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~
OFSALAZAR
women
; weh a v enot a c c or d ed t oea c h f a mi l y i n
s a l a r i es t h ev a l u eof t h ei nd u s t r y of a g ood h ou s ewi f e,
of t h e s oc i a l u s ef u l nes s of t h emot h er of a f a mi l y
.
" W ed et a c h ed t h ewor k er f r omt h ena t u r a l s u r -
r ou nd i ng s of h i s p r of es s i on :
f r eef r omt h eb ond s of
a s s oc i a t i on, h er ema i ned a l one
; wi t h ou t t h ed i s c i p l i ne
of t h ea s s oc i a t i on, h eb ec a mef r ee, b u t d ef enc el es s
.
N ex t wea l l owed h i mt oa l l y h i ms el f wi t h ot h er s a nd
h ed i d s o, b y r ea c t i on, not i nor d er t oa c h i ev eu ni t y ,
not wi t h t h ea i mof h el p i ng t oc o- or d i na t ea l l t h e
v a r i ou s f a c t or s i nt h ewor k of t h ep r od u c t i onof
wea l t h , b u t i n
op p os i t i on t os omeoneor s omet h i ng -
i nop p os i t i ont ot h eSt a t e, wh i c h i s t h eg u a r d i a nof
or d er , i nop p os i t i ont oh i s emp l oy er s , wh omh e
r eg a r d ed a s a h os t i l ec l a s s , ev eni nop p os i t i ont oot h er
wor k er s . . . . N oob j ec t s of i nt el l ec t u a l or mor a l a d -
v a nc ement , or of t h ei mp r ov ement of p r of es s i ona l
t ec h ni q u e, or of i ns u r a nc eor p r ov i d ent wor k
; nos p i r i t
of c o- op er a t i on- not h i ng b u t h a t e, d es t r u c t i v eh a t e
.
" W ef or c ed t h eSt a t e, a t f i r s t , i nt oa na b s ol u t ep a s -
s i v i t y , u nc onc er ned , wh et h er wi l l i ng l y or not , i nt h e
or g a ni s a t i onof t h ena t i ona l ec onomy
; a nd t h eni nt o
a na l l - a b s or b i ng i nt er v ent i on, wh i c h r eg u l a t ed t h e
p r od u c t i on, t h ec ons u mp t i on, a nd t h ed i s t r i b u t i onof
wea l t h . . .
. T h os ewh o, b l i nd l y d r i v enb y t h el og i c
of t h ei r f a l s ep r i nc i p l es , h a v ec a r r i ed t h i s t oi t s c on-
c l u s i on, h a v emou nt ed t h ema c h i newi t h a g r ea t s h ow
of s y s t em, wi t h t h ea p p a r ent i nf a l l i b i l i t y of s c i enc e
a nd a d v a nc ed t ec h ni q u e ; b u t t h ef r eewor k er , t h e
MAN ,
h a s d i s a p p ea r ed , c a u g h t u p i nt h ec ol os s a l
mec h a ni s mt h a t i s wi t h ou t mer c y a nd wi t h ou t mi nd
.
W eh a v es eent h ewor k er s mob i l i s ed l i k ema c h i nes ,
s h i f t ed l i k ec a t t l ewh ent h ep a s t u r ef a i l s
. "
8 z

F
T HEPORT UGAL
T h a t i s a ni nd i c t ment b y Sa l a z a r of t h eLi b er a l
i nh er i t a nc e
. Soc i et y wa s d i s i nt eg r a t ed b y Li b er a l -
i s m; Sa l a z a r s eek s a s ol u t i onb y s y nt h es i s , b y r ec on-
s t r u c t i on, i ns t ea d of b y r eg i ment a t i on
. Hes eek s t o
r es t or et os oc i et y t h eg r ou p i ng s wh i c h
a r e na t u r a l t o
ma n
. Ama nl i v es f i r s t i nh i s f a mi l y , s ec ond l y i nh i s
t r a d e
. T h ef a mi l y i s t ob ep r ot ec t ed a nd p r es er v ed
.
