r e m e n t s , w hi c h l e av e
t he ban k e r w i t h n o m o r e i n d e pe n d e n c e t han a r o bo t .
The r ai l r o ad s w e r e al r e ad y r e g i m e n t e d bu t t he s t r an g l e
ho l d o f t he g o v e r n m e n t has be e n t i g ht e n e d . I f Mr .
R o o s e v e l t f ai l e d i n hi s d i r e c t as s au l t o n t he S u pr e m e
C o u r t , he n e v e r t he l e s s has s u c c e e d e d i n r e g i m e n t i n g t hat
l as t bu l w ar k o f f r e e d o m , be c au s e o f t he r e s i g n at i o n s o f
t w o m e m be r s , t he d e at h o f an o t he r an d t he g r ad u al w e ak -
e n i n g o f m o r al e am o n g o t he r ag i n g m e m be r s o f t he
C o u r t . The F e d e r al d i s t r i c t c o u r t s an d c o u r t s o f ap-
pe al s hav e g r ad u al l y be e n r e g i m e n t e d t hr o u g h P r e s i -
d e n t i al appo i n t m e n t s . V ac an c i e s i n t he pas t f i v e y e ar s
g e n e r al l y hav e be e n f i l l e d w i t h po l i c e c o u r t l aw y e r s , o r
l aw y e r s w i t h n o pr ac t i c e w ho had n o u r i s he d pe r s o n al
g r u d g e s ag ai n s t t he s u c c e s s f u l po r t i o n o f s o c i e t y . O t he r s
had be e n e n g ag e d , pr i n c i pal l y , i n s u bv e r s i v e po l i t i c al
ac t i v i t y .
S u bs t an t i al l y al l t hat i s n o w n e e d e d t o m ak e t he F as c i s t
s t at e c o m pl e t e i n A m e r i c a i s c e n s o r s hi p . The F e d e r al
C o m m u n i c at i o n s C o m m i s s i o n , hav i n g f e l t o u t i t s po w e r
i n t he r ad i o f i e l d , m ay at t e n d t o t he l ar g e r an d f i n al
u n d e r t ak i n g . The n e c e s s ar y ag e n c y al r e ad y e x i s t s . D o r o -
t hy Tho m ps o n i s i n c l i n e d t o f av o r c e n s o r s hi p f o r o r t he
l i q u i d at i o n o f t he R e v . C har l e s E . C o u g hl i n w ho has al -
r e ad y be e n bar r e d f r o m s o m e J e w i s h- o w n e d o r J e w i s h-
8 5
c o n t r o l l e d r ad i o s t at i o n s , n o t abl y W MC A o f t he K n i c k e r -
bo c k e r B r o ad c as t i n g C o m pan y o f w hi c h D o n al d F l am m ,
a m e m be r o f Mr
. R o o s e v e l t ' s N R A
ad m i n i s t r at i v e bo ar d i n
1 9 3 3 , i s pr e s i d e n t .
D u r i n g t he t w e n t i e s , t he i n v e s t m e n t ban k e r s o f A m e r -
i c a w e r e g u i l t y
. o f s o m an y c r i m e s an d m i s d e m e an o r s t hat
a d e s e r v e d pu n i s hm e n t w o u l d hav e ac c o m pl i s he d w hat
t he S e c u r i t i e s * an d E x c han g e C o m m i s s i o n , w i t h m o r e
po l i t e n e s s bu t e q u al e f f e c t , has s u c c e e d e d i n d o i n g ,
i . e . ,
c l o s e t he i r m ar t s c o m pl e t e l y t o n e w i n d u s t r i e s i n n e e d
o f c api t al
. The r e i s t hi s d i f f e r e n c e
. The i n f l i c t i o n o f
d e s e r v e d pu n i s hm e n t w o u l d hav e c l o s e d u p t he s ho ps o f
al l m e r c han t s i n s t o c k c e r t i f i c at e s an d d e be n t u r e s , w he r e as ,
t he S e c u r i t i e s an d E x c han g e C o m m i s s i o n has c l o s e d o n l y
t ho s e s ho ps w he r e t he y w e r e ac c u s t o m e d t o l i s t e n t o
u n d e r t ak i n g s o f l e s s t han a m i l l i o n d o l l ar s
.
I n t he C o o l i d g e d ay s , al l u n d e r w r i t e r s w e r e al s o br o k e r s
o r ban k e r s an d v i c e v e r s a .
The d u al e f f o r t m ad e i t
po s s i bl e t o o pe r at e at a pr o f i t
. S i n c e u n d e r w r i t i n g ,
br o k e r ag e an d ban k i n g w e r e s e par at e d by l aw , t he s m al l
u n d e r w r i t e r has f o u n d i t i m po s s i bl e t o c o n t i n u e i n bu s i -
n e s s .
The s m al l bu s i n e s s m an t he r e by l o s t hi s o n l y
pr o s pe c t f o r f i n an c i n g a n e w e n t e r pr i s e , o r f o r t hat m at -
t e r , r e f i n an c i n g an o l d bu t e s t abl i s he d s m al l e n t e r pr i s e .
The v e r y l ar g e m e r c han t i n s t o c k c e r t i f i c at e s an d d e be n -
t u r e s has s u r v i v e d , e v e n i f hi s s he l v e s ar e n o w o v e r s t o c k e d
w i t h u n s al abl e m e r c han d i s e
. B u t t he e c o n o m i c r e s u l t
o n t he w ho l e c o u n t r y o f s hu t t i n g o f f t he s o u r c e o f m o n e y
t o t he s m al l bu s i n e s s m an u n d o u bt e d l y has be e n d i s -
as t r o u s t o pe r m an e n t r e c o v e r y .
E ar n i n g s w hi c h w e r e l o s t i n pr i v at e s pe c u l at i o n i n t he
g e t - r i c h- q u i c k pr o m o t i o n s o f t he i n v e s t m e n t ban k e r s i n
t he t w e n t i e s ar e n o w be i n g c o n f i s c at e d an d s q u an d e r e d
by t he N e w D e al t ax g at he r e r s . The pu bl i c has g ai n e d
n o t hi n g f r o m a s u bs t i t u t i o n o f t he g o v e r n m e n t f o r t he
pl ac e o n c e he l d by t he par t n e r s hi p o f pr i v at e pr o m o t e r
an d i n v e s t m e n t ban k e r . I n e i t he r c as e , t he e ar n i n g s o f
t he i n d i v i d u al ar e l o s t . The S e c u r i t i e s an d E x c han g e
8 6
C o m m i s s i o n i s an abs u r d ag e n c y c r e at e d t o pe r f o r m i m -
po s s i bl e f u n c t i o n s , t hat i s , f u n c t i o n s w hi c h ar e i m po s s i bl e
o u t s i d e t he pl ay r o o m .
I t w as am u s i n g t o c o n t e m pl at e an d c o n s i d e r t he ap-
par e n t s e r i o u s n e s s i n w hi c h W i l l i am 0 . D o u g l as , f o r m e r
c hai r m an o f t he C o m m i s s i o n , an d l at e l y e l e v at e d t o t he
Un i t e d S t at e s S u pr e m e C o u r t , w e n t abo u t t he j o b o f
t r an s f o r m i n g t he pe r s o n n e l o f W al l S t r e e t , c as t i n g o u t t he
d e v i l s f r o m B r o ad an d W i l l i am s t r e e t s an d r e ac hi n g o u t
n o w an d ag ai n t o L aS al l e S t r e e t t o e x o r c i s e t he m i n o r
i m ps . I n hi s e ar l i e r r o l e , D o u g l as s e e m e d t o e n j o y hi m -
s e l f as m u c h as " S o c k l e s s " J e r r y S i m ps o n an d o l d B o b
L aF o l l e t t e i n t he i r be r s e r k r o l e s w he n P o pu l i s m an d
pu bl i c u t i l i t y r e g u l at i o n f i r s t f e t c he d t he z an i e s t o t he
po l l s .
The c ar e e r s o f R i c har d W hi t n e y , S e r g e S t av i s k y , I v ar
K r u e g e r an d P hi l i p Mu s i c a ( al i as F . D o n al d C o s t e r ) , w ho
hav e s t r u t t e d ac r o s s t he d o m e s t i c an d f o r e i g n s t ag e w i t hi n
t he m e m o r y o f t he l i v i n g g e n e r at i o n , pr o v e t he f u t i l i t y
o f l aw t o c o n t r o l hu m an pas s i o n . E v e n t he l e ar n e d N e w
D e al e r , A d o l ph A . B e r l e , J r
. , s u f f e r s f r o m m i s pl ac e d
c o n f i d e n c e i n hi s f o r m e r s e c r e t ar y w ho s t o l e $ 8 o , o o o
. o o
o f pu bl i c f u n d s be f o r e hi s d e f al c at i o n s w e r e d i s c o v e r e d .
The ho pe f u l Mr . D o u g l as , ho w e v e r , i n c l i n e s t o " be t t e r
au d i t s an d ac c o u n t i n g " ' as a r e m e d y f o r hu m an v i c e s .
L i k e t he S o c i al i s t s , t he " l i be r al s , " t he pr o g r e s s i v e s , t he
u pl i f t e r s an d w o r l d i m pr o v e r s , he pe r s i s t s i n t he f ai t h
t hat s o m e n e w an d u n t r i e d f o r m u l a, r e d u c e d t o l aw o r
an ad m i n i s t r at i v e c o d e , w i l l c l e an s e t he hu m an he ar t .
The f o u n d i n g f at he r s w ho e m phas i z e d t he i m po r t an c e o f
m i n i m u m g o v e r n m e n t w e r e m u c h w i s e r t han t he i r g u l l i -
bl e g r e at - g r an d s o n s .
B e g i n n i n g w i t h P o pu l i s m an d e n d i n g w i t h t he N e w
D e al , s o m e c u r i o u s phe n o m e n a hav e e m e r g e d t o be s m e ar
t he d e v i l s w ho hav e be l o n g e d i n w hat w e k n o w , n o w as
t he u ppe r i n c o m e br ac k e t s
. The pl i g ht o f t he r ai l r o ad s
af t e r f i f t y y e ar s o f " r e g u l at i o n , " t he s ad s t at e o f t he
2
Un i t e d P r e s s d i s pat c h, D e c e m be r 1 7 ,
1 9 3 8 -
8
7
pu bl i c u t i l i t i e s af t e r t hi r t y y e ar s o f " r e g u l at i o n , " t he
c o n f u s i o n br e d by po l i t i c al i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h al l bu s i n e s s
ar e m e an i n g l e s s t o t he e x - pe d ag o g u e , w ho o c c u pi e d t he
N o . i s e at o f t he S e c u r i t i e s an d E x c han g e C o m m i s s i o n .
S u f f i c i e n t i n g e n u i t y an d r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s hav e s u r v i v e d
t o d at e t o pr o v i d e t he c o u n t r y w i t h t r an s po r t at i o n t hat
has n o r i v al an d w i t h e l e c t r i c , g as , w at e r an d t e l e pho n e
s e r v i c e at r at e s t hat hav e n o par al l e l bu t t hi s i n g e n u i t y
an d t hi s r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s ar e abo u t t o be d e s t r o y e d , " r e g u -
l at e d " t o e x t i n c t i o n
. L i k e an y f e t i s h, " r e g u l at i o n , " par -
t i c u l ar l y " r e g u l at i o n " by po l i t i c i an s , has i n he r e n t l i m i t a-
t i o n s . The l i m i t at i o n s ar e i n he r e n t be c au s e " r e g u l at i o n "
d e pe n d s u po n t he w hi m s an d c apr i c e o f v ai n g l o r i o u s m e n
w ho , n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y , ar e al s o s t u pi d , c l u m s y an d c o r -
r u pt . W hat has be e n g ai n e d f r o m t he s u pe r - g o v e r n m e n t
bu i l d e d i n t he pas t f i f t y y e ar s ? W hat i s t o be g ai n e d f r o m
t he bu r e au c r ac y ad d e d t o i t by t he N e w D e al ?
f
The G o v e r n o r o f Mi c hi g an , t o o c o w ar d l y o r t o o m u d -
d l e d t o d r i v e t he s i t - d o w n s t r i k e r s o u t o f i n d u s t r i al pl an t s
s o t he y c o u l d o pe r at e , c o n j u r e d u p t he i m pe r t i n e n c e t o
s ay t he g o v e r n m e n t " w i l l be c o m pe l l e d t o e x e r c i s e i t s
he l pf u l an d r e as o n abl e i n f l u e n c e " t o pr e v e n t t he w i d e -
s w i n g i n g e c o n o m i c c y c l e i f i n d u s t r y f ai l s " v o l u n t ar i l y "
t o s o l v e t he pr o bl e m
. W ho be l i e v e s t he " g o v e r n m e n t "
i s c apabl e o f s o l v i n g an y s e r i o u s pr o bl e m af t e r r e pe at e d
r u s t r at i o n s s i n c e Mar c h 4 ,
1 9 3 3 ? Mr
. R o o s e v e l t has
r e w ar d e d t he c o w ar d i c e an d s t u pi d i t y o f f o r m e r G o v -
e r n o r Mu r phy by e l e v at i n g hi m t o a s e at i n t he c abi n e t i n
c har g e o f al l n at i o n al l aw e n f o r c e m e n t s
.
I f Mu r phy an d D o u g l as , f o r e x am pl e , c o u l d r e m e m be r
" t hat g o v e r n m e n t i s be s t w hi c h g o v e r n s l e as t , " as t he
f o u n d e r o f t he D e m o c r at i c par t y s ai d l o n g ag o , an d w hi c h
t he w ho l e pi t i abl e l o t o f bu r e au c r at i c s y c o phan t s i g n o r e ,
C o he n , R o o s e v e l t an d C o r c o r an w o u l d s o o n f i n d t he m -
s e l v e s l o o k i n g f o r n e w j o bs , an d S o n J i m m i e an d E l e an o r
w o u l d hav e m o r e f r e e d o m f o r H o l l y w o o d an d t he i r i n -
s u r an c e bu s i n e s s
. I t i s a m at t e r o f s u pr e m e i n d i f f e r e n c e
8 8
t o t he c o u n t r y w he t he r i t i s r o bbe d by " bl u e s k y " pr o -
m o t e r s o pe r at i n g i n a pr i v at e c apac i t y o r by t he W as hi n g -
t o n g o v e r n m e n t o pe r at i n g u n d e r C o n g r e s s i o n al s an c t i o n
i f , i n f ac t , r o bbe r y i s an i n e s c apabl e be t e n o i r e . A f t e r al l ,
t he N e w D e al bu r e au c r at s hav e m e r e l y ad o pt e d f o r o f -
f i c i al u s e t he pr i v at e c o d e i n t r o d u c e d by J i m F i s k e , J ay
G o u l d an d t he i r pu n y i m i t at o r s o f t he l at e t w e n t i e s .
N o r s ho u l d t he r e be an y s u r pr i s e be c au s e t he R e c o n -
s t r u c t i o n F i n an c e C o r po r at i o n has f ai l e d t o pe r f o r m i t s
f u n c t i o n s an d t o be o f an y r e al u s e t o t he c o u n t r y . Thi s
ag e n c y w as c o n c e i v e d by po o r Mr . H o o v e r , i n t he s l o u g h
o f d e s po n d
. A l l i t d i d d u r i n g hi s ad m i n i s t r at i o n w as t o
s av e t he D aw e s f am i l y by ad v an c i n g t he i r ban k $ g o , o o o ;
o o o . o o o n f r o z e n as s e t s
. S i n c e t he n , u n d e r t he ad m i n i s -
t r at i o n o f t he d i s t i n g u i s he d " bu i l d e r " f r o m Te x as , t he
H o n . J e s s e J o n e s , i t has he l pe d o u t o t he r ban k s , o n t he
t he o r y appar e n t l y t hat ban k s o l v e n c y i s s u f f i c i e n t t o
r e s t o r e c r e d i t an d c o n f i d e n c e . J o n e s w as q u o t e d as
s ay i n g , " H o n e s t l y , I c an ' t s e e w hat ' s be hi n d t hi s bu s i -
n e s s r e c e s s i o n
. C e r t ai n l y , t he c o n d i t i o n s t hat e x i s t e d bac k
i n 1 9 3 2 d o n ' t e x i s t n o w . " J o n e s o v e r l o o k s w hat s ho u l d
be o bv i o u s t o a f r e s hm an s t u d e n t i n e c o n o m i c s , n am e l y ,
an i n c r e as e d g o v e r n m e n t d e bt o f $ 20 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 pl u s
an e x t r a bu r d e n o f w ag e s , t ax e s , u n e m pl o y m e n t an d N e w
D e al r e f o r m s w hi c h i n d u s t r y n o w has t o s u ppo r t .
A d d i t i o n al ac c o u n t i n g e x pe n s e m ad e n e c e s s ar y by N e w
D e al e x pe r i m e n t at i o n i n r e f o r m has e m bar r as s e d a l e g i o n
o f s m al l i n d u s t r i e s w hi c h w e r e u n abl e t o av o i d t he e m -
pl o y m e n t o f o n e o r m o r e n e w c l e r k s o r bo o k k e e pe r s , i n
o r d e r t o k e e p u p w i t h t he d e m an d s o f W as hi n g t o n f o r
n e w an d v o l u m i n o u s r e po r t s
. Thi s n e w bu r d e n , pl u s
t he o v e r w he l m i n g n e w bu r d e n o f t ax at i o n , an d r e po r t s
m ad e n e c e s s ar y o n ac c o u n t o f i t , hav e c hi l l e d t he e n -
t hu s i as m , n o t al o n e o f E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t s bu t L i t t l e
B u s i n e s s as w e l l
. The bu r d e n has be e n par t i c u l ar l y
o n e r o u s i n t he s o - c al l e d m ar g i n al s m al l i n d u s t r i e s , t ho s e
i n w hi c h pr o f i t s w e r e al r e ad y n e ar t he v an i s hi n g po i n t .
8 9
Man y s u c h m ar g i n al i n d u s t r i e s hav e f o l d e d u p, t he r e by
s hi f t i n g t he i r e m pl o y e e s f r o m a pr i v at e t o t he pu bl i c
pay r o l l .
A m e r i c an bu s i n e s s m an ag e m e n t i s ac c u s t o m e d t o d o
l i t t l e pr o f o u n d t hi n k i n g o u t s i d e t he d o m ai n o f s t r i c t l y
v o c at i o n al e n d e av o r . The r e ar e m an y r e as o n s f o r t hi s .
L i k e t he n o r m al ho m o s api e n s , A m e r i c an bu s i n e s s m an -
ag e m e n t , o u t s i d e t he f ac t o r y , t he s t o r e , an d t he o f f i c e , has
f o c u s e d i t s at t e n t i o n o n s t r i c t l y pe r s o n al m at t e r s , o n bi r t hs ,
d e at hs , m ar r i ag e s an d d i v o r c e s , e v e n t he i m pr o v e m e n t o f
t he f am i l y ' s s o c i al po s i t i o n . L u n c he o n s pe ak e r s o f t he
C ham be r s o f C o m m e r c e , R o t ar y an d K i w an n i s hav e s at i s -
f i e d t he d e m an d f o r i n t e l l e c t u al i n s pi r at i o n . S e r i o u s
t hi n k i n g i n t he r e l at e d f i e l d s o f e d u c at i o n , e c o n o m i c s ,
po l i t i c al e c o n o m y an d po l i t i c s has be e n l e f t l ar g e l y t o
pe d ag o g u e s an d t o t he r abbl e r o u s e r s o f o r g an i z e d m i n o r -
i t y g r o u ps e m pl o y e d t o m i x e n t e r t ai n m e n t , d i s t o r t e d f ac t s
an d bad l o g i c i n s u c h pr o po r t i o n s t hat G e o r g e W . B abbi t t
i s q u i c k l y c o n v e r t e d an d , w he n s e e n pr i v at e l y , w i l l o pe n
hi s pu r s e o r g i v e w hat e v e r r e s po n s e i s d e s i r e d . F i n al l y , t he
m e n t al pr o c e s s e s w hi c h hav e be e n n e c e s s ar y t o pr o d u c e
t he m ac hi n e pr o babl y ar e an t i t he t i c al t o t he m e n t al
pr o c e s s e s n e c e s s ar y t o d e v e l o p a m an o f d e e p w i s d o m .
The r e i s pe r haps a d e e p s i g n i f i c an c e i n t he i n c l i n at i o n o f
t he i n d u s t r i al m an ag e r t o s e e k t he g o l f c o u r s e , o r t he
n i g ht c l u b o r t he bal l r o o m , r at he r t han t he l i br ar y , w he n
he l e av e s t he f ac t o r y , t he s t o r e o r t he o f f i c e . '
8 O n J u n e s o , 1 9 3 8 , D r
. V i r g i l J o r d an , P r e s i d e n t o f t he N at i o n al I n d u s t r i al
C o n f e r e n c e B o ar d , pr e s e n t e d w hat m ay be r e g ar d e d as t he pr e v ai l i n g po i n t
o f v i e w o f t he A m e r i c an bu s i n e s s m an be f o r e t he Un i o n L e ag u e C l u b o f
C hi c ag o . H e t r ac e d t he c u r r e n t i l l s o f t he A m e r i c an pe o pl e t o t he W o r l d
W ar an d ad v o c at e d an aw ak e n i n g o f pr i v at e e n t e r pr i s e as a par t i al r e m e d y .
That t he W o r l d W ar ac c e l e r at e d s o m e w hat t he r av ag e s o f a d i s e as e , al r e ad y
f ar ad v an c e d at t he o u t br e ak o f t he w ar , i s u n d o u bt e d l y t r u e . The w ar w as
e q u i v al e n t r o u g hl y t o an u n e x pe c t e d e x po s u r e o f a pat i e n t , w ho s e l i f e al -
r e ad y w as e bbi n g aw ay . D r . J o r d an v e r y w e l l d i ag n o s e s t he i l l n e s s o f t he
pat i e n t bu t t he s u g g e s t e d c u r e d o e s n o t m at c h t he s e r i o u s n e s s an d ho pe l e s s n e s s
o f t he m al ad y . N o o n e w o u l d e x pe c t a c han g e o f d i e t t o c u r e a d i s e as e k n o w n
t o be i n c u r abl e . The pr o pe r c au s e s o f t he d i s e as e l o n g c hr o n i c am o n g A m e r i -
c an pe o pl e ar e ( a) e x t e n s i o n o f t he s u f f r ag e ( m o r e d e m o c r ac y ) t o t he m as s e s
w ho hav e be e n u n f i t t e d t o e x e r c i s e t he pr i v i l e g e s o f c i t i z e n s hi p an d ( b) bl i n d
r e l i an c e u po n " u n i v e r s al e d u c at i o n " t o pr e par e t he u n f i t m as s e s f o r t he r e -
9 o
H u m an c apac i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g an d m an ag i n g i n d u s t r i al
e n t e r pr i s e , w he n t r an s l at e d i n t o ac t i o n , i s e q u i v al e n t t o
t he e m pl o y m e n t o f t he u n e m pl o y e d an d t hi s hu m an
c apac i t y g e n e r al l y v ar i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t he appl i c abl e i n -
c o m e t ax r at e
. The m ax i m u m t ax r at e i s n o w s e v e n t y -
n i n e pe r c e n t o f pe r s o n al i n c o m e
. The i n e v i t abl e c o n s e -
q u e n c e o f s u c h e x t o r t i o n i s t he e l i m i n at i o n o f o u r abl e s t
d i r e c t o r s an d m an ag e r s f r o m t he i n d u s t r i al f i e l d s i n c e o n l y
a f o o l w o u l d as s u m e t he bu s i n e s s r i s k s i n c i d e n t t o t he
r e m ai n i n g t w e n t y - o n e pe r c e n t , al l t hat i s l e f t f o r m ax i -
m u m t al e n t an d e f f o r t .
Thu s ar e t he e f f e c t s s u f f e r e d by t he w ho l e c o u n t r y f r o m
t he o f f han d , o f f - t he - r e c o r d an d f l i ppan t s t at e s m an s hi p t hat
s pr i n g s f r o m pr e s s c o n f e r e n c e s i n W as hi n g t o n . I t has
be e n c al l e d " g o v e r n m e n t by hu n c he s . " W hat e v e r i t i s ,
t he w ho l e c o u n t r y i s o n i t s w ay t o t he s k i l l e t , t o s i z z l e
an d f r y i n i t s o w n g r e as e
.
Mo s t o f t he N e w D e al " e c o n o m i s t s " t u r n t he i r bac k s o n
o u r ho r s e - an d - bu g g y d ay s bu t t he y d o n o t av o i d t he c o n -
f u s i o n t hat ar i s e s f r o m pu t t i n g t he c ar t be f o r e t he ho r s e .
The y hav e w e ar i e d t he c o u n t r y w i t h t he i r i n c e s s an t
c l am o r t hat c o n s u m pt i o n m u s t be e x pan d e d an d hav e
t o t al l y i g n o r e d i t s d e pe n d e n c e u po n
pr o d u c t i o n .
The
m as s appe t i t e i s s t i l l v e r y he al t hy an d g l u t t o n y n e e d s n o
e n c o u r ag e m e n t . O u r d o m e s t i c e c o n o m y g ai n s n o t hi n g
f r o m ar t i f i c i al r e s t r ai n t s o n pr o d u c t i o n an d ar t i f i c i al
s t i m u l at i o n o f t he hu m an appe t i t e . I n c r e as e d c o n s u m p-
t i o n , i n d u e c o u r s e , m u s t f o l l o w an d n o t pr e c e d e t he
par ad e o f i n c r e as e d pr o d u c t i o n . A l l o f w hi c h m ay n o t
ac c o r d w i t h t he pr o f o u n d l e ar n i n g o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s
J e w i s h e c o n o m i s t s bu t i t w i l l be f ai r l y c l e ar t o m o s t o f
o u r i n ar t i c u l at e A m e r i c an s
.
N o t s o l o n g ag o w e had a " w ar t o e n d w ar s , " o n e t o
" m ak e t he w o r l d s af e f o r d e m o c r ac y " an d a " pe ac e w i t h-
s po n s i bi l i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s hi p
. S u c h an e x ho r t at i o n as t hat o f D r
. J o r d an m ay
e v o k e d e s e r v e d appl au s e at t he m o m e n t bu t i f " A m e r i c an bu s i n e s s m an ag e -
m e n t as a w ho l e has s o f ar f ai l e d t o f u l f i l l t he f u l l m e as u r e o f i t s r e s po n s i bi l i t y
t o t he A m e r i c an pe o pl e , " as he as s e r t s , s o m e t hi n g m o r e s t i m u l at i n g t han a
r e m i n d e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o ar o u s e i t s ac t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s
.
9 1
o u t v i c t o r y " y e t t w e n t y y e ar s l at e r w e hav e Mu s s o l i n i
" c o m pe l l e d t o d e f e n d " hi m s e l f ag ai n s t a r am pan t N e g u s
o f t he C o pt i c C hr i s t i an s i n A by s s i n i a, J apan c o n d u c t i n g a
" d e f e n s i v e " w ar f ar e i n C hi n a be c au s e t he C hi n e s e f ai l t o
" c o - o pe r at e , " H i t l e r ' s s e i z i n g A u s t r i a an d d e s i r abl e po r -
t i o n s o f C z e c ho s l o v ak i a an d a w o r l d w i d e c o n t e s t i n ar m a-
m e n t bu i l d i n g t o pr e par e f o r an o t he r w o r l d w ar
. A t n o
o t he r t i m e s i n c e t he bi r t h o f C hr i s t , e x c e pt f o r t he ac t u al
d u r at i o n o f t he W o r l d W ar , has t he c i v i l i z e d w o r l d
e q u al l e d i t s c u r r e n t o u t l ay f o r i n s t r u m e n t s o f hu m an
d e s t r u c t i o n .
S i n c e t he W o r l d W ar be g an , i n t e r n at i o n al t r e at i e s
hav e l o s t al l bi n d i n g f o r c e an d e f f e c t
. The t r e at y w he r e i n
t he n e u t r al i t y o f B e l g i u m w as g u ar an t e e d w as t r e at e d as
a " s c r ap o f pape r " by t he i n v ad i n g G e r m an ar m i e s an d
s i n c e t he n , i n s pi t e o f t he s o l e m n i t y o f i n t e r n at i o n al
c o n f e r e n c e s an d t he r i g i d ag r e e m e n t s t hat hav e f o l l o w e d ,
t r e at i e s hav e c e as e d t o hav e an y m e an i n g
. The s o v e r e i g n
po w e r s c o n t i n u e t o m ak e t r e at i e s w i t h n o i n t e n t i o n o f
f u l f i l l i n g t he i r t e r m s be y o n d t he t i m e w he n t he y hav e
ac q u i r e d t he m i l i t ar y s t r e n g t h t o r e pu d i at e s u c h po r t i o n s
as m ay be c o n s i d e r e d pr e j u d i c i al t o t he i r n at i o n al w e l l
be i n g
.
A r e v i e w o f c o n f e r e n c e s , c o v e n an t s an d t r e at i e s e n t e r e d
i n t o s i n c e t he be g i n n i n g o f t he W o r l d W ar , t o g e t he r w i t h
t he i r w i d e l y k n o w n br e ac he s an d v i o l at i o n s , ar e n o t v e r y
c o n v i n c i n g o f an y i m pr o v e m e n t i n hu m an n at u r e s i n c e
t he w o r l d w as m ad e s af e f o r d e m o c r ac y an d t he " w ar t o
e n d w ar s " w as c o n c l u d e d
. I t i s u n f o r t u n at e , i n d e e d ,
t hat t he A m e r i c an S t at e D e par t m e n t c ho o s e s t o i g n o r e
t he l e s s o n t o be l e ar n e d f r o m t hi s pat t e r n o f d e c e i t an d
d o u bl e d e al i n g an d t o pu r s u e r at he r t he phan t o m s o f a
v ai n an d f o o l i s h ho pe .
9 2
C H A P TE R V I I I
The J e w an d t he N e w D e al
H i s t o r y R e v e al s t he R e v o l u t i o n ar y I n c l i n at i o n o f
C ho s e n P e o pl e an d Mi s f o r t u n e s W hi c h P u r s u e
The i r I n t e r v e n t i o n i n A l i e n C u l t u r e s .
I T I S n o t a m e r e c o i n c i d e n c e t hat t he av o w e d o bj e c t i v e s
o f t he N e w D e al an d t he C o m m u n i s t P ar t y o f i n c r e as e d
s pe n d i n g an d i t s r e s u l t , i n c r e as e d pu bl i c d e bt , ar e i d e n t i -
c al . A s t he f o r m e r C o m m u n i s t , P r o f . J . B . Mat t he w s ,
po i n t e d o u t ' t o t he D i e s C o m m i t t e e , t he C o m m u n i s t s
d i f f e r v e r y l i t t l e f r o m t he R o o s e v e l t A d m i n i s t r at i o n .
C o m m u n i s t s an t i c i pat e t he c o l l aps e o f t he g o v e r n m e n t
f r o m t he c o m pl e t i o n o f t he N e w D e al pr o g r am an d pu r -
po s e t o ai d an d abe t t he pr o g r am by e v e r y po s s i bl e
m e an s .
A l i e n an d J e w i s h C o m m u n i s t s i n t he n e w bu r e au c r ac y
an d t he c . i . o . g o t t o g e t he r by Mr . R o o s e v e l t an d J o hn L
.
L e w i s ar e t hu s abl e t o l ay a s har p ax e at t he r o o t s o f o u r
e c o n o m i c s t abi l i t y i n t he s t r i k e s t he y f o m e n t , t he po l i t i c al
po w e r t he y e x e r t , t he pr o s e l y t i n g t he y f o s t e r . B e f o r e t he
N e w D e al e m e r g e d , s po r ad i c o u t br e ak s o f i s o l at e d s u b-
v e r s i v e g r o u ps w e r e u n i m po r t an t , bu t n o w t hat bo t h
s y m pat hy an d c o - o pe r at i o n ar e t o be had w i t ho u t t he
as k i n g i n hi g h o f f i c i al q u ar t e r s i n W as hi n g t o n , N e w Y o r k ,
D e t r o i t , P i t t s bu r g h an d A k r o n , a n e w m e an i n g at t ac he s
t o C o m m u n i s t ac t i v i t i e s . The l ar g e n u m be r o f J e w s w ho
pu r s u e t he i r d e v i o u s w ay s u n d e r t he s t an d ar d s o f J o hn L .
L e w i s , par t i c u l ar l y i n t he W o r k e r s A l l i an c e , 2 w ar r an t s
" N e w Y o r k Ti m e s ,
A u g u s t 23 , 1 9 3 8 .
2
The W o r k e r s ' A l l i an c e g r e w o u t o f C o m m u n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d g r o u ps o f u n -
e m pl o y e d k n o w n as Un e m pl o y e d C o u n c i l s
. The t w o o r g an i z e r s w e r e D av i d
9 3
s pe c i al c o n s i d e r at i o n by C o n g r e s s
; l i k e w i s e , t he pe d a-
g o g u e s , J e w s an d
n o n - J e w s ,
al i e n s an d n at i v e s i n o u r
A m e r i c an c o l l e g e s an d u n i v e r s i t i e s s ho u l d be c ar e f u l l y
e x am i n e d f o r t he d o c t r i n e s t he y t e ac h an d l abe l e d ac -
c o r d i n g l y .
I t m i g ht w e l l be f i t t i n g t o r at i f y an d c o n f i r m t he t e ac h-
i n g o f C o m m u n i s m i f t hat i s w hat t he c o u n t r y w an t s ,
af t e r t he c o u n t r y , u n d e r s t an d s c l e ar l y t hat C o m m u n i s m
i s be i n g t au g ht
. The c o u n t r y al s o w o u l d d e r i v e a s u b-
s t an t i al be n e f i t f r o m t he pr o pe r l abe l i n g o f pr i n c i pl e s o f
po l i t i c al e c o n o m y d e r i v e d f r o m K ar l Mar x t hat ar e be i n g
s k i l l f u l l y m as k e d by N e w D e al e r s an d C o m m u n i s t s f o r
pu bl i c c o n t e m pl at i o n an d abs o r pt i o n as " l i be r al , " as
L as s e r an d H e r be r t B e n j am i n w ho l e d t he " hu n g e r " m ar c h o n W as hi n g t o n
i n
1 9 3 3
.
L as s e r i s a g r ad u at e o f r s . i . T
. i n c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g an d f o r m e r l y w as
o n t he t e c hn i c al s t af f o f M
. S
. S l o an o f t he N e w Y o r k E d i s o n C o m pan y . The
ac t i v i t y o f t he s e g e n t r y i n t he c a
. o . w as e x pl ai n e d by E ar l B r o w d e r , g r an d
pan j an d r u m o f t he C o m m u n i s t P ar t y i n A m e r i c a w he n pr e s i d i n g o v e r t he
C o m m u n i s t I n t e r n at i o n al at Mo s c o w i n 1 9 3 5 , w he n he s ai d
: " The C o m m u n i s t
P ar t y s t r i v e s t o d e v e l o p t he c . i . o
. m o v e m e n t i n t o t he d e v e l o pm e n t o f a
P e o pl e ' s F r o n t an d t o bu i l d i t s e l f i n t o a m as s C o m m u n i s t par t y
. "
L e e P r e s s m an , a g r ad u at e o f t he H ar v ar d L aw S c ho o l , w as as s i s t an t g e n e r al
c o u n s e l o f t he
A A A f r o m 1 9 3 8 t o 1 9 8 5 w he n he be c am e g e n e r al c o u n s e l o f t he
w P A an d R A .
I n 1 9 3 6 , he be c am e g e n e r al c o u n s e l o f t he c
. 1 . o . an d s . w . o . c . an d
i n 1 9 3 7 , g e n e r al c o u n s e l f o r t he Te x t i l e W o r k e r s O r g an i z i n g C o m m i t t e e
. The
d e e p w i s d o m o f O s w al d S pe n g l e r i n
hi s o bs e r v at i o n t hat " t he s t r u g g l e o f , n o t
pr i n c i pl e s bu t m e n , n o t i d e al s bu t r ac e q u al i t i e s , f o r e x e c u t i v e po w e r i s t he
al pha an d o m e g a" i s f u r t he r i l l u s t r at e d by s u c h n am e s as L u c i e n K o c h, f o r -
m e r l y pr e s i d e n t o f t he C o m m u n i s t C o m m o n w e al t h C o l l e g e , an d n o w e d u c a-
t i o n al d i r e c t o r o f Un i t e d E l e c t r i c al an d R ad i o W o r k e r s , a c a . o . af f i l i at e
; Max
Mi c he l s o n , r e g i o n al d i r e c t o r o f t he c l o t hi n g w o r k e r s ; B e n G o l d , pr e s i d e n t o f
t he F u r W o r k e r s I n t e r n at i o n al Un i o n
; I r v i n g P o t as h, g e n e r al m an ag e r o f
t he j o i n t bo ar d o f t he F u r W o r k e r s
; C l ar i n a Mi c he l s o n , o r g an i z e r o f t he
D e par t m e n t S t o r e E m pl o y e e s
; D av i d D u bi n s k y , pr e s i d e n t o f t he I n t e r n at i o n al
L ad i e s G ar m e n t W o r k e r s ' Un i o n an d Mar c e l S c he e r , n at i o n al s e c r e t ar y o f t he
F r i e n d s o f S o v i e t R u s s i a an d an ac t i v e l e ad e r i n t he F e d e r at i o n o f A r c hi t e c t s ,
E n g i n e e r s , C he m i s t s an d Te c hn i c i an s .
The c ar e e r o f I s i d o r L ad e r m an i s t hat o f a t y pi c al J e w i s h l abo r ag i t at o r
.
L ad e r m an i s a n at i v e o f P o l an d .
I n 1 9 24 , he o r g an i z e d t he K n i t G o o d s
W o r k e r s Un i o n an d l e d t he m e m be r s hi p i n a g e n e r al s t r i k e
. I n 1 9 25 , he
o r g an i z e d t he D e l i c at e s s e n C l e r k s an d i n 1 9 26 t he S u i t C as e , B ag Mak e r s an d
P o r t f o l i o W o r k e r s
. I n 1 9 3 4 , i t w as t he P o c k e t bo o k Un i o n an d t w o y e ar s l at e r
w as m ad e pr e s i d e n t o f t he I n t e r n at i o n al L ad i e s H an d B ag , P o c k e t bo o k an d
N o v e l t y W o r k e r s Un i o n
. L ad e r m an , t he r e f o r e , has f o u n d o u r A m e r i c an
" D e m o c r ac y " a v e r y c o n g e n i al e n v i r o n m e n t i n w hi c h t o s e i z e an d ho l d o n t o
t he f l e s hpo t s
. Max Mo s e w i t z k y , a n at i v e o f R u s s i a, a m e m be r o f t he A m e r i c an
J e w i s h C o n g r e s s an d s e c r e t ar y o f t he f i r s t n at i o n al S o c i al i s t C o m m i s s i o n f o r
t he A m e r i c an J e w i s h C o n g r e s s , o r g an i z e d t he J e w i s h br an c h o f t he W o r k e r s
A l l i an c e .
9 4
" d e m o c r at i c , " as " f o r w ar d l o o k i n g , " as " pr o g r e s s i v e
. "
The o d o r e D r e i s e r , w ho ad m i t s t hat he g o t " an i d e a o r
t w o " f r o m K ar l Mar x , hi t t he bu l l ' s e y e w he n he o bs e r v e d
t hat K ar l Mar x " s u r e l y m ad e a g o o d t hi n g f o r R o o s e v e l t ,
S t al i n , H i t l e r an d Mu s s o l i n i . " '
The par t o f t he J e w s i n t he N e w D e al i s a s u bj e c t o f
d e e p f as c i n at i o n t o an y o n e ac q u ai n t e d w i t h t he i r hi s t o r y .
To p- r an k i n g J e w s i n t he N e w D e al ar e B e n C o he n ,
f o r m e r l y o f t he P W A bu t n o m i n al l y c o u n s e l f o r t he
N P P C
an d c o - au t ho r o f t he S E C
ac t an d t he ho l d i n g c o m pan y
ac t
; H e n r y Mo r g e n t hau , J r . , S e c r e t ar y o f t he Tr e as u r y ;
D av i d E
. L i l i e n t hal , a d i r e c t o r o f t he Tv A w ho f o r c e d o u t
D r . A r t hu r E . Mo r g an ; J e r o m e F r an k , n o w a m e m be r o f
S E C bu t f o r m e r l y w i t h t he F S R C an d A A A
an d , o f c o u r s e ,
t he n e w j u s t i c e o f t he Un i t e d S t at e s S u pr e m e C o u r t ,
F e l i x F r an k f u r t e r .
O t he r J e w i s h " e c o n o m i s t s " w ho hav e he l pe d c har t t he
N e w D e al r o u t e t o Mo s c o w ar e Mo r d e c ai E z e k i e l an d
L o u i s H . B e an w ho r e po r t t o H e n r y W al l ac e i n t he D e -
par t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; A br aham M
. F o x , f o r m e r l y
The r e s a W o l f s o n i l l u s t r at e s t he c ar e e r o f a f e m al e o f t he s pe c i e s . S he i s a
n at i v e o f B r o o k l y n , an d g o t an M . A . d e g r e e f r o m C o l u m bi a i n 1 9 22 an d a
P h
. D
. f r o m B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t e i n
1 9 25 .
P r e v i o u s l y , s he had be e n a f i e l d
i n v e s t i g at o r f o r t he N at i o n al C hi l d L abo r C o m m i s s i o n o f 1 8 1 8 , e x e c u t i v e
s e c r e t ar y o f t he N e w Y o r k S t at e C o n s u m e r s L e ag u e an d he al t h d i r e c t o r o f
t he I n t e r n at i o n al L ad i e s G ar m e n t W o r k e r s Un i o n . I n 1 9 26 , s he be c am e an
i n s t r u c t o r i n e c o n o m i c s at t he C o m m u n i s t B r o o k w o o d C o l l e g e an d i n 1 9 3 5
w e n t t o B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e , a par t o f t he C o l l e g e o f t he C i t y o f N e w Y o r k ,
as pr o f e s s o r o f e c o n o m i c s . Mi s s W o l f s o n i s a d i r e c t o r o f t he L e ag u e f o r I n -
d u s t r i al D e m o c r ac y , a C o m m u n i s t f r o n t o r g an i z at i o n , an d a m e m be r o f t he
bo ar d o f e d i t o r s o f t he W o m an To d ay .
Mo r r i s L . E r n s t , a n at i v e o f A l abam a, g o t an A . B . d e g r e e f r o m W i l l i am s
C o l l e g e i n 1 9 o g an d an L . L . B . d e g r e e f r o m t he N e w Y o r k L aw S c ho o l i n 1 9 1 2 .
E r n s t w ho w as a " c o n s c i e n t i o u s o bj e c t o r " d u r i n g t he W o r l d W ar i s a t r u s t e e
o f t he A m e r i c an C i v i l L i be r t i e s Un i o n an d br o u g ht t he s u i t ag ai n s t May o r
H ag u e o f J e r s e y C i t y t o r e s t r ai n hi m f r o m i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h r ad i c al ag i t at o r s .
H e i s a d i r e c t o r o f The N at i o n , a m e m be r o f t he N e w Y o r k S t at e B an k i n g
B o ar d , o r i g i n al l y appo i n t e d by R o o s e v e l t w he n G o v e r n o r o f N e w Y o r k , a
l e c t u r e r o n g o v e r n m e n t r e l at i o n s t o bu s i n e s s i n t he H ar v ar d Un i v e r s i t y S c ho o l
o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r at i o n s i n c e 1 9 3 4 . Mo s t o f hi s pu bl i c ac t i v i t i e s hav e
be e n o n t he C o m m u n i s t f r o n t .
A m o n g t he o t he r m o r e pr o m i n e n t J e w i s h l abo r o f f i c i al s i n N e w Y o r k C i t y
ar e J o s e ph B r e s l aw , F an n i e M . C o hn , M . C . F e i n s t o n e , H ar r y G r e e n be r g , S i d -
n e y H i l l m an , L o u i s H o l l an d e r , A br aham Mi l l e r , J . S . P o t o f s k y , A l e x R o s e ,
R o s e S c hn e i d e r m an an d R . D
. W o r d s .
s N e w Y o r k Ti m e s , A u g u s t 22,
1 9 8 8
.
9 5
d i r e c t o r o f r e s e ar c h f o r t he Tar i f f C o m m i s s i o n an d s i n c e
1 9 8 7 a m e m be r ; H e r be r t F e i s i n t he S t at e d e par t m e n t an d
E . A
. G o l d e n w e i s e r , r e s e ar c h d i r e c t o r f o r t he F e d e r al
R e s e r v e B o ar d s i n c e 1 9 3 6
. The N at i o n al L abo r R e l a-
t i o n s B o ar d an d i t s pr e d e c e s s o r t he N at i o n al L abo r B o ar d
bo t h hav e d e r i v e d t he n e c e s s ar y i n s pi r at i o n i n e c o n o m i c s
f r o m Mar x i an J e w s .
B e n e d i c t W o l f an d W i l l i am M .
L e i s e r s o n he l d t he s e c r e t ar y s hi p o f t he l at t e r
. L e i s e r s o n ,
o n l e av e f r o m A n t i o c h C o l l e g e , i s n o w C hai r m an o f t he
N at i o n al Me d i at i o n B o ar d . D av i d J . S apo s s i s t he " e c o n -
o m i s t " f o r t he N at i o n al L abo r R e l at i o n s B o ar d . L . H .
S e l t z e r has be e n he ad e c o n o m i s t an d as s i s t an t d i r e c t o r o f
r e s e ar c h f o r t he U . S . Tr e as u r y s i n c e 1 9 3 5 .
Mad am e P e r k i n s has be e n k i n d e s t o f al l t o t he Mar x -
i an s
. The D e par t m e n t o f L abo r m ai n t ai n s I s ad o r L u bi n ,
E d w ar d B e r m an , J ac o b P e r l m an an d m an y o t he r s . L u bi n
i s e n g ag e d w i t h t he an t i - m o n o po l i s t s i n t ak i n g i n d u s t r y
apar t t o as c e r t ai n w hat m ak e s i t t i c k . P e r l m an has be e n
c hi e f o f t he d i v i s i o n o f w ag e s , ho u r s an d w o r k i n g c o n -
d i t i o n s i n t he B u r e au o f L abo r S t at i s t i c s s i n c e 1
9 3 4 .
Mo r r i s L . J ac o bs o n has be e n c hi e f s t at i s t i c i an o f t he
U . S
. G o v e r n m e n t R e s e ar c h pr o j e c t s i n c e 1 9 3 6 an d Max
S as u l y w as t he s e n i o r s t at i s t i c i an o f t he D i v i s i o n o f R e -
s e ar c h an d P l an n i n g o f t he N R A d u r i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e .
A . H . My e r s has be e n r e g i o n al d i r e c t o r f o r N e w E n g l an d
o f t he N at i o n al L abo r R e l at i o n s B o ar d s i n c e 1 9 3 6 . A s he r
A c hi n s t e i n has be e n " e c o n o m i s t " f o r t he N e w Y o r k
S t at e H o u s i n g B o ar d s i n c e 1 9 3 0 . H ar o l d L o e b, e d u c at e d
at P r i n c e t o n , w as an e c o n o m i c c o n s u l t an t f o r t he N R P
i n
1 9 3 6 an d 1 9 3 7 an d w o r k e d w i t h W al t e r P o l ak o v , l at e l y
ar r i v e d f r o m t he l an d o f S t al i n . A l be r t G o l d m an i s t he
pr e s e n t N e w Y o r k C i t y po s t m as t e r .
C har l e s E . W y z an s k i , a pr o d u c t o f H ar v ar d C o l l e g e
an d t he H ar v ar d L aw S c ho o l , w as a d e l e g at e t o t he I n t e r -
n at i o n al L abo r C o n f e r e n c e at G e n e v a i n 1 9 3 5 s i n c e w hi c h
t i m e he has be e n a s pe c i al as s i s t an t t o t he A t t o r n e y G e n -
e r al . P r e v i o u s l y , he w as s o l i c i t o r f o r t he D e par t m e n t o f
g 6
L abo r .
J ac k L e v i n w ho at t e n d e d R e e d C o l l e g e , N o r t h-
w e s t e r n , t he Un i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n , t he Un i v e r s i t y o f
W as hi n g t o n an d C o l u m bi a an d w ho g o t a P h
. D . d e g r e e
f r o m t he A m e r i c an Un i v e r s i t y i n 1 9 3 3 has be e n as s i s t an t
g e n e r al c o u n s e l o f R E A
s i n c e 1 9 3 5 .
W i l l i am S e ag l e w ho c o l l abo r at e d w i t h Mo r r i s L . E r n s t
i n s o m e l i t e r ar y e n d e av o r s t o o k hi s A . B . d e g r e e at t he
C o l l e g e o f t he C i t y o f N e w Y o r k an d hi s l aw d e g r e e at
C o l u m bi a . S i n c e
1 9 3 4 ,
he has be e n at t o r n e y f o r t he
P e t r o l e u m L abo r P o l i c y B o ar d .
H e r m an A . G r ay , a l aw pr o f e s s o r at N e w Y o r k Un i v e r -
s i t y s i n c e 1 9 22, w as a m e m be r o f t he po l i c y c o m m i t t e e o f
t he N at i o n al H o u s i n g C o n f e r e n c e . P r e v i o u s l y , he w as
c hai r m an o f t he N e w Y o r k Un e m pl o y m e n t I n s u r an c e
S t at e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l an d he l pe d d r af t t he u n e m pl o y -
m e n t i n s u r an c e bi l l . H e i s a d i r e c t o r o f t he A m e r i c an A s -
s o c i at i o n f o r S o c i al S e c u r i t y .
I t i s u n n e c e s s ar y t o be l i e v e J e w i s h i n t e l l e c t u al s
t hr o u g ho u t t he w o r l d ar e par t i c e ps c r i m i n i s i n a c o n -
s pi r ac y t o pr o m o t e n at i o n al d i s s e n s i o n s t o d i s pu t e t he
v o l t ag e o f t he i r n at i o n al l o y al t i e s o r t o d o u bt t he i r at -
t ac hm e n t f o r t he e s t abl i s he d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t he c o u n t r y
i n w hi c h t he y happe n t o be l i v i n g . The i r d o m i n an t at -
t i t u d e i s t hat t he y ar e J e w s f i r s t an d A m e r i c an s s e c o n d l y ,
J e w s f i r s t an d s u bj e c t s o f G e o r g e V I af t e r w ar d s . I n t he
l i g ht o f t he i r hi s t o r y , t hi s at t i t u d e i s n o t u n n at u r al .
The i r s i s a w o r l d o u t l o o k bo r n o f n e c e s s i t y . The i r d e -
t ac hm e n t f r o m n at i o n al i s m i s f o u n d e d o n a c o d e o f hu m an
c o n d u c t w hi c h e n c o u r ag e s t he m t o be al l t hi n g s t o al l
m e n , i n G e r m an y e v e n N az i s be f o r e H i t l e r be g an hi s
pe r s e c u t i o n s
. A t t he be g i n n i n g o f t he I t al i an r e v o l u t i o n ,
t he J e w s w e r e l o y al t o Mu s s o l i n i w ho t r i e d s i n c e r e l y t o
pr o t e c t t he m . L at e l y , Mu s s o l i n i has n o t be e n abl e t o
s av e t he m f r o m t he r e l e n t l e s s c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t he phi l o s o -
phy he c r e at e d . P e r s e c u t i o n s i n I t al y ar e g r o w i n g i n
s c o pe an d s e v e r i t y .
S i n c e t he pr o t e s t o f t he J e w s t o P o n t i u s P i l at e " J e w i s h
9 7
c har ac t e r has n o t c han g e d , " as s e r t s ' R abbi L o u i s I . N e w -
m an
. " To w ar d t ho s e o f t he i r o w n f ai t h, " s ai d Tac i t u s ,
o u r au t ho r i t y f o r t he hi s t o r y o f t he f i r s t c e n t u r y A . D . ,
" t he y ar e l o y al , an d pr o m pt i n c har i t y , bu t ag ai n s t al l
o t he r s t he y f e e l hat r e d as t o w ar d an e n e m y . "
N o o n e s ho u l d e x pe c t f r o m an A m e r i c an J e w t he s am e
d e v o t i o n t o A m e r i c an t r ad i t i o n s , o r t o t he s t abi l i t y o f
A m e r i c an s o c i e t y o r e v e n t o t he pe r pe t u i t y o f o u r c o n -
s t i t u t i o n al g o v e r n m e n t as f r o m o t he r r ac i al an d n at i o n al
e l e m e n t s o f t he po pu l at i o n . J o s e ph K as t e i n , i n d i s c u s s -
i n g t he J e w as an al i e n , hi m s e l f o bs e r v e s t hat
6
" t he J e w s
c o u l d n o t po s s i bl y be c o m e e n t i r e l y as s i m i l at e d w i t h t he
pe o pl e abo u t t he m o r i d e n t i f y t he m s e l v e s w ho l l y w i t h t he
c o u n t r y o f t he i r ad o pt i o n . " I n d i s c u s s i n g t he J e w i s h
q u e s t i o n i n G e r m an y i n t he f i r s t hal f o f t he l as t c e n t u r y ,
O t t o R u hl e o bs e r v e s ' t hat " The J e w s had t he m s e l v e s
s ho w n l i t t l e i n c l i n at i o n t o c o m e i n t o c l o s e c o n t ac t w i t h
t he i n t e l l e c t u al l i f e o f t he G e r m an n at i o n . "
The J e w " f o l l o w s t he hi s t o r y o f t he pr e s e n t . . . w i t h
t he f u n d am e n t al f e e l i n g s o f Mag i an m an k i n d , e v e n w he n
he hi m s e l f i s f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d o f t he W e s t e r n c har ac t e r
o f hi s t ho u g ht , " s ay s S pe n g l e r . " Thu s i s e x pl ai n e d t he
as pi r at i o n o f t he J e w t o s e e m as " o t he r m e n " an d t he
f u t i l i t y o f hi s , s t r i v i n g t o be s o . " E v e n w he n he r e g ar d e d
hi m s e l f as a m e m be r o f t he pe o pl e am o n g s t w ho m he
s o j o u r n e d an d t o o k par t i n t he i r g o o d an d e v i l f o r t u n e -
as happe n e d i n s o m an y c o u n t r i e s i n I 9 I 4 - he l i v e d t he s e
e x pe r i e n c e s , n o t r e al l y as s o m e t hi n g hi s o w n , bu t as a
par t i s an , a s u ppo r t e r ; he j u d g e d t he m as an i n t e r e s t e d
s pe c t at o r an d he n c e i t i s j u s t t he d e e pe s t m e an i n g s o f
t he s t r u g g l e t hat m u s t e v e r r e m ai n hi d d e n f r o m hi m . " '
' t " B i t i n g o n G r an i t e " by R abbi L o u i s I . N e w m an , A t l an t i c Mo n t hl y ,
F e br u ar y , 1 9 3 8 .
c " H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w s " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p . i g i .
6
" K ar l Mar x , H i s L i f e an d W o r k s " by O t t o R u bl e , t r an s l at e d by E d e n an d
C e d ar P au l ( The V i k i n g P r e s s ) p . 6 2.
z " The D e c l i n e o f t he W e s t " by O s w al d S pe n g l e r ( A l f r e d A . K n o pf , I n c . )
V o l . I I , p . 3 20 .
8 l bi d . , p.
3 1 9 -
9 8
H i s pat r i o t i s m i s " i n d u c e d "
s
an d i s n o t g e n e r at e d w i t hi n
t he f i br e o f hi s o w n s o u l .
I n s t i n c t i v e l y , t he J e w s ar e v e r y m u c h at ho m e i n t he
N e w D e al an d f i t s n u g l y i n t o i t s pat t e r n f o r t he s i m pl e
r e as o n t hat t he w ar p an d w o o f o f t he pat t e r n ar e
c han g e ,
c o n f u s i o n , d i s t u r ban c e , e v e n
r e v o l u t i o n , t o w hi c h t he
J e w i s ac c u s t o m e d
. E g y pt i an bo n d ag e , t he B aby l o n i an
c apt i v i t y , t he r e t u r n t o J u d ah, e n c o u n t e r s w i t h G r e e c e
an d R o m e , m i g r at i o n t o t he W e s t , e x i l e t o t he E as t an d
pe r s e c u t i o n e v e r y w he r e hav e e q u i ppe d t he J e w f o r q u i c k
ad j u s t m e n t t o c han g i n g po l i t i c al an d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s
.
The C o m m u n i s t i c i d e al s o f t he N e w D e al pr o f o u n d l y
i m pr e s s t he J e w s w ho , as J o s e ph K as t e i n f u r t he r o b-
s e r v e s , 1 0 " ar e al l f i l l e d w i t h t he i d e a o f s har i n g s o m e t hi n g
i n c o m m o n w i t h o t he r s . " The s u ppo r t g i v e n t o N e w
D e al c an d i d at e s by J e w s o f g r e at -
w e al t h as l at e as 1 9 8 8
c an n o t be e x pl ai n e d as an ac c i d e n t al d i f f e r e n c e i n po -
l i t i c al t hi n k i n g , s i n c e t he i s s u e s w e r e s o e x t r ao r d i n ar y
t hat al l o t he r i n t e l l i g e n t pe r s o n s w ho o w n e d an y pr o pe r t y
w e r e ho s t i l e t o t he po i n t o f
po t e n t i al hy s t e r i a .
I n O pi n i o n ,
" a j o u r n al o f J e w i s h L i f e an d L e t t e r s "
( F e br u ar y , 1 9 3 9 ) , R abbi A l e x an d e r F e i n s i l v e r as s e r t e d
t hat Mr
. R o o s e v e l t r e c e i v e d t he u n an i m o u s v o t e o f t he
J e w s o f " Mi d d l e t o w n , "
i . e . , Mu n c i e , I n d i an a, i n 1 9 3 6 .
Thi s i s t he ho m e t o w n o f t he H o n
. B e n j am i n V . C o he n
w ho , i n be hal f o f w o r l d J e w r y , an d w i t h Mr
. R o o s e v e l t ' s
c o - o pe r at i o n , has m ad e s o m u c h pr o g r e s s i n A m e r i c a
t o w ar d s t he " n e w l i f e "
o f N i k o l ai L e n i n . E v e n t ho u g h
t he r e pr o babl y w e r e l e s s t han o n e hu n d r e d J e w s o f v o t i n g
ag e i n " Mi d d l e t o w n " i n 1 9 3 6 ( f i f t y - f i v e f am i l i e s ) , t he i r
u n an i m i t y i s har d l y t o be e x pl ai n e d by t he pe r s o n al
po pu l ar i t y o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s
al t e r e g o .
N i e t z s c he q u o t e s Tac i t u s as s ay i n g t hat t he J e w s w e r e
" bo r n f o r s l av e r y
. " Tac i t u s m ay hav e f o u n d t he g e r m
o f hi s i d e a i n A r i s t o t l e s i n c e R o u s s e au par aphr as e s A r i s -
t o t l e as s ay i n g t hat " m e n ar e n o t n at u r al l y e q u al " an d
9
" The D e c l i n e o f t he W e s t " by O s w al d S pe n g l e r ( A l f r e d A . K n o pf , I n c . )
V o l
. I I , p
. 3 20 -
1 0
" H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w s " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p
. 4 3 5 -
9 9
" s o m e ar e bo r n f o r s l av e r y an d o t he r s f o r d o m i n i o n . "
R o u s s e au s ai d A r i s t o t l e w as r i g ht bu t hi m s e l f ad d e d t hat
" e v e r y m an bo r n i n s l av e r y i s bo r n f o r s l av e r y
. " K as t e i n
c l ar i f i e s t he o bs e r v at i o n s o f Tac i t u s an d R o u s s e au w he n
he as s e r t s t hat
a
" i n B aby l o n t he J e w s ar r i v e d as c apt i v e s
t ak e n f r o m a c o n q u e r e d c o u n t r y . The y f i r s t e n t e r e d
A s i a Mi n o r an d t he I o n i an I s l an d s as s l av e s , w hi l e P o m pe y
t o o k t he m t o R o m e as pr i s o n e r s o f w ar
. E v e n i n t he i r
hi s t o r i c r e f u g e , E g y pt , t he y ar r i v e d i n t he t i m e o f t he
f i r s t P t o l e m i e s e i t he r as pr i s o n e r s o f w ar o r as f u g i t i v e s
f r o m t he i r o w n c o u n t r y . "
N i e t z s c he ar g u e s t hat t he s o - c al l e d s l av e - i n s u r r e c t i o n i n
m o r al s , w hi c h w as bo r n o f r e s e n t m e n t an d o u t o f w hi c h
s l av e s c r e at e d o u r pr e v ai l i n g m o r al c o d e - t u r n t he o t he r
c he e k , abj u r e r i c he s , pr ac t i c e m e e k n e s s an d hu m i l i t y
( " t he m o r al i t y o f t he v u l g ar m an " ) - be g an w i t h t he
J e w s
; t hat t he i r r e s e n t m e n t w as bo r n o f t he i r w e ak n e s s
an d f e ar ; t hat hav i n g " bai t e d " t he w o r l d w i t h " d an g e r -
o u s " i d e al s , t he J e w s r e pu d i at e d t he c o d e ' s f i r s t t e ac he r ,
hi m s e l f a J e w .
I n t he " G e n e al o g y o f Mo r al s " ( 1 8 8 7 ) , N i e t z s c he ac -
c u s e d t he J e w s o f r e s po n s i bi l i t y f o r " t he f ac t s t hat t he
pe o pl e hav e t r i u m phe d - o r t he s l av e s , o r t he po pu l ac e ,
o r t he he r d , o r w hat e v e r n am e y o u c ar e t o g i v e t he m " i n
c o n s e q u e n c e o f pu r s u i n g t he i d e al s o f a m o r al c o d e pr o -
c l ai m e d by a J e w . The S o c i al i s t s , t he C o m m u n i s t s , t he
" L i be r al s " o f A m e r i c a d e s i g n at e t he u n i v e r s al ac c e pt an c e
o f t hi s c o d e as t he t r i u m ph o f D e m o c r ac y .
W he n F r e d e r i c h N i e t z s c he w r o t e t he " G e n e al o g y o f
Mo r al s , " t he i n f l u e n c e o f an o t he r J e w , K ar l Mar x , w as
n o t f e l t s o d e e pl y o r w i d e l y as o n e - hal f c e n t u r y l at e r , t o -
w i t : t hi s y e ar o f 1 9 3 9 . C o n s i d e r e d al o n e , o n e m ay v e r y
w e l l d i s c o u n t o r d i s pu t e N i e t z s c he ' s t he o r i e s bu t a r e -
m ar k abl e c o i n c i d e n c e appe ar s i n t he d am ag e t o o r d e r l y
l i v i n g c har g e d ag ai n s t t he J e w s by N i e t z s c he an d t he i n -
d i s pu t abl e an d u n q u e s t i o n abl e d am ag e t o o r d e r l y l i v i n g
s i n c e t he W o r l d W ar ac c o m pl i s he d by t he s e d u c t i v e phi -
i i " H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w s " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p . i s o
.
1 0 0
l o s o phy , t he po l i t i c al an d e c o n o m i c o bj e c t i v e s , t he s o r c e r y
o f a s e c o n d J e w , t he au t ho r o f t he " C o m m u n i s t Man i -
f e s t o " an d " D as K api t al . "
I t w as Mar x w ho i n d u c e d H e i n r i c h H e i n e , an o t he r
J e w , 1 2 " t o d e v o t e hi m s e l f t o s i n g i n g t he s u f f e r i n g s o f t he
o ppr e s s e d i n s t e ad o f t he s u f f e r i n g s o f pas s i o n at e
l o v e r s . . . . " S t i l l an o t he r J e w , Mo s e s H e s s , s c i o n o f a
pr o s pe r o u s m an u f ac t u r i n g f am i l y o f t he R hi n e l an d , w as
r e s po n s i bl e f o r c o n v e r t i n g F r e d e r i c h E n g e l s , t he s c i o n o f
a pr o s pe r o u s m an u f ac t u r i n g f am i l y o f Man c he s t e r , E n g -
l an d , t o C o m m u n i s m Y B H e s s t ho u g ht t he J e w s w o u l d
al w ay s r e m ai n s t r an g e r s am o n g E u r o pe an pe o pl e an d t hat
J e w i s h e m an c i pat i o n w as i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h J e w i s h n at i o n -
al i s m , w hi c h c o u l d n o t be u pr o o t e d . " I t w as E n g e l s w ho
pai d Mar x ' s d e bt s , f u r n i s he d hi m an i n c o m e f o r m an y
y e ar s an d e d i t e d an d f i n an c e d t he pu bl i c at i o n o f hi s
w r i t i n g s .
" Mar x f e l t t hat as a J e w he had be e n g i v e n a bad s t ar t
i n l i f e , " s ay s R u hl e , 1 6 an d f r o m hi s y o u t h t o o l d ag e s u f -
f e r e d f r o m a bad l i v e r . H e w as n e v e r abl e t o e ar n a l i v -
i n g i n t he c api t al i s t i c w o r l d i n t o w hi c h he w as bo r n , hav -
i n g be e n s av e d f r o m s t ar v at i o n ag ai n an d ag ai n by paw n -
br o k e r s an d by t he l ar g e s s e o f r e l at i v e s an d f r i e n d s . Thu s
i s e x pl ai n e d t he i n f e r i o r i t y c o m pl e x f r o m w hi c h Mar x
s u f f e r e d al l hi s l i f e . Thu s w as e v o l v e d t he po l i t i c al
phi l o s o phy ( t he o n l y po l i t i c al an d e c o n o m i c phi l o s o phy
w hi c h m i g ht s at i s f y f r u s t r at e d am bi t i o n s ) s e i z e d u po n
af t e r t he l aps e o f a c e n t u r y , i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t he u n -
c e r t ai n r e s u l t s o f A m e r i c an d e m o c r ac y , w he n e c o n o m i c
f r u s t r at i o n an d po l i t i c al po w e r w e r e u n i t e d i n t he pe r s o n
o f F r an k l i n D e l an o R o o s e v e l t .
I f o n e ad d s t o N i e t z s c he ' s o bs e r v at i o n s an d t he Mar x i an
i n f l u e n c e o n A m e r i c an po l i t i c s , t he " l i be r al " c o n t r i bu t i o n
1 2
" K ar l Mar x , H i s L i f e an d W o r k s " by O t t o R u bl e , t r an s l at e d by E d e n an d
C e d ar P au l ( The V i k i n g P r e s s ) p
. 7 5 .
i s I bi d . , p
. 4 9
.
1 4
J e w i s h E n c y c l o pe d i a, V o l . i 6 , p . 8 4 3 .
i s " K ar l Mar x , H i s L i f e an d W o r k s " by O t t o R u bl e , t r an s l at e d by E d e n an d
C e d ar P au l ( The V i k i n g P r e s s ) p
. 3 7 7 .
1 0 1
t o c o n t e m po r ar y po l i t i c al an d e c o n o m i c t ho u g ht o f s t i l l
an o t he r J e w , appo i n t e d by Mr . R o o s e v e l t t o t he Un i t e d
S t at e s S u pr e m e C o u r t , P r o f . F e l i x F r an k f u r t e r , o f
H ar v ar d , t he o r i g i n o f m an y o f o u r po l i t i c al i l l s l o s e s
s o m e o f i t s m y s t e r y
. F r an k f u r t e r has be e n ac t i v e i n t he
A m e r i c an C i v i l L i be r t i e s Un i o n . E v e n The o d o r e R o o s e -
v e l t t ho u g ht hi s at t i t u d e i n t he Mo o n e y c as e " f u n d am e n -
t al l y t hat o f Tr o t s k y an d o t he r B o l s he v i k l e ad e r s i n
R u s s i a . "
The v o l u n t ar y c o n t r i bu t i o n s o f F r an k f u r t e r an d t ho s e
he has d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d , J e w s an d n o n - J e w s , t o t he N e w
D e al o f F r an k l i n D e l an o R o o s e v e l t , pl u s n e w o ppo r t u n i -
t i e s o n t he S u pr e m e C o u r t be n c h t o c o n f u s e t he n at i v e s ,
m ay w ar r an t t he s u s pi c i o n t hat t he N e w D e al i s o r d ai n e d
t o e n d i n a R aw D e al f o r t ho s e pe r s o n s w ho s e f e e t ar e
f i r m l y pl an t e d i n A m e r i c an s o i l . W hi l e t he s pe c i f i c at i o n s
ar e w an t i n g i n d e t ai l , t he c o n t r i bu t i o n t o " L i be r al i s m "
by J u d g e L o u i s D . B r an d e i s i s k n o w n t o be i m po r t an t
.
A n o t he r J e w , L e o n Tr o t s k y , 1 6 bo r n B r o n s t e i n , t ho u g h
n o w an e x i l e i n Me x i c o , m i s s e d L e n i n ' s m an t l e by a
n ar r o w m ar g i n . R ay m o n d R o bi n s , w ho k n e w Tr o t s k y
w e l l i n R u s s i a, c al l e d hi m 1 7 " a f o u r k i n d s o n o f a bi t c h
bu t t he g r e at e s t J e w s i n c e C hr i s t
. " A s s i s t i n g R o bi n s as
d i r e c t o r o f t he A m e r i c an R e d C r o s s i n R u s s i a w as A l e x
G u m be r g , a R u s s i an - A m e r i c an J e w , w ho L o c k har t s ay s
1 s
" f o r y e ar s had be e n i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h t he B o l s he v i k
m o v e m e n t . "
1 6
L e o n Tr o t s k y w as e x pe l l e d f r o m F r an c e an d S pai n i n 1 9 1 6 .
The r e u po n ,
he c am e t o A m e r i c a an d f r o m J an u ar y t o Mar c h, 1 9 1 7 , he e d i t e d t he R u s s i an
r e v o l u t i o n ar y d ai l y N o v y Mi r
i n N e w Y o r k C i t y . The C z ar abd i c at e d o n
Mar c h 1 5 , 1 9 1 7 , w he r e u po n Tr o t s k y r e t u r n e d t o S t
. P e t e r s bu r g . The r e af t e r ,
he w o r k e d w i t h t he Me z hr ay an t s i o r g an i z at i o n f o r a f u s i o n w i t h t he B o l -
s he v i k s at t he i r S i x t h C o n g r e s s i n J u l y , 1 9 1 7 .
Tr o t s k y l e d t he i n s u r r e c t i o n
o f O c t o be r 25 , 1 9 1 7 , an d i n N o v e m be r , 1 9 1 7 , be c am e c o m m i s s ar f o r f o r e i g n
af f ai r s . A f t e r t he pe ac e o f B r e s t - L i t o v s k o n J an u ar y
8 , 1 9 1 8 , Tr o t s k y be c am e
c o m m i s s ar f o r w ar , a po s t w hi c h he he l d u n t i l
1 9 25 . The C z ar an d hi s f am i l y
w e r e as s as s i n at e d o n J u l y 1 6 , 1 9 1 8
. O n J an u ar y 1 6 , 1 9 28 , w i t h K am e n e f f ,
Z i n o v i e f f , R ak o v s k y an d R ad e k he w as e x i l e d . K am e n e f f , Z i n o v i e f f an d R ad e k
had be e n as s o c i at e d w i t h Tr o t s k y f r o m t he be g i n n i n g o f t he B o l s he v i k r e v o l u -
t i o n .
1 7
" B r i t i s h A g e n t " by R
. H . B r u c e L o c k har t ( G . P . P u t n am ' s S o n s ) p . 222.
1 s
I bi d . , p . 220
.
1
0 2
G u m be r g i s bac k i n A m e r i c a w o r k i n g f o r F l o y d B
.
O d i u m an d i s f r e q u e n t l y i n t he v i c i n i t y o f t he s an c t u m
o f t he N e w D e al at W as hi n g t o n , D
. C . The r e has l o n g
be e n a q u e s t i o n r e g ar d i n g t he s o u r c e o f f u n d s u s e d by
Tr o t s k y i n f o m e n t i n g t he R u s s i an r e v o l u t i o n an d w hat ,
i f an y , par t G u m be r g had i n d e l i v e r i n g t o Tr o t s k y f u n d s
c o n t r i bu t e d by a d i s t i n g u i s he d A m e r i c an J e w f o r t hat
pu r po s e
. Tr o t s k y s ay s n o t hi n g abo u t t he f u n d s i n hi s
hi s t o r y o f t he r e v o l u t i o n
i s
an d f r o m hi s bo o k i t m i g ht be
s u ppo s e d t hat n o m o n e y w as u s e d .
The l at e J ac o b H
. S c hi f f , w ho d i e d i n i
g 2o , ai d e d i n
f i n an c i n g t he J apan e s e l o an o f 1 9 0 4 - 0 5 f o r w hi c h he w as
t w i c e d e c o r at e d by t he E m pe r o r o f J apan bu t r e f u s e d t o
par t i c i pat e i n A n g l o - F r e n c h l o an s o f 1 9 1 5 be c au s e as s u r -
an c e w as n o t f o r t hc o m i n g t hat R u s s i a, w he r e t he J e w s had
be e n i l l t r e at e d , w o u l d n o t be n e f i t f r o m t he l o an
. A f t e r
t he C z ar w as o v e r t hr o w n , S c hi f f s u ppo r t e d t he f i r s t r e v o -
l u t i o n ar y g o v e r n m e n t w i t h a s u bs c r i pt i o n t o a K e r e n s k y
l o an o f o n e m i l l i o n r u bl e s . H i s bi o g r aphe r as s e r t s
20
t hat " he w as bi t t e r l y o ppo s e d t o t he S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t
an d t o al l i t s d o c t r i n e s , " bu t hi s " o ppo s i t i o n , " i t s e e m s ,
d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h hi s f i n an c i al ai d o f bo t h K e r e n s k y
an d t he B o l s he v i k s
.
W hi l e i t i s u n l i k e l y t hat t he R e v
. C har l e s E . C o u g hl i n
d e l i be r at e l y bai t e d t ho s e J e w s , w ho ho l d t hat w i s d o m an d
d e c e pt i o n ar e s y n o n y m o u s , an d t he ho s t i l e pr e s s i n hi s
t w o r ad i o ad d r e s s e s , N o v e m be r 2o an d N o v e m be r
27 ,
1 9 3 8 , i n w hi c h he as s ai l e d J e w i s h c o - o pe r at i o n i n t he
B o l s he v i k r e v o l u t i o n o f 1 9 1 7 - 1 8 , s t i l l hi s t hr e e ad d r e s s e s
e n d i n g w i t h hi s r ad i o ad d r e s s o f D e c e m be r 4 , 1 9 3 8 , w e r e
w o r t hy o f hav i n g be e n pl an n e d c ar e f u l l y i n ad v an c e , s o
c o m pl e t e l y d i d he an n i hi l at e hi s c r i t i c s i n t he l as t ad d r e s s
.
H i s d o c u m e n t ar y pr o o f o f pr e v i o u s c har g e s w as d e v as -
t at i n g
. The B r i t i s h W hi t e P ape r , t he S i s s o n d o c u m e n t s
an d t he f i l e s o f t he A m e r i c an S t at e D e par t m e n t , f r o m
1 9
" The H i s t o r y o f t he R u s s i an R e v o l u t i o n , " Thr e e V o l u m e s ,
by L e o n
Tr o t s k y ( S i m o n an d S c hu s t e r ) .
20
C y r u s A d l e r ,
A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k , V o l . 23 , p
. 3 2-
1 0 3
w hi c h he q u o t e d , s ho w be y o n d d o u bt t he ac t i v e par t i c i pa-
t i o n by J e w i s h w o r l d ban k e r s , i n c l u d i n g A m e r i c an J e w -
i s h ban k e r s , i n t he B o l s he v i k r e v o l u t i o n .
K e r e n s k y , Tr o t s k y , s e v e r al J e w i s h r abbi s , a s i z abl e
s e c t i o n o f t he A m e r i c an pr e s s an d t he d o u bl e d e al i n g o f
t he A m e r i c an S t at e D e par t m e n t w e r e s t r i ppe d o f t he i r
d e c e pt i o n an d f al s e ho o d s . O n o n e o c c as i o n , as he s ho w e d ,
t he c o m m u n i c at i o n f ac i l i t i e s o f o u r o w n S t at e D e par t -
m e n t w e r e l o an e d t o t he J e w s t o t r an s m i t a m e s s ag e t o
J e w i s h ban k e r s i n P e t r o g r ad .
P e r haps t he m o s t s i g n i f i c an t f ac t r e c i t e d by F at he r
C o u g hl i n w as t he r e f u s al o f t he A m e r i c an J e w i s h C o n -
g r e s s at i t s 1 9 3 8 m e e t i n g t o appr o v e a r e s o l u t i o n c o n -
d e m n i n g C o m m u n i s m o f f e r e d by a d e l e g at e f r o m S t .
L o u i s , an d t he w i t hd r aw al o f t he r e s o l u t i o n af t e r a n o i s y
pr o t e s t
.
A c c o r d i n g t o t he N e w Y o r k Ti m e s
21
t he C o n g r e s s c o n -
s i s t e d o f f o u r hu n d r e d d e l e g at e s e l e c t e d by 3 5
1 , 6 7 4
pe r s o n s f r o m o n e hu n d r e d e i g ht y - s e v e n c o m m u n i t i e s i n
t hi r t y s t at e s . R abbi S t e phe n S . W i s e s at o n t he pl at f o r m .
" The m e n t i o n o f C o m m u n i s m " s ai d t he Ti m e s s t o r y
o f t he C o n g r e s s , " t hr e w t he c o n v e n t i o n i n t o an u pr o ar
w he n d e l e g at e s an d v i s i t o r s at t e m pt e d t o s ho u t d o w n
A br aham L e v i n , a S t . L o u i s , Mi s s o u r i , d e l e g at e w ho d e -
m an d e d t hat a pr o po s e d d e c l ar at i o n o f t he c o n v e n t i o n ' s
pr i n c i pl e ( s ) be am e n d e d t o i n c l u d e a d e n u n c i at i o n o f
C o m m u n i s m . A f t e r he at e d d i s c u s s i o n , Mr . L e v i n w i t h-
d r e w hi s d e m an d . "
The s i g n i f i c an c e o f t he n o i s y pr o t e s t ag ai n s t s u c h a
r e s o l u t i o n i n a C o n g r e s s s o t ho r o u g hl y r e pr e s e n t at i v e o f
A m e r i c an J e w r y , pl u s t he w i t hd r aw al o f t he r e s o l u t i o n
w i t ho u t a v o t e , i s s o o bv i o u s t hat c o m m e n t c an ad d n o t h-
i n g w hat e v e r , t ho u g h F at he r C o u g hl i n d i d u r g e an i m -
m e d i at e r e as s e m bl i n g o f t he C o n g r e s s . D e l ay e d ac t i o n
u po n t he r e s o l u t i o n i n k e e pi n g w i t h t he o bl i g at i o n s o f
21
O c t o be r 29 , 1 9 8 8 , p . i g .
* O u r i t al i c s .
1 0
4
J e w s as A m e r i c an c i t i z e n s w o u l d o n l y e m phas i z e t he
t r ag e d y o f J e w i s h d e t ac hm e n t f r o m A m e r i c an w ay s o f
l i f e .
The R e v . F r
. C o u g hl i n al s o d i s c u s s e d t he " c r u e l an d
v i o l e n t " B e l a K u n , 22
al i as A r o n C o hn , bo r n o f m i d d l e
c l as s J e w i s h par e n t s i n Tr an s y l v an i a, w ho e n t e r e d j o u r n al -
i s m an d w ho , be f o r e t he W o r l d W ar , w as i n d i s g r ac e be -
c au s e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t he m i s m an ag e m e n t o f f u n d s be -
l o n g i n g t o a c o - o pe r at i v e s o c i e t y
. C apt u r e d by t he R u s -
s i an s , B e l a K u n w as i n R u s s i a at t he t i m e o f t he B o l s he v i k
r e v o l u t i o n , an d e s c ape d ac r o s s t he f r o n t i e r w i t h a f o r g e d
pas s po r t af t e r L e n i n had f i l l e d hi s po c k e t s w i t h f u n d s t o
pr o m o t e C o m m u n i s m i n H u n g ar y
. O n be c o m i n g C o m -
m u n i s t d i c t at o r i n i g i g , he s e t abo u t t o n at i o n al i z e al l
pr o pe r t y bu t hi s s y s t e m s o o n c o l l aps e d an d he f l e d t he
c o u n t r y
. B e f o r e hi s d e par t u r e , ho w e v e r , he c ar r i e d o n a
R e d t e r r o r i n H u n g ar y f o r s e v e r al m o n t hs
.
Un l e s s t he H o n . F r an k R
. Mc N i n c h, c hai r m an o f
F C C ,
w as i n t he s am e pl i abl e hu m o r as a w o m an w ho has al -
r e ad y d e t e r m i n e d t o s u r r e n d e r he r c has t i t y , i t i s s c ar c e l y
po s s i bl e t hat he w as i m pr e s s e d by Mi s s D o r o t hy Tho m p-
s o n ' s " O pe n L e t t e r " o f D e c e m be r 20 ,
1 9 3 8 , i n w hi c h s he
c o n c e r n s he r s e l f w i t h F at he r C o u g hl i n ' s br o ad c as t s
. The
c o u n t r y i s n o t m u c h c o n c e r n e d
w he r e o r ho w
F at he r
C o u g hl i n g o t t he d at a f o r hi s br o ad c as t s o r e v e n w he t he r
t he br o ad c as t s " i n j u r e an y r ac i al , r e l i g i o u s o r o t he r
g r o u p
. " The c o n c e r n o f t he c o u n t r y i s l i m i t e d t o t he
m aj o r q u e s t i o n , " D i d F at he r C o u g hl i n s t at e t he f ac t s ? "
an d t he c o r r e l at e d q u e s t i o n ,
. " W hat ar e w e i n A m e r i c a
t o d o abo u t t he pe r i l o f J e w i s h i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A m e r i c an
po l i t i c s , i f , i n f ac t , s u c h a pe r i l e x i s t s ? " Mi s s Tho m ps o n
i s al t o g e t he r t o o l e g al i s t i c i n d i s c u s s i n g w he t he r a c e r t i f i -
c at e o f pu bl i c c o n v e n i e n c e an d n e c e s s i t y s ho u l d i s s u e t o
F at he r C o u g hl i n t o be c o n v i n c i n g .
N e i t he r t he " r e pl y " t o F at he r C o u g hl i n o f F r an k T
.
= E n c y c l o pae d i a B r i t an n i c a, V o l . 1 8 , p.
5 1 6 - 5 1 7
;
" H u n g ar y an d H e r S u c -
c e s s o r s 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 8 7 " by C
. A . Mac ar t n e y ( O x f o r d Un i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) p .
S g
e t s e q .
1 0 5
H o g an , t he e m i n e n t W as hi n g t o n l aw y e r w ho w as at t o r n e y
f o r D o he n y i n t he F al l - D o he n y br i be r y pr o s e c u t i o n , n o r
t he d e c l ar at i o n o f C ar d i n al Mu n d e l e i n t hat C o u g hl i n
d o e s n o t s pe ak f o r t he C at ho l i c C hu r c h w i l l e r as e t he
e v i d e n c e pr e s e n t e d by t he D e t r o i t pr i e s t ag ai n s t t he J e w s
.
S u c h s t r at e g y , as Me n c k e n pu t s i t , i n f r a, i s pu e r i l e .
H o g an ' s e n d e av o r w as be s i d e t he i s s u e s as al s o w as t he
t o t al l y i r r e l e v an t d e c l ar at i o n o f t he C hi c ag o C ar d i n al .
The J e w pr e d o m i n at e d i n t he m e m be r s hi p o f t he
C e n t r al E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t he F i f t h A l l - R u s s i an
C o n g r e s s w hi c h m e t J u l y 4 , 1 9 1 8 , i n Mo s c o w
. ' " N o o n e
w ho i s f am i l i ar w i t h t he hi s t o r y o f t he B o l s he v i k s e i z u r e
o f po w e r i n 1 9 1 7 , " s ay s W i l l i am H e n r y C ham be r l i n ,
24
" c an m i s t ak e t he pr o m i n e n t par t w hi c h J e w s pl ay e d i n
t he B o l s he v i k par t y l e ad e r s hi p at t hat t i m e . " C ham be r l i n
s ay s t he po l i t i c al bu r e au c r e at e d O c t o be r
25 , 1
9 1 7 ,
t o ac t
f o r t he e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e o f t he B o l s he v i k s had f o u r
J e w s o u t o f s e v e n m e m be r s . H e al s o n am e s S o k o l n i k o v ,
Ur i t z k y , V o l o d ar s k y an d J o f f e , am o n g o t he r s , w ho w e r e
ac t i v e l e ad e r s at t he t i m e i n B o l s he v i s m . J o f f e w as he ad
o f t he f i r s t pe ac e d e l e g at i o n t o B r e s t - L i t o v s k . B e s i d e s
Tr o t s k y , hi s n e phe w S aal k i n d , w as as s i s t an t c o m m i s s ar
o f f o r e i g n af f ai r s i n t he f i r s t B o l s he v i k g o v e r n m e n t .
L u t s k y , a J e w i s h l aw y e r , w ho m L o c k har t c al l s a " r at , "
had c har g e o f t he pas s po r t bu r e au
. K ar l R ad e k , an o t he r
J e w an d pam phl e t e e r o f B o l s he v i s m , w as as s i s t an t c o m -
m i s s ar o f f o r e i g n af f ai r s af t e r t he g o v e r n m e n t w as m o v e d
t o Mo s c o w i n 1 9 1 8 . R ad e k ' s r e al n am e i s S o be l s o hn .