And menwh owor k i nd i f f er ent wa y s wi l l f or md i f f er -
ent p r of es s i ona l a s s oc i a t i ons , not s omu c h f or d ef enc e
of t h ei r p r of es s i ona l i nt er es t s a s t oma k ep os s i b l et h ei r
c ol l a b or a t i oni nt h el i f eof t h ec ommu ni t y
; a nd not
mor ef or t h a t t h a nf or s u c h p u r p os es a s t h ed ev el op -
ment of p r of es s i ona l t ec h ni q u e, t h ep u r s u a nc eof - c om-
moni d ea l s , t h ep r ot ec t i onof t h ei r f el l ows i nt i mes of
a d v er s i t y a nd mi s f or t u ne
. Emp l oy er s wi l l h a v et h ei r
a s s oc i a t i ons , a nd wor k er s t h ei r s
. W i d er or g a ni s a t i ons
wi l l c o- or d i na t ei nt oa C or p or a t i ona l l c onc er ned i na
g i v enb r a nc h of a c t i v i t y
; a nd t h ev a r i ou s C or p or a t i ons
wi l l b ec o- or d i na t ed i na C or p or a t i v eC h a mb er , i n
wh i c h a l s ona t i ona l p r ob l ems a nd p u b l i c a f f a i r s wi l l
b ed i s c u s s ed b y t h os ewi t h p a r t i c u l a r k nowl ed g eof
t h em
.
" I t i s
na t u r a l t h a t j u s t a s t h os ewh od wel l i nc l os e
p r ox i mi t y c ons t i t u t et owns h i p s , s ot h os ewh op r a c t i s e
t h es a met r a d eor p r of es s i on, i n
t h eec onomi c f i el d or
a ny ot h er , f or mc or p or a t eg r ou p s
. " " I nt h es e c or
p or a t i ons t h ec ommoni nt er es t s of t h ewh ol ev oc a -
t i ona l g r ou p mu s t p r ed omi na t e
; a nd a mong t h es e
i nt er es t s t h emos t i mp or t a nt i s t op r omot ea s mu c h a s
p os s i b l et h ec ont r i b u t i on' of ea c h t r a d eor p r of es s i on
t ot h ec ommong ood . "
, ' T h es ewor d s mi g h t wel l b e
t h os eof Sa l a z a r , b u t t h ey a r enot .
T h eC or p or a t i ons r ep r es ent no mor e t h a n t h e
8 2 '
OFSALAZAR
d i f f er ent oc c u p a t i ons i nwh i c h mena r eeng a g ed ,
or g a ni s ed s ot h a t t h ey ma y a d eq u a t el y c ol l a b or a t e
wi t h h t h eSt a t ei np r omot i ng t h ena t i ona l wel l - b ei ng .
For t h eC or p or a t i ons a r et h ec omp onent p a r t s of t h e
na t i on, c ons i d er ed f u nc t i ona l l y
; a nd , s i nc et h ena t i on
i s a nent i t y , a nor g a ni c wh ol e, t h ei nt er es t s of i t s c om-
p onent p a r t s a r eu l t i ma t el y i d ent i c a l wi t h t h ena t i ona l
i nt er es t .
Ea c h C or p or a t i on, ea c h oc c u p a t i ona l g r ou p , i s r es -
p ons i b l ef or i t s ownc or p or a t el i f e, a s wer et h eMed i e-
v a l Gu i l d s . I t mu s t p r ot ec t a l l t h os eeng a g ed i nt h e
b r a nc h of a c t i v i t y wi t h wh i c h i t i s c onc er ned ; i t mu s t
s eet h a t t h ey a r ea d eq u a t el y r ewa r d ed f or t h ei r wor k ,
i t mu s t d ef end t h ei r r i g h t s , i t mu s t p r ov i d ef or t h em
i nt i mes of mi s f or t u ne.