S v e r d l o f f , P r e s i d e n t o f t he C o n g r e s s an d o f t he S o v i e t
E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e ; A f an as i e f f , S e c r e t ar y o f t he C e n t r al
E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e ; an d K am k o f f an d K ar e l i n , S o c i al -
R e v o l u t i o n ar y l e ad e r s , al l w e r e J e w s .
F at he r C o u g hl i n , i n hi s r ad i o ad d r e s s o f N o v e m be r 20 ,
1 9 3 8 , as s e r t e d t hat w he n L e n i n s e i z e d c o n t r o l o f t he
R u s s i an g o v e r n m e n t i n 1 9 1 7 , he c r e at e d t w e n t y - f i v e q u as i -
2s
" B r i t i s h A g e n t " by R . H . B r u c e L o c k har t , p . 29 2.
24
" D o J e w s R u l e S o v i e t R u s s i a" by W i l l i am H e n r y C ham be r l i n , C hr i s t i an
S c i e n c e Mo n i t o r W e e k l y Mag az i n e , J u n e
3 0 ,
1 9 3 7 .
l o b
c abi n e t po s i t i o n s e v e r y o n e o f w hi c h w as he l d by a J e w ,
e x c e pt t he o n e he l d by L e n i n hi m s e l f . "
W hi l e t he R u s s i an J e w s , w ho n u m be r e d o n e - hal f t he
w o r l d po pu l at i o n o f J e w s i n 1 9 1 4 , o bt ai n e d po l i t i c al
e m an c i pat i o n f r o m t he W o r l d W ar , t he l o t o f t he av e r ag e
J e w has n o t be e n par t i c u l ar l y happy u n d e r t he S o v i e t s .
J e w i s h C o m m u n i s t s hav e
2s
" t ak e n a s i n i s t e r d e l i g ht i n t he
pr o s c r i pt i o n o f al l J e w i s h r e l i g i o u s t e ac hi n g
. S y n ag o g u e s
w e r e c o n f i s c at e d an d c o n v e r t e d i n t o w o r k m e n ' s c l u bs
. . . .
Z i o n i s t s ar e pu r s u e d w i t h a c z ar - l i k e f e r o c i t y as c o u n t e r -
r e v o l u t i o n ar i e s an d ` ag e n t s o f B r i t i s h i m pe r i al i s m , ' hu n -
d r e d s o f t he m hav i n g be e n ban i s he d t o S i be r i a . The u s e
o f H e br e w i s s u ppr e s s e d as a ` bo u r g e o i s l an g u ag e . ' . . .
J e w i s h i n s t i t u t i o n al r e l i g i o n be c am e par al y z e d i n S o v i e t
R u s s i a an d t he r e l i g i o u s o u t l o o k f o r t he g r o w i n g g e n e r a-
t i o n i s d ar k . "
The e m phas i s pu t o n J e w i s h o bj e c t i o n s t o N az i i d e o l -
o g y an d t he abs e n c e o f an y o bj e c t i o n s t o C o m m u n i s t
i d e o l o g y i n t he c u r r e n t A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k ar e
n o t w an t i n g i n s i g n i f i c an c e . The d e v e l o pm e n t o f an t i -
S e m i t i s m i n A m e r i c a, as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t he ac t i v i t i e s o f
J e w i s h r ad i c al s , i s d i s m i s s e d as " po l i t i c al . "
27
The ac t i v i t y o f J e w s i n t he N e w D e al , t he c
. i . o .
an d t he C o m m u n i s t par t y i n A m e r i c a i n d i c at e s r at he r
f o r c e f u l l y t he t r i u m ph o f i n s t i n c t o v e r e x pe r i e n c e bu t
s u c h t r i u m phs ar e n o t l i m i t e d t o J e w s . J u d ai s m an d
C o m m u n i s m w e r e bo t h as s ai l e d as be i n g l i n k e d t o g e t he r
by t he Un i t e d F as c i s t F r o n t , o r g an i z e d i n Me x i c o i n
O c t o be r ,
1 9 3 7 . "
I n t he m i d d l e o f t he l as t c e n t u r y t he " J e w s m ad e c o m -
m o n c au s e w i t h l i be r al s an d e v e n w i t h r e v o l u t i o n i s t s , "
25
The i r as s u m e d an d r e al n am e s w e r e Tr o t s k y ( B r o n s t e i n ) , S t e c k l o f f ( N ak -
han e s ) , Mar t o f f ( Z e d e r bau m ) , Z i n o v i e f f ( A pf e l bau m ) , K am e n e f f ( R o s e n f e l d ) ,
D an ( G o u r e v i t c h) , G an e t z k y ( F u r s t e n be r g ) , P ar v u s ( H e l pf an d ) , Ur i t z k y
( P ad o m i l s k y ) , L ar i n ( L u r g e ) , B o hr i n ( N at han s o hn ) , Mar t i n o f f ( Z i bar ) ,
B o g d an o f f ( Z i l be r s t e i n ) , G ar i n ( G ar f e l d ) , S u c han o f f ( G i m e l ) , K am n e l f f
( G o l d m an n ) , S ag e r s k y ( K r o c hm an n ) , R i az o n o f f ( G o l d e n bac h) , S o l u t e z e f f
( B l e i c hm an n ) , P i at n i t z k y
( Z i w i n )
,
A x e l r o d ( O r t ho d o x ) , G l as n u o f f
( S c hu l t z e ) , Z u r i e s ai n ( W e i n s t e i n ) an d L api n s k y ( L o e w e n s o hn ) .
2
6 E n c y c l o pae d i a B r i t an n i c a, V o l
.
1 3 ,
p .
6 3 -
27
A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k , V o l . 4 0 , p. G o o e t s e q .
1 0 7
o bs e r v e s
'
O t t o R u hl e . The J e w s w e r e ac t i v e l y i d e n t i -
f i e d w i t h t he m o v e m e n t w hi c h l e d t o t he e m an c i pat i o n o f
C u ba
'
an d o u r o w n A m e r i c an R e v o l u t i o n had t he f i n an -
c i al s u ppo r t o f a r e c e n t l y - ar r i v e d P o l i s h J e w , H ay m
S al o m o n , w ho ac t e d as br o k e r f o r R o be r t Mo r r i s .
The F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n an d t he R e v o l u t i o n o f 1 8 4 8
bo t h r e s u l t e d i n be t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r t he J e w t ho u g h t he
J e w s u f f e r e d t e r r i bl y d u r i n g t he R e i g n o f Te r r o r . The
pr e s e n t " D e m o c r at i c " f r o n t i n F r an c e i s d i r e c t e d by a
J e w , t he f o r m e r pr e m i e r , L e o n B l u m , w ho d ar e d pr o po s e
an al l i an c e be t w e e n F r an c e , E n g l an d , t he Un i t e d S t at e s
an d R u s s i a
t o o pe r at e ag ai n s t G e r m an y , I t al y an d J apan .
W hi l e t he u l t i m at e o u t c o m e o f F r e n c h po l i t i c s i s pe r haps
u n pr e d i c t abl e , t he d e f e at o f t he e x t r e m e L e f t by P r e m i e r
D al ad i e r , w ho hi m s e l f i s n o R i g ht i s t , i n D e c e m be r , 1 9 3 8 ,
f o r e s had o w s t he d i r e c t i o n o f af f ai r s , i f n o t t he f i n al g o al .
The d i r e c t i o n i s t o w ar d d i c t at o r s hi p .
The r e v o l u t i o n ar y pat t e r n , ho w e v e r , i s n o t at t r ac t i v e
t o m an y t ho u g ht f u l A m e r i c an J e w s w ho hav e be e n
o m i t t e d f r o m t he N e w D e al bu r e au c r ac y o r w ho w o u l d
hav e n o t hi n g t o d o w i t h i t
. The s e J e w s hav e t o c o n s i d e r
t he pr o s pe c t o f an e v e n t u al pe r s e c u t i o n t hat w i l l af f e c t
al l
J e w s . B u r t o n J
. H e n d r i c k abs o l v e s t he S e phar d i c an d
G e r m an J e w s i n A m e r i c a f r o m r e v o l u t i o n ar y i n c l i n at i o n s
bu t i s s e v e r e i n hi s d e n u n c i at i o n o f P o l i s h o r E as t e r n
J e w s , c o m pr i s i n g t ho s e f r o m L i t hu an i a, R u s s i a an d par t s
o f t he f o r m e r A u s t r i an E m pi r e
. '
Thr o u g ho u t t he c o u n t r y , i n t he s m al l e r c i t i e s e s pe -
c i al l y , ar e m an y J e w s w ho pe r f o r m w e l l t he i r f u l l d u t i e s
as A m e r i c an c i t i z e n s
. The y e n j o y e v e r y pr i v i l e g e t o be
had i n t he c o m m u n i t i e s w he r e t he y an d t he i r f o r be ar s
hav e l i v e d f o r s e v e n t y - f i v e o r a hu n d r e d y e ar s f o r t he
v e r y s i m pl e r e as o n t hat t he y hav e e ar n e d t he r e s pe c t an d
28
" K ar l Mar x , H i s L i f e an d W o r k s " by O t t o R u hl e , t r an s l at e d
by E d e n
an d C e d ar P au l ( The V i k i n g P r e s s ) p . 6 3 .
29
E n c y c l o pae d i a B r i t an n i c a, V o l . 1 3 , p . 6 0 .
H " The J e w s i n A m e r i c a" by B u r t o n J
. H e n d r i c k ( D o u bl e d ay , P ag e & C o
. ,
1 9 23 )
i o 8
e s t e e m o f t he i r n e i g hbo r s . The y ar e n o t C o m m u n i s t s o r
r e v o l u t i o n i s t s o r e v e n N e w D e al e r s
.
The S o c i al i s t i c an d C o m m u n i s t i c f l av o r o f t he pr e s e n t
A m e r i c an l abo r c o n t i n g e n t , e s pe c i al l y t he c . i . o . , i s d u e
i n l ar g e m e as u r e t o t he l e ad e r s hi p o f J e w s
. The s i t - d o w n
s t r i k e s i n D e t r o i t w e r e i n s t i g at e d by a g r o u p o f C o m m u -
n i s t s am o n g w ho m w as W i l l i am W e i n s t o n e
8 1
ac c o r d i n g
t o e v i d e n c e g i v e n t he D i e s C o m m i t t e e .
I t i s n o t e n o u g h t o s ay t hat t he J e w be l o n g s t o t he
S e m i t i c r ac e an d t hat t he pr e d o m i n at i n g r ac e w e s t o f t he
V i s t u l a i s A r y an , as S pe n g l e r po i n t s o u t , 8 2 t o ac c o u n t f o r
t he d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t he J e w o n O c c i d e n t al pe o pl e s
.
The e t e r n al c o n f l i c t be t w e e n t he J e w an d t he n o n - J e w
has i t s o r i g i n pe r haps i n d i f f e r e n c e s be t w e e n phas e s o r
s t ag e s o f J e w i s h c u l t u r e an d phas e s o r s t ag e s o f W e s t e r n
c u l t u r e s i n c e an t i - S e m i t i s m be g an .
That a pe o pl e n u m e r i c al l y u n i m po r t an t has be e n abl e
t o e x e r t s o pr o f o u n d an i n f l u e n c e u po n v as t l y g r e at e r
n u m be r s m ay be d u e t o t he f ac t t hat C l as s i c al C u l t u r e ,
t hat i s , t he C u l t u r e o f G r e e c e an d R o m e , w as al r e ad y
d e c ad e n t w he n t he c au s e o f t he m e e k an d l o w l y f i r s t w as
e m phas i z e d t w o t ho u s an d y e ar s ag o an d t hat W e s t e r n
C u l t u r e i s n o w d e c ad e n t , w he n J u d ai s m , " D e m o c r ac y "
an d C o m m u n i s m o pe r at e o n a c o m m o n f r o n t . I t m u s t
be c o n c e d e d t hat t he J e w s hav e r e t ai n e d a r ac e v i g o r ,
t hat s e e m s t o hav e be e n l o s t t o t he pe o pl e s am o n g w ho m
t he J e w s hav e l i v e d
.
B y r e as o n o f t he f ac t t hat t he J e w be l o n g s t o a d i f f e r e n t
c u l t u r e an d t hat t he pr e s e n t phas e , o r s t ag e , o f hi s c u l t u r e
d i f f e r s by m an y g e n e r at i o n s f r o m t he pr e s e n t phas e , o r
s t ag e , o f W e s t e r n C u l t u r e , hi s i n n e r l i f e i s d i f f e r e n t an d
hi s t hi n k i n g i s d i f f e r e n t . A f t e r t hi r t y c e n t u r i e s o f w o r l d
c o n t ac t s an d c o u n t l e s s pe r s e c u t i o n s o n ac c o u n t o f t he s e
c o n t ac t s , t he J e w i s u n as s i m i l at e d . H e i s ac c u s t o m e d t o
8 1 N e w Y o r k Ti m e s , O c t o be r i g ,
1 9 3 8 -
8 2 " The D e c l i n e o f t he W e s t " by O s w al d S pe n g l e r
( A l f r e d A . K n o pf , I n c . )
p . 9 1 8 .
l o g
ad apt hi m s e l f t o an y phi l o s o phy bu t i s m o r e i n c l i n e d t o
u s e t he t o o l s f o r g e d by K ar l Mar x t han an y o t he r , t he
r e as o n be i n g t hat Mar x i an phi l o s o phy i s a J e w i s h phi l o s -
o phy w hi c h f i t s J e w i s h e x pe r i e n c e
.
Thi s i s pr e c i s e l y w hy t he J e w i s a r e al d an g e r i n o u r
po l i t i c al s y s t e m . W hi l e n o w e l l i n f o r m e d pe r s o n ac c e pt s
t he e c o n o m i c phi l o s o phy o f K ar l Mar x y e t o u r A m e r i c an
po l i t i c al s y s t e m w hi c h i s bas e d u po n m as s v o t i n g s t r e n g t h,
g e n e r al l y d e v o i d o f c au t i o n an d g e n e r al l y w an t i n g i n
g r e at w i s d o m , i s s u c h t hat Mar x i an t e ac hi n g s t hr e at e n t o
d e s t r o y t he phi l o s o phy u n d e r w hi c h w e l i v e
. J e w s i n
l ar g e n u m be r ar e ac t i v e i n po l i t i c s f o r t he f i r s t t i m e s i n c e
t he g r e at d i s pe r s al an d , i n A m e r i c a, ar e pr o v i d i n g t he
m as s e s w i t h l e ad e r s hi p, par t i c u l ar l y i n t he N e w D e al , t he
c . i . o . an d t he C o m m u n i s t P ar t y
.
The r e i s a s t r i k i n g l i k e n e s s i n t he pe o pl e am o n g w ho m
C hr i s t i an i t y g ai n e d i t s f i r s t c o n v e r t s an d t ho s e w ho hav e
ac c e pt e d t he phi l o s o phy o f K ar l Mar x . A s C hr i s t i an i t y
f i r s t appe al e d t o t he po o r an d t he hu m bl e , t he w e ak an d
t he f o r l o r n , s o t he C o m m u n i s m o f t he N e w D e al has
appe al e d m o s t t o t he " f o l k s , " t he W P A ,
d e pe n d e n t s o f t he
d o l e , n e g r o e s , an d t at t e r d e m al i o n s o f w hat e v e r o r i g i n
.
W hi l e t he l e ad e r s hi p o f bo t h C hr i s t i an i t y an d C o m m u -
n i s m has be e n pr o v i d e d by J e w s , i t i s s i g n i f i c an t t hat t he
l at t e r r e pu d i at e s t he r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s o f t he f o r m e r
. I s i t
po s s i bl e t hat t he J e w s hav e c o r r e c t l y an t i c i pat e d t he
d e c l i n e o f C hr i s t i an i t y ?
The pas s i o n o f K ar l Mar x f o r t he " w o r k e r " an d t he
" l i be r al " c o n t r i bu t i o n o f P r o f
. F e l i x F r an k f u r t e r t o c o n -
t e m po r ar y po l i t i c al an d e c o n o m i c t ho u g ht ar e e x pl ai n e d
i n t he f o r m u l a o f J o s e ph K as t e i n
3 S
w he r e i n he as s e r t s
t hat " i n J e w i s h l aw t he r e w as n o s u c h t hi n g as a l e g al
j u s t i f i c at i o n o f
i n e q u al i t y * . . . "
w he r e as C api t al i s m
r e c o g n i z e s i n e q u al i t i e s
i n t he r i g ht t o o w n an d e n j o y
pr o pe r t y , w he t he r ac q u i r e d by pe r s o n al e f f o r t o r by i n -
he r i t an c e .
8 8
" H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w s " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p
. 5 3 -
* O u r i t al i c s .
1 1 0
B e f o r e l e av i n g E g y pt , ac c o r d i n g t o E x o d u s 1 3
:3 6 , t he
J e w s c o u l d bo as t o f hav i n g " s po i l e d t he E g y pt i an s " an d
K as t e i n as s e r t s
8 4
t hat " t he A l e x an d r i an J e w s br o u g ht
abo u t t he d i s i n t e g r at i o n o f H e l l e n i c c i v i l i z at i o n
. " H i s -
t o r i an s m ay hav e c o n f u s e d c au s e an d e f f e c t i n an e f f o r t
t o ac c o u n t f o r t he d e c l i n e o f S pai n as a w o r l d po w e r
.
W hi l e i t s d e c l i n e f o l l o w e d i m m e d i at e l y t he e x pu l s i o n o f
t he J e w s f r o m t he W e s t an d u n d o u bt e d l y t he r e w e r e
o t he r f ac t o r s t o ac c o u n t f o r S pai n ' s d e c l i n e , s t i l l t he c o l -
l aps e o f t he c o u n t r y f o l l o w e d s o c l o s e l y u po n an e r a o f
t o l e r an c e w i t hi n t he e m pi r e o f t he Mo o r s , o f t e n c al l e d
t he " J e w i s h R e n ai s s an c e , " t hat t hi s phe n o m e n o n i s n o t
w an t i n g i n s i g n i f i c an c e
.
S pe n g l e r as s e r t s t hat " J e w r y has be e n e q u al l y d e s t r u c -
t i v e w he r e i t has i n t e r v e n e d "
8 6
i n W e s t e r n c i v i l i z at i o n
an d e x pl ai n s t he J e w i s h t e n d e n c y t o f o m e n t r e v o l u t i o n
i n t he o bs e r v at i o n t hat r e v o l u t i o n m e an s " t he br e ak i n g
d o w n o f al l t hat i s o f o t he r bu i l d t han hi m s e l f . "
8 8
W he n
t he J e w e n g ag e s i n po l i t i c s , as D i s r ae l i i n E n g l an d , i t i s
t o m an i pu l at e 8 7
t he t o o l s o f an al i e n c u l t u r e , an al o g o u s
t o t he bac k s o m e r s au l t o f J am e s P . W ar bu r g i n 1 9 3 6
w he n , af t e r hav i n g pu bl i s he d t w o d i at r i be s d i r e c t e d at
Mr . R o o s e v e l t , he v o t e d f o r hi m i n t he e l e c t i o n
. The
m an i pu l at i o n s by D av i d E
. L i l i e n t hal t o o u s t D r . A r t hu r
E . Mo r g an f r o m z v A ;
by S am u e l G o l d w y n t o m ai n t ai n
t he s t at u s q u o i n H o l l y w o o d by i n t r o d u c i n g J i m m i e
R o o s e v e l t t o t he pay r o l l ; by Mo e A n n e n be r g t o o v e r -
t hr o w t he G u f f e y - E ar l e - L e w i s N e w D e al t r i u m v i r at e i n
P e n n s y l v an i a po l i t i c s ; by H y m i e K at z t o d e l u d e g u l l i bl e
phy s i c i an s an d pr e ac he r s as a r ac e - t r ac k t i ps t e r e x t r ao r d i -
n ar y ; by " L i ppy " L i ps hi t z t o m an e u v e r t he bai l - bo n d
r ac k e t i n B r o o k l y n an d by W al t e r W i n c he l l t o e v o k e
" l o t i o n s " o f f e r v o r f o r " d e m o c r ac y " w he n pr e s e n t i n g t he
8 4 " H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w s " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p .
5 3 -
3 5
" D e c l i n e o f t he W e s t " by O s w al d S pe n g l e r ( A l f r e d A
. K n o pf , I n c . ) V o l .
I I , p . 3 20 .
s s I bi d . , p . 3 20 .
a 7 I bi d . , p . 3 20 .
1 1 1
r e f u g e e pr o bl e m t o May f l o w e r d e s c e n d an t s m ay v ar y
w i d e l y i n r e s u l t s , o r e v e n i n m o t i v at i n g e t hi c s , bu t al l s u c h
m an e u v e r i n g i s o f t he s am e g e n e r al pat t e r n
. The y ar e
s u c h m an i pu l at i o n s as J e w s , G r e e k s , A r m e n i an s an d
P ar s e e s i m po s e u po n t he pe o pl e o f a y o u n g e r c u l t u r e
w he n f r e e l y al l o w e d t o m i n g l e w i t h i t . "
The f i n d i n g s o f i n t e l l e c t u al s e m pl o y e d by F o r t u n e w i t h
r e s pe c t t o " The J e w s i n A m e r i c a"
s s
ar e s o m e w hat c o n -
f u s i n g . " A n t i - J e w i s h pr e j u d i c e s " ar e at t r i bu t e d t o a
" d i s l i k e an d f e ar o f s t r an g e r s w hi c h t he G r e e k s k n e w as
x e n o pho bi a an d w hi c h appe ar s as a f am i l i ar phe n o m e n o n
am o n g pr i m i t i v e pe o pl e s an d pe o pl e s r e v e r t i n g t o pr i m i -
t i v i s m . . . . " al l o f w hi c h i s t ho r o u g hl y i n o f f e n s i v e bu t
n o t q u i t e c o n v i n c i n g . N o r i s t he s t at e m e n t w i t h r e s pe c t
t o t he c o m par at i v e l y s m al l n u m be r o f J e w s e n r o l l e d i n
t he C o m m u n i s t par t y an y m o r e c o n v i n c i n g
. The " n at u r al
pr o pe n s i t y o f t he J e w s f o r r e v o l u t i o n , " ho w e v e r , i s e x -
pl ai n e d i n l an g u ag e t hat i s s i m pl e an d d i r e c t .
" The s e c o n d - g e n e r at i o n J e w i s h i n t e l l e c t u al w i t h hi s
bac k g r o u n d o f Tal m u d i c d i al e t i c s , " s ay s t he F o r t u n e
ar t i c l e ,
" i s m e n t al l y d i s po s e d * t o Mar x i s m t o a d e g r e e
w hi c h he hi m s e l f r ar e l y appr e c i at e s
. A n d Mar x i s m w i t h
i t s i n t e r n at i o n al i s m an d an t i - n at i o n al i s m i s e m i n e n t l y
8 8
The A m e r i c an Me r c u r y has k e pt i t s r e l at i v e l y f e w r e ad e r s w e l l ad v i s e d o f
N e w D e al v u l g ar i t i e s i n t he bl i s t e r i n g o bs e r v at i o n s by Me n c k e n , C han n i n g
P o l l o c k , A l be r t J ay N o c k an d i t s e d i t o r s . W al t e r W i n c he l l ' s an n o u n c e m e n t
o n J an u ar y 3 1 , 1 9 8 9 , t hat " t he A m e r i c an Me r k ' s n e w s e t - u p w i l l e m br ac e
F . D . R . an d o t he r l i be r al A m e r i c an t e n d e n c i e s w i t h t he A pr i l i s s u e , " t he r e -
f o r e , w as an as t o u n d i n g bi t o f n e w s . The Mar c h i s s u e c o n t ai n i n g " D i c t at o r s
i n t o G o d s , t he D e i f i c at i o n o f H i t l e r an d S t al i n " by E u g e n e L y o n s s t at e d t hat
he w as t o be c o m e e d i t o r w i t h t he A pr i l i s s u e . L y o n s , a R u s s i an J e w , w as
e d u c at e d at t he C o l l e g e o f t he C i t y o f N e w Y o r k an d C o l u m bi a . H e w as i n
R u s s i a f r o m 1 9 27 t o 1 9 3 4 as c o r r e s po n d e n t o f t he Un i t e d P r e s s . H i s " A s s i g n -
m e n t i n Ut o pi a" ( H ar c o u r t B r ac e & C o . 1 9 3 7 ) w as a be s t s e l l e r . L y o n s w e n t
t o R u s s i a as a C o m m u n i s t an d w hi l e hi s e n t hu s i as m f o r S t al i n an d f i v e - y e ar
pl an s s u bs i d e d d u r i n g hi s s o j o u r n , he i s s t i l l be n t o n s av i n g t he w o r l d f r o m
" c api t al i s t i c o n s l au g ht s , " w hi c h r e c al l s a r e m ar k by o n e o f K e n n e t h R o be r t s '
c har ac t e r s i n " N o r t hw e s t P as s ag e , " t o w i t : " O n c e a w h . . e , al w ay s a w h
.
. e . "
The m an i pu l at i o n s i n J e w i s h q u ar t e r s w hi c h w e r e n e c e s s ar y t o br i n g abo u t
t he po l l u t i o n o f The A m e r i c an Me r c u r y m i g ht e x c i t e a pat ho l o g i s t bu t he
w o u l d s o o n r e s i g n hi m s e l f t o an e ar l y d e m i s e o f t hi s he r e t o f o r e he al t hy
j o u r n al .
8 9
F o r t u n e , F e br u ar y ,
1 9 3 6 -
* O u r i t al i c s .
1 1 2
f i t t e d t o t he e m o t i o n al n e e d s o f a pe o pl e w i t ho u t a f at he r -
l an d . . . . J e w i s h i n t e l l e c t u al s ar e at t r ac t e d t o r ad i c al i s m
be c au s e t he J e w i s h i n t e l l e c t u al v e r y u n d e r s t an d abl y f e e l s
t hat t he ` s y s t e m ' i s ag ai n s t hi m . "
" B o t h par e n t s " o f t he l at e A d o l ph S . O c hs , pu bl i s he r
o f t he N e w Y o r k Ti m e s an d C hat t an o o g a Ti m e s
" w e r e
r e v o l u t i o n i s t s by t e m pe r am e n t an d c o n v i c t i o n " i s a s t at e -
m e n t m ad e i n hi s bi o g r aphy pu bl i s he d af t e r hi s d e at h i n
t he A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k 4 0
" B e s i d e s t he i d e al o f an e x o d u s t o t he hi s t o r i c ho m e -
l an d , t he r e w as t he d r e am o f a r e v o l u t i o n w hi c h w o u l d
o v e r t hr o w t he au t o c r ac y an d u s he r i n a n e w
s o c i al
o r d e r , " * as s e r t s 4 1 A v r ahm Y ar m o l i n s k y i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f
Z i o n i s m an d R u s s i an r e al i t i e s as t he y f l o u r i s he d be f o r e t he
W o r l d W ar
. H e f u r t he r s ay s " t he J e w s w e r e t he f i r s t t o
s e t u p a r e v o l u t i o n ar y s o c i al - d e m o c r at i c o r g an i z at i o n o n
a n at i o n al s c al e . " Thi s w as t he G e n e r al J e w i s h W o r k e r s '
Un i o n o f R u s s i a, P o l an d an d L i t hu an i a f o u n d e d s e c r e t l y
at W i l n a i n 1 8 9 7
. B y 1 9 o 6 , i t had 27 4 l o c al s an d 3 4 , 0 0 0
m e m be r s .
I n t he y e ar s i m m e d i at e l y f o l l o w i n g t he t u r n o f t he
c e n t u r y - d u r i n g A m e r i c a' s t abl e au o f t he ho r s e an d
bu g g y - S o c i al i s m , C o m m u n i s m , A n ar c hi s m an d t he r e v -
o l u t i o n ar y c o n s pi r ac i e s w hi c h g av e t he m i m pe t u s w e r e
n o t w i d e l y c o m pr e he n d e d an d , s av e f o r o c c as i o n al o v e r t
ac t s s u c h as t he H ay m ar k e t r i o t , t he H o m e s t e ad s t r i k e
an d t he as s as s i n at i o n o f Mc K i n l e y , g e n e r al l y w e r e i g -
n o r e d . The c o n s pi r at o r s c ar r i e d o n t he i r pr o pag an d a,
pr o c l ai m e d t he i r phi l o s o phy an d bo as t e d o f t he i r be g i n -
n i n g s w i t h c o m pl e t e c an d o r . S o i t w as t hat H i ppo l y t e
H av e l , i n a bi o g r aphi c al s k e t c h o f E m m a G o l d m an , R u s -
s i an J e w e s s an d an ar c hi s t , pu bl i s he d i n t he s e c o n d e d i t i o n
o f he r " A n ar c hi s m an d O t he r E s s ay s , " ' 2 bo as t e d t hat
4 0 V O L 3 7 ,
pp .
29 - 3 0 -
* O u r i t al i c s .
4 1
" The J e w s u n d e r t he S o v i e t s " by A v r ahm Y ar m o l i n s k y ( V an g u ar d P r e s s
1 9 28 ) P . 8 2.
4 2 " A n ar c hi s m an d O t he r E s s ay s " by E m m a G o l d m an w i t h a bi o g r aphi c al
s k e t c h by H i ppo l y t e H av e l , s e c o n d r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ( Mo t he r E ar t h P u bl i s hi n g
A s s o c i at i o n ) p . 9 .
1 1 3
" v e r y l i t t l e i s s t i l l
( s i c )
k n o w n o f t he i m po r t an t par t t he
s o n s an d d au g ht e r s o f I s r ae l hav e pl ay e d i n t he r e v o l u -
t i o n ar y m o v e m e n t an d , e s pe c i al l y , i n t hat o f m o d e r n
t i m e s
. "
The J e w s hav e pr o v i d e d t he N e w D e al w i t h a m ax i -
m u m o f l e ad e r s hi p an d a m i n i m u m o f v o t e s , s av e i n N e w
Y o r k C i t y w he r e t he J e w i s h v o t e i s al s o i m po r t an t
. The
pr e s e n t po l i t i c al at t ac hm e n t s o f i t s m ay o r , w ho m an ag e d
t o g e t i n t o C o n g r e s s as a R e pu bl i c an , i s a n at u r al s hi f t ,
hi s an c e s t r y c o n s i d e r e d .
I n s t i n c t i v e l y , t he J e w s ad m i r e Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
. E v e n
E m i l L u d w i g , au t ho r o f m an y n o t abl e bi o g r aphi e s , s u c -
c u m be d t o t he s pe l l o f t he N e w D e al an d Mr
. R o o s e v e l t ,
as hi s r e c e n t pan e g y r i c
4 3
at t e s t s . L u d w i g d i s c l o s e d t o
t he A m e r i c an C l u b o f P ar i s j u s t be f o r e t he 1 9 3 8 e l e c -
t i o n
4 4
t hat he i s " a 1 o o pe r c e n t ad m i r e r o f Mr
. R o o s e -
v e l t . "
I n s pi t e o f t he d i s t r e s s he c au s e d , i s n o t S o l o m o n
r e v e r e d by t he J e w s f o r hi s w i s d o m ? The r e i g n o f t he
pr e s e n t R o o s e v e l t an d t he r e i g n o f S o l o m o n , m o r e o v e r ,
w e r e f o u n d e d o n m u c h c o m m o n g r o u n d .
To o bt ai n
f u n d s f o r hi s " g r an d i o s e s c he m e s , " 4 6 S o l o m o n r o t at e d t ax
l e v i e s o n t w e l v e d i f f e r e n t s pe c i al t ax i n g d i s t r i c t s w hi c h
he c r e at e d . H i s c o u r t , hi s har e m an d hi s bu i l d i n g pr o -
g r am " r e d u c e d m an y o f t he po o r e r pe o pl e t o a c o n d i t i o n
har d t o d i s t i n g u i s h f r o m s l av e r y "
4 8
an d " t he l av i s h e x -
pe n d i t u r e " 4 7
w as " t he pr i m e c au s e o f t he d i s c o n t e n t w hi c h
l e d u n d e r hi s s u c c e s s o r t o t he d i v i s i o n o f t he K i n g d o m . "
I f i t i s s ai d t hat t he N e w D e al d o e s n o t s u ppo r t a har e m ,
o n t he o t he r han d , n e i t he r d i d S o l o m o n u n d e r t ak e a
P as s am aq u o d d y , a F l o r i d a s hi p c an al , pu m p pr i m i n g n o r
c o n d o n e s i t - d o w n - s t r i k e s
.
The c o u n t r y m ay v e r y w e l l an t i c i pat e i t s f at e o n t he
4 3
" R o o s e v e l t , a S t u d y i n F o r t u n e an d P o w e r " by E m i l L u d w i g , t r an s l at e d
by Mau r i c e S am u e l ( The V i k i n g P r e s s ) .
'
N e w Y o r k Ti m e s , O c t o be r 23 , 1 9 1 8 .
4 5 E n c y c l o pae d i a B r i t an n i c a, V o l . 20 , p . 9 5 2.
4 6
I bi d .
4 7 I bi d
.
1
1 4
s u c c e s s i o n o f o n e o f t he R o o s e v e l t s t r i pl i n g s f r o m t he
po l i c y an n o u n c e d by S o l o m o n ' s s o n , R e ho bo am , w he n
t he " f o l k s " pe t i t i o n e d f o r m o r e g e n e r o u s t r e at m e n t
.
" My l i t t l e f i n g e r i s t hi c k e r t han m y f at he r ' s l o i n s , "
s ai d he
. " My f at he r c has t i s e d y o u w i t h w hi ps , bu t I w i l l
c has t i s e y o u w i t h s c o r pi o n s . "
4 8
" The n at i o n al e l e c t i o n c am pai g n o f 1 9 3 6 w as o f t r e -
m e n d o u s i m po r t an c e f r o m t he s t an d po i n t o f t he f e ar an d
i n s e c u r i t y w hi c h i t ar o u s e d i n J e w s an d l i be r al - m i n d e d
n o n - J e w s , " as s e r t e d D r . Mau r i c e K ar pf , 4 9
pr e s i d e n t o f t he
S e c o n d I n t e r n at i o n al C o n f e r e n c e o n J e w i s h S o c i al W o r k
.
P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t ' s " r e m ar k abl e v i c t o r y l e f t n o d o u bt
t hat an t i - S e m i t i s m i s n o t a s af e c am pai g n i s s u e i n t he
Un i t e d S t at e s
. "
s o
W hy J e w s s ho u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n t he
i n s e c u r i t y o f " l i be r al - m i n d e d n o n - J e w s " e x c e pt as t he y
s e e e y e t o e y e i s n o t e x pl ai n e d
. Mo r e o v e r , t he s t at e m e n t
i s n o t s o c o n v i n c i n g n o w t hat an o t he r e l e c t i o n has be e n
he l d .
J e w i s h po l i t i c i an s hav e f u r n i s he d m ag n i f i c e n t l e ad e r -
s hi p i n t he N e w D e al e r a t o t ho s e A m e r i c an s w ho ar e
f o r e v e r w an t i n g t o c han g e t he r u l e s o r t he s y s t e m an d
w ho w o u l d e x pe c t t he m i l l e n i u m t o appe ar at t he n e x t
s t o p- an d - g o s i g n i f o n l y t he r i g ht s y s t e m c o u l d be f o u n d
.
H e n c e , t he appe al o f C o m m u n i s m t o t he m as s e s
. B e f o r e
C o m m u n i s m , t he appe al w as a ho r d e o f pan ac e as e x t e n d -
i n g as f ar bac k as t he l at c h s t r i n g s o f t he f o u n d i n g f at he r s .
I t s e e m s n e v e r t o o c c u r t o t he A m e r i c an o
w ho l i v e s i n
" hi g h ho pe f o r a l o w he av e n " t hat e v e r y c han g e i n t he
r u l e s o r t he s y s t e m , o n l y pr o d u c e s ad d i t i o n al par as i t e s ,
w i t ho u t an y d i m i n u t i o n o f t he o l d e r v ar i e t i e s .
I s i t n o t po s s i bl e t hat t he n at u r e o f t he J e w i s h m i n d
an d he ar t i s s u c h t hat t he J e w ' s m i s f o r t u n e s ar e t he l o g i c al
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f hi s c o n t ac t s w i t h n o n - J e w s i n an y l an d ?
O t he r w i s e , ho w s hal l t he u n i v e r s al i t y o f hi s m i s e r y , t he
e n o r m i t y o f hi s pe r s e c u t i o n s e v e r y w he r e , be e x pl ai n e d ?
4 8 1 K i n g s
1 2:1 1 ,
1 4 ; I I C hr o n .
1 0 : 1 1 ,
1 4 .
4 0
A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k , V o l . $ g , p . 6 5 .
6 0 I bi d .
1 1 5
K as t e i n hi m s e l f pr e s e n t s a pe n e t r at i n g an al y s i s o f t he
J e w
6 1
w ho , he s ay s , " has be c o m e at o n c e ac c o m m o d at i n g
an d apo d e i c t i c , hu m bl e an d hau g ht y , a f r e e m an o f t he
s pi r i t an d a bo n d m an o f s o c i e t y , a c api t al i s t an d a r e v o l u -
t i o n ar y , t he m o s t pi o u s o f m e n an d al s o t he g r e at e s t
n i hi l i s t o f t he s pi r i t . " A r e n o t t he s e an t i t he t i c al r o l e s
f u l l y e x pl ai n e d i n a s e par at i o n o f t he e x t r i n s i c ac t s o f t he
J e w i n hi s s t r u g g l e t o c o n f o r m t o hi s e n v i r o n m e n t f r o m
hi s t r u e s e l f , hi s i n m o s t t ho u g ht s ? I n s u c h a w ar f ar e be -
t w e e n f o r m an d s u bs t an c e , be t w e e n bo d y an d s pi r i t , m ay
be f o u n d t he e x pl an at i o n o f f u n d am e n t al i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s
i n t he J e w , phe n o m e n a t hat o t he r w i s e ar e a m y s t e r y . A n
e x am pl e o f t he s e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i s f o u n d i n t he J e w i s h
o w n e r s hi p o f t he d e t e s t e d " s w e at s ho p, " par t i c u l ar l y i n
t he g ar m e n t i n d u s t r y , v i s - a- v i s t he J e w i s h l e ad e r s hi p o f
t he g ar m e n t w o r k e r s ' u n i o n s .
W al d o F r an k an d C han n i n g P o l l o c k w e l l r e pr e s e n t
t w o e x t r e m e s i n t he hi g he s t t y pe s o f J e w i s h s pi r i t , t he f i r s t
r o m an t i c an d f an c i f u l , t he s e c o n d apo d e i c t i c an d r e al i s t i c
.
I f C han n i n g P o l l o c k g o e s o v e r t o S t al i n an d R o o s e v e l t ,
al o n g w i t h t he A m e r i c an Me r c u r y , i t s ho u l d be r e m e m -
be r e d t hat t he H o n . J am e s P . W ar bu r g v e r y q u i c k l y ac -
c o m m o d at e d hi m s e l f t o S t al i n an d R o o s e v e l t , af t e r
pu bl i s hi n g " H e l l B e n t f o r E l e c t i o n " an d " S t i l l H e l l
B e n t . "
The A m e r i c an J e w i s h C o m m i t t e e , t he r e f o r e , s ho w s a
w an t o f u n d e r s t an d i n g o f J e w i s h c har ac t e r o r a pr e d i l e c -
t i o n t o ar g u m e n t f o r i t s o w n s ak e w he n i t s ay s 6 2 t he J e w s
ar e " ac c u s e d o f c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r n at i o n al f i n an c e " an d
" ac c u s e d o f be i n g r ad i c al s w o r k i n g f o r t he o t he r t hr o w o f
C api t al i s m , " as t ho u g h s u c h an t i t he t i c al r o l e s c an hav e
n o e x i s t e n c e i n f ac t . A c t u al l y , t he r e i s a bas i s o f t r u t h t o
s u ppo r t e ac h r o l e , i n c o n s i s t e n t as t he t w o ar e s i n c e m an y
J e w s , w hat e v e r t he i r s pi r i t u al i n c l i n at i o n s , av o i d t he
" l i be r al i s m " o f K ar l Mar x
.
B y n o m e an s t he l e as t o bj e c t i o n abl e t r ai t o f t he c o n -
5 1
" The H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p . 4 4 8 .
5 2
A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k , V o l
. 3 9 , P 7 9 5 -
1 1 6
t e n t i o u s J e w i s hi s pe n c han t f o r pr e s u ppo s i n g t he i m be c i l -
i t y o f an ad v e r s ar y an d f o r i g n o r i n g t he po s s i bl e i n t e l l i -
g e n c e o f a n e u t r al au d i e n c e
. E . H al d e m an - J u l i u s , w ho
c l ai m s t o be an ag n o s t i c bu t w ho po s s i bl y i s o n e o f t ho s e
" at he i s t i c J e w s " F at he r C o u g hl i n had i n m i n d i n hi s
r ad i o bar r ag e , i s e n t i t l e d t o w hat e v e r pr i z e S t al i n m ay
o f f e r f o r i n s o l e n c e , i n t o l e r an c e an d i n t e m pe r at e pr o pa-
g an d a .
H al d e m an - J u l i u s , bo r n pl ai n J u l i u s , l o n g ag o
m ad e G i r ar d , K an s as , f am o u s w i t h t he " A ppe al t o
R e as o n , " t he " L i t t l e B l u e B o o k s , " The A m e r i c an F r e e -
m an
an d a s t e r e o t y pe d v i o l at i o n o f e v e r y pr i n c i pl e o f
hu m an c o n d u c t i n he r e n t i n a g e n t l e m an . H i s " O pi n i o n
o f F at he r C o u g hl i n ' s br o ad c as t o f N o v e m be r 2o , 1 9 3 8 , "
"
i s u n w o r t hy o f m an y J e w s an d d i s g r ac e f u l t o al l . O n l y
a w o u n d s u f f e r e d i n a v u l n e r abl e s po t , ho w e v e r , c o u l d
pr o d u c e s u c h m ad n e s s .
I f t he J e w i n c l i n e s t o " L i be r al i s m , " t o S o c i al i s m an d
C o m m u n i s m , t o r e v o l u t i o n , he i s o n l y pu r s u i n g o bj e c t i v e s
w hi c h ac c o r d w i t h hi s hi s t o r y
. The s u r r e n d e r o f G o v -
e r n o r H e r be r t H . L e hm an , o f N e w Y o r k , t o t he f o r c e s o f
" L i be r al i s m , " e x e m pl i f i e d i n t he c ar e e r o f May o r L a-
G u ar d i a ; t o S o c i al i s m , C o m m u n i s m an d r e v o l u t i o n ,
e x e m pl i f i e d i n t he i d e al s o f D av i d D u bi n s k y an d hi s r e v o -
l u t i o n ar y al l i e s , i n be c o m i n g a c an d i d at e f o r a f o u r t h
t e r m at c o n s i d e r abl e pe r s o n al s ac r i f i c e , r e pr e s e n t s a f u l -
f i l l m e n t o f t he J e w i s h s pi r i t , al t o g e t he r t o o po w e r f u l f o r
t he i n d i v i d u al J e w t o w i t hs t an d . I n l i k e c i r c u m s t an c e s ,
a C al v i n C o o l i d g e w o u l d " n o t c ho o s e t o r u n
. "
I f t he J e w s hu d d e r s at t he t ho u g ht o f F as c i s m an d hi s
s o u l i s w ar m e d by c o n t e m pl at i o n o f an d m o s t o f hi s c o n -
t ac t s w i t h C o m m u n i s m , he i s t hi n k i n g l ar g e l y o f G e r m an y
an d R u s s i a : G e r m an y w he r e t he J e w has s u f f e r e d i n d e -
s c r i babl e ag o n i e s an d R u s s i a w he r e t he J e w pr e par e d t he
r e v o l u t i o n ar y s t ag e an d w he r e , i n s pi t e o f s o m e s u f f e r i n g ,
i n par t n e r s hi p w i t h L e n i n an d S t al i n , has c o n t i n u e d t o
o c c u py i t . F at he r C o u g hl i n i s au t ho r i t y f o r t he s t at e -
5 8
The A m e r i c an F r e e m an , N o . 1 9 9 8 , E . H al d e m an - J u l i u s , e d i t o r , Mar c h,
1 9 3 9 .
1 1 7
m e n t
U
t hat al t ho u g h t he J e w s c o n s t i t u t e o n l y t w o pe r
c e n t o f t he po pu l at i o n o f S o v i e t R u s s i a, t he y o c c u py f r o m
s i x t y - f i v e t o s e v e n t y - f i v e pe r c e n t o f t he o f f i c e s i n t he
S o v i e t bu r e au c r ac y .
L az ar u s K ag an o v i t c h, 6
c o m m i s s ar
o f t r an s po r t , i s r e g ar d e d as S t al i n ' s l e ad i n g l i e u t e n an t
.
L i t v i n o f f , c o m m i s s ar o f f o r e i g n af f ai r s , i s n e x t i n r an k an d
au t ho r i t y . A
. R o s e n g o l t z i s c o m m i s s ar f o r f o r e i g n t r ad e
.
H e i n r i c h Y ag o d a, f o r m e r l y he ad o f t he
G P U, i s c o m m i s s ar
f o r po s t s an d t e l e g r aph
. E m i l i an Y ar o s l av s k y w ho s e r e al
n am e i s G o be l m an , i s t he g r an d i n q u i s i t o r o f t he C o m -
m u n i s t P ar t y . O B
A s l at e as 1 9 8 5 , f i f t y - s i x o f t he f i f t y - n i n e m e m be r s o f
t he C e n t r al C o m m i t t e e o f t he C o m m u n i s t P ar t y o f R u s s i a
w e r e J e w s an d t he r e m ai n i n g t hr e e m e m be r s w e r e m ar r i e d
t o J e w e s s e s , t he R e v
. C har l e s E . C o u g hl i n s ai d i n hi s
r ad i o ad d r e s s o f N o v e m be r
20 ,
1 9 3 8
. " ' N o t o n e o f t ho s e
5 4
R ad i o ad d r e s s , D e c e m be r 4 ,
1 9 3 8 -
5 0
The K ag an o v i t c h f am i l y s e e m s t o be g e t t i n g o n v e r y w e l l i n R u s s i a
. A
d i s pat c h t o t he
C hi c ag o Tr i bu n e o f J an u ar y 1 4 ,
1 9 3 9 , s t at e s t hat L az ar u s
( L az ar ) K ag an o v i t c h i s a m e m be r o f t he P o l i t i c al B u r e au , c o m m i s s ar o f c o m -
m u n i c at i o n s an d
r o ad s , c o m m i s s ar o f he av y i n d u s t r i e s , d e pu t y t o t he s u pr e m e
c o u n c i l an d s e c r e t ar y o f t he c e n t r al c o m m i t t e e o f t he C o m m u n i s t P ar t y
.
H i s s i s t e r o r d au g ht e r i s e i t he r t he w i f e o r m i s t r e s s o f D i c t at o r S t al i n
. Tw o
o f hi s s i s t e r s hav e hi g h po s t s i n t he bu r e au c r ac y
. Mac hai l K ag an o v i t c h i s
c o m m i s s ar o f t he d e f e n s e i n d u s t r y , a m e m be r o f t he c e n t r al c o m m i t t e e an d
d e pu t y o f t he s u pr e m e c o u n c i l
. J u l i u s K ag an o v i t c h i s s e c r e t ar y o f t he C o m -
m u n i s t P ar t y i n t he G o r k i d i s t r i c t
. A n d r i e K ag an o v i t c h i s d i r e c t o r o f s t at e
t r ad e i n t he K i e v d i s t r i c t
. B ar u c h M. K ag an o v i t c h he ad s t he i n d u s t r y w hi c h
f u r n i s he s u n i f o r m s t o t he ar m y
. S e r g i e M . K ag an o v i t c h i s c hi e f o f t he t e x t i l e
t r u s t
. Mar i e K ag an o v i t c h i s pr e s i d e n t o f t he t r ad e u n i o n o f t he k n i t t e d g o o d s
i n d u s t r y .
ae " D o t he J e w s R u l e S o v i e t R u s s i a" by W i l l i am H e n r y C ham be r l i n ,
C hr i s -
t i an S c i e n c e Mo n i t o r W e e k l y Mag az i n e , J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 7
. The m o s t r e c e n t he ad
o f t he G P U, ac c o r d i n g t o S o c i al J u s t i c e o f J an u ar y
23 ,
1 9 3 9 i s an o t he r J e w ,
L av e n t i R e s pi P av l o v i c h B e r i j e v .
6 7 N o n - J e w s m ar r i e d t o J e w e s s e s i n c l u d e d L
. V . S t al i n , S . S
. L o bo w an d
V . V . O s s i n s k y . The J e w s w e r e , V
. V . B al i t s k y , K . J . B au m an n , I
. M . V ar e i k i s ,
J . B . G am ar n i k , I . I
. E g o f f , I . S . Z e l e n s k y , I . D . K abak o f f , L . M
. K ag an o w i t z ,
V . G
. K n o r i n , M . M . L i t v i n o f f , I . E
. L i o bi m o w , D . Z . Man o u i l s k y , I . P . N o s s o w ,
J . L .
P i at ak o w , I . O . P i at n i t s k y , M
. O . A az o u m o w , M . L . R u c hi m o v i t c h,
K . V
. R i n d i n , M . M . H o u t ae v i t c h, M
. S . Tc hu o d o w , A . M
. S c hv e r n i k ,
R . I . E i c he , G . G . l ag o d a, I . E
. l ak i r , I . S . I ak o v l e w , F . P . G r i ad i n s k y , G . N
.
K am i n s k y , I . S . Un s c hl i c ht , A . S
. B o u l i n , M. I . K al m an o w i t z , D . S
. B e i k a,
Z i f r i n o v i t c h, Tr ac ht e r , B i t n e r , G
. K an e r , L e o K r i c hm an , A . K . L e pa,
S
. A .
L o z o u s k y , B
. P . P o z e r n , T . D . D e r i bas s , K
. K . S t r i e v s k y , N . N . P o po w ,
S
. S c hw ar t z , E . I . V e g e r , I . Z . Me c hl i s , A
. I . O u g ar o w , G . I . B l ag o n r av o w ,
1
1
8
w ho u s he r e d i n t he r e v o l u t i o n i n 1 9 1 7 w as a m e m be r o f
t he C e n t r al C o m m i t t e e o f t he C o m m u n i s t P ar t y i n 1
9 3 5 .
W he n t he J e w t hi n k s o f R u s s i a, he i s al s o t hi n k i n g o f
a s y m bo l t hat i s v e r y n e ar t o hi s he ar t , t he po l i t i c al s y m bo l
o f s o c i al e q u al i t y ,
D e m o c r ac y ; i . e . , t he D e m o c r ac y f o r
w hi c h K ar l Mar x y e ar n e d . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , a s ho r t - r an g e
v i e w bu t s ho r t - r an g e v i e w s ar e n o t t he e x c l u s i v e f o l l y o f
J e w s .
S u c h an ad d r e s s as t hat d e l i v e r e d by P r e m i e r V i ac he s l av
Mo l o t o f f , c hai r m an o f t he C o u n c i l o f P e o pl e s C o m m i s -
s ar s , 6 8 o n N o v e m be r 29 , 1 9 3 6 t o t he A l l - Un i o n C o n g r e s s
o f S o v i e t s m ay i m pr e s s J e w s bu t i s n o t l i k e l y t o pe r s u ad e
m an y c o n s e r v at i v e n o n - J e w s . The ad d r e s s i s q u o t e d i n
t he A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k : "
" The N az i l e ad e r s hav e w e l l e ar n e d t he appe l l at i o n
m o d e r n c an n i bal s . The i r pe r s e c u t i o n o f t he J e w s i s i n
m ar k e d c o n t r as t t o o u r r e s pe c t f o r t hi s r ac e w hi c h g av e u s
K ar l Mar x . O u r at t i t u d e t o w ar d n at i o n al m i n o r i t i e s i s
o n e o f f r i e n d l i n e s s an d k i n d n e s s . The N az i at t i t u d e i s
o n e o f bar bar i s m an d c r u e l t y . The F as c i s t s ar e t he
d e s t r o y e r s o f c u l t u r e an d t he ad v o c at e s o f m o n s t r o u s s o c i al
t he o r i e s . "
S i n c e t hi s s pe e c h w as d e l i v e r e d , be t w e e n May ,
1 9 3 7 ,
an d J u n e , 1 9 3 8 , t he " f r i e n d l i n e s s an d k i n d n e s s " o f
Mo s c o w has be e n v i s i t e d o n t he S o v i e t ar m y . The k n o w n
r e s u l t o f t hi s " f r i e n d l i n e s s an d k i n d n e s s "
8
i s t he e x e c u -
t i o n o f t w o m ar s hal s , t hr e e o u t o f s i x ar m y g r o u p c o m -
m an d e r s , t e n o u t o f t hi r t e e n ar m y c o m m an d e r s , f i f t y -
s e v e n o u t o f e i g ht y - f i v e c o r ps c o m m an d e r s , o n e hu n d r e d
t e n o u t o f o n e hu n d r e d n i n e t y - t hr e e d i v i s i o n al c o m m an d -
e r s , t w o hu n d r e d t w o o u t o f f o u r hu n d r e d br i g ad e c o m -
m an d e r s , t he c o m m an d e r - i n - c hi e f o f t he n av y , al l t he f l e e t
ad m i r al s , t he c hi e f o f t he ai r f o r c e , t he he ad o f t he t an k
A . P . R o s e n g l o z , A . P . S e r e br o v s k y , A . M . S t e i n g ar t , I . P . P av l o u n o v s k y , G . I .
S o k o l n i k o w , C . I . B r o i d o , V . I . P o l o u s k y , G . D . V e i n be r g an d M . M. K ag an o -
w i t z .
s s S o c i al J u s t i c e , J an u ar y 23 , 1 9 3 9 -
5 9 A m e r i c an J e w i s h Y e ar B o o k , V o l . 8 9 , p
. 4 5 7 -
6 0 C hi c ag o Tr i bu n e , N o v e m be r 1 4 ,
1 9 3 8 -
1 1 9
c o r ps , t he c o m m an d an t s o f t he s t af f c o l l e g e s an d t ho u s an d s
o f c o l o n e l s an d m aj o r s .
W hi l e be l i e v i n g e v e r y t hi n g c har g e d ag ai n s t t he N az i s ,
t he c o n s e r v at i v e A m e r i c an n o n - J e w w i l l n o t bo t he r hi m -
s e l f w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n s be t w e e n H i t l e r an d S t al i n .
A l be r t E i n s t e i n r e c o g n i z e s i n t he J e w 8 1 t he t r ad i t i o n al
be n t t o s o c i al an d e c o n o m i c e q u al i t y w hi c h he
c al l s " t he d e m o c r at i c i d e al o f S o c i al j u s t i c e " an d f o r
w hi c h, he f u r t he r s ay s , Mo s e s , S pi n o z a an d K ar l Mar x
" l i v e d an d s ac r i f i c e d t he m s e l v e s . " E i n s t e i n at t r i bu t e s
N az i o ppo s i t i o n o r an t i - S e m i t i s m i n G e r m an y t o " i n -
s i s t e n c e o n po pu l ar e n l i g ht e n m e n t o f t he m as s e s , " ( an -
o t he r n am e f o r " u n i v e r s al e d u c at i o n " an d t he " d i c t at o r -
s hi p o f t he pr o l e t ar i at " ) by " t he J e w as a n o n - as s i m i l abl e
e l e m e n t
. " Thi s i s t an t am o u n t t o an ad m i s s i o n o f f u n d a-
m e n t al d i f f e r e n c e s i n c har ac t e r be t w e e n t he J e w an d hi s
N az i n e i g hbo r s
. A l t ho u g h E i n s t e i n c o m m i t s t he J e w t o
t he " po pu l ar e n l i g ht e n m e n t o f t he m as s e s " he ad m i t s t hat
" i n t i m e s o f u n r e s t an d t u r m o i l t he m as s e s ar e i n c l i n e d t o
hat r e d an d c r u e l t y " ag ai n s t J e w s .
G has t l y as t he pe r s e c u t i o n s o f J e w s i n C e n t r al E u r o pe
u n d o u bt e d l y ar e , t he r e i s a s i n c e r e d o u bt am o n g n o n -
J e w s , w ho c he r i s h n o r ac e pr e j u d i c e s an d w ho t he m s e l v e s
bi t t e r l y r e s e n t t he pe r s e c u t i o n s , w i t h r e s pe c t t o w he t he r
t he J e w s ar e w ho l l y bl am e l e s s
. Mo r e o v e r , t he r e i s a
r e l at e d d o u bt w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he f i n al c o n s e q u e n c e s t o
J e w s i n A m e r i c a o f t o o m u c h s t r e s s u po n t he r o l e o f J e w -
i s h m ar t y r d o m i n G e r m an y
. The r e i s s t i l l a d e e p- s e at e d
r e s e n t m e n t i n A m e r i c a ag ai n s t m e d d l i n g i n e i t he r t he
g o o d o r bad f o r t u n e s o f E u r o pe an pe o pl e s
.
A s l o n g ag o as 1 9 1 8 , H
. L . Me n c k e n i n hi s I n t r o d u c -
t i o n t o N i e t z s c he ' s " A n t i c hr i s t "
8 2 d e l i v e r e d t hi s bl as t
:
" The c as e ag ai n s t t he J e w s i s l o n g an d d am n i n g
; i t
w o u l d j u s t i f y t e n t i m e s as m u c h pr e j u d i c e as t he y n o w
e n c o u n t e r i n t he w o r l d . "
6 1
" W hy D o The y H at e t he J e w s ? " by A l be r t E i n s t e i n ,
C o l l i e r ' s W e e k l y ,
N o v . 26 , 1 9 3 8 .
6 2
" The A n t i c hr i s t " by F r e d e r i c k W
. N i e t z s c he ( A l f r e d A . K n o pf , I n c . ) p
. 29 .
1
2
0
P r e v i o u s l y , i n hi s " Tr e at i s e o n t he G o d s , "
8 3 Me n c k e n
w as e v e n m o r e w i t he r i n g :
" The J e w s c o u l d be pu t d o w n v e r y pl au s i bl y as t he
m o s t u n pl e as an t r ac e e v e r he ar d o f
. A s c o m m o n l y e n -
c o u n t e r e d t he y l ac k m an y o f t he q u al i t i e s t hat m ar k t he
c i v i l i z e d m an
; c o u r ag e , d i g n i t y , i n c o r r u pt i bi l i t y , e as e ,
c o n f i d e n c e
. The y hav e v an i t y w i t ho u t pr i d e , v o l u pt u o u s -
n e s s w i t ho u t t as t e an d l e ar n i n g w i t ho u t w i s d o m
. The i r
f o r t i t u d e , s u c h as i t i s , i s w as t e d u po n pu e r i l e
( s u pr a)
o bj e c t s an d t he i r c har i t y i s m ai n l y a f o r m o f d i s pl ay
. "
W hat e v e r H e n r y F o r d d i d o r d i d n o t s ay t o R abbi L e o
M
. F r an k l i n w ho s o u g ht t o i n t e r e s t hi m i n e n g ag i n g t he
s e r v i c e s o f J e w s abo u t t o be e x pe l l e d f r o m G e r m an y , n o -
bo d y has d e n i e d he s ai d he be l i e v e d t hat J e w s w o u l d n ' t
be c o n t e n t t o w o r k i n f ac t o r i e s
. The ho m e l e s s J e w s o f
t he w o r l d hav e had m an y o ppo r t u n i t i e s t o e s t abl i s h a
ho m e o f t he i r o w n s i n c e Ti t u s d e s t r o y e d J e r u s al e m i n
7 0
A . D .
The t w o A m e r i c an c o n t i n e n t s hav e be e n c o l o -
n i z e d i n t he m e an t i m e bu t t he J e w s had n o par t i n t he
pi o n e e r i n g t hat w as n e c e s s ar y
. The y c am e i n i n c r e as i n g
n u m be r s , ho w e v e r , as c i t i e s be c am e e s t abl i s he d
. " B e f o r e
t he Z i o n i s t m o v e m e n t w as w e l l s t ar t e d , G r e at B r i t ai n
o f f e r e d t he m a ho m e i n E as t A f r i c a w hi c h t he y d e c l i n e d
. "
I n 1 9 3 3 , af t e r t hi r t y - s i x y e ar s o f t he Z i o n i s t m o v e m e n t ,
e s " Tr e at i s e o n t he G o d s " by H . L . Me n c k e n ( A l f r e d A
. K n o pf , I n c . )
P P . 3 4 5 -
6 .
e 4 I n hi s " R ac i al R e al i t i e s i n E u r o pe " ( C har l e s S c r i bn e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 24 )
L o t hr o p S t o d d ar d s ay s t hat i t w as d u r i n g " P o l an d ' s g o l d e n ag e " w he n P o l an d
an d L i t hu an i a w e r e u n i t e d u n d e r a s i n g l e c r o w n as t he y f i r s t w e r e i n 1 3 8 6
t hat t he J e w i s h i m m i g r at i o n t o o k pl ac e
. " A t f i r s t w e l c o m e d an d e n c o u r ag e d
by t he P o l i s h K i n g s , t he J e w s , " s ay s S t o d d ar d , " f l o c k e d i n f r o m e v e r y s i d e ,
s e t t l i n g i n t he t o w n s
i n s u c h n u m be r s t hat t he P o l e s at l e n g t h c he c k e d t he
i m m i g r at i o n
. " S t o d d ar d g o e s o n t o s ay t hat " t he P o l i s h J e w s t hr o v e an d
m u l t i pl i e d , an d P o l an d be c am e t he n c e f o r t h t he n u m e r i c al c e n t e r o f t he
J e w i s h r ac e .
A f t e r t w o c e n t u r i e s , t he c o u n t r y be g an t o d e c l i n e , S t o d d ar d e x pl ai n s , an d
w i t h i t s " o ppr e s s e d an d r e be l l i o u s al i e n e l e m e n t s l i k e R u s s i an s an d G e r m an s ,
an d
w i t h i t s c i t i e s f u l l o f u n as s i m i l at e d J e w s ,
be c am e a m e r e he l pl e s s hu l k "
an d f i n al l y w as w i pe d o u t al t o g e t he r i n t he t w o f am o u s par t i t i o n s o f 1 7 7 2 an d
1 7 9 5 by R u s s i a, P r u s s i a an d A u s t r i a
. P o l an d ' s l e s s o n i s n o t w i t ho u t m e an i n g
t o A m e r i c a
.
8 5
" The H i s t o r y an d D e s t i n y o f t he J e w s " by J o s e ph K as t e i n , p
. 4 4 2.
1 21
t he t o t al J e w i s h po pu l at i o n o f P al e s t i n e w as o n l y
1 7 5 , -
0 0 0 .
6 6
The r e ar e l e s s t han 4 , 0 0 0 J e w s i n t he I r i s h F r e e S t at e
an d o n l y i 6 , o o o i n Me x i c o . F i n l an d has l e s s t han 3 , 0 0 0 .
The s e c o u n t r i e s ar e w an t i n g i n n at u r al r e s o u r c e s an d l i f e
i s d i f f i c u l t i n al l o f t he m . The r e ar e l e s s t han i o , o o o J e w s
i n al l o f S o u t h A m e r i c a, e x c e pt i n g t he t w o c o u n t r i e s o f
g r e at e s t r e s o u r c e s , A r g e n t i n a w hi c h has a J e w i s h po pu l a-
t i o n o f 21 5 , 0 0 0 an d B r az i l w hi c h has 4 0 , 0 0 0 .
N o t o n l y w i l l t he J e w s n o t w o r k i n f ac t o r i e s o r e v e n
o n t he f ar m , s av e u n d e r c o m pu l s i o n , bu t t he i r m i g r at i o n s
hav e be e n l i m i t e d g e n e r al l y t o t ho s e c o u n t r i e s w ho s e r e -
s o u r c e s had al r e ad y be e n d e v e l o pe d by t he pi o n e e r e f f o r t
o f o t he r s . N e ar l y t w e n t y - e i g ht pe r c e n t o f al l t he J e w s
i n t he w o r l d hav e f o u n d a hav e n i n t he Un i t e d S t at e s .
The C ar t hag i n i an s w ho ar e c al l e d a " r e ar - g u ar d o f t he
B aby l o n i an c i v i l i z at i o n " by S pe n g l e r 8 7 an d w ho f i n al l y
w e r e s w al l o w e d u p by t he G r e e k s an d R o m an s w e r e m u c h
s u pe r i o r t o t he G r e e k s an d R o m an s " as m e n o f bu s i n e s s
an d hat e d ac c o r d i n g l y . " The P ar s e e s e n j o y t he i r g r e at
w e al t h i n B o m bay t o d ay an d hav e l i t t l e f r i c t i o n w i t h t he
n at i v e s o n l y be c au s e t he I n d i an c i v i l i z at i o n i s e v e n o l d e r
t han t he P e r s i an .
That t he J e w w i l l c o n t i n u e t o pu r s u e hi s hi s t o r i c al
i d e al s i n A m e r i c a, t he o n e l an d w he r e he has e n j o y e d u n -
0 6
A n u n s i g n e d ar t i c l e i n The C o m m e n t at o r f o r J an u ar y , 1 9 8 9 , r e c o m m e n d s
t he i s l an d o f Mad ag as c ar as a n e w ho m e l an d w he r e " J e w i s h s t at e s m an s hi p
w o u l d hav e a c han c e o f w o r k i n g o u t a l i be r al l y c o n c e i v e d c o m m o n w e al t h, "
bu t he r e ag ai n t he r e i s a d i s r e g ar d o f r ac i al t r ai t s i n t he i r l as t phas e s , a d i s -
r e g ar d o f t he J e w ' s i n he r e n t d i s abi l i t y , i f l i m i t e d t o t r ad e an d c o m m e r c e
w i t h o t he r J e w s . L i k e t he P ar s e e s , t he G r e e k s an d t he A r m e n i an s , t he J e w s
t hr i v e be s t w he n f r e e l y al l o w e d t o m i n g l e w i t h an d t o s hu f f l e t he pl as t i c e l e -
m e n t s o f a y o u n g e r r ac e o r c u l t u r e , t o t he i r o w n ad v an t ag e an d pr o f i t .
B e c au s e t he m as t e r y o f f i n an c e , o r m o n e y , i s a u n i v e r s al g i f t t hat e m e r g e s
i n t he f i n al s t ag e s o f al l c u l t u r e s , t he J e w t u r n s n at u r al l y t o t he s t o c k m ar k e t
w i t h i t s " po o l s , " i t s " c o r n e r s , " an d i t s " w as h s al e s . " S y n d i c at e d g am bl i n g ,
o w n e d an d m an ag e d by a r e l at e d n e t w o r k o f bo o k m ak e r s , w i t h i t s i n n u m e r -
abl e r am i f i c at i o n s , i s an o t he r e n t e r pr i s e d o m i n at e d by J e w i s h t al e n t , w hi c h
w o u l d be i n n e e d o f c u s t o m e r s , i f t he ho m e o f f i c e w e r e i n Mad ag as c ar , r at he r
t han i n N e w Y o r k an d C hi c ag o .
8 7 " The D e c l i n e o f t he W e s t " by O s w al d S pe n g l e r ( A l f r e d A . K n o pf , I n c
. )
V o l . I I , p . 3 23 .
1 22
l i m i t e d f r e e d o m , m ay be ac c e pt e d as i n e v i t abl e ; t hat t hi s
pu r s u i t w i l l c o n t i n u e u n t i l t he r e i s an o pe n br e ac h w i t h
t he " m aj o r i t y " w hi c h, i n i t s d i s t r e s s , w i l l t u r n ag ai n s t t he
J e w l i k e w i s e i s i n e v i t abl e
. Thu s , w i l l t he s ad pl i g ht o f
t he J e w be r e pe at e d
. Thu s , o n c e m o r e w i l l J e w i s h hi s -
t o r y be f u l f i l l e d .
The r e i s abu n d an t e v i d e n c e t o s u ppo r t t he hy po t he s i s
t hat t he au t ho r s hi p o f " r e d bai t e r " an d o f " J e w bai t e r "
i s t he s am e
. The r e i s al s o abu n d an t e v i d e n c e t o s u ppo r t
t he hy po t he s i s t hat c o n t e m po r ar y an t i - S e m i t i s m i n
A m e r i c a i s f o u n d e d l ar g e l y o n t he i d e n t i t y o f C o m m u -
n i s m an d J u d ai s m
. I f an t i - S e m i t i s m i s abo u t t o r e ar i t s
u g l y he ad f o r t he f i r s t t i m e i n A m e r i c a am o n g t ho u g ht f u l
an d i n t e l l i g e n t n o n - J e w s , t he m o s t pl au s i bl e e x pl an at i o n
i s t hat t hi s i d e n t i t y c an n o l o n g e r be d i s g u i s e d
.
The o pe r at i o n s o f t he S e m i t i c m i n d i n W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a-
t i o n ar e m y s t e r i o u s o n l y i n s o f ar as S e m i t i c o r i g i n s ar e
d i s r e g ar d e d . L aw r e n c e e m phas i z e s 8 8 t he " e s s e n t i al l i k e -
n e s s " o f t he A r abi c , A s s y r i an , B aby l o n i an , P ho e n i c i an ,
H e br e w , A r am ai c an d S y r i ac t o n g u e s an d as c r i be s t o
t he m " c o m m o n i n f l u e n c e s i n t he pas t " an d e v e n a " c o m -
m o n o r i g i n
. " The " S e m i t e s had n o hal f t o n e s i n t he i r
r e g i s t e r o f v i s i o n , " an d w e r e " a d o g m at i c pe o pl e , " s ay s
L aw r e n c e . " " S o m e t i m e s i n c o n s i s t e n t s s e e m e d t o po s s e s s
t he m at o n c e i n j o i n t s w ay ; bu t t he y n e v e r c o m pr o m i s e d ;
t he y pu r s u e d t he l o g i c o f s e v e r al i n c o m pat i bl e o pi n i o n s
t o abs u r d e n d s , w i t ho u t pe r c e i v i n g t he i n c o n g r u i t y . "
Me n c k e n o bs e r v e d t he s am e t r ai t w he n he s ai d ' t he J e w s
hav e " l e ar n i n g w i t ho u t w i s d o m . "
W he n A m e r i c an s ar e t e m pt e d t o e m br ac e t he i d e al s
an d o bj e c t i v e s o f t he J e w - i d e al s an d o bj e c t i v e s w hi c h f i t
t he J e w bu t w hi c h ar e r e pu g n an t t o t he W e s t e r n s o u l -
t he y o u g ht t o c o n s i d e r i n d e e p s o l e m n i t y t he w ar n i n g t hat
8
" S e v e n P i l l ar s o f W i s d o m " by T . E . L aw r e n c e ( G ar d e n C i t y P u bl i s hi n g
C o . ) p
. 3 3 -
6 9
I bi d . , p
. 3 8 .
7 0 " Tr e at i s e o n t he G o d s " by H . L . Me n c k e n ( A l f r e d A . K n o pf , I n c
. )
P P - 3 4 5 - - 6 -
1 23
L aw r e n c e has l e f t . H e w e n t i n t o t he d e s e r t t o s e r v e t he
A r ab " f o r l o v e o f t he g l am o u r o f s t r an g e n e s s " he ad m i t s . "
" P r ay G o d , " he r e f l e c t s , " t hat m e n . . . w i l l n o t . . . g o
o u t t o pr o s t i t u t e t he m s e l v e s an d t he i r t al e n t s i n s e r v i n g
an o t he r r ac e . "
P r ay G o d , t hat A m e r i c a s hal l r e m ai n A m e r i c an ; t hat
t he Tr o j an ho r s e o f C o m m u n i s m , c o n c e i v e d by K ar l
Mar x an d hi s s u c c e s s o r s an d al r e ad y hal f t hr o u g h o u r
g at e s , s hal l n o t be al l o w e d f u r t he r e n t r y ; t hat w e m ay
r e t u r n f o r t hw i t h t o t he s e r v i c e o f o u r o w n pe o pl e an d
e s c ape t he s e r v i t u d e s o w e l l pl an n e d f o r u s by al i e n
f ac t o r s , t he J e w an d t he N e w D e al .
7 1 " S e v e n P i l l ar s o f W i s d o m " by T
. E . L aw r e n c e ( G ar d e n C i t y P u bl i s hi n g
C o . ) p . 3 1 .
* O u r i t al i c s .
1 24
C H A P TE R I X
K e e pi n g Up w i t h t he J o n e s e s , an d R o o s e v e l t s
H o w t he N e g l e c t o f A n c e s t o r s H as G i v e n Mr .
R o o s e v e l t Un r e s t r i c t e d F r e e d o m t o P l ay w i t h t he
A l phabe t , To g e t he r w i t h P e r t i n e n t E x -
t r ac t s f r o m t he D e c l ar at i o n o f
I n d e pe n d e n c e .
" P e o pl e w i l l n o t l o o k f o r w ar d t o po s t e r i t y w ho n e v e r l o o k bac k w ar d t o t he i r
an c e s t o r s . " - E d m u n d B u r k e .
S O ME V E R Y c o n s e r v at i v e pe r s o n s be l i e v e t he c o u n t r y
s u f f e r s f r o m k e e pi n g u p w i t h t he J o n e s e s . The c o n t e s t
f o r po s i t i o n w i t h t he J o n e s e s m ay e x pl ai n o u r o w n f ai l u r e
t o i n f o r m o u r s e l v e s ho w t he an c e s t o r s o f t he J o n e s f am i l y
be hav e d . N at u r al l y , t he J o n e s f am i l y i s n o t n o w pr e -
o c c u pi e d w i t h t he i r o w n an c e s t o r s , s o t hat t he r e s u l t i s ,
t he J o n e s an c e s t o r s an d an c e s t o r s g e n e r al l y ar e n e g l e c t e d .
W hat t he J o n e s an c e s t o r s be l i e v e d , as a s o u n d an d s e c u r e
w ay o f l i f e , i s be s i d e t he i s s u e o f pr e s e n t s t r u g g l e s f o r
po s i t i o n an d pl ac e , o r s o t he J o n e s f am i l y , t o d ay ' s J o n e s e s ,
w o u l d m ai n t ai n .
The J o n e s f am i l y m i g ht n o t g o s o f ar t o d ay t o m ai n t ai n
t hat t he c o u n t r y i s o n a n e w e c o n o m i c l e v e l o r t hat t he
o n l y d i r e c t i o n t he D o w - J o n e s av e r ag e c an t ak e i s
" u p . "
The J o n e s e s s o be l i e v e d i n t he S u m m e r o f 1 9 29 bu t as
e ar l y as t he s pr i n g o f 1 9 3 0 , t he y had c e as e d t o be l i e v e i t .
The J o n e s f am i l y d i d n ' t l o s e t he i r s hi r t s bu t t he y d i d l o s e
t w o o f t he i r t hr e e au t o m o bi l e s an d t he y d i d c an c e l r e s e r -
v at i o n s f o r a t r i p ar o u n d t he w o r l d w hi c h t he y had
pl an n e d t o pay f o r f r o m pr o f i t s i n t he m ar k e t .
1 25
The J o n e s e s , ho w e v e r , s t i l l m ai n t ai n t hat t he ho m e l y
m ax i m s o f l i f e w hi c h g u i d e d t he i r an c e s t o r s an d w hi c h
e n abl e d t he m , i n o l d ag e , t o l i v e i n c o m par at i v e i n d e -
pe n d e n c e hav e n o pr e s e n t f o r c e an d e f f e c t
. A l l t he
J o n e s e s m ak e s po r t o f o l d B e n F r an k l i n w ho s e al m an ac
w as r e ad by t he i r an c e s t o r s w i t h g r e at r e s pe c t
. The y al l
l au g h w he n e v e r t he y g o t o t he at t i c w he r e a v e r y o l d
s am pl e r han g s t o t he r af t e r s
. O n i t i s an ax i o m o f o l d
B e n F r an k l i n an d i t i s t he ax i o m w hi c h par t i c u l ar l y
am u s e s t he m :
" A m an m ay , i f he k n o w s n o t ho w t o s av e as he g e t s , k e e p hi s
n o s e t o t he g r i n d s t o n e . "
The J o n e s e s l i v e i n t he pr e s e n t , n o t t he pas t . The y
c o n t e n d v e r y m e r r i l y t hat t he w ay t o s av e i s t o s pe n d an d
t he y e m phas i z e s pe n d i n g m o r e t han s av i n g
. The y d o
n o t be l i e v e t hr i f t i s pr ac t i c abl e
. I n f ac t , t he y t hi n k t hr i f t
i s o u t m o d e d an d t hat t he r e ar e s ho r t c u t s t o o pu l e n c e
.
B y n o m e an s d o t he y be l i e v e w i t h o l d J o hn H e y w o o d
t hat " t he happy m an ' s w i t ho u t a s hi r t , " bu t t he y ho pe
t he " r e c e s s i o n " w i l l s o o n be o v e r an d t he y be l i e v e t hat
by J u l y 1 , 1 9 3 9 , Mr
. R o o s e v e l t w i l l hav e al l t he f ac t o r i e s
r u n n i n g ag ai n an d t he y w o u l d n o t be s u r pr i s e d i f Mr .
R o o s e v e l t al r e ad y has t he pe r s o n al pr o m i s e s o f Mr
.
S t al i n , Mr . H i t l e r , Mr
. Mu s s o l i n i an d Mr . A n t ho n y E d e n
t o at t e n d t he N e w Y o r k W o r l d ' s F ai r t hi s y e ar an d be
hi s w e e k - e n d g u e s t s at H y d e P ar k .
A l l t he J o n e s e s ac t u al l y be l i e v e Mr
. R o o s e v e l t " s av e d
u s f r o m C o m m u n i s m " an d v e r y n at u r al l y t he y ar e al l
N e w D e al e r s .
A l t ho u g h t he J o n e s e s be l i e v e i n f abl e s , t he y hav e n o t
d i s c o v e r e d t he c o n t r as t be t w e e n t he R o o s e v e l t s an d t he
f abl e d d o g t hat d r o ppe d a r e al bo n e t o r e c o v e r an i m ag i -
n ar y bo n e m i r r o r e d i n t he s t r e am . W he n S o n J i m m i e
c o n n e c t e d w i t h t he m o v i e pay r o l l i n H o l l y w o o d , E l e an o r
s u c c e e d e d hi m i n t he i n s u r an c e bu s i n e s s . The J o n e s e s
hav e o v e r l o o k e d t he hi n t t hat t he R o o s e v e l t s hav e ad o pt e d
t he Tr o j an ho r s e po l i c y o f t he C o m m u n i s t s an d t hat af t e r
1 26
Mar c h 4 , 1 9 4 1 , t he r e m ai n i n g m e m be r s o f t he f am i l y
e x pe c t t o f o l l o w J i m m i e t o H o l l y w o o d .
The J o n e s e s ar e am o n g t he " f o l k s " w ho d e n y t hat an y
r e l at i o n e x i s t s be t w e e n t he D o w - J o n e s av e r ag e o r t he
t r e n d o f s t o c k m ar k e t pr i c e s an d f u t u r e bu s i n e s s pr o s -
pe c t s . The J o n e s e s , l i k e Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s S e c u r i t i e s an d
E x c han g e C o m m i s s i o n , be l i e v e m o s t o f o u r e v i l s c an be
t r ac e d t o " m o n o po l i e s , " t o W al l S t r e e t an d t he N e w Y o r k
S t o c k E x c han g e .
The y t hi n k t he c o m pl e t e abo l i t i o n ,
by l aw o r e x e c u t i v e o r d e r , o f s ho r t s e l l i n g w i l l c han g e
t he c o m pl e x i o n o f t he W al l S t r e e t t r ad e r , i f n o t hi s w ho l e
n at u r e . The y be l i e v e s t o c k m ar k e t pr i c e s ar e d e t e r -
m i n e d by t he o d d c apr i c e s o f g am bl e r s an d , t he r e f o r e ,
ar e q u i t e u n r e l i abl e as a g u i d e i n c ho o s i n g be t w e e n t he
pu r c has e o f a n e w au t o m o bi l e an d a pay m e n t o n t he
f am i l y m o r t g ag e
. The J o n e s e s ar e w ai t i n g f o r i n f l at i o n .
I t i s t he o pi n i o n o f t he J o n e s f am i l y t hat Mr . R o o s e v e l t
i s abo u t t o pr i n t a w ho l e l o t o f n e w m o n e y , w he r e u po n
m o n e y w i l l be s o pl e n t i f u l t hat t he y c an pay o f f t he w ho l e
m o r t g ag e w i t h t he f am i l y s u r pl u s o f a s i n g l e m o n t h .
F o r t hi s r e as o n t he y t hi n k a par t i al pay m e n t n o w w o u l d
be a v e r y f o o l i s h g e s t u r e , par t i c u l ar l y s i n c e t he y r e al l y
n e e d a n e w au t o m o bi l e an d s i n c e s o m e o f t he i r n e i g hbo r s
ar e bu y i n g n e w au t o m o bi l e s .
W hat t he J o n e s e s d o n ' t k n o w i s t hat i f t he " f o l k s "
ar e n o t s t r i ppe d an d s k i n n e d f r o m be l i e v i n g i n an d f o l -
l o w i n g o n e f al l ac y , t he " f o l k s " ar e c e r t ai n t o be s t r i ppe d
an d s k i n n e d f r o m be l i e v i n g i n an d f o l l o w i n g an o t he r .
L i f e f o r t he J o n e s e s an d t he o t he r " f o l k s " appe ar s t o
c o n s i s t s o l e l y i n t he pu r s u i t o f f al l ac i e s , i n ad o pt i n g
an d pu r s u i n g a s e c o n d be f o r e c o m pl e t e r e c o v e r y f r o m
t he f i r s t
. The w e ak n e s s o f t he J o n e s e s , w he n i n t he
pr e s e n c e o f f al l ac i e s , m ay e x pl ai n t he i r c o n f i d e n c e i n
t he pr e v ai l i n g w o bbl y s t r u c t u r e o f pr i c e s r an g i n g f r o m
A d am s E x pr e s s t o Z o n i t e P r o d u c t s .
S i n c e t he J o n e s F am i l y pu t s s o l i t t l e f ai t h i n t he w i s -
d o m o f an c e s t o r s , t he r e i s v e r y l i t t l e o f i t w i t h w hi c h t he y
ar e ac q u ai n t e d
. N o o n e o f t he m has e v e r r e ad t he D e c l a-
1 27
r at i o n o f I n d e pe n d e n c e f r o m t he pr e am bl e t o t he s i g n a-
t u r e s . A l l hav e r e ad t he pr e am bl e bu t n o t o n e m e m be r
o f t he f am i l y has e v e r r e ad an y o n e o f t he f o l l o w i n g
pas s ag e s f r o m t he t e x t o f t he d o c u m e n t
:
I .
" The hi s t o r y o f t he pr e s e n t K i n g o f G r e at B r i t ai n i s a hi s t o r y
o f r e pe at e d i n j u r i e s an d u s u r pat i o n s , al l hav i n g i n d i r e c t o b-
j e c t , t he e s t abl i s hm e n t o f an abs o l u t e t y r an n y
. . . . "
I I .
" H e has m ad e j u d g e s d e pe n d e n t u po n hi s w i l l al o n e . . .
I I I .
" H e has e r e c t e d a m u l t i t u d e o f n e w o f f i c e s an d s e n t hi t he r
s w ar m s o f o f f i c e r s t o har as s o u r pe o pl e an d e at o u t t he i r s u b-
s t an c e . "
I V .
" A P r i n c e w ho s e c har ac t e r i s t hu s m ar k e d by e v e r y ac t w hi c h
m ay d e f i n e a t y r an t , i s u n f i t t o be t he r u l e r o f a f r e e pe o pl e . "
That Mr . R o o s e v e l t has c r e at e d a f e w n e c e s s ar y c o m -
m i s s i o n s , as t he J o n e s f am i l y pu t s t he c as e , t he y k n o w v e r y
w e l l , bu t af t e r al l , s o m e o f t he o l d e r m e m be r s o f t he
f am i l y v o t e d f o r Mc K i n l e y an d " Man i f e s t D e s t i n y " an d
w ho ar e t he y t o c r i t i c i z e an d k n o c k w he n A m e r i c a has a
s t an d i n g i n v i t at i o n t o j o i n t he L e ag u e o f N at i o n s ?
Un f o r t u n at e l y , t he J o n e s f am i l y w ho ar e be hi n d o n
t he i r an c e s t o r s o n ac c o u n t o f m ar r i ag e s , d e at hs , d i v o r c e s
an d t he s e r v an t pr o bl e m , hav e n o t be e n abl e t o k e e p u p
w i t h Mr . R o o s e v e l t , an d t he m an y c har m i n g al phabe t i c al
i n s t r u m e n t al i t i e s o f pe r s o n al po w e r he has e s t abl i s he d
f o r hi s pe r s o n al am u s e m e n t . The y hav e n e v e r " s u b-
s c r i be d " t o t he C o n g r e s s i o n al R e c o r d an d ar e n o t e v e n
o n t he g o v e r n m e n t m ai l i n g l i s t f o r f r e e s e e d s . The y hav e
u n d e r s t o o d t hat t he l i s t has be e n d i s c o n t i n u e d bu t t he y
d o n ' t k n o w w he t he r H o o v e r o r R o o s e v e l t d i d i t .
I f t he J o n e s e s w e r e t o r e ad Mr . J e f f e r s o n ' s n o t e t o
G e o r g e I I I , s e n t hi m o n o r abo u t J u l y 4 , 1 7 7 6 , an d t he r e -
af t e r w e r e pr i v i l e g e d t o v i s i t Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s w o r k s ho p
o n P e n n s y l v an i a A v e n u e i n W as hi n g t o n , D . C . w he r e he
t o y s w i t h t he al phabe t , e v e r y m e m be r o f t he f am i l y
1 28
w o u l d be ho r r i f i e d . Mr
. R o o s e v e l t , ho w e v e r , k n o w s
s o m e t hi n g abo u t t he J o n e s e s t hat t he y d o n ' t k n o w abo u t
t he m s e l v e s . Mr . R o o s e v e l t k n o w s t hat t he J o n e s e s ar e
s o m u c h o c c u pi e d w i t h m ar r i ag e s , d e at hs , d i v o r c e s an d
t he s e r v an t pr o bl e m t he y hav e n ' t t i m e t o v i s i t hi s w o r k -
s ho p an d t hat i s w hy he s i m pl y ad o r e s t he J o n e s f am i l y . .
The y ar e " t he f o l k s " he had i n m i n d i n hi s f i r e s i d e c hat s
.
I f Mr . R o o s e v e l t w e r e t o i n v i t e t he J o n e s f am i l y t o hi s
w o r k s ho p o r i f he w e r e t o l aps e i n t o a c o n f i d e n t i al m o o d
o n t he r ad i o , t he J o n e s f am i l y w o u l d hav e t o d e f e n d t he
n e c e s s i t y o f t he f o l l o w i n g " m u l t i t u d e o f n e w o f f i c e s " t o -
g e t he r w i t h t he i r " s w ar m s o f o f f i c e r s t o har as s o u r pe o pl e
an d e at o u t t he i r s u bs t an c e " :
S S B F H L B B F I C B P C C A W P A F E R A R F C F F MC F S L I C H O L C F H A C C C
N E C US I S N R C F D I C TV A E - I B S E C E H F A N L R B F C C F E A P W N Y A N A
R E A R A E C W R F C MC US MC N R A C C C C A A
The t o t al n u m be r o f n e w ag e n c i e s i s t hi r t y - t hr e e , o n e
f o r e ac h y e ar s i n c e Mc K i n l e y w as P r e s i d e n t . c c c appe ar s
t w i c e be c au s e t hi s l e t t e r i s u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o d e s c r i be
g l i bl y t he C o m m o d i t y C r e d i t C o r po r at i o n an d t he C i -
v i l i an C o n s e r v at i o n C o r ps . Mr
. R o o s e v e l t s ho w e d a
m ar k e d pr e f e r e n c e f o r t hi s l e t t e r
. I t i s t he f i r s t l e t t e r o f
" c o m m i s s i o n " w hi c h, i n t he f al l o f 1 9 3 2, Mr . R o o s e v e l t
u s e d as a t he m e n o t e w he n , as a P i e d P i pe r , he f i r s t
c apt u r e d t he J o n e s f am i l y w i t h hi s pi pe . The l e t t e r i s
u s e d t w e n t y - f i v e t i m e s i n t he " m u l t i t u d e o f n e w o f f i c e s "
c r e at e d by Mr . R o o s e v e l t . S e c o n d pl ac e g o e s t o A w hi c h
has r o l l e d u p a c o m bi n e d s c o r e o f f i f t e e n t ho u g h c l o s e l y
pu r s u e d by F w i t h a s c o r e o f f o u r t e e n . The r e as o n f o r
t he g o o d s ho w i n g o f F i s appar e n t w he n i t i s r e m e m be r e d
t hat i t i s t he f i r s t l e t t e r o f " F e d e r al
. " E an d R t i e d f o r
f o u r t h pl ac e . J u s t w hy Mr . R o o s e v e l t has s ho w n a
pr e j u d i c e ag ai n s t G , J , K , Q an d Z i s n o t appar e n t .
K w as m ad e u s e o f i n c i d e n t al l y w he n Mr . R o o s e v e l t
appo i n t e d t he H o n . H u g o B l ac k K K K
t o t he Un i t e d S t at e s
S u pr e m e C o u r t . P e r haps t he r e m ai n i n g l e t t e r s ar e be i n g
he l d i n r e s e r v e i f t he E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t s s ho u l d r e f u s e
1 29
t o o pe r at e t he i r pl an t s at a c o n t i n u i n g l o s s ; o r , pe r haps
S o n J i m m i e has be e n s o bu s y w i t h hi s i n s u r an c e bu s i n e s s
t hat he has had n o o ppo r t u n i t i e s i n t he w o r k s ho p an d
t he y ar e be i n g s av e d f o r hi s e x c l u s i v e am u s e m e n t ; f i n al l y ,
t he r e i s C o n g r e s s t o be t ho u g ht o f . P e r haps Mr . R o o s e -
v e l t has s av e d G , J , Q , an d Z f o r s o ps t o t he i r v an i t y
.
W he n t he H o u s e f ai l e d t o appl au d an d t he S e n at e
s t i f l e d Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s l u s t f o r m o r e pe r s o n al po w e r i n
t he l at e S u m m e r o f 1 9 3 7 , m an y t r u s t i n g s o u l s c o n t e n d e d
t hat t he d e f e at o f t he c o u r t bi l l w o u l d f i n i s h hi m . The y
r e l i e d u po n C o n g r e s s , o n c e aw ak e n e d , t o r e m ai n aw ak e
d u r i n g t he r e m ai n i n g y e ar s o f hi s t e r m . The s pe c i al
s e s s i o n i n t he l at e m o n t hs o f 1 9 3 7 an d t he 1 9 3 8 s e s s i o n
s ho w t hat t he s e t r u s t i n g s o u l s w e r e o v e r c o n f i d e n t , i n f ac t ,
m i s t ak e n . A l w ay s pr o n e t o s l u m be r w he n c o n d i t i o n s
ar e m o s t c r i t i c al , C o n g r e s s s l e pt t hr o u g h t he s pe c i al s e s -
s i o n an d w e r e s o c o m pl e t e l y e x hau s t e d f r o m t he w hi r l o f
ho l i d ay ac t i v i t i e s at C hr i s t m as t i m e , t hat , o n r e as s e m -
bl i n g i n J an u ar y , 1 9 3 8 , t he y pr o m pt l y w e n t t o s l e e p ag ai n .
A s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f - s o m e s t r at e g y t hr o u g h w hi c h m o s t
o f t he m e m be r s hi p o f C o n g r e s s s l e pt , t he P r e s i d e n t ' s
d e par t m e n t al " r e o r g an i z at i o n " bi l l w as t o s s e d i n t o t he
w as t e bas k e t
. The r e u po n bo t h ho u s e s aw o k e w he n t he
po r k bar r e l w as r e o pe n e d .
Mr . R o o s e v e l t r e g ai n e d t he i r f av o r by r e o pe n i n g t he
po r k bar r e l
. F r o m l o n g e x pe r i e n c e , he k n o w s ho w t o
w ak e n t he m an d t o r e g ai n t he i r f av o r
. N o m at t e r ho w
pe e v i s h t he y m ay hav e be e n , he k n o w s t he y hav e a f i x e d
c o m m o n i n t e r e s t an d n o t o n l y w i l l t he y w ak e u p bu t
t hat al l o f t he m c an g e t t o g e t he r w he n he g i v e s t he po r k
bar r e l a k i c k .
I t w o u l d appe ar t hat n o t hi n g s ho r t o f a r e v o l u t i o n w i l l
ar o u s e C o n g r e s s pe r m an e n t l y t o t he po i n t o f i n d e pe n d -
e n t t hi n k i n g o r o f i n d e pe n d e n t ac t i o n . I t al s o s e e m s t hat
a r e v o l u t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o r e s t o r e t he at t e n t i o n o f
C o n g r e s s t o s o m e o f t he s i m pl e pr i n c i pl e s o f l i f e w hi c h
e v e r y bo d y o n c e he l d q u i t e v al i d , pr i n c i pl e s w hi c h he r e -
1 8 0
t o f o r e n o bo d y d ar e d t o v i o l at e , pr i n c i pl e s w hi c h t he
an c e s t o r s o f t he J o n e s e s pr ac t i c e d i n s o l e m n pi e t y .
C o n g r e s s has n o d d e d s o l o n g u n d e r t he hy pn o t i c i n -
f l u e n c e o f t he W hi t e H o u s e t hat t he r e al m o f s he e r f an c y
has be c o m e m o r e r e al t han t he r e al m o f har d f ac t s
. W hy
t hi n k o f t o m o r r o w , par t i c u l ar l y i n v i e w o f t he s u r pl u s
l e f t o v e r f r o m l as t m o n t h' s pay c he c k ? A f t e r t he H o u s e
o f R e pr e s e n t at i v e s d i s l o d g e d R o o s e v e l t an d hi s s e c r e -
t ar i at f r o m t he i r po s i t i o n i n t he f i r s t " r e o r g an i z at i o n "
s k i r m i s h w i t h s o m e he av y s he l l i n g , Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
pr o m pt l y c o u n t e r - at t ac k e d be hi n d t he bi g g e s t m o bi l e
po r k bar r e l e v e r s e e n at o n e t i m e .
A n ar t i s t m ay v e r y w e l l s pe c u l at e , e v e n n o w , abo u t t he
pi c t u r e he w i l l pai n t o f C o n g r e s s i n t he ac t o f r u bbi n g
i t s e y e s w he n t he r e c r u i t s m ar s hal l e d by J o hn L . L e w i s
an d H ar r y B r i d g e s u n d e r t he s t an d ar d s o f c . i . o . d i s c o v e r
t he y hav e be e n s o l d o u t , f i n d t he m s e l v e s m i n u s c o al f o r
t he i r o w n he ar t hs an d s t ar t t hr o w i n g bo m bs .
I n 1 9 3 2, t he J o n e s f am i l y v o t e d ag ai n s t Mr . H o o v e r .
I n 1 9 3 6 , t he y v o t e d f o r Mr . R o o s e v e l t . The y s ai d he had
d o n e m an y he l pf u l t hi n g s d u r i n g hi s f i r s t ad m i n i s t r at i o n .
S o m e o f t he i r n e i g hbo r s w ho al s o v o t e d f o r R o o s e v e l t
be c am e v e r y c r i t i c al o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t d u r i n g t he S u m -
m e r o f 1 9 3 7 an d v o t e d t he s t r ai g ht R e pu bl i c an t i c k e t i n
1 9 3 8 . The y s ay t hat , e v e n t ho u g h Mr . R o o s e v e l t d i d d o
m an y he l pf u l t hi n g s d u r i n g hi s f i r s t ad m i n i s t r at i o n , t hi s
f u r n i s he d n o e x c u s e f o r hi s o v e r t u r n i n g t he g o v e r n m e n t
an d hi s c o n t i n u e d w as t e o f pu bl i c m o n e y d u r i n g hi s
s e c o n d
; t hat Mr . R o o s e v e l t had ac t e d i m pu d e n t l y i n
appo i n t i n g a m e m be r o f t he K u K l u x K l an t o t he Un i t e d
S t at e s S u pr e m e C o u r t an d i n n o t r e c al l i n g t he appo i n t -
m e n t af t e r he w as w ar n e d ; t hat t he y had be e n w i l l i n g t o
g i v e hi m t he i r s u ppo r t u n t i l i t appe ar e d he w an t e d t o be
a d i c t at o r bu t t hat t he y d i d n ' t w an t an y d i c t at o r , Mr .
R o o s e v e l t , o r an y bo d y e l s e .
The J o n e s e s hav e be c o m e v e r y s e n s i t i v e abo u t t he
pr e s e n t w i d e s pr e ad c r i t i c i s m o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t . The y
1 3 1
had be e n v e r y s e v e r e i n t he i r c r i t i c i s m o f po o r Mr .
H o o v e r , w ho , t he y s ay had s o l d t he m o u t . The y f i n d i t
v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o ad m i t t hat , w he r e as Mr
. H o o v e r had
c au s e d t he m t o l o s e t w o o f t he i r t hr e e au t o m o bi l e s an d
had t hr e at e n e d t o f o r e c l o s e t he i r m o r t g ag e , Mr . R o o s e -
v e l t i s abo u t t o pu t t he m i n c hai n s , as s o m e o f t he i r
n e i g hbo r s s ay .
The J o n e s e s al s o s ay i t i s v e r y n as t y o f t he i r n e i g hbo r s
t o s ay Mr . R o o s e v e l t an d hi s f am i l y ar e hav i n g a r e al l y
g o o d t i m e i n pl ay i n g S an t a C l au s w i t h o t he r pe o pl e ' s
m o n e y
. The J o n e s e s r e s e n t t he g o s s i p t hat t he R o o s e -
v e l t s ar e r u n n i n g a l i t e r ar y bu r e au f o r w hi c h t he g o v e r n -
m e n t pr o v i d e s t he m e r c han d i s e an d t he R o o s e v e l t s
po c k e t t he pr o c e e d s f r o m i t s s al e .
A l l o f t he J o n e s e s , t o g e t he r w i t h Mr
. B u m bl e an d Mr .
R o o s e v e l t be l i e v e " t he l aw i s a as s , a i d i o t . "
The
J o n e s e s e v e n s u s pe c t t hat Mr
. R o o s e v e l t , had he be e n
pr e s e n t at t he c r e at i o n , w o u l d hav e g i v e n m an y u s e f u l
hi n t s f o r t he be t t e r o r d e r i n g o f t he u n i v e r s e
. Thi s i s
w hat A l pho n s o t he W i s e t ho u g ht o f hi m s e l f bu t t he
J o n e s e s hav e n e v e r he ar d o f hi m
. N o r ar e t he y ac -
q u ai n t e d w i t h a d i s c o v e r y m ad e by E d m u n d B u r k e t hat
t he " f o l k s " hav i n g " l o o k e d t o t he G o v e r n m e n t f o r br e ad ,
o n t he v e r y f i r s t s c ar c i t y w i l l t u r n an d bi t e t he han d t hat
f e d t he m . "
The J o n e s e s hav e he ar d i t s ai d t he bi t i n g has al r e ad y
be g u n ; t hat t he W o r k e r s ' A l l i an c e , a C o m m u n i s t i c o r -
g an i z at i o n o f pe r s o n s o n t he d o l e o r
W P A r o l l s , af t e r a
r i o t c au s e d by t he d e l ay o f t he N e w Y o r k C i t y W e l f ar e
D e par t m e n t i n ad d i n g r i o t e r s t o t he r e l i e f r o l l s , d e -
m an d e d t hat May o r L a G u ar d i a
r e af f i r m " t he r i g ht o f
t he u n e m pl o y e d t o bar g ai n c o l l e c t i v e l y
. " '
O n e o f t he J o n e s e s ' n e i g hbo r s w ho s u bs c r i be s f o r t he
N e w Y o r k Ti m e s
an d w ho t o l d t he m o f t he r i o t i n N e w
Y o r k C i t y ad d e d s o m e c au s t i c c o m m e n t
:
" I f G o d f ai l s t o s av e t he c o u n t r y f r o m i t s d o m i n at i o n
by s u c h i m pu d e n t r as c al s , w hi c h happy f at e i s u n d e -
1 N e w Y o r k Ti m e s , J u l y 9 , 1 9 3 8 .
1 3 2
s e r v e d , t he e n d o f t he r o ad i s j u s t ar o u n d t he n e x t N e w
D e al c u r v e . "
The J o n e s e s s e e m t o be t he k i n d o f pe o pl e w ho , be i n g
c hi l l e d by t he ad v e r s e w i n d s o f a j o u r n e y , pr ay f o r a
c han g e i n t he w i n d o n t he r e t u r n t r i p an d c o n s e q u e n t l y
ar e bu f f e t e d by c o n t r ar y w i n d s bo t h c o m i n g an d g o i n g .
C H A P TE R X
N e w D e al Mo r al s
S at an an d Mac hi av e l l i G e t To g e t he r i n N e w D e al
H e ad q u ar t e r s an d D e c i d e t o G e t B e hi n d S o c i al
S e c u r i t y an d O t he r N e w P at t e r n s i n R e al m
o f E t hi c s an d G o o d Man n e r s .
" W he n pr e c e d e n t s o f s i n o u r g r e at o n e s g i v e ,
F e w ar e t he y o u t hs t hat f r e e f r o m v i c e c an l i v e . " - J u v e n al .
" W e ar e aw ar e o f as pe c t s o f o u r w o r l d w hi c h ar e t o o hi d e o u s t o d w e l l
u po n , w hi c h c an o n l y be ho m e , s o t o s pe ak , by be i n g d ai l y f o r g o t t e n . " -
J o hn C o w pe r P o w y s .
I F D O UB L E d e al i n g , s ho d d y e t hi c s , s har p pr ac t i c e , d e -
c e i t ac c o m pl i s he d o n a g r an d s c al e an d pr e v ar i c at i o n f ai l
t o be c o m e f i r m l y e s t abl i s he d as t he A m e r i c an w ay o f l i f e
d u r i n g t he r e i g n o f F r an k l i n I , i t w i l l n o t be be c au s e o f
an y t hi n g he has l e f t u n d o n e t o s e t an e x am pl e f o r t hi s
an d s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r at i o n s
. P e r haps l at e r g e n e r at i o n s
w i l l f i n d ad d i t i o n al c au s e f o r ad m i r at i o n i n t he s u c c e s s
he e n j o y e d i n as s e m bl i n g a l e g i o n o f u n s pe ak abl e ai d s
t o e m u l at e an d po pu l ar i z e hi s w ay s o f l i f e
. B r ai n t r u s t -
e r s , g ho s t w r i t e r s , n e w s pape r c o l u m n i s t s , pe d ag o g u e s ,
l abo r r ac k e t e e r s , po l i t i c al u ps t ar t s an d po t e n t i al br i g -
an d s , m o s t l y be g g ar s o n ho r s e bac k , hav e s t r u t t e d an d
f r e t t e d t he i r ho u r u po n t he s t ag e an d be n t t he i r c o n -
s c i e n c e s t o f i t t he i r d e al i n g s .
The r e i s s o m e t hi n g pat he t i c t o be r e m e m be r e d f r o m
t he c o n f u s i o n o f t he R e pu bl i c an s i n t he 1 9 3 6 n at i o n al
c am pai g n i n ag r e e i n g u po n an ac c e pt abl e po l i c y as r e -
g ar d s t he S o c i al S e c u r i t y ho ax . The R e pu bl i c an m e m -
1 3 4
be r s o f C o n g r e s s had s l u m be r e d d u r i n g t he s e s s i o n i n
w hi c h t he bi l l w as c o n s i d e r e d i n c o m m i t t e e an d o n t he
f l o o r , an d l ac k e d t he c o u r ag e o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t o po i n t o u t
t he ac t u al pu r po s e o f t he l e g i s l at i o n , n am e l y , t o l e v y an
ad d i t i o n al t ax o n i n d u s t r y t o s u ppo r t t he g i g an t i c N e w
D e al e x t r av ag an c e s an d t he r e by pr o v i d e t he f u n d s n e c e s -
s ar y as a pr o p t o t he n at i o n al c r e d i t
.
The d e c e i t i s al l t he m o r e d i abo l i c al i n t hat i t s c o n -
c e pt i o n i s f o u n d e d u po n ac k n o w l e d g e d t r ai t s o f hu m an
c har ac t e r , g e n e r al r e s pe c t an d s o l i c i t u d e f o r t he ag e d , a
c o m m o n pu r po s e t o pr o v i d e f o r t he i r n e c e s s i t i e s an d an
e q u al l y g e n e r al abho r r e n c e o f al l pe r s o n s w ho w o u l d d e -
l i be r at e l y o ppo s e a pr o g r am t hat as s u r e d t he i r f i x e d s e -
c u r i t y . I n t he 1 9 3 6 c am pai g n , t he R e pu bl i c an s w e r e
f o r c e d t o g r appl e w i t h bo t h Mac hi av e l l i an d S at an , o pe r -
at i n g o u t o f t he s am e po l i t i c al he ad q u ar t e r s .
I n e x pl an at i o n o f t he R e pu bl i c an c o n f u s i o n , i t s ho u l d
be s ai d t hat t he c o u n t r y l ac k e d t he g o o d s e n s e t o pay
t he s l i g ht e s t at t e n t i o n t o w hat an y o n e s ai d ag ai n s t S an t a
C l au s . B u t " t i m e an d G o d g i v e j u d g m e n t . " The r e i s
n o l o n g e r an y d o u bt abo u t t he m o t i v e s o f S an t a C l au s .
H e w as a G r e e k i n s pi t e o f t he g i f t s he bo r e an d i n d u s t r y ,
as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f hi s g i f t s , has s u f f e r e d s o m e w hat t he
s am e f at e as an c i e n t Tr o y . The pr o c e e d s o f t he S o c i al
S e c u r i t y t ax hav e al r e ad y be e n s q u an d e r e d by S an t a
C l au s bu t t he f u n d s hav e he l pe d t o m ai n t ai n a f ai r l y
s t e ad y m ar k e t i n g o v e r n m e n t bo n d s .
A f e w y e ar s ag o , t he G o v e r n m e n t t r i e d t o s e n d S am u e l
I n s u l l t o pr i s o n as a r e s u l t o f hi s u s i n g , i n a pe r i o d o f
d e s pe r at i o n , c o r po r at e f u n d s t o s u ppo r t t he m ar k e t i n
hi s c o r po r at e s e c u r i t i e s , y e t t hat i s pr e c i s e l y w hat Mr .
Mo r g e n t hau d o e s w i t h t he pr o c e e d s o f t he S o c i al S e c u r i t y
t ax e s . S au c e f o r t he g o v e r n m e n t i s n o t n e c e s s ar i l y s au c e
f o r a pr i v at e c i t i z e n .
The r e i s n o t t he s l i g ht e s t e x pe c t at i o n t hat an y s u b-
s t an t i al po r t i o n o f t he f u n d s be i n g c o l l e c t e d i n t he n am e
o f s o c i al s e c u r i t y f o r t he ag e d e v e r w i l l be pai d t o t he
ag e d an d t he r e n e v e r w as an y s u c h e x pe c t at i o n am o n g
1 3 5
t ho s e w ho c o n c e i v e d t he l e g i s l at i o n . W hat a n o t abl e
e x am pl e o f d e c e i t ac c o m pl i s he d o n a g r an d s c al e , n o t t o
m e n t i o n s ho d d y e t hi c s an d d o u bl e d e al i n g l
N o d e f e n s e i s o f f e r e d i n be hal f o f t ho s e D e m o c r at i c
S e n at o r s an d R e pr e s e n t at i v e s i n C o n g r e s s w ho s t o o d o u t
v al i an t l y ag ai n s t Mr
. R o o s e v e l t ' s pr o g r am t o s e i z e c o n t r o l
o f t he Un i t e d S t at e s S u pr e m e C o u r t f o r t he s u ppo r t t he y
g av e hi m i n t he c am pai g n o f 1 9 3 6 be c au s e n o n e i s d e -
s e r v e d . I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o pr o v e t hat t he H o n .
C ar t e r G l as s , w ho s u ppo r t e d Mr . R o o s e v e l t i n 1 9 3 6 , i s
u n s o phi s t i c at e d i n po l i t i c s , bu t , pe r haps he g av e hi s s u p-
po r t g r u d g i n g l y . I t s ho u l d be s t at e d , ho w e v e r , t hat S e n a-
t o r G l as s an d o t he r s had s o m e g r o u n d s f o r s u r pr i s e . To
t he m t he C o u r t c o u p
w as u n e x pe c t e d
. I n hi s u s e o f t he
P r e s i d e n t i al po w e r an d pat r o n ag e t o d e f e at t he m f o r r e -
e l e c t i o n , R o o s e v e l t w o u l d m ak e a v i r t u e o f t he d e c e i t he
pr ac t i c e d o n t he m .
Tho s e w ho r e m e m be r t he an c i e n t t i m e s w he n F r an k l i n
I f i r s t s o u g ht t he s u pr e m e po w e r , t hat i s , i n 1 9 3 2, m ay
r e m e m be r hi s pu n g e n t c r i t i c i s m o f po o r Mr . H o o v e r f o r
R e pu bl i c an e x t r av ag an c e s an d hi s o w n s o l e m n pr o m i s e
t o r e d u c e g o v e r n m e n t e x pe n s e s t w e n t y - f i v e pe r c e n t an d
bal an c e t he n at i o n al bu d g e t . The v o t e r s o f A m e r i c a,
u n ai d e d by F r an k l i n I , m ad e a g r an d v i r t u e o f t hat pr e -
v ar i c at i o n i n 1 9 3 6 . To s ho w t he i r e n t hu s i as t i c e n d o r s e -
m e n t o f t he pr e v ar i c at i o n , t he y g av e hi m t he l ar g e s t m a-
j o r i t y i n t he hi s t o r y o f A m e r i c an par t y po l i t i c s
. The y
ai m e d at a m aj o r i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o f i t t he s c o pe o f hi s pr e -
v ar i c at i o n s an d w e r e n o m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n o r c o n c e r n e d
w i t h bal an c i n g t he n at i o n al bu d g e t an d w i t h o r d e r l y an d
ho n e s t g o v e r n m e n t t han an O t o m i I n d i an i s i n t e r e s t e d i n
t he O x f o r d m o v e m e n t . I f F r an k l i n I w as c o c k y f r o m
N o v e m be r , 1 9 8 6 , t o N o v e m be r , 1 9 3 8 , t he r e as o n l ay i n
hi s s u r pr i s i n g m aj o r i t y i n 1 9 3 6 .
A n u n d e r s t an d i n g o f w hat g o e s o n be hi n d t he s c e n e s
i n m o s t o f t he c o u r t s o f t he c o u n t r y w i l l n o t r e i n f o r c e
o n e ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n t he pr ac t i c e o f l aw o r t he j u d i c i al
1 3 6
s y s t e m . A t t he m o m e n t , a k n o w n R e pu bl i c an has n o
m o r e c han c e i n t he c o u r t o f a D e m o c r at i c j u d g e t han
J o hn t he B apt i s t had be f o r e H e r o d .
H i s c han c e s ar e
e v e n l e s s i f t he D e m o c r at i c j u d g e l e an s t o w ar d s t he m o r e
abu n d an t l i f e . I n t he l at t e r c as e , i t i s m o r e t han l i k e l y
t hat t he j u d g e i s e n j o y i n g hi s f i r s t e x pe r i e n c e i n t he
f l e s hpo t s an d t he N e w D e al c o u n s e l hi s f i r s t c as e o u t s i d e
t he po l i c e c o u r t
. I f i t i s a r e c e i v e r s hi p o r a m at t e r o f
ban k r u pt c y , t he e s t at e i s c e r t ai n t o e m e r g e f r o m c o u r t
w i t h m o s t o f t he i d e n t i f i c at i o n m ar k s m i s s i n g an d t he
t r e as u r y e m pt y . To t he pr e s e n t d at e t he r e ar e f e w
e s t at e s t hat hav e e m e r g e d , t he c o m pl e t e e m as c u l at i o n n o t
hav i n g be e n c o n c l u d e d by c o u r t an d c o u n s e l , am i c i
c u r i ae , t r u s t e e , at t o r n e y s f o r t he t r u s t e e s , i n v e s t i g at o r s
an d e x pe r t s . The l aw has n e v e r be e n e n t i r e l y f r e e o f
t he r ac k e t e e r bu t n e v e r be f o r e has t he r ac k e t e e r be e n s o
n e ar l y d o m i n an t .
F r o m t he c o m m e n t o f a r ad i o an n o u n c e r at t he t i m e
o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s " q u ar an t i n e " s pe e c h i n O c t o be r , 1 9 3 7 ,
i n w hi c h he r at t l e d hi s s abr e , i t w as i m po s s i bl e t o d e -
t e r m i n e w he t he r t he an n o u n c e r w as o n t he pay r o l l o f
R o o s e v e l t o r t he m u n i t i o n s i n d u s t r y . H i s e x c i t e d d e c -
l ar at i o n t hat t he s pe e c h w o u l d be r e m e m be r e d t o t he
t hi r d an d f o u r t h g e n e r at i o n s appe ar s o v e r d r aw n , par -
t i c u l ar l y s i n c e R o o s e v e l t ' s par t i c i pat i o n i n t he Mu n i c h
ac c o r d . That t he s t ag e had be e n c ar e f u l l y pr e par e d w as
e v i d e n t l at e r f r o m t he n e w s r e e l s w he r e i n Mr . R o o s e v e l t
appe ar e d an x i o u s t o r e g i s t e r " al ar m . "
The s pe e c h has al r e ad y be e n f o r g o t
. A t t he m o m e n t ,
i t w as i n t e n d e d t o d i v e r t t he pu bl i c at t e n t i o n f r o m t he
H o n
. H u g o B l ac k , l at e l y appo i n t e d a j u s t i c e o f t he S u -
pr e m e C o u r t an d w ho had j u s t be e n c au g ht w i t h hi s
pan t s o f f , an d i n t he n i g ht s hi r t o f a K u K l u x K l an s m an
by o n e o f P au l B l o c k ' s e n t e r pr i s i n g n e w s pape r s
. I n d i f -
f i c u l t y s i m i l ar t o t hat o f Mr
. R o o s e v e l t af t e r t he B l ac k
appo i n t m e n t , A l c i bi ad e s , w ho o w n e d a v al u abl e d o g
w ho s e pr i n c i pal o r n am e n t w as hi s t ai l had i t c u t o f f an d
1 3 7
j e s t e d af t e r w ar d s he w i s he d t he A t he n i an s t o t al k abo u t
t hi s s o t he y w o u l d n o t s ay s o m e t hi n g w o r s e o f t he d o g ' s
m as t e r .
H o w w as J apan t o k n o w t hat a d o m e s t i c e m bar r as s -
m e n t w o u l d r e s u l t i n s har p r e pr i m an d s an d t hr e at o f a
q u ar an t i n e f o r w hat i t had be e n d o i n g w i t h i m pu n i t y
an d w i t ho u t pr o t e s t f o r t hr e e y e ar s ?
The N e w D e al w as al s o r e s po n s i bl e f o r an am e n d m e n t
t o t he i n c o m e t ax l aw s , s i n c e r e pe al e d , w hi c h, t ho u g h i t
r e q u i r e d t he t ax pay e r t o ac c o u n t i n f u l l f o r c api t al g ai n s
i n a g i v e n y e ar , l i m i t e d t o
$ 2, 0 0 0 . 0 0 t he am o u n t o f l o s s e s
w hi c h he m i g ht c l ai m , e x c e pt hi s s e c u r i t i e s w e r e w o r t h-
l e s s . Thi s i s an o t he r e x am pl e o f s ho d d y e t hi c s , s har p
pr ac t i c e an d d o u bl e d e al i n g
. H e r e ag ai n , s au c e f o r t he
g o v e r n m e n t w as n o t s au c e f o r t he pr i v at e c i t i z e n
.
A r e c e n t i m pu d e n c e t o s pr i n g f r o m t he s ho d d y e t hi c s
o f t he N e w D e al s pe n d t hr i f t s w as t he m e as u r e w hi c h u n -
d e r t o o k t o l e v y a s pe c i al t ax i n t he n at u r e o f a pe n al t y
o n i n c o m e d e r i v e d f r o m t he s t o c k o f c o r po r at i o n s , t he
m aj o r i t y o f w hi c h i s o w n e d by a s i n g l e f am i l y o r pe r s o n
.
I t i s n o t i l l e g al t o o w n t he c o n t r o l o f a c o r po r at i o n an d
i t has n e v e r be e n c o n s i d e r e d i m m o r al o r u n r i g ht e o u s t o
d o s o
. The r e i s a r u l e o f pr i v at e i n v e s t m e n t w hi c h w ar n s
ag ai n s t pu t t i n g al l o n e ' s e g g s i n o n e bas k e t bu t n o bo d y
e v e r s u g g e s t e d be f o r e t hat t he t ax g at he r e r i s e n t i t l e d t o
m o r e e g g s be c au s e t he y happe n t o be f o u n d i n o n e bas k e t
r at he r t han t hr e e bas k e t s
. The Me x i c an I n d i an m ai n -
t ai n s t hat o n e w ho bu y s a d o z e n e g g s s ho u l d pay m o r e
pe r e g g t han i f he bu y s t w o e g g s be c au s e o n e w ho c an
af f o r d t o bu y a d o z e n e g g s c an af f o r d a hi g he r pr i c e pe r
e g g bu t e v e n t he Me x i c an I n d i an r e c o g n i z e s t he bu y e r ' s
r i g ht t o pu t t he w ho l e d o z e n e g g s i n t he s am e bas k e t
.
A d i s t i n g u i s he d I n d u s t r i al i s t , be l o v e d i n hi s o w n c i t y
an d s t at e f o r hi s m an y c har i t i e s , d e n o u n c e d t he m e as u r e
as u n - A m e r i c an
. I t i s e v e n be l o w t he l e v e l o f Me x i c an
m o r al s . I t i s an af f r o n t t o c o m m o n d e c e n c y
. I t i s s u c h
a m e as u r e as a bu l l y m i g ht ad o pt , i f he t ho u g ht o f i t
.
1 F r an k C
. B al l , o f Mu n c i e , I n d i an a .
R o be s pi e r r e , D an t o n an d Mar at m i g ht hav e e m pl o y e d i t
as a f i t t i n g c o r o l l ar y o f t he t e r r o r o r i t m i g ht f i t i n t o t he
s c he m e s o f A d o l ph H i t l e r i n pe r s e c u t i n g t he J e w s
. I t
has n o pl ac e i n t he l aw s o f c i v i l i z e d pe o pl e .
A f t e r al l , pe r haps , w e m ay v e r y w e l l c o n t i n u e t o s pe n d
o u r s e l v e s o u t o f t he d e pr e s s i o n an d t hi n k n o t hi n g o f i t .
A s t o d e at h an d t ax e s , pe r haps o n l y d e at h r e m ai n s as an
u n s o l v e d m y s t e r y .
A r m am e n t s an d ag r i c u l t u r e , W P A
an d r e l i e f , P as s am aq u o d d y an d Tv A , s o c i al s e c u r i t y an d
n e g r o pal ac e s , d u s t s t o r m s an d s hi p c an al s al l ar e n e at l y
d i s po s e d o f i n a pr o f o u n d s t u d y o f t ax at i o n , pu bl i s he d
i n F o r t u n e . The pr o po s e d s o l u t i o n l e av e s o n e s u s pi c i o u s
t hat t he m ag az i n e i s m o r e pr e t e n t i o u s t han t he s o l u t i o n
i s pr o f o u n d , t hat pe r haps t he m o u n t ai n has l abo r e d an d
br o u g ht f o r t h a m o u s e .
I t w as s o l e m n l y pr o po s e d t hat al l t ax e s , n e ar l y al l t ax e s ,
be c o l l e c t e d by t ax g at he r e r s , w ho , n o m at t e r w he r e an d
by w ho m t he m o n e y i s s pe n t , w i l l g e t t he i r m ai l w he r e
Mr . R o o s e v e l t , Mr . I c k e s , Mr . H o pk i n s an d B e n C o he n
n o w g e t t he i r s , t he r e n d e z v o u s o f o u r n e w bu r e au c r ac y ,
W as hi n g t o n , D . C .
P ar e n t he t i c al l y , w hat a ho l i d ay t he s e r u g g e d i n d i v i d -
u al i s t s ar e m ak i n g o f t he m e m o r y o f o n e , T . J e f f e r s o n )
W hat e v e r hi s t o r y m ay hav e s o s ay o f t he m f i n al l y , i t w i l l
n o t s ay t hat t he y f ai l e d t o m ak e a f i e l d d ay o f o ppo r -
t u n i t y
. The r ad i o an d f i r e s i d e c hat s w e r e q u i t e u n he ar d
o f by S hak e s pe ar e bu t he d i d k n o w t he v al u e o f a
" g r ac i o u s v o i c e " I
" . . . w hat pl e a s o t ai n e d an d c o r r u pt ,
B u t be i n g s e as o n e d w i t h a g r ac i o u s v o i c e
O bs c u r e s t he s ho w o f e v i l ? "
The m o n e y c han g e r s o f t he t e m pl e had n o s t at e d t e r m ,
w he n c e , c o m par e d t o t he R o o s e v e l t s t he g r e at e r e as e o f
d r i v i n g t he m o u t . W he n t he j o b i s d o n e an d i f t he j o b
i s d o n e , t he " g r ac i o u s v o i c e " m ay n e v e r t he l e s s be he ar d
t o e x c l ai m w i t h o l d R abe l ai s , " H o w w e l l I f e at he r e d
m y
n e s t . "
1 3 9
N o m at t e r w hat J e f f e r s o n t ho u g ht abo u t bu r e au c r at i c
g o v e r n m e n t o r w hat he w o u l d t hi n k abo u t c o l l e c t i n g al l
t ax e s at W as hi n g t o n , s e l l i n g i n s u r an c e t o t he n abo bs o f
i n d u s t r y o n t he W hi t e H o u s e s t e ps , hi r i n g o u t t w o m o r e
o f t he f am i l y t o H e ar s t , s w o ppi n g hi s w i f e ' s c hat t e r an d
s e l e c t e d pag e s o f t he C o n g r e s s i o n al R e c o r d f o r s u bs t an -
t i al c r e d i t s t o t he f am i l y ban k ac c o u n t , t he r e i s n o r e c o r d
o f a s al e by J e f f e r s o n o f t he " e x c l u s i v e " r i g ht t o pu bl i s h
t he D e c l ar at i o n o f I n d e pe n d e n c e , o f w hi c h he w as be -
l i e v e d by m o s t D e m o c r at s be f o r e t he N e w D e al t o hav e
be e n t he au t ho r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g at t hi s l at e d at e t o s pe c -
u l at e w hat J am e s Mad i s o n , w ho r e po r t e d t he d e bat e s i n
t he C o n s t i t u t i o n al C o n v e n t i o n , m i g ht hav e m ad e o u t o f a
s c o o p, o r w hat A br aham L i n c o l n m i g ht hav e g o t i n a
pr i v at e d e al w i t h s o m e as t u t e pu bl i s he r f o r " e x c l u s i v e "
r i g ht s t o t he G e t t y s bu r g ad d r e s s .
To w hat l e n g t hs bo r n r e f o r m e r s w i l l g o i n t he i r z e al
t o ac c o m pl i s h ad j u s t m e n t s i n hu m an n at u r e i s i l l u s t r at e d
by t he o t he r w i s e br i l l i an t c o m m e n t o f W al t e r L i ppm an n
o n t he pr o an d c o n o f t he pr i v at e c o n t r ac t u al ar r an g e -
m e n t o f t he R o o s e v e l t s t o po c k e t t he pr o c e e d s f r o m t he
s al e o f c u r r e n t s t at e pape r s . W he n t he bl o o d s t r ai n i s
t ai n t e d w i t h " r e f o r m , " t he s o l u t i o n t o an y m y s t e r y , t he
an s w e r t o an y pr o bl e m i s a n e w l aw . The P r o hi bi t i o n -
i s t s , f o r i n s t an c e , ar e n o t al l d e ad
. F ar f r o m i t ! Tho s e
s t i l l al i v e ar e al e r t po l i t i c i an s . The y ar e abo u t t o r e v i v e
t he i s s u e o f P r o hi bi t i o n by l aw o n t he r u i n s o f w hat w as
o n c e t he N e w D e al
. S o w i t h L i ppm an n . H e ad v o c at e s
a n e w l aw w i t h t e e t h i n i t , t he pu r po s e o f w hi c h i s t o
i m pr o v e t he m an n e r s o f t he R o o s e v e l t f am i l y . H e pr o -
po s e s a l aw t o f o r bi d t he s al e , u n d e r s e v e r e pe n al t y ,
w hi l e s t i l l i n o f f i c e , o f t he v e r bat i m s t e n o g r aphi c r e po r t s
o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s o f f - t he - r e c o r d w i s e c r ac k s at t he W as h-
i n g t o n C o r r e s po n d e n t s w i t ho u t t he pr i n t i n g o f w hat t he
c o r r e s po n d e n t s t hi n k bu t d o n ' t s ay .
L i ppm an n s t i l l be t r ay s s o m e o f t he i m pe t u o s i t y an d
n e r v o u s n e s s o f y o u t h
. H e i s i r r i t at e d by r e as o n o f t he
f ac t t hat i n May , 1 9 3 8 , o u r f i n an c i al r u i n w as n o t
1 4 0
u n i v e r s al l y ad m i t t e d an d t hat , as he c o n c l u d e s , " A m e r i -
c an r e s o u r c e s ar e s u f f i c i e n t t o s u ppo r t " f r e n z i e d s pe n d i n g
" f o r a l o n g t i m e t o c o m e
. " R i c har d W hi t n e y po s t po n e d
a r e c k o n i n g f o r e i g ht y e ar s an d t he c o u n t r y al r e ad y has
s ho w n e v e n g r e at e r e n d u r an c e
. W hi t n e y al s o w as abl e
t o bo r r o w
u n t i l s ho r t l y be f o r e hi s f i n al c o l l aps e bu t w he n
t he bl o w d e s c e n d e d t he r e w as a s u d d e n n e s s w hi c h m u s t
hav e s u r pr i s e d e v e n W hi t n e y .
I f o u r f i s c al s t at u s w as pe r i l o u s i n 1 9 3 2, as Mr
. R o o s e -
v e l t , t he c an d i d at e , as s e r t e d , w hat m u s t Mr
. R o o s e v e l t ,
t he P r e s i d e n t , t hi n k o f t he pr e s e n t pe r i l ?
O r r at he r ,
w hat ar e pr u d e n t c i t i z e n s w ho ag r e e d w i t h Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
i n 1 9 3 2, e x pe c t e d t o t hi n k i n 1 9 3 9 af t e r Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
has d o u bl e d t he pu bl i c d e bt an d q u ad r u pl e d t he c o u n -
t r y ' s pe r i l ?
D o u bt l e s s , Mr
. R o o s e v e l t r e ad s S hak e s pe ar e an d i f he
d o e s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s pe c u l at e w he t he r , as H e n r y I V ,
he al s o has s l e e pl e s s n i g ht s w he n he c o n s i d e r s an d w e i g hs
t he f am o u s f i n al l i n e o f H e n r y ' s apo s t r o phe t o s l e e p
:
" Un e as y l i e s t he he ad t hat w e ar s a c r o w n . "
The r e i s a bar e po s s i bi l i t y t hat t he t ax pay e r m i g ht be
abl e t o s u r v i v e t he l as t t w o y e ar s o f Mr
. R o o s e v e l t an d
l i v e i n c o m par at i v e t r an q u i l i t y i f t he pr e s e n t t ax l aw
c o u l d be am e n d e d s o t hat t he r e w o u l d be s pe c i al appl i c a-
t i o n t o t he c u r r e n t ac t i v i t i e s an d r e v e n u e s o f hi m s e l f an d
f am i l y . The am e n d m e n t o u g ht t o be d i r e c t e d , f o r e x -
am pl e , t o t he i n c o m e o f t ho s e pe r s o n s w ho m ak e a s pe c i al
v i r t u e o f t he i r d e pe n d e n c e u po n t r u s t f u n d s an d t r u s t
e s t at e s . A n e x e m pt i o n c o u l d be pr o v i d e d f o r t ho s e pe r -
s o n s w ho , t ho u g h be n e f i c i ar i e s o f t r u s t e s t at e s , s t i l l r e c o g -
n i z e t he v al i d i t y an d r e as o n abl e n e s s o f pe r s o n al e f f o r t ,
o f pr i v at e e n d e av o r an d o f i n c o m e f r o m o t he r t han t he
ac c u m u l at i o n s o f a f r u g al f at he r , o r g o t as a by - pr o d u c t
o f po l i t i c s .
S u c h an am e n d m e n t o u g ht t o l e v y n o ad d i t i o n al t ax o n
t he i n c o m e f r o m a t r u s t e s t at e w he r e i n t he be n e f i c i ar y i s
a f at he r o r m o t he r . I t s ho u l d pr o v i d e t hat i n t he c as e
1 4 1
o f a s o n r e c e i v i n g t he d i s t r i bu t i v e s har e , t he po r t i o n s o
r e c e i v e d s ho u l d be s u bj e c t t o a f u r t he r t ax , i n ad d i t i o n
t o al l o t he r t ax e s , o f n o t l e s s t han s e v e n t y - f i v e ( 7 5 ) pe r
c e n t o f t he am o u n t s o d i s t r i bu t e d o r r e c e i v e d
. A ppr o -
pr i at e pr o v i s i o n s al s o s ho u l d be m ad e f o r ad d i t i o n al t ax e s
w he r e i n t he be n e f i c i ar y i s a d au g ht e r , g r an d s o n , g r an d -
d au g ht e r , br o t he r , s i s t e r , n e phe w an d n i e c e
. O n l y t o
s e c u r e t he pe r m an e n c e o f s u c h l e g i s l at i o n , i t m i g ht be
m ad e t he s u bj e c t f o r c o n s i d e r at i o n as a c o n s t i t u t i o n al
am e n d m e n t .
S u c h a l aw c o u l d v e r y w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a c o m -
pan i o n o f t he N e w D e al m e as u r e w hi c h u n d e r t o o k t o
l e v y ad d i t i o n al t ax e s o n pe r s o n s o r f am i l i e s w ho o w n
m o r e s t o c k i n o n e c o r po r at i o n t han t he e n v y o f N e w
D e al e r s c an e n d u r e , t he po i n t be i n g t hat k n av e r y i n hi g h
pl ac e has be c o m e t he r u l e , n o t t he e x c e pt i o n ; t hat t he
c r e d o o f o l d Mo t he r Me an s , " g i t a- pl e n t y w hi l e y ' u r
g e t t i n ' " has a w i d e r v o g u e t o d ay t han t he c r e e d o f
J e f f e r s o n , o r o f an o t he r g r e at D e m o c r at , J o hn C . C al -
ho u n , w ho al s o t hu n d e r e d a d i f f e r e n t c r e e d :
" The v e r y e s s e n c e o f a f r e e g o v e r n m e n t c o n s i s t s i n
c o n s i d e r i n g o f f i c e s as pu bl i c t r u s t s , be s t o w e d f o r t he g o o d
o f t he c o u n t r y , an d n o t f o r t he be n e f i t o f an i n d i v i d u al o r
par t y . "
W hat a d e l i g ht f u l o ppo r t u n i t y pr e s e n t s i t s e l f t o t he
m an y l e ar n e d o r g an i z at i o n s o f P e n n s y l v an i a t o f i n an c e
an e x am i n at i o n o f e x - G o v e r n o r E ar l e ' s e n t an g l e m e n t s
w i t h J o hn L . L e w i s , S e n at o r G u f f e y an d t hat d i s i n t e r -
e s t e d c o n t r ac t o r w ho w as s o g e n e r o u s i n l o an i n g m o n e y
t o t he e x - G o v e r n o r . The I n d i an a an d Mi c hi g an hi s -
t o r i c al s o c i e t i e s s ho u l d ar r an g e t o d i v i d e t he c o s t o f an
i n q u i r y t o d e t e r m i n e w he t he r Mu r phy , o f Mi c hi g an , o r
Mc N u t t , o f I n d i an a, i s r e s po n s i bl e f o r t he pr o j e c t o f
bu i l d i n g a m i l l i o n d o l l ar pal ac e i n Man i l a, w hi c h w e ar e
s ho r t l y t o aban d o n t o t he J aps .
H o w w i d e s pr e ad i s t he pe r v e r s i o n o f o u r m e n t al pr o c -
e s s e s , an d t o w hat e x t e n t t hi s pe r v e r s i o n has at t ac k e d
o u r be s t n at i v e s t o c k i s appar e n t d ai l y . N o m o r e s t r i k i n g
1 4 2
pr o o f o f t hi s pe r v e r s i o n i s av ai l abl e t han appe ar s i n t he
s o l e m n av e r m e n t s m ad e i n t he S e n at e o f t he Un i t e d
S t at e s an d t he hi g h c o u r t s o f t he c o u n t r y t hat t he Te n -
n e s s e e V al l e y A u t ho r i t y w as c o n c e i v e d pr i m ar i l y as an
ai d t o n av i g at i o n an d f l o o d c o n t r o l an d t hat t he pr o d u c -
t i o n o f e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i s an i n c i d e n t al o bj e c t i v e
. N o
o n e be l i e v e s s u c h n o n s e n s e an d n o o n e e v e r w i l l be l i e v e
i t , t ho u g h t he Un i t e d S t at e s S u pr e m e C o u r t s o l e m n l y
d e c l ar e s i t t o be t r u e
. S u c h a pr o po s i t i o n i s a r e f l e c t i o n
o n t he i n t e g r i t y o f an y m i n d s av e t he m o s t c al l o u s
.
A n e w an d al l - t i m e l o w i n t he l e v e l o f pu bl i c m o r al s
w as r e ac he d w he n i t w as pr o po s e d i n C o n g r e s s t hat Mr .
I c k e s s ho u l d d e t e r m i n e w he t he r pu bl i c u t i l i t i e s had be e n
o f f e r e d a " f ai r " pr i c e , as a c o n d i t i o n pr e c e d e n t t o t he i r
ac q u i s i t i o n by m u n i c i pal i t i e s w i t h f u n d s pr o v i d e d i n ap-
pr o pr i at i o n s f o r t he c u r r e n t s pe n d i n g o r g y . Thi s pr o po -
s i t i o n w as pr e s e n t e d i n appar e n t s e r i o u s n e s s as a c o m -
pr o m i s e be t w e e n C o n g r e s s i o n al f ac t i o n s w hi c h d i v i d e d
o n t he q u e s t i o n w he t he r s u c h appr o pr i at i o n s w o u l d be
av ai l abl e f o r s u c h pu r po s e s , u n d e r an y c o n d i t i o n s .
I c k e s e m e r g e d f r o m o bl i v i o n w he n t he f i r s t R o o s e v e l t
as k e d f o r t he t hi r d c u p o f c o f f e e i n 1 9 1 2,
s i n c e w hi c h t i m e
he has be e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be t he pr i z e n u i s an c e o f C o o k
C o u n t y , I l l i n o i s , an d s t i l l i s s o r e g ar d e d
. I f a bl as phe m e r
g o t a " f ai r " t r i al by t he pi o u s c hu r c hm e n o f t he I n q u i s i -
t i o n , t he n t he pu bl i c u t i l i t i e s w o u l d be s af e t o pu t t he i r
pr o pe r t y at t he d i s po s al o f Mr
. I c k e s f o r he w o u l d be
e q u al l y " f ai r . "
I c k e s i s o n e o f t he po l i t i c al hi t c h- hi k e r s w ho t hu m be d
t he i r w ay t o W as hi n g t o n o n t he be g i n n i n g o f t he N e w
D e al , o n l y I c k e s i s t he l o n e hi t c h- hi k e r w ho m an ag e d at
t he o u t s e t t o t hu m b hi s w ay i n t o t he c abi n e t
. H i s g o o d
f o r t u n e i s s ai d t o hav e be e n w ho l l y a m at t e r o f l u c k
s i n c e , at t he o u t s e t , t he r e w e r e m o r e o f f i c e s t han appl i -
c an t s
. I c k e s i n v i t e d hi m s e l f t o a r e t u r n t r i p t o C hi c ag o
w i t h t he m ay o r ' s o f f i c e as t he f i r s t s t o p bu t a g r o u p o f
C hi c ag o r ad i c al s w ho o f f e r e d e n c o u r ag e m e n t d i d n o t
s e e m abl e t o d e l i v e r t he k e y s .
1 4 3
F u t u r e hi s t o r i an s m ay u n d e r t ak e t o as s e m bl e t he n e c -
e s s ar y d at a an d pu bl i s h a t r e at i s e o n t he m o r al s t an d ar d s
i n po l i t i c s o f t he pr e s e n t D ar k A g e s , i n t r o d u c e d an d
r e v e al e d by Mr . R o o s e v e l t
. P e r haps t he s e s t an d ar d s m ay
be e pi t o m i z e d i n an an t ho l o g y o r d i c t i o n ar y bu t t he
u n d e r t ak i n g i s al t o g e t he r be y o n d an y c o n t e m po r ar y e f -
f o r t . I t o u g ht t o be a f as c i n at i n g pr o j e c t at a m u c h l at e r
d at e t o e x am i n e t he hi s t o r y o f t he v e r y c o m m o n e x pr e s -
s i o n , n o w s c ar c e l y r e m e m be r e d , " as g o o d as a g o v e r n m e n t
bo n d . "
G as s e t , w ho c al l s A m e r i c a " t he par ad i s e o f t he m as s e s "
i n an o t he r pl ac e
8
as s e r t s t hat " t he t o n i c t hat k e e ps t he
m as s i n f o r m i s i n s i n c e r i t y . " The s u r v i v al o f t he N e w
D e al i n A m e r i c a an d e s pe c i al l y t he po pu l ar i t y o f i t s c hi e f
m ag i c i an e v i d e n c e al s o t he po pu l ar appr e c i at i o n o f i n -
s i n c e r i t y . S o al s o d o t he e x t r av ag an t pr o m i s e s o f c an d i -
d at e s f o r o f f i c e , t he am bi g u o u s g e n e r al i z at i o n s o f par t y
pl at f o r m s an d t he hy po c r i s y i n he r e n t i n s u c h l aw s as
s o c i al s e c u r i t y e n ac t m e n t s w he r e t he t ax e s c o l l e c t e d ar e
pr o m pt l y d i s s i pat e d f o r al t o g e t he r d i f f e r e n t pu r po s e s .
The m as s e s hav e c o u n t e n an c e d an d c o n d o n e d t he i n s i n -
c e r i t y o f c o u n t i n g t he S o u t he r n n e g r o as a v o t e r i n ap-
po r t i o n m e n t l aw s e v e n t ho u g h he has be e n d i s f r an c hi s e d
by s t at e l aw s i n t he S o u t h s i n c e t he d e par t u r e o f t he
c ar pe t bag g e r . The c am ar ad e r i e be t w e e n d r u n k e n l aw -
m ak e r s an d A n t i - S al o o n L e ag u e l o bby i s t s w as t he d e l i g ht
o f t he m as s e s an d k e pt t he m " i n f o r m " d u r i n g t he P r o -
hi bi t i o n e r a .
The N at i o n al G o v e r n m e n t , al i as t he N e w D e al , has
c o m m i t t e d t e n t ho u s an d m aj o r c r i m e s , t hat i s , m aj o r
c r i m e s i f t e s t e d by s t an d ar d s appl i c abl e t o i n d i v i d u al s o r
s t an d ar d s pr e v i o u s l y appl i c abl e t o o f f i c i al c o n d u c t
.
Ur i ah H e e p w as n o m o r e s e r e n e i n hi s c o m pl ac e n c y o r
d i abo l i c al i n hi s hy po c r i s y
. E v e r y c r i m e i s an o v e r t ac t
i n t he c o n s pi r ac y t o at t ai n s u bv e r s i v e e n d s by an y m e an s
2
O r t e g a y G as s e t , " The R e v o l t o f t he Mas s e s " ( W
. W . N o r t o n & C o . , I n c . )
p . 1 28
.
$ I bi d . , p . 1 1 5
.
1 4 4
w hat s o e v e r , n o t e v e n
e x c l u d i n g t he m o s t d e s pi c abl e .
O n e s e e m i n g l y v al i d e x pl an at i o n o f t he pr e s e n t l o w
s t at e o f l e g i s l at i v e m o r al s i n W as hi n g t o n l i e s i n t he c i r -
c u m s t an c e s u n d e r w hi c h m an y S e n at o r s an d R e pr e s e n t a-
t i v e s w e r e e l e c t e d i n 1 9 3 6
. The c o u n t r y w as n o m o r e
s u r pr i s e d by t he m ag n i t u d e o f t he R o o s e v e l t l an d s l i d e
t han m an y c an d i d at e s w ho g o t o n t he D e m o c r ac t i c t i c k e t
w he n t he y had n o ho pe o f be i n g e l e c t e d .
The l o c al
D e m o c r at i c o r g an i z at i o n s n o t o n l y w e r e c ar e l e s s i n s e l e c t -
i n g c an d i d at e s bu t t he s e s u r pr i s e d g e n t r y , o n c e e l e c t e d ,
w e r e n o t u n m i n d f u l o f t he pr i m ar y r e as o n f o r t he i r s u c -
c e s s
. S i n c e m an y o f t he m w e r e n o t bo t he r e d , i n he r e n t l y ,
by hi g h m o r al s t an d ar d s , t he y s u ppo r t e d t he o u t l an d i s h
pr o g r am o f Mr
. R o o s e v e l t w i t h s l av i s h l o y al t y . W hat
m an y o f t he m d i d n ' t k n o w w as t hat t he y w o u l d be as
m u c h s u r pr i s e d by d e f e at i n 1 9 3 8 e t . s e q . a s
t he y w e r e by
v i c t o r y i n 1 9 3 6
.
O n l y a v e r y f e w m e m be r s o f C o n g r e s s hav e an y f i n an -
c i al s t an d i n g i n t he c o m m u n i t i e s f r o m w hi c h t he y c o m e ,
e v e n t ho u g h J i m W at s o n ' " n e v e r k n e w o n e s i n g l e i n -
d i v i d u al w ho w o u l d s e l l hi m s e l f f o r c as h . " The y ar e
ac c u s t o m e d t o l i v i n g f r o m han d t o m o u t h an d ar e c o m -
pl e t e l y l ac k i n g t hat s e n s e o f r e s po n s i bi l i t y w hi c h i n he r e s
i n an i n d i v i d u al w ho has ac c u m u l at e d pr o pe r t y o f hi s
o w n . V e r y m an y o f t he m ar e c o n s i d e r e d po o r r i s k s by
t he g r o c e r , t he bak e r an d t he bu t c he r .
N o t l o n g ag o , a m e m be r o f C o n g r e s s w as c o n v i c t e d o f
s e l l i n g o r o f f e r i n g t o s e l l an appo i n t m e n t t o W e s t P o i n t
.
P o s s i bl y J i m W at s o n m i s s e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t hi s
m e m be r
.
The as s as s i n at i o n o f t he L o u i s i an a K i n g f i s h, t he l at e
H u e y L o n g , e ar l y i n t he f i r s t R o o s e v e l t ad m i n i s t r at i o n ,
l e f t t he W hi t e H o u s e w i t ho u t a s i n g l e ad v e r s ar y c o m -
pe t e n t t o c o pe w i t h i t s m ac hi n at i o n s
. L o n g u n d e r s t o o d
R o o s e v e l t pe r haps be t t e r t han an y o t he r c o n t e m po r ar y
po l i t i c i an an d s i n c e L o n g w as r u t hl e s s i n pu r s u i t o f an
* " A s I K n e w The m " by f o r m e r U . S . S e n at o r J am e s E . W at s o n ( B o bbs -
Me r r i l l ) p
. * B o .
1
4
5
e n e m y an d po s s e s s e d g r e at abi l i t y t o d r am at i z e an at t ac k ,
u n t i l L o n g ' s d e at h, t he N e w D e al bu r e au c r ac y had a
w o r t hy f o e . The r e has be e n n o n e s i n c e hi s d e at h . B e -
f o r e he w e n t t o W as hi n g t o n , L o n g i n v o l v e d t he s t at e o f
L o u i s i an a i n a hu g e d e bt bu t t he r e w as t hi s d i f f e r e n c e i n
hi s s pe n d i n g , t he s t at e has r o ad s , br i d g e s an d o t he r
n e e d e d pu bl i c w o r k s t o s ho w f o r t he d e bt
.
The c o u n t r y has l e ar n e d t o d o u bt an d t o d i s c o u n t o r
u t t e r l y t o d i s be l i e v e al l W hi t e H o u s e pr o n o u n c e m e n t s
t hat ar e u n s e c u r e d by a bo n d g u ar an t e e i n g t he i r t r u t h .
The pr o n o u n c e m e n t o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s d i s i n c l i n at i o n
an d i n c apac i t y f o r d i c t at o r s hi p, hi s g r e at r e n u n c i at i o n ,
w as d o u bl y s t r an g e be c au s e o f t he s u bj e c t m at t e r an d t he
c i r c u m s t an c e s o f i t s r e l e as e t o r e po r t e r s w ho had t o be
c al l e d o u t o f be d .
Mu s s o l i n i , e x - S o c i al i s t ag i t at o r an d e x - ho d c ar r i e r , w as
u p t o hi s n e c k i n F as c i s m as e ar l y as 1 9 1 9 w he n he
s ho u t e d i n a s pe e c h : " W e u t t e r l y o ppo s e al l i d e as o f
d i c t at o r s hi p . " A s l at e as A u g u s t , 1 9 21 , he s o l e m n l y as -
s e r t e d t hat " F as c i s m i s t y r an n y . . . . " N o t l o n g af t e r -
w ar d s , t he bl ac k s m i t h' s s o n be c am e pr i m e m i n i s t e r an d
w as g i v e n a pe r s o n al t i t l e by t he K i n g
. L at e i n 1 9 22,
af t e r he w as a " P r i n c e an d pr i m e m i n i s t e r , he al s o g av e
an i n t e r v i e w i n w hi c h he s ai d , " The r e w i l l be n o r e as o n
f o r t he c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t he ' bl ac k s hi r t ' ar m y .
. . . I l o v e t he w o r k i n g c l as s e s . " ' S i x m o n t hs l at e r ,
ho w e v e r , he w r o t e t he d e at h k n e l l o f l i be r t y i n
L a
G e r ac hi a :
" F as c i s m .
. . i s n o t af r ai d t o c al l i t s e l f i l l i b-
e r al o r an t i l i be r al . I t has al r e ad y pas s e d o v e r t he m o r e o r
l e s s d e c o m po s e d bo d y o f t he g o d d e s s o f L i be r t y an d i s
q u i t e pr e par e d , i f n e c e s s ar y , t o d o s o o n c e m o r e . "
I f Mr . R o o s e v e l t m ak e s t he s am e pr o g r e s s as Mu s s o l i n i
a S i n c e Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s pr e s e n t c o n c e r n f o r t he o n e - t hi r d w ho ar e i l l - f e d ,
i l l - c l o t he d an d i l l - ho u s e d i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f Mu s s o l i n i ' s i n i t i al pas s i o n f o r t he
" w o r k i n g c l as s e s , " t he s i n c e r i t y o f t he f o r m e r m ay be t e s t e d by t he k n o w n
i n s i n c e r i t y o f t he l at t e r . G as s e t e x pl ai n s S r . Mu s s o l i n i an d Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
( " The R e v o l t o f t he Mas s e s , " p . 2o s ) v e r y w e l l w he n he s ay s " t he appar e n t
e n t hu s i as m f o r t he m an u al w o r k e r , f o r t he af f l i c t e d an d f o r s o c i al j u s t i c e ,
s e r v e s as a m as k t o f ac i l i t at e t he r e f u s al o f al l o bl i g at i o n s , s u c h as c o u r t e s y ,
t r u t hf u l n e s s an d , abo v e al l , r e s pe c t o r e s t e e m f o r s u pe r i o r i n d i v i d u al s . "
1 4 6
i n r e pu d i at i n g hi s o w n g r e at r e n u n c i at i o n w i t h r e s pe c t
t o d i c t at o r s hi p, i . e . ,
d e c l ar at i o n s i n hi s s pe e c h o f S e pt e m -
be r 1 7
, 1
9 3 7 , an d i n hi s m i d n i g ht i n t e r v i e w s o m e m o n t hs
l at e r , A m e r i c an F as c i s m s ho u l d be an ac c o m pl i s he d f ac t
o n t he ad j o u r n m e n t o f t he n e x t C o n g r e s s
. I t i s n e c e s s ar y
t o be l i e v e t hat R o o s e v e l t ' s v e r ac i t y an d m o r al s ar e s u -
pe r i o r t o t ho s e o f Mu s s o l i n i t o t r u s t t he o n e m o r e t han
t he o t he r
. Tho s e w ho c an r e m e m be r an y o f R o o s e v e l t ' s
m an y s pe e c he s , w he n a c an d i d at e ag ai n s t Mr
. H o o v e r i n
1 9 3 2, w i l l n o t be baf f l e d f o r w an t o f m an y e x am pl e s o f
t he v e r ac i t y an d m o r al s t hat n o w pr e v ai l o n P e n n s y l v an i a
A v e n u e .
Mo r e o v e r , t he R u s s i an d e bac l e an d Mu s s o l i n i ' s apo s -
t as y f u r n i s h e v e r y t ho u g ht f u l A m e r i c an w o r k i n g m an a
pu n g e n t f o r e t as t e o f t he u l t i m at e f ar e i f Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
c o n t i n u e s t o s i t at t he he ad o f t he t abl e an d d o t he
s e r v i n g .
N o t o n l y hav e t he pas t f i v e y e ar s m ar k e d a pal pabl e
d e t e r i o r at i o n i n pu bl i c m o r al s bu t t he c au s e s o f t he
l o w e r e d s t an d ar d s ar e e q u al l y m an i f e s t
. E v e r y m an w ho
r e ad s k n o w s t he r e as o n s f o r t he m o r al " r e c e s s i o n
. " L o n g
e s t abl i s he d pr i d e i n t he f u n d am e n t al e t hi c s o f t he N a-
t i o n al G o v e r n m e n t , t he he r i t ag e o f pi o n e e r i d e al i s m ,
w hi c h c o u l d hav e be e n s e n s e d as d e f i n i t e l y i n t he v i l l ag e
g r o c e r y as t he N e w Y o r k s u bw ay w he n m e n an d '
i s s u e s
w e r e r e v i e w e d , i s be c o m i n g an e x t i n c t e m o t i o n .
N o o n e an y l o n g e r t r u s t s t he g o v e r n m e n t , n o t e v e n i t s
pr e s e n t d e pe n d e n t s
. N o o n e be l i e v e s an y pe r m an e n c e o r
s t abi l i t y at t ac he s t o i t s l aw s o r t hat an y f i x e d m e as u r e o f
e q u al an d e x ac t j u s t i c e w i l l be o bs e r v e d i n t he i r e n f o r c e -
m e n t
. N o o n e r e l i e s o n t he u n d e r t ak i n g s , pr o m i s e s o r
c o n t r ac t s o f t he N at i o n al G o v e r n m e n t
. N o o n e r e po s e s
t he s l i g ht e s t d e pe n d e n c e i n t he g o o d f ai t h o f
. an y o f i t s
ag e n t s , e m pl o y e e s o r o f f i c e r s
. N o o n e e x pe c t s an y u n i -
f o r m i t y o f pr i n c i pl e i n m e n o r m e as u r e s o f t he N e w D e al
w he n t e s t e d by pe r f o r m an c e an d appl i c at i o n y e s t e r d ay ,
t o d ay an d t o m o r r o w .
I n A m e r i c a' s ho r s e - an d - bu g g y d ay s , t he s o c i al s t at u s o f
1 4 7
a k n o w n C o m m u n i s t w as e q u i v al e n t r o u g hl y t o t hat o f
a ho r s e t hi e f an d i f t he c o u n t r y had n o t al l bu t l o s t i t s
w i t s , t he C o m m u n i s t an d t he R o o s e v e l t " l i be r al " w o u l d
be n o be t t e r o f f t o d ay . S i n c e Mar c h 4 , 1 9 3 3 , t he c o u n t r y
has d e c l i n e d f r o m s u c c e s s i v e r e ac t i o n s t o e v i l s i n hi g h
pl ac e , c u m u l at i v e i n t he i r e f f e c t , an d ag ai n s t w hi c h
P o pe w ar n e d i n hi s " E s s ay o n Man " :
" V i c e i s a m o n s t e r o f s o f r i g ht f u l m i e n ,
A s t o be hat e d n e e d s bu t t o be s e e n ;
Y e t s e e n t o o o f t , f am i l i ar w i t h he r f ac e ,
W e f i r s t e n d u r e , t he n pi t y , t he n e m br ac e . "
A l o n g w i t h o u r l o s s o f s e l f - r e s pe c t , o u r s e n s i t i v i t y t o
t he i n c o n g r u o u s , t he g r o s s , t he v u l g ar an d t he f al s e has
g o n e w i t h t he w i n d
.
The c o n s e r v at i v e A m e r i c an , t o w ho m t he c o u n t r y i s
i n d e bt e d f o r m o s t o f i t s ac hi e v e m e n t s , i n t he pr e j u d i c e
ar o u s e d ag ai n s t " G r e at A m e r i c an F o r t u n e s , " t he " S i x t y
F am i l i e s " t he " R o bbe r B ar o n s , " t he " r e ac t i o n ar i e s " an d
t he " r e d bai t e r s , " has v an i s he d f r o m t he s c e n e . C o n -
t e m po r an e o u s l y , t he i n c r e as i n g po pu l ar i t y o f s o - c al l e d
" L i be r al i s m " has be e n g r e at l y o v e r c api t al i z e d by a ho r d e
o f J ac o bi n s , C o m m u n i s t - N e w D e al m o d e l , w ho s e m o r al s
d i f f e r f r o m t ho s e o f D an i e l D r e w , J i m F i s k e an d J ay
G o u l d i n o n e r e s pe c t o n l y . The l at t e r w e r e d e v o i d o f al l
pr e t e n s e w hi l e t he f o r m e r w o u l d r o b t he w ho l e c o u n t r y
an d s av e t he i r f ac e s t o o .
I f t he g o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f w e r e n o t t r e as o n be n t , m e as -
u r e d by t he d e par t u r e f r o m po l i c i e s t ho u g ht t o be A m e r i -
c an pr i o r t o Mar c h 4 , 1 9 3 3 , m an y o f t he f i r s t n am e s o f
t he N e w D e al c am ar i l l a e i t he r w o u l d be e n r o l l e d o n i n -
d i c t m e n t s f o r t r e as o n o r t ho s e w ho an s w e r t o t he m al -
r e ad y w o u l d be s e r v i n g s e n t e n c e s f o r hi g h c r i m e s ag ai n s t
t he pu bl i c
pe ac e .
1 4 8
C H A P TE R XI
Mr s . R o o s e v e l t A d d s t he F e m i n i n e To u c h
P r e s i d e n t ' s S po u s e R o l l s Up H e r S l e e v e s i n Mi d s t
o f P r e m i s e s , I n f e r e n c e s an d A s s u m pt i o n s , W he r e -
u po n W o r l d P e ac e E m e r g e s B e d e c k e d i n
R u f f l e s , R i bbo n s an d L ac e
.
" H e r r e as o n i n g i s f u l l o f t r i c k s
A n d bu t t e r f l y s u g g e s t i o n s ,
I k n o w n o po i n t t o w hi c h s he s t i c k s ;
S he be g s t he s i m pl e s t q u e s t i o n s ,
A n d , w he n he r pr e m i s e s ar e s t r o n g
S he al w ay s d r aw s he r i n f e r e n c e w r o n g . "
MR S . R O O S E V E L T has w r i t t e n an o t he r bo o k
. I t i s a
s m al l v o l u m e o f f o r t y - s e v e n pag e s e n t i t l e d , " Thi s Tr o u -
bl e d W o r l d , " * an d m ay be pu r c has e d f o r a d o l l ar , i f y o u
ar e i n t e r e s t e d
. I t s t he m e i s w o r l d pe ac e an d n o t m e r e l y
d o m e s t i c pe ac e
. The s u bj e c t i s , t he r e f o r e , br o ad e n o u g h
t o pe r m i t t he g o o d w o m an c o n s i d e r abl e r an g e o f t ho u g ht ,
m o r e t han n e c e s s ar y i f au t ho r s ar e e x pe c t e d t o bl an k e t
t he r an g e o f t ho u g ht t he y pr e e m pt w i t h i d e as t hat d o n ' t
t o ppl e o v e r w he n t he au t ho r t ak e s a n ap . The v o l u m e
c o n t ai n s m o r e t han a d o z e n m aj o r pr o po s i t i o n s i n t e n d e d
t o po i n t t he w ay t o w o r l d pe ac e w hi c h ar e f o u n d e d s o l e l y
o n t he s t r e n g t h i n he r e n t i n t he E n g l i s h c o n j u n c t i o n " i f
. "
O t he r as s u m pt i o n s ar e pr e f ac e d w i t h an E n g l i s h w o r d ,
s o u s e f u l w he n f ac t s ar e d i s c o n c e r t i n g an d an ar bi t r ar y
c o n c l u s i o n i s t o be r e ac he d , " g r an t e d . " Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t
" g r an t s " an d " t ak e s f o r g r an t e d " t he f u l f i l l m e n t o f he r
" ho pe s , " he r " d r e am s , " he r v i s i o n s
. W he n t he d e ar l ad y
f i n d s he r s e l f e m bar r as s e d by a f ac t w hi c h w o u l d g e t he r
* P u bl i s he d by H . C . K i n s e y & C o . , I n c .
1 4 9
c r o s s e d u p i n a n u r s e r y , s he d o e s n o t t r y t o e x pl ai n , s he
d i s m i s s e s i t .
O n t he s u bj e c t o f " d i f f e r e n c e s be t w e e n n at i o n s " w hi c h
t he L e ag u e o f N at i o n s w as i n t e n d e d t o ad j u d i c at e , s he
s ay s t hat " m an y o f u s hav e be c o m e c o n v i n c e d t hat t he
L e ag u e o f N at i o n s as i t s t an d s t o d ay c an n o t s e r v e t hi s
pu r po s e . The r e as o n f o r t hi s i s u n i m po r t an t
. "
O n t he c o n t r ar y , t he r e as o n
i s t he o n l y f ac t w hi c h i s
i m po r t an t . The r e as o n i s t hat av ar i c e , e g o m an i a, s e l f i s h-
n e s s , t he s pi r i t o f c o n q u e s t , t he pas s i o n o f t he s t r o n g t o
pr e y o n t he w e ak , ar e s o f i r m l y i m pl an t e d i n t he hu m an
he ar t t hat s u c h i n s t r u m e n t al i t i e s as t he L e ag u e o f N at i o n s
ar e d e s t i n e d t o f ai l
. The i l l u s i o n s o f W o o d r o w W i l s o n ,
i n t hi s r e s pe c t , m ay hav e be e n pat ho l o g i c al
. The y ar e a
m y s t e r y i n t he abs e n c e o f s u c h an e x pl an at i o n
.
I n " Thi s Tr o u bl e d W o r l d , " Mr s . R o o s e v e l t n e g l e c t s
t o s ay w he t he r s he has r e ad S pe n g l e r ' s " The D e c l i n e o f
t he W e s t " bu t i t i s a s af e g u e s s t hat t he g o o d l ad y has
o m i t t e d t hi s r at he r po n d e r o u s v o l u m e f r o m he r l u g g ag e ,
s i n c e s he t r av e l s bo t h l i g ht l y an d o f t e n .
" W ar i s t he pr i m ar y po l i t i c s o f e v e r y t hi n g t hat l i v e s , "
s ay s S pe n g l e r , 1
" an d s o m u c h s o t hat i n t he d e e ps bat t l e
an d l i f e ar e o n e , an d be i n g an d w i l l - t o - bat t l e e x pi r e t o -
g e t he r . "
Thi s o bs e r v at i o n , Mr s . R o o s e v e l t , i n al l pr o babi l i t y ,
w o u l d f i n d i t n e c e s s ar y t o d i s m i s s . I f s he w e r e abl e t o
d i s po s e o f t hi s o bs e r v at i o n , w i l l y - n i l l y o r ho c u s - po c u s ,
Mr s . R o o s e v e l t m i g ht t he n appl y he r s e l f t o a f u r t he r o b-
s e r v at i o n by S pe n g l e r , 2
o n w o r l d pe ac e , t o - w i t :
" E v e n w o r l d - pe ac e i n e v e r y c as e w he r e i t has e x i s t e d ,
has be e n n o t hi n g bu t t he s l av e r y o f an e n t i r e hu m an i t y
u n d e r t he r e g i m e n i m po s e d by a f e w s t r o n g n at u r e s d e -
t e r m i n e d t o r u l e . "
The au t ho r s e e m s t o be i m pr e s s e d w i t h he r hu s ban d ' s
ac hi e v e m e n t s i n L at i n A m e r i c a w he r e an " am i c abl e u n -
1 " The D e c l i n e o f t he W e s t " by O s w al d S pe n g l e r ( A l f r e d A . K n o pf & C o
. ,
I n c . ) V o l . I I , p . 4 4 o .
2l bi d . , p
. 4 4 1 .
1 5 0
d e r s t an d i n g " has be e n r e ac he d
. S he be l i e v e s " w e hav e a
t ho r o u g hl y s o u n d w o r k i n g bas i s f o r s o l v i n g al l m i s u n -
d e r s t an d i n g s . " P e r haps Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t f ai l e d t o s u bm i t
t hi s o pt i m i s t i c o bs e r v at i o n t o t he H o n . C o r d e l l H u l l
w ho s e n o t e s t o C ar d e n as hav e be c o m e al m o s t as f r e q u e n t
an d v o l u m i n o u s as t ho s e o f W o o d r o w W i l s o n t o K ai s e r
W i l he l m . S o l o n g as w e c o n t i n u e d t o bu y t he i r s i l v e r
an d t o pay t he m t e n c e n t s an o u n c e pr e m i u m w e had a
r i g ht t o e x pe c t t he af o r e s ai d " am i c abl e u n d e r s t an d i n g "
an d g o o d w i l l t o c o n t i n u e , t he i r g o o d w i l l t o be w e i g he d
o n t he s am e s c al e s as t he i r s i l v e r an d t o appr o x i m at e t he
pr e m i u m w e pai d
. Un f o r t u n at e l y , t he pr e m i u m o n s i l -
v e r w as i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s u s t ai n t he i r g o o d w i l l
. Me x i c o
had al r e ad y c o n f i s c at e d s m al l f ar m s o w n e d by A m e r i c an s
v al u e d at m o r e t han t e n m i l l i o n d o l l ar s an d s ho r t l y af t e r
Mr s . R o o s e v e l t ' s bo o k appe ar e d , C ar d e n as c o n f i s c at e d
t he e n t i r e o i l i n d u s t r y , v al u e d at f o u r hu n d r e d m i l l i o n
d o l l ar s . The e s t e e m e d S e c r e t ar y o f S t at e s ho u l d r e f e r
t he c o l l e c t i o n o f t he s e s m al l i t e m s t o Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t ,
w ho s e o pt i m i s m s e e m s t o e x c e e d he r u n d e r s t an d i n g
.
Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t i n c l i n e s t o t he be l i e f t hat s o m e i n t e r -
n at i o n al po l i c e m an m ay be n e c e s s ar y s i n c e " e v e r y n at i o n
i n t he w o r l d s t i l l u s e s po l i c e m e n t o c o n t r o l i t s u n r u l y
e l e m e n t . " H e r n o t i o n i s t hat s u c h a s i m pl e m at t e r as
po l i c i n g t he R o m e - B e r l i n ax i s , n o t t o m e n t i o n t he ax e s at
L e n i n g r ad , Mad r i d an d S han g hai , i s n o t m o r e i m po r t an t
t han t he c al l i n g o f a po l i c e m an f r o m t he n e ar e s t pr e c i n c t
w he n a bu r g l ar i s f o u n d u n d e r t he be d
. S he al s o t hi n k s
" w e n e e d t o d e f i n e w hat an ag g r e s s o r n at i o n i s
. " The r e
w as n o d i s ag r e e m e n t abo u t t he d e f i n i t i o n o f w hat Mu s -
s o l i n i d i d i n A by s s i n i a, w hat J apan i s n o w d o i n g i n
C hi n a, o r w hat H i t l e r d i d i n A u s t r i a an d C z e c ho s l o v ak i a
.
N o n e o f t he s e f o r ay s c an be c har g e d ag ai n s t t he e r r o r s
an d am bi g u i t i e s o f t he d i c t i o n ar y .
The m u n i t i o n s bu s i n e s s i s han d l e d w i t h t he c ar e o n e
m i g ht e x pe c t i f Mr s . R o o s e v e l t had t o e n t e r a c o al bi n
w e ar i n g a n e w pai r o f w hi t e k i d g l o v e s . " C e r t ai n f am -
i l i e s i n E u r o pe " ar e s ai d t o be e n g ag e d i n t he bu s i n e s s
1 5 1
an d Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t s u s pe c t s t he y w o u l d l i k e t o c o n t i n u e
bu t t he r e i s n o r e f e r e n c e t o " c e r t ai n f am i l i e s " i n t hi s
c o u n t r y , n am e l y , t ho s e o f he r o w n s o n , w ho ar e s i m i l ar l y
e n g ag e d an d w ho , s o f ar as Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t d i s c l o s e s , al s o
w o u l d l i k e t o c o n t i n u e . The i d e a o f g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l
o f t he m u n i t i o n s i n d u s t r y pr o d u c e s " n o g r e at t r e pi d a-
t i o n " i n Mr s . R o o s e v e l t . A l l t he R o o s e v e l t s ar e l ac k i n g
i n " t r e pi d at i o n " w he n g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l an d o w n e r -
s hi p ar e at i s s u e , bu t t hi s at t i t u d e s e e m s t o hav e d e -
v e l o pe d s i n c e t he R o o s e v e l t f am i l y be c am e t he g o v e r n -
m e n t , n o t be f o r e .
The k e y t o Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t ' s t hi n k i n g , i f i t i s " g r an t e d "
t hat s he d o e s t hi n k , i s f o u n d f i r s t o n pag e 1 7 . " W ho ' s
W ho " s t at e s t hat Mr s . R o o s e v e l t w as e d u c at e d i n pr i v at e
s c ho o l s . The s e n t i m e n t o n pag e 1 7 , an d i t r e c u r s i n
s l i g ht l y d i f f e r e n t l an g u ag e o n pag e s 23 , 24 , 26 , 3 8 an d 4 5 ,
w o u l d i n d i c at e t hat Mr s . R o o s e v e l t ' s e d u c at i o n e n d e d
w i t h t he f i n i s hi n g s c ho o l . P e r haps t he pr i v at e s c ho o l s
Mr s . R o o s e v e l t at t e n d e d o m i t t e d hi s t o r y f r o m t he c u r -
r i c u l u m . I f Mr s . R o o s e v e l t w e r e ac q u ai n t e d w i t h c e r -
t ai n hi s t o r i c al f ac t s pe r haps s he w o u l d hav e l e s s c o n -
f i d e n c e i n he r f o r m u l a, w hi c h i s t he s am e f o r m u l a
Max i m i l i e n R o be s pi e r r e an d R abau d S ai n t - E t i e n n e pr o -
c l ai m e d j u s t be f o r e t he F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n ( s e e p
.
21 ) .
O n pag e 1 6 , s he s ay s :
" O u r r e al u l t i m at e o bj e c t i v e m u s t be a c han g e i n
hu m an n at u r e . "
O n e g at he r s f r o m S pe n g l e r t hat t hi s o bj e c t i v e i s c har -
ac t e r i s t i c o f W e s t e r n C u l t u r e an d t hat i t s pu r s u i t w i l l
l e ad i n e v i t abl y t o a s o c i al i z e d s t at e , t o d e c ad e n c e an d
c hao s .
O n pag e 26 , Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t d i s c l o s e s t hat t hi s c han g e
i n hu m an n at u r e i s t o be br o u g ht abo u t " t hr o u g h e d u c a-
t i o n . " E i t he r t he d e ar w o m an has a po o r m e m o r y o r t he
m an u s c r i pt w as hu r r i e d t o t he pu bl i s he r , " d i c t at e d bu t
n o t r e ad , " be c au s e o n pag e 3 s he has al r e ad y o bs e r v e d
t hat t he " s i z e o f t hi s pr o bl e m i s apt t o m ak e y o u f e e l t hat
1 5 2
e v e n an at t e m pt t o s o l v e i t i n t he f u t u r e by e d u c at i o n i s
f u t i l e . "
O n e w o n d e r s at t he pu bl i c at i o n o f s u c h n o n s e n s e , s o
m u c h d r i v e l an d w hy i t s ho u l d be d i g n i f i e d i n a bo o k
u n t i l o n e r e c al l s t hat , af t e r al l , E l e an o r i s t he l aw f u l
s po u s e o f t he P r e s i d e n t o f t he Un i t e d S t at e s
. E v e n s o ,
t he v o l u m e i s a r e f l e c t i o n o n t he . i n t e l l i g e n c e o f a s e w i n g
c i r c l e . N i n e o u t o f t e n hi g h s c ho o l pu pi l s c o u l d d o a
be t t e r j o b
. I m ag i n e t he g i g g l e s i n D o w n i n g S t r e e t !
S u c h a ho d g e po d g e o f s i l l y n o t i o n s w i l l d o t he c o u n t r y
f u r t he r d am ag e . S o m e m o r o n s w ho be l i e v e t hat Mr s .
R o o s e v e l t i s a g o o d m o t he r an d w i f e ar e apt t o c o n c l u d e
t hat s he al s o i s a hi s t o r i an an d s t at e s m an an d v o l u n t e e r
f o r s e r v i c e i n t he N e w D e al ar m y t o m ak e o v e r hu m an
n at u r e .
The d e ar w o m an ' s appr o ac h t o t he pr o bl e m o f w o r l d
pe ac e , ad m i t t e d l y a pr o bl e m o f c o n s i d e r abl e m ag n i t u d e
an d o n e e n t i t l e d t o t he s u s t ai n e d t ho u g ht o f t r ai n e d an d
i n f o r m e d m i n d s s e e m s t o hav e be e n d e r i v e d f r o m t he
r e al m o f phan t as y , f r o m B u r n s , S pe n s e r o r C e r v an t e s .