I t i s , a s weh a v ea l r ea d y s a i d , mi s l ea d i ng t op r es s
t h ea na l og y wi t h t h emed i ev a l Gu i l d s y s t emt oof a r ,
b u t t h er ei s t h i s i nc ommon : t h a t s oc i et y i s r eg a r d ed
a s b ei ng d i v i d ed , a s i t wer e, v er t i c a l l y , a c c or d i ng t o
t r a d eor p r of es s i onor oc c u p a t i on, i ns t ea d of h or i z on-
t a l l y a c c or d i ng t os oc i a l s t a t u s or ( wh a t i s wor s e)
a c c or d i ng t oi nc ome . I t i s a nel ement a r y p r i nc i p l e
t h a t a l l i d ea of t h ec l a s s - wa r i s t ob er ep u d i a t ed .
" T h eh i er a r c h y of f u nc t i ons a nd . s oc i a l i nt er es t s i s a n
es s ent i a l c ond i t i onof t h ena t i ona l ec onomy ,
" ' 9
s a y s
t h eSt a t u t eof N a t i ona l La b ou r ; a nd i t s h ou l d b es een
a t onc et h a t t h a t i s not i nc ons i s t ent wi t h t h ev er t i c a l
d i v i s i onof s oc i et y . Sof a r a s t h ePor t u g u es eSt a t ei s
c onc er ned , t h er ea r enot u p p er , mi d d l e, a nd l ower
l a s s es ; b u t t h er ea r emenc onc er ned i nt h ec or k i n-
d u s t r y , menc onc er ned i nt h ewi nei nd u s t r y , a nd s o
on. . I nea c h i nd u s t r y "
t h eh i er a r c h y of f u nc t i ons "
mu s t r ema i n; t h er ewi l l b ea u t h or i t y a nd ob ed i enc e,
8 3
T HEPORT UGAL
b u t not a b s ol u t ea u t h or i t y a nd wa g e- s l a v er y . St r i k es
a nd l oc k - ou t s a nd a l l s u c h met h od s of c l a s s d ef enc e
a r es p ec i f i c a l l y d ec l a r ed i l l eg a l b ot h b y t h eC ons t i t u -
t i ona nd b y t h eSt a t u t eof N a t i ona l La b ou r . - T h er e
a r ea s s oc i a t i ons a l i k eof emp l oy er s a nd emp l oy ed ; b u t
t h ef i r s t p u r p os eof t h es e i s not t od ef end t h ei nt er es t s
of a c l a s s , b u t t oc ol l a b or a t ei nt h ei nt er es t s of t h e
c ommu ni t y . T h a t i s wh y i t i s mi s l ea d i ng t or ef er t o
t h ewor k er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons a s " T r a d eUni ons " , wi t h i t s
i mp l i c a t i onof mot i v es of d ef enc e ; t h ewor d " s y nd i -
c a t e" i s a l s omi s l ea d i ng , a s i t h a s d i f f er ent a s s oc i a t i ons
i nd i f f er ent p l a c es ; b u t t h ePor t u g u es eu s ei t , s owe
mu s t d ot h es a me.
T h ePor t u g u es ena t i ona l s y nd i c a t es , a c c or d i ng t o
Ar t i c l eI X of t h eD ec r ee- La wwh i c h g ov er ns t h em,
s h ou l d s u b or d i na t et h ei r owni nt er es t s t ot h ei nt er -
es t s of t h ena t i ona l ec onomy , i nc ol l a b or a t i onwi t h t h e
St a t ea nd wi t h t h eh i g h er or g a ns of p r od u c t i ona nd of
l a b ou r " . T h ek ey p r i nc i p l ei na l l c or p or a t i v et h eor y
i s t h ep r i nc i p l eof t h ec ommong ood .