The l as t g e n t l e m an , i n D o n Q u i x o t e , i s t he m o s t l i k e l y
s o u r c e o f he r i n s pi r at i o n . O n pag e 3 o f " Thi s Tr o u bl e d
W o r l d , " Mr s . R o o s e v e l t d i s c l o s e s t he s e c r e t o f he r ap-
pr o ac h t o t he pr o bl e m o f w o r l d pe ac e i n a q u o t at i o n f r o m
D o n Q u i x o t e an d he r o w n appl i c at i o n o f t he r o m an t i c
g e m :
" F ai n t he ar t . . . n e ' e r w o n f ai r l ad y , n o r d i d i t e v e r
s o l v e w o r l d pr o bl e m s . "
D o n Q u i x o t e , w he n d e e pl y m o v e d , had t he g o o d s e n s e
t o c o n f i n e hi m s e l f t o w i n d m i l l s bu t Mr s . R o o s e v e l t s e e m s
t o hav e be e n w an t i n g i n e q u al m o d e s t y .
The r e i s a t ho u g ht i n S c e n e 3 o f " R i c har d I I I " w hi c h
Mr s . R o o s e v e l t m ay n o t hav e r e m e m be r e d f r o m he r
f i n i s hi n g s c ho o l d ay s an d w hi c h, i f s he had , m i g ht hav e
s av e d t he c o u n t r y f r o m t he e m bar r as s m e n t o f an o t he r
bo o k by t he P r e s i d e n t ' s w i f e :
" . . .
. w r e n s m ak e pr e y w he r e e ag l e s d ar e n o t pe r c h . "
1 5 3
The o n l y t hi n g m i s s i n g t o m ak e Mr s . R o o s e v e l t ' s l at e s t
o pu s a f i r s t - r at e m u s i c al c o m e d y i s t he m u s i c .
O f c o u r s e , t he r e i s a s t an d i n g d e c l ar at i o n f r o m t he
pu l pi t t hat t he w o r l d i s g e t t i n g be t t e r bu t a c u r s o r y
e x am i n at i o n o f t he s u ppo r t i n g d at a i s u n c o n v i n c i n g . I t
i s u n c o n v i n c i n g t hat t he w o r l d i s g e t t i n g be t t e r be c au s e
m o r e pl o w han d s ar e e n r o l l e d i n L at i n an d G e o m e t r y ,
be c au s e t hi s g e n e r at i o n g e t s a f r e e r i d e t o s c ho o l an d t he
l as t w al k e d ; be c au s e c hi l d r e n w ho f o r m e r l y at e " g r e e n s "
an d d r an k s as s af r as t e a i n s e as o n n o w hav e s pi n ac h an d
o r an g e j u i c e
; be c au s e o f t he pr e s e n t e m phas i s o n s ho r t e r
ho u r s an d m o r e g as o l i n e
.
I t w as ar g u e d t hat t he w o r l d i s be t t e r i n t hat c r u e l
an d u n u s u al pu n i s hm e n t has be e n abo l i s he d o r abat e d ,
bu t t hi s ar g u m e n t i s o m i t t e d s i n c e t he ae r i al bo m bi n g o f
u n f o r t i f i e d c i t i e s i n S pai n an d C hi n a
. The c u r i o u s as -
pe c t o f t hi s ar g u m e n t i s t hat i n t he w ho l e hi s t o r y o f
m an k i n d , t he m o s t c r u e l pu n i s hm e n t has be e n i n f l i c t e d
i n t he n am e o f t he o r g an i z e d c hu r c h an d c ar r i e d o u t by
t he d u l y c o n s t i t u t e d au t ho r i t i e s o f t he c hu r c h . I f t he
o r g an i z e d c hu r c h has be e n abl e t o pu r g e i t s e l f o f t he s e
c r u e l pr ac t i c e s , t he r e i s n o e v i d e n c e t hat i t has n o t be e n
d r i v e n t o aban d o n t he m by i n f l u e n c e s i n d e pe n d e n t o f
an d o u t s i d e t he o r g an i z e d c hu r c h
. E v e n s o , c i v i l i z at i o n
i s e n t i t l e d t o w hat e v e r c r e d i t i s t o be had f o r t he ac hi e v e -
m e n t
. The H i t l e r an d S t al i n he g e m o n i e s , ho w e v e r , ar e
n o t par t i c u l ar l y i n v i t i n g as t i m e m ar c he s o n
.
The f an at i c s o f S al e m , Mas s ac hu s e t t s , w ho pu r s u e d t he
l o c al w i t c he s , w e r e pi o u s c hu r c hm e n
. W hi l e C o r t e z
f o r c e d t he I n d i an s o f Me x i c o t o d e s e r t o l d g o d s an d
t he r e by pu t an e n d t o hu m an s ac r i f i c e s , c u r i o u s l y e n o u g h
i t w as at a t i m e w he n t he I n q u i s i t i o n f l o u r i s he d i n u n a-
bat e d f u r y i n hi s n at i v e l an d . The pe r s e c u t i o n o f J e w s
an d o r t ho d o x c hu r c hm e n by t he C e n t r al E u r o pe an d i c -
t at o r s i s n o t e x ac t l y c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t hat r e l i g i o u s
t o l e r at i o n i s f i r m l y e s t abl i s he d i n t he w o r l d , par t i c u l ar l y
s i n c e n o o n e c an f o r e t e l l t he l i m i t s o f t he g r o w i n g br u -
t al i t y .
1 5 4
I f i t i s c o n t e n d e d t hat t he s t at u s o f c hi l d r e n has i m -
pr o v e d , t he o bv i o u s an s w e r i s t hat n o o n e m ay be c e r t ai n
t he pe n d u l u m w i l l n o t s ho r t l y r e v e r s e i t s e l f as a d i r e c t
c o n s e q u e n c e o f w e ak e n e d c har ac t e r f r o m o v e r i n d u l g e n c e ,
i d l e n e s s , t r ai n i n g i n pau pe r i s m by t he N e w D e al an d an
e x c e s s o f s i l l y s e n t i m e n t al i t y . Mu c h e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c at e
t he r e s u l t s o f t he s e i n f l u e n c e s i s al r e ad y appar e n t . Mo r e -
o v e r , i f o u r s o - c al l e d D e m o c r ac y i s abo u t t o be l ai d w as t e
by o u r o w n H u n s an d V an d al s , o r w e ar e t o y i e l d u p o u r
l i be r t y t o s o m e C ae s ar o r N apo l e o n i n t hi s t w e n t i e t h
c e n t u r y , as L o r d Mac au l ay l o n g ag o pr e d i c t e d an d as
m an y c o n t e m po r ar y s t u d e n t s be l i e v e , i s i t r e as o n abl e t o
e x pe c t t hat c hi l d r e n w i l l e s c ape t he d e g r ad at i o n t hat
t o u c he s t he m u l t i t u d e ?
The r e i s po s i t i v e l y n o e v i d e n c e t hat t he hu m an he ar t
has c han g e d . The r e i s n o pr o o f o f an y g r e at e r hu m an
i n t e l l i g e n c e . H i t l e r an d Mu s s o l i n i an d R o o s e v e l t hav e
be e n m o r e l o u d l y c he e r e d t han W as hi n g t o n an d L i n c o l n .
S t al i n i n R u s s i a an d C ar d e n as i n Me x i c o s u r pas s P e t e r
t he G r e at an d J u ar e z i n pe r f e c t i n g t he n at i v e g o o s e s t e p .
The t e c hn i q u e o f t he N e w D e al G o o s e S t e p i s c o n s t an t l y
i m pr o v i n g .
The r e i s n o o bv i o u s i m pr o v e m e n t i n t he pu l pi t f ar e o f
t he l i v i n g pr e s e n t
. The pu l pi t has be e n t ak e n o v e r by
po l i t i c i an s w ho s e m o r al s n o w an d ag ai n s c ar c e l y e x c e l
t ho s e o f po l i t i c i an s w ho m ak e a f u l l - t i m e j o b o f t he bu s i -
n e s s . F o r e x am pl e , w hat m ay be e x pe c t e d as t he m o r al
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h a c ar e e r as t hat o f B i s ho p J am e s
C an n o n , J r
. w ho s e po l i t i c al ac t i v i t i e s i n 1 9 28 w e r e m o r e
d e v i o u s t han t he w ay s o f a S ac he m o f Tam m an y H al l ?
The m o r al c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t hat c am pai g n t o r e g i m e n t t he
n at i o n i n be hal f o f P r o hi bi t i o n an d t he l o w m o r al t o n e
o f t he s c o u n d r e l s ac t i v e i n i t s e n f o r c e m e n t , w e r e i m -
po r t an t f ac t o r s i n t he po l i t i c al r e v o l t f o u r y e ar s l at e r .
I n 1 9 3 2,
H o o v e r w as t he s y m bo l n o t al o n e o f e c o n o m i c
s t ag n at i o n bu t al s o o f t he m o r al an d s o c i al s t ag n at i o n
f r o m f o u r t e e n y e ar s o f P r o hi bi t i o n .
N o t t hat t he B ac c han al i an r e v e l s o f t he s o c i al l y e l i t e
1 5 5
ar e o bj e c t i o n abl e pe r s e o r t hat t he n e c e s s ar y s e l f - d i s c i -
pl i n e o f t he d e bu t an t e i n t he pr e s e n c e o f s c o t c h an d s o d a
i s d e v o i d o f hu m an v al u e s bu t o n l y t hat t ho s e w ho d o
o bj e c t t o v e r y c o m m o n pr ac t i c e s w hi c h m ak e s e l f - d i s c i -
pl i n e i n d i s pe n s abl e t he m s e l v e s ar e e n t i r e l y r e s po n s i bl e .
P r o hi bi t i o n f i x e d t he habi t s i n po l i t e c i r c l e s an d bi t t e r
e x pe r i e n c e has d e t e r m i n e d t he r e q u i r e d m e as u r e o f s e l f -
d i s c i pl i n e . Man y g e n e r at i o n s w i l l w i t n e s s t he d e g r ad at i o n
o f t he w e ak an d t he d e s pai r o f t he i r s e l f - appo i n t e d k e e pe r s
be c au s e o f o u r " n o bl e e x pe r i m e n t " i n c han g i n g hu m an
c har ac t e r i s t i c s by l aw
. The s i m pl e f ac t t hat P r o hi bi t i o n
w as a c o l o s s al f ai l u r e i s i r r e l e v an t t o t ho s e s i m pl e s o u l s
w ho be l i e v e d i t w o u l d s u c c e e d
. Man y w ho pi n n e d t he i r
f ai t h t o t he " n o bl e e x pe r i m e n t " r e m ai n s t u bbo r n l y s t e ad -
f as t f o r t he s i m pl e r e as o n t hat " n o f ac t c an e v e r r e bu t a
f ai t h . "
Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t ' s " r e al u l t i m at e o bj e c t i v e , " t hat i s , " a
c han g e i n hu m an n at u r e " n o t o n l y w as e s po u s e d by S ai n t -
E t i e n n e an d R o be s pi e r r e bu t at a m u c h l at e r d at e t he
s ai n t e d L e n i n t o o k a hi t c h at hi s s u s pe n d e r s an d s pak e
as a pr o phe t .
" The v u l g ar e c o n o m i s t s , i n c l u d i n g t he bo u r g e o i s pr o -
f e s s o r s " L e n i n s ai d , ' " c o n s t an t l y r e pr o ac h t he S o c i al i s t s
w i t h f o r g e t t i n g t he i n e q u al i t y o f m an k i n d an d w i t h
` d r e am i n g ' o f d e s t r o y i n g t hi s i n e q u al i t y
. S u c h a r e pr o ac h
o n l y pr o v e s t he e x t r e m e i g n o r an c e o f t he bo u r g e o i s
i d e o l o g i s t s
. "
Mar x , E n g e l s an d L e n i n pr o po s e d t o bal an c e t he i n -
e q u al i t i e s o f hu m an n at u r e by c o n f e r r i n g u po n t he u n f i t ,
t hr o u g h t he d i c t at o r s hi p o f t he pr o l e t ar i at , an e x t r a
m e as u r e o f " r i g ht s . "
'
Mr s
. R o o s e v e l t ' s " r e al u l t i m at e o bj e c t i v e , " t hat i s , " a
c han g e i n hu m an n at u r e " s ho u l d be s u bm i t t e d t o D r
.
S i g m u n d F r e u d , t he w o r l d ' s c o n t e m po r ar y au t ho r i t y o n
d r e am s , o r e l s e l e f t t o l an g u i s h i n t he s am e f at e i t s u f f e r e d
3 " I m pe r i al i s m an d The S t at e an d R e v o l u t i o n " by N i k o l ai L e n i n ( V an -
g u ar d P r e s s ) p . ' 9 7 .
* I bi d . , p. 1 9 6 .
1 5 6
f r o m t he m i n i s t r at i o n s o f he r d i s t i n g u i s he d f o r e r u n n e r s ,
S ai n t E t i e n n e , R o be s pi e r r e an d L e n i n .
Mr s . R o o s e v e l t i s e n t i t l e d t o a m e d al e i t he r f r o m t he
w ar m o n g e r s o r f r o m t he ad v o c at e s o f w o r l d pe ac e , i t i s
u n c e r t ai n w hi c h, s i n c e s he as s e r t s ' t hat s he has " f o u g ht
f o r pe ac e f o r m an y y e ar s . " Mr s . R o o s e v e l t al s o as s u r e s
u s t hat t he s al e o f o u r l at e s t d e s i g n s i n ae r o pl an e s t o
F r an c e w as an " o pe n t r an s ac t i o n , " t ho u g h s he o m i t s t he
c i r c u m s t an c e s , a c at as t r o phe w i t h a F r e n c h ag e n t abo ar d ,
w hi c h m ad e t he s al e an " o pe n t r an s ac t i o n . "
W al t e r L i ppm an n w o u l d " al l o w A m e r i c an m an u f ac -
t u r e r s t o s e l l ar m s t o al l c o m e r s w ho c an pay f o r t he m an d
c ar r y t he m aw ay " ' w hi c h bas i c al l y d i f f e r s l i t t l e f r o m t he
po l i c y an n o u n c e d by W o o d r o w W i l s o n ' s S t at e D e par t -
m e n t i n J an u ar y , 1 9 1 5 : " The m ar k e t s o f t hi s c o u n t r y ar e
o pe n u po n e q u al t e r m s t o al l t he w o r l d , t o e v e r y n at i o n ,
be l l i g e r e n t o r n e u t r al . " O f c o u r s e , v i t al d i f f e r e n c e s i n
t he appl i c at i o n an d e n f o r c e m e n t o f s u c h a po l i c y c an
ar i s e , as f o r e x am pl e i n t he m an i pu l at i o n o f t he t w o bi l -
l i o n d o l l ar s t abi l i z at i o n f u n d t o t he ad v an t ag e o f . a
f av o r e d n at i o n , i n w hi c h t he m ar k e t s o f t hi s c o u n t r y
w o u l d n o t be o pe n u po n e q u al t e r m s t o al l t he w o r l d .
I n an e f f o r t t o d e s c r i be a n e w " A m e r i c an F o r e i g n P o l -
i c y i n t he Mak i n g , " L i ppm an n q u o t e s Mr . H o o v e r as
hav i n g " g o n e m u c h f u r t he r t han t he P r e s i d e n t has e v e r
g o n e i n t e l l i n g H i t l e r an d Mu s s o l i n i t o c o u n t o n A m e r i c an
i n t e r v e n t i o n i f t he y at t ac k F r an c e an d E n g l an d . " H e
r e c al l s t he t hr e at s o f Mr . H o o v e r ' s S e c r e t ar y o f S t at e ,
H e n r y L . S t i m s o n , w he n J apan i n v ad e d Man c hu r i a i n
1 9 3 1 , an d c i t e s S t i m s o n ' s pr e s e n t ad v o c ac y o f an e m bar g o
ag ai n s t J apan . H e o m i t s an y r e f e r e n c e t o S t i m s o n ' s r e c e n t
ad v o c ac y o f l i f t i n g t he e m bar g o ag ai n s t t he s hi pm e n t o f
ar m s t o t he t o t t e r i n g L o y al i s t g o v e r n m e n t o f S pai n .
Mr
. L i ppm an n o v e r l o o k s a r at he r i m po r t an t f ac t ,
n am e l y t hat n e i t he r Mr . R o o s e v e l t n o r Mr . H o o v e r n o r
t he t w o o f t he m c an pr o c l ai m an d m ai n t ai n a f o r e i g n
5
" My D i ar y , " F e br u ar y 3 , 1 9 3 9 .
6
" A m e r i c an F o r e i g n P o l i c y i n t he Mak i n g , " F e br u ar y 6 , 1 9 8 9 .
1 5 7
po l i c y w hi c h d o e s n o t ac c o r d w i t h t he g o o d s e n s e o f t he
r e s t o f t he c o u n t r y . Thi s c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m t he
s am e l o g i c t hat d i s pu t e s t he ar r i v al o f s u m m e r w he n
o n e s w al l o w has appe ar e d . Upo n at l e as t o n e i s s u e , t hi s
c o u n t r y has be e n s t e ad f as t , t hat i s , r e l e n t l e s s o ppo s i t i o n
t o i n t e r n at i o n al i s m , w he t he r i t s s po n s o r s w e r e R e pu b-
l i c an s o r D e m o c r at s . The ad d e d m i g ht o f t he C o m -
m u n i s t s w i l l har d l y af f e c t t he pr e po n d e r an c e o f s e n t i m e n t
ag ai n s t m e d d l i n g i n f o r e i g n af f ai r s . I t i s s t i l l n e c e s -
s ar y t o r e m e m be r t hat t he v i s i o n o f t he c o u n t r y i s n o t
l i m i t e d t o t he r an g e o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t , o r Mr . H o o v e r ,
o r Mr . S t i m s o n , o r t o t hat o f al l t hr e e . I t i s al s o n e c e s -
s ar y t o r e m e m be r t hat w hi l e A m e r i c an f o r e i g n po l i c y
m ay be d e t e r m i n e d
t e n t at i v e l y i n P ar i s by Me s s r s
. L i t -
v i n o f f , B u l l i t t , Mo r g e n t hau an d B l u m , t he i r d i s po s al s
an d t he i r m an i pu l at i o n s ar e o n l y t e n t at i v e .
1 5 8
C H A P TE R XI I
The D i c t at o r Mar c he s O n '
A r i s t o phan e s , O n B e i n g A s k e d t o S ay a F e w W o r d s
A bo u t t he N e w D e al i n t he O pe n F o r u m , P r e -
s e n t s V i v i d P o r t r ai t s o f P aphl ag o n i an an d
t he S au s ag e - S e l l e r i n A n c i e n t G r e e c e
.
" W ho e v e r t r i e s t o d e pr i v e r e as o n abl e m e n o f t he i r l i be r t i e s , t r i e s t o d e s t r o y
m o r al r e s po n s i bi l i t y , an d i s c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y a c o n f i r m e d e n e m y
o f m o r al i t y . "

E v e r e t t D e an Mar t i n .
A N Y O N E C A P A B L E o f d i v o r c i n g ho pe f r o m r e as o n n
m u s t k n o w t hat t he e as i e r e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t he
pr e s e n t m o m e n t c an n o t l as t ; t hat t he s e e as i e r c o n d i t i o n s
ar e d u e pr i n c i pal l y t o t he i n s an e d i s s i pat i o n o f m o n e y
f r o m t he pu bl i c t r e as u r y an d at c u m u l at i v e pe r i l t o a
bu d g e t w o e f u l l y o u t o f bal an c e ; t hat , i n d u e c o u r s e , e v e r y
po s s i bl e c o n t r i v an c e t o r ai s e m o n e y f r o m t he pu bl i c w i l l
hav e be e n e x hau s t e d an d s o w i l l t he t r e as u r y ; t hat , f o r
i n s t an c e , t he r e al pu r po s e o f t he s o c i al s e c u r i t y l e g i s l a-
t i o n w as n o t t o s e c u r e w ag e e ar n e r s ag ai n s t d i m i n i s he d
e ar n i n g s i n o l d ag e bu t f o r a t i m e t o pr o t e c t t he bu r e au -
c r at s i n W as hi n g t o n ag ai n s t a d i m i n i s hi n g t r e as u r y bal -
an c e .
N o o n e k n o w s t he t r u t h i n ac t u al f i g u r e s bu t t he pr e s e n t
n u m be r o f u n e m pl o y e d , pl u s t he n u m be r o n t he d o l e ,
pl u s t he n u m be r ad d e d t o t he pu bl i c pay r o l l s , i n t he
ag g r e g at e , i s pr o babl y e q u al t o t he n u m be r o u t o f w o r k
o n Mar c h 4 , 1 9 3 3 , w he n t he c o u n t r y had i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n
t o t he m o r e abu n d an t l i f e
. That R o o s e v e l t i s f u l l y aw ar e
1 P u bl i s he d i n
The A m e r i c an Me r c u r y , J u n e , 1 9 5 7 , o v e r t he n am e o f
J am e s L . Mas o n , C hi c ag o , I l l i n o i s
.
1
5
9
o f t he f ac t s , i f n o t t he ac t u al f i g u r e s , i s c e r t ai n . H e has
o n l y t o t hi n k o f H o o v e r an d hi s r e pe at e d pr o m i s e s o f a
pr o s pe r i t y t hat w as j u s t ar o u n d t he c o r n e r t o r e al i z e
t hat f i n al l y t he c o u n t r y m ay c at c h u p w i t h t he N e w D e al
d o c t r i n e o f s pe n d i n g t o s av e . I n n o r m al t i m e s , t he c o u n -
t r y w o u l d hav e c au g ht u p w i t h t he N e w D e al an d F r an k -
l i n D e l an o R o o s e v e l t i n n o t t o e x c e e d f o u r y e ar s . That
he has an y s u bs t an t i al po pu l ar s u ppo r t f o r an y n e w pan -
ac e as t o d ay i s o n l y a bi t s ho r t o f m i r ac u l o u s
. I t i s e x -
pl ai n abl e o n l y o n t he t he o r y t hat he has f u l l y m as t e r e d
t he t e c hn i q u e o f o pe r at i n g be hi n d a s c r e e n an d t hat
f u n d am e n t al l y t he A m e r i c an pe o pl e ad m i r e t he r as c al
w ho o pe r at e s i n a g r an d m an n e r an d o v e r a w i d e ar e a
.
I n 1 9 3 2, t he s c r e e n w as t he pr o m i s e t o f u l f i l l t he
D e m o c r at i c pl at f o r m i o o pe r c e n t an d i n 1 9 3 6 i t w as
hi s s t u d i e d s i l e n c e w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he Un i t e d S t at e s
S u pr e m e C o u r t an d w hat he pu r po s e d t o d o abo u t t ho s e
t y r an n i c al m e as u r e s w hi c h t he C o u r t had t o s s e d i n t o
t he as h c an
. Tw e n t y - s e v e n m i l l i o n A m e r i c an o s , at l e as t
21
y e ar s o l d , v o t e d i n e f f e c t t hat t he y d i d n ' t g i v e a d am n
.
H e n c e , t he S u pr e m e C o u r t as t he
pi e c e d e r e s i s t an c e f o r
e c o n o m i c r o y al i s t s , 1 9 3 7 m o d e l
.
That t he r e s o u r c e s o f t he t ax pay e r ar e i n e x hau s t i bl e
s av e f o r t he S u pr e m e C o u r t ; t hat t he r e c o u l d be n o
e m pt y t r e as u r y i f t o hi s pr e s e n t e x e c u t i v e an d l e g i s l at i v e
pr e r o g at i v e s , t he j u d i c i al pr e r o g at i v e w e r e ad d e d an d
he w e r e pe r m i t t e d t o w r i t e t he d e c i s i o n s o f t he c o u r t s
;
t hat a r e c u r r e n c e o f t he 1 9 29 d e bac l e w o u l d be i m po s -
s i bl e i f C o n g r e s s w o u l d pr o l o n g i t s n ap f o r a f e w m o r e
m o n t hs w hi l e he t ak e s o v e r t he j u d i c i al f u n c t i o n s o f g o v -
e r n m e n t i s a f ai r s t at e m e n t o f t he i s s u e an d t he ar g u m e n t s
t o s u ppo r t i t .
That R o o s e v e l t i s s e r i o u s l y w o r r i e d abo u t t he pr o s -
pe c t s o f an e m pt y t r e as u r y , c o m e 1 9 4 0 , an d an o t he r
c o l l aps e t hat w i l l e c l i ps e t he H o o v e r d ay o f d o o m appe ar s
hi g hl y pr o babl e
. That R o o s e v e l t i s ac t u al l y c o n c e r n e d
abo u t t he v i r i l i t y o f S u pr e m e C o u r t j u s t i c e s o f t hr e e
s c o r e an d t e n , o r a c r o w d e d d o c k e t t hat i s n o n - e x i s t e n t ,
1 6 o
o r t he r av ag e s o f d u s t s t o r m s an d f l o o d s , o r t he i r r e l at i o n
t o t he e l as t i c i t y o f t he j u d i c i al t r e k o n P e n n s y l v an i a
A v e n u e i s j u s t abo u t as pr o babl e as t hat he w i l l aban d o n
hi s c ar e e r o f d e c e pt i o n .
I n t he s e t r o u bl e d d ay s , i f o n e s e e k s a d e ad l y par al l e l ,
" The K n i g ht s " o f A r i s t o phan e s c o n t ai n s a pas s ag e t hat
d e s e r v e s c o n s i d e r at i o n . The i n f am o u s t y r an t C l e o n ,
c al l e d t he P aphl ag o n i an , i s t hu s d e s c r i be d :
" H i s e y e i s e v e r y w he r e . A n d w hat a s t r i d e l H e has
o n e l e g o n P y l o s , an d t he o t he r i n t he A s s e m bl y ; hi s r u m p
i s e x ac t l y o v e r t he l an d o f t he C hao n i an s , hi s han d s ar e
w i t h t he A e t o l i an s an d hi s m i n d w i t h C l o pi d i an s . "
A l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f G r e e k , o f c o u r s e , w o u l d ad d t o
an appr e c i at i o n o f t he s e l i n e s . B u t n o G r e e k i s n e c e s -
s ar y t o d e s c r i be o u r A m e r i c an P aphl ag o n i an w ho s e e y e s
s e e be y o n d t he o pt i c i an ' s c har t ad d i t i o n al l e t t e r s f o r
n am i n g n e w ag e n c i e s o f pe r s o n al po w e r ; w ho has o n e
l e g i n L e n i n g r ad an d t he o t he r i n a d r aw i n g r o o m o f a
D u P o n t o r i n V i n c e n t A s t o r ' s y ac ht ; w ho s e han d s r e ac h
d e e p i n t o t he po c k e t s o f E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t s w hi l e hi s
he ar t l i n g e r s f o n d l y w i t h s i t - d o w n s t r i k e r s ; w ho has hi s
m i n d o n t he S u pr e m e C o u r t an d hi s r u m p po i s e d e x ac t l y
o v e r t he C o n g r e s s o f t he Un i t e d S t at e s .
O n l y be c au s e o u r f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m
t hat Mu s s o l i n i f o u n d i n I t al y , H i t l e r i n G e r m an y an d
L e n i n i n R u s s i a d i d t he i r pr o c e s s e s t o w ar d s d i c t at o r s hi p
v ar y f r o m t he pr o c e s s e s pu r s u e d by R o o s e v e l t
. Mu s s o -
l i n i f r o m t i m e t o t i m e pe r s o n al l y as s u m e d n e w an d ad -
d i t i o n al f u n c t i o n s o f s t at e an d al w ay s w i t h t he s o be r
d e c l ar at i o n t hat s o m e n e w c r i s i s m ad e i t n e c e s s ar y . S o m e
o f hi s e ar l i e r pho t o g r aphs l e d o n e t o s u s pe c t , ho w e v e r ,
t hat he s po k e w i t h hi s t o n g u e i n hi s c he e k . H i t l e r an d
S t al i n ar e d i c t at o r s o n l y be c au s e i n t he m s e l v e s t he y hav e
c o n s o l i d at e d e v e r y m aj o r f u n c t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t . N o t h-
i n g o f an y i m po r t an c e has e s c ape d
.
N apo l e o n ' s c ar e e r i s an e x ac t par al l e l . F i r s t , he w as
o n e o f t hr e e c o n s u l s , t he n s o l e c o n s u l , t he n c o n s u l f o r
l i f e , t he n d i c t at o r , t he n E m pe r o r w i t h t he r i g ht o f s u c -
1 6 1
c e s s i o n t o hi s he i r s . O n e d o e s n o t hav e t o ar g u e w he t he r
he w as a be n e v o l e n t d e s po t s i n c e t he par al l e l l i e s i n t he
s t e ps w he r e by he at t ai n e d s o l e po w e r o v e r l i f e an d d e at h
i n al l o f F r an c e .
That R o o s e v e l t al r e ad y c o n t r o l s t he l e g i s l at i v e d e -
par t m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t , s av e an d e x c e pt f o r t he r e s i d u al
po w e r t o g i v e o r d e n y hi m c o n t r o l o f t he c o u r t s i s i n -
d i s pu t abl e
. H o w he o bt ai n e d t hi s c o n t r o l i s be s i d e t he
po i n t . H i s s t r at e g y i s i n t e r e s t i n g as a s i d e l i g ht bu t n o t
o t he r w i s e . I f C o n g r e s s han d s o v e r t he S u pr e m e C o u r t t o
R o o s e v e l t f o r an y r e as o n , f o r o n e o r al l o f t he r e as o n s he
has u r g e d i n d e m an d i n g c o n t r o l o r be c au s e he has m ad e
hi s d e m an d a par t y i s s u e bac k e d u p by pu bl i c m o n e y an d
t he pat r o n ag e he al r e ad y c o n t r o l s , t he c o u n t r y i s f i n i s he d .
The i s s u e i s t hat s i m pl e . H e w i l l t he r e u po n c o n t r o l t he
t hr e e d e par t m e n t s o f g o v e r n m e n t an d t hat i s al l t he r e ar e .
P e r haps he w i l l n e e d an ar m y . P e r haps he d o e s n o t
r e l y w ho l l y o n t he r e g u l ar ar m e d f o r c e s o f w hi c h he i s
t he c o m m an d e r - i n - c hi e f
. P e r haps he l o o k s f o r w ar d t o a
r e c i pr o c al g o o d t u r n at t he r i g ht t i m e f r o m t he s i t - d o w n
s t r i k e r s u n d e r t he c o m m an d o f t hat u n s e l f i s h s u bj e c t ,
J o hn L
. L e w i s
.
The P aphl ag o n i an al s o had a s u bj e c t o f s o m e par t s -
a S au s ag e - S e l l e r w ho s e s u pe r i o r k n av e r y t r i u m phe d , al l
o f w hi c h i s ac c o r d i n g t o t he c o m e d y as A r i s t o phan e s
w r o t e i t . A s a m at t e r o f hi s t o r y , ho w e v e r , t he t y r an t
C l e o n d i e d w i t h bo t h han d s i n t he A t he n i an t r e as u r y an d
w he n t he po pu l ac e w as s t i l l f u l l y s at i s f i e d w i t h t hr e e
o bo l s a d ay .
W i l l hi s t o r y r e pe at o r r e v e r s e i t s e l f ? I n 1 9 4 0 , t he
S au s ag e - S e l l e r m ay o v e r c o m e t he P aphl ag o n i an w i t h o r
w i t ho u t s i x bu o y an t ad d i t i o n s t o t he S u pr e m e C o u r t ,
N e w D e al m o d e l . W hat c an s i x n e w j u d g e s pl u s n i n e o l d
j u d g e s d o w i t h an ar m y t hat s i t s d o w n w he n t he S au s ag e -
S e l l e r n o d s hi s he ad ?
1 6 2
C H A P TE R XI I I
N e w D e al C o r r i d o r B e l o w t he R i o G r an d e
S o c i al R e v o l u t i o n i n Me x i c o S u ppo r t e d by R e d
P ai n t o f D i e g o R i v e r a W hi l e " G o o d N e i g hbo r "
B u y s S i l v e r , C he e r s S t at e S o c i al i s m an d
C o n s i d e r s G o v e r n m e n t - s u bs i d i z e d
S i e s t as .
" A n d t he r e ' s a l u s t i n m an n o c har m c an t am e
O f l o u d l y pu bl i s hi n g o u r n e i g hbo r ' s s ham e . " - - - S t e phe n
H ar v e y .
I T I S d o u bt f u l w he t he r Me x i c o has c han g e d m u c h s i n c e
C har l e s F l an d r au w r o t e hi s d e l i g ht f u l " V i v e Me x i c o "
t hi r t y y e ar s ag o
; o r , f o r t hat m at t e r , s i n c e Mad am e d e l a
B ar c a pu bl i s he d he r o w n c l as s i c " L i f e i n Me x i c o " o n e
hu n d r e d y e ar s ag o .
Me x i c o i s s t i l l Me x i c o , an d s o i t
w i l l r e m ai n - har d - s u r f ac e d hi g hw ay s , A m e r i c an t o u r i s t s ,
C ar d e n as , s i x - y e ar pl an s an d R i v e r a' s m u r al s t o t he c o n -
t r ar y n o t w i t hs t an d i n g .
E t hi c al l y , Me x i c o pr o babl y has l o s t g r o u n d . The r e i s
s o m e t hi n g t o ad m i r e i n a pe o pl e w ho s e w ay s be i n g d e v i o u s
l ay n o c l ai m t o v i r t u e , m ak e n o pr e t e n s e s as w as Me x i c o
i n t he d ay s o f D i az
. I t i s s o m e t hi n g e l s e w he n a pe o pl e
s e t abo u t t o g l o r i f y t he i r o w n s ho r t c o m i n g s ; w he n t he i r
as s u r an c e pe r m i t s t he m t o e x pe c t o r pr e t e n d t o e x pe c t
t he o u t s i d e w o r l d t o c o n d o n e , ac c e pt an d e v e n appr o v e
t he i r pu e r i l i t i e s .
F as c i s t , C o m m u n i s t an d S o c i al i s t ; C at ho l i c , P r o t e s t an t
an d A t he i s t
; S pan i s h, Me s t i z o an d I n d i an l Me x i c o i s
al l o f t he s e n o w an d s o i t w i l l r e m ai n
. The pr i n c i pal o f
t he v i l l ag e s c ho o l w ho m t he y d i g n i f y w i t h t he t i t l e o f
1
6 3
" pr o f e s s e u r "
an d w he r e Me x i c an hi s t o r y an d s i m pl e
ar i t hm e t i c o n l y ar e t au g ht , o n be i n g as k e d ho w he c o u l d
be a C at ho l i c an d a C o m m u n i s t at o n e an d t he s am e t i m e
m e r e l y s hr u g g e d hi s s ho u l d e r s an d r e c i t e d po e t r y i n hi s
n at i v e I n d i an d i al e c t
. F o r an y s u bs t an t i al pr o g r e s s i n
Me x i c o t he r e i s t o o w i d e a g u l f be t w e e n a c av e an d a
pal ac e , be t w e e n pu l q u e an d s c o t c h w hi s k e y , be t w e e n
t o r t i l l as an d a bal an c e d d i e t
.
E d u c at i o n , bah! The d o n k e y s ar e w e l l e n o u g h e d u -
c at e d t o g i v e t he r i g ht o f w ay , l e i s u r e l y , o f c o u r s e , t o a
m o t o r c ar bu t t he y ar e n o n e t he l e s s d o n k e y s
. D i e g o
R i v e r a 1 m ay n o w e m pl o y a c hau f f e u r bu t he i s a C o m -
m u n i s t , be c au s e C o m m u n i s m i s t he be s t v e hi c l e t hr o u g h
w hi c h he m ay e x pr e s s t hat f e e l i n g o f r ac e i n f e r i o r i t y
w hi c h d o m i n at e s hi s s o u l
. H i s m u r al s ar e m as t e r pi e c e s
o f t he ar t o f w hi n i n g pr o pag an d a
. W he t he r t he pe o n i s
o ppr e s s e d by t he hac i e n d ad o , o r bo t h ar e o ppr e s s e d by
t he s w as hbu c k l i n g " G e n e r al " ac t i n g o n au t ho r i t y o f t he
P r e s i d e n t , i s n o t v e r y i m po r t an t
.
The o pe r at i o n s o f t he Me x i c an m i n d ar e i n c o m pr e he n -
s i bl e t o t he A m e r i c an , e x c e pt i n g , o f c o u r s e , t he N e w
D e al e r w ho has t he s am e be n t f o r e v ad i n g i s s u e s an d f o r
s t r e s s i n g i n d u c e m e n t s t hat d o n ' t m at e r i al i z e
.
A n I t al i an ho s t e s s , w ho s e m e n t al pr o c e s s e s w e r e Me x i -
c an , pr e s e n t e d a bi l l f o r t e n pe s o s w he n he r d au g ht e r ,
w ho m s he had d e l e g at e d t o bar g ai n , had ag r e e d t o e i g ht
.
The ho s t e s s as s e r t e d t hat s he al w ay s g o t t w e l v e pe s o s an d
t he d au g ht e r by w ay o f e n d i n g t he ar g u m e n t , o bs e r v e d ,
" B u t t he f o o d i s s o g o o d
. " The f o o d , ho w e v e r , w as pai d
f o r s e par at e l y
. The bi l l w as s e t t l e d f o r n i n e pe s o s
. The
d i s pu t e had t o d o w i t h t he t e m po r ar y o c c u pat i o n o f t he
po o r m ad C ar l o t t a' s apar t m e n t at C u e r n av ac a
.
The
d au g ht e r had po i n t e d o u t an ad j o i n i n g bat h i n r e s po n s e
t o an i n q u i r y bu t i t t u r n e d o u t t hat t he bat h w as m o r e f o r
e x hi bi t i o n t han u s e as a bat hr o o m
. I t w as m ad e a t ho r -
o u g hf ar e f o r w ai t e r s s e r v i n g e ar l y r i s e r s i n t he g ar d e n ,
1 I n Me x i c o , R i v e r a i s t ho u g ht t o be an I n d i an
. H e i s l i s t e d i n " W ho ' s
W ho am o n g A m e r i c an J e w r y " as a J e w .
1 6 4
s c r u b w o m e n , g ar d n e r s an d t o u r i s t s
. A f t e r al l , po o r m ad
C ar l o t t a had n ' t m u c h g r e at e r t r i al s t han an o bs c u r e
o c c u pan t o f he r apar t m e n t i n t he y e ar 1 9 3 8
.
I n Me x i c o t o d ay , t he d o m i n an t t he s i s o f t he s o - c al l e d
s o c i al r e v o l u t i o n i s t he i n he r e n t o bl i g at i o n o f C api t al i s m
t o e x hau s t i t s e l f i n g o o d
. w o r k , t hat i s , t o f u r n i s h t he
s u bs t an c e n e c e s s ar y t o m ak e o v e r t he I n d i an an d pr o v i d e
a g o o d l i v i n g f o r t he Me s t i z o s , an d o t he r m i x e d br e e d s , i n
t he m e an t i m e .
Thi s d o m i n an t t he s i s d o e s n o t d i f f e r
e s s e n t i al l y f r o m t hat o f t he N e w D e al an d i t i s ar g u e d i n
Me x i c o t hat t he c o u n t r y m i g ht hav e a be t t e r pr o s pe c t i f
t he Un i t e d S t at e s w e r e abl e t o r i d i t s e l f o f t he ho r r i bl e
e x am pl e n o r t h o f t he R i o G r an d e .
W he n t he r ai l r o ad s , t e l e pho n e s an d t e l e g r aphs c o m e t o
r e s e m bl e t he r u i n s o f B o r d a G ar d e n s , as i n d u e c o u r s e
t he y w i l l u n d e r s t at e o pe r at i o n an d m an ag e m e n t , ' i t i s
t he t he s i s o f t he C o m m u n i s t d i c t at o r s hi p t hat C api t al i s m
s ho u l d r e bu i l d t he r u i n s i n o r d e r t o pr o v i d e t he o ppo r -
t u n i t y f o r an o t he r s pas m i n s t at e s o c i al i s m
. Un t i l t he
J apan e s e m i l i t ar i s t s c o m pl ai n e d o f C hi n a' s f ai l u r e t o c o -
o pe r at e w i t h t he i r i n v ad i n g ar m y an d u n t i l Mr
. R o o s e -
v e l t c o m pl ai n e d o f t he f ai l u r e o f E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t s t o
c o - o pe r at e w i t h hi m i n a n e w o r g y o f m ad n e s s at W as h-
i n g t o n , i t c o u l d hav e be e n m ai n t ai n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y t hat
Me x i c o had a m o n o po l y i n t he f i e l d o f i n f an t i l e w hi n i n g
.
C o m m u n i s m , S o c i al i s m , F as c i s m i n Me x i c o , as e l s e -
w he r e , ar e m e r e t e r m s i n c u r r e n t u s e t o d e s c r i be , as
i n o f f e n s i v e l y as po s s i bl e , t he s c he m e s o f t he hav e - n o t s
t o appr o pr i at e t o t he m s e l v e s t he l an d s an d c hat t e l s o f t he
hav e s . S u c h o f f e n s i v e t e r m s as at t ai n d e r , ban d i t r y , bu r -
g l ar y , pi r ac y ar e t abo o i n Me x i c o . The C o m m u n i s t s o f
Me x i c o hav e a s o f t l y - s o u n d i n g g e n e r i c t e r m , e x pr o pr i a-
2
I n J an u ar y , 1 9 3 8 , m o r e t han t w e n t y t e l e pho n e po l e s o n t he P an - A m e r i c an
hi g hw ay w i t hi n f i v e m i l e s o f Mo n t e r e y , s e c o n d l ar g e s t c i t y i n Me x i c o , w e r e
l ay i n g o n t he g r o u n d . S t o n e s had be e n pl ac e d u n d e r t he e n d s o f t he c r o s s
ar m s t o k e e p t he w i r e o u t o f t he d i r t . A ppar e n t l y t he po l e s had be e n d o w n
f o r a l o n g t i m e . F ai l u r e t o r e c e i v e a t e l e g r am f i l e d J an u ar y 1 , 1 9 3 8 , at a
s t at i o n n o r t h o f Me x i c o C i t y an d ad d r e s s e d t o Me x i c o C i t y w as e x pl ai n e d
by t he s t at e m e n t t hat t he t e l e g r aphi c " w o r k e r s " w e r e hav i n g a f i v e - d ay v ac a-
t i o n .
1 6 5
t i o n . I n an y e v e n t , t he hac i e n d ad o c o m e s t o t he s am e e n d .
H e i s l u c k y t o hav e e s c ape d ac r o s s t he R i o G r an d e w i t h
o n e pai r o f pan t s an d e v e n i f he g o t o v e r t he bo u n d ar y
w i t h t w o pai r s , he w o u l d pr o m pt l y be s u s pe c t i n W as h-
i n g t o n as an E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t . S o f ar , t he f l e e i n g
hac i e n d ad o has e s c ape d a d e m an d t o f u r n i s h hi s s u c -
c e s s o r s , i n i n t e r e s t , n e w t r ac t o r s an d s e e d f o r t he n e x t
pl an t i n g .
C o m m u n i s m i n Me x i c o an d R u s s i a, F as c i s m i n I t al y ,
N az i i s m i n G e r m an y , t he N e w D e al i n t he Un i t e d S t at e s
an d o u t c r o ppi n g s o f o n e o r al l o f t he m i n m an y o t he r
c o u n t r i e s d o n o t pr e s e n t a c he e r f u l po r t r ai t o f hu m an
pr o g r e s s at t hi s m o m e n t
. I n e s s e n c e , t he y ar e al l at av i c ,
a r e v e r s i o n t o t he pr i m i t i v e an d pr e s u ppo s e t he abo l i t i o n
o f t he " f u n d am e n t al n at u r e o f t he hu m an m i n d as t he
ag e s hav e pr o d u c e d i t . " A s J o hn M . Z an e
s
pu t t he
c as e , " n o o n e bu t an i m be c i l e c an ho pe f o r s u c h a t r an s -
f o r m at i o n o r e x pe c t i t . "
A n y l i c e n s e d g u i d e i n Me x i c o w i l l m ak e i t pe r f e c t l y
c l e ar ho w t he t r ac t o r i s t o be s u bs t i t u t e d f o r o x e n an d
t he c o m bi n e f o r t he f l ai l i n s u c c e s s i v e s e as o n s an d ho w
t he I n d i an w ho has o pe r at e d a han d l o o m f o r f o u r hu n -
d r e d y e ar s w i l l e m e r g e as an E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t l o n g
be f o r e t i m e has r u n o n t he C ar d e n as s i x - y e ar pl an
.
Me an t i m e , t he I n d i an s , w ho c o m pr i s e o n e - t hi r d o f t he
po pu l at i o n , m o n o po l i z e t he c o u n t r y ' s d e v o t i o n t o t he
s ai n t s an d m ar t y r s i n t r o d u c e d by C o r t e z an d c o n t i n u e t o
t r u d g e t he w e ar y m i l e s t o m ar k e t w i t h z ar ape s , bl an k e t s ,
bas k e t s , pu l q u e an d t am e pi g s , u n d i s t u r be d by an d u n -
c o n c e r n e d w i t h t he s o c i al r e v o l u t i o n o f To l e d an o , S i q u e r -
r o s , R i v e r a, O r o z c o an d C ar d e n as . The r e i s n o e v i d e n c e
t hat f i e s t as an d f i r e w o r k s ar e an y l e s s po pu l ar be c au s e o f
t he s o c i al r e v o l u t i o n an d t he bu l l e t i n s an d m an i f e s t o e s
c o n c e r n i n g i t . Mo r o n e s m ay be al l t hi n g s s ai d o f hi m ,
g r o s s , c o r r u pt an d l u s t f u l f o r po w e r , bu t t he r e i s n o e v i -
d e n c e t hat t he pe o n o f Te po z t l an has an y t hi n g t o g ai n
8
" The S t o r y o f t he L aw " by J o hn M . Z an e ( D o u bl e d ay , D o r an & C o m -
pan y , I n c
. ) p . 1 2.
1 6 6
f r o m a c ho i c e be t w e e n Mo r o n e s , s at e l l i t e o f C al l e s , an d
To l e d an o , s at e l l i t e o f C ar d e n as
.
P e r haps i t has n o t o c c u r r e d t o t he n at i v e I n d i an ar t i s t s
w ho s e br o ad s t r o k e s o f f l am i n g r e d ( po s s i bl y a han g -
o v e r f r o m t he S u n w o r s hi p o f pr e - c o n q u e s t d ay s ) po r t r ay
t he g o o d l i f e i n t he l an d o f S t al i n t hat , t he r e by , t he y
r e v e r s e t he c u r r e n t o f t he hi s t o r y o f t he i r o w n r ac e . Thi s
hi s t o r y has t o d o w i t h a n e v e r - e n d i n g c o n q u e s t f o r an d
d e f e n s e o f t he m o s t f e r t i l e l an d s
. C o r t e z f o u n d t he
A z t e c s i n po s s e s s i o n o f t he m o s t d e s i r abl e l an d s be c au s e
t he y w e r e t he m o s t v al i an t w ar r i o r s
. The s u r v i v al o f
t he f i t t e s t w as t he r u l e o f l i f e w he n C o r t e z c am e . S had e s
o f H u i t z i l i po o ht l i l A f t e r f o u r hu n d r e d y e ar s , D i e g o
R i v e r a, w he t he r J e w o r I n d i an o r bo t h J e w an d I n d i an ,
ar m e d w i t h n o m o r e f o r m i d abl e w e apo n s t han a br u s h
an d a bu c k e t o f r e d pai n t , c ar r i e s o n f o r t he an c i e n t w ar
g o d o f t he A z t e c s .
Y e t s t r an g e l y e n o u g h, w e ar e t o l d by B e r t r am W o l f e , '
hi m s e l f a C o m m u n i s t an d c o l l abo r at o r w i t h R i v e r a, t hat
w he n C o r t e z ar r i v e d i n Me x i c o , " t r i bal d e m o c r ac y an d
pr i m i t i v e c o m m u n i s m w e r e i n f u l l d e c ay an d t he r e w as a
g r o w i n g c as t e s y s t e m o f pr i e s t s an d w ar r i o r s . . . . "
S o t hat , i n an d o f i t s e l f , t hi s ad m i s s i o n ag ai n s t i n t e r e s t
by a n o t e d C o m m u n i s t i s i l l u m i n at i n g , be c au s e i t m ay
e x pl ai n w hat has m o v e d s u c h g r e at r e f o r m e r s as Max i -
m i l i e n R o be s pi e r r e , R e x Tu g w e l l an d E l e an o r R o o s e v e l t
i n be hal f o f a s o c i al pr o g r am w hi c h u n d e r t ak e s as i t s
c he f d ' o e u v r e t he m ak i n g o v e r o f hu m an n at u r e .
Me x i c o i s pe r m i t t e d t o c o n f i s c at e t he pr o pe r t y o f
A m e r i c an c i t i z e n s w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e f r o m W as hi n g -
t o n an d w i t h s o m e i n d i c at i o n t hat s u c h ac t s hav e t he t ac i t
appr o v al o f t he N e w D e al . The S e c r e t ar y o f S t at e , i n a
s pi n e l e s s s t at e m e n t t o t he pr e s s , " ho pe s " t hat a pl an
s o m e w hat ak i n t o a r e c e i v e r s hi p m ay be s u bs t i t u t e d f o r
c o n f i s c at i o n o f o i l pr o pe r t i e s v al u e d at $ 4 5
0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 - 0 0 2
,
4
" P o r t r ai t o f Me x i c o " by D i e g o R i v e r a an d B e r t r am W o l f e ( C o v i d F r i e d e ,
I n c . ) p
. 7 3 -
5
1 f an A m e r i c an t r av e l i n g s al e s m an w e r e t o w as t e hi s f i r m ' s m o n e y o n
po s t ag e an d t e l e g r aphi c c har g e s t o t he s am e e x t e n t as o u r d i s t i n g u i s he d
1 6 7
I n t he m e an t i m e , t he N e w D e al c o n t i n u e s t o pu r c has e
Me x i c an s i l v e r bu t t he pr e m i u m i s t e m po r ar i l y w i t h-
he l d .
The w hi n i n g at t i t u d e o f a t hi e v i n g g o v e r n m e n t at
bay , o n e i n f e l o n i o u s po s s e s s i o n o f pr o pe r t y t hat has al -
r e ad y be e n s e i z e d by f o r c e , w as w e l l e x pr e s s e d by D r .
A l e j an d r o C ar r i l l o , Me x i c an C o m m u n i s t , be f o r e t he
Un i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a' s I n s t i t u t e o f P u bl i c A f f ai r s , J u l y
8 , 1 9 3 8 . H e w hi n e d as f o l l o w s :
" A l r e ad y t he S t at e D e par t m e n t ( U
. S . ) has r e c o g n i z e d
Me x i c o ' s r i g ht t o e x pr o pr i at e t he o i l c o m pan i e s
. The
n e x t l o g i c al s t e p w o u l d be t o pr e v e n t Me x i c o f r o m
s u f f e r i n g f i n an c i al an d e c o n o m i c s t r an g u l at i o n
. "
e
The t hi e f n o t o n l y w o u l d r e t ai n t he s t o l e n pr o pe r t y .
H e i n v i t e s t he he l p o f al t r u i s t s an d " g o o d n e i g hbo r s " i n
ho l d i n g o n t o i t an d ad m i n i s t e r i n g i t w i t h g r e at e s t po s -
s i bl e be n e f i t s t o t he t hi e f .
J apan an d G e r m an y c an pr o v i d e o i l t an k e r s i n w hi c h t o
m ar k e t t he o i l w hi c h, i n t he abs e n c e o f s u c h f ac i l i t i e s ,
has n o o u t l e t . J apan n e e d s t he Me x i c an o i l f o r m i l i t ar y
o pe r at i o n s .
H e r e i n l i e t he s e e d s o f an ar m e d c o n f l i c t
w hi c h t he N e w D e al has pl an t e d , i n hi g h ho pe pe r haps ,
t hat a har v e s t o f i n t e r n at i o n al i l l - w i l l m ay s pr i n g u p,
c o m e 1 9 4 0
; t hat i s , i f F r an k l i n I s ho u l d d e c i d e t hat a
w ar i s n e c e s s ar y t o pe r pe t u at e t he N e w D e al an d t he
d e l i g ht f u l ar r an g e m e n t s n o w pr e v ai l i n g f o r s u ppo r t o f
t he R o o s e v e l t f am i l y at pu bl i c e x pe n s e .
O n e m i s t ak e has be e n k n o w n t o s t ar t a c hai n o f e v e n t s
t hat , be c au s e o f t he ps y c ho l o g i c al e f f e c t s f r o m br o o d i n g
o v e r t he r e ac t i o n o f pu bl i c s e n t i m e n t , has e n d e d i n a
g r e at c at as t r o phe
. L o r e n z i n o Me d i c i , i n o r d e r t o e r as e
t he i n f am y c au s e d by hi s m u t i l at i o n o f s o m e an c i e n t
s t at u e s at R o m e f o r w hi c h he w as pi l l o r i e d i n
a pam phl e t
by Mo l z a, m u r d e r e d hi s k i n s m an , D u k e A l e s s an d r o o f
F l o r e n c e
. S t r an g e l y e n o u g h, he e x pe c t e d t o e x pi at e a
S e c r e t ar y o f S t at e i s w as t i n g m o n e y o n l o n g d i pl o m at i c m e s s ag e s t o t he
C A r d e n as g o v e r n m e n t r e g ar d i n g t he c o n f i s c at i o n o f A m e r i c an pr o pe r t y , he
w o u l d be d i s c har g e d o n hi s f i r s t appe ar an c e i n t he ho m e o f f i c e .
G N e w Y o r k Ti m e s , J u l y i o , 1 9 8 8 , p .
1 3 .
1 6 8
m i n o r o f f e n s e by c o m m i t t i n g a m aj o r c r i m e
. I f Mr .
R o o s e v e l t s ho u l d s u c c e e d i n i n v o l v i n g t hi s c o u n t r y i n an
e x t e r n al w ar , s u c h a c al am i t y c o u l d r e s u l t o n l y f r o m a
pan i c k y f e ar o f i n f am y as a s e q u e l t o t he t r ag i c c o l l aps e o f
hi s d o m e s t i c po l i c i e s .
D
W hi l e t he P r e s i d e n t ' s y o u n g e r s o n , E l l i o t t , d i d n o t
e x pl ai n hi s pe r s o n al m o t i v e s f o r hi s r ad i o br o ad c as t o f
e c e m be r 26 , 1
9 3 8 , he d i d d i s c l o s e s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n
t he c au s e o f A m e r i c an o i l i n Me x i c o t o i n d i c at e t hat , as
a P r i n c e o f t he bl o o d , he i s l o s i n g f ai t h i n o u r " g o o d
n e i g hbo r " po l i c y . E x c e pt f o r E l e an o r ' s br o ad t r e at m e n t
o f t he " g o o d n e i g hbo r " po l i c y i n he r l as t bo o k , o t he r
m e m be r s o f t he r o y al ho u s e ho l d ar e y e t t o s pe ak .
F r o m a s t r i c t l y m o r al po i n t o f v i e w , t he N e w D e al ,
w hi c h has pr ac t i c e d t he c o n f i s c at i o n o f pr i v at e pr o pe r t y
o n a l ar g e s c al e i n t hi s c o u n t r y , c an har d l y r ai s e t he m o r al
i s s u e i n Me x i c o
. The N e w D e al i s i n n o po s i t i o n t o
r ai s e an y q u e s t i o n an y w he r e w hi c h has t o d o w i t h hu m an
d i g n i t y o r g o o d m o r al s an d C ar d e n as f u l l y u n d e r s t an d s
t hi s as t he r e pl i e s o f hi s f o r e i g n s e c r e t ar y t o Mr
. C o r d e l l
H u l l ' s pi o u s n o t e s c l e ar l y s ho w
. The pu bl i c at i o n by Mr .
R o o s e v e l t o f e x t r ac t s f r o m t he q u e s t i o n s an d an s w e r s o f
hi s pr e s s c o n f e r e n c e s , i l l u s t r at e d as t he y ar e , w i t h t he
c u s t o m ar y d e n t al ar t f r o m t he W hi t e H o u s e , l e av e s w hat -
e v e r had e x i s t e d i n t hi s c o u n t r y o f hu m an d i g n i t y , c o m -
pl e t e l y f l at .
C ar d e n as s e e m s t o s u r pas s R o o s e v e l t i n
d i g n i t y an d t he y appe ar t o be e v e n l y m at c he d i n m o r al s
.
I t i s n o s u r pr i s e t hat a t ho u g ht f u l Me x i c an bu s i n e s s
m an s ho u l d s u g g e s t t hat Me x i c o ' s g r e at e s t ho pe o f r e l i e f
c o n s i s t s i n r i d d i n g o u r o w n c o u n t r y o f t he aw f u l e x am pl e
i n t he W hi t e H o u s e .
F u t u r e g e n e r at i o n s , ho w e v e r , ar e apt t o r e g r e t t he
ac c i d e n t o f Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s bi r t h i n a c o u n t r y t hat , u p t o
Mar c h 4 , 1 9 3 3 , w as r e as o n abl y w e l l c i v i l i z e d an d f ai r l y
w e l l po s s e s s e d o f s u c h e l e m e n t al v i r t u e s as s e l f - r e l i an c e ,
r e s pe c t f o r a n e i g hbo r ' s r i g ht s an d pr o pe r t y , c o m m o n
ho n e s t y , i n d u s t r y an d f r u g al i t y . I f t he s e w e r e n o t t he
d o m i n an t i d e al s be f o r e F r an k l i n I c am e t o t he t hr o n e ,
1 6 9
n o bo d y d ar e d as s e r t t he c o n t r ar y
. A f t e r f i v e y e ar s , t he s e
d o m i n an t i d e al s hav e be e n r e v e r s e d , s o f ar as ac t an d
e x am pl e ar e c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e s
. A t r an s v al u at i o n o f
i d e al s has t ak e n pl ac e an d d e pe n d e n c e u po n t he s t at e
has be e n s u bs t i t u t e d f o r s e l f - r e l i an c e . E n v y , s ho d d y
e t hi c s , i d l e n e s s an d s pe n d i n g hav e r e pl ac e d t he o t he r
i d e al s n am e d .
E c o n o m i s t s an d s o c i o l o g i s t s , y e t u n bo r n , ar e apt t o
s pe c u l at e w i t h r e s pe c t t o w hat t he i r f o r e f at he r s w o u l d
hav e e s c ape d i n l o s s o f v i r t u e an d m o r al s t r e n g t h an d
w hat t he y c o u l d hav e e s c ape d i n c r u s hi n g t ax at i o n i f
Mr . R o o s e v e l t had c o n t e n d e d ag ai n s t C ar d e n as r at he r
t han H o o v e r an d L an d o n . The s pe c u l at i o n m ay e x t e n d
f ar be y o n d t he s e pr i m ar y c o n s i d e r at i o n s ; ho w t he s l au g h-
t e r o f l i t t l e pi g s w o u l d hav e af f e c t e d t he N ahu at l v o t e
;
w hat po l i t i c al s u ppo r t c o u l d hav e be e n as s u r e d f r o m a
ho u s i n g c am pai g n am o n g
.
t he Tar as c an s ; w he t he r t he
O t o m i s , w ho s pi n m ag u e y w hi l e t he y w al k t o m ar k e t ,
w o u l d hav e pr e f e r r e d t o s i t d o w n an d s pi n an d , i f t he y had
s u c h a pr e f e r e n c e , w he t he r Mr . R o o s e v e l t w o u l d hav e
pr o v i d e d be n c he s o r pe t at e s ; w he t he r f r e e f i r e w o r k s f o r
f i e s t as w o u l d hav e be e n appr e c i at e d at t he po l l s an d t he
d i r e c t po l i t i c al c o n s e q u e n c e s o f g o v e r n m e n t s u bs i d i z e d
s i e s t as .
I t i s r e g r e t t abl e Mr . R o o s e v e l t ' s po l i t i c al f o r t u n e s w e r e
n o t l i m i t e d t o Me x i c o . The Un i t e d S t at e s al r e ad y had
e n o u g h t o o v e r c o m e , w he r e as w hat R o o s e v e l t m i g ht hav e
d o n e as he ad m an i n Me x i c o i s r e al l y u n i m po r t an t
.
1 7 0
C H A P TE R XI V
P r e s e n t P has e s o f N e w D e al
I n d i an a P r e par e d t o P r e s e n t S e l f - m ad e D i c t at o r ,
w i t h o r w i t ho u t an E m e r g e n c y , W hi l e " W e R e -
f o r m e r s " B e f o u l t he A t m o s phe r e w i t h
K e t t l e o f D e ad F i s h .
" S o m an y l aw s , y e t n e v e r m o r e d i s o r d e r s " - R o be r t B u r t o n .
" The pu r i f i c at i o n o f po l i t i c s i s an i r i d e s c e n t d r e am . " J o hn J . I n g al l s .
S I N C E A c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t he w ho l e c o u n t r y i s f o u n d i n
al m o s t an y t o w n s hi p o f t he n at i o n , t he s t at e o f I n d i an a
m ay be s ai d t o pr e s e n t n at i o n al c o n d i t i o n s an d pr o s pe c t s
i n m i n i at u r e .
The 1 9 3 8 c an d i d at e s f o r Un i t e d S t at e s S e n at o r , i n
I n d i an a, i n c l u d e d t he i n c u m be n t Mr . V an N u y s , e l e c t e d
i n 1 9 3 2 as a D e m o c r at bu t l at e r e x c o m m u n i c at e d by t he
Mc N u t t hi e r ar c hy f o r " c o n t u m ac y " i n v o t i n g ag ai n s t t he
c o u r t - pac k i n g bi l l an d w ho be c am e a c an d i d at e t o s u c c e e d
hi m s e l f as an i n d e pe n d e n t
; al s o t w o s e l f - c o n f e s s e d N e w
D e al e r s , o n e o f w ho m had e x pe c t e d t o be n o d d e d t o a
n o m i n at i o n by t he Mc N u t t o v e r l o r d s ; t he H o n . J am e s
E l i W at s o n , an c i e n t m ar i n e r o f t he G . O . P . , t hr e e r e as o n -
abl y w o r t hy R e pu bl i c an s f r o m t he pr o v i n c e s an d , f i n al l y
a f o r m e r s at r ap o f t he I m pe r i al W i z ar d o f t he K u K l u x
K l an
.
I n 1 9 3 2, I n d i an a e l e c t e d as G o v e r n o r a d ar l i n g o f t he
A m e r i c an L e g i o n , d e s c r i be d t he n as a s o l d i e r w ho n e v e r
f i r e d a g u n , a l aw y e r w ho n e v e r t r i e d a c as e , a t e ac he r w ho
n e v e r t au g ht a c l as s
. H i s s t r u g g l e s f o r s e l f - ag g r an d i z e -
m e n t an d hi s r e pe at e d af f r o n t s t o g o o d t as t e hav e s ho c k e d
1 7 1
t he m o s t c al l o u s s e n s i bi l i t i e s . S o m e m e m be r s o f hi s pe r -
s o n al par t y , w ho ho pe t o g e t t o t he m ai n s e c t i o n o f t he
pu bl i c c r i b w i t h hi m , ad d e d a t o u c h o f s u pe r s t i t i o n by o f -
f e r i n g w ag e r s t hat he w o u l d be n o m i n at e d f o r P r e s i d e n t
i n 1 9 4 0 o n t he t hi r t e e n t h bal l o t . B u t t hat w as pr i o r
t o
t he 1 9 3 8 e l e c t i o n s i n w hi c h t he R e pu bl i c an s o f I n d i an a
e l e c t e d a S e c r e t ar y o f S t at e , s e v e n o u t o f t w e l v e C o n g r e s s -
m e n an d t he i r c an d i d at e s i n m o s t o f t he c o u n t i e s , t o w n -
s hi ps an d c i t i e s . The y al s o e l e c t e d a m aj o r i t y o f t he m e m -
be r s o f t he l o w e r ho u s e o f t he g e n e r al as s e m bl y
.
I n abi l i t y t o g e t a f r o n t s e at at t he W hi t e H o u s e f i r e s i d e
n o d o u bt c o o l e d o f f Mc N u t t ' s e n t hu s i as m f o r t he N e w
D e al bu t t hr e at s o f V an N u y s t o s t r i p t he g e ar s o f t he
Mc N u t t m ac hi n e c o m pe l l e d Mc N u t t t o ac c e pt V an N u y s
f o r r e n o m i n at i o n w hi c h w as ac c o m pl i s he d by f r e n z i e d
c abl e s f r o m Man i l a t o I n d i an apo l i s .
J i m W at s o n ' s pe r m an e n t r e t i r e m e n t f r o m o f f i c e w as
s an c t i o n e d by t he R e pu bl i c an C o n v e n t i o n
. The s t at e
s t i l l aw ai t s t he f u l f i l l m e n t o f t he V an N u y s t hr e at s t o
e x po s e t he i n c o m e t ax r e t u r n s o f D e m o c r at i c po l i t i c i an s ,
V an N u y s hav i n g f i n al l y r e c e i v e d t he D e m o c r at i c n o m i n a-
t i o n t o pr e v e n t hi s t hr e at e n e d e x po s u r e s
. H e w as abl e t o
d e f e at t he R e pu bl i c an c an d i d at e i n a c l o s e v o t e , s o c l o s e
i t w as c o n t e s t e d
. P o o r Mr
. Mi n t o n , a ho l d o v e r , m i g ht
hav e be e n s av e d t he e m bar r as s m e n t o f t he V an N u y s '
r e n o m i n at i o n by a r e c e s s appo i n t m e n t t o an o t he r j o b,
e x c e pt t hat he i s e m i n e n t l y s at i s f ac t o r y t o Mr
. R o o s e v e l t
w ho s u r e l y w o u l d hav e l o s t t w o S e n at o r s as a c o n s e q u e n c e
o f g i v i n g hi m a j u d i c i al appo i n t m e n t
.
The m ar k e d d e t e r i o r at i o n o f t he R e pu bl i c an par t y i n
I n d i an a d u r i n g t he t w e n t i e s i s u n d e n i abl e
. I t s l e ad e r -
s hi p w as d i s ho n e s t o r i n c o m pe t e n t an d f r e q u e n t l y w as
bo t h
. B u t i t w as n e v e r i n s o l e n t
. The s t at e ' s be n e v o l e n t ,
pe n al an d e d u c at i o n al i n s t i t u t i o n s e i t he r w e r e bi - par t i s an
o r n o n - par t i s an , pr i n c i pal l y t he l at t e r
. N o o n e e v e r
t ho u g ht o f s o l i c i t i n g c am pai g n c o n t r i bu t i o n s f r o m o f f i -
c i al s o r e m pl o y e e s o f t he s e i n s t i t u t i o n s
. The u n i v e r s i t i e s
1
7
2
an d n o r m al s c ho o l s w e r e f ar r e m o v e d f r o m par t y po l i t i c s
.
The u p- an d - c o m i n g Mr
. Mc N u t t c han g e d al l t hi s .
I n a " r e - o r g an i z at i o n " o f s t at e g o v e r n m e n t e v e r y s t at e
i n s t i t u t i o n an d d e par t m e n t w as br o u g ht u n d e r hi s he e l .
A s l u s h f u n d , c o m pu t e d at t he m o d e s t r at e o f t w o pe r
c e n t o f t he s t at e pay r o l l w as e s t abl i s he d an d pr o f i t s f r o m
t he s t at e pu r c has e o f m at e r i al s an d s u ppl i e s w e r e q u i c k l y
r e g i m e n t e d t o t he po c k e t s o f f ai t hf u l par t y hac k s
. W he n
t he n e w s pape r s c o m pl ai n e d o f t he t w o pe r c e n t l e v y , t he
Mc N u t t l e g i s l at u r e pr o m pt l y " l e g al i z e d " t he s l u s h f u n d
.
W he n P r o hi bi t i o n s ho t i t s P ar t hi an ar r o w at t he Mc -
N u t t par v e n u s , t he y pr o m pt l y ad d e d t o t he s t at e ' s d i s g r ac e
by r e g i m e n t i n g t he be e r bu s i n e s s u n d e r t he n am e o f
" po r t s o f e n t r y , w i t h a n o t o r i o u s po l i t i c al hac k s t at i o n e d
at e ac h " po r t " t o c o l l e c t t r i bu t e .
Mr . Mc N u t t has ad d e d s o m e t hi n g t o H o o s i e r w ay s
.
W i t h be f i t t i n g i n s o l e n c e , he has " l e g al i z e d " pr ac t i c e s ,
f o r m e r l y c o n s i d e r e d d i s g r ac e f u l an d d i s ho n e s t by s t u pi d
R e pu bl i c an s . A t o d d t i m e s , he has al s o pr ac t i c e d s ho w -
m an s hi p, par t i c u l ar l y s ho w m an s hi p w hi c h f e at u r e s hi s
r e m ar k abl e d e n t al e n d o w m e n t s .
I t i s s m al l w o n d e r t hat t he v i r t u o u s Mr
. Mc N u t t ,
r e s t r ai n e d by t he l i m i t at i o n o f a t ax o f o n l y t w o pe r c e n t
o n t he pu bl i c pay r o l l i n I n d i an a, has an t s i n hi s pan t s
w he n e v e r he c o n s i d e r s w hat t he R o o s e v e l t s c o u l d d o i f
o n l y t he y had hi s i m pu d e n c e
. A m o s P i n c ho t m ay w r i t e
o pe n l e t t e r s t o Mr
. R o o s e v e l t o n hi s P l an o f R e o r g an i z a-
t i o n o f t he F e d e r al G o v e r n m e n t an d t e ar hi s hai r o u t by
t he r o o t s be c au s e o f t he d i c t at o r i al po w e r Mr . R o o s e v e l t
s e e k s , bu t Mr . P i n c ho t pr o babl y d o e s n ' t k n o w t hat Mr .
Mc N u t t , w ho w an t s t o s u c c e e d Mr . R o o s e v e l t i n 1 9 4 0 ,
f i v e y e ar s ag o d i d e x ac t l y e v e r y t hi n g i n I n d i an a w hi c h
Mr . R o o s e v e l t w an t s t o d o i n W as hi n g t o n . H i s " r e -
o r g an i z at i o n " o f t he I n d i an a s t at e g o v e r n m e n t , s av e f o r
c o n t r o l o f t he pr e s s , m ad e hi m as m u c h o f a d i c t at o r as
Mu s s o l i n i . F r o m hi s c o n t r o l o f t he s t at e ' s e d u c at i o n al
s y s t e m , he has s av e d f o r hi m s e l f , s ho u l d hi s pr e s i d e n t i al
1 7 8
am bi t i o n s be i g n o r e d , t he pr e s i d e n c y o f I n d i an a Un i v e r -
s i t y , t he bo ar d o f t r u s t e e s be i n g hi s o w n pu ppe t s .
Thr o u g h c o n t r o l o f t he l i q u o r an d be e r r ac k e t an d i n -
d i r e c t l y o f l i q u o r an d be e r ad v e r t i s i n g , s o m e c o u n t r y
e d i t o r s w e r e be i n g br o u g ht t o t he i r k n e e s .
The o n l y v o t e r s w ho w e r e c o m pl e t e l y c o n v i n c e d by
t he A pr i l , 1 9 3 8 , f i r e s i d e c hat o f t he w i s d o m o f m o r e
s pe n d i n g w e r e B e n C o he n , To m m y C o r c o r an an d o t he r
o f t he S e c r e t ar i at w ho w r o t e t he s pe e c h . A t t hat t i m e ,
Mr . R o o s e v e l t s e e m e d t o l ac k s o m e o f hi s f o r m e r z e s t f o r a
pe r m an e n t l i f e o n P e n n s y l v an i a A v e n u e . H e w as s t i l l
m o t i v at e d by t he i m pu l s e s o f a pe d ag o g u e i n f r o n t o f
bac k w ar d c hi l d r e n , a po i n t e r i n o n e han d an d a s w i t c h
i n t he o t he r .
W hi l e t he s am e pan d e r i n g ps y c ho l o g y , I - w i l l - n o t - l e t -
y o u - d o w n - s o - l o n g - as - I - hav e - y o u r - v o t e s , d o m i n at e d t he
P r e s i d e n t ' s r e t u r n t o t he f i r e s i d e , hi s v o i c e i n d i c at e d t hat
pe r haps t he e m be r s had c o o l e d o f f i n t he pr e c e d i n g f i v e
m o n t hs . E i t he r t he f i r e o r hi s s o u l l ac k e d t he c u s t o m ar y
w ar m t h .
The P r e s i d e n t s e e m e d t o be t hi n k i n g o f t i n s o l d i e r s
r at he r t han bl o c k s i n a pl ay r o o m w he n he s po k e o f a
n e c e s s ar y t hi r d r o u n d o f am m u n i t i o n , t o bo w l o v e r s u c h
s t u bbo r n E c o n o m i c R o y al i s t s as m i g ht be l e f t s t an d i n g
af t e r t w o r o u n d s had be e n d i s c har g e d . A l l t he am m u n i -
t i o n , i t appe ar e d , w o u l d be g o t f r o m t he E c o n o m i c
R o y al i s t s an d n o bo d y l i k e l y t o v o t e f o r t he c o n t i n u e d
m e r r y - m ak i n g i n t he pl ay r o o m o n P e n n s y l v an i a A v e n u e
w o u l d be e x pe c t e d t o c o n t r i bu t e .
A s t o t he X bi l l i o n d o l l ar s , c o n s t i t u t i n g a f u l l c o m -
pl e m e n t o f t hr e e r o u n d s o f am m u n i t i o n n e e d e d t o bo w l
o v e r t he l as t s u r v i v i n g t ax pay e r an d pr e v e n t a N e w D e al
r o u t i n t he 1 9 3 8 e l e c t i o n s , t he P r e s i d e n t m ad e i t c l e ar
t hat t he c o n s e q u e n t i n c r e as e i n t he pu bl i c d e bt w as
s c ar c e l y w o r t h d i s c u s s i n g s i n c e i t w as pl an n e d t o r e s o r t
t o g o l d d e s t e r i l i z at i o n , al c he m y an d o t he r l e s s f am i l i ar
f e at s o f bl ac k m ag i c
. The r e w as s o m e d i s appo i n t m e n t
am o n g t he W P A
w o r k e r s at G r an ad a, Mi s s i s s i ppi , be c au s e
1 7 4
t he P r e s i d e n t f ai l e d t o m ak e a s e as o n al r e c o m m e n d at i o n
o f a g o o d s pr i n g t o n i c
.
Mr
. R o o s e v e l t an d t he N e w D e al e n j o y t he ad v an t ag e
o f a po l i t i c al t e c hn i q u e v as t l y s u pe r i o r t o t hat o f C ae s ar ,
C r as s u s , C i c e r o an d P o m pe y w ho had t o d e pe n d u po n
t he s po i l s o f f o r e i g n c o n q u e s t an d pr i v at e l o an s f o r t he
c as h n e e d e d i n e l e c t i o n s . C r as s u s l o an e d C ae s ar t w e n t y
m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s be f o r e hi s c r e d i t o r s w o u l d pe r m i t hi m
t o d e par t f o r G au l
. The r e af t e r , t he v o t i v e t r e as u r e s o f
t he G al l i c t e m pl e s , w hi c h C ae s ar s e i z e d , t o g e t he r w i t h
c as h e x t o r t e d f r o m P t o l e m y by hi m s e l f an d P o m pe y ,
e q u i ppe d C ae s ar ad e q u at e l y f o r R o m an po l i t i c s . H e
w as t he r i c he s t m an i n t he w o r l d .
B y w ay o f pr o o f t hat t he r e i s n o t hi n g n e w u n d e r t he
s u n , Mr . R o o s e v e l t bi l l s an d c o o s o n t he r ad i o as d i d
P e r i c l e s , ac c o r d i n g t o P l u t ar c h, " c ar e s s " t he pe o pl e
.
" F i n d i n g hi m s e l f c o m e s ho r t o f hi s c o m pe t i t o r i n w e al t h
an d m o n e y , " A r i s t o t l e s ay s P e r i c l e s " t u r n e d t o t he d i s -
t r i bu t i o n o f t he pu bl i c m o n e y s " an d C i m o n , i n s pi t e o f
hi s " g l o r i o u s v i c t o r i e s o v e r t he bar bar i an s , " w as ban i s he d
.
I n a po l i t i c al c o n t e s t w i t h Thu c y d i d e s , P e r i c l e s e n g ag e d
i n " c o ax i n g hi s c o u n t r y m e n l i k e c hi l d r e n " w i t h f r e q u e n t
pu bl i c s ho w s , ban q u e t s an d pr o c e s s i o n s , i . e . , par ad e s
.
H e i n au g u r at e d f i v e r e s e t t l e m e n t pr o j e c t s . P e r i c l e s al s o
s po n s o r e d a hu g e pu bl i c bu i l d i n g pr o g r am l i k e t hat o f
t he P W A an d W P A .
The N e w D e al e r s pr o v i d e t he c as h n e e d e d t o w i n
e l e c t i o n s by appr o pr i at i o n s f r o m t he d o m e s t i c Tr e as u r y ,
f o r pu r po s e s w hi c h t he y c al l pu m p pr i m i n g e v e n i f t he
c as h i s bo r r o w e d by t he Tr e as u r y at t he pr i c e o f a f i r s t
m o r t g ag e o n t he i n c o m e o f c o u n t l e s s g e n e r at i o n s
. The
R o m an t r e as u r y w as bu l g i n g w i t h a s u r pl u s w he n C ae s ar
w as as s as s i n at e d . E x c e pt f o r e x t o r t i o n s l ai d o n t he bac k s
o f o u r o w n c i t i z e n s i n c u r r e n t t ax e s an d d e f i c i t bo r r o w -
i n g s , o u r o w n Tr e as u r y w o u l d n o w be as e m pt y as t he
po c k e t s o f R i c har d W hi t n e y be f o r e he w e n t t o S i n g S i n g
.
B e f o r e C o n g r e s s ad j o u r n e d i n J u n e , 1 9 3 8 , i t m ad e pr o -
v i s i o n t o s q u an d e r s e v e r al bi l l i o n d o l l ar s o n a n e w m e r -
1 7 5
c han t m ar i n e . The s pe n d i n g w as r e i n f o r c e d w i t h as s u r -
an c e s by r ad i o c o m m e n t at o r s w ho had r e ac he d m at u r i t y
s i n c e o u r pr e v i o u s d i s as t e r s i n m ai n t ai n i n g a m e r c han t
m ar i n e o r w ho , i n an y e v e n t , ar e u n ac q u ai n t e d w i t h o u r
pr e v i o u s f ai l u r e s o n t he s e a, t hat w e ar e t o hav e a n e w an d
t hr i v i n g e n t e r pr i s e
. The n e w l aw c o n t ai n s pr o v i s i o n s
f o r t he ad j u s t m e n t o f l abo r d i s pu t e s bu t w hat t he l aw
an d C o n g r e s s bl i t he l y i g n o r e i s t he d i f f e r e n t i al be t w e e n
A m e r i c an w ag e s an d c o n d i t i o n s o f e m pl o y m e n t u n d e r
t he S e am an ' s ac t an d w ag e s an d c o n d i t i o n s o f e m pl o y -
m e n t o n s hi ps u n d e r f o r e i g n r e g i s t r y . S u bs i d i e s t o bal -
an c e t hi s d i f f e r e n t i al w o u l d s o o n ban k r u pt a s o l v e n t
c o u n t r y
. The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t he f o l l y ar e f o r e o r d ai n e d .
The l at e s t o pu s o f S t u ar t C has e , g ho s t w r i t e r f o r t he
N e w D e al , w hi c h he c al l s " The Ty r an n y o f W o r d s " '
as pi r e s t o pr e s e n t a phi l o s o phy t o e n d al l phi l o s o phi c al
t ho u g ht . C has e w ho has t he r e c o r d o f ho l d i n g a g o v e r n -
m e n t j o b c o n t i n u o u s l y s i n c e 1 9 1 7 , w hi c h q u al i f i e s hi m
t o e n t e r t he f i n al s o f t he l e e c h d e r by w i t h t he R o o s e v e l t s
an d L aF o l l e t t e s , l i k e m an y pe n - m i n d e d r e f o r m e r s , o p-
e r at e s o n a s i n g l e t r ac k w hi c h i n v o l v e s hi m i n apo l o g i e s
f o r n o n s e n s e i n e ar l i e r w o r k s , t o - w i t
: " A N e w D e al "
( 1 9 3 2)
" The Ty r an n y o f W o r d s " i s l i t t l e m o r e t han a ho d g e -
po d g e o f N e w D e al pr o pag an d a i n w hi c h f i l t h i s m e an t t o
be c o n c e al e d by a n e w c l o ak c al l e d " s e m an t i c s . " 2
A s a
s t u d y i n s e m an t i c s o r phi l o l o g y , C has e s e e m s t o be u n -
d u l y i m pr e s s e d by e l e m e n t al d i s c o v e r i e s an d n o w an d
ag ai n s ho w s t he s am e w o n d e r m e n t as an i n f an t w ho has
f i r s t d i s c o v e r e d hi s o w n f e e t .
W hi l e i t be l o n g s t o t he c hapt e r o n t he " m o r al s o f t he
N e w D e al " r at he r t han t he phi l o s o phy o f i t s c hao t i c
m an i f e s t at i o n s , at t e n t i o n s ho u l d be c al l e d t o hi s c o m m e n t
1 " The Ty r an n y o f W o r d s " by S t u ar t C has e ( H ar c o u r t , B r ac e &
C o . ) .
2 I n " The A n t i c hr i s t , " N i e t z s c he u s e s " s e m i o t i c " w hi c h Me n c k e n t r an s l at e s
as " s e m an t i c s , " an d C o u n t A l f r e d K o r z y bs k i , f o l l o w i n g t he pu bl i c at i o n o f
" S c i e n c e an d S an i t y " ( S c i e n c e P r e s s ) i n 1 9 3 3 , f o u n d e d t he " I n s t i t u t e o f G e n -
e r al S e m an t i c s " i n C hi c ag o w i t h f u n d s s u ppl i e d by C o r n e l i u s C r an e
.
1 7 6
o n p a g e
3 7 4
whe re Co n g re ssma n E . E . Co x , o f G e o rg i a , i s
sa i d t o ha v e d e c l a re d t he S o u t h wi l l d e f e a t " c o l l e c t i v e
b a rg a i n i n g
. " A s q u o t e d b y Cha se , he sa i d n o t hi n g o f
t he k i n d
. H e d e n o u n c e d t he t e rro ri st i c p ra c t i c e s o f J o hn
L. Le wi s a n d t hre a t e n e d re t a l i a t i o n
. T ha t i s a l l .
T he i n f e re n c e su g g e st e d b y t he l a n g u a g e o n p a g e 2 8 6
t ha t t he N e w D e a l i s j u st i f i e d b e c a u se o f wha t ha p p e n e d
t o t he B o u rb o n s o f F ra n c e , t he so u t he rn p l a n t e rs, t he
ha c i e n d a d o s o f M e x i c o u n d e r D i a z , t he R u ssi a n n o b i l i t y ,
i s a n e x a mp l e o f t he sl o p p y t hi n k i n g t o whi c h a l l sp e c i a l
p l e a d e rs a re su b j e c t . A l i t t l e k n o wl e d g e o f hi st o ry a n d
a f e w mi n u t e s c o n t e mp l a t i o n wo u l d t a g t he i n f e re n c e a s
a b su rd si n c e o n e ha s t o re c a l l o n l y t ha t R o b e sp i e rre ' s
N e w D e a l , whi c h f i rst a t t a c k e d t he B o u rb o n s, e n d e d b y
e n sl a v i n g t ho se wo rk e rs who we re n o t f i n i she d o n t he
g u i l l o t i n e ; t ha t c i t i z e n shi p a n d t he b a l l o t g i v e n t o f o u r
mi l l i o n i l l i t e ra t e n e g ro e s i n re t a l i a t i o n a g a i n st t he so u t h-
e rn p l a n t e rs ha v e p ro d u c e d a n e t wo rk o f " T o b a c c o
R o a d s" i n t he so u t h a n d ha v e n o t mu c h i mp ro v e d t he
n e g ro ; t ha t a f o o d sho rt a g e i n M e x i c o f ro m d e st ro y i n g
t he ha c i e n d a d o s wa s a s c e rt a i n a s t he d e c a y o f M e x i c a n
i n d u st ry a n d t ha t t he c u rre n t g o o d l i f e u n d e r S t a l i n a n d
hi s a t ro c i o u s " p u rg e s" l e a v e so me t hi n g t o b e sa i d i n
b e ha l f o f t he o l d R u ssi a n n o b i l i t y
. A M e x i c a n f o o d
sho rt a g e wi t h ri si n g p ri c e s i s a p re se n t f a c t .
T he o u t st a n d i n g f a l l a c y o f t he Cha se " se ma n t i c s" i s
t he a ssu mp t i o n t ha t a p e o p l e , o n c e he l l - b e n t f o r d i sa st e r,
c a n b e sa v e d b y p a l l i a t i v e s
. Lo u i s XVI we n t t o t he
g u i l l o t i n e b e c a u se o f hi s e rro r i n g ra n t i n g , n o t wi t hho l d -
i n g , re f o rms . H e ma d e hi mse l f a he l p l e ss v i c t i m, o n l y
b e c a u se o f hi s c o mp l e t e su rre n d e r t o t he c a n a i l l e who m
he c a l l e d " my p e o p l e . "
W he n Cha se u se s su c h t e rms a s " so c i a l l e g i sl a t i o n , " a s
he d o e s o n p a g e 2 8 5 , he a p p e a rs t o n e e d so me o f hi s o wn
" se ma n t i c s" a n d whe n he a sk s o n p a g e s 2 8 8 - 9 " W ha t
wo u l d ha v e ha p p e n e d ha d t he re b e e n n o f e d e ra l sp e n d -
i n g ? " si n c e t he q u e st i o n i s u n a n swe re d , he p re se n t s a n
1 7 7
i ssu e f ro m whi c h " se ma n t i c s" wi l l n o t sa v e hi m
. On l y
a n e mb ra c e o r a sl y k i ss wi l l sa t i sf y t he f e mi n i n e he a rt
whe n b u b b l i n g o v e r wi t h si l l y q u e st i o n s
.
T he i mp l i c a t i o n t ha t c ha o s wo u l d ha v e f o l l o we d o u r
f a i l u re t o d i ssi p a t e t he n a t i o n a l c re d i t b y wa st e a n d e x -
t ra v a g a n c e i s f a r- f e t c he d a n d i t i s we l l t o re me mb e r t ha t
we a re b a n k ru p t a n d t ha t a b so l u t e c ha o s i s j u st a ro u n d
t he c o rn e r a n y wa y
. T o a sse rt e x a c t l y " wha t wo u l d ha v e
ha p p e n e d ha d t he re b e e n n o F e d e ra l sp e n d i n g " i n v a d e s
t he re a l m o f sp e c u l a t i o n b u t i t i s n o sp e c u l a t i o n t o a sse rt
t ha t we a re su b st a n t i a l l y whe re we we re o n M a rc h 4 ,
1 93 3 ,
mi n u s t we n t y b i l l i o n d o l l a rs a n d mi n u s t he f re e d o m we
t he n e n j o y e d t o g ro p e o u rse l v e s o u t o f d i f f i c u l t y .
" If t he so c i a l l e g i sl a t i o n i s t hro wn o u t i n t o t o , t he re -
su l t mi g ht we l l b e a n e w b o o m * a n d a n e v e n
g ra n d e r
sma sh, *
q u i t e d e st ro y i n g p o p u l a r c o n f i d e n c e i n t he f i n a n -
c i a l sy st e m, " i s a f a i r sa mp l e o f Cha se n o n se n se
. Of n o n -
se n se , t he re i s l i t t l e e l se
. H e i s d o u b t f u l a b o u t t hri f t ;
" whe n u n e mp l o y me n t i s g ro wi n g . . .
t hri f t i s a d e a d l y
e n e my o f f i n a n c i a l st a b i l i t y " a n d " we p e rsi st i n
t hi n k i n g *
a b o u t mo n e y a s i t b e ha v e d t wo hu n d re d y e a rs a g o . " H e
i s so c o c k su re " c a p i t a l i sm" i s d e c l i n i n g t ha t a g a i n he a sk s
a q u e st i o n : " W hy wo rry a d ry b o n e ? "
T he l a d y ha s g ro wn so b o l d wi t h si l l y q u e st i o n s t ha t
o n e i n hi s ri g ht se n se s mi g ht t hi n k " he r" e n t i t l e d , a t t hi s
p o i n t , t o a " so c k o n t he c hi n
. "
T he p ro g ra m o f " we re f o rme rs, " a s p ro c l a i me d b y
Cha se o n p a g e 3 0 4 i s a k e t t l e o f d e a d f i sh- t he b a l l o t ,
so c i a l l e g i sl a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e b a rg a i n i n g , c o - o p e ra t i v e a s-
so c i a t i o n s, t he z v A
st ru c t u re , c o n se rv a t i o n p ro g ra ms, ho l d -
i n g c o mp a n y re g u l a t i o n s, st o c k ma rk e t c o n t ro l , c e n t ra l
b a n k i n g a n d p u b l i c o wn e rshi p " i f , a s, a n d whe n t he c o n -
t e x t o f si t u a t i o n , a f t e r st u d y , g i v e s p ro mi se f o r a n a d -
v a n c e .
" A d v a n c e "
t o wha t ? T o a so c i a l i z e d st a t e a n d t he
d i c t a t o rshi p o f t he p ro l e t a ri a t , a s M a rx , En g e l s a n d Le n i n
p re sc ri b e d ? T o t he f i n a l d e st ru c t i o n o f t he " S t a t e " f o r

Ou r i t a l i c s .
1 7 8
t he g re a t e r f re e d o m o f t he u n f i t f ro m t he re sp o n si b i l i t i e s
o f c i t i z e n shi p ? Cha se i s o mi n o u sl y v a g u e o r si l e n t i n
d e sc ri b i n g t he g o a l t o whi c h hi s
" a d v a n c e " l e a d s . D o e s
t he re a so n f o r hi s a mb i g u i t y l i e i n hi s c e rt a i n k n o wl e d g e
t ha t a n o w p o t e n t mi n o ri t y wo u l d re si st a n y " a d v a n c e "
t o su c h a g o a l a s Cha se c o n t e mp l a t e s, i f he we re f u l l y
u n d e rst o o d ? S i n c e Cha se i s ma n i f e st l y a sp e c i a l p l e a d e r,
hi s mo t i v e s a re t ra n sp a re n t e v e n i f hi s l a n g u a g e i s v a g u e .
T he so - c a l l e d " a d v a n c e " i n t he p ro g ra m i s " ha sh" p l u s
" b l a b " p l u s " b l a b " ra i se d t o t he n t h p o we r
. S u c h l a n -
g u a g e wa s f a mi l i a r t o B o i e s P e n ro se whe n he wa s a c -
c u st o me d t o re q u i re t he G . O . P . p l a t f o rm t o b e p ro d u c e d
f o r hi s a p p ro v a l , b u t P e n ro se ha s b e e n d e a d t he se ma n y
y e a rs . Cha se o u g ht t o c o n si d e r t he p e ri l t o t he p u b l i c
he a l t h i n t hi s k e t t l e o f d e a d f i sh a n d p a rt i c u l a rl y i t s b a d
o d o r, whi c h wo u l d b e su b j e c t t o a b a t e me n t i n ma n y
j u ri sd i c t i o n s .
T he Cha se b o o k i s mo re e x t e n si v e l y d e a l t wi t h t ha n
t he c o n t e n t s j u st i f y o n l y b e c a u se i t i s t y p i c a l o f N e w D e a l
g ho st wri t i n g '
On e wo n d e rs whe re t he La b o r B u re a u ho u se d Cha se
whe n t he P u d d l e r f ro m El wo o d , In d i a n a , he l d t he La b o r
p o rt f o l i o a n d b e f o re M r . J . P . M o rg a n wa s t hre a t e n e d b y
Cha se wi t h a se a t " o n t he p a v e me n t wi t h A d a m . " It i s
sa d t o re f l e c t t ha t Cha se f a i l e d t o g i v e p o o r M r . H o o v e r
t he a d v a n t a g e o f d o c t ri n e s t ha t a c t u a l l y mu st ha v e b e e n
ha t c he d i n a n i n c u b a t o r p ro v i d e d b y t he sa g e o f P a l o A l t o
hi mse l f d u ri n g t ho se f a t e f u l y e a rs f ro m M a rc h 4 , 1 92 9,
t o M a rc h 4 ,
1 93 3 .
It i s i n d e e d re f re shi n g , t he f ra g ra n c e t o b e ha d f ro m
t u rn i n g o n e ' s n o st ri l s a wa y f ro m Cha se ' s k e t t l e o f d e a d
f i sh, a n d i n ha l i n g d e e p l y f ro m a n o t he r so u rc e , t he wi sd o m
o f Oswa l d S p e n g l e r : '
" M e n f i n a l l y g i v e u p , n o t t hi s o r t ha t t he o ry , b u t t he
b e l i e f i n t he o ry o f a n y k i n d a n d wi t h i t t he se n t i me n t a l
8 S e e A p p e n d i c e s I a n d II .
' " T he D e c l i n e o f t he W e st " b y Oswa l d S p e n g l e r (A l f re d A . K n o p f , In c
. )
Vo l . II, p
. 4 5 4 -
1 7 9
o p t i mi sm o f a n e i g ht e e n t h c e n t u ry t ha t i ma g i n e d t ha t
u n sa t i sf a c t o ry a c t u a l i t i e s c o u l d b e i mp ro v e d b y t he a p -
p l i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s . "
S u c h wi sd o m ha s t he e sse n c e o f e t e rn i t y .
D u e t o t he e mp ha si s p u t o n mo n e y a n d p ri v a t e p o s-
se ssi o n s b y t he Oc c i d e n t a l mi n d , Ca p i t a l i sm f l o u ri she s
b e st u n d e r D e mo c ra c y a n d n e x t b e st u n d e r P a rl i me n t a ry
M o n a rc hy . B u t i t a l so f l o u ri she s a f t e r a f a shi o n a n d t o
a d e g re e u n d e r A b so l u t i sm, u n d e r N a z i i sm a n d F a sc i sm,
e v e n u n d e r t he re v o l u t i o n a ry d i c t a t o rshi p o f t he S o v i e t s .
Ca p i t a l i sm i s a d a p t a b l e t o t he Oc c i d e n t a l mi n d , S o c i a l i sm
i s n o t . S i n c e re S o c i a l i st s a re d o o me d t o d i si l l u si o n me n t
a n d d i sa p p o i n t me n t f o r t hi s re a so n
. S o c i a l i sm i s o n e
p o l i t i c a l c u l t whi c h ha s n o ho p e o f f u l f i l l me n t i n W e st e rn
c u l t u re .
B e t we e n H i t l e r a n d Co n g re ssma n D i e s o f T e x a s, t he
A me ri c a n Co mmu n i st s a re so re l y b e se t . W hi l e b e d e v i l e d
b y a f ro n t a l a t t a c k a t ho me , t he y ha v e ha d t o e n d u re t he
c o l l a p se o f a " D e mo c ra t i c " f l a n k t o t he so u t h o f B e rc ht e s-
g a d e n a n d whi l e t he y v e ry we l l k n o w t ha t , i n t hi s i n st a n c e ,
M r. R o o se v e l t b e t ra y e d t he m, a l l t he y c a n d o i s whi n e
.
T hro u g h t he l a t e P a u l Y . A n d e rso n ,
T he N a t i o n
s
l a -
me n t e d t he " sa d we e k f o r d e mo c ra c y " a n d a d d e d t ha t
" sa d d e r o n e s p ro b a b l y a re i n st o re
. " A n d e rso n " n e v e r
ha d t he sl i g ht e st f a i t h i n Cha mb e rl a i n " a n d o u t o f t he
M u n i c h a c c o rd d e v e l o p e d t he su sp i c i o n t ha t Cha mb e r-
l a i n " d o e s n o t re a l l y b e l i e v e i n d e mo c ra c y
. " W ha t a
n a i v e su sp i c i o n f ro m o n e t ho u g ht p o sse sse d o f su f f i c i e n t
so p hi st i c a t i o n t o a n swe r Co n g re ssma n D i e s o n t he ra d i o !
A n d e rso n wa s a f re q u e n t c o n t ri b u t o r t o T he N a t i o n
a n d
T he N e w R e p u b l i c ,
b o t h o f whi c h a re Co mmu n i st i c ,
a n d i t t he re f o re wa s d a ri n g o f t he N e w D e a l t o se l e c t hi m
t o a t t a c k t he D i e s Co mmi t t e e whi c h ha d b e e n a t t a c k e d
b y M r . R o o se v e l t f o r n o t su p p re ssi n g e v i d e n c e o f t re a so n
a g a i n st t he si t - d o wn G o v e rn o r o f M i c hi g a n . M r . R o o se -
v e l t ' s i n v o l v e d re a so n i n g t ha t G o v e rn o r M u rp hy c o u l d
n o t p o ssi b l y ha v e c o n d o n e d t he si t - d o wn st ri k e s, i . e . , l a w-
n T he N a t i o n , Oc t o b e r 8 , 1 93 8 .
1 8 o
l e ssn e ss (a n d t he re b y b e g u i l t y o f t re a so n a s c ha rg e d b y a
wi t n e ss b e f o re t he D i e s Co mmi t t e e ) , b e c a u se o f hi s re l i -
g i o n i s d i sp o se d o f b y t he f a c t t ha t he d i d , i n e f f e c t , c o n -
d o n e t he si t - d o wn st ri k e s, so me t hi n g whi c h e v e ry b o d y ,
p a rt i c u l a rl y t he v o t e rs o f M i c hi g a n , k n o ws
. M r . R o o se -
v e l t ' s i n so l e n c e i n i g n o ri n g f a c t s whi c h e v e ry b o d y k n o ws
wa s ma t c he d b y t he N e w D e a l i mp u d e n c e i n se l e c t i n g
A n d e rso n t o a t t a c k t he D i e s Co mmi t t e e .
T he B o st o n p o l i c e st ri k e whi c h e l e v a t e d Ca l v i n
Co o l i d g e f ro m G o v e rn o r o f M a ssa c hu se t t s - t o t he W hi t e
H o u se i s n o t e n t i re l y f o rg o t a n d si t - d o wn st ri k e s i n
A me ri c a wi l l n o t so o n b e f o rg o t a s M u rp hy ' s d e f e a t sho ws .
M u rp hy ' s wa y sho u l d ha v e p l e a se d M o sc o w b u t M u rp hy ' s
wa y i s ha rd l y t he A me ri c a n wa y t ho u g h M r
. R o o se v e l t
ha s a d o p t e d i t a n d c o n f i d e d t o t he W a shi n g t o n c o rre -
sp o n d e n t s t ha t t he M u rp hy wa y i s hi s n o t i o n o f t he
A me ri c a n wa y o f d e a l i n g wi t h a n a rc hy
.
U n t i l a n t s a n d b e e s a n d b e a v e rs c ha n g e t he i r wa y s o f
l i f e , hu ma n n a t u re i s u n l i k e l y t o c ha n g e i t s wa y a n d
a rmi e s u n l i k e l y t o wi n b a t t l e s wi t ho u t g e n e ra l s . U n t i l
t he t a i l wa g s t he d o g a n d wa t e r f l o ws u p hi l l , n o so c i a l i z e d
st a t e we st o f t he Vi st u l a i s p o ssi b l e .
W e a re a l l S o c i a l i st s, ho we v e r, i n t he sa me wa y t ha t we
a re a l l Chri st i a n s
. W e a re j u st a s i n c a p a b l e o f e st a b l i sh-
i n g a
so c i a l i z e d st a t e a s we ha v e p ro v e d i n c a p a b l e o f
p ra c t i c i n g t he t e n e t s o f Chri st i a n i t y
. W e d we l l o n b o t h
a s d e si ra b l e o b j e c t i v e s b u t i g n o re t he me a n s t o re a c h t he
o b j e c t i v e s b e c a u se we c a n n o t a d a p t o u rse l v e s t o t he n e c e s-
sa ry me a n s .
T he re i s n o c ho i c e , t he re f o re , b e t we e n Ca p i t a l i sm a n d
S o c i a l i sm . T he c ho i c e i s l i mi t e d t o a se l e c t i o n o f t he g o v -
e rn me n t wi t h whi c h we a re a c q u a i n t e d f ro m e x p e ri e n c e
o r a t o t a l i t a ri a n g o v e rn me n t , e i t he r o f whi c h ma y b e
p u n c t u a t e d wi t h a n a rc hy .
In a n y e v e n t , Ca p i t a l i sm,
t ho u g h b a d l y e ma sc u l a t e d , wi l l su rv i v e
.
T he N e w D e a l ma y u t t e rl y d e st ro y t ho se n o w i n c o n t ro l
o f o u r p re se n t Ca p i t a l i st i c st a t e .
T he re n o wn e d M r .
Li l i e n t ha l ma y e me rg e i n t he p l a c e n o w he l d b y W e n d e l l
1 8 1
W i l l k i e a n d t he f a mo u s N e w D e a l " Ec o n o mi st , " Le o n
H e n d e rso n , ma y su c c e e d t o t he p o we r o n c e e n j o y e d b y
H a rl e y L
. Cl a rk e o r F l o y d B . Od l u m . S o n J i mmi e ma y
b e a b l e t o se i z e a si z a b l e i n su ra n c e c o mp a n y a s a d i v e rsi o n
f ro m H o l l y wo o d a n d B e n Co he n ma y g e t T o m G i rd l e r' s
p l a c e . If t he mo t i o n p i c t u re i n d u st ry wi l l se n d W i l l H a y s
t o t he b l o c k t o ma k e ro o m f o r a N e w D e a l su c c e sso r, n o
d o u b t o n e sa t a n i c " mo n o p o l y " wi l l b e p u ri f i e d , i p so f a c t o
.
S o n J i mmi e ' s e mp l o y me n t ha s a l re a d y c o n t ri b u t e d t o t he
p u ri f i c a t i o n o f H o l l y wo o d .
T he re a re ma n y wa y s b y
whi c h t o e f f e c t who l e sa l e c ha n g e s i n ma st e rs u n d e r Ca p i -
t a l i sm
. H a v i n g d i sc a rd e d a l l mo ra l st a n d a rd s, t he N e w
D e a l b u re a u c ra c y i s f re e d o f t he n e c e ssi t y t o o b se rv e a n y
i n hi b i t i o n s o f p u b l i c o r p ri v a t e c o n sc i e n c e
. W i t h o b v i o u s
c a n d o r, t he N e w D e a l Va n d a l s ha v e a d o p t e d t he sy st e m
o f p o l i t i c s d e sc ri b e d b y A mb ro se B i e rc e a s " t he c o n d u c t
o f p u b l i c a f f a i rs f o r p ri v a t e a d v a n t a g e . "
e
W ha t e v e r c a n b e a c c o mp l i she d b e f o re t he c o u n t ry
c a t c he s u p wi t h t he m (i f i t d o e s) i n a re d i st ri b u t i o n o f
t he we a l t h re p re se n t e d b y t he ra i l ro a d s, t he e l e c t ri c i n -
d u st ry a n d t he mo re d e si ra b l e " mo n o p o l i e s" wi l l b e a c -
c o mp l i she d f o r t he so l e a n d e x c l u si v e b e n e f i t o f N e w D e a l
he n c hme n who e n j o y mo re t ha n a sp e a k i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e
a t t he W hi t e H o u se . In d i v i d u a l l y , " my f ri e n d s" o f t he
ra d i o who ha v e ma d e i t p o ssi b l e f o r t he se he n c hme n t o
sa t i sf y t he i r g re e d a n d t he i r g l u t t o n y wi l l ha v e t o b e c o n -
t e n t wi t h t he c ru mb s t ha t , a s u su a l , f a l l f ro m t he ri c h
ma n ' s t a b l e .
T he n u mb e r a n d e x t e n t o f c ha n g e s i n ma st e rs
u n d e r
Ca p i t a l i sm
z
wi l l d e p e n d u p o n t he a mb i t i o n a n d g re e d o f
e A s, f o r i n st a n c e , t he c o l l e c t i o n b y J e ro me F ra n k o f a $ 8 0 , o o o
. o o f e e a l -
l o we d hi m b y t he S EC
f o r " se rv i c e s" i n c o n n e c t i o n wi t h t he re o rg a n i z a t i o n
o f t he M i sso u ri P a c i f i c R a i l ro a d a n d $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0
f o r whi c h J o hn Lo rd O' B ri a n ,
R e p u b l i c a n c a n d i d a t e f o r U . S . S e n a t o r i n N e w Yo rk S t a t e i n
1 93 8 ,
wa s e m-
p l o y e d t o a c t a s sp e c i a l c o u n se l f o r T VA .
T T he t e c hn i q u e o f t he c ha n g e s i n ma st e rs o f v a st e n t e rp ri se s, i n a n e p o c h
o f " d y i n g Ca p i t a l i sm, " i s v e ry we l l i l l u st ra t e d i n a re c i t a l o f re c e n t e v e n t s i n
t he hi st o ry o f t he B y l l e sb y En g i n e e ri n g a n d M a n a g e me n t Co rp o ra t i o n a n d
i t s re l a t e d S t a n d a rd G a s a n d El e c t ri c Co mp a n y , a s p re se n t e d i n a W a shi n g t o n
d i sp a t c h t o t he Chi c a g o T ri b u n e , p u b l i she d J a n u a ry 2 8 , 1 93 9
. U n d e r t he
H o l d i n g Co mp a n y A c t a n d t he S EC
A c t , t hi s v a st p u b l i c u t i l i t y e mp i re f i rst
1 8 2
re i g n i n g b u re a u c ra t s whi c h, i n t u rn , wi l l d e t e rmi n e t he
d e p t h o f b i t t e rn e ss a n d t he re su l t a n t d a ma g e f ro m t he
p re se n t st ru g g l e - n o t t o sa v e Ca p i t a l i sm, whi c h i s sa f e
i n a n y e v e n t - b u t t o sa v e t he c o u n t ry f ro m a g o v e rn me n t
a k i n t o t ha t o f R u ssi a , G e rma n y , It a l y a n d S p a i n .
N o o n e c a n j u st l y d e n y t he si n c e ri t y o f a p o rt i o n o f t he
A me ri c a n Le f t W i n g a n d t hi s a p p l i e s a s we l l t o so me
a v o we d Co mmu n i st s a n d so me o f t he i r mo re g e n t e e l
b re t hre n o f l i g ht e r hu e who , b e i n g t o u c he d wi t h a p sy c ho -
p a t hi c u rg e t o ma k e o v e r hu ma n n a t u re , mi st a k e a n i g n i s
f a t u u s f o r t he p o l e st a r . S u c h b e i n g s ha v e t he he a rt o f a
p o e t a n d so l o n g a s t he y a re t re a t e d a s p o e t s a l l i s we l l .
T he d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t he wo rl d a ri se , ho we v e r, whe n t he
wo rl d b e g i n s t o a c c e p t t he m f o r wha t t he y p re t e n d . S o me
p re t e n d t o a wi d e u n d e rst a n d i n g o f so c i o l o g y , o t he rs
v e n t u re i n t o a n t hro p o l o g y a n d st i l l o t he rs f e i g n a f a mi l i -
a ri t y wi t h hi st o ry b u t t he i r mo st c o mmo n we a k n e ss i s
t he i r d a ri n g i n t he re a l m o f e c o n o mi c s a n d p o l i t i c a l
e c o n o my .
T he J e ws ha v e g i v e n t he wo rl d i t s mo st i n sp i ri n g p o e t ry
a n d t hi s d o rma n t t a l e n t ma y e x p l a i n i n p a rt t he c u rre n t
J e wi sh c o n t ri b u t i o n t o t he p ro p a g a n d a o f Co mmu n i sm .
W a l d o F ra n k , wi t h t wo d e g re e s f ro m Ya l e a n d a n
ho n o ra ry d e g re e f ro m t he N a t i o n a l U n i v e rsi t y o f S a n
M a rc o s a t Li ma , P e ru , i s t he a u t ho r o f t hi rt y b o o k s a n d
u n d o u b t e d l y o n e o f t he f o re mo st J e wi sh i n t e l l e c t u a l s .
In " Ou r A me ri c a , " ' " T he R e d i sc o v e ry o f A me ri c a , " '
wa s se t u p o n b y t he S EC . W he n i t s " re o rg a n i z a t i o n " wa s b e g u n , B e rn a rd W .
Ly n c h wa s p re si d e n t o f t he S t a n d a rd G a s a n d El e c t ri c Co mp a n y . " In a
ma n e u v e r l a st Oc t o b e r, " sa y s t he
T ri b u n e d i sp a t c h, " sa n c t i o n e d b y t he S EC,
(Vi c t o r) Ema n u e l su c c e e d e d Ly n c h a s c ha i rma n a n d (W i l l i a m J . ) H a g e n a h
. . re p l a c e d Ly n c h a s p re si d e n t . . .
Ema n u e l wa s p l a c e d i n c o n t ro l wi t h
S EC
b l e ssi n g b e c a u se he f a v o re d q u i c k i n t e g ra t i o n o f t he sy st e m u n d e r t he
p u b l i c u t i l i t y ho l d i n g c o mp a n y a c t o f 5 93 5 . " T he T ri b u n e d i sp a t c h n e g l e c t e d
t o st a t e t ha t o n e J e w a s a me mb e r o f S EC, n a me l y J e ro me F ra n k , p l u s a n o t he r
J e w n o t a d v e rse t o b a rg a i n s, n a me l y Vi c t o r Ema n u e l , a l t o g e t he r ma d e t wo
N e w D e a l J e ws i n t hi s p a rt i c u l a r " re o rg a n i z a t i o n
. "
It i s o n l y f a i r t o g u e ss
t ha t M r. Ema n u e l wa s wi l l i n g t o f a v o r e i t he r a " q u i c k " o r a sl o w " i n t e g ra -
t i o n , " so l o n g a s t he e mp i re , i n t he " i n t e g ra t i o n , " c a me u n d e r hi s ma st e ry .
8 " Ou r A me ri c a " b y W a l d o F ra n k (B o n i a n d Li v e ri g ht ) .
9
" T he R e d i sc o v e ry o f A me ri c a " b y W a l d o F ra n k (Cha rl e s S c ri b n e r' s
S o n s) .
1 8 3
" D a wn i n R u ssi a , " 1 0
a n d " In t he A me ri c a n J u n g l e , " '
F ra n k e x hi b i t s t he mo st p ro f o u n d ma st e ry o f hu ma n
a f f a i rs, i . e
. , b e se e ms
p ro f o u n d t o o n e who l i k e s p o l i t i c a l
e c o n o my i n b l a n k v e rse
.
" P e rso n s t hri v e b e t t e r t o d a y
i n
t he t ru e c o l l e c t i v i sm o f
R u ssi a t ha n t he y d o i n t he f a l se i n d i v i d u a l i sm o f t he
U n i t e d S t a t e s, " he a sse rt s
. " W ha t i s t a k i n g p l a c e t o d a y
i n R u ssi a i s t he mo st p re c i o u s
so c i a l * e v e n t , t he mo st
p re c i o u s so c i a l *
l i f e o f o u r c ru c i a l e p o c h . . . .
W e mu st
d e f e n d t he S o v i e t U n i o n wi t h o u r sp i ri t
; i f n e e d b e , we
mu st d e f e n d i t wi t h o u r b o d i e s
.
. .
. T he c ha l l e n g e o f
Co mmu n i sm i s n o t b re a d f o r a l l o r e v e n c a k e
; n o t f re e d o m
f ro m i n se c u ri t y a n d wa r- a l l o f whi c h mi g ht c o n c e i v a b l y
b e a ssu re d t o t he f a t t e d u n d e rl i n g s o f so me o t he r sy st e m
.
Co mmu n i sm p ro p o se s n o t hi n g l e ss t ha n t he re c re a t i o n o f
t he wo rl d i n t he u n i t a ry i ma g e o f t he t o i l i n g ma sse s
. . .
t he p ro l e t a ri a t wi l l n o t l o n g b e sa t i sf i e d wi t h e n o u g h t o
e a t - n o r wi t h l e i su re - n o r e v e n wi t h l u x u ry .
It wi l l
wa n t t o ru l e . . . .
T he p e o p l e s o f t he wo rl d wi l l i n -
si st
.
. . t ha t t he i r sp i ri t , t he i r mi n d a n d a rt , sha l l ma k e
t he wo rl d o v e r . " 1 2
T hi s i s n o t p o l i t i c a l e c o n o my , o r hi st o ry , o r so c i o l o g y ,
o r e v e n g o o d re p o rt i n g . It i s p o e t ry
. It wa s wri t t e n a f t e r
F ra n k ' s v i si t t o R u ssi a i n 1 93
. - a n d a s a n e x a mp l e o f a c -
c u ra t e re p o rt i n g wo u l d b e re j e c t e d b y mo st c o u n t y se a t
we e k l i e s who se e d i t o rs f i rst wo u l d wa n t t o k n o w wha t
d e t a i n s F ra n k i n A me ri c a
. It d o e s e x p l a i n why so p ho -
mo re s a t W i l l i a ms, Ya l e , P ri n c e t o n , Chi c a g o a n d H a rv a rd
b e g i n t o p i t y t he o l d ma n , who si g n s t he n e c e ssa ry e x -
p e n se c he c k s, f o r hi s l a c k o f f a mi l i a ri t y wi t h su c h ma st e rs
o f hu ma n d e st i n y .
F ra n k " ho p e s a g a i n st su c h mi sc a rri a g e " a s " i n t e l l e c t u a l
1 0
" D a wn i n R u ssi a " b y W a l d o F ra n k (Cha rl e s S c ri b n e r' s S o n s) p p . 2 4 3 ,
2 7 1 - 2 , 2 7
0 - 1 -
" " In t he A me ri c a n J u n g l e " b y W a l d o F ra n k (F a rra r a n d R i n e ha rt )
.
* Ou r i t a l i c s.
1 2
" D a wn i n R u ssi a " b y W a l d o F ra n k (Cha rl e s S c ri b n e r' s S o n s) p p
. 2 4 3 ,
2 7 1 - 2 , 2 7 0
- 1 -
1 8
4
a n d sp i ri t u a l e n sl a v e me n t " a n d f o u n d s hi s ho p e " o n t he
u n i v e rsa l e d u c a t i o n o f t he R u ssi a n p e o p l e . "
T ru e t o t he t ra d i t i o n s o f t he J e w, F ra n k e mp ha si z e s t he
o b j e c t i v e i n Co mmu n i sm o f hu ma n so c i a l * e q u a l i t y
.
* Ou r i t a l i c .
1 8 5
CH A P T ER XV
F u t u re o f t he N e w D e a l
J e ws a n d Ca t ho l i c s S c a mp e r t o Co v e r W he n M r
.
R o o se v e l t Of f e rs R e mi n d e r t o M i n o ri t i e s i n B l a c k
A p p o i n t me n t , W he re a s Ca sh- a n d - Ca rry
F o l l o wi n g D e v e l o p In t e rn a l T ro u b l e s
Ov e r t he Ca sh
.
" P l a t o hi mse l f t ri e d t o t ra n sf o rm S y ra c u se i n a c c o rd a n c e wi t h a n i d e o l o g i -
c a l re c i p e - a n d se n t t he c i t y d o wn hi l l t o i t s ru i n . " - S p e n g l e r 1
S O LON G a s M r . R o o se v e l t i s a b l e (a ) t o p ro v i d e f o r
t he ha v e - n o t s
o u t o f t he p u b l i c t re a su ry a n d (b ) t o d e -
c e i v e t he m wi t h mo re p ro mi se s re i n f o rc e d wi t h t he ri g ht
a mo u n t o f me l o d ra ma a n d (c ) t o n o u ri sh t he i r i n he re n t
e n v y , j e a l o u sy a n d ha t re d o f t he
ha v e s wi t h t he ri g ht
a mo u n t o f p re t e n se , t he N e w D e a l i s p o l i t i c a l l y se c u re .
R o o se v e l t i s a sy mb o l o f hi s t i me s a s we re N e ro a n d
G e n g hi s K a hn i n t he i r d a y s a n d B o ss T we e d i n hi s .
H a d Co u n t T o l st o y b e e n sp a re d t o t hi s d a y , he wo u l d
ha v e se e n i n M r
. R o o se v e l t me re l y a n " u n c o n sc i o u s i n -
st ru me n t i n b ri n g i n g a b o u t t he hi st o ri c a l e n d s o f hu ma n -
i t y , " a f a t a l i sm a n d p re d e st i n a t i o n o rd a i n e d o u t o f o u r
re p e a t e d b l u n d e rs i n se l f - g o v e rn me n t a n d ha st e n e d b y
t he i r g ro wt h i n n u mb e r a n d i mp o rt a n c e
. S u c h f a t a l i sm
a n d su c h p re d e st i n a t i o n a re i n e v i t a b l e i n wha t T o l st o y
c a l l s t he " e l e me n t a l l i f e o f t he swa rm" a n d P re si d e n t s a n d
K i n g s a re n o t t he c a u se s b u t o n l y t he l a b e l s o f su c h ma ss
mo v e me n t s i n hi st o ry
. T he y o n l y l e n d t he i r n a me s f o r
t he p u rp o se o f i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n b y t he hi st o ri a n .
1 " T he D e c l i n e o f t he W e st " b y Oswa l d S p e n g l e r (A l f re d A
. K n o p f & Co
. ,
In c . ) Vo l
. II, p
. 4 5 4 -
1 8 6
T he b ra i n t ru st e rs, t he d e b a u c he ry o f t he p u b l i c se rv -
i c e , t he sa t u rn a l i a o f wa st e a n d e x t ra v a g a n c e , t he i n so l e n c e
o f a l l t he R o o se v e l t s i n t he i r i n g e n i o u s me t ho d s o f c o r-
ru p t i n g t he ma sse s a f t e r t he ma n n e r o f G re e k a n d R o ma n
t y ra n t s, t o g e t he r wi t h t he i r d i a b o l i c a l sc he me s o f ha ra ss-
i n g t he i n d u st ri o u s, t he t hri f t y a n d p ro d u c t i v e f e w a re
a l l n a t u ra l c o n se q u e n c e s o f o u r p re v i o u s b l u n d e rs i n se l f -
g o v e rn me n t .
W hi l e e v i l wo rk , t he e v i l o f b a d e x a mp l e i n hi g h p l a c e
ha s a p e rsi st e n c e t ha t su rp a sse s a n y a n d a l l " si n s o f . t he
f a t he r, " o n l y a f e w p e rso n a l i t i e s l i v e b e y o n d t he i r o wn
g e n e ra t i o n . T he mo st ha t e d t y ra n t , t he v e ry wi c k e d a re
e a si l y re me mb e re d . Ev e ry b o d y k n o ws a b o u t N e ro a n d
J e sse J a me s . A l Ca p o n e a n d J o hn D i l l i n g e r wi l l o u t l i v e
t he me mo ri e s, f o r e x a mp l e , o f t he t wo d i st i n g u i she d
j u n i o r U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t o rs f ro m In d i a n a a n d Il l i n o i s .
T e n y e a rs f ro m n o w, n o b o d y wi l l re me mb e r a n y o f t he
N e w D e a l S e n a t o rs, n o w so we l c o me a t t he W hi t e H o u se
p o rt a l s, o r k n o w whe t he r Ea rl e wa s G o v e rn o r o f
P e n n sy l v a n i a o r M i c hi g a n
.
A s a st o o g e , Cha rl i e M c Ca rt hy wi l l o u t l i v e a l l t he
S e n a t o rs a n d R e p re se n t a t i v e s i n Co n g re ss who v o t e d t o
p a c k t he S u p re me Co u rt a n d re g i me n t v a st se c t i o n s o f
t he p o p u l a t i o n . In t e n y e a rs, e v e n M r
. Ic k e s wi l l ha v e
re t u rn e d t o hi s p re v i o u s st a t e o f o b l i v i o n . El e a n o r a n d
J i mmi e wi l l su f f e r f ro m wa n i n g v i v i d n e ss . On l y M r .
R o o se v e l t wi l l b e re me mb e re d . H o w l o n g t he t a x p a y e rs
wi l l re me mb e r hi m d e p e n d s l a rg e l y u p o n t he i r f e c u n d i t y
.
If t he y a re a b l e t o re p ro d u c e a t a l l whe n he i s f i n i she d
wi t h t he m, t he y mu st d e p e n d u p o n t he l u c k o f H e rme s
a n d t he b e n e f i t o f mi ra c l e .
F ro m W P A , f ro m t he re l i e f c o n t i n g e n t , f ro m t he mu n i c i -
p a l , st a t e , a n d n a t i o n a l b u re a u c ra c y se g me n t , o u t o f t he
F e d e ra l H o u si n g p ro j e c t s a n d f ro m t he re g i me n t e d a n d
su b si d i z e d y o u t h o f t he l a n d ma y sp ri n g a n e w a n d d i f -
f e re n t ra c e , q u i t e u n sp o i l e d b y su c h o b n o x i o u s ha b i t s
a s t ha t o f p a y i n g t a x e s a n d d o i n g a n y wo rk . P e rha p s t hi s
i s M rs . R o o se v e l t ' s ho p e e x p re sse d i n he r l a st b o o k i n
X8 7
whi c h she a sse rt s t ha t we mu st c ha n g e hu ma n n a t u re .
M r . R o o se v e l t ' s c ha n c e s t o wi n a n o t he r n o mi n a t i o n
a n d t o b e re - e l e c t e d t o a t hi rd t e rm i n 1 94 0 ha v e b e e n
g re a t l y i mp a i re d b y so me o f hi s o wn wi t l e ss b l u n d e rs .
Of c o u rse , he f a c e s a n a t u ra l d i si n t e g ra t i o n o f t he c a sh-
a n d - c a rry p o l i t i c a l o rg a n i z a t i o n he ha s b u i l t u p b u t t hi s
a l o n e mi g ht n o t b e f a t a l .
N u me ri c a l l y , t he J e ws a re n o t i mp o rt a n t i n p a rt y p o l i -
t i c s b u t t he i n f l u e n c e t he y wi e l d i s n o t me a su re d b y t he i r
n u mb e rs . M r . R o o se v e l t ' s re p e a t e d g e st u re s t o t he i r
v a n i t y i n t he a d v a n c e me n t o f ma n y J e ws t o k e y p o si t i o n s
i n hi s b u re a u c ra c y a t W a shi n g t o n , whe n we i g he d a g a i n st
hi s d e l i b e ra t e i n su l t t o J e ws i n t he a p p o i n t me n t o f t he
v e ry o d d M r . H u g o B l a c k , K K K , t o b e a n a sso c i a t e j u st i c e
o f t he S u p re me Co u rt o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s me re l y e v i -
d e n c e s M r . R o o se v e l t ' s o wn c o n f u si o n i n p u rp o se s a n d
p ri n c i p l e s
. T hi s a p p o i n t me n t n o t o n l y p a ra l y z e d t he
v a n i t y o f ma n y t ho u g ht f u l J e ws b u t i t a l so d e e p l y o f -
f e n d e d ma n y t ho u g ht f u l Ca t ho l i c s . B o t h t he J e ws a n d
Ca t ho l i c s we re c o mp e l l e d t o p a u se a n d c o n si d e r t hi s a p -
p o i n t me n t i n t e rms o f i t s a c t u a l me a n i n g t o t he m a s
i n d i v i d u a l s . N o g re a t i ma g i n a t i o n wa s n e c e ssa ry t o f o re -
se e i t s i mp l i c a t i o n s a s a t hre a t t o mi n o ri t i e s, a s a n o mi n o u s
sha d o w, a s a so l e mn wa rn i n g .
B y c o n si d e ri n g t he c o n su mma t i o n o f M r . H i t l e r' s d e -
l i g ht f u l p ro g ra m o f re g i me n t a t i o n i n Ce n t ra l Eu ro p e , t he
J e ws a n d Ca t ho l i c s c o u l d g e t a f a i rl y c l e a r i d e a o f wha t
ha p p e n s t o mi n o ri t i e s whe n re g i me n t a t i o n i s a n a c c o m-
p l i she d f a c t . T ho u g h Ca rd i n a l M u n d e l e i n ' s l u n c he o n
f o r hi s f ri e n d , M r . R o o se v e l t , i n Oc t o b e r,
1 93 7 ,
ma y ha v e
st i l l e d t he p ro t e st o f so me Ca t ho l i c s a n d c o n f u se d o t he rs,
i n re sp e c t t o t he B l a c k a p p o i n t me n t , n o t a f e w Ca t ho l i c s
re se n t e d t he l u n c he o n a n d t he p u b l i c i t y g i v e n i t a s a
c o mp ro mi se o f t he Chu rc h whi c h t he e st e e me d Ca rd i n a l
o u g ht t o ha v e a v o i d e d
.
T he re i s n o mo re c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t ha t t he o rd e rl y ,
p e a c e a b l e a n d l o n g - c o n t i n u e d f u n c t i o n i n g o f D e mo c ra c y ,
whe re t he su f f ra g e i s u n i v e rsa l , i s b e y o n d a n y re a so n a b l e
1 8 8
e x p e c t a t i o n t ha n a p p e a rs i n t he sho rt - l i v e d d o mi n a t i o n
o f a n y p o l i t i c a l p a rt y o r o f t he d o mi n a n t e l e me n t wi t hi n
a p a rt i c u l a r p a rt y
. T he d ri f t o f a n y p o l i t i c a l p a rt y a n d
t he c o n t ro l l i n g f a c t i o n wi t hi n t ha t p a rt y i s t o wa rd g re a t e r'
a rro g a n c e , t y ra n n y a n d c o rru p t i o n . U l t i ma t e d e f e a t f o l -
l o ws a b o ri n g f ro m wi t hi n , o r t he l o ss o f c o he si v e st re n g t h
wi t hi n t he p a rt y o r f a c t i o n , f ro m d e se rt i o n a n d re b e l l i o n
.
B o ss G u f f e y l o st hi s g ri p o n t he N e w D e a l a u t o c ra c y i n
P e n n sy l v a n i a b e c a u se o f hi s o wn t y ra n n y a n d b e c a u se o f
t he c o n f l i c t i n g a mb i t i o n s o f me n he ha d e l e v a t e d t o p l a c e
a n d p o we r . S o b i t t e r d i d t he re se n t me n t b e c o me t ha t
me n who o n c e se rv e d hi s p u rp o se s a n d we re d i sa p p o i n t e d
i n t he i r sha re o f t he sp o i l s p re f e rre d t o g i v e se c re t o r
e v e n o p e n su p p o rt t o t he c a n d i d a t e s o f t he o p p o si t i o n
p a rt y . T hu s wa s sma she d t he p e t t y t y ra n n y he ha d
c re a t e d .
T he st ru g g l e b e t we e n t wo N e w D e a l f a c t i o n s, o n e l e d
b y t he M a y o r o f Chi c a g o a n d t he o t he r b y t he G o v e rn o r
o f Il l i n o i s, e v e n t u a l l y wi l l d e f e a t b o t h f a c t i o n s .
T he a rro g a n c e o f t he N e w D e a l f a c t i o n i n In d i a n a re -
su l t e d i n a re b e l l i o n t ha t wo u l d ha v e a n n i hi l a t e d i t c o m-
p l e t e l y i n 1 93 8 , e x c e p t f o r t he c a sh d i st ri b u t e d b y M r .
R o o se v e l t . Ev e n so , i t su f f e re d a ma j o r d i sa st e r i n In d i -
a n a .
T he l o n g su c c e ss o f T a mma n y H a l l , t he d o mi n a n t
f a c t i o n o f t he D e mo c ra t i c p a rt y i n N e w Yo rk Ci t y , i s
p e c u l i a r t o t he hi st o ry o f p o l i t i c a l p a rt i e s . A s a d o mi n a n t
f a c t i o n i n a n y p a rt y , i t ha s su rv i v e d l o n g e st b e c a u se o f
t he d i v e rsi f i e d c ha ra c t e r o f t he p o p u l a t i o n o f N e w Yo rk
Ci t y , t he d i sc i p l i n e wi t hi n i t s o wn ra n k s a n d i t s c a n d i d
a d o p t i o n o f t he p ri n c i p l e t ha t p o l i t i c s i s a y e a r- a ro u n d
b u si n e ss a n d o u g ht t o b e c o n d u c t e d o n a c a sh b a si s
. T he
a l e rt M r . D e we y c a me v e ry c l o se t o d e f e a t i n g T a mma n y
.
D u e t o t he i n e v i t a b l e d ri f t o f p o l i t i c a l p a rt i e s a n d
f a c t i o n s wi t hi n p o l i t i c a l p a rt i e s t o g re a t e r a rro g a n c e ,
t y ra n n y a n d c o rru p t i o n , t he p o l i t i c a l whe e l o f f o rt u n e i s
f o re v e r sp i n n i n g . A s M a j o r B o we s sa y s whe n he ha s
ma rsha l l e d t he a ma t e u rs, " A ro u n d a n d a ro u n d i t g o e s,
1 8 g
a n d whe re i t st o p s, n o b o d y k n o ws . " T hu s, t he e c o n o mi c
f o rt u n e s o f mo re t ha n o n e hu n d re d a n d t we n t y mi l l i o n
p e rso n s a re d e t e rmi n e d f ro m t i me t o t i me . T hu s i s
so u n d so c i a l p ro g re ss t o b e a t t a i n e d . T hu s, i t wo u l d
a p p e a r why t he wa y t o a n y p ro g re ss d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o
ha v e b e e n f o u n d . In o u r st ru g g l e f o r mo re D e mo c ra c y ,
we ha v e f a i l e d t o t a k e st o c k o f a c hi e v e me n t s
. W e ha v e
f a l se l y a ssu me d t ha t t he a c hi e v e me n t s ha d f o l l o we d b e -
c a u se , p e rha p s we ha v e c o n f u se d o u r c a p a c i t y t o ma k e
a n i mp ro v e d a u t o mo b i l e wi t h o u r c a p a c i t y t o g o v e rn
o u rse l v e s
. Imp ro v e d c i t i z e n shi p i s n o t su b j e c t t o t he
sa me t e st a s g re a t e r ma c hi n e e f f i c i e n c y .
P e rha p s we ha v e e rre d i n c o n f u si n g so c i a l a n d c i v i c
p ro g re ss wi t h p ro g re ss t o wa rd s me c ha n i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e s .
T he re i s n o e v i d e n c e t ha t a n e l e c t ri c swe e p e r o r p o we r
t ra c t o r ha s t he sl i g ht e st re l a t i o n t o b e t t e r g o v e rn me n t
.
T he re i s n o e v i d e n c e t ha t hu ma n n a t u re ha s b e e n c ha n g e d
i n a n y wa y b y a l l t he i n v e n t i o n s p l u s a l l t he sc i e n t i f i c
d i sc o v e ri e s f ro m G a l i l e o t o Ed i so n .
T he c l i c he o f t he so - c a l l e d " l i b e ra l s" t ha t " mo re
d e mo c ra c y " i s p o sse sse d o f c u ra t i v e p ro p e rt i e s i s f u l l y
su p p o rt e d b y N i k o l a i Le n i n
: 2 " W i t h a n i mme n se e x p a n -
si o n o f d e mo c ra c y * - f o r t he f i rst t i me b e c o mi n g d e mo c -
ra c y f o r t he p o o r, d e mo c ra c y f o r t he p e o p l e , a n d
n o t *
d e mo c ra c y f o r t he ri c h f o l k , " he sa y s, " t he d i c t a t o rshi p
o f t he p ro l e t a ri a t wi l l p ro d u c e a se ri e s o f re st ri c t i o n s o f
l i b e rt y i n t he c a se o f t he o p p re sso rs, e x p l o i t e rs a n d c a p i -
t a l i st s . "
Ou r Ec o n o mi c R o y a l i st s, o u r i n d u st ri a l ma n a g e rs, o u r
e mb a t t l e d f a rme rs a l re a d y ha v e b e c o me a c q u a i n t e d wi t h
" re st ri c t i o n s o f l i b e rt y . "
Le n i n g o e s o n t o sa y : 2
" W e mu st c ru sh t he m i n o rd e r
t o f re e hu ma n i t y f ro m wa g e - sl a v e ry
; t he i r re si st a n c e mu st
b e b ro k e n b y
f o rc e . * It i s c l e a r t ha t whe re t he re i s
su p p re ssi o n *
t he re mu st a l so b e v i o l e n c e * a n d t he re
2 " Imp e ri a l i sm a n d T he S t a t e a n d R e v o l u t i o n " b y N i k o l a i Le n i n (Va n -
g u a rd P re ss) p . 1 93 .
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
Ig o
c a n n o t b e l i b e rt y o r d e mo c ra c y . " * T he p re se n t p l i g ht
o f t he p o o r mu j i k , t he t e rro r i n hi g h S o v i e t c i rc l e s, S i b e ri a
a n d t he f i ri n g sq u a d a t t e st t he f o rc e , t he v i o l e n c e , t he
su p p re ssi o n , a s mi l e p o st s o n t he wa y t o t he " n e w l i f e "
o f Le n i n . T he mi l e p o st s whi c h ma rk t he wa y t o " t he
mo re a b u n d a n t l i f e " o f R o o se v e l t sho u l d b e f a mi l i a r .
If
mo re D e mo c ra c y
ha s f a i l e d t o p ro v i d e u s wi t h b e t t e r
g o v e rn me n t , so ha s t he e d u c a t i o n a l sy st e m u p o n whi c h
i t wa s t ho u g ht we c o u l d re l y . T o g e t he r t he y ha v e p ro -
d u c e d , a f t e r a sp a n o f y e a rs, wha t G a sse t c a l l s
8
t he " so v e r-
e i g n t y o f t he u n q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l . " In t he l i f e o f
P e ri c l e s, P l u t a rc h re l a t e s t ha t Ep hi a l t e s g a v e t he p e o p l e
" so c o p i o u s a n d so st ro n g a d ra u g ht o f l i b e rt y " t ha t t he y
b e c a me " wi l d a n d u n ru l y , l i k e a n u n ma n a g e a b l e ho rse . "
T o o mu c h " d e mo c ra c y " ha s ha d t he sa me e f f e c t i n
A me ri c a .
T he re i s o n e p a ra g ra p h i n t he wri t i n g s o f t he l a t e M r .
Le n i n 4 whi c h, i f re a d a n d u n d e rst o o d b y f a rm o wn e rs,
ho me o wn e rs, o r p ro p e rt y o wn e rs o f a n y c a t e g o ry , wo u l d
f i n i sh M r . R o o se v e l t ' s Co mmu n i st i c c a re e r wi t h a c o m-
p l e t e n e ss t ha t wo u l d i mp re ss e v e n t he st o l i d M r . S t a l i n .
T he p a ra g ra p h i s c o n d e n se d f o r b re v i t y a n d c l a ri t y
:
" T he mo re c o mp l e t e t he d e mo c ra c y , . t he n e a re r t he
mo me n t whe n i t c e a se s t o b e n e c e ssa ry . . . t he mo re
ra p i d l y d o e s e v e ry f o rm o f t he st a t e b e g i n t o d e c a y
. "
In o t he r wo rd s, u n i v e rsa l su f f ra g e o p e ra t e s t o d e st ro y
t he st a t e , o r o rg a n i z e d g o v e rn me n t , a s n o w u n d e rst o o d .
T hi s me a n s n o t hi n g mo re n o r l e ss t ha n t ha t t he c o n t ro l
o f e l e c t i o n s b y v o t e rs who (a s t he y ma y b e l i e v e ) ha v e
n o t hi n g t o l o se (n o p ro p e rt y o f t he i r o wn ) f ro m t he
d e c a y o f t he st a t e wi l l q u i c k l y b ri n g a b o u t t he c o l l a p se
o f t he st a t e , o r o rg a n i z e d g o v e rn me n t , a n d t he re u p o n t he
e n d o f t he p ri v a t e o wn e rshi p o f p ro p e rt y .
P e rha p s we sha l l ha v e t o st o p sp e n d i n g so mu c h mo n e y
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
s Ort e g a y G a sse t , " T he R e v o l t o f t he M a sse s" (W . W . N o rt o n & Co . , In c . )
p . s5 .
* " Imp e ri a l i sm a n d T he S t a t e a n d R e v o l u t i o n " b y N i k o l a i Le n i n (Va n -
g u a rd P re ss) p . R o y .
1 9 1
f o r e d u c a t i o n , o r ra t he r so mu c h mo n e y i n t he n a me o f
e d u c a t i o n
. P e rha p s we sha l l f i n d t ha t so ma n y t hi n g s
t ha t a re n o w " f re e " re a l l y c o st mo n e y whi c h we c a n ' t
a f f o rd t o p ro v i d e
. P e rha p s we wi l l b e b e t t e r o f f whe n we
c e a se t o p ro v i d e t he m a t a l l
.
D u e t o o u r p e rsi st e n t f a i l u re t o p a u se a n d c o n si d e r,
p e rha p s we a re t o g o t hro u g h t he wri n g e r
. If we d o t ha t ,
we a re b o u n d t o c o n c l u d e t ha t
mo re D e mo c ra c y ha s n o t
b e e n e sp e c i a l l y he l p f u l .
It i s a l t o g e t he r p o ssi b l e t ha t
t ho se who g e t t hro u g h t he wri n g e r i n a n y f a shi o n , a t t he
su g g e st i o n o f t he Ca e sa r who wi l l t u rn t he c ra n k , ma y
c o n c l u d e n o t t o b e so g e n e ro u s wi t h t he su f f ra g e a s we re
t he i r a n c e st o rs i n p re - wri n g e r d a y s
. It i s a l so p o ssi b l e
t ha t t he su rv i v o rs o f t he wri n g e r, wi t h t he c o n se n t a n d
a p p ro v a l o f Ca e sa r, wi l l k n o w b e t t e r wha t t o d o a b o u t
P ro g re ssi v e s, N e w D e a l e rs, Li b e ra l s, S o c i a l i st s, Co mmu -
n i st s, t he
c . i . o . , K K K , P ro hi b i t i o n , t he
n e w l i f e , t he mo re
a b u n d a n t l i f e
a n d sp e n d i n g o u rse l v e s o u t o f b a n k ru p t c y
.
Of t he p re - wri n g e r d a y s, i t ma y b e sa i d t he c o u n t ry
ha d b e c o me a c q u a i n t e d wi t h a n d c a p a b l e o f re p e l l i n g a
p l a g u e o f l o c u st s e v e ry se v e n y e a rs b u t u n t i l t he N e w
D e a l swa rme d , t he c o u n t ry wa s u n a c c u st o me d t o a
p e rp e t u a l p l a g u e
.
" T he g o v e rn me n t t ha t d e st ro y s t he c o n f i d e n c e i n i t
o f i t s p e o p l e n e v e r su rv i v e s i t , a n d t hi s g o v e rn me n t i s
f a st d e st ro y i n g t ha t c o n f i d e n c e
. "
R o b e rt B u rt o n a n t i c i p a t e d t he N e w D e a l i n hi s
" A n a t o my o f M e l a n c ho l y "
:
" W he re su c h k i n d o f me n swa rm, t he y wi l l ma k e mo re
wo rk f o r t he mse l v e s, a n d t ha t b o d y p o l i t i c k d i se a se d ,
whi c h wa s o t he rwi se so u n d
. "
If t he mo ra l a sp e c t s o f t he c a re e r o f R i c ha rd W hi t n e y
i n i t s l a st p ha se s a n d o f t he N e w D e a l i n i t s re l e n t l e ss
c o u rse si n c e M a rc h 4 ,
1 93 3 ,
a re d i sre g a rd e d , t he re re ma i n
t he e c o n o mi c a sp e c t s o f a d e a d l y p a ra l l e l so st ri k i n g t ha t
s R a y mo n d T i f f a n y , g e n e ra l c o u n se l N a t i o n a l S ma l l B u si n e ssme n ' s A sso c i a -
t i o n o f N e w Yo rk b e f o re U n i v e rsi t y o f Vi rg i n i a ' s In st i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i rs,
1 93 8 , N e w Yo rk T i me s
J u l y 9, 1 98 8 .
1 92
t he o u t c o me o f W hi t n e y ' s o f f e n se s c l e a rl y f o re sha d o ws
t he c o n se q u e n c e s o f N e w D e a l p o l i c i e s
.
W hi t n e y b e c a me i n v o l v e d o ri g i n a l l y a s a re su l t o f t he
st o c k ma rk e t c ra sh o f 1 92 9 whi c h, b e c a u se o f p ro p e rt y
v a l u e s a n d c u rre n t i n c o me t ha t we re d e st ro y e d , i n d u e
c o u rse , i n v o l v e d t he f i sc a l p o l i c i e s o f t he F e d e ra l , st a t e
a n d mu n i c i p a l g o v e rn me n t s . W hi t n e y b o rro we d f ro m
re l a t i v e s, f ro m f ri e n d s, f ro m a n y o n e who wo u l d l e n d
.
A s hi s si t u a t i o n b e c a me mo re d e sp e ra t e , he " b o rro we d "
se c u ri t i e s i n hi s p e rso n a l p o sse ssi o n b u t he l d b y hi m
i n a
t ru st c a p a c i t y a n d hy p o t he c a t e d t he m f o r p e rso n a l l o a n s
i n t he f u t i l e ho p e t ha t b y p o st p o n i n g d i sa st e r, he mi g ht
a v e rt i t a l t o g e t he r
. H i s d e b t s g re w a s hi s c ri me s mu l t i -
p l i e d
. T he re c a me a t i me whe n a l l hi s re so u rc e s, l e g a l
a n d i l l e g a l , we re e x ha u st e d , whe n n o mo re c o l l a t e ra l
c o u l d b e " b o rro we d " o r st o l e n a n d whe n n o b o d y t ru st e d
hi s p e rso n a l ho n o r.
F ro m t he b e g i n n i n g , t he N e w D e a l b o rro we d a l mo st
e x c l u si v e l y f ro m f ri e n d s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s T re a su ry ,
t ha t i s, t he b a n k s . A f ri e n d l y re l a t i o n shi p b e t we e n t he
T re a su ry a n d t he b a n k s wa s c u l t i v a t e d b y me a n s o f su c h
mi n o r d e c e p t i o n s a s t he o p e n ma rk e t p u rc ha se o f b o n d s,
whi c h wa s f o u n d n e c e ssa ry t o ma i n t a i n a st a b l e p ri c e ,
a n d b y me a n s o f l o a n s o n f ro z e n a sse t s f o r whi c h t he
R F c
t o o k t he p l e d g e d a sse t s a s c o l l a t e ra l . G ra d u a l l y , t he b a n k s
c o n v e rt e d mi sc e l l a n e o u s a sse t s i n t o g o v e rn me n t b o n d s
wi t h t he e n c o u ra g e me n t , o f c o u rse , o f t he T re a su ry a n d
a s e a rl y a s t he su mme r o f 1 93 6 , t he b a n k s he l d su c h a
l a rg e sha re o f t he e n t i re p u b l i c d e b t t ha t t he i r c a p a c i t y t o
a b so rb a d d i t i o n a l b o n d s wa s c o n si d e re d d o u b t f u l .
A t t hi s p e ri o d i n t he c a re e r o f t he N e w D e a l , a c l e v e r
me a n s wa s d e v i se d o f b o rro wi n g a n a d d i t i o n a l b i l l i o n
d o l l a rs a n n u a l l y wi t ho u t f u rt he r t a p p i n g t he c a p a c i t y o r
c re d i t o f t he T re a su ry ' s v e ry c o rd i a l f ri e n d s, t he b a n k s .
S i n c e t he N e w D e a l wa s p l e d g e d n o t o n l y t o " re c o v e ry "
b u t t o " re f o rm, " i t wa s p ro p o se d t o c o l l e c t o n e b i l l i o n
d o l l a rs a n n u a l l y f ro m b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry f o r t he p re -
t e n d e d se c u ri t y o f t he a g e d , i n d i g e n t a n d u n e mp l o y e d .
1 93
T he c o l l e c t i v e mi n d o f t he N e w D e a l a n d t ha t o f R i c ha rd
W hi t n e y a p p e a r t o ha v e b e e n wo rk i n g i n p a ra l l e l g ro o v e s
a t t hi s p o i n t , si n c e t he T re a su ry b e g a n hy p o t he c a t i n g t he
f u n d s re c e i v e d f o r c u rre n t sp e n d i n g a s so o n a s t he y b e g a n
t o a rri v e i n W a shi n g t o n
. T he T re a su ry t he re b y a v o i d e d
o f f e ri n g s o f b o n d s i n a n e q u i v a l e n t v o l u me t o i t s g o o d
f ri e n d s, t he b a n k s
. B u t t hi s wa s o n l y a n i n t e rme d i a t e
p ha se .
A l l t he p re v i o u s b o rro wi n g s, p l u s a l l t he p re v i o u s n e w
t a x e s, p l u s t he hy p o t he c a t i o n , e x p ro p ri a t i o n o r c o n f i sc a -
t i o n o f so c i a l se c u ri t y t ru st f u n d s a re i n su f f i c i e n t f o r t he
mo u n t i n g d e b t s o f t he N e w D e a l . A n o t he r e l e c t i o n
g e n e ra t e d i t s o wn i n d e p e n d e n t sp i ri t o f d e sp e ra t i o n a n d
t he N e w D e a l , a s l a t e l y we sa w R i c ha rd W hi t n e y , i s a p -
p ro a c hi n g i t s l a st p ha se
. D e st e ri l i z a t i o n o f g o l d , a l o we r-
i n g o f b a n k re se rv e re q u i re me n t s, wi d e n i n g t he t a x b a se
a n d i n c re a si n g ra t e s a n d n e w b o rro wi n g s whi c h su rp a ss
a n y p ri o r re c k l e ssn e ss a re b o rn o f t he sa me d e sp a i r whi c h
c a rri e d R i c ha rd W hi t n e y t o hi s i n e v i t a b l e d o o m, si n c e
he ha d b o rro we d f ro m P e t e r t o p a y P a u l
. In t he e n d ,
W hi t n e y ro b b e d P e t e r t o p a y P a u l whi c h i s mo re t ha n
t he N e w D e a l wi l l a c c o mp l i sh f o r whi l e P e t e r wi l l b e
ro b b e d , P a u l wi l l n o t b e p a i d .
A l i mi t e d n u mb e r su f f e rs f ro m t he c o n se q u e n c e s o f
W hi t n e y ' s u n d e rt a k i n g t o b o rro w hi mse l f o u t o f f i n a n c i a l
d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d t o re l i e v e t he st re ss o f a d e b t b u rd e n b y
d e c e p t i v e p ra c t i c e s, whi c h, e n g a g e d i n b y a n i n d i v i d u a l ,
so c i e t y l a b e l s a s c ri me s . T he su f f e ri n g whi c h si mi l a r
p ra c t i c e s b y t he N e w D e a l b u c c a n e e rs wi l l c a u se i s i n -
c a l c u l a b l e a n d t he n u mb e r i n v o l v e d i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t he
p o p u l a t i o n o f t he who l e c o u n t ry . W ha t p e n a l t i e s wi l l b e
i n f l i c t e d o n t ho se p e rso n s mo st re sp o n si b l e f o r t he d i st re ss
i s wi t hi n t he re a l m o f sp e c u l a t i o n b u t t he c o n j e c t u re d o e s
n o t se e m f a r- f e t c he d t ha t t he y wi l l n o t a c c e p t t he p e n a l t i e s
wi t h t he sa me c a n d i d a d mi ssi o n s a n d t he sa me u n f l i n c h-
i n g c o u ra g e a s t he f o rme r p re si d e n t o f t he N e w Yo rk
S t o c k Ex c ha n g e
. A f t e r a l l , t he re ma y b e a d i f f e re n c e i n
t he b l o o d t ha t c o u rse s t hro u g h t he v e i n s o f R i c ha rd
1 94
W hi t n e y a n d t ha t whi c h f l o ws t hro u g h t he v e i n s, f o r
e x a mp l e , o f S e n a t o r S he rma n M i n t o n o f In d i a n a .
T he t he o ry i s f re q u e n t l y a d v a n c e d t ha t M r . R o o se v e l t
i s b e i n g d i g n i f i e d wi t h p u rp o se s a n d d e si g n s o f whi c h he
i s b i o l o g i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e a n d t ha t f a c t u a l me a su re me n t o f
t he ma n wo u l d st ri p hi m o f a l l a rmo r sa v e t he wi l l o f a
me g l o ma n i a c a n d t he mi n d o f a si mp l e t o n
. T he re i s
so me e v i d e n c e t o su p p o rt t hi s hy p o t he si s, p a rt i c u l a rl y hi s
p e rsi st e n c e i n p u rsu i n g b y wa y o f p se u d o - M a rx i a n
f o rmu l a e hi s o wn p o l i t i c a l ru i n
. If he ha d re a d wi d e l y ,
i f he we re p o sse sse d o f t he p o we r o f a n a l y si s, i f he we re
a re a l l y d e e p t hi n k e r, i t i s a rg u e d , he wo u l d b e so me t hi n g
mo re t ha n a n o v i t i a t e i n p o l i t i c a l e c o n o my a n d , i n su c h
e v e n t , wo u l d k n o w ho w sha l l o w a n d su p e rf i c i a l a n d ho w
mu c h a t v a ri a n c e wi t h f a c t s i s t he l o g i c , f o r e x a mp l e , o f
U p t o n S i n c l a i r, S t u a rt Cha se a n d t he j u v e n i l e " i n t e l -
l e c t u a l s" a n d v i si o n a ry p e d a g o g u e s
. W ha t e v e r t he b i o -
l o g i c a l t ru t h ma y b e , t he c o n se q u e n c e s a re t he sa me
.
T he me re f a c t t ha t a l l S o c i a l i st s a n d Co mmu n i st s, o n c e
t he y ha v e wo n t he p o we r t o wri t e t he i r o wn p a rt i n a
p o l i t i c a l d ra ma , q u i c k l y a re me t a mo rp ho se d i n t o F a sc i st s,
N a z i s, d i c t a t o rs,
i . e . , Ca e sa rs, o u g ht t o b e c o n v i n c i n g t ha t
S o c i a l i sm a n d Co mmu n i sm a re n o t ro o t e d i n t he hu ma n
so u l
; t ha t t he y a re i l l u si o n s, f a n t a si e s, c a mo u f l a g e , sc a re -
c ro ws, " su c h st u f f a s d re a ms a re ma d e o f
. " T he i r n a t u re
i s su c h t ha t t he i rs i s a mo st n a t u ra l a p p e a l t o t he p e d a -
g o g u e s who g o t hro u g h l i f e i n t he d e l u si o n t ha t t he c l a ss-
ro o m i s a c ro ss se c t i o n o f so c i e t y
. T he c o l l e g e se mi n a r
i s n o mo re t ha n a n a d v a n c e d k i n d e rg a rt e n a n d b e c a u se
i t wa n t s, a n d n e c e ssa ri l y so , t he a t mo sp he re o f b ro a d
hu ma n e x p e ri e n c e , i t i s n e v e r a b l e t o ri se a b o v e t he
c o mmo n p l a c e
. B u t a l l t hi s a l so e x p l a i n s t he ma n y we i rd
a l p ha b e t i c a l c o n c e p t s b o rn i n t he k i n d e rg a rt e n o f t he
b ra i n t ru st a n d n o w ma n i p u l a t e d b y Co he n , R o o se v e l t
a n d Co rc o ra n .
It i s v e ry n a t u ra l f o r M r
. R o o se v e l t t o b e mo st g e n e ro u s
wi t h t he a c c u mu l a t e d sa v i n g s o f hi s f e l l o w ma n
b e c a u se hi s o wn e c o n o mi c n e c e ssi t i e s we re i n su re d b y
1 9 5
f ru g a l a n c e st o rs b u t hi s c o n f u si o n a ri se s i n hi s i n a b i l i t y
t o c re a t e a p p l i c a b l e d o g ma s . M a rx i a n f o rmu l a e ha v e
b e e n se i z e d u p o n i n t he sa me re c k l e ss sp i ri t wi t h whi c h
G re e n wi c h Vi l l a g e o v e rf l o we d a g e n e ra t i o n a g o whe n t he
l o n g - ha i re d b o y s se t t he t e mp o o f t he " c l a ss st ru g g l e . "
A shi f t f ro m t he sc ho l a rl y t he si s o f Oswa l d S p e n g l e r' s
" T he D e c l i n e o f t he W e st " t o U p t o n S i n c l a i r' s so a p - b o x
ha ra n g u e " A me ri c a ' s F a l se D e mo c ra c y " ' i s e n o u g h t o
d e st ro y t he rhy t hm o f t he hu ma n so u l
. S i n c l a i r' s v i si o n
o f " D e mo c ra c y i n i n d u st ry " ma y b e me rg e d wi t h t he f i rst
i mp e ri a l d e c re e o f a n A me ri c a n Ca e sa r . It so ha p p e n s
t ha t M r . S i n c l a i r a n d M r . R o o se v e l t a re t a k i n g t he i r
se p a ra t e p o l i t i c a l p i t c he rs t o t he sa me we l l
.
T he p i c t u re o f p re se n t - d a y l e g i sl a t i v e a sse mb l i e s,
whe t he r i n W a shi n g t o n , S p ri n g f i e l d , Co l u mb u s o r H a rri s-
b u rg , i s a so rd i d b a c k g ro u n d f ro m whi c h t o e x p e c t a n y
wi se l e g i sl a t i o n . N o t mu c h sho u l d b e e x p e c t e d , i n t he
c i rc u mst a n c e s, a n d n o t mu c h o f he l p f u l v a l u e , i n a n y
e v e n t , i s t o b e ha d .
T he so - c a l l e d so l i d a n d su b st a n t i a l c i t i z e n s, me a n i n g
t ho se ha v i n g a n e t wo rt h o f a t l e a st $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 a n d who
p ro d u c e so me t hi n g b e si d e s a st e n c h, c o u l d i f t he y o n l y
wo u l d , c a l l t he t u n e f o r t he g e n t ry t he y se n d t o W a shi n g -
t o n ; e i t he r t ha t , o r t he y mi g ht e n f o rc e t he i r c o mb i n e d
wi l l s u p o n t he p o p u l a c e i n v a ri o u s a n d d i v e rs wa y s . T he y
a re n o t l i k e l y t o ma k e a c o mp l e t e j o b o f e i t he r u n t i l
d ri v e n t o i t b y a c o mp l e t e e c o n o mi c c o l l a p se a n d u n l e ss,
i n t he me a n t i me , t he y d o so me t hi n k i n g o n t he i r o wn a c -
c o u n t t he y a re a p t t o b e d e v o i d o f i d e a s, whe n t he c ra c k - u p
c o me s .
In sp i t e o f t he a ssu ra n c e o f t he J o n e se s, t ha t G o d ' s i n
H i s H e a v e n , M r . R o o se v e l t i s i n W a shi n g t o n a n d a l l ' s
ri g ht wi t h t he wo rl d , i t i s b e t t e r t ha n a n o d d s- o n wa g e r
t ha t c o me s
1
94 1 , F ra n k l i n D e l a n o R o o se v e l t , i f he l i v e s
so l o n g , wi l l d e p a rt f ro m t he ma n si o n o n P e n n sy l v a n i a
A v e n u e , whe re he ha s e n j o y e d f re e re n t f o r e i g ht y e a rs,
t he mo st t ho ro u g hl y d i sc re d i t e d P re si d e n t i n t he who l e
6 T he A me ri c a n M e rc u ry ,
J u n e , 1 93 8 .
1 9 6
hi st o ry o f t he c o u n t ry
; a l so , t he mo st g e n e ra l l y ha t e d .
A n d re w J o hn so n , W i l l i a m H o wa rd T a f t , W o o d ro w
W i l so n a n d H e rb e rt H o o v e r e a c h l e f t t he W hi t e H o u se
u n d e r a c l o u d o f u n p o p u l a ri t y b u t t he d i sf a v o r whi c h
ma rk e d t he e n d o f t he i r t e rms, wi t h o n e e x c e p t i o n , wa s
n o t a c c e n t u a t e d b y p e rso n a l b i t t e rn e ss . A n d re w J o hn so n
wa s t he i n n o c e n t v i c t i m o f a p o l i t i c a l c o n sp i ra c y . M r.
R o o se v e l t c a n sc a rc e l y e sc a p e t he d i sd a i n a n d c o n t e mp t
o f t he mu l t i t u d e he ha s c o d d l e d si n c e t he N e w D e a l
" re c e ssi o n " ha s su rp a sse d t he H o o v e r " d e p re ssi o n " i n
i n t e n si t y , sc o p e a n d d u ra t i o n .
U n d o u b t e d l y , R o o se v e l t ha s l o st t he c o n f i d e n c e a n d
re sp e c t o f a l l p e rso n s who ha v e ha d t i me t o t hi n k . T he re
i s n o c ha n c e f o r hi m t o re g a i n t he i r g o o d wi l l o r c o n -
f i d e n c e
. T he mu si c o f a " g ra c i o u s v o i c e , " p l u s t a n g i b l e
b e n e f i t s ha d a n d re c e i v e d t o t hi s d a t e , ha v e l u re d t he
mu l t i t u d e b u t t he c ha rm o f t he mu si c a l o n e c a n ha rd l y
b e d e p e n d e d u p o n whe n t he b e n e f i t s ha v e c e a se d o r
p ro v e d i n su f f i c i e n t
. A s a P i e d P i p e r i n 1 93 9 a n d 1 94 0 ,
M r . R o o se v e l t wi l l n e e d mo re t ha n a p i p e
.
T o o l o n g ha s M r
. R o o se v e l t sc o f f e d a t t he o p i n i o n s o f
t ho se p e rso n s who ha v e a sk e d t he mse l v e s, whi t he r a re
we d ri f t i n g ? t o b e e n t i t l e d t o a n y mo re sy mp a t hy t ha n he
wi l l re c e i v e , whi c h i s e x a c t l y n o n e a t a l l
. W ha t i f he d o e s
su mmo n Ec o n o mi c R o y a l i st s a n d Li t t l e B u si n e ss t o W a sh-
i n g t o n f o r c o n f e re n c e s n o w a n d a g a i n ? Ev e ry b o d y k n o ws
hi s p u rp o se i s t o c a p t u re t he i r p o l i t i c a l f e a l t y a n d su p p o rt
.
H i s o b j e c t i v e s a re a s t ra n sp a re n t a s t ho se o f a d e b u t a n t e
a t he r c o mi n g o u t p a rt y
. N o b o d y e x p e c t s hi m t o a c c e p t
a n d a c t o n a n y wa rn i n g o r a d v i c e a n d a l l k n o w t ha t wha t
he se e k s i s a p p ro v a l o f wha t he ha s a l re a d y d o n e o r i s
a b o u t t o d o
. A l l k n o w o n e f u rt he r t hi n g whi c h i s t ha t
i f he f a i l s t o g e t t he p l a u d i t s o f t he c o n f e re n c e , t he me e t -
i n g i s p ro mp t l y a d j o u rn e d
.
If t he o b j e c t i o n i s ma d e b y t ho se who st i l l ho l d D o c t o r
R o o se v e l t i n e st e e m b e c a u se t he y l i v e o f f wha t he e x t o rt s
f ro m t he t a x p a y e r t ha t o u r p a t ho l o g y o n M a rc h 4 , 1 93 3 ,
wa s so c ri t i c a l n o me d i c i n e wa s p o we rf u l e n o u g h t o a rre st
1 97
t he f u l l c o u rse o f t he d i se a se , t he a n swe r i s t ha t t hi s i s t he
sa me d i a g n o si s a s t ha t a n n o u n c e d b y t he l e a rn e d D o c t o r
H o o v e r . T he re i s t hi s f u rt he r t hi n g t o b e sa i d o f t he
d i a g n o si s . It wa s a n n o u n c e d b y D o c t o r H o o v e r l o n g
b e f o re M a rc h 4 , 1 93 3 , a n d b e f o re n o t a f t e r t he N a t i o n
ha d i n v e st e d so me t hi rt y b i l l i o n d o l l a rs i n t he q u a c k
re me d i e s o f D o c t o r R o o se v e l t a n d t o p ro mo t e hi s a mb i -
t i o n s t o b e c o me a d i c t a t o r .
A f t e r t he 1 93 2 e l e c t i o n , R o o se v e l t ma d e i t v e ry c l e a r
t ha t t he H o o v e r " d e p re ssi o n " wa s n o t hi s " b a b y . " T he
" re c e ssi o n " a p p e a rs t o ha v e p u t a n e n d t o t he H y d e P a rk
v a ri e t y o f wi se - c ra c k s whi c h i s a st e p , a t l e a st , i n t he
d i re c t i o n o f g re a t e r d e c e n c y i n hi g h p l a c e a n d f o r whi c h
t he c o u n t ry ma y b e g ra t e f u l , t ho u g h t he p ri c e i s hi g h
.
If B i g B u si n e ss, ho we v e r, f a i l s t o p a y o f f t he N e w D e a l
d e b t s b y 1 94 0 o r i n c l i n e s t o i n t e rf e re wi t h a n y o f t he
f a n t a st i c a g e n c i e s c re a t e d o u t o f t he a l p ha b e t b y M r .
R o o se v e l t , t he re a re a l re a d y si g n s t ha t a " b a b y , " a b o u t
who se p a re n t a g e t he re i s n o t t he sl i g ht e st d o u b t , wi l l b e
t o t a l l y re p u d i a t e d a s u t t e rl y i l l e g i t i ma t e
. On e o f M r.
R o o se v e l t ' s f a v o ri t e c o l u mn i st s a l re a d y ha s re f e rre d t o
t he " re c e ssi o n " a s a " T o ry d e p re ssi o n
. "
A l t ho u g h ma n y a b l e n e wsp a p e rs a n d ma g a z i n e s ha v e
st re n u o u sl y o p p o se d t he N e w D e a l , u n t i l l a t e l y t he i r i n -
f l u e n c e ha s n o t b e e n a p p a re n t
. T he c u mu l a t i v e e f f e c t o f
t he i r o p p o si t i o n p l u s a
re a l i z a t i o n o f t he c o u n t ry ' s a p -
p ro a c h t o a b so l u t e c ha o s n o w se e m t o b e f e l t . R o o se v e l t ' s
re v e rsi o n t o t he re p ri mi n g o f a sq u e a k y a n d a l e a k y p u mp
ha s f ri g ht e n e d so me o f t he p o l i t i c o s who p re v i o u sl y we re
b l i t he l y i n d i f f e re n t t o so l e mn wa rn i n g s .
D a v i d La wre n c e , D o ro t hy T ho mp so n , G e o rg e S o k o l -
sk y , F ra n k R . K e n t , R a y T u c k e r a n d W a l t e r Li p p ma n n
a l l ha v e d o n e ma st e rf u l wri t i n g , v i s- a - v i s,
t he i mb e c i l i t i e s
o f t he N e w D e a l . La wre n c e , S o k o l sk y a n d Li p p ma n n
a re J e ws . M i ss T ho mp so n i s n o w e n g a g e d ma i n l y i n p i c k -
i n g d a i si e s t o a d o rn t he J e wi sh re f u g e e s a n d , t o b o rro w
f ro m t he wi t o f a n o t he r, whe n n o t so e n g a g e d , a p p e a rs t o
ha v e he r f e e t f i rml y p l a n t e d o n a c l o u d . La wre n c e a n d
1 98
Li p p ma n n ha v e b e c o me so e n t ra n c e d wi t h t he ma g i c o f
" D e mo c ra c y " t ha t t he y a re e n t i t l e d t o p re p a i d f a re s a n d
a n o n st o p f l i g ht t o El y si u m
.
La wre n c e ha s d i sc o v e re d ' wha t , i n f a c t , n o o n e e l se o f
d i sc e rn me n t b e l i e v e s, t ha t " M r
. R o o se v e l t
. . . i s d e e p l y
a n d f u n d a me n t a l l y o p p o se d t o wa r, " i f wa r i s n e c e ssa ry t o
p ro l o n g t he t e n u re o f hi s b u re a u c ra c y
. T he i mmi n e n c e
o f a d i c t a t o rshi p i n F ra n c e f ro m t he we a k n e ss o f a
Co mmu n i st - Le f t i st c o a l i t i o n g o v e rn me n t a n d t he n o t o ri -
o u s c a st e sy st e m whi c h d o mi n a t e s B ri t i sh p o l i t i c s re f l e c t
t he ra shn e ss o f La wre n c e ' s st a t e me n t t ha t " F ra n c e a n d
B ri t a i n a re t o d a y t he b u l wa rk s o f
d e mo c ra c y . " * W he n
La wre n c e p a ra d e s " t he l o n g l i st o f i n su l t s t o t he U n i t e d
S t a t e s, p re se n t e d t hro u g h A me ri c a n d i p l o ma t i c re p re -
se n t a t i v e s a b ro a d , b y t he F a sc i st p o we rs i n t he l a st t wo
y e a rs, " he i s d ra g g i n g f o rt h a re d he rri n g t ha t wi l l e x c i t e
l i t t l e e mo t i o n i n M a i n e a n d Ve rmo n t
. T he ru g g e d R e -
p u b l i c a n s o f t ho se st a t e s a re a p t t o c o n c l u d e t ha t a n y
" i n su l t s t o t he U n i t e d S t a t e s" ha v e b e e n d u e (a ) t o t he
p e rso n a l me d d l i n g o f o u r d i p l o ma t s i n a f f a i rs t ha t a re o u t -
si d e o u r c o n c e rn o r (b ) t o t he ma n y o f f i c i a l i n v i t a t i o n s
t o b e i n su l t e d , e x t e n d e d b y M r
. R o o se v e l t a n d hi s S t a t e
D e p a rt me n t d u ri n g t he p a st t wo y e a rs .
S o me c o l u mn i st s, who e n l i st e d i n t he N e w D e a l f o r t he
d u ra t i o n o f i t s n o n se n se , se e m t o b e u n d o n e b y t he l a t e
t u rn o f e v e n t s
. H e y wo o d B ro u n , who ha s c o l l e c t e d a
sa t i sf a c t o ry sa l a ry f o r mo ro n i c n o n se n se f ro m R o y
H o wa rd ' s n e wsp a p e rs f o r ma n y y e a rs, se e ms i n c a p a b l e o f
t he sa me sp o n t a n e o u s hu mo r he e x u d e d b e f o re S o c i a l i sm
b e c a me a f a c t
. J a y F ra n k l i n , sp o n so r o f t he N e w D e a l ,
wa s d a n g e ro u sl y n e a r a p o p l e x y whe n P a t H a rri so n a n d
J o hn J . O' Co n n o r v i o l a t e d t he sa n c t i t y o f t he p e rso n o f
t he G re a t W hi t e F a t he r b y g i v i n g hi m a c o u p l e o f k i c k s
o n t he shi n s .
F ra n k l i n ' s e mo t i o n a l he a t , t o i n su re a
so u n d re c o v e ry , ma y re q u i re t he a t t e n t i o n s o f t he N e w
D e a l sa n c t u a ry f o r st ra y d o g s c o n st ru c t e d a t M e mp hi s .
v In d i a n a p o l i s N e y ws,
F e b ru a ry s, 1 98 9 .
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
1 99
W he t he r t he i ssu e o f t he mo me n t i s i n c o mp e t e n c e a n d
p i l l a g e i n t he a d mi n i st ra t i o n o f T v A ;
wa st e f u l n e ss a n d
e x t ra v a g a n c e i n g o v e rn me n t d e p a rt me n t s g e n e ra l l y ; b e -
wi l d e rme n t i n b u si n e ss
; shi f t i n g t he b u rd e n o n Ec o n o mi c
R o y a l i st s t he mse l v e s t o e n d t he d e p re ssi o n o r su f f e r n e w
re g i me n t a t i o n
; o r t he o b st ru c t i o n o f re c o v e ry b y me a n s o f
so me o u t ra g e o u s t a x me a su re , t ho se f o rl o rn a n d d e sp a i r-
i n g c re a t u re s who c ry i n t he N e w D e a l wi l d e rn e ss se e m
t o f o rg e t t ha t a l l t he c o n f u si o n , e v e ry k i n d o f d i sa st e r,
a n y n e w a n d mo n st ro u s i mp o si t i o n o n t he t a x p a y e r c o n -
t ri b u t e t o t he f u l f i l l me n t o f M r . R o o se v e l t ' s ma i n o b -
j e c t i v e , t ha t i s, t he re d i st ri b u t i o n o f we a l t h
.
It i s n e c e ssa ry t o re me mb e r t hi s o b j e c t i v e
. It wo u l d b e
f a t a l t o f o rg e t i t
. Ev e n hi s i n c o n si st e n c i e s ha v e a d d e d t o
t he g e n e ra l c o n f u si o n .
T he su p e r c u ri o u s ma y a sc e rt a i n t he f u t u re o f t he N e w
D e a l wi t h mo re o r l e ss e x a c t n e ss b y c o n su l t i n g a l e a rn e d
B o st o n sc i e n t i st ' who ha s d i sc o v e re d a n e w c a l c u l u s
whe re b y he i s a b l e t o p re d i c t wha t ha p p e n s i n a st a t e o f
c o mp l e t e c o n f u si o n . B y t he sa me c a l c u l u s he i s a l so
a b l e t o d e t e rmi n e ho w f a r a d ru n k e n ma n wi l l st a g g e r
i n a g i v e n t i me , a n d t he n e w c a l c u l u s sho u l d b e u se f u l ,
t he re f o re , i n c ha rt i n g t he c o u rse o f i n f l a t i o n u n d e r t he
N e w D e a l .
Ev e ry t hi n g M r . R o o se v e l t su g g e st s, d o e s, o mi t s, a p -
p ro v e s, t o l e ra t e s, o r c o n d o n e s ma y n o w b e t e st e d b y t he
p ro b a b i l i t y o f whe t he r i t i s n o t a f u rt he r c o n t ri b u t i o n t o
t he c o n f u si o n he ha s a l re a d y c a u se d .
N o b o d y ha s p o i n t e d o u t M r
. R o o se v e l t ' s o b v i o u s i n -
t e re st i n ma i n t a i n i n g u n e mp l o y me n t i n su f f i c i e n t v o l u me
t o i n su re hi s c o n t i n u e d p o l i t i c a l su c c e ss t ho u g h a v e ry
i mp re ssi v e c a se ha s b e e n p re se n t e d ' t o sho w hi s o p p o si -
t i o n t o e c o n o mi c re c o v e ry
. S o l o n g a s u n e mp l o y me n t
c o n t i n u e s i n e x c e ss o f
I o , o o o , o o o , t he c o n t i n u e d ma i n -
t e n a n c e o f t he
W P A a n d o t he r su c h a g e n c i e s i s n o t l i k e l y
8 D r
. N o rb e t W e i n e r, p ro f e sso r o f ma t he ma t i c s, M a ssa c hu se t t s In st i t u t e o f
T e c hn o l o g y ,
N e w Yo rk T i me s, S e p t e mb e r 1 3 , 1 93 8 .
O
" R o o se v e l t D o e s N o t W a n t R e c o v e ry , " T he A me ri c a n M e rc u ry , N o v e m-
b e r,
1 93
8 .
2 0 0
t o b e a t t a c k e d , whe re a s t he c o mb i n a t i o n p re se n t s a p o p u -
l a r f ro n t whe n t he p o l l s o p e n t ha t M r . R o o se v e l t mu st
c o n si d e r i n v i n c i b l e . " A n ` u n e mp l o y e d ' e x i st e n c e i s a
wo rse n e g a t i o n o f l i f e t ha n d e a t h i t se l f , " sa y s G a sse t 1 0 b u t
wha t a re " n e g a t i o n s" a n d wha t i s " d e a t h" whe n t he N e w
D e a l t e n u re i s t hre a t e n e d ?
U n d o u b t e d l y , R o o se v e l t re a so n s he ha s ma d e su c h
p ro g re ss i n c re a t i n g c l a ss ha t re d s- a ma ss p sy c ho l o g y e n -
t i re l y f a v o ra b l e t o hi mse l f a n d c o mp l e t e l y ho st i l e t o e v e ry
p o ssi b l e c o mp e t i t o r- t ha t c o me st ri k e s, c o me ri o t s, c o me s
v i o l e n c e , c o me s a re v o l u t i o n , i n t he l a n g u a g e o f t he st re e t ,
he i s
si t t i n g p re t t y
.
In 1 93 5 , a c c o rd i n g t o M r . R o o se v e l t ,
he a n d hi s a d v i so rs " p l a n n e d i t t ha t wa y . "
1 0
Ort e g a y G a sse t , " T he R e v o l t o f t he M a sse s" (W . W
. N o rt o n & Co . ,
In c . ) p . 1 8 .
$ 0 1
CH A P T ER XVI
Co n st ru c t i v e H i n t s Lo o k i n g t o Li q u i d a t i o n
D i sp o si t i o n o f N e w D e a l P e rso n a l i t i e s a n d R e -
l a t e d S p i ri t s A re S u g g e st e d a s H e l p f u l A c t s o f
P re l i mi n a ry N a t u re Ev e n T ho u g h A rt
W i l l S u f f e r W he n t he S t a g e i s
Emp t i e d .
" W he n v i c e p re v a i l s, a n d i mp i o u s me n ho l d swa y ,
T he p o st o f ho n o r i s a p ri v a t e st a t i o n
. "

A d d i so n .
" S e e t he m c l a mb e r, t he se n i mb l e a p e st l
T he y c l a mb e r o v e r o n e a n o t he r,
a n d t hu s sc u f f l e i n t o t he mu d a n d t he a b y ss
. " - T hu s S p a k e Z a ra t hu st ra .
IF T H E c o u n t ry g o e s t hro u g h t he wri n g e r a s a c o n se -
q u e n c e o f p re v i o u s b a d j u d g me n t , i t ma y b e t ha t c e rt a i n
d o mi n a n t p e rso n a l i t i e s a n d g ro u p s o f p re - wri n g e r d a y s
wi l l b e c o me e x t i n c t a s a ma t t e r o f c o u rse
. Or, i t ma y
we l l b e t ha t t he su rv i v o rs wi l l k n o w wha t t o d o a b o u t
t he se p a rt i c u l a r p e rso n a l i t i e s a n d g ro u p s a s a ma t t e r o f
f u t u re se l f - p re se rv a t i o n
. P ro f o u n d st u d e n t s o f hi st o ry
e x p e c t t he re a c t i o n t o b e b o t h sha rp a n d se v e re
. In t he
me a n t i me , i t i s p e rha p s a p ru d e n t p re c a u t i o n t o c o n si d e r
t he d i sp o si t i o n o f t he n u me ro u s p e rso n a l i t i e s i n t he n e w
b u re a u c ra c y , a s a c o n t e mp o ra ry d u t y .
" T he re i s o n l y
p e rso n a l hi st o ry a n d c o n se q u e n t l y o n l y
p e rso n a l p o l i t i c s, " sa y s S p e n g l e r
. ' " T he st ru g g l e o f , n o t
p ri n c i p l e s b u t me n , n o t i d e a l s b u t ra c e q u a l i t i e s, f o r
e x e c u t i v e p o we r i s t he a l p ha a n d o me g a
. "
In t he re a l m o f t he p e rso n a l , M r . R o o se v e l t ha s a c -
1
" T he D e c l i n e o f t he W e st " b y Oswa l d S p e n g l e r (A l f re d A . K n o p f , In c . )
Vo l . II, p . 4 i .
2 0 2
k n o wl e d g e d t he e x i st e n c e o f a wi d e sp re a d f e a r i n t he l a n d
whi c h, i n d u e f o rm he t ri e d t o d i sp e l wi t h a n e p i g ra m
a n d t o whi c h El e a n o r P a t t e rso n a d d re sse d he rse l f i n a
l e t t e r t o t he P re si d e n t
. S p e n g l e r, a l so i n t he re a l m o f
t he p e rso n a l , ha s p ro v i d e d M r
. R o o se v e l t wi t h t he o n l y
v a l i d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t he f e a r
: ' " It i s t he o f f i c e r who
ma k e s c o wa rd s i n t o he ro e s, o r he ro e s i n t o c o wa rd s, a n d
t hi s ho l d s g o o d e q u a l l y f o r a rmi e s, p e o p l e s, c l a sse s a n d
p a rt i e s . "
B a rn u m mi g ht ha v e o rg a n i z e d a n o t he r d i me mu se u m
a ro u n d t wo S e n a t o ri a l p e rso n a l i t i e s, t he H o n
. J i m H a m
Le wi s, o f Il l i n o i s, a n d t he H o n
. G e o rg e L. B e rry , o f
T e n n e sse e
. Le wi s c o u l d ha v e d o u b l e d f o r a n y o f t he
B a rn u m f re a k s a n d B e rry e a si l y c o u l d ha v e p e rf o rme d t o
t he c re d i t o f t he mo st c o l o ssa l f ra u d e v e r e x hi b i t e d b y
B a rn u m
. B o t h Le wi s a n d B e rry wo u l d ha v e b e e n e q u a l l y
v a l u a b l e t o B a rn u m a s c i rc u s a t t ra c t i o n s i n t he l a t e r d a y s
.
T he v e rsa t i l i t y o f Le wi s i s su c h t ha t he mi g ht ha v e b e e n
e x hi b i t e d i n , o r e mp l o y e d i n f ro n t o f t he t e n t
.
B o t h Le wi s a n d B e rry sl i p p e d i n t o t he S e n a t e wi t h t he
e a se a n d d a ri n g o f a n e e l i n p u rsu i t o f i t s b re a k f a st a n d i n
t wo o f t he ma n y i n c re d i b l e p e ri o d s o f hi st o ry whe n a n e e l
ha s b e e n t o o sl i c k f o r t he n a t i v e y o k e l t o ma n a g e
. Le wi s
g o t u n d e r wa y a f t e r t he f i rst R o o se v e l t ha d ma st e re d t he
wa y s o f t he c u t t l e f i sh, whe re a s B e rry d a rt e d t o d i st i n c t i o n
a f t e r t he se c o n d R o o se v e l t ha d c o n f u se d t he y o k e l s
.
S i n c e B a rn u m ha s n o wo rt hy su c c e sso rs a n d a c a rn i v a l
wo u l d b e b e n e a t h t he d i g n i t y o f Le wi s a n d B e rry , t he y
a re su g g e st e d a s p o ssi b l e so u rc e s o f n e w a n d a d d i t i o n a l
c l a i ms o n b e ha l f o f p u mp p ri mi n g , o r sp e n d i n g o u r wa y
o u t o f b a n k ru p t c y
. H a v i n g b e e n re t i re d f ro m p o l i t i c s b y
t he T e n n e sse e D e mo c ra t s i n t he 1 93 8 p ri ma ry , B e rry i s
n o w a v a i l a b l e f o r so me n e w v e n t u re i n t he u p l i f t o f ma n -
k i n d i f t he c o mp e n sa t i o n i s a t t ra c t i v e . *
T he j u n i o r U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t o r f ro m In d i a n a , a f a i r
2
" T he D e c l i n e o f t he W e st " b y Oswa l d S p e n g l e r (A l f re d A
. K n o p f , In c . )
Vo l . II, p
. 4 4 2 .
* T he se n i o r S e n a t o r f ro m Il l i n o i s ha s j u st b e e n l i q u i d a t e d b y t he
G ri m
R e a p e r .
2 0 3
sa mp l e o f t he i n t e l l e c t u a l p o i se a n d mo ra l e mi n e n c e p ro -
d u c e d b y t he M c N u t t j u g g e rn a u t , p l e a d e d i n so l v e n c y t o
a v o i d t he f u l l p a y me n t o f a b a n k l o a n i n hi s ho me - t o wn ,
y e t he i s su p p o se d t o b e o n t he R o o se v e l t wa i t i n g l i st f o r
a p p o i n t me n t t o t he F e d e ra l j u d i c i a ry . H e ha s b e e n o n e
o f t he n o i si e st N e w D e a l e rs i n W a shi n g t o n . S i n c e
M i n t o n p l e a d e d i n so l v e n c y t o e sc a p e f u l l l i a b i l i t y o n hi s
n o t e , he wa s t he n o mi n a l ho st a t a f e a st o f Lu c u l l u s i n
W a shi n g t o n t o c e l e b ra t e t he st a t i c g l o ry o f t he e st e e me d
M r. M c N u t t whe n mo re t ha n
3 , 0 0 0 st a t e sme n , l o b b y i st s,
n e wsp a p e r c o rre sp o n d e n t s, p a rt y ha c k s a n d b a r f l i e s
p a sse d t hro u g h t he t u rn st i l e s . S i n c e t he n he ha s su f f e re d
a b ra i n st o rm f ro m e x p o su re t o t he b i t i n g c ri t i c i sm o f
N e w D e a l o b j e c t i v e s a n d mo ra l s . M i n t o n c o u l d q u a l i f y
a s a p o l i c e ma n u n d e r H i t l e r .
A si d e f ro m t he e n e rg y b e i n g d i ssi p a t e d b y o u r p re se n t
H i g h Co mmi ssi o n e r a t M a n i l a a n d hi s c o ho rt s t o p re p a re
f o r se i z i n g t he D e mo c ra t i c p re si d e n t i a l n o mi n a t i o n i n
1 94 0 , o t he r p o l i t i c a l W a rwi c k s ha v e a l re a d y e me rg e d .
J o se p h P a t ri c k K e n n e d y ' s a t t ra c t i v e sp o u se a n d t he i r n i n e
c hi l d re n a re p ho t o g ra p he d f re q u e n t l y
. M rs . K e n n e d y
sq u a re d a c c o u n t s, mo re o r l e ss, wi t h t he b l u e st o c k i n g s
o f t he B a c k B a y D i st ri c t whe n he r hu sb a n d wa s a p p o i n t e d
t o t he Co u rt o f S t . J a me s a n d whi l e b l u e st o c k i n g s d o n ' t
y i e l d t o t he t e n d e r p a ssi o n , a s T o l st o y sa y s, t he y ma y n o w
b e a b l e t o o v e rl o o k t he f a c t t ha t t he K e n n e d y s a re o n l y
B o st o n Iri sh . If n o t , t he p re si d e n c y wo u l d b e a c ro wn i n g
a c hi e v e me n t .
In 1 93 2
, K e n n e d y t ho u g ht M r
. R o o se v e l t " t he o n l y
ma n i n si g ht wi t h t he i ma g i n a t i o n a n d g u t s t o g e t u s o u t
o f t hi s me ss . " T hi s v i b ra n t p ro p he c y ma y b e e mb a rra ss-
i n g i n 1 94 0 .
J . Ed wa rd J o n e s, i n hi s b o o k , " A n d S o T he y In d i c t e d
M e , " sp e c i f i c a l l y c ha rg e s K e n n e d y
8 wi t h g i v i n g t he o rd e r
t o t he
S EC t o " g e t a c a se " o n hi m a n d " ma k e i t a c i n c h . "
T he p e rse c u t i o n o f J o n e s whi c h b e g a n wi t h hi s d i sa g re e -
s " A n d S o T he y In d i c t e d M e " b y J
. Ed wa rd J o n e s (J . Ed wa rd J o n e s P u b -
l i shi n g Co
. ) p p
. 1 3 3 - 5 .
2 0 4
me n t wi t h Ic k e s o v e r a
n a t i o n a l o i l p o l i c y a n d whi c h wa s
c a rri e d o n b y t he S EC u n t i l J o n e s wa s v i n d i c a t e d i n c o u rt
i s re mi n i sc e n t o f J e f f e rso n ' s c o n n i v i n g a g a i n st A a ro n
B u rr, t ho u g h J e f f e rso n wa s mo re su c c e ssf u l
. B e c a u se o f
t he ma n y j o b s K e n n e d y ha s he l d u n d e r t he N e w D e a l , he
i s c o mmo n l y re f e rre d t o i n W a shi n g t o n a s " H i t - a n d - R u n
J o e . "
H a rry H o p k i n s sho u l d b e e mp l o y e d i n Co mmu n i t y
Che st c a mp a i g n s o r l o a n e d t o t he S a l v a t i o n A rmy . T he
c o u n t ry f u l l y u n d e rst a n d s t he e l e v a t i o n o f t hi s p a l a c e
f a v o ri t e t o c a b i n e t ra n k
. P e rha p s i t wi l l se rv e t o a c -
c u st o m t he c o u n t ry t o t he whi ms o f c o u rt l i f e a n d f o rt i f y
n a t i v e c i t i z e n s a g a i n st t he t i me whe n a re g u l a rl y e m-
p l o y e d c o u rt j e st e r i s c o n c e d e d t o b e a n e c e ssi t y .
H a ro l d Ic k e s sho u l d b e a b l e t o f i n d a n e x p re ssi o n f o r
hi s f e mi n i n e t a l e n t s i n so me sc ho o l f o r g i rl s i n n e e d o f a
ho u se k e e p e r
. H e n ry W a l l a c e sho u l d b e f u rn i she d wi t h
a p a i r o f o v e ra l l s a n d a hi c k o ry shi rt a n d a l l o we d t o ro a m
b e t we e n K a n sa s whe a t f i e l d s a n d W i sc o n si n l o g g i n g
c a mp s .
T he l u re o f a d v e n t u re , t he o p p o rt u n i t y f o r e x c i t e me n t ,
t he i n st i n c t t o re v o l t a g a i n st t he
st a t u s q u o e x p l a i n t he
a t t a c hme n t o f se c o n d a n d t hi rd g e n e ra t i o n s o f se c u re
e c o n o mi c i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r Co mmu n i sm a n d i t s a l l i e d
a c t i v i t i e s . A l l t hre e e l e me n t s o p e ra t e d o n t he l a t e
Li n c o l n S t e f f e n s, Lo ra d o T a f t , P a x t o n H i b b e n a n d R a y -
mo n d R o b i n s t ho u g h R o b i n s wa s sa i d t o ha v e ma d e hi s
o wn f o rt u n e i n A l a sk a . H a ro l d S wi f t , Co rl i ss La mo n t ,
Cu rt i s B o k a n d A l f re d B i n g ha m a re t y p i c a l e x a mp l e s o f
l i v i n g p ro t o t y p e s . T he l e a n i n g s t o Co mmu n i sm o f
T he o d o re D re i se r, Ed n a S t . Vi n c e n t M i l l a y , S he rwo o d
A n d e rso n a n d J o hn Co wp e r P o wy s, a l l o f who m a re
a rt i st s o f f i rst ra n k , i s e x p l a i n a b l e o n l y o n t he t he o ry t ha t
t he y g o t t he i r e d u c a t i o n i n e c o n o mi c s a n d p o l i t i c a l
e c o n o my f ro m t ry i n g t o re a d t he st a rs
. It i s n o c a u se f o r
su rp ri se t ha t S t o k o wsk i a n d B o d a n sk y , t he l a t t e r a J e w,
b o t h f o re i g n b o rn c o n d u c t o rs, who ha v e d o n e v e ry we l l
i n A me ri c a , n e v e rt he l e ss, i n c l i n e t o Co mmu n i sm . T he
2 0 5
d i re c t i o n o f a n o rc he st ra i s a n e mo t i o n a l v o c a t i o n
. M o re -
o v e r, S p e n g l e r ha s a l re a d y p o i n t e d o u t t he k i n shi p o f
B e e t ho v e n ' s sy mp ho n i e s a n d Co mmu n i sm si n c e b o t h a re
re g a rd e d a s " e n d " p he n o me n a i n W e st e rn c u l t u re
.
S t o k o wsk i se e ms t o ha v e ha d mo re su c c e ss i n so l v i n g t he
my st e ri e s o f G a rb o t ha n t ho se o f e c o n o mi c s a n d p o l i t i c a l
e c o n o my . T he l i q u i d a t i o n o f a rt i st s, n o ma t t e r wha t
t he i r v a g a ri e s, i s n o t a d v o c a t e d
. T he c o u n t ry i s e n t i t l e d
t o e n t e rt a i n me n t a t wha t e v e r c o st .
M a d a me P e rk i n s sho u l d b e p a ro l e d t o J o hn L
. Le wi s,
b o t h p u she d o f f t he S t a t u e o f Li b e rt y a n d p e rmi t t e d t o
swi m t o Le n i n g ra d f o r t he i r p e rso n a l sa f e t y
. R o b e rt H .
J a c k so n , W i l l i a m Orv i l l e D o u g l a s a n d t he o t he r N e w
D e a l j u d g e s sho u l d b e su p p l i e d wi t h a 1 93 8 e d i t i o n o f t he
U n i t e d S t a t e s R e v i se d S t a t u t e s a n d a shi n g l e b e a ri n g t he
n a me o f e a c h, d e l i v e re d a c ro ss t he ri v e r a t La re d o , T e x a s,
a n d re q u i re d t o p ra c t i c e l a w i n M e x i c o . T he me mb e rs
o f t he N a t i o n a l La b o r R e l a t i o n s B o a rd a n d t he N a t i o n a l
B i t u mi n o u s Co a l Co mmi ssi o n sho u l d b e c o n f i n e d i n a
ma d ho u se a n d t he i r st a f f s o f e x a mi n e rs, a g e n t s a n d
p ro v o c a t e u rs
se n t t o a c o n c e n t ra t i o n c a mp f o r u l t i ma t e
d e p o rt a t i o n t o M u sso l i n i ' s n e w e mp i re i n A b y ssi n i a
. Ou r
p ro - c o n su l i n t he P hi l i p p i n e s, t he H o n
. P a u l M c N u t t ,
sho u l d b e i so l a t e d f ro m a l l c o n n e c t i o n wi t h t he p u b l i c
p a y ro l l a n d t he re b y re q u i re d t o wo rk o r st a rv e
. T o mmy
Co rc o ra n sho u l d b e p a ro l e d t o J a c k D e mp se y a n d u se d a s
a n e n t e rt a i n e r i n hi s n i g ht c l u b .
T he W ri g l e y f a mi l y mi g ht b e a b l e t o u se J i m F a rl e y t o
a d v e rt i se t he i r c he wi n g g u m
. P ro f
. , n o w j u d g e F e l i x
F ra n k f u rt e r, M o rd e c a i Ez e k i e l , B e n Co he n , J e ro me
F ra n k , H e n ry M o rg e n t ha u , J r
. , D a v i d Li l i e n t ha l a n d a l l
o f t he H a rv a rd i n t e l l e c t u a l s sho u l d b e d e p o rt e d t o P a l e s-
t i n e o r R u ssi a , a s e a c h p re f e rs
. M o rg e n t ha u mi g ht b e
g i v e n a t hi rd c ho i c e , t ha t o f wo rk i n g o f f hi s p a rt o f t he
n a t i o n a l d e b t o n a c ha i n g a n g a t t he ra t e o f a d o l l a r a d a y
.
T ho se si t - d o wn G o v e rn o rs o f M i c hi g a n a n d P e n n sy l -
v a n i a , M u rp hy a n d Ea rl e , t o g e t he r wi t h t he c . i
. o . o rg a n -
i z e rs o f J o hn L. Le wi s, mi g ht b e d i sp o se d o f t o M e x i c o
a o 6
wi t h t he u n d e rst a n d i n g t ha t t he y sho u l d b e k e p t i n j a i l
t he re , u n l e ss J a c k so n , D o u g l a s a n d o t he r N e w D e a l j u d g e s
c o u l d k e e p t he m o u t . A g o o d l y n u mb e r o f c
. I . o .
ho o d l u ms f ro m Il l i n o i s a re l i k e l y t o b e f o u n d i n so me o f
o u r o wn j a i l s whe n a se a rc h i s ma d e .
A l l t he R o o se v e l t s, t ho se f ro m H y d e P a rk , t ho se f ro m
Oy st e r B a y a n d t ho se f ro m d i v e rs a n d su n d ry o t he r p a rt s,
i n c l u d i n g a l l re l a t i v e s n e a r a n d re mo t e , ma l e a n d f e ma l e ,
a d u l t s a n d i n f a n t s, sho u l d b e d i sf ra n c hi se d f o r t hre e
hu n d re d y e a rs, re n d e re d i n c a p a b l e o f ho l d i n g o f f i c e f o r
a l i k e p e ri o d a n d , o n p e n a l t y o f t he st o c k s, b e d e n i e d a l l
a c c e ss t o mi c ro p ho n e s a n d l o u d - sp e a k e rs .
If a l l t he R o o se v e l t s wo u l d t e l l a l l t he y k n o w a b o u t
e a c h o t he r, t he c o u n t ry mi g ht b e b e t t e r o f f
. T he re i g n -
i n g c hi e f t a i n o f t he Oy st e r B a y c l a n c a l l e d Co u si n F ra n k -
l i n D
. a " ma v e ri c k " i n 1 93 2 whi l e Co u si n N i c ho l a s' ha s
si n c e d e sc ri b e d F ra n k l i n D
. i n t e rms e v e n l e ss p o l i t e
.
F ra n k l i n D . i n a b u rst o f c o n f i d e n c e , ho we v e r, ha s d i s-
c l o se d t ha t he v o t e d f o r Co u si n T e d ra t he r t ha n t he
D e mo c ra t i c c a n d i d a t e i n
1
90 4 so t ha t t he p i c t u re o f f a mi l y
l o y a l t i e s i s so me wha t b l u rre d . On e ma y we l l wo n d e r
whe t he r t he Oy st e r B a y b ra n c h d i d n o t ma k e sp e e c he s f o r
La n d o n a n d v o t e f o r Co u si n F ra n k l i n D
. U n c l e T he o -
d o re ha s b e e n e x p o se d b y hi s f a v o ri t e n i e c e , El e a n o r, a s
ha v i n g o n c e e x p re sse d t he wi sh " t ha t f o r f i v e mi n u t e s I
c o u l d b e P re si d e n t a n d Co n g re ss t o o . " P e rha p s so me
o t he r me mb e r o f t he f a mi l y k n o ws whe t he r he a l so
wa n t e d t o b e t he S u p re me Co u rt a s we l l
. T he f a mi l y
se e ms t o b e so c a re f u l l y d i v i d e d p o l i t i c a l l y t ha t o n e o r a n -
o t he r b ra n c h o f t he c l a n wi l l a l wa y s b e i n o f f i c e . ' .
T he p e n c ha n t f o r " re f o rm" a n d " u p l i f t " i s c o mmo n t o
ma n y mo rt a l s a n d i s sa i d t o b e d e ri v e d b a si c a l l y f ro m a n
i n f e ri o ri t y c o mp l e x a n d f ro m i t s k i n d re d g e n i e , t he b i o -
* " F ra n k l i n D e l a n o R o o se v e l t " b y N i c ho l a s R o o se v e l t , T he A me ri c a n M e r-
c u ry , N o v e mb e r, 1 98 6 , whe re i n F ra n k l i n D
. wa s sa i d t o b e " v i n d i c t i v e , " a n
" o p p o rt u n i st , " " c ha me l e o n - l i k e , " a " sp o i l e d c hi l d , " " sma rt b u t n o t d e e p , "
p o sse sse d o f " t he e a sy o p t i mi sm o f t he she l t e re d ri c h, " " who se i d e a l o f t he
mo re a b u n d a n t l i f e i s a b u t l e r i n e v e ry ho me " a n d t o ha v e " c o n f u se d
n o v e l t y o f l a b e l s wi t h f re sh i d e a s . "
G S e e A p p e n d i x III .
2 0 7
l o g i c a l b e n t t o e x hi b i t i o n i sm
. T he N e w D e a l wo rshi p
o f t he st ra i g ht - j a c k e t a n d t he S q u a re D e a l d e v o t i o n t o
p e t t y d e sp o t i sm a n d t he " st re n u o u s l i f e " ha d t he i r o ri g i n s
i n t he sa me p sy c ho l o g i c a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l f o u n t s . T he re i s
a st ri k i n g si mi l a ri t y i n t he c a re e rs o f t he t wo R o o se v e l t s
i n t he i r c ho i c e o f i n t i ma t e s, i n t he i r p a rt i a l i t y sho wn
ma n y me n o f mi n o r i mp o rt a n c e , whi c h i s e x p l a i n a b l e
o n l y o n t he t he o ry t ha t t he a d u l a t i o n o f t he i r b e n e f a c t o rs
b y su c h u p st a rt s i s l e ss re st ra i n e d
.
R o o se v e l t I e x a l t e d ma n y n o b o d i e s a n d R o o se v e l t II
ha s g i v e n f re e p l a y t o t he sa d i st i c i mp u l se s o f a l e g i o n o f
mu d d l e d p e d a g o g u e s a n d o t he r i n t e l l e c t u a l shy st e rs
.
T he p o rt ra i t s o f t he l e a st c i v i l i z e d , t ho u g h b e st k n o wn ,
R o o se v e l t s a re i n c o mp l e t e , sa v e a n d e x c e p t t he y a re su r-
ro u n d e d b y sha d o wy f i g u re s o u t o f o b l i v i o n su d d e n l y
c a t a p u l t e d t o t he d i z z y he i g ht s o f f a me b y t he we i rd a c c i -
d e n t s o f A me ri c a n p o l i t i c s i n i t s l a st p ha se s . T ha t t he
ma sse s ha v e b e e n e x p l o i t e d p o l i t i c a l l y b y t he t wo R o o se -
v e l t s a n d f i n a l l y wi l l ha v e t o p a y a p ri c e t he y d o n ' t p o sse ss
f o r t he i r i g n o ra n c e a n d f o l l y a re t he n a t u ra l c o n se q u e n c e s
o f st re ssi n g p o l i t i c a l p ri v i l e g e s t o t he e x c l u si o n o f c i v i c
re sp o n si b i l i t i e s, a t a n y t i me i n wo rl d hi st o ry , i n G re e c e ,
i n R o me , i n F ra n c e , i n R u ssi a , i n A me ri c a .
W hi l e d i sp o si n g o f N e w D e a l p e rso n a l i t i e s, t he R e -
p u b l i c a n s mi g ht a l so c a n v a ss t he i r o wn ra n k s
. In o rd e r
t o d i sp o se o f t he H o n
. W i l l i a m E . B o ra h, i t mi g ht b e
n e c e ssa ry t o a b o l i sh t he p o c k e t b o ro u g h he re p re se n t s
whi c h i s c o mmo n l y k n o wn a s t he S t a t e o f Id a ho
. B o ra h' s
o ra t o ri c a l p o we r i s d e se rv e d l y we l l re g a rd e d b u t hi s
sp e e c he s a re " l i k e c y p re ss t re e s, st a t e l y a n d t a l l a n d n o
f ru i t c o me s o f t he m, " whi c h i s wha t P ho c i o n sa i d o f t he
sp e e c he s o f Le o st he n e s . T ha t B o ra h p o sse sse s g re a t
a b i l i t y i s i n d i sp u t a b l e . T ha t he l a c k s c o n si st e n c y , c o n -
st a n c y o f p u rp o se a n d g re a t c o u ra g e i s a l so i n d i sp u t a b l e
.
T ha t he c a n b e d e p e n d e d u p o n f o r l e a d e rshi p i n a n y
c a u se i s e q u a l l y wi t ho u t p ro o f . In b i g l e a g u e b a se b a l l ,
B o ra h mi g ht ha v e b e e n u se d i n f re q u e n t l y a s a re l i e f
p i t c he r o r, o n o c c a si o n s, a s a p i n c h hi t t e r
. H e c o u l d n o t
2 0 8
ha v e he l d a p l a c e i n t he re g u l a r l i n e - u p o n a n y t e a m .
W hi l e t hi s p u rg e i s i n p ro c e ss, t he re o u g ht t o b e a
t ho ro u g h c a n v a ss o f t he c o u n t ry , a k i n d o f c e n su s o f a l l
p e rso n s o f e i t he r se x a n d o f a n y c o l o r o r o ri g i n who ha s
e v e r b e e n c a l l e d a " Li b e ra l , " e i t he r b y hi mse l f o r b y hi s
n e i g hb o rs . T he p u rp o se wo u l d b e t o i n f o rm t he sa n e
p o rt i o n o f t he p o p u l a t i o n , i f a n y re ma i n s a f t e r f i v e y e a rs
i n t he N e w D e a l l a b o ra t o ry , o f f u t u re p ro sp e c t s o f
f u rt he r d i sme mb e rme n t . F o r t hi s re a so n t he n a me s sho u l d
b e p o st e d a t t he Co u rt H o u se o r i n t he p o st o f f i c e o f e a c h
c o mmu n i t y .
A n o u t st a n d i n g e x a mp l e o f a " Li b e ra l , " N e w D e a l
mo d e l , i s o u r p re se n t A mb a ssa d o r t o F ra n c e a n d o u r f i rst
A mb a ssa d o r t o t he l a n d o f S t a l i n , a f t e r re c o g n i t i o n ,
W i l l i a m C . B u l l i t t . A p ro d u c t o f Ya l e , who se mo t he r wa s
a J e we ss, B u l l i t t we n t t o Eu ro p e o n t he F o rd p e a c e shi p
wi t h R o si k a S c hwi mme r, t he H u n g a ri a n J e we ss, t o " g e t
t he b o y s o u t o f t he t re n c he s b y Chri st ma s, " he l p e d W o o d -
ro w W i l so n sa v e t he wo rl d f o r D e mo c ra c y a t Ve rsa i l l e s
a n d i n 1 92 3 ma rri e d t he wi d o w o f J o hn R e e d , who he l p e d
f o u n d t he Co mmu n i st P a rt y i n A me ri c a a n d who d i d so
mu c h f o r Le n i n t ha t hi s re ma i n s a re b u ri e d i n t he
K re ml i n .
" Li b e ra l s" so l e mn l y d i sc u ss t he " f a i r" d i st ri b u t i o n o f
we a l t h, t he " j u st " a n d " wi se " a rra n g e me n t o f o u r e c o -
n o mi c l i f e , " t o l e ra n c e " wi t h re sp e c t t o t he i r o b v i o u s
i mb e c i l i t i e s a n d se e mi n g l y , i t n e v e r o c c u rs t o t he m t ha t
t he i ssu e t u rn s o n wha t i s " j u st , " wha t i s " wi se " o r t o wha t
o b j e c t i v e " t o l e ra n c e " l e a d s .
F ra n k l i n D e l a n o R o o se v e l t , who se c u rre n t p o se i s t ha t
o f t he c o u n t ry ' s o u t st a n d i n g " l i b e ra l " wo u l d v a n i sh f ro m
hi s se l f - e re c t e d p e d e st a l a n d f ro m t he mi c ro p ho n e , i f
me a su re d b y t he d e f i n i t i o n o f a n o t he r " l i b e ra l " p re -
t e n d e r, " t o wi t : " t he l i b e ra l c o n d e mn s a n y t e n d e n c y t o
b i n d a n d i mp o se d i c t a t i o n u p o n me n . " T hi s sa me
" l i b e ra l " p re t e n d e r, i n a d v e rt e n t l y i t wo u l d a p p e a r, e x -
p l a i n s t he p o l i t i c a l su c c e ss o f a l l " l i b e ra l " p re t e n d e rs i n
8 " W ha t i s a Li b e ra l , " E . H a l d e ma n - J u l i u s .
2 0 9
hi s re v e l a t i o n t ha t " l i b e ra l i sm" i s a
" n a t u ra l a t t i t u d e "
a mo n g
" u n e d u c a t e d a n d u n t hi n k i n g p e o p l e , "
p a rt i c u -
l a rl y " a mo n g wo rk i n g me n
. " A l l o f whi c h, i f t ru e , f u l l y
i l l u mi n a t e s a n d e x p l a i n s t he p o l i t i c a l su c c e sse s o f t he
B ry a n s, t he La F o l l e t t e s, t he R o o se v e l t s, t he S q u a re D e a l -
e rs, t he N e w D e a l e rs a n d t he D o u b l e D e a l e rs g e n e ra l l y
.
G a sse t d e f i n e s " l i b e ra l i sm"
T
a s " t ha t p ri n c i p l e o f p o l i t i -
c a l ri g ht s, a c c o rd i n g t o whi c h t he p u b l i c a u t ho ri t y , i n
sp i t e o f b e i n g a l l - p o we rf u l , l i mi t s i t se l f a n d a t t e mp t s,
e v e n a t i t s o wn e x p e n se ,
t o l e a v e ro o m i n t he st a t e o v e r
whi c h i t ru l e s f o r t ho se t o l i v e who n e i t he r t hi n k n o r f e e l
a s i t d o e s, *
t ha t i s t o sa y a s d o t he st ro n g e r, t he ma j o ri t y . "
M r . R o o se v e l t a n d t he Co mmu n i st i c o ra c l e s o f t he N e w
D e a l , who p ro v i d e hi m wi t h t he i r re a d y - ma d e p o l i t i c a l
p hi l o so p hy , wo u l d f i n d i t a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t t o sy n c hro n i z e
t he p ri ma ry p u rg e s u n d e rt a k e n i n 1 93 8 wi t h t hi s d e f i n i -
t i o n . T he i ma g i n a ry b ri d g e s d i sc u sse d b y M r
. R o o se v e l t
i n M a ry l a n d b e f o re t he p ri ma ry we re ha rd l y i n t e n d e d f o r
u se b y S e n a t o r T y d i n g s whe n he c ro sse s t he P o t o ma c .
P re a c he rs who b e g i n t he i r c a re e rs a s F u n d a me n t a l i st s
a n d who l a t e r f i n d i t mo re e x c i t i n g a n d p ro f i t a b l e t o d e -
n o u n c e t he o rt ho d o x re l i g i o n s c a l l t he mse l v e s " Li b e ra l s"
t o a v o i d t he st i g ma t ha t i s a p t t o a t t a c h t o a re n e g a d e
.
W o me n o f e a sy v i rt u e ha v e a l wa y s b e e n k n o wn a s
" l i b e ra l s
. " T he i r l i b e ra l i t y i s a f a i r st a n d a rd b y whi c h t o
t e st t he i n he re n t v i rt u e o f a p o l i t i c a l l i b e ra l a n d o n e ma y
a s we l l ma k e a c o v e n a n t wi t h t he f i rst t ha t she wi l l b e
f a i t hf u l a s d e p e n d u p o n t he se c o n d t o p e rf o rm a c c o rd i n g
t o a n y p a rt i c u l a r c o d e . T he p u b l i c c o n sc i o u sn e ss, ho w-
e v e r, i s st i l l k i n d l y d i sp o se d t o t he t e rm " l i b e ra l " j u st a s
i t i s t o c ha ri t y wi t h whi c h i t ma y b e c o n f u se d
. T o b e
" l i b e ra l " i s e rro n e o u sl y t ho u g ht t o b e " g e n e ro u s" o r
" a g re e a b l e , " whi c h a g a i n su g g e st s a c o n f u si o n wi t h f e mi -
n i n e wi l l i n g n e ss t o y i e l d .
B e c a u se t he t e rm e n j o y s a g o o d re p u t a t i o n , t ho u g h u n -
T Ort e g a y G a sse t , " T he R e v o l t o f t he M a sse s, " (W . W . N o rt o n & Co
. , In c . )
p . 8 3 .
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
2 1 0
me ri t e d , o u r mo st c e l e b ra t e d ra sc a l s ha v e u se d i t f re e l y ,
p a rt i c u l a rl y whe n t he y d e si re d t o d i v e rt p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n
f ro m t he mi sc hi e f t he y we re d o i n g o r we re a b o u t t o d o ,
d e c l a ri n g b e f o re ma n a n d G o d t ha t t he i r v i rt u e wa s t o b e
a ssu me d f ro m t he f a c t t ha t t he y we re " l i b e ra l
. " " P a t ri o t "
i s a n o t he r wo rd t ha t ha s b e e n su b j e c t e d t o t he sa me a b u se
a s " l i b e ra l " a n d e a c h ha s b e e n e mp l o y e d ro u g hl y a s a
c o n n o t a t i o n o f t he o t he r
. S a mu e l J o hn so n d e c l a re d t ha t
" p a t ri o t i sm i s t he l a st re f u g e o f a sc o u n d re l
. "
J o u rn a l i st s who wo rk u n d e r g re a t p re ssu re ma y b e e x -
c u se d f o r t he i r mi su se a n d mi sa p p l i c a t i o n o f " l i b e ra l "
b u t o t he r wri t e rs who b i l l a n d c o o whe n t he y u se o r a p p l y
t he t e rm ha v e n o su c h e x c u se
. P ro p a g a n d i st s u se t he
t e rm wi t h ma l i c i o u s a n d i n si d i o u s d e si g n whe n t he y
e sp o u se a n u n wo rt hy c a u se o r whe n t he y se e k t o p re se n t
a c o n t ra st wi t h so me t hi n g o f i n he re n t wo rt h t o whi c h
t he y o b j e c t . T he g o o d f a v o r o f t he t e rm i s n o t re a d i l y
a p p a re n t
. T he re ha s n e v e r b e e n a " l i b e ra l " p a rt y i n t hi s
c o u n t ry . T wo o r t hre e g e n e ra t i o n s a g o , G l a d st o n e , n o t e d
En g l i sh " l i b e ra l , " wa s p o p u l a r i n A me ri c a b u t hi s p o p u -
l a ri t y i s a n o t he r my st e ry . T he c o u n t ry wa s i n t ro d u c e d t o
a wi d e v a ri e t y o f c u re - a l l s b y t he f i rst R o o se v e l t a n d si n c e
hi s t i me , t he n a t i v e i ma g i n a t i o n ha s b e e n st ra i n e d , i f n o t
e x ha u st e d , a s t he c u re - a l l s ha v e mu l t i p l i e d i n n u mb e r a n d
a b su rd i t y .
Ev e ry " l i b e ra l " i s a p o t e n t i a l Co mmu n i st , a f a c t we l l
u n d e rst o o d i n Le n i n g ra d a n d o t he r c u l t u ra l c e n t e rs o f
t he Le f t W i n g .
" Co mmu n i sm p ro f e sse s t o a i m, " sa y s
P ro f . H a n s K o hn ,
8 " a t t he re a l i z a t i o n o f c o mp l e t e d e mo c -
ra c y a n d t he c o n su mma t i o n o f l i b e ra l i sm . "
8 " Co mmu n i st a n d F a sc i st D i c t a t o rshi p , " a n e ssa y b y H a n s K o hn , p ro f e sso r
o f hi st o ry a t S mi t h Co l l e g e i n " D i c t a t o rshi p i n t he M o d e rn W o rl d " wi t h a n
i n t ro d u c t i o n b y G u y S t a n t o n F o rd (U n i v e rsi t y o f M i n n e so t a P re ss) p . i 6 o .
P ro f . K o hn i s a J e w a n d c o n f i rms t he J e wi sh p sy c ho l o g y st a t e d i n Cha p t e r
VIII . " Co mmu n i sm . . . b e l i e v e s i n t he e q u a l i t y o f ma n k i n d , o f ra c e s a n d
n a t i o n s, " he sa y s a t p a g e 1 5 1 . " T he R u ssi a n R e v o l u t i o n , " he sa y s a t p a g e
1 5 5 , " a so c i a l R e v o l u t i o n re p re se n t i n g t he ri se o f t he F o u rt h e st a t e wo u l d
u she r i n n o t o n l y f o r R u ssi a b u t f o r ma n k i n d a n a g e o f so c i a l d e mo c ra c y
a n d i n t e rn a t i o n a l i sm . " On t he sa me p a g e , he a d d s : " It s f u t u re so c i e t y i s
p ro f e sse d l y o n e i n whi c h t he re a re n o l a sse s, st a t e s o r n a t i o n s . . . i t wo u l d
c o n t i n u e t he wo rk o f t he F re n c h R e v o l u t i o n . "
2
1
1
It i s t he " l i b e ra l s" o f A me ri c a who a re l a rg e l y re sp o n -
si b l e f o r t he N e w D e a l . ' T he y ha v e l e d t he c o u n t ry
t o wa rd s F a sc i sm t o e sc a p e , a s t he y ha v e c o n t e n d e d , t he
ho rro rs o f Co mmu n i sm t ho u g h f o r a l l p ra c t i c a l p u rp o se s,
t he re i s n o d i f f e re n c e b e t we e n S o c i a l i sm, Co mmu n i sm,
N a z i i sm a n d F a sc i sm
. In a n y c a se , t he re i s c o mp l e t e re g i -
me n t a t i o n o f me n a n d p ro p e rt y . T he st a t e i s e v e ry t hi n g ,
t he i n d i v i d u a l n o t hi n g . In a n y c a se , e l e c t i o n s a re me re
g e st u re s o f p re t e n se , t he c o st o f whi c h, i n t hi s c o u n t ry ,
o u g ht t o b e sa v e d f o r P a ssa ma q u o d d y , t he F l o ri d a shi p
c a n a l o r so me n e w a n d d e l i g ht f u l ho u si n g p ro j e c t f o r
n e g ro e s
.
T he c o u n t ry ' s mo st o u t st a n d i n g " l i b e ra l " who d e -
sc ri b e s hi mse l f i n t he l a st e d i t i o n o f " W ho ' s W ho " a s a
" R e p u b l i c a n " a n d a s " c ha i rma n o f t he N a t i o n a l P ro g re s-
si v e Le a g u e f o r R o o se v e l t a s P re si d e n t " i s t he H o n
.
G e o rg e W
. N o rri s o f M c Co o k , N e b ra sk a . N o p u rg e
wo u l d b e c o mp l e t e t ha t d i d n o t i n c l u d e t he f o re mo st
c i t i z e n o f M c Co o k
. N o rri s i s n o w o c c u p i e d p ri n c i p a l l y
i n sa v i n g f ro m i n f a my t he d a m whi c h b e a rs hi s n a me .
H e i s d i st re sse d t ha t t he Cha i rma n o f T v A
d e c l i n e d t o
" c o - o p e ra t e " i n t he c o n su mma t i o n o f n e w i mb e c i l i t i e s i n -
v e n t e d b y y o u n g M r
. Li l i e n t ha l , a rri v e d n o t so l o n g a g o
v i a t he La F o l l e t t e he g e mo n y f ro m t he l a b o ra t o ry o f P ro f
.
F ra n k f u rt e r a t Ca mb ri d g e
. " H i n d ra n c e s" o f t he c ha i r-
ma n , whi c h N o rri s d e p l o re s, ha p p e n t o b e t he c o u n t ry ' s
o n l y ho p e o f a l i mi t a t i o n o n f u rt he r e x t ra v a g a n c e a n d
a n y d e c e n c y i n a d mi n i st ra t i o n . N o rri s i s a q u e e r ho mb re
.
H e c o mb i n e s t he z e a l o f a ma rt y r wi t h t he i n n o c e n c e a n d
e T he c a re e r o f Le wi s B ro wn e , a n En g l i sh J e w who c a me t o A me ri c a i n
1 91 2 , who t o o k a d e g re e f ro m t he H e b re w U n i o n Co l l e g e , a d e g re e f ro m t he
U n i v e rsi t y o f Ci n c i n n a t i a n d d i d g ra d u a t e wo rk a t Ya l e , i l l u st ra t e s t he J e wi sh
t ra d i t i o n o f Le f t i st t hi n k i n g a n d t he wi d e i n f l u e n c e o f J e wi sh i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n
o u r c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e rsi t i e s. H e wa s " f o rc e d t o re si g n " a s ra b b i o f a
W a t e rb u ry , Co n n
. sy n a g o g u e a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g a p ro t e st me e t i n g u n d e r t he
a u sp i c e s o f t he A me ri c a n Ci v i l Li b e rt i e s U n i o n t o g a i n f re e d o m o f sp e e c h
f o r p a c i f i st s a n d a n t i - F a sc i st s b u t l a t e r wa s c o - ra b b i wi t h S t e p he n S . W i se
i n a sy n a g o g u e a t N e wa rk , N
. J . In 1 92 5 , he f o u n d e d t he N e wa rk La b o r
Co l l e g e a n d l a t e r wa s v i si t i n g p ro f e sso r a t t he P e n n sy l v a n i a S t a t e Co l l e g e ,
U n i v e rsi t y o f Ca l i f o rn i a a n d t he U n i v e rsi t y o f H a wa i i
. B ro wn e ha s wri t t e n
se v e ra l b o o k s t ha t ha v e b e e n wi d e l y re a d .
2 1 2
g u l l i b i l i t y o f a y o k e l . A n a sc e t i c c e l i b a t e i n t he t i me s o f
H a rd i n g , Co o l i d g e a n d H o o v e r, t he
T VA wa s c o n c e i v e d i n
hi s o l d a g e
. Lo n g c o n si d e re d t he D o ro t hy D i x o f t he
S e n a t e , p e rha p s hi s p re v i o u s b e n t t o c ri t i c i sm o f G . 0 . P .
b e ha v i o r ha s ma d e hi m se n si t i v e re sp e c t i n g t he i n c o rri g i -
b i l i t y o f hi s o wn c hi l d .
A n a n c i e n t J e wi sh g ro u p , t he Esse n e s, who we re
n e i t he r a p a rt y n o r a se c t , who p re f e rre d so l i t u d e , who
we re f i l l e d wi t h d i sa p p o i n t me n t a n d who p ra c t i c e d Co m-
mu n i sm, l i v e d o n t he sho re s o f t he D e a d S e a t wo t ho u -
sa n d y e a rs a g o . G e o rg e N o rri s wa s b o rn t wo t ho u sa n d
y e a rs t o o l a t e f o r t he e n j o y me n t o f a l i f e he mi g ht ha v e
ha d a mo n g su c h k i n d re d sp i ri t s .
T he R o o se v e l t f o rmu l a sho u l d b e a d o p t e d i n d i sp o si n g
o f t he La F o l l e t t e f a mi l y . T he b ro t he rs La F o l l e t t e a re
n o t g o i n g t o b e c a u g ht i n a n y p o g ro m d i re c t e d a t t he
N e w D e a l , whi c h a p p a re n t l y t he y v e ry mu c h f e a r si n c e
t he y ha v e n o w o rg a n i z e d t he i r o wn p a rt y . T he n e w
p a rt y i s e x p l a i n e d o n t he g ro u n d t ha t M r . R o o se v e l t d e -
l a y e d k i c k i n g t he p o rk b a rre l d u ri n g a l l o f t hre e v i t a l
mo n t hs i n whi c h t he La F o l l e t t e c o n st i t u e n c y we re n e g -
l e c t e d . M e a n t i me , a s t he b ro t he rs La F o l l e t t e we l l k n e w
i n a d v a n c e , t he y ha v e re c e i v e d mu c h n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n ,
t he y g o t a n e w g ri p o n t he i ma g i n a t i o n o f l o c a l wo o d s-
me n , c he e se ma k e rs, a n d re st l e ss S we d e s a n d wha t i s mo st
i mp o rt a n t whi l e t he y we re wi l l i n g t o sha re t he ha p p y
d a y s wi t h M r . R o o se v e l t t he y ha v e n o i n t e n t i o n o f ho l d -
i n g hi s ha n d s o r o f su f f e ri n g wi t h hi m whe n t he me l a n -
c ho l y d a y s ha v e a rri v e d . T he b ro t he rs La F o l l e t t e a re a
c o u p l e o f sl i c k o p e ra t o rs . T he y a re e v e n t o o sl i c k f o r
N e w D e a l l e g e rd e ma i n , i n c l u d i n g t he j o i n t st ra t e g y o f
Co he n , R o o se v e l t a n d Co rc o ra n . S i n c e t he 1 93 8 e l e c t i o n ,
ho we v e r, t he b ro t he rs La F o l l e t t e a re n o t so we l l p re p a re d
t o k e e p t he ho me f i re s b u rn i n g . T he y o u n g e r b ro t he r
wa s t he re b y re t i re d t o t he l e c t u re p l a t f o rm a s a so l e
so u rc e o f i n c o me f o r a n u n c e rt a i n i n t e rv a l a n d t he e l d e r
b ro t he r mu st f a c e a n a ro u se d e l e c t o ra t e i n 1 94 0 .
N o l i q u i d a t i o n o f Li b e ra l s wo u l d b e c o mp l e t e t ha t
2 1 3
o mi t t e d
T he N e w R e p u b l i c , T he N a t i o n , J o hn T . F l y n n
a n d a l e g i o n o f l e sse r se n t i me n t a l i st s a l l o f who m wo u l d b e
sq u a t t i n g o v e r he n s' n e st s t o sha re t he he n ' s wo rk i f t he re
we re n o u n d e rp ri v i l e g e d t o c o d d l e .
T he N e w R e p u b l i c
ha s " se e n n o t hi n g i n t he wa y o f
su b st a n t i a l e v i d e n c e " a s t o wha t ha v e b e e n t he e f f e c t s o f
t he t a x o n u n d i st ri b u t e d p ro f i t s
. B y wa y o f e x p l a n a t i o n ,
t he e d i t o rs o f
T he N e w R e p u b l i c p ro b a b l y ha v e f a i l e d t o
o b se rv e e q u a l l y o b v i o u s p he n o me n a whi c h f a i l t o f i t t he
e c o n o mi c p i c t u re p u z z l e s o f t he i r o wn c o n c e p t i o n
. N o r
i s i t l i k e l y t ha t M r . J . P
. M o rg a n o r M r . F o rd o r M r .
S c hwa b o r t he B a l l B ro t he rs o f M u n c i e , In d i a n a , wo u l d
t hi n k o f a n y o f t he e d i t o rs o f T he N e w R e p u b l i c
i f t he y
we re se e k i n g so me o n e t o u n c o v e r " su b st a n t i a l e v i d e n c e "
o f a n y k i n d o r c o n n e c t e d i n a n y wa y wi t h t he i r f a r f l u n g
i n d u st ri a l e n t e rp ri se s . Ev e n M r
. T u g we l l , who i s a c o n -
t ri b u t i n g e d i t o r, f o u n d t he mo l a sse s b u si n e ss d i st a st e f u l
a f t e r a b ri e f e x p e ri e n c e a n d hi s e x p e ri e n c e i s t he su m o f
a l l e x p e ri e n c e s o f
T he N e w R e p u b l i c e d i t o rs i n t he ma rt s
o f t ra d e a n d c o mme rc e
. T he o b j e c t i o n s t o t he t a x o n
u n d i st ri b u t e d p ro f i t s b e i n g e rro n e o u sl y st a t e d i n t he f i rst
p l a c e , t he e d i t o rs ma k e a p e rf e c t sc o re i n b o wl i n g o v e r
o b j e c t i o n s o f t he i r o wn i n v e n t i o n
.
F l y n n , who i s a l so a c o n t ri b u t i n g e d i t o r, wa s o n t he a i r
j u st b e f o re t he A p ri l , 1 93 8 , f i re si d e c ha t
. H e wa s v i si b l y
mo v e d b y M r . H e n ry F o rd ' s t e c hn i q u e
. M r . F l y n n
a d o re s M r
. F o rd ' s S u n d a y n i g ht sy mp ho n i c p ro g ra ms b u t
he o b j e c t s t o t he d i st u rb a n c e c a u se d b y t he g u e st a rt i st ,
M r
. W . J . Ca me ro n , who se re g u l a r p o l i t i c a l so l o he
t hi n k s i s o f f k e y , t ha t i s, o f f t he k e y p re f e rre d b y M r
.
F l y n n .
T he P ro g re ssi v e s o f t he f i rst R o o se v e l t , t he i d e a l i st s
who o p e ra t e d t he K u K l u x K l a n , t he N e w D e a l e rs o f
F ra n k l i n I a n d t he " Li b e ra l s" f ro m f i rst t o l a st , b y a n d
l a rg e , ha v e b e e n a n o d d a sso rt me n t o f n e u ro p a t hi c sa d i st s,
p sy c ho p a t hi c p a l o o k a s, b re e z y n e ' e r- d o - we l l s, i n t e l l e c t u a l
g re e n - ho rn s, p o l i t i c a l so l d i e rs o f f o rt u n e a n d c o mmo n
c ro o k s. G e n e ra l l y sp e a k i n g , t he y wo u l d n o t ha v e b e e n
2 1 4
t ru st e d i n t he c a p a c i t y o f b a n k me sse n g e rs, e x c e p t u n d e r
he a v y b o n d
. Ye t t he y a re t he o n e s who n o w c a l l t he t u n e
t o whi c h H e n ry F o rd , e t a l
. a re e x p e c t e d t o d a n c e
.
On e st ri k i n g p he n o me n o n o f u n i v e rsa l su f f ra g e i s t he
v a l u e o f a n a me t ha t ha s b e e n we l l a d v e rt i se d . A n o t he r
" W i l l R o g e rs" ra n f o r Co n g re ss i n t he n i n e - f o o t - b e d she e t
st a t e a f e w y e a rs a g o wi t h t he su rp ri si n g re su l t t ha t he i s
n o w a n e st a b l i she d me mb e r . F re q u e n t l y , me n who ha v e
a l re a d y d i e d ha v e b e e n n o mi n a t e d o r e l e c t e d t o o f f i c e b e -
c a u se o f t he i n he re n t p o we r o f t he i r n a me whi l e t he y
l i v e d
. A n o t he r " G e o rg e N o rri s" c o n f u se d t he y o k e l s o f
N e b ra sk a who d i d n ' t k n o w t he d i f f e re n c e b e t we e n a
" l i b e ra l " a n d a g ro c e r . " R o o se v e l t " i s ho n e y o n t he
t a b l e a n d b e e r i n t he g ro wl e r . " La F o l l e t t e " i s t he o n l y
n a me a n e wl y - a rri v e d S we d e i n W i sc o n si n c a n p ro -
n o u n c e
. In Ohi o , a n y o n e n a me d " T a f t " sho u l d e n t e r a
R e p u b l i c a n p ri ma ry wi t h a ha n d i c a p t o hi s o p p o n e n t o f
2 0 0 , 0 0 0
v o t e s a n d t hi s i s t ru e i n sp i t e o f t he f a c t - t ha t t he
l a t e W i l l i a m H o wa rd T a f t l i k e d t o t a k e a n a p a t t he
l u n c he o n t a b l e . A u n t J e mi ma , S p e a rmi n t , M o o n M u l -
l i n s, A n d y G u mp o r Cha rl e y M c Ca rt hy sho u l d b e e n t e re d
b y t he R e p u b l i c a n s a g a i n st R o o se v e l t i n 1 94 0 i f , o t he r-
wi se , t he re i s a n y d o u b t a b o u t t he o u t c o me
.
A l l t hi s i s o f f e re d i n t he n a me o f re f o rm, i s me a n t t o b e
i n c l u d e d i n a p ro g ra m o f c o n st ru c t i v e me a su re s i n t e n d e d
t o b e he l p f u l t o t he c o u n t ry a n d i s p ro p o se d i n a d v a n c e
o f a n a n t i c i p a t e d c ri t i c i sm t ha t n o t hi n g b e t t e r t ha n sp e n d -
i n g o u rse l v e s o u t o f t he d e p re ssi o n i s o f f e re d b y a n y N e w
D e a l c ri t i c
. T he c o n st ru c t i v e me a su re s p ro p o se d , i t i s
a d mi t t e d , a re v e n t u re d a t t he e x p e n se o f a rt whi c h mi g ht
sa n c t i o n t he e ma sc u l a t i o n b u t wo u l d n o t a l l o w t he a n -
n i hi l a t i o n o f su c h i n t e re st i n g su b j e c t s a s t ho se d i sp o se d o f
he re i n . B e t ha t a s i t ma y , whe n re a l i sm a n d ro ma n c e a re
j u d i c i o u sl y b l e n d e d b y t he a rt i st , n o e x c u se sho u l d b e
n e c e ssa ry f o r a d d i n g t he f l a v o r o f re f o rm, i n t ru e Ori e n t a l
st y l e . T ha t wa s t he wa y o f Iv a n t he T e rri b l e i n hi s l i q u i -
d a t i o n s a n d he ha s ha d ma n y i mi t a t o rs si n c e t he W o rl d
W a r .
* 1 5
CH A P T ER XVII
F i n a l Li q u i d a t i o n o f N e w D e a l
Ob se rv a t i o n , Cri t i c i sm, A rt a n d R e f o rm D i s-
c u sse d i n T he i r P ro p e r R e l a t i o n s t o N e w D e a l
a n d S u g g e st i o n s In t e n d e d t o A v o i d R e -
c u rre n c e o f P re se n t Irre sp o n si b l e
Le a d e rshi p
.
" In n o t hi n g e l se d o me n f e a r t ru t h a s mu c h, a n d a v e n g e
i t so , a s i n
p o l i t i c s . " M e re j k o wsk i .
IT IS a v e ry c o mmo n c ri t i c i sm o f t he c ri t i c t ha t he i s a
me re k n o c k e r ; t ha t he o f f e rs n o t hi n g t o t a k e t he p l a c e o f
wha t he t e a rs d o wn ; t ha t n o e d i f i c e i s p l a n n e d t o o c c u p y
t he v a c a n t si t e o f t he ra z e d st ru c t u re ; t ha t n o n e w l a w o r
f o rmu l a i s a d v o c a t e d i n l i e u o f t he l a w t ha t i s sho wn t o
b e u n wo rk a b l e a n d f u t i l e ; t ha t p e n d i n g t he t i me whe n he
ha s so me t hi n g b e t t e r t o o f f e r, he sho u l d wi n c e a n d su f f e r
i n si l e n c e , b u t i n n o e v e n t c o mp l a i n a n d c ri t i c i z e .
T he p re mi se o f mu c h re a so n i n g i s t he a ssu me d o b l i g a -
t i o n o f t he c ri t i c t o u n d e rt a k e t he d u t i e s o f a re f o rme r a n d
t he re b y p re j u d i c e hi s d e t a c hme n t a s a n o b se rv e r . M a n y
o b se rv e rs a n d c ri t i c s a re n o t re f o rme rs
. T he y a re me re
a rt i st s . T he y ma y b e a b l e t o d e sc ri b e a ra i n b o w, o r t o
p a i n t i t s c o l o rs b u t n o t t o i mp ro v e t he d e si g n o r t he p i g -
me n t s . W i t h a c hi se l , t he y ma y re p ro d u c e t he hu ma n
f o rm f ro m a b l o c k o f c o l d ma rb l e b u t i n n o e v e n t c a n
t he y re v e rse t he c i rc u l a t i o n o f t he b l o o d o r mo d i f y t he
i n st i n c t s o f t he hu ma n so u l
. T he y ma y b e e n t i re l y c a p a -
b l e o f p ro d u c i n g a d ra ma t i c v e rsi o n o f p re se n t - d a y p o l i -
t i c s, i . e . , " I' d R a t he r b e R i g ht , " o r e v e n t o si mu l a t e t he
2 1 6
ro l e o f a N e w D e a l P re si d e n t b u t i n d i f f e re n t t o o r q u i t e
i n c a p a b l e o f t he f o rmu l a t i o n o f wo rk a b l e p o l i c i e s t o e n d
t he d e p re ssi o n . T he y we l l k n o w t he i r i n a d e q u a c y f o r
d u a l p a rt s . T he y o n l y p o i n t o u t wha t i s a b su rd a n d
f o o l i sh a n d ha v e n o f e e l i n g o f a n o b l i g a t i o n t o c ha n g e
c o n d i t i o n s . It i s a l t o g e t he r p o ssi b l e t he y g e t a f i e n d i sh
g l e e o u t o f me re o b se rv a t i o n o f hu ma n f ra i l t i e s a n d i t i s
d o u b t f u l whe t he r t he y f e e l o b l i g e d t o d i sc l o se re me d i e s
a b o u t whi c h t he y mi g ht ha p p e n t o k n o w . T he a ssu mp -
t i o n t ha t t he c ri t i c sho u l d si mu l a t e t he t a l e n t s o f t he a rc hi -
t e c t o n t he si t e o f re c e n t ru i n s, t ha t i s, b e c o n st ru c t i v e , i s
l a c k i n g i n g o o d se n se . T he c ri t i c ha s n o o b l i g a t i o n a s
a n a rc hi t e c t t o re b u i l d , n o o b l i g a t i o n a s a p hy si c i a n t o
p re sc ri b e a re me d y , n o o b l i g a t i o n a s re f o rme r t o p ro c l a i m
a n e w i n a n i t y f o r o n e t ha t ha s j u st b e e n e x p o se d .
T he re a so n why t he sho e ma k e r sho u l d st i c k t o hi s l a st ,
t he a rt i st t o hi s a rt a n d t he c ri t i c t o hi s c ri t i c i sm i s o b -
v i o u s
. A s a p ra c t i c a l ma t t e r, t he re me d i e s f o r o u r i l l s
a re so e l e me n t a l a n d n e a r a t ha n d t ha t t he y a re o b sc u re d
b y t he i r si mp l i c i t y a n d u n re c o g n i z a b l e b e c a u se o f t he i r
p ro x i mi t y .
A ma n i c u ri st who ha d c o mp l a i n e d o f p o o r b u si n e ss
wa n t e d t o k n o w wha t wo u l d ha p p e n i f t ho se who c o u l d
a f f o rd t o b u y su d d e n l y wo u l d re f u se . S he c o n d e mn e d
t he c a u t i o u s M r
. Co o l i d g e f o r a re ma rk he ma d e t o e n -
c o u ra g e t he u se o f ha l f - so l e s
. T he re u p o n , she wa s sho wn
t he ha l f - so l e s o f he r c u st o me r, who o b se rv e d i c i l y t ha t a
b u y e rs' st ri k e mi g ht b ri n g su c h p e rso n s a s he rse l f t o t he i r
se n se s . A n Ec o n o mi c R o y a l i st d i d n ' t c a re whe t he r he
d i d mu c h b u si n e ss b e c a u se , a s he t ho u g ht , v e ry mu c h
wo rse c o n d i t i o n s a re n e c e ssa ry t o re st o re hu ma n sa n i t y
.
H e ha d t he sa me i d e a o f re f o rm a s t he ma n i c u ri st ' s c u s-
t o me r . In n e i t he r c a se wa s t he re a n y t ho u g ht o f a n y n e w
l a w, a n y n e w f o rmu l a , a n y n e w k i n d o f g o v e rn me n t o r
e v e n a n e w t a x o r a p p ro p ri a t i o n b y Co n g re ss .
S u c h si mp l e re me d i e s mi g ht n o t b e wi d e l y a c c l a i me d
a n d t he y a re n o t su c h a s c a n b e re c o mme n d e d f o r i n -
c o rp o ra t i o n i n t he p l a t f o rm o f a p o l i t i c a l p a rt y e x p e c t e d
2 1 7
t o d e f e a t M r . R o o se v e l t a n d t he N e w D e a l . T he si mp l e
re me d i e s, i n e a c h i n st a n c e , ha p p e n t o p o sse ss c u ra t i v e
p ro p e rt i e s a n d t he y we re n o t p re sc ri b e d o n t he b a si s o f a
mi st a k e n d i a g n o si s o r f o u n d e d o n a f a l se a ssu mp t i o n .
T he se si mp l e re me d i e s we re p re sc ri b e d i n l i g ht o f t he
a c k n o wl e d g e d f a c t t ha t t he wi t l i n g s a re i n c o mp l e t e c o n -
t ro l o f t he p o l i t i c s o f t he c o u n t ry a n d t ha t t he o n l y a p -
p ro a c h t o t he i r me n t a l i t y i s v i a t he i r e l e me n t a l n e c e ssi t i e s,
t he i r re q u i re me n t s o f f o o d , c l o t hi n g a n d she l t e r .
T o p u t t he c a se a n o t he r wa y , t he re f o rme r b e g i n s whe re
t he o b se rv e r, t he c ri t i c , t he a rt i st l e a v e s o f f . If t he a rt i st
i s sk i l l f u l , i f t he p i c t u re he p a i n t s i s a t ru e l i k e n e ss o f t he
su b j e c t , i f t he t e c hn i q u e i s a c c u ra t e a n d t he l i g ht s a n d
sha d o ws i n sp i ri n g , t he re f o rme r i s b o u n d t o a p p e a r .
S o me re st l e ss so u l wi l l b e mo v e d t o a c t i o n .
J u st a s t he a c ro b a t , t ra i n e d t o t re a d a t i g ht ro p e wi t h
a p p a re n t e a se , i s n o t u n i f o rml y su re - f o o t e d , so t he o b -
se rv e r, t he c ri t i c , t he a rt i st ha s hi s o wn p e c u l i a r d i f f i -
c u l t i e s, c hi e f o f whi c h i s t o re ma i n i n c ha ra c t e r
. T he
se re n i t y o f t he c ri t i c i s f o re v e r su b j e c t t o t he p e ri l whi c h
p u rsu e s e v e ry hu ma n c o n t a c t , t ha t i s, t he i n c l i n a t i o n t o
t ry t o i n f l u e n c e hu ma n b e ha v i o r i n t he c o n c re t e . T he
t e mp t a t i o n t o p re a c h ma y b e c o me o v e rp o we ri n g , e i t he r
p l u s o r mi n u s c o mp e n sa t i o n f o r t he ro l e , a n d t he t e mp t a -
t i o n t o ma k e su g g e st i o n s whi c h o b v i o u sl y wo u l d e l i mi -
n a t e t he n e e d t o p re a c h i s b e y o n d a l l b u t su p e rhu ma n
re si st a n c e .
T he re f o rme r, ho we v e r, i s f o re v e r su b j e c t t o t he l u rk -
i n g d a n g e r o f o v e rl o o k i n g t he o b v i o u s . F ro m a n o b -
se rv e r t u rn e d re f o rme r, i t ma y b e sa i d t he R e p u b l i c a n s,
who a re st i l l l o o k i n g f o r a n i ssu e a n d st ri v i n g t o f o rmu l a t e
a p l a t f o rm, a re a p t t o mi ss t he p o ssi b i l i t i e s o f t he o n l y
c o n st ru c t i v e p ro g ra m a v a i l a b l e t o t he m, t o - wi t
: T he
f o rt hri g ht re p e a l o f e v e ry l a w a n d t he a b o l i t i o n o f e v e ry
c o mmi ssi o n a n d g o v e rn me n t a g e n c y c re a t e d si n c e M a rc h
4 , 1 93 3 .
It wi l l b e sa i d t ha t so me o f t he N e w D e a l p ro g ra m ha s
b e e n b e n e f i c i a l t o t he c o u n t ry a n d d e se rv e s t o l i v e
. It i s
2 1 8
b e si d e t he p o i n t t o a rg u e o t he rwi se . T he c o u n t ry wo u l d
n o t su f f e r n o w f ro m c o mp l e t e a b a n d o n me n t o f t he p ro -
g ra m a n d t ha t i s t he o n l y p ra c t i c a b l e a p p ro a c h t o so l i d
g ro u n d , i f a n y su c h a p p ro a c h re ma i n s . A n y p l a n whi c h
i n v o l v e s a se l e c t i o n b e t we e n wha t i s t o b e re t a i n e d a n d
wha t i s t o b e c a st o u t i s f o re d o o me d t o f a i l u re , t he sa me
i n e v i t a b l e f a i l u re whi c h t he p ro g ra m a s a who l e ha s a l -
re a d y su f f e re d .
On l y b e c a u se J o hn G a rn e r, W i l l i a m G re e n , T o m
G i rd l e r, F ra n k K n o x , Ca rt e r G l a ss, H e n ry F o rd a n d t he
e mb a t t l e d f a rme rs c o u l d n e v e r a g re e o n wha t i s t o b e
sa v e d f ro m e x t i n c t i o n a n d b e c a u se t he y mi g ht a g re e t o
sc ra p e v e ry t hi n g d e ri v e d f ro m t he W a shi n g t o n b u re a u c -
ra c y i n t he p a st f i v e y e a rs i s t he l a t t e r so l u t i o n su g g e st e d
a s t he o n l y o n e o f a n y p ro mi se .
S o me i mme d i a t e re l i e f f ro m t he g e n e ra l b e wi l d e rme n t
t ha t wi n g s i t s wa y t o t he re mo t e st p ro v i n c e s c o u l d b e ha d
n o w i f Co n g re ss wo u l d shu t o f f a p p ro p ri a t i o n s t ha t su s-
t a i n t he n u me ro u s W hi t e H o u se se c re t a ri a t a n d a f f i l i a t e d
se a t s o f p e st i l e n c e i n t he n e w b u re a u c ra c y
. T he mi se ri e s
l e t l o o se f ro m t he se q u a rt e rs a re mo re wi t he ri n g t ha n
t ho se whi c h e sc a p e d f ro m P a n d o ra ' s b o x . T o shu t o f f
a p p ro p ri a t i o n s wo u l d b e a p re l i mi n a ry e x hi b i t i o n o f
st a t e sma n shi p a n d i t o u g ht t o b e d o n e p ro mp t l y , u n d e r
a su sp e n si o n o f ru l e s .
T he e l a st i c i t y o f t he c a l e n d a r i s n o t su f f i c i e n t f o r M r
.
R o o se v e l t a l o n e t o ha v e c o n c e i v e d mo re t ha n a p i t t a n c e
o f d e v a st a t i o n v i si t e d o n t he p o p u l a c e si n c e M a rc h 4 ,
1 93 3 , a n d i f he we re re d u c e d t o t he p o si t i o n whe re he
wo u l d b e t he so l e so u rc e o f a l l n e w sc o u rg e s, t he y wo u l d
p ro mp t l y d i mi n i sh i n q u a n t i t y a n d v i ru l e n c e
. T he c o u n -
t ry t he re u p o n wo u l d ha v e i t s f i rst b re a t hi n g sp e l l , i n
f a c t , i t s f i rst c ha n c e o f u l t i ma t e re c o v e ry
. T he p e ri l o f
t he se c re t a ri a t a n d t he l e g i o n o f i t s c o l l a b o ra t o rs i n t he
b u re a u c ra c y i s n o mo re a p p a re n t t ha n t he re me d y , a n d
Co n g re ss whi c h ha s se n se d t he f o rme r sho u l d ha v e b e e n
a b l e t o se e t he l a t t e r
.
Li q u i d a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e a n d t he l o n g e r t he p o st p o n e -
2 1
9
me n t , t he mo re se v e re a n d d ra st i c wi l l b e t he p ro c e sse s
o f l i q u i d a t i o n
.
T he d e e p e r t he c o u n t ry g o e s i n t he
d i re c t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l e x ha u st i o n , t he mo re v i o l e n t wi l l
b e t he sho c k o f t he u l t i ma t e d i sa st e r
. If p e rc ha n c e we
sho u l d su c c e e d i n l i q u i d a t i n g n e a rl y a c e n t u ry o f p o l i t i -
c a l n o n se n se - u n i v e rsa l su f f ra g e a n d t he re i n t he i rre -
sp o n si b i l i t y n o w p a t e n t t o t he o b l i g a t i o n s o f c i t i z e n shi p ,
u n i v e rsa l e d u c a t i o n a s p re sc ri b e d b y o u r ru l i n g o l i -
g a rc hy o f p e d a g o g u e s, u n i v e rsa l e c o n o mi c d e p e n d e n c e
u p o n t he g o v e rn me n t , a t l e a st se v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f
g o v e rn me n t a i d t o , me d d l i n g i n a n d i n t e rf e re n c e wi t h
st ri c t l y p ri v a t e o r l o c a l a f f a i rs- t he p ri c e p a i d f o r su c h
l i q u i d a t i o n c a n n o t b e re g a rd e d a s e x c e ssi v e b y t ho se who
su rv i v e t he d i sa st e r .
N o t hi n g i s mo re t ru l y sy mb o l i c a l o f o u r d e c a d e n c e a s
a n a t i o n t ha n o u r i n d i f f e re n c e , n o t o n l y t o t he o p e ra t i o n s
wi t hi n o u r b o rd e rs o f Co mmu n i st s a n d t he i r " f e l l o w
t ra v e l e rs" b u t i n d i f f e re n c e , a s we l l , t o t he o p e ra t i o n s o f
F ri t z K u hn a n d hi s G e rma n - A me ri c a n b u n d . T he i r
a c t i v e o r p o t e n t i a l c o n t ri b u t i o n s t o t he d i st u rb a n c e o f
o u r d o me st i c p e a c e a n d o u r g e n e ra l we l f a re a re wi d e l y
re c o g n i z e d . T he p u n y i mi t a t o rs i n t he N e w D e a l ,
" l i b e ra l s, " p ro g re ssi v e s, l e f t i st s, M r . R o o se v e l t ' s " B "
me n , c o u l d b e f e t c he d u p f o r c o n sp i ra c y a n d d i sp o se d o f
b y se g re g a t i o n , t he g e rms o f whi c h a re f o u n d i n t he
mu n i c i p a l ma n a g e me n t o f o t he r p ro st i t u t e s
. T he Ca l i -
f o rn i a c l i ma t e mi g ht b e a t t ra c t i v e a n d i n t he l i g ht o f
re c e n t p o l i t i c a l t re n d s i n t ha t st a t e , t he g e n t ry d i sc a rd e d
b y o t he r st a t e s wo u l d f i n d a ho me a t mo sp he re . T he
f ra g ra n c e o f N e w Yo rk Ci t y ' s " Li t t l e F l o we r" wi l l a t t ra c t
t ho se who a re n o t i n t e re st e d i n c l i ma t e . W i t h su c h
v o l u n t a ry o r e n f o rc e d se g re g a t i o n , t he hi n t e rl a n d mi g ht
l i v e i n c o mp a ra t i v e p e a c e .
If o u r v i ri l i t y , o u r se l f - e st e e m, o u r c o n f i d e n c e i n o u r
o wn f u t u re we re n o t q u i t e e x ha u st e d , t ri a l s f o r t re a so n
a n d d e p o rt a t i o n l o n g a g o wo u l d ha v e b e c o me v e ry c o m-
mo n .
T he f u t u re i s d a rk . T he wa y b a c k t o t he ha p p i e r d a y s
2 2 0
i s o b sc u re . T he o p t i mi st s, o f c o u rse , wi l l b e b e l i e v e d
a n d f o l l o we d f o r t he si mp l e re a so n t ha t d i sa st e r i s u n -
p l e a sa n t t o c o n t e mp l a t e . T he y wi l l c o n t i n u e t o p re se n t a
p l a u si b l e sy l l o g i sm, t he ma j o r p re mi se o f whi c h i s a f a l se
a ssu mp t i o n a n d t he mi n o r p re mi se o f whi c h i n he re n t l y
i s ho p e p l u s f a i t h, e v e n whe n d i sa st e r ha s b e c o me g e n e ra l .
A s l a t e a s 1 98 2 , wa s n o t p ro sp e ri t y j u st a ro u n d t he
c o rn e r?
Ei g ht y e a rs a g o , a n d b e f o re t he b e g i n n i n g . o f t he
S p a n i sh c i v i l wa r, G a sse t p re d i c t e d ' t ha t t hi rt y y e a rs wi l l
su f f i c e t o se n d Eu ro p e b a c k t o b a rb a ri sm i f t he ma ss ma n
c o n t i n u e s t o b e ma st e r . " Le g i sl a t i v e a n d i n d u st ri a l
t e c hn i q u e wi l l d i sa p p e a r wi t h t he sa me f a c i l i t y wi t h
whi c h so ma n y t ra d e se c re t s ha v e o f t e n d i sa p p e a re d , " he
sa i d . " T he who l e o f l i f e wi l l b e c o n t ra c t e d , t he a c t u a l
a b u n d a n c e o f p o ssi b i l i t i e s wi l l c ha n g e i n t o p ra c t i c a l
sc a rc i t y , a p i t i f u l i mp o t e n c e , a re a l d e c a d e n c e . "
T ha t t hi s c o u n t ry l a c k e d t he i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d c o u ra g e
t o a v o i d t he se t ro u b l e d t i me s d o e s n o t a u g u r we l l f o r t he
n e e d e d i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d c o u ra g e t o e sc a p e t he f u l l c o n -
se q u e n c e s o f o u r ma n y mi st a k e s . A R o o se v e l t ra mp a n t ,
i n sp i t e o f p re se n t p e ri l , wi l l p ro l o n g t he c o n f u si o n a n d
p o st p o n e t he f i n a l re c k o n i n g . M e a n whi l e t he c ha n c e s
t o e sc a p e t he d e l u g e a re l e ss e a c h so l e mn a n d e v e n t f u l
d a y
. A n o t he r sp e n d i n g sp re e ma y f a i l t o a c c o mp l i sh a
mo d i c u m o f t he p re v i o u s st i mu l a t i o n o f b u si n e ss . T ha t
su c h a sp re e wi l l d o a s mu c h a s t he p ro l o n g e d sp re e - o f
1 93 3 - 8 7 a c c o mp l i she d , n o sa n e p e rso n a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e s,
y e t t he Co n g re ss o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s ma d e t he n e c e ssa ry
a p p ro p ri a t i o n s f o r a n o t he r sp e n d i n g sp re e b e c a u se i t
wa n t e d t he c o u ra g e t o b e re a l i st i c whe n o n l y re a l i sm
c a n b e he l p f u l .
If t he o b j e c t i o n i s ma d e t ha t t hi s c o n t e mp o ra ry sk e t c h
o f d o mi n a n t p o l i t i c a l a n d so c i a l f o rc e s l a c k s e x hi l a ra t i o n
a n d b u o y a n c y , t he o b j e c t i o n o u g ht t o b e l a i d a t t he f e e t
o f t he su b j e c t a n d n o t t he a rt i st o r c ri t i c . W hi l e so me -
1 Ort e g a y G a sse t , " T he R e v o l t o f t he M a sse s" (W . W . N o rt o n & Co . , In c . )
p . 3 6 .
2 2 1
t hi n g i s t o b e sa i d i n b e ha l f o f t he a rt o f f o rg e t t i n g wha t
i t i s u n p l e a sa n t t o re me mb e r, t hi s f o rmu l a i s me a n t t o b e
u se d g u a rd e d l y . It i s ha rd l y a v a i l a b l e t o a b e si e g e d
g a rri so n o r a p e o p l e o n t he t hre sho l d o f Ca e sa ri sm
.
N o r i s i t n e c e ssa ri l y f a t a l t o b e a p e ssi mi st
. If t he re i s
a c ha n c e o f su rv i v a l , t he p e ssi mi st i s t hri c e a rme d : H e i s
o n t he l o o k o u t f o r d a n g e r ; he ha s a l re a d y c ho se n hi s
we a p o n s a n d , f ro m l o n g c o n t e mp l a t i o n , he wi l l k n o w
b e st whe n t o st ri k e i n hi s o wn d e f e n se
. T he o p t i mi st ,
wi t h t he i n n o c e n c e o f a c o u n t ry b u mp k i n o n hi s f i rst v i si t
t o t he c i t y i n g a wk i n g a t a ri o t , i s c e rt a i n t o b e p i c k e d o f f
b y a st ra y b u l l e t b e f o re o u r o wn re i g n o f t e rro r wi l l ha v e
b e c o me g e n e ra l
.
A s a n e x a mp l e o f st a rk re a l i sm, o f f e re d t o t he R e p u b l i -
c a n s a n d t o t ho u g ht f u l c i t i z e n s o f a n y o r n o p a rt y , f o r
t he i r c o n si d e ra t i o n , t he f o l l o wi n g t e n t a t i v e d ra f t o f
a rt i c l e s o f i mp e a c hme n t i s a p p e n d e d .
It i s b e l i e v e d
t ha t t he se sp e c i f i c a t i o n s, a s d ra f t e d , e x p re ss ro u g hl y t he
su b st a n c e o f t he c o u n t ry ' s g ri e v a n c e s a g a i n st M r
. R o o se -
v e l t
. A c t i o n mi g ht b e f o rt hc o mi n g i n i g g g
.
A re p o rt o n t he M a t a n u sk a Va l l e y re se t t l e me n t p ro j e c t
i n A l a sk a , a p p e a ri n g i n t he J a n u a ry , X93 8 , i ssu e o f
T he
A me ri c a n M e rc u ry , i s
su f f i c i e n t c a u se f o r p ro v o k i n g
wha t e v e r re ma i n s o f i n d i g n a t i o n , re se n t me n t a n d re t a l i a -
t i o n i n t he hu ma n he a rt
. N o p e o p l e who se i n st i n c t f o r
se l f - p re se rv a t i o n i s n o t i n d e c l i n e , who se i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d
c o u ra g e ha v e n o t a l re a d y d i sa p p e a re d , wo u l d t o l e ra t e
t hi s sc a n d a l o u s d i sre g a rd o f d e c e n c y i n g o v e rn me n t
l o n g e r t ha n i s n e c e ssa ry t o f u rn i sh F ra n k l i n D e l a n o
R o o se v e l t a re t u rn t i c k e t t o H y d e P a rk
. F u rt he rmo re ,
a n y o n e c a p a b l e o f f o i st i n g u p o n t he A me ri c a n p e o p l e
t he o b l i g a t i o n t o p a y f o r M a t a n u sk a Va l l e y i s l u c k y t o
e sc a p e a mo re sp i t e f u l e j e c t me n t f ro m t he hi g h p l a c e
t ha t ha s b e e n d i sho n o re d .
1 .
H e ha s c o n t i n u o u sl y e n d e a v o re d t o a l t e r t he f o rm a n d su b -
st a n c e o f o u r g o v e rn me n t a n d i n a l a rg e me a su re ha s su c -
c e e d e d i n c ha n g i n g t he c ha ra c t e r o f o u r i n st i t u t i o n s
.
2 2 2
2 2 3
II.
H e ha s su rro u n d e d hi mse l f wi t h a mu l t i t u d e o f c o u n se l l o rs
wi t ho u t p ra c t i c a l e x p e ri e n c e i n l a rg e a f f a i rs, who , n e v e rt he -
l e ss, ha v e b e e n a l l o we d t o wri t e t he f o rmu l a e f o r a n d t o re g u -
l a t e , c o n t ro l a n d ma n a g e v a st e n t e rp ri se s i n a c c o rd a n c e wi t h
t he i r o wn i rre sp o n si b l e whi ms .
III .
H e ha s a l l o we d me mb e rs o f hi s o wn f a mi l y t o a ssu me re -
sp o n si b i l i t i e s i n t he o p e ra t i o n o f t he g o v e rn me n t t o whi c h
t he y we re n o t e l e c t e d a n d t o c o mme rc i a l i z e t he i r p e rso n a l re -
l a t i o n shi p wi t h t he P re si d e n t t o t he a d v a n t a g e o f t he i r o wn
p u rse s a n d t o t he d i sa d v a n t a g e o f a c c e p t e d st a n d a rd s o f e t hi -
c a l c o n d u c t whi c h t ra d i t i o n ha s e st a b l i she d t o g u i d e t he
P re si d e n t a n d t he me mb e rs o f hi s i mme d i a t e f a mi l y
.
IV.
H e ha s re p e a t e d l y so u g ht t o a rra y c l a ss a g a i n st c l a ss, g ro u p
a g a i n st g ro u p , t he ma ss a g a i n st t he re sp o n si b l e f e w a n d t o
a ro u se t he b a se r i mp u l se s o f g re a t n u mb e rs o f o u r p e o p l e i n
hi s st ru g g l e f o r su p re me p o we r o v e r a l l o u r c i t i z e n s
.
V.
H e ha s e x hi b i t e d t he re se n t me n t o f a sp o i l e d c hi l d o n ma n y
o c c a si o n s i n hi s re f e re n c e s t o p e rso n s who ha d d i sa g re e d wi t h
hi m, who ha d q u e st i o n e d hi s wi sd o m o r ha d e x p re sse d d o u b t
o f hi s mo t i v e s .
VI .
H e ha s e n c o u ra g e d d i sse n si o n , p ro mo t e d i l l wi l l a mo n g o u r
p e o p l e a n d d e g ra d e d t he c o u n t ry a mo n g t he f a mi l y o f N a -
t i o n s, a t a t i me whe n u n i t y o f p u rp o se a n d a c t ha s b e e n o f
u t mo st i mp o rt a n c e t o t he who l e c o u n t ry .
VII.
H e ha s d i ssi p a t e d t he re so u rc e s a n d we a l t h o f t he c o u n t ry i n
e x t ra v a g a n c e s, wa st e , p ro d i g a l i t y a n d f o o l i sh u n d e rt a k i n g s o f
su c h n u mb e r a n d ma g n i t u d e a s
t o f i l l t he he a rt s o f o u r
t ho u g ht f u l a n d re sp o n si b l e c i t i z e n s wi t h l o a t hi n g a n d d i s-
g u st .
VIII.
H e ha s se t b e f o re o u r p e o p l e su c h a l o w st a n d a rd i n t he
re a l m o f p e rso n a l ho n o r a n d t he sa n c t i t y o f t he p l i g ht e d
wo rd o r p ro mi se , t ha t c o rru p t i o n , sha rp d e a l i n g a n d sho d d y
e t hi c s t hre a t e n t he who l e f a b ri c o f o u r so c i e t y .
Ix .
H i s p u b l i c a p p e a l s t o t he c o u n t ry ha v e b e e n c a l c u l a t e d t o
p e rsu a d e t he mo re i g n o ra n t , g u l l i b l e a n d i mp o v e ri she d p a rt
o f t he p o p u l a t i o n a n d i n i mp u d e n t d e f i a n c e o f a l l p ri n c i p l e s
o f so u n d re a so n , o f p ra c t i c a l e x p e ri e n c e a n d o f o rd i n a ry g o o d
se n se .
x .
H e ha s c o n t i n u o u sl y d o mi n a t e d a n d c o n t ro l l e d , wi t h a f e w
p o ssi b l e e x c e p t i o n s, a ma j o ri t y o f t he me mb e rs o f b o t h ho u se s
o f t he Co n g re ss o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s b y p ro mi se s o f p a t ro n a g e
a n d p u b l i c wo rk s o r t hre a t s t o wi t hho l d su c h p a t ro n a g e a n d
su c h p u b l i c wo rk s whi c h i s c o n t ra ry t o t he sp i ri t o f o u r i n -
st i t u t i o n s, su c h p ra c t i c e s d i f f e ri n g l i t t l e f ro m b ri b e ry , whi c h
i s p u n i sha b l e e v e ry whe re a s a f e l o n y
.
XI.
H e ha s d a re d t o d e ma n d a n d ha s re c e i v e d hu g e su ms o f
mo n e y f ro m Co n g re ss t o re p e a t a n u n d e rt a k i n g t o wa rd s
e c o n o mi c re c o v e ry whi c h ha s a l re a d y b e e n sho wn t o b e f u t i l e
a n d i n ma k i n g hi s d e ma n d s o f Co n g re ss, he ha s g i v e n t he
sa me re a so n s t o su p p o rt t he m whi c h he g a v e b e f o re t he
i n i t i a l u n d e rt a k i n g c o l l a p se d .
M I .
H e ha s u se d v a st su ms o f mo n e y , a p p ro p ri a t e d b y Co n g re ss
t o re v e rse t he st u b b o rn t i d e o f a n a t i o n a l d e p re ssi o n t o wa rd s
re c o v e ry , t o p ro mo t e t he p o l i t i c a l su c c e ss o f hi mse l f a n d hi s
he n c hme n a n d t o p e rp e t u a t e t he i r g ri p o n t he t hro a t s o f o u r
p e o p l e .
XIII.
H e ha s c o n sc i o u sl y c o n t ri b u t e d t o t he c o n f u si o n o f a l l o u r
p e o p l e a n d t o a c o n t i n u i n g c ha o s i n b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry
i n t he B a b e l o f t o n g u e s a n d c o u n se l f ro m t he b u re a u c ra c y he
ha s b u i l t u p i n f i v e y e a rs a n d so v a st i s t he c o n f u si o n c re a t e d
b y hi s n u me ro u s he n c hme n t ha t f i x e d st a n d a rd s, e st a b l i she d
p ra c t i c e s, a c c e p t e d c o d e s a n d p e rma n e n t re q u i re me n t s a re
n o l o n g e r e x p e c t e d b y b u si n e ss me n , b i g o r l i t t l e
.
XIV.
H e ha s p a n d e re d t o l a rg e b l o c k s o f v o t e rs a n d ha s e n d e a v o re d
t o p u rc ha se t he i r p o l i t i c a l f e a l t y a n d i n su re t he i r p e rso n a l
l o y a l t y b y e n o rmo u s g i f t s d i sg u i se d a s " g ra n t s" o f mo n e y
f ro m t he p u b l i c t re a su ry a n d b y e n c o u ra g i n g t he u n l a wf u l
i n v a si o n o f t he ri g ht s o f o n e c l a ss b y a n o t he r c l a ss o f g re a t e r
p o l i t i c a l st re n g t h
.
2 2 4
Xv .
H e ha s l o st t he u n i f i e d su p p o rt o f t he p o l i t i c a l p a rt y who se
c a n d i d a t e he wa s i n 1 93 2 a n d 1 93 6 a n d i n t wo y e a rs he ha s
i n sp i re d a d e p t h o f b i t t e rn e ss t hro u g ho u t t he l a n d whi c h i s
o n l y f e e b l y e x p re sse d n o w b y t he si l e n c e o r t he j e e rs a n d
hi sse s whi c h g re e t a n e x hi b i t i o n o f hi s l i k e n e ss .
XVI .
H e ha s su rro u n d e d hi mse l f wi t h a n d i s su p p o rt e d b y a l e g i o n
o f b u re a u c ra t s who n o t o n l y " ha ra ss o u r p e o p l e a n d e a t o u t
t he i r su b st a n c e " b u t who se c re t l y c o n sp i re t o o v e rt hro w t he
g o v e rn me n t t he y a re swo rn t o c he ri sh a n d se rv e . T he i r
c o n sp i ra c y i s a p p a re n t i n t he o v e rt a c t s t he y a n d t he i r a l l i e s
ha v e c o mmi t t e d i n p u rsu i n g t he p ro g ra m o f M a rx , Le n i n
a n d t he e n ro l l e d Co mmu n i st s o f Ea rl B ro wd e r t o a c c o mp l i sh
a re v o l u t i o n whi c h i s i n t e n d e d t o d e st ro y t he p ri v a t e o wn e r-
shi p o f p ro p e rt y a n d b ri n g o n t he d i c t a t o rshi p o f t he p ro -
l e t a ri a t .
XVII.
H e ha s p ro v e d hi mse l f u t t e rl y i n c o mp e t e n t t o c o p e wi t h t he
p e ri l s whi c h b e se t t he N a t i o n si n c e t he c o u n t ry i s f a rt he r
f ro m re c o v e ry n o w t ha n i t wa s i n 1 93 2 .
H e ha s t ra mp l e d
o n o u r i n st i t u t i o n s, a n d mo c k e d o u r se ri o u s e f f o rt s t o sa v e
o u rse l v e s f ro m o b l i v i o n b y sa n e me t ho d s
. H e ha s f o rf e i t e d
t he re sp e c t a n d c o n f i d e n c e o f a p e o p l e t o who m he p ro mi se d
so mu c h a n d i n who se b e ha l f he ha s d o n e so l i t t l e
. H e
o u g ht t o b e re mo v e d f ro m o f f i c e f o r t he wi d e sp re a d e v i l he
ha s wro u g ht , f o r t he a wf u l l o ss he ha s c a u se d , f o r t he i r-
re p a ra b l e d a ma g e he ha s d o n e .
P l u t a rc h i s a u t ho ri t y f o r t he st a t e me n t t ha t A l c i b i a d e s,
p re v i o u sl y c o n d e mn e d a s " c o n t u ma c i o u s" ' b y t he A t he -
n i a n s " so wo n . . .
u p o n t he l o we r a n d me a n e r so rt o f
p e o p l e , t ha t t he y p a ssi o n a t e l y d e si re d t o ha v e hi m ` t y ra n t '
o v e r t he m, a n d so me o f t he m d i d n o t sc ru p l e t o t e l l hi m
so , a n d t o a d v i se hi m t o p u t hi mse l f o u t o f t he re a c h o f
e n v y , b y a b o l i shi n g t he l a ws a n d o rd i n a n c e s o f t he p e o -
p l e , a n d su p p re ssi n g t he i d l e t a l k e rs . . . so he mi g ht
a c t a n d t a k e u p o n hi m t he ma n a g e me n t o f a f f a i rs, wi t h-
o u t st a n d i n g i n f e a r o f b e i n g c a l l e d t o a n a c c o u n t
. "
T he f e a r o f " t he mo st c o n si d e ra b l e p e rso n s i n t he
2
M r
. R o o se v e l t u se d t hi s t e rm i n re f e rri n g t o t he o u st e d f i rst c ha i rma n
o f T VA , t he re b e l l i o u s D r
. M o rg a n .
2 2 5
c i t y " t ha t he wa s a b o u t t o u su rp " so v e re i g n p o we r, "
P l u t a rc h g o e s o n t o sa y , mo v e d t he m t o ha st e n A l c i b i a d e s
" o n shi p b o a rd a s sp e e d i l y a s t he y c o u l d
. . . . " A l i t t l e
l a t e r A l c i b i a d e s, who " c o u l d ha rd l y a l l o w hi s me n t hre e
o b o l s" d a i l y wa s o u t d o n e b y Ly sa n d e r who p a i d f o u r
o b o l s a n d a l i t t l e l a t e r st i l l , A l c i b i a d e s b y c o mmo n c o n -
se n t , wa s a ssa ssi n a t e d . W ha t i f J o hn L. Le wi s, S a u sa g e -
S e l l e r o f t he c . i . o
. , sho u l d d e c i d e t o p l a y Ly sa n d e r i n
b e ha l f o f t he W o rk e rs' A l l i a n c e d e ma n d f o r b i g g e r ha n d -
o u t s t o t he re l i e f a rmy ?
A s a f a re we l l g e st u re t o t ho se st a l wa rt so u l s- a v a l i a n t
mi n o ri t y - who a re n o t y e t o n re l i e f ; who st i l l g a i n t he i r
l i v e l i ho o d f ro m p ri v a t e
ra t he r t ha n p u b l i c so u rc e s
; who
mi sse d t he a d v a n t a g e s o f c o l l e g e t ra i n i n g i n Co mmu n i sm ;
who se p a st a n d p re se n t l a b o r st i l l su p p o rt s t he d e st ru c t i v e
b u re a u c ra c y a n d t he u n p ro d u c t i v e ma sse s a n d who se
re a so n , t he re f o re , i s u n t a i n t e d , re c o u rse t o R o b e rt B u rt o n
f o r wi sd o m t ha t ha s e n d u re d f o r t hre e hu n d re d y e a rs i s
su g g e st e d :
" W e c ha n g e l a n g u a g e , ha b i t s, l a ws, c u st o ms, ma n n e rs,
b u t n o t v i c e s, n o t d i se a se s, n o t t he sy mp t o ms o f f o l l y a n d
ma d n e ss- t he y a re st i l l t he sa me . "
2 2 6
Ep i l o g u e
" B e wa re o f f a l se p ro p he t s whi c h c o me t o y o u i n she e p ' s c l o t hi n g , b u t i n wa rd l y
t he y a re ra v e n i n g wo l v e s .
" Ye sha l l k n o w t he m b y t he i r f ru i t s
. . . " M a t t . 7 : 1 5 , z 6 .
T H E T H ES IS o f t hi s v e n t u re i n se l f - e x p re ssi o n , a s a n -
n o u n c e d i n t he p re f a c e , wa s t he N e w D e a l p u rp o se t o
a t t a i n a so c i a l i z e d st a t e a n d t he a b o l i t i o n o f t he p ri v a t e
o wn e rshi p o f p ro p e rt y . A n a t t e mp t wa s a l so ma d e t o
sho w, i n c i d e n t a l l y , t ha t su c h o b j e c t i v e s a re u n a t t a i n a b l e
b u t t ha t t he i r c o n t i n u e d p u rsu i t i n a c o u n t ry whe re
u n i v e rsa l su f f ra g e p re v a i l s a n d u n i v e rsa l
e d u c a t i o n ha s
f a i l e d t o e d u c a t e t he ma sse s i n e v i t a b l y wi l l l e a d t o
Ca e sa ri sm, a n o t he r n a me f o r d i c t a t o rshi p .
T he si mi l a ri t i e s i n t he p ro g ra m o f t he Co mmu n i st s, a s
p re sc ri b e d b y M a rx , En g e l s, Le n i n a n d t he i r d i sc i p l e s i n
A me ri c a , a n d i n t he p ro g ra m o f t he N e w D e a l ha v e b e e n
p o i n t e d o u t a g a i n a n d a g a i n .
Le n i n st re sse d t he i mp o rt a n c e o f " d e mo c ra c y " a n d so
ha v e M r . R o o se v e l t a n d , wi t ho u t e x c e p t i o n , a l l t he Co m-
mu n i st s a n d se l f - st y l e d " l i b e ra l s" i d e n t i f i e d wi t h t he N e w
D e a l .
Le n i n e mp ha si z e d ho u si n g " wo rk e rs" f re e a n d a t ha l f
c o st a n d t he N e w D e a l a l re a d y ha s p ro v i d e d ho u si n g o n a
v a st sc a l e a t ha l f c o st o r e v e n l e ss whe n t he c o st o f ho u si n g
p ro j e c t s i s c o mp a re d wi t h t he c u rre n t i n c o me . M o re -
o v e r, t he N e w D e a l i s e x p a n d i n g i t s o p e ra t i o n s i n ho u si n g
p ro j e c t s f o r t he ma sse s, o n e a sp e c t o f whi c h i s t he v a st
re se t t l e me n t p ro j e c t s a l re a d y c o mp l e t e d a n d i n p ro c e ss .
Le n i n st re sse d t he si n s o f " mo n o p o l y " a n d t he e v i l s o f
" b i g n e ss" i n b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry . T he N e w D e a l ' s
a ssa u l t o n b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry b e g a n wi t h t he N R A a n d
2 2 7
ha s c o n t i n u e d wi t h p ra c t i c a l l y n o b re a t hi n g sp e l l s t o t he
p re se n t mo me n t . S p a c e l i mi t a t i o n s e x c l u d e d a n a d e -
q u a t e re c i t a l o f t he d e t a i l s o f a b a rra g e t ha t ha s b e e n
b o t h i n c e ssa n t a n d v i c i o u s . T he p re se n t Co n g re ssi o n a l
i n v e st i g a t i o n o f " mo n o p o l i e s, " d e ma n d e d b y M r . R o o se -
v e l t , i s a n i mp o rt a n t c o ro l l a ry o f t he Co mmu n i st p ro -
g ra m, a s p re sc ri b e d b y Le n i n . T he c e a se l e ss a ssa u l t b y
t he N e w D e a l b u re a u c ra c y o n " mo n o p o l i e s, " o n " Ca p i t a l -
i sm, " o n Ec o n o mi c R o y a l i st s, o n p ri v a t e b u si n e ss, o n
b a n k e rs, i n d u st ri a l i st s, p u b l i c u t i l i t y ma n a g e rs, p hy si -
c i a n s, l a wy e rs, i s me re l y a n A me ri c a n a d a p t a t i o n o f t he
M a rx i a n f o rmu l a f o r t he p ro mo t i o n o f t he " c l a ss st ru g -
g l e . " Ev e n i f t he a d a p t a t i o n ha s b e e n a rri v e d a t b y
me a n s o f t ri a l a n d e rro r, t he se e d s o f c l a ss a n t a g o n i sms
a n d c l a ss ha t re d s ha v e b e e n wi d e l y so wn , a s M a rx hi m-
se l f , we re he l i v i n g , wo u l d wa rml y a p p l a u d .
T he re c re a t i o n a n d a mu se me n t se c t i o n s o f t he W P A ,
t he F e d e ra l t he a t re p ro j e c t o f t he W P A a n d t he sy st e m
e v o l v e d f o r f e e d i n g , c l o t hi n g a n d ho u si n g t he mu l t i t u d e ,
p a rt i c u l a rl y j u st b e f o re e l e c t i o n s, ha d t he i r g e n e si s i n
t he p o l i t i c a l e c o n o my o f G re e c e a n d R o me i n t he l a st
d a y s whe n t y ra n t s c o mp e t e d f o r t he f a v o r o f t he ma sse s,
o n l y t he G re e k a n d R o ma n t y ra n t s g o t o f f o rd i n a ri l y
wi t h a f re e b re a d t i c k e t t o t he p u b l i c o v e n o r a f re e se a t
i n t he Co l o sse u m .
F re q u e n t u se o f t he v o c a b u l a ry o f Co mmu n i sm b y
M r . R o o se v e l t i s re v e a l i n g , a s p o i n t e d o u t
. T wo i m-
p o rt a n t e x a mp l e s we re c i t e d , b u t t he re ha v e b e e n o t he r
i n st a n c e s o f i t s u se a n d whe t he r b y v i rt u e o f a l a p se o r
f ro m d e si g n i s u n i mp o rt a n t
.
H i s mo re a b u n d a n t l i f e
i s me re l y a me l l i f l u o u s v a ri a t i o n o f Le n i n ' s n e w l i f e a n d
b o t h me a n t he sa me t hi n g
. In t he Co mmu n i st d i c t i o n -
a ry , " t ra n si t i o n " (t he i ma g i n e d i n t e rv a l o r p he n o me n a
b e t we e n Ca p i t a l i sm a n d S o c i a l i sm) i s a k e y wo rd . M r .
R o o se v e l t , a s p o i n t e d o u t i n Cha p t e r I, ha s a d o p t e d t he
t e rm a s e x p re ssi n g hi s o wn c o n c e p t i o n o f t he p re v a i l i n g
st a t e o f p o l i t i c a l e c o n o my i n A me ri c a .
T he t e st i mo n y o f a f o rme r Co mmu n i st b e f o re t he D i e s
2 2 8
Co mmi t t e e t ha t Co mmu n i st s su p p o rt N e w D e a l e x t ra v a -
g a n c e a n d wa st e , t he sp e n d i n g p ro g ra m, wi t h e n t hu si a sm
b e c a u se i t i s e x p e c t e d t o b ri n g o n a c o l l a p se o f f i sc a l
p o l i c i e s a n d t he re u p o n a su c c e ssf u l re v o l u t i o n b y t he
ma sse s, wa s c i t e d t o sho w t he i r mu t u a l c o - o p e ra t i o n i n
me a n s a n d me t ho d s . T he re i s n o e v i d e n c e t ha t K a rl
M a rx e v e r t ho u g ht o f ha st e n i n g t he p ro l e t a ri a n re v o l u -
t i o n b y su c h i n g e n i o u s me t ho d s a s p u mp p ri mi n g , sp e n d -
i n g t o sa v e a n d c o n f i sc a t o ry t a x a t i o n . N o r d i d he t hi n k
o f ha st e n i n g t he p ro l e t a ri a n re v o l u t i o n b y a i mi n g a t n a -
t i o n a l b a n k ru p t c y . U se o f t he t a x i n g p o we r t o e f f e c t
" re f o rm" a n d p ro mo t e t he " c l a ss st ru g g l e " i s st i l l a n o t he r
i n v e n t i o n o f t he A me ri c a n Co mmu n i st s who ha v e d o mi -
n a t e d A me ri c a n p o l i t i c s si n c e M a rc h 4 , 1 93 3 . T he
M a rx i a n t e c hn i q u e ha s b e e n mu c h i mp ro v e d i n A me ri c a
.
T he sy mp a t he t i c c o - o p e ra t i o n b e t we e n t he N e w D e a l
a n d t he La b o r R a c k e t e e rs t o e l e v a t e t he M a rx i a n
" wo rk e r" a n d t o p re j u d i c e , c o n f o u n d a n d ru i n t he e m-
p l o y e r o f l a b o r wa s p o i n t e d o u t wi t h re sp e c t t o ma n y
d i a b o l i c a l p o l i c i e s a n d me a su re s . S o a l so wa s t he Co m-
mu n i st i c l e a d e rshi p o f a n a l t o g e t he r n o v e l l a b o r o rg a n i -
z a t i o n , t he c . r . o . whi c h o we s i t s su c c e ss l a rg e l y t o t he
su p p o rt g i v e n b y M r . R o o se v e l t a n d t he N e w D e a l
b u re a u c ra t s, a s t he y o we t he i r su c c e ss so me wha t t o t he
c . i . o
. T he sy mp a t he t i c t o l e ra n c e b y t he N e w D e a l n e t -
wo rk o f t he si t - d o wn st ri k e , whe re b y p ri v a t e p ro p e rt y
wa s se i z e d a n d he l d i n v i o l a t i o n o f l a w, i s o n l y a v a ri a t i o n
i n d e t a i l f ro m t he Co mmu n i st p u rp o se t o se i z e , ho l d a n d
a d mi n i st e r a l l p ri v a t e l y - o wn e d p ro p e rt y a n d c a n b e re -
g a rd e d o n l y a s a p re l i mi n a ry e x hi b i t i o n o f p ro l e t a ri a n
st re n g t h
. It ha s n o o t he r me a n i n g . If P re mi e r D a l a d i e r
o f F ra n c e e v e r he a rd o f t he " A me ri c a n wa y " o f ma n a g i n g
si t - d o wn st ri k e rs, a s d e sc ri b e d b y M r . R o o se v e l t j u st b e -
f o re t he 1 93 8 e l e c t i o n , o b v i o u sl y he wa s n o t i mp re sse d .
T he p a l p a b l e e x a mp l e s o f n a t i o n a l u n d e rt a k i n g s i n
S o c i a l i st i c e n t e rp ri se s, t he mo st o u t st a n d i n g a n d c o st l y o f
whi c h i s t he
T VA , a re so n u me ro u s t ha t a re c i t a l o f a l l t he
p ro j e c t s wo u l d o f f e n d a n i l l i t e ra t e a l i e n si n c e f e w c o m-
2 2 9
mu n i t i e s ha v e b e e n sp a re d a n e x a mp l e o f N e w D e a l
p ro d i g a l i t y .
N o o n e wi t h a n y p ra c t i c a l e x p e ri e n c e i n b u si n e ss a n d
i n d u st ry , wa s c a p a b l e o f f o rg i n g t he N e w D e a l sha c k l e s
whi c h o p p re ss b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry . T he se sha c k l e s
we re f o rg e d o u t o f t he i ma g i n a t i o n s o f v o l u n t e e r " e c o n o -
mi st s" a n d p e d a g o g u e s who we re su rf e i t e d wi t h t he
p hi l o so p hy o f K a rl M a rx a n d who se k n o wl e d g e o f t he
p ro b l e ms wa s d e ri v e d so l e l y f ro m t he l i b ra ry . A s t he i r
c o n t ri b u t i o n t o t he mo re a b u n d a n t o r n e w l i f e , t he
La b o r ra c k e t e e rs ha v e d ri v e n sp i k e s i n t he sha c k l e s .
W a g e s a n d ho u rs l e g i sl a t i o n , sp o n so re d b y t he S o c i a l i st
p a rt y f o r ha l f a c e n t u ry a n d b y t he Co mmu n i st p a rt y
si n c e i t s b i rt h i n A me ri c a , t he c o u n t ry o we s t o M r .
R o o se v e l t a n d t he N e w D e a l .
P e rha p s so me o f t he M a rx i a n g e n i u se s i n t he W hi t e
H o u se se c re t a ri a t c o u l d e x p l a i n t he u n a n i mi t y o f su p p o rt
whi c h M r . R o o se v e l t e n j o y s f ro m k n o wn Co mmu n i st s
a n d " f e l l o w t ra v e l e rs" i n A me ri c a b u t u n t i l t he y d o , t he
i n f e re n c e i s u n a v o i d a b l e t ha t t he Co mmu n i st p a rt y l i n e
i s we l l sa t i sf i e d wi t h t he p ro g re ss o f t he N e w D e a l t o wa rd
t he Co mmu n i st o b j e c t i v e s .
It i s a mi sf o rt u n e , i n d e e d , t ha t t he l a t e D r
. W i l l i a m A .
W i rt , o f G a ry , d i d n o t l i v e t o e x p e ri e n c e a t ri u mp h o f hi s
p re d i c t i o n s . Or, p e rha p s, i t i s n o t so mu c h o f a mi s-
f o rt u n e t ha t he wa s sp a re d t he re a l i t i e s o f c u rre n t p o l i t i c s,
i n c l u d i n g t he mo ra l a b a se me n t s i n i t i a t e d i n W a shi n g t o n
a n d a d d e d si n c e hi s d e a t h . P o ssi b l y D r. W i rt , ha d he
l i v e d , mi g ht ha v e b e e n a b l e t o g e t f ro m M a d a me P e rk i n s
a sa t i sf a c t o ry e x p l a n a t i o n o f he r p ro t e c t i o n a n d d e f e n se
o f H a rry B ri d g e s, t he we l l k n o wn A u st ra l i a n Co mmu n i st
a n d b u si n e ss ma n a g e r f o r J o hn L. Le wi s o n t he W e st
Co a st . N o o n e e l se ha s .
T he p e rso n n e l o f t he N e w D e a l n e t wo rk - t he sa l a ri e d
b u re a u c ra t s, e x - b u re a u c ra t s, " e c o n o mi st s, " p e d a g o g u e s
f re sh f ro m t he c a mp u s, wri t e rs, j o u rn a l i st s, c o l u mn i st s
a n d e sp e c i a l l y t he ma n y g e n i u se s c o n t ri b u t e d t o t he
N e w D e a l b y P ro f . F e l i x F ra n k f u rt e r- a l l t he se a re i m-
2 3 0
p re ssi v e whe n t he i r i d e o l o g i e s, a n t e c e d e n t s a n d e t hi c s
a re c o n si d e re d
. N o sa n e p e rso n wo u l d t ru st hi s p ri v a t e
p ro p e rt y t o t he ma n a g e me n t o f a n y o n e o f t he m . T he
si mp l e f a c t t ha t t he y ha v e b e e n e n t ru st e d wi t h t he ma n -
a g e me n t o f o u r c o mmo n a f f a i rs, so v a st i n t he i r sc o p e ,
o f i t se l f i s c o n v i n c i n g t ha t t he a c t u a l p re se rv a t i o n o f o u r
c o u n t ry ' s re so u rc e s i s n o t a N e w D e a l o b j e c t i v e . N a t u -
ra l l y , t he re f o re , whe n t hri f t i s a t t a c k e d ,
re a l i t y sc o rn e d
a n d S t a l i n ' s c o mmi ssa ry d e f e n d e d b y t he N e w D e a l n e t -
wo rk , t he c o n c l u si o n f o l l o ws t ha t t he y he w c l o se t o t he
l i n e , i . e . , t he Co mmu n i st p a rt y l i n e .
In Oc t o b e r, 1 95 7 , a s p o i n t e d o u t i n Cha p t e r X, M r .
R o o se v e l t f e t c he d hi s sa b re t o Co o k Co u n t y , Il l i n o i s,
ra t t l e d i t v i g o ro u sl y o n t he n e w b ri d g e a n d t hre a t e n e d
t o " q u a ra n t i n e " H i t l e r a n d M u sso l i n i . On e y e a r l a t e r,
a f t e r a d a y ' s a b se n c e f ro m H y d e P a rk , t wo d a y s wi t h n o
f i sh o r v a c a t i o n a n d t hre e d a y s o f f t he f ro n t p a g e , he wa s
p re p a re d t o d e i f y b o t h f o r p e a c e a t a n y p ri c e i n Cz e c ho -
sl o v a k i a a n d a sha re i n t he sp o t l i g ht t he y we re e n j o y i n g
a t t he mo me n t . T hi s st ra n g e d e n o u e me n t i n o u r f o re i g n
p o l i c y , a f t e r a l l , wa s t y p i c a l o f o u r d o me st i c p o l i c y si n c e
M a rc h 4 , 1 93 3 , e v e n i f i t d i sa p p o i n t e d t he Co mmu n i st s .
T he d i p l o ma c y o f t he N e w D e a l p o l y g l o t t hu s wa s
ma d e t o ma t c h t he e t hi c s o f D o wn i n g S t re e t , t he Q u i ri n a l
a n d B e rc ht e sg a d e n . T he A me ri c a n p o l y g l o t wa s n o t t o
b e i g n o re d b y t he A n g l o - S a x o n , t he T e u t o n o r t he La t i n ,
o r b y a l l o f t he i r ma n e u v e ri n g f ro m t he sa me si d e o f t he
t a b l e . Ev e n t he ha rri e d S e n o r Ca rd e n a s, ha v i n g d e -
st ro y e d t he ha c i e n d a d o s a n d st o p p e d t he f l o w o f o i l i n
M e x i c o , wa s e n t i t l e d a t l e a st t o o n e c hu c k l e i n t he mi d st
o f hi s n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r t he p u rc ha se o f b e a n s a n d whe a t
wi t h a f a l l i n g p e so .
S i n c e t he b e g i n n i n g o f t he W o rl d W a r t hi s c o u n t ry ha s
b e e n u n d e r t he sp e l l o f sl o g a n ma k e rs . T he p o l i t i c i a n s
ha v e f o u n d f ro m e x p e ri e n c e t ha t a sl o g a n whi c h c a t c he s
a n d ho l d s p u b l i c i ma g i n a t i o n i s mo re d e p e n d a b l e t ha n i n -
f a l l i b l e l o g i c i n me a n s a n d me a su re s, mo re u se f u l t ha n
ho n e st me t ho d s o f a d mi n i st ra t i o n , mo re e n d u ri n g t ha n
2 3 1
e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c se rv i c e . A l l t he sl o g a n s c o n t a i n a l i t t l e
t ru t h a n d a l i t t l e t ru t h i s a l l t ha t ha s b e e n n e c e ssa ry .
T hu s i t i s t ha t " c i v i l l i b e rt i e s, " " a c a d e mi c f re e d o m" i n
t he u n i v e rsi t i e s, " u n i v e rsa l e d u c a t i o n , " " i n d u st ri a l
d e mo c ra c y , " " p e a c e a n d d e mo c ra c y , " " mo re d e mo c ra c y , "
" p u mp p ri mi n g " a n d a " N e w D e a l " ha v e se rv e d t o c o n -
c e a l t he ma n t l e o f M a rx i sm a n d Co mmu n i sm .
T he p e d a g o g u e s ha v e ri se n t o f ro n t ra n k i n t he n e w
o rd e r a t W a shi n g t o n b e c a u se o f t he i r su p e ri o r c a p a c i t y t o
c o n f u se t he mu l t i t u d e wi t h p hra se - ma k i n g . La t e l y , t he
p e d a g o g u e s a p p e a r t o b e mo re c o n f u se d t ha n t he mu l t i -
t u d e . T he y a re b e wi l d e re d a n d c o n f o u n d e d b y t he i r o wn
c o n f u si o n . W i t h e q u a l v o ra c i t y t he y n o w sn a t c h a t a n y
b a i t d a n g l e d b y M r . R o o se v e l t - M r . H u l l ' s re c i p ro c a l
t ra d e a g re e me n t s, M rs
. R o o se v e l t ' s " g o o d n e i g hb o r"
p o l i c y , t he re p e a l o f t he sa me n e u t ra l i t y l a ws t he y
sp o n so re d , t he ra i si n g o f e mb a rg o e s t he y o n c e d e ma n d e d ,
a l l i a n c e s wi t h G re a t B ri t a i n a n d F ra n c e who se a c c o rd a t
M u n i c h t he y d e n o u n c e d
. T he y a re e q u a l l y wi l l i n g t o
a c c e p t t he R hi n e , t he N i l e o r t he Ya n g t z e - k i a n g a s t he
A me ri c a n f ro n t i e r, i f o n l y M r . R o o se v e l t wi l l ma k e a
se l e c t i o n .
T he f i n g e r p ri n t s o f t he re v o l u t i o n i st s a re u n mi st a k -
a b l e . T he y a re t o b e f o u n d i n e v e ry n e w a g e n c y a n d
b u re a u i n W a shi n g t o n a n d i n mo st o f t he a g e n c i e s,
b u re a u s a n d d e p a rt me n t s t ha t a re n o t n e w . T he y p re -
d o mi n a t e i n N e w Yo rk Ci t y a n d i n t he f e d e ra l a g e n c i e s
o f t he i n d u st ri a l c e n t e rs . T he y a p p e a r n u me ro u sl y i n
t he v i c i n i t y o f wha t g o e s u n d e r t he n a me o f " o rg a n i z e d
l a b o r" i n A me ri c a a n d a re f o u n d i n ma n y st a t e c a p i t o l s
.
T he i r sme a r wi l l b e f o u n d o n e v e ry a c t whi c h a p p ro p ri -
a t e s mo n e y f ro m t he p u b l i c t re a su ry , o n e v e ry me a su re
whi c h t e n d s t o we a k e n t he c re d i t a n d re so u rc e s o f wha t
i s l e f t o f o rg a n i z e d g o v e rn me n t i n A me ri c a
.
T he J e wi sh re v o l u t i o n i st s i n A me ri c a a re e a g e r f o r
a n d e x p e c t a n t o f a n e w i n t e rn a t i o n a l i sm a n d " t he c o n -
f e d e ra t i o n o f t he wo rl d " t he y ha v e a sse rt e d re p e a t e d l y
;
t ha t t he y f a v o r d e mo c ra c y o n l y a s a n a i d t o a n d f o re -
2 $ 2
ru n n e r o f re v o l u t i o n i s q u i t e o b v i o u s
; t ha t so c i a l e q u a l i t y
i s t he i r c hi e f o b j e c t i v e , t he J e ws ha v e a d mi t t e d i n ma n y
wa y s
. P a u l R a d i n a sse rt s' t ha t R u ssi a , t he U n i t e d S t a t e s
a n d t he - J e ws i n sp i re d b y M a rx , Le n i n , F re u d a n d J u n g
wi l l u she r i n t he n e w so c i a l o rd e r
. S i n c e t he J e ws a l re a d y
c o n t ro l R u ssi a a n d wi t h t he b l e ssi n g s o f M r
. R o o se v e l t
a n d hi s N e w D e a l a re we l l e st a b l i she d i n o u r o wn
b u re a u c ra c y , i t wo u l d se e m t ha t t he J e ws a re t o b e i n
so l e c ha rg e o f a l l g re a t e v e n t s i n t he i mme d i a t e f u t u re
.
W i t h Li t v i n o f f , f i rst S o v i e t a mb a ssa d o r t o W a shi n g t o n
a n d n o w c o mmi ssa r o f f o re i g n a f f a i rs i n S o v i e t R u ssi a ;
Le o n B l u m, t he f o rme r F re n c h p re mi e r a s a g e n t f o r i n -
t e rn a t i o n a l i sm i n P a ri s ; W i l l i a m C
. B u l l i t t , o n e o f t he
p a l a c e f a v o ri t e s a s a mb a ssa d o r o f N e w D e a l i n t e rn a t i o n a l -
i sm t o F ra n c e a n d H e n ry M o rg e n t ha u , J r . , e st a b l i she d i n
W a shi n g t o n t o ma n i p u l a t e a t wo b i l l i o n d o l l a r " st a b i l i z a -
t i o n f u n d " p ro v i d e d b y A me ri c a n t a x p a y e rs f o r t he b e n e -
f i t a n d a d v a n c e me n t o f i n t e rn a t i o n a l i sm, i t a p p e a rs n o t
o n l y t ha t J u d a i sm i s we l l e n t re n c he d i n t he se a t s o f wo rl d
p o we r b u t a l so t ha t i t s o b j e c t i v e s a re n o t b e y o n d t he
re a c h o f t he d o mi n a n t re g i me
. W he t he r t he se g e n t l e -
me n a c t u a l l y me t t o g e t he r i n P a ri s i n 1 93 8 o r me re l y
e n j o y e d a me e t i n g o f mi n d s, a d i sp u t e d su b j e c t b e t we e n
F a t he r Co u g hl i n a n d M r
. M o rg e n t ha u , i s u n i mp o rt a n t .
Ea c h f u l l y u n d e rst a n d s wha t t he o t he rs a re t hi n k i n g a n d
d o i n g j u st a s J a me s P . W a rb u rg , t he i n t e rn a t i o n a l J e wi sh
b a n k e r, u n d e rst o o d i n 1 93 6 whe n he ma d e a l a st mi n u t e
shi f t t o R o o se v e l t b e c a u se he c o u l d o b t a i n n o c o mmi t -
me n t f ro m t he R e p u b l i c a n s f o r t he " st a b i l i z a t i o n o f
c u rre n c i e s . " W i t h st i l l a n o t he r J e w, La u re n c e A
. S t e i n -
ha rd t , i n S o v i e t R u ssi a t o t a k e B u l l i t t ' s p l a c e a n d sha re i n
J e wi sh ma n i p u l a t i o n s wi t h Li t v i n o f f , su rf a c e i n d i c a t i o n s
p o i n t u n mi st a k a b l y t o a n o t he r A me ri c a n wa r a n d a n i n -
c re a se d me a su re o f M a rx i a n " d e mo c ra c y " t hro u g ho u t t he
wo rl d .
P a u l R a d i n ' s " T he R a c i a l M y t h" wa s p u b l i she d i n t he
1
" T he R a c i a l M y t h" b y P a u l R a d i n (M c G ra w- H i l l B o o k Co . , In c
. ,
1 93 4 )
p
. 1 4 0 -
2 3 3
se c o n d y e a r o f M r . R o o se v e l t ' s f i rst a d mi n i st ra t i o n a n d
he se e ms t o ha v e b e e n so me wha t a he a d o f t he l a t e D r .
W i l l i a m A . W i rt i n g e t t i n g hi s p o l i t i c a l b e a ri n g s . In t he
f i n a l c ha p t e r o f t he v o l u me e n t i t l e d " T he Co n f e d e ra t i o n
o f t he W o rl d , " he ma d e a re ma rk a b l e o b se rv a t i o n
:
" T he me a su re s o f t he p re se n t a d mi n i st ra t i o n ma k e
c l e a r t ha t e v e n n e c e ssa ri l y c a p i t a l i st i c a d mi n i st ra t o rs
re a l i z e t ha t t he o n l y p ro b l e m c o n f ro n t i n g t he m i s ho w
t he n e w re o rg a n i z a t i o n * i s t o c o me a b o u t , t he p re c i se
me a su re s a n d t he t i me re q u i re d f o r p u t t i n g i t i n e f f e c t .
T a k i n g a l e a f f ro m t he R u ssi a n s * t he y se e m t o b e i n t e r-
e st e d n o t so mu c h i n p ro p he sy i n g wha t f o rms t he n e w
mo v e me n t sha l l a ssu me a s i n f i x i n g b e y o n d t he p o we r o f
c ha n g e t he g e n e ra l d i re c t i o n i t wi l l g o
. "
W ha t mo re c o u l d b e o f f e re d i n p ro o f o f t he t he si s o f
t hi s b o o k ?
T he e l e c t i o n o f n u me ro u s R e p u b l i c a n c a n d i d a t e s f o r
o f f i c e i n 1 93 8 ma y i mp e d e o u r p ro g re ss t o wa rd s c ha o s, a s
c ha rt e d b y M r . R o o se v e l t a n d hi s Co mmu n i st a l l i e s, b u t
i f t ho se se l e c t e d a re u n wi l l i n g t o p e rf o rm a ma j o r o p e ra -
t i o n o n t he b u re a u c ra c y a n d re v e rse t he f l o w o f re d i n k
t o t he b u d g e t , t he p o t e n t i a l i mp e d i me n t i n a st ro n g e r
o p p o si t i o n wi l l b e c o me me a n i n g l e ss . Co mme n t o n t he
p o l i t i c a l p hi l o so p hi e s o f so me o f t he R e p u b l i c a n s e l e c t e d
t o Co n g re ss i n 1 93 8 i s n o t re a ssu ri n g . W he t he r t he
v i c i o u s sy st e m o f mi sg o v e rn me n t i n i t i a t e d b y t he N e w
D e a l i s a d mi n i st e re d b y o f f i c i a l s e l e c t e d a s D e mo c ra t s o r
a s R e p u b l i c a n s i s o f n o i mp o rt a n c e wha t e v e r t o t he
g e n e ra l we l f a re . If a n o t he r N o rri s o r a n o t he r La F o l l e t t e
t u rn s u p i n t he 1 93 9 Co n g re ss wi t h a R e p u b l i c a n c e rt i f i -
c a t e o f e l e c t i o n , t he re sho u l d b e n o g re a t su rp ri se b e c a u se
so me o f t he su c c e ssf u l R e p u b l i c a n c a n d i d a t e s e x c e e d e d
M r. R o o se v e l t i n p ro mi se s o f t he mo re ' a b u n d a n t l i f e
.
T ho se t ru st i n g so u l s who e x p e c t , b e c a u se t he 1 93 8
e l e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d a n o t a b l e re p u d i a t i o n o f t he N e w
D e a l , t ha t a re t u rn t o o rd e rl y l i v i n g i s n o w a ssu re d a re
d u e f o r f u rt he r d i si l l u si o n me n t . Ev e n t ho u g h t he R e -
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
2 3 4
p u b l i c a n s swe e p t he c o u n t ry i n 1 94 0 , t he re i s n o c e rt a i n
p ro mi se o f a n a t t e mp t a t o rd e rl y l i q u i d a t i o n o f N e w
D e a l n o n se n se , i f t he y d o wi n . T he re i s n o g u a ra n t y o f
su c h a l i q u i d a t i o n e v e n t ho u g h t he y u n d e rt a k e i n g o o d
f a i t h t o a c c o mp l i sh i t .
S i n c e t he t i me o f M o se s- i n Eg y p t , i n t he i r ho me l a n d
o f J u d e a , i n B a b y l o n i a , i n t he e mp i re o f t he R o ma n s, i n
t he k i n g d o ms o f Ca st i l e a n d A ra g o n , i n t he d o ma i n o f t he
c z a rs o f R u ssi a , i n t he G e rma n y o f F re d e ri c k t he G re a t
a n d A d o l p h H i t l e r, i n t he It a l y o f M u sso l i n i , i n P a l e st i n e
a mo n g t he A ra b s- - e v e ry p e o p l e i n e v e ry a g e ha s b e e n
o u t o f st e p , sa v e o n l y t he J e ws . N o w i n A me ri c a t he
p ro g e n y o f st u rd y p i o n e e rs who p i e rc e d t he f o re st a n d
b u i l t a n a t i o n a re o u t o f st e p wi t h J e ws who c a me he re
wi t h n o sp e c i a l i n v i t a t i o n a f t e r c i t i e s b e g a n t o a p p e a r a n d
who n o w d e ma n d
a n e w so c i a l o rd e r whi c h i s e x p e c t e d t o
ra i se t he J e w t o t he t o p o f t he he a p
. M r
. R o o se v e l t a n d
hi s N e w D e a l c he e rf u l l y p ro v i d e t he sho c k t ro o p s t o b l a z e
t he wa y whi l e t he J e ws t he mse l v e s c o n t ri b u t e t he e sse n -
t i a l p ro p a g a n d a .
S u c h a re t he si mp l e f a c t s whi c h c o n f ro n t A me ri c a i n
t hi s y e a r o f o u r Lo rd a n d S a v i o r, 1 93 9 .
2 3 5
A p p e n d i x I
T H E EXP ECT A T ION S o f t he c o u n t ry f ro m t he i n v e st i -
g a t i o n o f " mo n o p o l y " whi c h i s n o w i n p ro g re ss a re f o re -
sha d o we d i n " T he F o l k l o re o f Ca p i t a l i sm" b y T hu rma n
W . A rn o l d , ' a b o o k whi c h wa s p u b l i she d i n Oc t o b e r,
1 93 7 , a n d whi c h b y F e b ru a ry , 1 93 8 , ha d ha d si x p ri n t -
i n g s . T he wri t e r ma n a g e d t o re a d f o rt y - f o u r p a g e s a t t he
f i rst si t t i n g ; t he re a f t e r, t o re a d t hi rt y - t wo a d d i t i o n a l
p a g e s, whe re u p o n , i n d i sg u st , t he v o l u me wa s l a i d a si d e .
A f t e r so me d a y s, t he wri t e r p ro c e e d e d t o p a g e n i n e t y -
se v e n a n d t he re u p o n f i n a l l y a b a n d o n e d i t . S e v e n t e e n
p a g e s o f n o t e s o n t he i n i t i a l n i n e t y - se v e n p a g e s ha d b e e n
ma d e .
A rn o l d , who b e c a me " so c i a l l y mi n d e d " a n d a f o re -
swo rn e n e my o f " B i g B u si n e ss" a t P ri n c e t o n , H a rv a rd
a n d Ya l e f ro m a l l o f whi c h he ha s d e g re e s, p ra c t i c e d l a w
i n Chi c a g o t hre e y e a rs b u t a f t e r t he W o rl d W a r, re t u rn e d
t o hi s b i rt hp l a c e , La ra mi e , W y o mi n g , a n d si n c e t he n ha s
t a u g ht l a w a t t he U n i v e rsi t y o f W y o mi n g , W e st Vi rg i n i a
U n i v e rsi t y a n d Ya l e . If he e v e r ha d a n y e x p e ri e n c e i n
b u si n e ss o r i n d u st ry , he i s t o o mu c h o f a " t hi n k i n g ma n "
t o a d mi t i t . B e c a u se o f hi s g ru d g e a g a i n st i n d u st ry a n d
" B i g B u si n e ss" whi c h, u n t i l t he N e w D e a l , ha d n o t f o u n d
hi s t a l e n t s i n d i sp e n sa b l e , A rn o l d ha s e p i t o mi z e d t he
b l u n d e rs o f hu ma n i t y si n c e t he a d v e n t o f t he J e wi sh
mo n e y l e n d e r a n d l a i d t he m
a
l l
. a
t
t he f e e t o f " Ca p i t a l -
i sm . " H e wo u l d ha v e b e e n e q u a l l y j u st i f i e d i n l a y i n g a l l
hi s g ri e v a n c e s t o t he J e ws, o r t o t he c hu rc h, i f su c h
a l l o c a t i o n s ha d f i t t e d hi s p u rp o se .
On e ma y g a t he r f ro m p a g e 3 9 t ha t t he a u t ho r' s p u rp o se
1
Ya l e U n i v e rsi t y P re ss .
2 3 6
i s t o p ro v i d e t he " so c i a l wo rk e rs, " t he " y o u n g e r e c o n o -
mi st s, p o l i t i c a l sc i e n t i st s a n d l a wy e rs" i n t he " u n i v e r-
si t i e s" wi t h a " p hi l o so p hy , " a s A d a m S mi t h p ro v i d e d t he
me rc ha n t a n d ma n u f a c t u re r wi t h a p hi l o so p hy . A rn o l d
a d mi t s t ha t hi s p ro t e g e s " a re o f t e n b ra n d e d a s u n so u n d "
a n d e x p l a i n s t ha t t he i r a f f i l i a t e s, " a c l a ss o f e n g i n e e rs,
sa l e sme n , mi n o r e x e c u t i v e s" (K a rl M a rx c a l l e d t he m t he
" p ro l e t a ri a t " ) su b o rd i n a t e t he i r " re v e re n c e f o r t he i n -
d e p e n d e n c e a n d d i g n i t y o f t he b u si n e ssma n
. " H e mi g ht
ha v e a d d e d t ha t su c h a g ro u p wi l l n e e d mo re t ha n a
" p hi l o so p hy " t o b e a b l e t o ho l d t he f l e shp o t s o f t he
" t e mp o ra l g o v e rn me n t " a ro u n d whi c h t he y n o w ma k e
me rry .
A rn o l d wa s who l l y i n t ro sp e c t i v e whe n he o b se rv e d , a s
he d o e s o n p a g e i o , " me n d o n o t a c t u a l l y se a rc h hi st o ry
t o a v o i d t he mi st a k e s o f t he p a st
. T he y se e k c o n v e n i e n t
a n a l o g i e s * t o sho w t he d a n g e rs i n f a i l i n g t o a d o p t t he
c re e d whi c h t he y a d v o c a t e . "
It se e ms t ha t t he d i sc o v e ry o f q u i n i n e b y t he J e su i t s i n
P e ru t hre e hu n d re d y e a rs a g o ha d so me re p e rc u ssi o n s i n
P a ri s whe re , i n sp i t e o f so me o p p o si t i o n , i t wa s u se d f o r
ma l a ri a a n d b e c a u se i t wa s f o u n d t o b e a n e f f i c i e n t
re me d y , A rn o l d a rg u e s a t g re a t l e n g t h t ha t i t wa s a
se ri o u s mi st a k e t o o p p o se t he p a c k i n g o f t he S u p re me
Co u rt
. A rn o l d l i k e n s he re sy i n t he M i d d l e A g e s t o t he
Co mmu n i sm o f K a rl M a rx
. T he u n su sp e c t i n g a re su p -
p o se d t o i n f e r t ha t a s t he he re sy o f t he M i d d l e A g e s
b e c a me t he o rt ho d o x y o f a l a t e r a g e so Co mmu n i sm
f i n a l l y wi l l b e c o me e st a b l i she d a n d re sp e c t a b l e .
T he a u t ho r wa s mu c h i mp re sse d b y a c o n v e rsa t i o n he
o v e rhe a rd c o n c e rn i n g a re d u c t i o n i n ra t e s o f t he " b a n k -
ru p t " N e w Yo rk , N e w H a v e n a n d H a rt f o rd R a i l ro a d b y
t he In t e rst a t e Co mme rc e Co mmi ssi o n . H e ha s se i z e d
u p o n t he c o n t e n t i o n o f " o n e g e n t l e ma n " (who n o d o u b t
g a v e a sl y wi n k t o t he o t he rs) t ha t t ra f f i c wo u l d i n c re a se ,
n e w t ra i n s wo u l d b e a d d e d a n d e mp l o y me n t i n c re a se d
a s a c o n se q u e n c e o f re d u c e d ra t e s
. T he u n a n i mi t y o f t he
* Ou r i t a l i c s
.
2 3 7
o b j e c t i o n s t o t he re d u c e d ra t e s, A rn o l d a t t ri b u t e s t o
" p u re my st i c a l i d e a l i sm, " t o " t hi n k i n g a s p ri mi t i v e a n d
n a i v e a s a l l su c h t hi n k i n g mu st b e whe n i t i s d i v o rc e d
f ro m p ra c t i c a l i ssu e s a n d i n v o l v e d i n p re v a i l i n g t a b o o s . "
T he l e a rn e d d i sc u ssi o n o f t he c o n v e rsa t i o n c o n c l u d e s
wi t h t he o b se rv a t i o n t ha t " n e i t he r t he wri t e r, n o r a n y
me mb e r o f t he g ro u p , k n e w a n y t hi n g " a b o u t " t he me ri t s
o f t he ra t e re d u c t i o n . " T o c o n c u r i n A rn o l d ' s o p i n i o n
o f hi s c o mp a n i o n s wo u l d n e c e ssi t a t e re l i a n c e o n he a rsa y
e v i d e n c e b u t wi t h re sp e c t t o A rn o l d ' s o wn k n o wl e d g e ,
re l i a n c e u p o n he a rsa y e v i d e n c e i s n o t n e c e ssa ry .
A rn o l d wa s n o t p l e a se d wi t h t he " T he F o l k l o re o f
1 93 7 , " t he t i t l e o f hi s t hi rd c ha p t e r . A st e re o t y p e d u se
o f t he p a st t e n se i n a l l re f e re n c e t o t he l a b o ra t o ry b l u n -
d e rs o f t he N e w D e a l i s c a l c u l a t e d t o re mo v e t he m f ro m
t he d o ma i n o f t he d e b a t a b l e o r re j e c t e d t o t he re a l m o f
t he e st a b l i she d a n d f u l l y p ro v e d . T hi s t e c hn i q u e i s
c e rt a i n t o c o n f u se ma n y c o - e d s wi t h a l i b ra ry a ssi g n me n t
f ro m P ro f . K o hn a n d a n e a rl y d a t e . J u st why t he
so mn o l e n t S we d e s a c c e p t " t he c o mf o rt s o f g o v e rn me n t -
su b si d i z e d ho u se s" a n d A me ri c a n s i n si st o n l o o k i n g g i f t
ho rse s i n t he mo u t h p u z z l e d P ro f . A rn o l d i n t ha t a n c i e n t
y e a r,
1 93 7 .
T he f u t u re hi st o ri a n , he sa i d , " wi l l o b se rv e
me n re f u si n g b e n e f i t s o b v i o u sl y t o t he i r p ra c t i c a l a d -
v a n t a g e whe n t e n d e re d b y t he g o v e rn me n t . "
H e ma y b e c a l l e d " Z e k e . " H e ha d re a d so me whe re
t ha t G e n e ra l M o se l e y i s b e i n g p u rsu e d b y t he se c re t
p o l i c e o f t he N e w D e a l a n d he d i d n o t wa n t hi s c o rre c t
n a me u se d . " Z e k e " l i v e s so u t h o f A n d e rso n i n M a d i so n
Co u n t y , In d i a n a , o wn s so me re n t a l p ro p e rt i e s i n A n d e r-
so n a n d c o u l d e n l i g ht e n P ro f . A rn o l d
. " Z e k e " ha d j u st
b e e n a sk e d t o si g n a p e t i t i o n t o b u i l d a d d i t i o n s t o t wo
A d a ms t o wn shi p c o n so l i d a t e d sc ho o l s a t a c o st o f $ 1 7 2 ;
o o o . o o " N o t b y a G o d d a mn , " sa i d " Z e k e . "
It wa s su g g e st e d t ha t t he P W A
wa s t o p ro v i d e $ i 2 o ;
o o o . o o o f t he mo n e y a n d t ha t t he W P A wo u l d d o t he wo rk .
" N o w I k n o w d a mn we l l I' l l n o t si g n t he p e t i t i o n , " he
re t o rt e d
. " T he
wP A wa s su p p o se d t o i mp ro v e a st re e t i n
2 3 8
f ro n t o f a ho u se I o wn a t n o c o st t o t he p ro p e rt y o wn e rs
b u t i t i s g o i n g t o c o st me mo re t ha n i t wo u l d ha v e c o st i f
re p a i re d b y p ri v a t e c o n t ra c t
. T he t o wn shi p wo u l d b e
b e t t e r o f f t o b u i l d i t s o wn sc ho o l ho u se s, i f i t n e e d s mo re
sc ho o l ho u se s, a n d t e l l t he P W A a n d W P A
t o g o t o he l l .
I wo rk e d f o r y e a rs i n A n d e rso n f a c t o ri e s a n d sa v e d my
mo n e y
. I ma d e e x t ra mo n e y wo rk i n g a t n i g ht a n d ha v e
p a i d o n c e f o r e v e ry p i e c e o f p ro p e rt y I o wn
. N o w, I
su p p o se I' l l ha v e t o p a y f o r t he m a g a i n i n t a x e s o r l o se
t he p ro p e rt i e s b e c a u se o f t he G o d d a mn f o o l s i n W a sh-
i n g t o n a n d In d i a n a p o l i s . I' m i n f a v o r o f l o a d i n g t he
R o o se v e l t f a mi l y a n d t he d a mn e d J e ws R o o se v e l t ha s p u t
i n o f f i c e o n a b o a t f o r R u ssi a , a n d I wo u l d n ' t wo rry i f
t he b o a t sa n k . "
T he se o b se rv a t i o n s o n t he st a t e o f t he n a t i o n we re
ma d e i n Che st e r M a rk l e ' s g e n e ra l st o re a t Emp o ri a ,
M a d i so n Co u n t y , In d i a n a , o n J a n u a ry 9, 1 93 9
.
A rn o l d re v e a l s o n p a g e S 5 t ha t " t he u n b a l a n c e d b u d g e t
. . . wa s a c t u a l l y p u l l i n g u s o u t o f t he d e p re ssi o n , " a n d
o n p a g e
5 1 t ha t t he si t - d o wn st ri k e s we re a " f a sc i n a t i n g
st ru g g l e t o d e v e l o p l a b o r u n i t y . " If W . P . K n u d se n o f
G e n e ra l M o t o rs wa s " f a sc i n a t e d , " he f a i l e d t o d i sc l o se i t
.
If t he M i c hi g a n v o t e rs we re " f a sc i n a t e d " b y t he si t - d o wn
st ri k e s, t he i r f a sc i n a t i o n ha d v a n i she d b y N o v e mb e r,
1 93 8 , whe n t he y t u rn e d G o v e rn o r M u rp hy a n d N e w
D e a l ho o d l u ms o u t o f o f f i c e . A rn o l d y e a rn s f o r " re -
sp o n si b l e l a b o r l e a d e rs l i k e J o hn L
. Le wi s" o n p a g e 8 8
whe re he c ha ra c t e ri z e s t he si t - d o wn st ri k e s a s a " re -
l i g i o u s p ro b l e m . " P e rha p s t hi s wa s o n l y a f o re ru n n e r o f
M r. R o o se v e l t ' s e f f o rt i n hi s f i rst me ssa g e t o t he 1 93 9
Co n g re ss t o u n t i e N e w D e a l " d e mo c ra c y " f ro m K a rl
M a rx a n d t i e a n o t he r c ro wn o f t ho rn s t o t he b ro w o f
J e su s o f N a z a re t h
. S i n c e t he me ssa g e , W a l t e r Li p p ma n n
a n d D o ro t hy T ho mp so n a l so ha v e p u t o n f ro c k s a n d
e n t e re d t he p u l p i t t o u p ho l d , a s M i ss T ho mp so n p u t s i t ,
M r. R o o se v e l t ' s " c o n c e p t o f J u d a i sm
. "
H i t l e r' s p e rse c u t i o n s a re p o i n t e d o u t o n p a g e
4 1 a n d
S t a l i n i s re f e rre d t o a s a " p ra c t i c a l p o l i t i c i a n " o n p a g e 93 .
2 3 9
T he p e rse c u t i o n o f J e ws o n l y i s wo rt hy o f n o t i c e , i t
wo u l d se e m . On e ma y g a t he r t ha t P ro f . A rn o l d l i k e s
W a shi n g t o n , D . C . , a n d ha s a l o w o p i n i o n o f o u r " c he c k e r
sq u a re s o f st a t e s
. " In sp i t e o f t he f a c t t ha t t he n a t i o n a l
g o v e rn me n t i s su p p o se d t o b e o n e o f d e l e g a t e d p o we r
a n d t ha t a l l p o we r n o t sp e c i f i c a l l y d e l e g a t e d i s re se rv e d
t o t he st a t e s o r t o t he p e o p l e (whi c h o rd i n a ri l y i s t a u g ht
t o a l l e i g ht - g ra d e p u p i l s) , A rn o l d a sse rt s, o n p a g e 93 , t he
n o t i o n i s " p u re d a y d re a mi n g " t ha t t he st a t e s ha v e
" p o we r t o c o n d u c t e x p e ri me n t s . "
T he c o u n t ry wi l l b e su rp ri se d t o l e a rn t ha t si n c e
A rn o l d wa s re c o g n i z e d a s a st a t e sma n " a b e t t e r c l a ss o f
p o l i t i c a l l e a d e rs i s i n c ha rg e o f o u r p o l i t i c a l ma c hi n e s, "
hi s st a t e me n t o n p a g e 4 4
. " G ro sse r a n d mo re u n p l e a sa n t
f o rms o f p o l i t i c a l c hi c a n e ry a re n o t u se d t o t he sa me
e x t e n t a s i n i g o o " a n d " p o l i t i c a l t e c hn i q u e s ha v e b e c o me
l e ss t he e x c l u si v e p ro p e rt y o f u n sc ru p u l o u s p e o p l e
. "
T ho u g ht s o f J o hn L. Le wi s, J i mmi e H i n e s a n d T a m .
ma n y , T o m P e n d e rg a st , t he K e l l y - N a sh ma c hi n e i n
Il l i n o i s, M r . M c N u t t ' s T wo - P e r c e n t Cl u b i n In d i a n a ,
t he G u f f e y a n d Ea rl e F i v e - P e r c e n t Cl u b i n P e n n sy l v a n i a ,
t he B ro t he rs La F o l l e t t e i n W i sc o n si n , Ic k e s, H o p k i n s a n d
t he p u rc ha se o f v o t e s wi t h mo n e y f ro m t he F e d e ra l
T re a su ry re q u i re d t he sme l l i n g sa l t s . A f t e r a hu rri e d
d e p a rt u re f o r t he g o l f c o u rse wi t h i t s st i mu l a t i n g a b u n -
d a n c e o f f re sh a i r, t he re a d e r re v i v e d .
Op p o si t i o n t o p a c k i n g t he S u p re me Co u rt i s d e sc ri b e d
a s " a wa y o f t a k i n g a wa y f ro m a g re a t p o p u l a r ma j o ri t y
t he f ru i t s o f t he i r re c e n t v i c t o ry a t t he p o l l s . " T he " g re a t
p o p u l a r ma j o ri t y " o f 1 93 6 , ho we v e r, we n t i n t o a t a i l - sp i n
i n 1 93 8 a f t e r t he p i l o t ha d e x ha u st e d t he f u e l su p p l y
f ro m t o o he a v y d ra f t s o n t he 1 93 6 " ma n d a t e
. "
If a n y mo re p ri n t i n g s a re n e c e ssa ry t o su p p l y t he
F ra n k f u rt e r re c ru i t s f o r t he mo re a b u n d a n t o r
n e w l i f e
wi t h A rn o l d ' s g u i d e t o t he f l e shp o t s, a re t i t l i n g i s su g -
g e st e d
. It sho u l d b e t i t l e d , " T he D e mo n o l o g y o f t he
N e w D e a l . "
T he f o l k l o re , t he t a b o o s, t he my t ho l o g y , t he t ra d i t i o n s
2 4 0
a n d e sp e c i a l l y t he " p ri e st s" who st e a d f a st l y su p p o rt e d t he
c o n v e n t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l e c o n o my i n 1 98 7 we re a n a t he ma s
t o P ro f . A rn o l d whe n g ho st wri t i n g f o r Co mmu n i sm a n d
M r
. R o o se v e l t . A s t he n c o n st i t u t e d , he d i d n o t l i k e t he
S u p re me Co u rt b u t hi s sp i ri t s ma y ha v e i mp ro v e d a b o u t
t he t i me hi s b o o k wa s f i n i she d whe n H u g o B l a c k , K K K ,
wa s ma d e a me mb e r . H e ha d a l o w o p i n i o n o f t he
A me ri c a n b u si n e ss ma n , t he A me ri c a n Li b e rt y Le a g u e
a n d t he re l u c t a n c e o f t he A me ri c a n t a x p a y e r t o b e ro b b e d
b y t he b u re a u c ra c y t o whi c h A rn o l d b e l o n g e d .
In 1 93 7 , A rn o l d wa s d e f i n i t e l y o p p o se d t o a n y t a b o o s
o r my t ho l o g y o r t ra d i t i o n s t ha t i n t e rf e re d wi t h t he mo re
a b u n d a n t o r n e w
l i f e , p a rt i c u l a rl y su c h e n t e rp ri se s a s
P a ssa ma q u o d d y , n e g ro p a l a c e s a n d t he F l o ri d a shi p c a n a l ,
a l l o f whi c h he wo u l d ha v e e n t e re d o n t he b a l a n c e she e t
o f t he b u re a u c ra c y a s " a sse t s . " In sp i t e o f t he a ssu mp t i o n
t ha t A rn o l d wa s st i l l a " t hi n k i n g ma n " i n 1 93 7 , t he
p ri n c i p l e s o f a c c o u n t i n g whi c h he t he n d e f e n d e d we re
i d e n t i c a l wi t h t ho se p ra c t i c e d b y t he l a t e F
. D o n a l d
Co st e r, a l i a s P hi l i p M u si c a , who c a u se d a f i c t i t i o u s " a s-
se t " i t e m o f so me $ 1 8 , o o o , o o o . o o
wo rt h o f n o n e x i st e n t
c ru d e d ru g s i n n o n e x i st e n t wa re ho u se s t o b e e n t e re d o n
t he b o o k s o f M c K e sso n & R o b b i n s .
T he f o l k l o re o f t he n a t i o n i n 1 93 7 wa s st i l l mo re o r
l e ss ho st i l e t o se l l i n g se c u ri t i e s i n a ri g g e d ma rk e t , t o
p ro st i t u t i o n , t o e x t o rt i o n , t o b a l l o t b o x st u f f i n g a n d j u ry
b ri b i n g , b u t o n e i n f e rs t ha t P ro f . A rn o l d b i t t e rl y l a -
me n t e d t he f o l k l o re o f t ha t re mo t e c y c l e a n d wo u l d l i f t
t he t a b o o a g a i n st a l l a c t i v i t i e s n o t a l re a d y o n t he " a p -
p ro v e d " l i st o f mo ra l p re c e p t s a s a b ri d g e d a n d i n v e rt e d
b y t he N e w D e a l .
2 4 1
A p p e n d i x II
T H E CA R EER o f G e o rg e S o u l e a n d t he c o n t e n t s o f hi s
l a st b o o k " T he F u t u re o f Li b e rt y " a re b o t h a ma z i n g
whe n c o n si d e re d t o g e t he r b u t o n l y b e c a u se t he y a re so
t y p i c a l o f t he g e n t ry n o w a t t he " c o n t ro l s" o f o u r re g i -
me n t e d a n d p l a n n e d so c i e t y a n d o f t he n o n se n se b e i n g
p u b l i she d b y a n d o n b e ha l f o f t he se g e n t ry t o p ro mo t e a
c o mp l e t e l y so c i a l i z e d st a t e .
S o u l e ha s b e e n t he e d i t o r o f T he N e w R e p u b l i c
si n c e
J a n u a ry 1 , 1 92 4
. T wo o f hi s p re v i o u s b o o k s a re " A
P l a n n e d S o c i e t y , " p u b l i she d i n 1 93 2 , a n d " T he Co mi n g
A me ri c a n R e v o l u t i o n , " p u b l i she d i n 1 93 4
. H e o b t a i n e d
hi s e d u c a t i o n f o r t he mo re a b u n d a n t l i f e a t Ya l e f ro m
whi c h he wa s g ra d u a t e d i n 1 9o 8
. H e wa s i n t he a d v e r-
t i si n g d e p a rt me n t o f a b o o k p u b l i shi n g ho u se f o r a t i me
a n d j o i n e d t he e d i t o ri a l st a f f o f T he N e w R e p u b l i c
whe n
i t wa s f o u n d e d i n 1 91 4
. In i g i g , he wa s wi t h t he Ev e -
n i n g P o st
f o r a t i me , e mp l o y e d a s a n i n v e st i g a t o r b y t he
In t e r- Chu rc h W o rl d M o v e me n t Co mmi ssi o n o n t he st e e l
st ri k e , st a t i st i c i a n f o r t he N a u t i c a l G a z e t t e
a n d ha s b e e n a
d i re c t o r o f t he La b o r B u re a u , In c . , si n c e i g 2 o
. H e re -
t u rn e d t o T he N e w R e p u b l i c i n 1 92 4
. In 1 92 7 , he wa s
e mp l o y e d a s a " sp e c i a l a d v i so r" t o t he S e c re t a ry o f In -
t e ri o r o n re c l a ma t i o n a n d ru ra l d e v e l o p me n t
. B o rn a t
S t a mf o rd , Co n n e c t i c u t , hi s sp e c i a l t ra i n i n g i n re c l a ma -
t i o n a n d ru ra l d e v e l o p me n t mu st ha v e b e e n o b t a i n e d
f ro m t he sa me so u rc e s whi c h e n a b l e d hi m t o d ra w t he
p a t t e rn s f o r " A P l a n n e d S o c i e t y " a n d t o f i l l i n t he sp e c i f i -
c a t i o n s o f t he mo re a b u n d a n t l i f e i n " T he F u t u re o f
Li b e rt y . " In o t he r wo rd s, S o u l e a p p e a rs t o ha v e a v i v i d
i ma g i n a t i o n a n d t hi s se e ms t o b e t he p ri n c i p a l so u rc e o f
hi s e c o n o mi c wi sd o m
. H e i s a l e c t u re r i n t he Ya l e La w
2 4 2
S c ho o l b u t i f he p ra c t i c e s me d i c i n e o r si n g s i n t he v i l l a g e
c ho i r, he n e g l e c t s t o st a t e t he f a c t s i n hi s b i o g ra p hy .
S o u l e i s e sp e c i a l l y t y p i c a l o f t he i n t e l l e c t u a l d i l e t t a n t s
who n o w f u rn i sh t he c o u n t ry i t s e c o n o mi c p ro g ra m a n d
he i s q u i t e a s we l l p re p a re d t o ma k e o v e r A me ri c a a s
Le o n H e n d e rso n , T hu rma n A rn o l d , W i l l i a m 0 . D o u g -
l a s, Isa d o r Lu b i n a n d J e ro me F ra n k , n o o n e o f who m ha s
ha d f i v e mi n u t e s e x p e ri e n c e i n b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry .
T he se si x g e n t l e me n f ro m t he W a shi n g t o n b u re a u c ra c y
c o n st i t u t e d t he a d mi n i st ra t i v e g ro u p t ha t a re t o i n v e st i -
g a t e " mo n o p o l i e s, " t he o b j e c t o f whi c h, a c c o rd i n g t o T he
N a t i o n ' i s " t o ma k e t he i n q u i ry t he f i rst st e p t o wa rd a
re a l g ra p p l i n g wi t h t he p ro b l e m o f so c i a l i z i n g i n d u s-
t ry . " * T he a p p o i n t me n t o f D o u g l a s t o t he S u p re me
Co u rt i s i n su ra n c e a g a i n st j u d i c i a l d i sa st e r t o a n y M a rx i a n
p ro g ra m l a t e r d e v i se d b y t he g ro u p .
T he t he me o f S o u l e ' s l a st b o o k i s t he " t ra n si t i o n " f ro m
Ca p i t a l i sm t o S o c i a l i sm .
Li k e M rs . R o o se v e l t , S o u l e
ma k e s u se f re e l y o f t he En g l i sh c o n j u n c t i o n
" i f . " B u t
u n l i k e M rs . R o o se v e l t , he d o e s n o t d i smi ss f a c t s t ha t a re
e mb a rra ssi n g . H e ma k e s a n e f f o rt t o e x p l a i n a n d t o
e x c u se
a n d so we l l i s he p l e a se d wi t h hi s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f
a n d e x c u se s f o r t he p re se n t l o w st a t e o f l i b e rt y i n R u ssi a ,
he v e n t u re s t he o p i n i o n " t he re i s l i t t l e re a so n t o e x p e c t
t ha t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . . .
wo u l d ha v e t o su f f e r a l l t he
sa me d i sa d v a n t a g e s a n d e n d u re t he sa me p ri v a t i o n s, ma -
t e ri a l a n d p sy c hi c . "
S o u l e i s mo re i mp re sse d b y t he l a n g u a g e o f t he R u ssi a n
c o n st i t u t i o n o f 1 93 6 whi c h " p ro v i d e s f o r u n i v e rsa l se c re t
su f f ra g e , re sp o n si b l e p a rl i me n t a ry g o v e rn me n t , e q u a l i t y
f o r wo me n a n d me mb e rs o f a l l ra c e s, t he ri g ht s o f v o l u n -
t a ry o rg a n i z a t i o n s, t he i n v i o l a b i l i t y * o f t he p e rso n a n d
t he ho me , f re e d o m o f c o n sc i e n c e , o f wo rshi p , o f sp e e c h,
o f p re ss a n d o f a sse mb l y " t ha n he i s b y wha t he re a d s i n
t he n e wsp a p e rs c o n c e rn i n g t he i r o b se rv a n c e o r e n f o rc e -
me n t .
1 J u l y i s, 1 93 8 .
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
2 4 3
A n y o n e so u t t e rl y si mp l e - mi n d e d a s t o q u o t e t he p ro -
v i si o n s o f a " c o n st i t u t i o n " c o n t a i n i n g su c h g u a ra n t i e s,
v i s- a - v i s, t he a t ro c i o u s p u rg e s o f t he l a st t wo y e a rs c a rri e d
o u t i n f u l f i l l me n t o f t he " n e w l i f e " o f Le n i n b y hi s su c -
c e sso r, t he e st e e me d M r . S t a l i n , q u a l i f i e s f o r a p a ssp o rt
t o R u ssi a a n d n o t hi n g e l se
. It i s t o b e re me mb e re d t ha t
D a n t o n , M a ra t a n d R o b e sp i e rre a l so o p e ra t e d
u n d e r
a
c o n st i t u t i o n a n d t ha t M r . R o o se v e l t ha s p ro mi se d t o
d o so .
S o u l e a d mi t s t ha t " wi t h g o o d re a so n we ha v e t o f e a r
t he v i o l e n t u p he a v e l t ha t wi l l p ro b a b l y c o me i f * we d o
n o t ma n a g e a p e a c e a b l e t ra n si t i o n " whi c h i s e q u i v a l e n t
t o sa y i n g we wi l l ha v e wa r i f we d o n ' t ha v e p e a c e . T he
" t ra n si t i o n , " he c o n c l u d e s, " i s a c ri t i c a l a n d d i f f i c u l t
p ro b l e m, p e rha p s i mp o ssi b l e o f so l u t i o n , " a n d " i f v i o -
l e n c e t he n b re a k s o u t , i f . . . we a re . . . c o n f ro n t e d
wi t h c i v i l wa r t hro u g h t he re c a l c i t ra n c e o f t ho se who wi l l
n o t re c o g n i z e t he a u t ho ri t y o f p o p u l a r g o v e rn me n t , c o n -
t ro l o f t ha t g o v e rn me n t b y t ho se who f a v o r t he n e w
o rd e r p ro v i d e s t he b e st c ha n c e o f e v e n t u a l v i c t o ry
. "
If Co n g re ss c o n t i n u e s t o a p p ro p ri a t e X b i l l i o n d o l l a rs
f o r t he p u rc ha se o f v o t e s b e f o re e a c h g e n e ra l e l e c t i o n ,
t he re c a n b e n o d o u b t t ha t " c o n t ro l " o f t he g o v e rn me n t
wi l l a b i d e wi t h " t ho se who f a v o r t he n e w o rd e r . " W he n
t he mo n e y ru n s o u t , a s i t d i d i n F ra n c e a n d a s i t mu st i n
A me ri c a , t he f a t e s o f Lo u i s XVI a n d hi s q u e e n , ma y b e
c o n t e mp l a t e d b y t ho se i n " c o n t ro l . " Ev e n n o w, t he y
ma y e n g a g e i n c o n t e mp l a t i o n .
T he re i s o n e v e ry n a i v e a d mi ssi o n i n t he S o u l e o p u s :
" T o sho w t ha t Ca p i t a l i sm a s we ha v e k n o wn i t d o e s n o t
wo rk we l l i s n o t t o p ro v e t ha t S o c i a l i sm wo u l d wo rk a n y
b e t t e r . "
T he re u p o n , S o u l e se t s o u t t o p ro v e t ha t i t wi l l wo rk
b e t t e r
. H e i s mu c h i mp re sse d wi t h t he st u d i e s o f M e ssrs
.
H a ro l d Lo e b a n d W a l t e r P o l a k o v f i n a n c e d wi t h F e d e ra l
R e l i e f f u n d s . T he l a t t e r wa s b o rn i n R u ssi a a n d wa s
b a c k t he re he l p i n g o u t S t a l i n i n t he l a st y e a rs o f H o o v e r .

Ou r i t a l i c s.
2 4 4
W i t h re sp e c t t o " p l a i n , i n f e ri o r, st a n d a rd i z e d a n d
P u ri t a n f a re o f g o o d s, su c h a s wa s t ho u g ht b e st f o r u s b y
t he n a t i o n a l c o mmi ssa ry , " S o u l e i s re a ssu ri n g .
" W e sho u l d n o t su f f e r, " he sa y s, " i f we d i d n o t ha v e t o
c ho o se b e t we e n hu n d re d s o f b ra n d s o f c a n n e d f ru i t s o r
v e g e t a b l e s who se re l a t i v e me ri t s we c a n n o t k n o w wi t ho u t
l a b o ra t o ry e x p e ri me n t s, o r i f we we re n o t p re se n t e d wi t h
q u i t e so b e wi l d e ri n g a v a ri e t y o f u n re l i a b l e c u re s f o r
n e wl y i n v e n t e d d i se a se s, o r i f we we re n o t sa d d l e d wi t h
t he i mp o ssi b l e t a sk o f k n o wi n g whe t he r we we re g e t t i n g
o u r mo n e y ' s wo rt h a mo n g t he t ho u sa n d s o f d i f f e re n t
su i t s, sho e s, shi rt s a n d ra d i o s, f u rn i t u re o r sa f e t y ra -
z o rs . . .
S o u l e wo u l d i n c re a se hi s o wn k n o wl e d g e i f he wo u l d
v i si t t he n e i g hb o rho o d g ro c e ry a n d o b se rv e t he ho u se -
wi v e s, who se l a b o ra t o ry e q u i p me n t c o n si st s o f a sha rp
p a i r o f e y e s a n d t wo re st l e ss ha n d s, i n a c t i o n
. H e se e ms
t o ha v e su f f e re d a t so me t i me o f a ha n g - o v e r f ro m P e ru n a
.
A p p a re n t l y he i s u n a c q u a i n t e d wi t h t he ro ma n c e t o b e
ha d f ro m a S e a rs- R o e b u c k c a t a l o g u e whe n i n n e e d o f
su i t s, sho e s, shi rt s, ra d i o s, f u rn i t u re , sa f e t y ra z o rs, f a rm
i mp l e me n t s, a u t o mo b i l e s, g a rd e n ho se a n d a p p l e p i e
.
W hi l e S o u l e i s b y n o me a n s sa n g u i n e re sp e c t i n g t he
l i b e rt y a n d f re e d o m t o b e ha d d u ri n g t he " t ra n si t i o n , "
H e y wo o d B ro u n d e c l a re d i n 1 93 1 ,
" On e re a so n why I
a m a S o c i a l i st i s t ha t I ha v e a st u b b o rn p re d i l e c t i o n f o r
f re e d o m
. " T he se t wo d i st i n g u i she d e c o n o mi st s sho u l d
c he c k e a c h o t he r .
M r
. B ro u n (p ro n o u n c e d l i k e t he su rn a me o f A n d re w
H
. B ro wn o f t he F re sh A i r T a x i c a b Co mp a n y b y M i ss
B l u e , hi s se c re t a ry ) i ssu e d a b ro c hu re i n
1 93 1 , " W hy I
a m a S o c i a l i st , " t ha t i s re mi n i sc e n t o f A n d y ' s k n o wl e d g e
a n d l o g i c , i n c i d e n t t o hi s se v e ra l c o mme rc i a l v e n t u re s
.
A n d y p i c k e d u p hi s i n f o rma t i o n i n a p o o l ro o m whe re a s
M r
. B ro u n l e a rn e d a b o u t e c o n o mi c s, p o l i t i c a l e c o n o my ,
f i n a n c e , i n d u st ri a l ma n a g e me n t , sa l e s p ro mo t i o n , e n g i -
n e e ri n g , mi n i n g , a g ri c u l t u re , b a se b a l l a n d he mst i t c hi n g
a t H a rv a rd whe re he wa s a st u d e n t f o r a f e w y e a rs . In
2 4 5
hi s g o l d c o a st p e n t ho u se , B ro u n ha s we p t f o r y e a rs b e -
c a u se o f t he ha z a rd s o f c o a l mi n i n g a n d i f t he i n d u st ry
e v e r se e s f i t t o e n g a g e hi s t a l e n t s, he wi l l " se e k n e w a n d
l e ss ha z a rd o u s me t ho d s o f mi n i n g , u si n g t he t e st e d t o o l s
t ha t a re a t ha n d u n d e r t he d i re c t i o n o f e n g i n e e rs i n
who m, " a s he sa y s, " I ha d a b i t mo re f a i t h
. "
H o w a wf u l l y si mp l e i t i s a n d ho w v e ry t e rri b l e i s t he
mi sf o rt u n e o f t he mi n e rs t ha t R o y H o wa rd a l l t he se y e a rs
ha s k e p t M r
. B ro u n i n c ha i n s . B ro u n q u o t e s t he a l e rt
P ri n c e t o n S o c i a l i st , N o rma n T ho ma s, t hri c e a c a n d i d a t e
f o r P re si d e n t o n t he S o c i a l i st t i c k e t , t o sho w t ha t d a n g e rs
o f a b u re a u c ra c y u n d e r S o c i a l i sm wi l l v a n i sh f ro m t he
" a p p l i c a t i o n o f t he me ri t sy st e m, "
*
b y " t he u n i o n . "
It i s e a rl y e n o u g h i n t he c o u n t ry ' s t re k t o Ca e sa ri sm t o
c ha rt i n a d v a n c e t he p ro g re ss o f t he " me ri t sy st e m" u n d e r
t he sy mp a t he t i c ha n d l i n g o f " t he u n i o n , " f o r e x a mp l e ,
t he c . i . o . o f J o hn L. Le wi s a n d hi s si t - d o wn st ri k e rs .
* Ou r i t a l i c s .
2 4 6
A p p e n d i x III
A F R IEN D o f f o rme r y e a rs t o who m t hi s ma n u sc ri p t wa s
su b mi t t e d , re t u rn e d i t wi t h t he f o l l o wi n g c o mme n t :
" T . R . st i l l ha s ma n y R e p u b l i c a n a d mi re rs who wo u l d
t a k e p l e a su re i n wha t y o u sa y o f F
. D . R . b u t t he o n e
p a ra g ra p h o n p a g e
2 0 7 wo u l d d ri v e t he m n u t s . T he y
wo u l d o rg a n i z e a l y n c hi n g b e e , ri g ht re st i n g o n In -
d i a n a p o l i s a n d y o u ' d g e t t he wo rk s
. "
A f t e r a f e w d a y s re f l e c t i o n , a f e w v o l u me s i n t he
a u t ho r' s l i b ra ry t ho u g ht t o c o n t a i n so me t hi n g a p ro p o s
t he R o o se v e l t f a mi l y o f Oy st e r B a y , we re re me mb e re d .
In a v o l u me f i rst p u b l i she d i n i g 2 o , i t wa s re v e a l e d t ha t
a n o t he r a u t ho r who ha d wri t t e n o f t he p hi l o so p hi c a l
k i n shi p o f T e d d y a n d K a i se r W i l he l m ha d re c e i v e d
l e t t e rs f ro m a l l p a rt s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t a i n i n g
" f o rt hri g ht d e ma n d s" t o re c a n t " o n p e n a l t y o f l y n c h
l a w . "
S i n c e t he a u t ho r st i l l l i v e s, i t ma y b e o f i n t e re st t o re -
p e a t wha t e l se he sa i d o f t he f o u n d e r o f wha t he c a l l e d t he
" c l o wn d y n a st y . " T he R o o se v e l t o f t he " st re n u o u s l i f e "
whi c h p hra se i s sa i d t o ha v e b e e n b o rro we d a n d p a ra -
p hra se d f ro m N i e t z sc he i s c a l l e d " b l a t a n t , c ru d e , o v e r-
c o n f i d e n t i a l , d e v i o u s, t y ra n n i c a l , v a i n g l o ri o u s, so me t i me s
q u i t e c hi l d i sh . " B u t t hi s i s n o t a l l . " N o ma n c o u l d ha v e
b e e n mo re b i t t e r a g a i n st o p p o n e n t s . " El se whe re , he i s
c a l l e d a " ra b b l e ro u se r, " a " p o p i n j a y , " a " p re d a t o ry
mo u n t e b a n k , " a n " i mp e ri a l i st , " a " c o me d i a n , " a " g l o ri -
f i e d l o n g sho re ma n , " " i n c u ra b l y u n d e mo c ra t i c " a n d a
" c ha rl a t a n o f t he v e ry hi g he st sk i l l . " H e i s sa i d t o ha v e
" p l a y e d t o t he wo rst i d i o c i e s o f t he mo b , " t o ha v e b e -
l i e v e d i n " t he st ri c t re g i me n t a t i o n o f t he n e t he r he rd "
a n d t o ha v e f a v o re d " a d e sp o t i sm o f i n sp i re d p ro p he t s
2 4
7
a n d p o l i c e me n
. " T he re a re a l so d e c l a ra t i o n s o f hi s " i n -
si n c e ri t y , " t ha t " he wa s n e v e r e v e n f a i r t o a n o p p o n e n t "
a n d t ha t " n o ma n f a c i n g R o o se v e l t i n t he he a t o f c o n -
t ro v e rsy e v e r a c t u a l l y g o t a sq u a re d e a l
. " T he f a mi l y
l i k e n e sse s a re a p p a re n t i n t he " S q u a re D e a l " a n d t he
" N e w D e a l " b ra n c he s o f t he c l a n .
A f t e r re - re a d i n g t he " A u t o p sy " o f M r
. H . L. M e n c k e n
a n d hi s o b se rv a t i o n s o f l a t e r y e a rs, t he re wa s a n a t u ra l
i mp u l se t o d e a l mo re ha rshl y wi t h t he R o o se v e l t d y n a st y
.
T hre e hu n d re d y e a rs, ho we v e r, sho u l d ma rk t he e n d o f
W e st e rn Cu l t u re a n d a n y l o n g e r t e rm wo u l d b e c o me
i n o p e ra t i v e b y l a p se o f t i me , j u st a s a t e rm o f n i n e t y - n i n e
y e a rs i n p ri so n i mp o se d o n a n o c t o g e n a ri a n .
M e n c k e n se e ms t o su sp e c t , i t i s o n l y f a i r t o sa y , t ha t ha d
R o o se v e l t I l i v e d he mi g ht ha v e b e e n " re b o rn . " In a n y
e v e n t , hi s u n t i me l y d e a t h u p se t t he p o l i t i c a l a p p l e c a rt
.
A t a me e t i n g he l d a t Oy st e r B a y i n 1 91 8 , t he p ri n c i p a l
o f f i c e s, i f n o t t he c o u n t ry , we re d i v i d e d a mo n g t ho se
p re se n t a s f o l l o ws
: F o r P re si d e n t , T he o d o re R o o se v e l t ;
f o r Vi c e P re si d e n t , J a me s P . G o o d ri c h, t he n G o v e rn o r o f
In d i a n a ; f o r Cha i rma n ' o f t he R e p u b l i c a n N a t i o n a l Co m-
mi t t e e , W i l l H . H a y s, n o w t he mo v i e c z a r . T he o n l y
o t he r p e rso n p re se n t wa s t he l a t e G e o rg e W . P e rk i n s,
who a g re e d t o f i n a n c e t he p ro g ra m
. H a y s re a l i z e d t he
a g re e d o b j e c t i v e i n i g 2 o , i n sp i t e o f R o o se v e l t ' s d e a t h i n
i g i g , a n d b e c a me P o st ma st e r G e n e ra l u n d e r H a rd i n g .
R o o se v e l t sa i d a t t he me e t i n g , i t sho u l d b e a d d e d , t ha t
he mi g ht n o t l i v e o u t hi s t e rm, i n whi c h e v e n t , he wa n t e d
t o b e c e rt a i n hi s su c c e sso r wo u l d b e wo rt hy t o su c c e e d
hi m
. H a d T he o d o re R o o se v e l t l i v e d , t he t i c k e t a g re e d
u p o n a t Oy st e r B a y i n 1 91 8 wo u l d ha v e b e e n n o mi n a t e d
i n
1 92 0 a n d , o f c o u rse , e l e c t e d .
2 4 8
A A A , f o o t n o t e , 94 ; 95
A c a d e mi c f re e d o m, 7 0 , 2 3 1 - 2 3 2
A c hi n st e i n , A she r, 96
A d d i so n , J o se p h, q u o t e d , 2 0 2
A d l e r, Cy ru s, b i o g ra p he r o f S c hi f f ,
J a c o b H . , 1 o 3
A f a n a si e f f , 1 o 6
A l c i b i a d e s, 1 3 7 , 2 2 5 - 2 2 6
A l e x a n d ri a n J e ws, d e st ru c t i o n o f
H e l l e n i c c i v i l i z a t i o n , i i i
A l i e n s, o n t he d o l e , 2 7 - 2 8 ; i n l i t ,
4 9 ; 7 1
; a s Co mmu n i st s, 98 ; J e ws a s,
98
A l l - R u ssi a n Co n g re ss, F i f t h, i o 6 ; N o -
v e mb e r 2 9, 1 93 6 , 1 1 g
A l p ho n so t he W i se , 1 3 2
A me ri c a ' s S i x t y F a mi l i e s, 7 9
A me ri c a n Ci v i l Li b e rt i e s U n i o n , 6 7 ;
f o o t n o t e , 95 ; a n d F ra n k f u rt e r,
P ro f . F e l i x , i o 2
A me ri c a n F e d e ra t i o n o f l a b o r, wa g e s
a n d ho u rs re so l u t i o n o f 1 91 4
-
5 ,
5 9- 6 1
A me ri c a n F re e ma n , T he , 1 1 7
A me ri c a n J e wi sh Co mmi t t e e , q u o t e d ,
1 1 6
A me ri c a n
J
e wi sh Co n g re ss, i o 4
A me ri c a n J e wi sh Ye a r B o o k , 1 1 3 ,
1 1 5 ,
1 1 9
A me ri c a n Le a g u e a g a i n st W a r a n d
F a sc i sm, 6 7
A me ri c a n Li b e rt y Le a g u e , 2 4 1
A me ri c a n M e rc u ry , T he , t u rn s t o
Le f t , f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2 ; 1 1 6 , 2 0 0 , 2 2 2
A me ri c a n S o c i e t y f o r Cu l t u ra l R e l a -
t i o n s wi t h R u ssi a , T he , 6 7
A me ri c a n v e rsu s J e wi sh i d e a l s, 1 2 3 -
1 2 4
A n a rc hi sm a n d Ot he r Essa y s, q u o t e d ,
1 1 3 - 1 1 4
A n d e rso n , In d i a n a , 1 4 , 2 3 8 - 2 3 9
A n d e rso n , P a u l Y
. , q u o t e d , i 8 o
A n d e rso n , S he rwo o d , 2 0 5
A n g e l l , N o rma n , d i sc u sse d , 1 5 ;
q u o t e d , 1 6
A n g l o - F re n c h l o a n s, 1 0 3
A n n e n b e rg , M o e , i n P e n n sy l v a n i a
p o l i t i c s, 1 1 t
A n t i c hri st , i 2 o
IN D EX
2 4 9
A n t i - S a l o o n Le a g u e , 4 1
; a n d d ru n k e n
l a wma k e rs, 1 4 4
A n t i - S e mi t i sm, 1 o 7 , l o g ; a n d R o o se -
v e l t v i c t o ry o f 1 93 6 , 1 1 5 ; i x o ;
f o u n d e d o n i d e n t i t y o f J u d a i sm
a n d Co mmu n i sm, 1 2 3
A p p e a l t o R e a so n , 1 1 7
A rg e n t i n a , J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n , 1 x 2
A ri st o t l e , 99- 1 0 0 , 1 7 5
A rme n i a n s, c o mp a re d wi t h J e ws,
G re e k s a n d P a rse e s, 1 1 2
A rn o l d , T hu rma n , a n d " mo n o p o l y "
i n v e st i g a t i o n , i o ; f o o t n o t e , 7 2 ; T he
F o l k l o re o f Ca p i t a l i sm,
2 3 6 - 2 4 1 ,
y A ra n s, l o g
A ssi mi l a t i o n , o f J e ws, l o g - 1 1 0
A st o r, Vi n c e n t , 1 6 1
A t l a n t a , G e o rg i a , 4 9
A u n t J e mi ma , 2 1 5
A u st ri a , 92 , 1 5 1
B a b b i t t , G e o rg e W
. , a s a " su c k e r, "
90
B a b y l o n i a n c a p t i v i t y , 99- 1 0 0
B a l l B ro t he rs, 2 1 4
B a l l , F ra n k C . , 1 3 8
B a rc a , M a d a m d e l a , 1 6 3
B a ru c h, B e rn a rd , 8 o
B e a n , Lo u i s H . , 95
B e l l , A l e x a n d e r G ra ha m, 3 3
B e n D a v i s, In d i a n a , 8 3
B e n j a mi n , H e rb e rt , f o o t n o t e , 94
B e ri j e v , La v e n t i R e sp i P a v l o v i c h, 1 1 8
B e rl e , A d o l p h A . , J r . , 8 7
B e rma n , Ed wa rd , 96
B e rry , G e o rg e L. , 2 0 3
B i e rc e , A mb ro se , q u o t e d , 1 8 x
B i l l i n g s, j o sh, 7 2
B i n g ha m, A l f re d , 2 0 5
B l a c k , H u g o , a s " o d d ma n , "
5 , 7
. 3 6 ,
3 7 , 4 1
. 5 6 , 1 2 9, 1 3 7 , i 8 8 , 2 4 1
B l o c k , P a u l , 1 3 7
B o ss T we e d , 1 8 6
B l u m, Le o n , d i re c t o r F re n c h " D e mo -
c ra t i c " f ro n t , t o 8 ; re f e rre d t o , 1 5 8 ,
2 g
B o d a
3
n sk y , 2 0 5 - 2 0 6
B o k , Cu rt i s, 2 0 5
B o l l e s, B l a i r, q u o t e d , 4 7
B o l she v i k s, 6 o , i o 2 - i o 7
B o ra h, W i l l i a m E
. , 2 0
B o rd a G a rd e n s, 1 6 5
B ra n d e i s, Lo u i s D
. , a n d " Li b e ra l -
i sm, " 1 0 2
B ra z i l , J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n , 1 2 2
B re sl a w, J o se p h, f o o t n o t e , 95
B re st - Li t o v sk , f o o t n o t e , l o x ; i o 6
B ri d g e s, H a rry , 1 9, 7 1 , 1 3 1 , 2 3 0
B ri t i sh A g e n t , q u o t e d , l o t , i o 6
B ri t i sh W hi t e P a p e r, i 0 3
B ro g a n , D e n n i s W . , q u o t e d , 5 2
B ro o k l y n Ea g l e , re f e rre d t o , 1 6
B ro o k wo o d Co l l e g e , f o o t n o t e , 95
B ro u n , H e y wo o d , i g g ;
q u o t e d , 2 4 5
-
2 4 6
B ro wd e r, Ea rl , 7 8 ; f o o t n o t e , 94
B ro wn e , R a b b i Le wi s, f o o t n o t e , 2 1 2
B ry a n , W i l l i a m J e n n i n g s, 2 7 , 2 1 0
B u l l i t t , W i l l i a m C . , 1 5 8 , 2 0 9, 2 3 3
B u re a u o f La b o r S t a t i st i c s, 96
B u rk e , Ed mu n d , q u o t e d , 1 3 2
B u rt o n , R o b e rt , q u o t e d , 3 5 , 1 7 1 , 1 92 ,
2 2 6
B u si n e ss a n d In d u st ry , Cha o s i n ,
8 0 - 92
B y l l e sb y En g i n e e ri n g a n d M a n a g e -
me n t Co rp o ra t i o n , f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 -
1 8 3
CA A , 1 2 9
Ca e sa r, J u l i u s, 1 8 , 1 9, 4 6 , 1 7 5
Ca e sa ri sm, a s d i c t a t o rshi p , 9, 1 4 , 6 1 ,
6 2 , 8 4 , 1 5 5 ,
1 92 ,
1 95 ,
2 2 7
Ca l ho u n , J o hn C . , q u o t e d , 1 4 2
Ck l l e s, 1 6 7
Ca me ro n , W
. J . , 7 8 , 2 1 4
Ca n n o n , B i sho p J a me s, J r
. , p o l i t i c a l
a c t i v i t i e s, 1 5 5
Ca p i t a l i sm, " i n t ra n si t i o n , " 9 ; a n d
" hi g h f i n a n c e , " i i ; c o mp a re d wi t h
S o c i a l i sm, 1 5 - 1 6
; re c o g n i t i o n o f i n -
e q u a l i t i e s, i 1 o ;
i n M e x i c o , 1 6 5 - 1 7 0 ;
whe re i t f l o u ri she s, i 8 o ; c ha n g e s i n
ma st e rs, 1 8 1 - 1 8 3
Ca p i t a l i st i c l a ss, o v e rt hro w o f , 1 3 ;
t hi rd g e n e ra t i o n , 6 3 ; t e c hn i q u e o f
c ha n g e s i n ma st e rs d i sc u sse d , f o o t -
n o t e , 1 8 2 - 1 8 3
Ca p i t a l i st s v e rsu s " wo rk e rs, " 3 0
- 3 4
Ca p o n e , A l , 5 1 , 1 8 7
Ck rd e n a s, La z a ro , 1 2 ; a n d " g o o d
n e i g hb o r" p o l i c y , 1 5 1 ; a n d n a t i v e
g o o se st e p , 1 5 5 ; si x - y e a r p l a n , 1 6 6 ;
re f e rre d t o , 1 6 7 ; mo ra l s a n d d i g n i t y
o f , c o mp a re d t o R o o se v e l t , 1 7 o ;
re f e rre d t o , 2 3 1
Ca rn e g i e , A n d re w, 6 3
Ca rn o v sk y , Le o n , 7 4
Ca rri l l o , A l e j a n d ro , q u o t e d , 1 6 8
Ca t ho l i c i sm, a n d Co mmu n i sm, 1 6 3 -
1 6 4
c c c , 1 2 9
Ce rv a n t e s, 1 5 3
Cha mb e rl a i n , a n d M u n i c h a c c o rd ,
1 8 0
Cha mb e rl i n , W i l l i a m H e n ry , q u o t e d ,
i o 6 ; 1 1 8
Cha p e l H i l l , N o rt h Ca ro l i n a ,
1 - 2
Cha se , S t u a rt , 4 , 1 8 , 1 7 6 - 1 8 0 , 1 95
Cha t t a n o o g a T i me s, 1 1 3
" Che a p p o we r, " a s a sl o g a n , 3
Chi c a g o , 1 g ;
sc ho o l t e rm a n d b a n k -
ru p t c y , 6 6 ; we a l t h o f , 7 5
Chi c a g o R a i l wa y s, o p e ra t i n g st a t e -
me n t , 5 4
-5 5
Chi c a g o T ri b u n e , 4 1 , 4 3
; c a l l e d " n o -
t o ri o u s" b y G ra n v i l l e H i c k s, 7 8
;
q u o t e d , 1 1 g - 1 x o ; q u o t e d , f o o t n o t e ,
1 8 2 - 1 8 3
Chi c a g o , U n i v e rsi t y o f , a n d Co m-
mu n i sm, 7 1 ; re f e rre d t o , 7 4 ; 1 8 4
Chi n a , 92
Chri st i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r, q u o t e d ,
1 0 6
Chri st i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r W e e k l y
M a g a z i n e , f o o t n o t e , 1 1 8
Chri st i a n i t y , a n d Co mmu n i sm, i t o ;
d e c l i n e o f ,
1 1 o
Ci c e ro , 1 8 ; a n d R o o se v e l t , F ra n k l i n
D . , 6 2 ; a n d R o ma n p o l i t i c s, 1 7 5
c . 1 . o . ,
1 9, 3 3 , 5 4 - 6 3 ; 7 1 , 93
; f o o t n o t e ,
94
; a n d J e ws,
l o g ; 1 1 0 , 1 3 1 , 1 92 ,
2 2 6 , 2 2 9, 2 4 6
Ci t i z e n shi p , a n d e d u c a t i o n , 6 4 , 6 9 ;
Co hn , F a n n i e M
. , f o o t n o t e , 95
Co l l e c t i v e b a rg a i n i n g , 6 2 , 1 7 8
Co l l e g e o f t he Ci t y o f N e w Yo rk , 97 ;
f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
Co l l e g e s a n d U n i v e rsi t i e s, i n c re a se i n
e n ro l l me n t , 6 6 ; U t o p i a n d re a me rs
i n , 6 9- 7 o ; d o mi n a t e d b y d i sc i p l e s
o f M a rx , 7 o ; so u rc e o f N e w D e a l
f a l l a c i e s, 6 4 - 7 9 ; d o c t ri n e s t a u g ht b y
J e ws a n d n o n - J e ws, 94
Co l l i e r' s W e e k l y , q u o t e d , 1 2 0
Co l u mb i a U n i v e rsi t y , a n d Co mmu -
n i sm, 7 1 , 97 ; f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
" Co mi n g Cra sh o f Ca p i t a l i sm, " 1 3
Co mi n g S t ru g g l e f o r P o we r, T he ,
7 9
2 5 0
a n d ma c hi n e e f f i c i e n c y , 1 8 9- i 9o
Ci v i l l i b e rt y , 7 0 , 2 3 1 , 2 3 2
Ci v i l i a n Co n se rv a t i o n Co rp s, 1 2 9
Cl a rk e , H a rl e y L. , 1 8 2
Cl a ss ha t re d , 7 9, 2 0 1
" Cl a ss S t ru g g l e , " d i sc u sse d , 3 0 - 3 4
Cl a ssi c a l Cu l t u re , 1 0 9
Cl e m, El z a , 1 4
Cl e o n , 1 6 1 - 1 6 2
Co he n , B e n j a mi n V . , i 2 , 2 2 , 4 9, 8 8 ,
95 . 99 , 1 3 9 , 1 7 4 .
1 8 2 ,
1 95 , 2 0 6
Co mme n t a t o r, T he ,
q u o t e d , f o o t n o t e ,
1 2 2
Co mmo d i t y Cre d i t Co rp o ra t i o n ,
1 2 9
Co mmu n i sm,
d i sc u sse d , 3 - 1 5 ;
a n d
wa r, 6 ; a n d ho u si n
g , 1 2 - 1 5 ; a n d S o -
c i a l i sm, 3 0 - 8 4
; a n d f a i l u re s o f , 1 5 ;
a n d J e ws, 98 - 1 2 4
; i n H u n g a ry , 1 0 5 ;
a n d Chri st i a n i t y , 1 1 0 ;
a n d A me ri -
c a n J e wi sh Co n g re ss, 1 o 3 - 1 o 4 ; a n d
T ro j a n ho rse , 1 2 4
; a n d p o e t ry , 1 8 3
Co mmu n i sm, i d e n t i c a l
wi t h " D e mo c -
ra c y , " " Li b e ra l i sm, " S o c i a l i sm, J u -
d a i sm a s t a u g ht b y M a rx , 2 , 3 , i 6 ,
1 0 1 , 1 1 0 ,
1 1 2 - 1 1 3 , 1 1 7 , 1 4 8 , 2 3 2
Co mmu n i st M a n i f e st o ,
1 0 1
Co n f i sc a t i o n , o f M e x i c a n
o i l , 1 5 0 , 1 6 7 ,
1 6 8
Co n g re ss, a n d N e w D e a l ,
1 3 0 - 1 3 1 ,
1 3 5 - 1 3 6 , 1 4 5 - 1 4 6 , 1 6 1 - 1 6 2
Co n st i t u t i o n , U
. S . , a d d re ss u p o n , 2 ,
2 2 ; a n d " re o rg a n i z a t i o n , " 6
" Co n t u ma c y , " a n d R o o se v e l t ,
F ra n k -
l i n D . , 8 4
Co o l i d g e , Ca l v i n ,
l a i sse z f a i re c ha r-
a c t e r o f a d mi n i st ra t i o n ,
3 o ; 3 8 - 3 9,
4 1 - 4 2 , 4 8 , 8 6 ; 1 1 7 ;
a n d B o st o n
p o l i c e st ri k e , 1 8 1 ; 2 1 3 , 2 1 7
Co rc o ra n , T ho ma s, 1 2 , 2 2 , 8 8 , 1 7 4 ,
1 95 , 2 0 6
Co rt e z , a n d In q u i si t i o n , 1 5 4
; c o n -
q u e st o f M e x i c o , 1 6 7
Co u g hl i n , T he R e v
. Cha rl e s E . , 8 5 ,
1 0 3 - 1 0 7 , 1 1 7 - 1 1 8 ,
2 8 3
Co u n c i l o f P e o p l e s
Co mmi ssa rs, 1 1 9
Co x , E . E. , 1
7 7
Cra ssu s, 1 7 5
Cri me a n d ra c i a l o ri g i n s, 2 0 - 2 1
" Cri si s, " 5
Cu e rn a v a c a , M e x i c o , 1 6 4 - 1 6 5
Cz e c ho sl o v a k i a , 92 , 1 5 1
D a l a d i e r, P re mi e r o f F ra n c e , 1 0 8 , 2 2 9
D a l l a s, T e x a s, 4 9
D a n t o n , 4 , 7 , 1 3 9, 2 4 4
D a s K a p i t a l , 6 2 , 1 0 1
D a we s, a n d R F c l o a n , 8 9
D a y t o n , Ohi o , b a n k ru p t c y o f c i t y
sc ho o l s, 6 6
D e f e n se Co mmi t t e e f o r i . w. w. ,
6 7
D e ma g o g u e s, i n A me ri c a n p o l i t i c s,
2 7
" D e mo c ra c y , " i d e n t i c a l
wi t h " Li b e r-
a l i sm, " Co mmu n i sm, S o c i a l i sm, J u -
d a i sm a s t a u g ht b y M a rx ,
2 - 3 , 1 6 ,
1 0 1 , 1 1 0 ,
1 1 2 - 1 1 3 , 1 1 7 , 1 4 8 , 2 3 2
" D e mo c ra c y , "
i n R o me , 1 8 - 2 0 ; i n
A me ri c a , 1 8 9- 1 9o
D e n ma rk , sc ho o l sy st e m d i sc u sse d ,
7 4 - 7 5
d e S t a e l , M a d a me , q u o t e d , i i
2 5 1
" D e st ru c t i o n
o f b o u rg e o i s p a rl i a -
me n t a ri sm, " 1 4
D e we y , J o hn , p o l i t i c a l
a f f i l i a t i o n s o f ,
6
D e we y , T ho ma s E
. , 1 8 9
D i c t a t o rshi p , a n d F ra n k l i n
D . R o o se -
v e l t , 6 - 7 ; re v o l u t i o n a ry ,
1 4 ; o f
p ro l e t a ri a t , 1 4 ;
f o re c a st i n F ra n c e ,
i o 8 ;
c o mme n t o f A ri st o p ha n e s,
1 5 9- 1 6 2
D i e s Co mmi t t e e , 1 6 , 9S ,
1 0 9, 1 8 0 - 1 8 1
D i l l i n g e r, J o hn , 1 8 7
D i sra e l i , B e n j a mi n , q u o t e d , 6 4 ; " ma -
n i p u l a t i o n s" o f a l i e n p o l i t i c s,
1 1 1
D o he n y , Ed wa rd L. ,
l o b
D o n Q u i x o t e , 1 5 3
D o u g l a s, P a u l H
. , q u o t e d a n d d i s-
c u sse d , 7 1 - 7 2
D o u g l a s, W i l l i a m 0 . ,
8 7 - 8 9, 2 0 6 , 2 4 3
D re i se r, T he o d o re , q u o t e d , 95 , 2 0 5
D re w, D a n i e l , 1 4 8
D u b i n sk y , D a v i d , f o o t n o t e ,
94 ; 1 1 7
D u P o n t f a mi l y , a n d R o o se v e l t s, 4 3 ,
4 7 , 1 6 1
Ea rl e , G e o rg e H
. , a n d F i v e P e r Ce n t
Cl u b , 2 4
; t ri u mv i ra t e i n P e n n sy l -
v a n i a p o l i t i c s,
i i i ; 1 4 2 , 1 8 7 , 2 0 6 ,
2 4 0
Ec o n o mi c R o y a l i st s, 1 ,
6 , 7 , 8 , g , t o ,
3 4 , 4 2
; o f e d u c a t i o n a l sy st e m, 6 7 ;
7 1 , 8 1 , 8 g , 1 2 9,
1 6 1 , 1 6 5 - 1 6 6 , 1 7 4 ,
Ig o , 1 97 , 2 1 7 , 2 2 8
ECW , 1 2 9
Ed e n , A n t ho n y , 1 2 6
Ed i so n , T ho ma s A . , 3 3 , 7 6
Ed ma n , Irwi n , q u o t e d ,
6 8
Ed u c a t i o n , f a i l u re o f
ma ss e f f o rt , 2 5 ;
a n d i n c o mp e t e n t
g o v e rn me n t , 2 9
;
d i sc u sse d a t
l e n g t h, 6 4 - 7 9 ; f o o t -
n o t e , g o
; 1 8 4 -
1 8 5 . 2 2 7
Eg y p t , d e p a rt u re o f J e ws f ro m,
1 1 1
Eg y p t i a n b o n d a g e , 99
EH F A , 1 2 9
E- 1 B , 1 2 9
Ei n st e i n , A l b e rt , q u o t e d ,
1 2 0
Ema n u e l , Vi c t o r,
f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 - 1 8 3
Emp o ri a , In d i a n a , 2 3 8 - 2 3 9
En c y c l o p a e d i a
B ri t a n n i c a , q u o t e d ,
1 0 5 ,
1 0 7 - 1 0 8 , 1 1 4
En g e l s, F re d e ri c k , 4 ,
1 0 1 , 1 5 6 , 1 7 8 , 2 2 7
En g l a n d ,
p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e
wi t h
R u ssi a , l o b
Ep hi a l t e s, 1 91
Ern st , M o rri s L. , f o o t n o t e ,
95 ; 97
Esse n e s, 1 5 , 2 1 3
Et hi c a l S o c i a l i sm, 6 1 , 1 8 1
Ex o d u s, B o o k o f , q u o t e d ,
1 1 1
9- 1 0 , 3 0 - 3 1 , 3 3 ,
Ex p ro p ri a t i o n , a n d Co mmu n i sm, 1 2 -
1 6
Ez e k i e l , M o rd e c a i , 95
,
2 0 6
F a rl e y , J i m, 4 , 2 0 6
F a sc i sm, 6 1 , 8 5 ; i n M e x i c o , 1 o 7 ; a n d
t he J e w, 1 1 7 , 1 1 g ; a n d M u sso l i n i ,
1 4 6 - 1 4 7 , 1 8 0 , 1 98 - 1 99
F CC, 8 5 - 8 6 , 1 2 9
F D IC, 1 2 9
F EA P W , 1 2 9
F e i n si l v e r, R a b b i A l e x a n d e r, q u o t e d ,
99
F e i n st o n e , M . C . , f o o t n o t e , 95
F e i s, H e rb e rt , g 6
F e l l o wshi p o f F a i t hs, 6 7
F ER A , 1 2 9
F F M C, 1 2 9
F H A , 1 2 , 1 2 9, 1 8 7
F 1 1 LB B , 1 2 9
F 1 CB , 1 2 9
F i n l a n d , J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n , 1 2 2
F i re si d e c ha t s, 1 , 3 6 , 1 7 4
F i sk e , J i m, 8 9, 1 4 8
F i t c h, Cl y d e , a n d p o k e r g a me , 8 3
F l a mm, D o n a l d , 8 6
F l a n d ra u , Cha rl e s, 1 6 3
F l o ri d a , p o p u l a t i o n o f , 4 8 - 4 9 ; shi p
c a n a l , 6 1 - 6 2 ; 1 1 4 , 2 4 1
F l y n n , J o hn T . , 7 8 , 2 1 3 - 2 1 4
F o l k l o re o f Ca p i t a l i sm, T he , 7 9, 2 3 6 -
2 4 1
F o o t b a l l , re su l t s o f c o mme rc i a l i z a -
t i o n , 1 9
F o rd , H e n ry , 3 3
,
7 8 , 1 2 1 , 2 1 4 - 2 1 5 , 2 1 9
F o rt u n e , 7 4 ; a n a l y si s o f J e wi sh
p ro b l e m,
1 1 2 - 1 1 3 ;
d i sc u ssi o n o f
t a x a t i o n , 1 3 8 - 1 3 9
F o x , A b ra ha m M . , 95
F ra n c e , p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e wi t h
R u ssi a , 1 0 8
F ra n c e o f Lo u i s x v i a n d A me ri c a o f
F . D . R . c o mp a re d , 2 4
F ra n k , J e ro me , 95 ; f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 ; 2 0 6 ,
2 4 3
F ra n k , W a l d o , d i sc u sse d , 1 1 6 ; a s
J e wi sh i n t e l l e c t u a l , 1 8 3 - 1 8 4
F ra n k f u rt e r, P ro f . F e l i x , 95 , 1 0 2 , 1 1 0 ,
2 0 6 , 2 1 2 , 2 4 0
F ra n k l i n , B e n j a mi n , 1 2 6
F ra n k l i n , J a y , 1 g g
F ra n k l i n , R a b b i Le o M . , 1 2 1
F re e a sse mb l y , 7 0
F re e sp e e c h, 7 0
F re e d , S i mo n , f o o t n o t e , 7 4
F re n c h R e v o l u t i o n , 2 1 - 2 4 ; 1 o 8 , 1 5 2
F re u d , S i g mu n d , 1 5 6
F S LIC, 1 2 9
F S R C,
95
F u t u re o f Li b e rt y , T he , 7 9, 2 4 2 - 2 4 6
2 5 2
G a l l i p o l i s, Ohi o , 4 1
G a l l u p , G e o rg e H
. , 4 1
G a rb o , G re t a , 2 0 6
G a rn e r, J o hn , a n d n e g ro ho u si n g , 4 9
;
2 1 9
G a sse t , Ort e g a y , q u o t e d , 1 4 , 2 5 , 6 2 ,
6 5 , 1 4 4 ; f o o t n o t e , 1 4 6 ; q u o t e d , 2 0 1 ,
2 1 0 , 2 2 1
G a y , J o hn , q u o t e d , 4 6
G e n e a l o g y o f M o ra l s, q u o t e d , l o o
G e n e ra l J e wi sh W o rk e rs' U n i o n , 1 1 3
G e n g hi s K a hn , 1 8 6
G e rma n y , p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e a g a i n st ,
1 o 8 ; a n d ma rt y rd o m o f J e ws i n ,
1 2 o ; a n d e x p u l si o n o f J e ws f ro m,
1 2 1
G i d e , A n d rd , q u o t e d , 1 5
G i rd l e r, T o m, 1 8 2 , 2 1 g
G l a d st o n e , W i l l i a m E
. , q u o t e d , 2 5
;
2 1 1
G l a ss, Ca rt e r, a n d S u p re me Co u rt
c o u p , 1 3 6 ; 2 1 g
G o l d , B e n , f o o t n o t e , 94
G o l d e n we i se r, E. A . , 96
G o l d ma n , A l b e rt , 96
G o l d ma n , Emma , 1 1 3
G o l d wy n , S a mu e l , 1 1 1
G o mp e rs, S a mu e l , 5 9- 6 0 , 6 3
" G o o d N e i g hb o r P o l i c y , " 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 ,
2 3 2
G o o d ri c h, J a me s P . , 2 4 8
G o t t sc ha l k , Lo u i s, f o o t n o t e , 7 4
G o u l d , J a y , 8 9, 1 4 8
c p u , re f e rre d t o , 1 1 8 ; a l so se e f o o t n o t e
G ra ha m, F ra n k S
. , 2
" G ra n t s i n A i d , " 4 3 - 4 4
G ra y , H e rma n A
. , 97
G re a t A me ri c a n F o rt u n e s, re f e rre d
t o , 3
1 , 7 9 ,
1 4 8
G re a t B ri t a i n , ' o f f e r o f J e wi sh ho me ,
1 2 1
G re e k s, c o mp a re d wi t h J e ws, A rme -
n i a n s a n d P a rse e s, 1 1 2
G re e n , W i l l i a m, 2 3 , 2 1 9
G re e n b a c k e rs, 2 7
G re e n b e rg , H a rry , f o o t n o t e , 95
G u f f e y , J o se p h F . , re f e rre d t o , 3 8 , 8 2 ,
1 1 1 , 1 4 2 , 1 8 9, 2 4 0
G u g g e n he i m, f o u n d a t i o n re f e rre d t o ,
6 3
G u mb e rg , A l e x , re f e rre d t o , 1 0 2 - 1 0 3
G u mp , A n d y , 2 1 5
H a g e n a h, W i l l i a m J . , f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 -
1 8 3
H a g u e , F ra n k , 6 5 , 95
H a l d e ma n - J u l i u s, E . , f o o t n o t e , 2 8 ;
i n so l e n c e d i sc u sse d , 1 1 7 ; d e f i n i t i o n
o f " Li b e ra l , " t o g - 2 1 o
H a rd i n g , W a rre n G . , l a i sse z f a i re
c ha ra c t e r o f a d mi n i st ra t i o n , 3 o ; 3 8 ,
4 2 , 4 8 , 2 1 3
H a rd y , El me r, 1 4
H a rri so n , B e n j a mi n , 4 8
H a rri so n , P a t , 1 g g
H a rv a rd U n i v e rsi t y , a n d Co mmu -
n i sm, 7 1
; a n d G ra n v i l l e H i c k s,
7 6 - 7 7
; a n d M o rri s L
. Ern st , f o o t -
n o t e , 95 ; a n d Cha rl e s E
. W y z a n sk i ,
96 ; 1 8 4 , a o 6 ; a n d H e y wo o d B ro u n ,
2 4 5 - 2 4 6
H a rv e y , S t e p he n , q u o t e d , 1 6 3
H a rwo o d , E. C. , q u o t e d , 7 5
H a v e l , H i p p o l y t e , q u o t e d , 1 1 2 - 1 1 3
H a y ma rk e t ri o t , 1 1 3
H a y s, W i l l H . , 1 8 2 , 2 4 8
H e a rst , W i l l i a m R a n d o l p h, 4 3
, 7 9,
1 4 0
H e b re w, su p p re ssi o n o f , 1 o 7
H e e p , U ri a h, a n d N e w D e a l , 1 4 4
H e i n e , H e i n ri c h,
1 0 1
H e l l B e n t f o r El e c t i o n , 1 1 6
H e l l e n i c c i v i l i z a t i o n , d e st ru c t i o n o f
b y J e ws, 1 1 1
H e n d e rso n , Le o n , 1 8 2 , 2 4 3
H e n d ri c k , B u rt o n J . , o n J e ws a n d
re v o l u t i o n , 1 o 8
H e ro d , 1 3 7
H e ss, M o se s, i o i
H i b b e n , P a x t o n , 2 0 5
H i c k s, G ra n v i l l e , q u o t e d a n d d i s-
c u sse d , 7 6 - 7 8
H i l l ma n , S i d n e y , f o o t n o t e , 95
H i n e s, J i mmy , 2 4 0
H i t l e r, A d o l p h, 2 ,
4 - 5 ,
2 3
. 6 o , 92 , 95 ,
97
; f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
; 1 2 0 , 1 2 6 , 1 3 9,
1 5 1 ,
1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ,
1 6 1 , 1 8 0 , 2 3 9
H o f f ma n n , W i l l i a m S . , f o o t n o t e , 7 4
H o g a n ,
F ra n k T . , a n d F a t he r
Co u g hl i n , 1 0 5 - 1 0 6
H OLC, 1 2 , 1 2 9
H o l d i n g Co mp a n y A c t , 9b ; f o o t n o t e ,
1 8 2 - 1 8 3
H o l l a n d e r, Lo u i s, f o o t n o t e , 9b
H o l l y wo o d , a n d J i mmi e R o o se v e l t ,
1 1 1 , 1 8 2
H o me st e a d st ri k e , 1 1 3
H o o p l e , M a j o r, 2
H o o v e r, H e rb e rt C . , a n d d e p re ssi o n ,
3 o ; re f e rre d t o , 3 9
- 4 2 .
4 8 , 5 9 . 7 4 ,
8 9, 1 2 8 , 1 3 1 - 1 3 2 , 1 4 7 ; a n d o u r
f o re i g n p o l i c y , 1 5 6 - 1 8 7 ; 1 7 0 , 1 97 ,
2 1 3 , 2 4 4
H o p k i n s, H a rry , 2 5 , 1 3 9, 2 0 5 , 2 4 0
H o u si n g , a n d N e w D e a l , 1 2 , 1 5 - 1 6 ;
a n d Co mmu n i sm, 1 2 - 1 5
H o wa rd , R o y ,
1 99,
2 4 6
H u g he s, Cha rl e s Ev a n , 8
H u l l , Co rd e l l , 1 5 1 , 1 6 g , 2 3 2
H u n g a ry , Co mmu n i sm i n , 1 0 5
2 5
3
" H u n s a n d Va n d a l s" o f N e w D e a l ,
i i ; re f e rre d t o b y Lo rd M a c a u l a y ,
4 7 , 5 1
; f o o t n o t e , 7 7
; 1 5 5
H u t c hi n s, R o b e rt M
. , q u o t e d a n d
d i sc u sse d , 7 4
-
7 6
H u t t o n , B a rb a ra , 6 3
H u x l e y , T ho ma s H
. , q u o t e d , 5 4
" I- a m- t he - l a w, " d i sc u sse d , 6 5
I Li k e A me ri c a , 7 6 - 7 9
Ic k e s, H a ro l d , 3 6 - 3 7 , 7 9, 1 3 9 ; d i s-
c u sse d , 1 4 3 , 1 8 7 , 2 0 5 , 2 4 0
Imp e ri a l i sm,
a n d Le n i n , 9- 1 5
In d i a n a U n i v e rsi t y , a n d M c N u t t ,
P a u l V. , 1 7 4
In d i a n a p o l i s, 1 g , 8 3
In f l a t i o n , J o n e s F a mi l y i n wa i t i n g ,
1 2 7
In g a l l s, J o hn J
. , q u o t e d , 1 7 1
In i t i a t i v e a n d re f e re n d u m, 6 2
In su l l , S a mu e l , 1 3 5
In v e st me n t b a n k e rs, swi n d l e s p ro -
mo t e d , 5 0
Iri sh F re e S t a t e , J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n ,
1 2 2
Isra e l , p a rt i n re v o l u t i o n , 1 1 3 - 1 1 4
It a l y , p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e a g a i n st , 1 0 8
Iv a n t he T e rri b l e , 2 1 5
J a c k so n , R o b e rt H . , a o 6
J a c o b i n Cl u b s, a n d T wo P e r Ce n t
Cl u b , 2 3 - 2 4
J a c o b so n , M o rri s L. , g 6
J a me s, J e sse , 1 8 7
J a p a n , p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e a g a i n st , 1 o 8 ;
1 3 8 , 1 4 2 , 1 5 1 , 1 6 5 , 1 6 8
J a p a n e se l o a n , 1 0 3
J e f f e rso n , T ho ma s, q u o t e d , 8 8
; n o t e
t o G e o rg e 1 1 1 , o f J u l y 4 , 1 7 7 6 , 1 2 9 ;
1 3 9- 1 4 0 , 2 0 5
J e f f e rso n v i l l e , In d i a n a , 8 2 - 8 3
J e ru sa l e m, d e st ro y a l o f , 1 2 1
J e su s o f N a z a re t h, 5 4 , 92 , 1 0 2 , 2 3 9
" J e w b a i t e r" a n d " R e d b a i t e r, " 1 2 3
J e wi sh e c o n o mi st s,
91
J e wi sh En c y c l o p e d i a , q u o t e d , l o t
J e wi sh Ye a r B o o k , A me ri c a n , Co m-
mu n i sm a n d N a z i i sm, l o 7
J e ws, a n d t he N e w D e a l , 93 - 1 2 4 ;
a n d Co mmu n i sm, g g ; a n d re v o l u -
t i o n , 1 0 4 - 1 2 4 ; a n d F re n c h R e v o l u -
t i o n , 1 o 8 ; a n d R e i g n o f T e rro r,
1 o 8 ;
a n d B o l she v i k R e v o l u t i o n ,
1 o 7
; a n d f e a r o f p e rse c u t i o n , 1 o 8 ;
a n d d i st i n c t i o n b e t we e n S e p ha rd i c
a n d Ea st e rn , 1 o 8 ; a n d i n sma l l e r
c i t i e s d i st i n g u i she d , 1 o 8 - l o g
; a n d
C. 1 . o . , l o g ; a n d i n f l u e n c e o n Oc -
c i d e n t a l p e o p l e s, l o g
; a n d f a i l u re
o f a ssi mi l a t i o n , l o g - 1 1 o ; a n d
M a rx i a n p hi l o so p hy , 1 1 0 ;
a n d d e -
J e ws, a n d t he
N e w D e a l (Co n t i n u e d )
st ru c t i o n o f H e l l e n i c c i v i l i z a t i o n ,
III ;
a n d " R e n a i ssa n c e " i n S p a i n ,
i i i ; a n d " ma n i p u l a t i o n s, "
1 1 2 ; a n d
ra d i c a l i sm, a n a l y z e d b y
F o rt u n e ,
1 1 2 - 1 1 3
J
e ws, n u mb e r i n R u ssi a , 1 91 4 , 1 0 7 ;
a n d a n t i t he t i c a l ro l e s o f ,
1 1 6
; a n d
a t t i t u d e t o wa rd s G e rma n y a n d
R u ssi a , 1 1 7 ; a n d so c i a l e q u a l i t y ,
1 1 9- 1 2 o ; a n d re f u sa l o f ho me i n
Ea st A f ri c a , 1 2 1 ; a n d se t t l e me n t
i n c i t i e s, i i i ; a n d a s me n o f b u si -
n e ss, 1 2 2 ; a n d i d e a l s o f v e rsu s
A me ri c a n i d e a l s, 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 ; a n d
B l a c k a p p o i n t me n t , 1 8 8
J e ws, a n d so c i a l e q u a l i t y ,
1 1 9- 1 2 0 ,
1
8 3 - i 8 5 , 2 3 3 , 2 3 5
J o f f e , i o 6
J o hn so n , A n d re w, 1 97
J o hn so n , H u g h, 8 o
J o hn so n , S a mu e l , 7 8 ; q u o t e d , 2 1 1
" J o n e s" f a mi l y , a n d R o o se v e l t s, 1 2 5 -
1 3 3
J o n e s, J
. Ed wa rd , a n d K e n n e d y , J
. P
. ,
2 5 4
K n i c k e rb o c k e r B ro a d c a st i n g
Co m-
p a n y , 8 6
K n o x , F ra n k , g i g
K n u d se n , W . P . , f o o t n o t e ,
7 7 , 2 3 9
K o c h, Lu c i e n , f o o t n o t e , 94
K o hn , H a n s, q u o t e d , 2 1 1 (a l so se e
f o o t n o t e , 2 1 1 1 ) ; 2 3 8
K o rz y b sk i , A l f re d , f o o t n o t e , 1 7 6
K ru e g e r, Iv a r, 8 7
K u K l u x K l a n , c o mp a re d t o J a c o b i n
Cl u b s, 2 3 - 2 4 ; re f e rre d t o , 4 1 ; e f f e c t
o n p o l i t i c s, 4 8 ; 1 3 4 , 1 8 7 ; i n
In d i a n a , 1 7 1 - 1 7 2 ; 1 92 , 2 1 4
- 2 1 5
K u hn , F ri t z ,
2 2 0
K u n , B e l a , a l i a s A ro n Co hn , 1 0 5
La b o r R a c k e t , i n hi g h g e a r,
5 4- 6 3
La b o r ra c k e t e e rs, a n d H a rv a rd a c -
c e n t ,
5 7
La d e rma n , Isi d o r, f o o t n o t e , 94
La F o l l e t t e f a mi l y , 8 7 , 1 7 6 , 2 1 0 , 2 1 2 -
2 1 3 , 2 1 5 , 2 3 4 , 2 4 0
La F o l l e t t e , R o b e rt M . , S r . , 8 7
La G u a rd i a , F i o re l l o H . , b l o o d t ra d i -
t i o n , 1 g ; mu n i c i p a l c o mmi ssa r,
2 2 ;
2 0 4 - 2 0 5
1 1 4 , 1 1 7 , 1 3 2 , 2 2 0
J o n e s, J e sse , 8 9
J o rd a n , D r . Vi rg i l , f o o t n o t e , g o
J o se p hso n , M a t t he w, 7 9
J u d a i sm, a n d Co mmu n i sm, i o 7 ;
Co mmu n i sm, a n d " D e mo c ra c y " o n
c o mmo n f ro n t , l o g ; e n t re n c hme n t
i n se a t s o f p o we r,
2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ;
c o n c e p t
o f R o o se v e l t t , 2 3 9
J u d a i sm, i d e n t i c a l wi t h Co mmu n i sm,
" D e mo c ra c y , " " Li b e ra l i sm" a n d
S o c i a l i sm, 2 - 3 , 1 6 , 1 0 1 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 2 -
La mo n t , Co rl i ss, 2 0 5
La n d o n , A l f re d M . , 1 7 0
La sse r, D a v i d ,
5 9 , 93 - 94
La wre n c e , D a v i d , 1 98 - i g g
La wre n c e , T
. E
. , q u o t e d , 1 2 3 - 1 2 4
Le a g u e o f N a t i o n s, 1 5 o
Le hma n , H e rb e rt H . , p a y s o f f
R o o se v e l t d e f i c i t , 4 1 ; a n d c a n d i d a t e
f o r f o u rt h t e rm, 1 1 7
Le i se rso n , W i l l i a m M . , g 6
Le n i n , N i k o l a i , 4 , 9- 1 6 , 3 0 - 3 1 , 3 3
,
1 1 3 , 1 1 7 , 1 4 8 , 2 3 2 7 2 - 7 3 , 99 ;
a n d B e l a K u n , 1 0 5 ;
J u v e n a l , q u o t e d , 1 3 4 1 0 6 - 1 0 7 ,
1 1 7 ;
q u o t e d ,
1 5 6 , 1 6 1 ,
K a g a n o v i t c h, La z a ru s, 1 1 8 ; t a 7 a ru s,
1 7 8 ;
" mo re d e mo c ra c y , " i 9(> - 1 91 ,
2 2 7 ; 2 4 4
M a c ha i l , J u l i u s, A n d ri e , B a ru c h
M . , S e rg i e M . , a n d M a ri e , f o o t n o t e ,
1 1 8
Le v i , Ed wa rd H . , f o o t n o t e ,
7 4
Le v i n , A b ra ha m, a n d re so l u t i o n
a g a i n st Co mmu n i sm, 1 0 4
K a me n e f f , f o o t n o t e , 1 0 2
K a mk o f f , i o 6
K a n sa s Ci t y , e l e c t i o n f ra u d s, 5 0
Le v i n , a c k , 97
Le wi s,
j a c k
J a me s H a mi l t o n ,
2 0 3
Le wi s, J o hn L. ,
2 3 , 3 6 , 4 9 ,
5 4 . 5 8 - 6 2 ,
K a re l i n , 1 o 6
K a rp f , M a u ri c e , q u o t e d , 1 1 5
K a st e i n , J o se p h, q u o t e d , 98 - l o o , 1 1 0 -
8 2 ; a n d a l i e n a n d J e wi sh Co m-
mu n i st s, 93 ; i n P e n n sy l v a n i a p o l i -
t i c s,
1 1 1 ; 1 3 1 , 1 4 2 , 1 6 2 , 1 7 7 , 2 o 6 ,
1 1 1 , 1 1 6 , 1 2 1
2 2 6 , 2 3 0 , 2 3 9- 2 4 0 , 2 4 6
K a t z , H y mi e , a s ra c e - t ra c k t i p st e r, 1 1 1
K a u t sk y i t e s, g
K e l l y - N a sh ma c hi n e , 2 4 0
K e n n e d y , J o se p h P . ,
2 0 4
" Li b e ra l i sm, " i d e n t i c a l wi t h " D e mo c -
ra c y , " Co mmu n i sm, S o c i a l i sm, J u -
d a i sm a s t a u g ht b y M a rx , 2 - 3 , i 6 ,
1 0 1 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 , 1 1 7 , 1 4 8 , 2 3 2
K e n t , F ra n k R . , 1 98
K e re n sk y , 1 0 3 - 1 0 4
" Li b e ra l s, " 2 0 8 - 2 1 5 , 2 2 7
K ha ra sc h, M o rri s S . , f o o t n o t e ,
7 4
m, a p p l i e d t o j u d g e H u g o B l a c k ,
Li l i e n t ha l , D a v i d E . , 95 ;
ma n i p u l a -
t i o n s o f , 1 1 1 ; 1 8 1 , 1 8 2 , 2 0 6 , 2 1 2
7 , 1 2 9
Li n c o l n , A b ra ha m, a n d G e t t y sb u rg
K l e i t ma n , N a t ha n i e l , f o o t n o t e , 7 4
a d d re ss, i 4 o
Li p p ma n n , W a l t e r, 5 2 , 1 4 o - 1 4 1 , 1 5 7
-
1 5 8 , 1 98 -
4 99, 2 3 9
Li p shi t z , " Li p p y , "
1 1 1
Li t t l e B l u e B o o k s, 1 1 7
Li t t l e R e d R i d i n g H o o d , 2
Li t v i n o f f , 1 1 8 , 1 5 8 , 2 8 3
Lo c k ha rt , R . H . B ru c e , 1 0 2 , 1 0 4 ;
q u o t e d , t o 6
Lo e b , H a ro l d , 96 , 2 4 4
Lo n g , H u e y , 4 8 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 6
Lo u i s x v , re f e rre d t o , 2 4
- 2 5
Lo u i s x v i , o f F ra n c e , 7
, 1 7 7 ,
2 4 4
Lo u i sv i l l e , $ e n t u c k y , 8 3
Lu b i n , Isa d o r, 2 4 3
Lu d wi g , Emi l , q u o t e d , 1 1 4
Lu n d b e rg , F e rd i n a n d , 7 9
Lu t sk y , l o b
Ly n c h, B e rn a rd W
. , f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 -
1 8 3
Ly o n s, Eu g e n e , a n d
T he A me ri c a n
M e rc u ry , f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
Ly sa n d e r, 2 2 6
M c Ca rt hy , Cha rl i e , 1 8 7 , 2 1 5
M c K e sso n & R o b b i n s, 2 4 1
M c K i n l e y , W i l l i a m, a ssa ssi n a t i o n o f ,
1 1 3 ; a n d " ma n i f e st d e st i n y , " 1 2 8
;
re f e rre d t o , 1 2 9
M c N i n c h, F ra n k R . , 1 0 5
M c N u t t , P a u l V
. , a n d T wo P e r Ce n t
Cl u b , 2 3 - 2 4 ,
2 4 0
; p a l a c e i n M a n i l a ,
1 4 2 ; re g i me n t a t i o n o f H o o si e r
st a t e , 1 7 1 - 1 7 4 ; a n d d i sa st e rs o f
1 93 8 e l e c t i o n , 1 8 9
; 2 0 4 , 2 0 6
M a c a u l a y , Lo rd , q u o t e d ,
1 1 ; re f e rre d
t o , 8 3 ; f o re c a st s N e w D e a l , 4 6 - 5 3 ;
1 5 5
M a c hi a v e l l i , 1 8 5
M a d a g a sc a r, p ro p o se d ho me l a n d f o r
J e ws, f o o t n o t e , 1 2 2
M a d i so n , J a me s, 1 4 0
M a n u f a c t u re rs, N a t i o n a l A sso c i a t i o n
o f , 5 1 - 5 2
M a n v i l l e , T o mmy , 6 3
M a ra t , 4
, 7 , 1 3 9 , 2 4 4
M a rk l e , Che st e r, 2 8 9
M a rk l e v i l l e , In d i a n a , 1 2 , 1 4
M a rsha l l , J o hn , 8
M a rt i n , Ev e re t t D e a n , q u o t e d , 1 9-
2 0 , 6 0 , 1 5 9
" M a rt y rd o m" o f sc ho o l ma st e rs, 6 7
M a rx , K a rl , 4 , 9- 1 o , 1 6 , 3 0 - 3 1 , 3 3
. 4 9 ,
6 2 , 7 0 ; f o o t n o t e , 7 7
, 94 ,
1 0 0 - 1 0 1 ;
a n d R o o se v e l t , F ra n k l i n D . , 1 0 1 -
1 0 2 ; a n d J e wi sh p hi l o so p hy , 1 1 o ;
a n d A me ri c a n p o l i t i c s, n o ; a n d
J e wi sh b a c k g ro u n d o f T a l mu d i c
d i a l e c t i c s, 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 ; 1 1 6 , 1 1 9, 1 2 4 ,
1 5 6 , 1 7 8 , 2 2 7
-2 3 0
. 2 3 9
M a t a n u sk a Va l l e y , 2 2 2
2 5 5
M a t t he ws, J . B
. , 93 , 2 2 8 - 2 2 9
M a u ro i s, A n d re , q u o t e d , 1 5
M a y f l o we r D e sc e n d e n t s,
i n sp i re d
wi t h p a t ri o t i sm b y W a l t e r W i n -
c he l l , 1 1 1 - 1 1 2
M e d i c i , Lo re n z i n o , 1 6 8
M e mp hi s, T e n n e sse e , 4 9
M e n c k e n , H . L. , 1 o 6 ; f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2 ;
q u o t e d f ro m i n t ro d u c t i o n t o A n t i -
c hri st , 1 2 o ; q u o t e d f ro m T re a t i se
o n t he G o d s, 1 2 1
; f o o t n o t e , 1 7 6 ;
a u t o p sy o n R o o se v e l t I,
2 4 7
- 2 4 8
M e rc ha n t ma ri n e , a n d N e w D e a l ,
1 7 5 - 1 7 6
M e rc y , Co u n t , A u st ri a n a mb a ssa d o r
t o F ra n c e , q u o t e d , 2 4
M e re j k o wsk i , q u o t e d , 2 1 6
M e rri a m, Cha rl e s E . , 7 4
M e x i c o , a n d Co mmu n i sm o f In d i a n s,
1 5 ; Co mmu n i sm a n d F a sc i sm, 1 o 7 ;
J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n , 1 2 2
; a n d t he
N e w D e a l , 1 6 3 - 1 7 0
M e z hra y a n t si , a n d B o l she v i k s, f o o t -
n o t e , 1 0 2
M i c he l so n , Cha rl e s, f o o t n o t e , 4 2
M i c he l so n , Cl a ri n a , f o o t n o t e , 94
M i c he l so n , M a x , f o o t n o t e , 94
" M i d d l e t o wn "
(M u n c i e , In d i a n a )
a n d J e wi sh v o t e , 99
M i l l a y , Ed n a S t . Vi n c e n t , 2 o 5
M i l l e r, A b ra ha m, f o o t n o t e , 95
M i n t o n , S he rma n , 1 7 2 , 1 8 7 , 1 94 - 1 95 ,
2 0 3 - 2 0 4
M o l o t o f f , Vi a c he sl a v , q u o t e d , 1 t g
" M o n o p o l i st i c c a p i t a l i sm, " 1 3
M o n o p o l y , " a n d N e w D e a l , 9- 1 5 ,
3 0 - 3 4 , 7 1 - 7 3 , 2 2 8
M o n t e re y , M e x i c o , f o o t n o t e , 1 6 5
M o o n M u l l i n s, 2 1 5
M o o n y - B i l l i n g s Co mmi t t e e , 6 7
M o o n e y c a se , a n d F ra n k f u rt e r, P ro f
.
F e l i x , 1 0 2
M o ra l s, o f N e w D e a l , a n d W a r, 6 ;
g e n e ra l l y , 5 o ; d i sc u sse d , 1 8 4 - 1 4 8
M o re a b u n d a n t l i f e , 2
6 - 2 7 , 5 7 . 1 92
M o rg a n , D r . A rt hu r E
. ,
4 1 95 ,
1 1 1
M o rg a n , J . P . , 1 7 9, 2 1 4
M o rg e n t ha u , H e n ry , J r . , 95 , 1 3 5 , 1 5 8 ,
2 0 6 , 2 3 3
M O
rg e n t ha u , H e n ry , S r . , q u o t e d , 2 5 ;
re f e rre d t o , 7 4
M o ro n e s, 1 6 6 - 1 6 7
M o rri s, R o b e rt , 1 o 8
M o sc o w, se a t o f B o l she v i k g o v e rn -
me n t , 1 0 6 ; re f e rre d t o , 1 1 g ; a n d
G o v e rn o r M u rp hy , 1 8 1
M o se8
l e y , G e n e ra l G e o rg e Va n H o rn ,
M o se s, 1 2 0
M o se wi t z k y , M o se , f o o t n o t e , 94
M o t he r M e a n s, q u o t e d , 1 4 2
M u n d e l e i n , G e o rg e W i l l i a m, Ca rd i -
n a l , 1 0 6 , 1 8 8
M u n i c h a c c o rd , 1 8 7 , 1 8 0
M u n i t i o n s, a n d N e w D e a l , 4 7 , 1 5 1 -
1 5 2
M u rp hy , F ra n k , 8 8 , 1 4 2 , i 8 o , 1 8 1 ,
2 0 6 , 2 3 9
M u si c a , P hi l i p (a l i a s F
. D o n a l d Co s-
t e r) , 8 7 , 2 4 1
M u sso l i n i , B e n i t o , 2 , 5 , 2 2 , 7 1 , 92 ,
95 , 97 , 1 2 6
; a n d F a sc i sm, 1 4 6 - 1 4 7 ;
1 5 1 , 1 5 5 , 1 6 1 , 2 0 6
M y e rs. A . H . , 96
M y e rs, G u st a v u s, 7 9
N A , 1 2 9
N a p o l e o n , re f e rre d t o b y Lo rd M a -
c a u l a y , 4 7
; 1 5 5
; d i sc u sse d , 1 6 i - 1 6 2
N a t i o n , T he ,
4
; q u o t e d , l o
; f o o t n o t e ,
95
; i 8 o , 2 1 3 - 2 1 4
; q u o t e d , 2 4 3
N a t i o n a l B i t u mi n o u s Co a l Co mmi s-
si o n , T he , 8 1 - 5 3 , 2 0 6
N a t i o n a l H o u si n g Co n f e re n c e , 97
N a t i o n a l La b o r R e l a t i o n s B o a rd , 8 ,
8 5 , 96 , 1 2 9, 2 0 6
N a t i o n a l M e d i a t i o n B o a rd , g 6
N a z i s, 1 0 7 , 1 1 9, 1 2 0 , 1 8 0
N EC, 1 2 9
N e g ro e s, 3 ; a n d N e w D e a l ho u si n g ,
1 2 - 1 3 ; b a l a n c e o f p o we r,
1 9 ;
p o p u -
l a t i o n , 2 5 - 2 6 ; 2 8 , 4 5
. 4 7
; a n d Co m-
mu n i sm, h o ; 1 8 9, 1 4 4 , 1 7 7
N e rl o v e , S a mu e l H . , f o o t n o t e , 7 4
N e ro , 1 8 6 - 1 8 7
N e w A l b a n y , In d i a n a , 8 2 - 8 3
N e w D e a l , a n d S o c i a l P ro g re ss, 1 - 1 7 ;
a n d b a c k g ro u n d , 1 8 -
3 4 , 3 5 -4 4 ;
f o re c a st b y Lo rd M a c a u l a y , 4 6 - 5 3
;
a n d l a b o r ra c k e t , 5 4 - 6 3 ; a n d " u n i -
v e rsa l " e d u c a t i o n , 6 4 - 7 9 ; a n d c ha o s
i n b u si n e ss a n d i n d u st ry , 8 o - g 2 ;
a n d t he J e w, 93 - 1 2 4 ; a n d t he
" J o n e s"
f a mi l y , 1 2 5 - 1 3 3 ; a n d mo r-
a l s o f p e ri o d , 1 3 4 - 1 4 8 ; a n d M rs .
R o o se v e l t , 1 4 9- 1 5 8 ; a n d d i c t a t o r-
shi p , 1 5 9- 1 6 2 ; a n d M e x i c a n c o rri -
d o r, 1 6 3 - 1 7 0
; a n d p re se n t p ha se s,
1 7 1 - 1 8 4 ; a n d i t s f u t u re , 1 8 6 - 2 0 1 ;
a n d hi n t s a t l i q u i d a t i o n , 2 0 2 - 2 1 5 ;
a n d f i n a l l i q u i d a t i o n , 2 1 6 - 2 2 6 ; a n d
i t s e p i l o g u e , 2 2 7 - 2 3 5 ; a n d i t s p a m-
p hl e t e e rs, 2 3 6 - 2 4 1 , 2 4 2 - 2 4 6 ; a n d
R o o se v e l t , t he F i rst , 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 ; a n d
ho u si n g , 1 2 ; a n d t he Co u rt s, 1 3 6 -
1 3 7
; a n d t a x l a ws, 1 3 8 , 1 4 1 - 1 4 2
;
a n d U ri a h H e e p , 1 4 4 ; a n d c a sh f o r
e l e c t i o n s, 1 7 5 - 1 7 6
; a n d me rc ha n t
ma ri n e , 1 7 6
; c a re e r a n a l o g o u s t o
t ha t o f R i c ha rd W hi t n e y , 1 92 - 1 95
;
c o mp a re d t o S q u a re D e a l , 2 0 7 - 2 0 8
" N e w Li f e ; ' p ro mi se d b y Le n i n , 1 3
2
5
6
" N e w Li f e " a n d " mo re a b u n d a n t
l i f e " c o mp a re d , 1 5 , 1 92 , 2 2 8
N e w M a sse s, T he , 4
N e w R e p u b l i c , T he , 4 , 4 9, 7 0 , 1 8 0 ,
2 1 3 - 2 1 4 , 2 4 2
N e w Yo rk S t o c k Ex c ha n g e , 1 2 7
N e w Yo rk T i me s, T he ,
2 , 1 0 , 1 5 - 1 6 ,
2 0 ; q u o t e d , 7 4 ; 1 94 , 1 3 2 , 1 6 8 , 1 92
N e w Yo rk U n i v e rsi t y , 97
N e wma n , R a b b i Lo u i s i
. , q u o t e d , 98
N i c ho l a s u , a b d i c a t i o n a s Cz a r, f o o t -
n o t e , 1 o 2 ; i o 3
N i e t z sc he , F re d e ri c k W . , a n d S u p e r-
ma n , 6 1 ; q u o t e d , g g ; q u o t e d a n d
d i sc u sse d , l o o
; i so ; q u o t e d , so t
N o c k , A l b e rt J a y , f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
N o rri s, G e o rg e W . , 2 1 2 , 2 3 4
N o rt h Ca ro l i n a , U n i v e rsi t y o f , i
N o rt hwe st e rn U n i v e rsi t y , 97
N R A , 1 2 , 8 0 , 8 6 , 96 , 1 2 9
N R B ,
7 4
N R C, 1 2 9
N YA , 1 2 9
O' B ri a n , J o hn Lo rd , f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2
Oc hs, A d o l p h S . , 1 1 3
O' Co n n o r, J o hn J . , i g g
Od i u m, F l o y d B
. , i o 3 , 1 8 2
Og b u rn , W i l l i a m F . , 7 4
" Ol d K e n t u c k y , " 8 3
" On wa rd Chri st i a n S o l d i e rs, " i
Op i n i o n , " a j o u rn a l o f J e wi sh Li f e
a n d Le t t e rs, " q u o t e d , 99
Ore g o n , U n i v e rsi t y o f , 97
Oro z c o , 1 6 6
Ox f o rd M o v e me n t , a n d Ot o mi In -
d i a n , 1 3 6
Oy st e r B a y , i
P a l e st i n e , J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n , 1 2 1
P a rse e s, c o mp a re d wi t h J e ws,
. G re e k s
a n d A rme n i a n s, 1 1 2
; wa n t o f f ri c -
t i o n i n B o mb a y , 1 2 2 ; a l so , se e f o o t -
n o t e , 1 2 2
P a ssa ma q u o d d y , 6 i , 1 1 4 , 1 3 9, 2 4 1
P a t t e rso n , El e a n o r, 2 0 3
P CCA , 1 2 9
P e n d e rg a st , T o m, 2 4 0
P e n n sy l v a n i a , a n d B o ss G u f f e y , 8 2
P e n ro se , B o i e s, 4 1
-
4 2 , 1 7 9
P e ri c l e s, 1 7 5 , 1 91
P e rk i n s, G e o rg e W . , 2 4 8
P e rk i n s, M a d a me , 2 2 , 5 9, 96 , 2 0 6
P e rl ma n , J a c o b , 96
P e t ro g ra d , J e wi sh b a n k e rs i n , i o 4
P e t ro l e u m La b o r P o l i c y B o a rd , 97
P ha e d ru s, q u o t e d , 7
P i n c ho t , A mo s, a n d " re o rg a n i z a t i o n "
o f g o v e rn me n t , 1 7 3
- 1 7 4
" P l a n n e d e c o n o my , "
1 2
P l a t f o rms, o f p o l i t i c a l
p a rt i e s, d e -
sc ri b e d , 4 0
P l a t o , re f e rre d t o , 7 0
P l u t a rc h, q u o t e d , 1 7 5 ,
1 91 , 2 2 5 - 2 2 6
P o l a k o v , W a l t e r, g 6 , 2 4 4
P o l a n d , J e wi sh i n f l u e n c e s o n , f o o t -
n o t e , 1 2 1
P o l i t i c a l b o sse s, 4 8
-4 9
P o l i t i c i a n s, d e sc ri b e d , 3 9 -
4 5
P o l l o c k , Cha n n i n g , f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
; d i s-
c u sse d , 1 1 6
P o mp e y , 1 7 5
P o n t i u s P i l a t e , 97
P o p e , A l e x a n d e r, q u o t e d , 1 4 8
P o p u l i st s, 2 7 , 8 7
P o st Of f i c e D e p a rt me n t , a n d d e f i c i t s,
4 4 - 4 5
; a n d ru ra l f re e ma i l d e l i v e ry ,
P o t a sh, Irv i n g , 94
P o t o f sk y , J . S
. , f o o t n o t e , 95
P o wy s, J o hn Co wp e r, q u o t e d , 1 3 4
;
2 0 5
P re ssma n , Le e , f o o t n o t e , 94
P ri n c e t o n U n i v e rsi t y , a n d Co mmu -
n i sm, 7 1 , g 6 , 1 8 4 , 2 4 6
P ro hi b i t i o n , 4 8 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 4 , 1 5 5 , 1 5 6 ,
1 7 3 , 1 92
P ro p o rt i o n a l re p re se n t a t i o n , 6 2
P t o l e my , 1 7 5
P u mp p ri mi n g , a n d N e w D e a l , 2 5 ,
1 7 5 , 1 98
P W A ,
95 . 1 7 5 , 2 3 8 - 2 3 9
R A , f o o t n o t e , 94 , 1 2 9
R a b e l a i s, q u o t e d , 1 3 9
R a c i a l p re j u d i c e , d i sc u sse d , 1 0 5 , 1 2 3 -
1 2 4
R a c i a l v i g o r, o f J e ws, l o g
R a d e k , K a rl , f o o t n o t e , 1 o 2
; p a m-
p hl e t e e r o f B o l she v i sm, l o b
R a d i n , P a u l , q u o t e d , 2 3 3
- 2 3 4
R a d i o , a n d p ro p a g a n d a , 4 4
R a i l ro a d s, a n d " mo n o p o l y " i n v e st i -
g a t i o n , i o ;
g o v e rn me n t - d i c t a t e d
c o n so l i d a t i o n , 5 7 ; p l i g ht f ro m re g -
u l a t i o n , 8 7 - 8 8
R a k o v sk y , f o o t n o t e , 1 0 2
R EA ,
97 ,
1 2 9
" R e c o n st ru c t i o n o f S o c i e t y , " 1 4 - 1 5
" R e d b a i t e r, " a n d " J e w b a i t e r, " 1 2 3 ,
1 4 8
R e d f i e l d , R o b e rt , q u o t e d , 1 9
R e e d Co l l e g e , 97
R e e d , J o hn , t o g
R e g i me n t a t i o n , a n d N e w D e a l , 3 0 ;
a n d me n d i c a n c y , 7 4 ; a n d c o a l b u si -
n e ss, 8 1 - 8 3 ; a n d l a b o r, 8 4 ; a n d
f a rme rs, 8 4 ; a n d u n e mp l o y e d , 8 5 ;
a n d ra i l ro a d s, 8 5 ; a n d i n d u st ry , 8 5 ;
a n d
F CC, 8 5 - 8 6 ; a n d i n v e st me n t
R e g i me n t a t i o n
(Co n t i n u e d )
b a n k e rs, 8 6 - 8 7
; i n R o me , B e rl i n
a n d W a shi n g t o n , 8 4
R e ho b o a m, a n d N e w D e a l , 1 1 5
R e i g n o f T e rro r, 5 , 7 , . 2 2 - 2 3 , i o 8
R e l i g i o u s p re j u d i c e , d i sc u sse d , i o 5 ,
1 2 3 - 1 2 4
R e n sse l a e r P o l y t e c hn i c In st i t u t e , 7 6 -
7 7
" R e o rg a n i z a t i o n , " a n d U . S
. Co n st i -
t u t i o n , ' 6 ; a n d l a wy e rs, 3 7
; a n d
Co n g re ss, 1 3 0
R e p u b l i c a n s, a n d so u t he rn a p p o r-
t i o n me n t , 2 6
R e v o l u t i o n , a n d J e ws, 1 0 6 - 1 2 4
; re -
si st e d b y so me , 1 0 8 ; d i sc u sse d b y
F o rt u n e , 1 1 2 - 1 1 3
R F C, 1 2 9
R F CM C, 1 2 9
R i c hmo n d , Vi rg i n i a , 4 9
R i v e ra , D i e g o , 1 6 3 - 1 6 4 , 1 6 6
R o b b e r B a ro n s, T he , 7 9, 1 4 8
R o b e rt s, K e n n e t h, f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
R o b e sp i e rre , 4 , 7 , 1 8 , 2 2 , 1 3 9, 1 5 2 ,
1 5 6 - 1 5 7 , 1 6 7 ; a n d hi s " N e w D e a l , "
1 7 7
; 2 4 4
R o b i n s, R a y mo n d , q u o t e d , 1 0 2 , 2 0 5
R o c a , B l a s (F ra n c i sc o Ca l d e ri o ) ,
1 6
R o c k e f e l l e r, J o hn D . , 6 3 , 7 6
R o ma n Emp i re , 4 7
. 5 4 , 99
R o o se v e l t , El e a n o r, " D i a ry , " 3 6
- 3 7 ;
re f e rre d t o , 4 1 , 4 3 , 8 8
; i n i n su ra n c e
b u si n e ss, 1 2 6 ; a d d s t he f e mi n i n e
t o u c h, 1 4 9- 1 5 8 , 1 6 7 , 1 6 9, 1 8 7 , 2 0 7
R o o se v e l t , El l i o t t , 4 1 , 1 6 9, 2 o 7
R o o se v e l t , F ra n k l i n D
. , a d d re ss o f
S e p t .
1 7 ,
1 93 7 , 2 - 8 , 2 o 7
; a n d Co n -
st i t u t i o n , 2 - 8
; a n d wa r, 6 ; a n d
l a wy e rs, 4 ; a n d T v A ,
4 ; a n d " D e -
mo c ra c y , ' 4 ; a n d " re o rg a n i z a t i o n "
o f F e d e ra l G o v e rn me n t , 6 ; c o m-
p a re d t o F re n c h a d v e n t u re rs o f
1 7 8 9, 2 5
; a s n e w M e ssi a h o f ma sse s,
2 7 ; S o c i a l i st i c swe e p o f a d mi n i st ra -
t i o n ; a n d re g i me n t a t i o n , 3 o ; a n d
R o o se v e l t 1 , 3 3
; p o p u l a ri t y wi t h
ma sse s, 4 1 ; d y n a st i c a mb i t i o n s, 4 3
;
a n d " c o n t u ma c y , " 3 4 ; hi g h c o st o f ,
4 7
; a n d J o hn L. Le wi s, 5 8 - 6 2 ;
" q u a ra n t i n e " sp e e c h, 5 6
; a n d Ci c -
e ro ,
6 2 ;
a s " b e l i e v e r i n c a p i t a l i st
sy st e m, " 2 , i o i - i o 2 ; c o mp a re d t o
S o l o mo n , 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 ; f o n d n e ss f o r
" J o n e s f a mi l y , " 1 2 5 - 1 3 3 ; e t hi c s a n d
mo ra l s, 1 8 4 - 1 4 8 ;
c o mp a re d t o
R o o se v e l t i , 2 o 8 ; d i sc u sse d , 2 3 1
; a r-
t i d e s o f p ro p o se d i mp e a c hme n t ,
2 2 2 - 2 2 5
R o o se v e l t , J a me s, a s " S o n J i mmi e , "
1 2 , 2 2 ; a n d n e p o t i sm, 3 8 ; 4 1 , 4 3
;
sa l a ry a s me mb e r o f S e c re t a ri a t , 4 7 ;
2 5
7
R o o se v e l t , J a me s (Co n t i n u e d )
8 8 ; a n d H o l l y wo o d , 1 1 1 ; 1 2 6 , 1 2 7 ,
1 3 o ; a n d i n su ra n c e , 1 8 2 , 1 8 7 , 2 0 7
R o o se v e l t , J o hn , 4 1 , 2 0 7
R o o se v e l t , j u n i o r, 4 1 , 2 0 7
R o o se v e l t , N i c ho l a s, q u o t e d , f o o t -
n o t e , 2 0 7
R o o se v e l t , T he o d o re , 1 ; a n d F ra n k l i n
D . , 3 3 ; 1 90 4 v i c t o ry , 4 8
; q u o t e d ,
1 o 2 ; a n d " t hi rd c u p o f c o f f e e , " 1 4 3 ;
2 0 7 ; c o mp a re d t o F ra n k l i n D . , 2 o 8 ;
c a re e r d i sc u sse d , 2 4 7 - 2 4 8
R o se , A l e x , f o o t n o t e , 95
R o se n g o l t z , A . , 1 1 8
R o u sse a u , 99- t o o
R u b l e , Ot t o , q u o t e d , 98 , 1 0 1 , 1 0 7 - l o b
R u ssi a , a n d u n ha p p i n e ss o f ma sse s,
1 5 ; p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e wi t h U . S . A . ,
1 o 8
; o f f i c i a l p o si t i o n s he l d b y J e ws,
1 1 7 - 1 1 8
; p o e t i c a l mu si n g o f W a l d o
F ra n k , 1 8 3 - 1 8 5 ; Le n i n c ha rt s t he
wa y , 1 g o - 1 91 ; f a n t a st i c o p i n i o n s o f
G e o rg e S o u l e , 2 4 3
- 2 4 4
R u ssi a n R e v o l u t i o n , 1 0 3 - 1 1 0
S a a l k i n d , 1 o 6
S a c c o - Va n z e t t i N a t i o n a l Le a g u e , 6 7
S a g e , R u sse l l , 6 3
S a i n t - Et i e n n e , R a b a u d , q u o t e d , 2 1 -
2 2 , 1 5 2 , 1 5 6 - 1 5 7
S a i n t - S i mo n , q u o t e d , 1 1 - 1 2
S a l o mo n , H a y m, 1 o 8
S a n t a Cl a u s, 1 3 5
S a p o ss, D a v i d J . , 96
S a su l y , M a x , 96
S a t a n , 1 3 5
S a t u rd a y Ev e n i n g P o st , T he , f o o t -
n o t e , 7 2
S c he e r, M a rc e l , f o o t n o t e , 94
S c hi f f , J a c o b H
. , 1 0 3
S c hn e i d e rma n , R o se , f o o t n o t e , 95
S c hu l t z , H e n ry , f o o t n o t e , 7 4
S c hwa b , Cha rl e s M . , 2 1 4
S c hwi mme r, R o si k a , t o g
S e a g l e , W i l l i a m, 97
S e c u ri t i e s a n d Ex c ha n g e Co mmi ssi o n ,
8 6 - 8 7 ; a u t ho rshi p , 95 ; 1 2 6 , 1 2 9 ;
f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 - 1 8 3
S e l t z e r, L. H . , g 6
S e ma n t i c s, 1 7 6
S e mi t e s, l o g , 1 2 3 , 1 2 4
S e n a t o rs, U . S . , p o p u l a r e l e c t i o n , 4 8 ,
6 2
S e v e n P i l l a rs o f W i sd o m, q u o t e d ,
1 2 3 - 1 2 4
S ha k e sp e a re , W i l l i a m, q u o t e d , 1 8 9,
1 4 1 , 1 5 3
S i b e ri a , 1 0 7
S i mp so n , " S o c k l e ss J e rry , " 2 7 , 8 7
S i ms, Ern e st M . , b ro c hu re d i sc u sse d ,
f o o t n o t e , 2 9
2 5 8
S i n c l a i r, U p t o n , 1 95 - 1 96
S i q u e rro s, 1 6 6
S i sso n d o c u me n t s, 1 0 3
" S i st i e " a n d " B u st i e , " 4 1 , 2 0 7
S i t - D o wn - S t ri k e s, 5 4 , 7 1
; a n d J e wi sh
Co mmu n i st s, l o g ; 1 1 4 , 1 6 1 , 2 8 9,
2 4 6
S i x t y F a mi l i e s, re f e rre d t o , 3 1 , 7 9
,
1 4 8
S l o g a n s, i n p o l i t i c s, 4 8 , 2 3 1 - 2 3 2
S mi t h Co l l e g e , 7 6
S o c i a l Eq u a l i t y , a n d t he J e w, 1 1 8 -
1 2 0 , 1 8 3 - 1 8 5 , 2 3 3
, 2 3 5
S o c i a l j u st i c e , re f e rre d t o , f o o t n o t e ,
1 1 9
" S o c i a l P ro g re ss, " N e w D e a l M o d e l ,
1 - 1 7
" S o c i a l S e c u ri t y , " 3 6 , 8 5 ; A me ri c a n
A sso c i a t i o n f o r, 97 ; a s a ho a x , 1
3 5 ,
S o c i a l i sm, a n d S o c i a l i st s, 3 - 4 , 1 5 - 1 6 ,
3 0 - 3 4 , 6 1 , 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 , 1 92
; c l a ss st ru g -
g l e , 3 0 - 8 4 ; a n d c a t a st ro p he , 1 5
S o c i a l i sm, i d e n t i c a l wi t h " D e mo c -
ra c y , " Li b e ra l i sm, " Co mmu n i sm,
J u d a i sm, 2 - 3 , 1 6 , 1 0 1 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 ,
1 1 7 , 1 4 8 , 2 3 2
S o k o l n i k o v , 1 o 6
S o k o l sk y , G e o rg e , 1 98
S o l o mo n , a n d N e w D e a l , 1 1 4 - 1 1 5
S o u l e , G e o rg e , 2 4 2 - 2 4 6
S o u t h, c ha ra c t e r o f p o l i t i c s, 4 9
S o v i e t a rmy , l i q u i d a t i o n o f , 1 1 g
S p a i n , d e c l i n e o f a n d J e wi sh " R e n a i s-
sa n c e , " 1 1 1
S p e a rmi n t , 2 1 5
S p e n d i n g t o sa v e , 2 5 , 5 1 , 1 7 0 ,
1 7 4 ,
1 7 7 - 1 7 8 , 1 92 - 1 94 , 2 0 0
S p e n g l e r, Oswa l d , 1 4 , 1 5 ; q u o t e d , 1 8 ;
d i sc u sse d , 6 1 ; f o o t n o t e , 94 ; q u o t e d ,
98 - 99 ; o p i n i o n
d i sc u sse d , l o g ;
e f f e c t o f J e ws o n W e st e rn c i v i l i z a -
t i o n , 1 1 t ; q u o t e d , 1 2 2 , 1 5 0 , 1 5 2 , 1 7 8 -
1 7 9, 1 8 6 , 1 96 , 2 0 2 - 2 0 3
S p i n o z a , 1 2 0
sss, 1 2 9
S t . Lo u i s, 6 2 , 1 0 4
S t a l i n , J o se p h, 2 , 4 - 5 2 2 , 6 o , 7
1 , 95 ;
f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2 ; 1 1 6 - 1 1 8 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 6 ,
1 5 4 - 1 5 5
. 1 91 , 2 0 9,
2 3 9, 2 4 4
S t a n d a rd G a s a n d El e c t ri c Co mp a n y ,
1 8 2 - 1 8 3
S t a t e D e p a rt me n t , A me ri c a n , 1 0 3 - 1 0 4
S t a t e a n d R e v o l u t i o n , T he , b y N i k o -
l a i Le n i n , re v i e we d , 9- 1 5
S t a v i sk y , S e rg e , 8 7
S t e f f e n s, Li n c o l n , 2 0 5
S t e i n ha rd t , La u re n c e A . , 2 3 3
S t e v e n s, T ha d d e u s, 2 6
S t i l l H e l l B e n t , 1 1 6
S t i mso n , H e n ry L . , 1 5 7
S t o d d a rd , Lo t hro p , q u o t e d , f o o t n o t e ,
1 2 1
S t o k o wsk i , 2 0 5 - 2 0 6
S t ra c he y , J o hn , q u o t e d , 2 ; 1 6
S u f f ra g e , e n f ra n c hi se me n t o f wo me n ,
2 5 - 2 6
; a n d re l i e f c o n t i n g e n t , 2 8 ;
wo me n ' s, 4 8 ; u n i v e rsa l , 6 2
; c a u se
o f n a t i o n a l d i st re ss, f o o t n o t e , g o ;
o p e ra t e s t o d e st ro y t he st a t e , i g 1
S u p re me Co u rt , U n i t e d S t a t e s,
5 - 6 ;
a s
a ru b b e r st a mp , 8 ; 8 5
; a p p o i n t -
me n t o f F ra n k f u rt e r, P ro f
. F e l i x ,
1 0 2
; 1 3 1 ; c o n t ro l o f , 1 3 6 , i 6 o - i 6 2 ,
1 8 7 , 2 4 0
S v e rd l o f f , i o 6
s . w. o . c . ,
f o o t n o t e , 94
S wi f t , H a ro l d , 2 0 5
T a c i t u s, q u o t e d , 98 - 1 o o
T a f t , Lo ra d o , 2 0 5
T a f t , W i l l i a m H
. , 1 g o 8 v i c t o ry , 4 8 ;
T a l mu d ,
2 1 5
a c k g ro u n d f o r M a rx i sm,
1 1 2 - 1 1 3
T a mma n y , 1 5 5 , 1 8 9, 2 4 0
T e c hn o l o g y , a n d Ca p i t a l i sm, 3 2 - 8 4
T e p o z t l a n , 1 6 6
T e p o z t l a n , a M e x i c a n Vi l l a g e ,
q u o t e d , 1 9
T e x t b o o k s, c ha n g e s o f , 7 8
T ha w, H a rry , 6 3
T hi s
T ro u b l e d W o rl d , a n d M rs .
R o o se v e l t , 1 4 9 e t se q
.
T ho ma s, N o rma n , 2 4 6
T ho mp so n , D o ro t hy , q u o t e d , 5 2 ; a n d
Co u g hl i n , Cha rl e s E
. , 8 5 - 8 6 ; 1 0 5 ,
1 98 , 2 3 9
T hu c y d i d e s, 1 7 5
T i b e ri u s, Emp e ro r, re f e rre d t o , i g
T i f f a n y , R a y mo n d , q u o t e d , 1 92
T i t u s, d e st ro y e r o f J e ru sa l e m, 1 2 1
T o l e d a n o , 1 6 6
T o l st o y , Co u n t Le o , q u o t e d , 4 8 , 1 8 6
T ra d e u n i o n s, a n d F re n c h R e v o l u -
t i o n , 2 3
" T ra n si t i o n " a n d Co mmu n i sm, 1 3 ,
1 6 , 2 2 8 , 2 4 3 , 2 4 5
T re a t i se o n t he G o d s, 1 2 1
T ro t sk y , Le o n , 1 6 ; sk e t c h o f (f o o t -
n o t e ) a n d d i sc u sse d , 1 0 2 - 1 0 4
T u c k e r, R a y , 1 98
T u g we l l , R e x f o rd G
. , q u o t e d , 1 6 ; re -
f e rre d t o , 2 2 ; 3 6 , 4 9, 1 6 7 , 2 1 4
T VA , 3 - 4 , 1 2 , 3 6 , 6 1 , 95 , 1 1 1 ,
1 2 9, 1 3 9 ;
d i sc u sse d , 1 4 3 ; 1 7 8
; f o o t n o t e , 1 8 2 ;
2 0 0 , 2 1 2 - 2 1 3 ,
2 2 9
U l i z n o w, Vl a d i mi r Il y i t c h (N i k o l a i
Le n i n ) , 1 3
U n i t e d M i n e W o rk e rs, 6 o
U n i t e d P re ss, f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
2 5 9
U n i t e d S t a t e s, p ro p o se d a l l i a n c e wi t h
R u ssi a , 1 0 8
; J e wi sh p o p u l a t i o n , 1 2 2
U n i v e rsa l Ed u c a t i o n , 2 9, 6 2 , 6 4 - 7 9
;
a n d c i t i z e n shi p , 6 4 , 6 g
; a n d M a rx -
i sm i n sc ho o l s, 7 0 - 7 1 ; a n d p e d a -
g o g u e s i n N e w D e a l , 7 3
- 7 4 , 1 95 ;
f o o t n o t e , g o ; 2 2 0
U ri t z k y , l o b
U S IS , 1 2 9
U S M C,
1 2 9
Va n N u y s, F re d e ri c k , 1 7 1 - 1 7 2
Vi n e r, J a c o b , 7 4
Vo c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , 6 1 - 6 2
Vo l o d a rsk y , l o b
W a g e s a n d ho u rs,
5 4 - 5 5 ;
p o l i c y o f
S a mu e l G o mp e rs, 5 9- 6 1 ; 2 3 0
W a g n e r A c t , a n d H u t c hi n s, R o b e rt
M
. , 7 5
W a l k e r, D e Lo ss, 8 4
W a l l a c e , H e n ry A
. , 8 4 , 95 , 2 0 5
W a r, a n d F ra n k l i n D . R o o se v e l t , 6 ,
4 3 , 5 6 , 1 3 7 ,
1 6 8 - 1 6 9, 1
99, 2 3 1
W a rb u rg , J a me s P . , a n d N e w D e a l ,
1 1 1 ,
1 1 6 , 2 3 4
W a t so n , J a me s E . , q u o t e d , 1 4 5
; c a n -
d i d a t e , 1 7 1 , 1 7 2
W e i n e r, N o rb e t , 2 0 0
W e i n st o n e , W i l l i a m, i n st i g a t o r o f
si t - d o wn st ri k e s, l o g
W e st e rn Cu l t u re , 1 8 , 3 3 ; a n d J e wi sh
Cu l t u re , l o g - i l o ; e n d o f , 2 4 8
W hi t n e y , R i c ha rd , 2 0 , 8 7 , , 1 4 1 , 1 7 5
;
c a re e r c o mp a re d t o N e w D e a l , 1 92 -
1 95
W i l l i a ms Co l l e g e , a n d Co mmu n i sm,
1 8 4
W i l l k i e , W e n d e l l , 1 8 1 - 1 8 2
W i l so n , W o o d ro w, f i rst " In t e rn a t i o n -
a l i st , " 4 2
; Ig 1 2 v i c t o ry , 4 8 ; 1 5 1 , 1 97
W i n c he l l , W a l t e r, 1 2 - 1 4 ; f e rv o r f o r
" D e mo c ra c y " a n d re f u g e e s, 1 1 1 -
1 1 2
; f o o t n o t e , 1 1 2
W i n d f a l l , In d i a n a , 1 4
W i rt , W i l l i a m A . , 2 3 0
W i rt h, Lo u i s, f o o t n o t e , 7 4
W i se , R a b b i S t e p he n S . , 1 0 4
W o l f , B e n e d i c t , 96
W o l f e , B e rt ra m, q u o t e d , 1 6 7
W o me n ' s R e b e l l i o n , f o o t n o t e , 2 8
W o rk e rs' A l l i a n c e , 98 , 1 3 2 , 2 2 6
W o rl d W a r, f o o t n o t e , 8 0 - 92 ; i n f l u -
e n c e o f M a rx i sm si n c e ,
1 0 0 - j o t ;
e ma n c i p a t i o n o f J e ws, 1 o 7 ; 1 1 3
W o rt i s, R . D
. , f o o t n o t e , 95
W P A , 4 ; f o o t n o t e , 2 8
; 8 3 ; f o o t n o t e ,
94
; a n d Co mmu n i sm, i t o ; 1 2 g , 1 3 2 ,
1 3 9, 1 7 4 , 1 8 7 , 2 0 0 , 2 2 8 , 2 3 8
- 2 3 9
W u l f so n , T he re sa , f o o t n o t e , 95
W y z a n sk i , Cha rl e s E . , g 6
Ya g o d a , H e i n ri c h, 1 1 8

Z a n e , J o hn M . , q u o t e d , 1 6 6
Ya l e U n i v e rsi t y , a n d Co mmu n i sm, " Z e k e , " q u o t e d , 2 3 7-
2 3
8
7 1 , 1 8 4

Z i n o v i e f f , f o o t n o t e , i o x
Ya rmo l i n sk y , A v ra hm, q u o t e d , 1 1 3

Z i o n i sm, i i i
Ya ro sl a v sk y , Emi l i a n , a l i a s G o b e l - Z i o n i st s, i o 7 , i x t
ma n , 1 1 8
2 6 0