T h ena t i ona l s y nd i c a t es g r ou p t og et h er t h eem-
p l oy ees a nd wa g e- ea r ner s i na g i v eni nd u s t r y ; a nd
t h ei r f or ma t i onh a s f r omt h es t a r t b eenl ef t f r eel y t o
t h ei ni t i a t i v eof t h os ec onc er ned , a l t h ou g h t h ey mu s t
s ec u r eGov er nment r ec og ni t i on, a nd , of c ou r s e, not
mor et h a nones y nd i c a t ewi l l b er ec og ni s ed f or ea c h
i nd u s t r y i nt h es a menei g h b ou r h ood . T h ei r s t a t u t es ,
t or ec ei v ea p p r ov a l a nd r ec og ni t i on, mu s t ex p r es s l y
r ep u d i a t et h ec l a s s s t r u g g l e, a nd d ec l a r er ea d i nes s t o
c o- op er a t ewi t h t h eot h er f a c t or s i nt h ena t i ona l
ec onomy . T h ey d onot v a r y mu c h : t h ei nt er es t s of
t h ewor k i ng - ma na r ev er y mu c h t h es a mei na l l p l a c es .
W h a t ev er h i s t r a d ea nd wh er ev er h el i v es , h er eq u i r es
8 4
OFSALAZAR
r ea s ona b l eh ou r s , r ea s ona b l ec ond i t i ons of wor k , a n
a d eq u a t ewa g e, g ood h ou s i ng , a nd
s o on. C ons e-
q u ent l y , t h et er ms of t h el a wg ov er ni ng t h es y nd i c a t es
a r emu c h mor ep r ec i s et h a ni s p os s i b l ef or t h os ec on-
c er ni ng t h eemp l oy er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons , wh i c h v a r y c on-
s i d er a b l y.
D ec r ee- La wN o
. 2 3 , 0 5 0 of Sep t emb er 2 3 , 1 9 3 3 , l a y s
d ownt h a t or d i na r i l y nos y nd i c a t ec ont a i ni ng f ewer
t h a na h u nd r ed memb er s wi l l b er ec og ni s ed ; t h a t not
mor et h a nones y nd i c a t ef or ea c h t r a d ema y b ef or med
i nea c h d i s t r i c t
; * t h a t t h ec a p i t a l t ownof t h ed i s t r i c t
wi l l nor ma l l y b ei t s h ea d q u a r t er s
; t h a t memb er s h i p
wi l l not b ec omp u l s or y , b u t t h a t j u r i d i c a l p er s ona l i t y
wi l l b eg r a nt ed t ot h es y nd i c a t es , wh i c h wi l l l eg a l l y
r ep r es ent a l l wor k er s i ni t s i nd u s t r y a nd d i s t r i c t ,
wh et h er memb er s or not . Ru l es g ov er ni ng t h ei r
or g a ni s a t i ona r ea l s og i v en
. Pa r t of t h ef u nc t i onof
t h es y nd i c a t es i s t oneg ot i a t ec ol l ec t i v el a b ou r c on-
t r a c t s wi t h t h eemp l oy er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons
; b u t t h ey a r e
a l s oes s ent i a l l y c onc er ned wi t h t h ewel f a r eof t h ei r
memb er s
. Ar t i c l eX I I i mp os es ont h emt h eob l i g a -
t i ont os et u p s y nd i c a l p r ov i d ent i a l s oc i et i es , t oor -
Fa ni s ea g enc i es f or f i nd i ng emp l oy ment f or wor k er s
i nt h et r a d ewi t h wh i c h t ey a r ec onc er ned , a nd t o
es t a b l i s h a nd ma i nt a i ns c h ool s f or p r of es s i ona l a nd
t ec h ni c a l i ns t r u c t i on
; a nd " s omes y nd i c a t es h a v e
b u i l t s c h ool s f or t h ei r memb er s ' c h i l d r en, s a na t or i a
a nd c r ec h es , p r ov i d ed med i c a l a i d a nd med i c i nes , a nd
ob t a i ned g ood a nd c h ea p h ou s es , ou t of t h os eb u i l t b y
t h eSt a t e, f or t h ei r memb er s
. Su b s i d i es i ns i c k nes s
a nd u nemp l oy ment h a v eb eenp r ov i d ed
. T ec h ni c a l

T h e " D i s t r i c t " - D i s t r i t o- i s
a Por t u g u es e a d mi ni s t r a t i v e
a r ea
c or r es p ond i ng ,
r ou g h l y , t ot h eEng l i s h c ou nt y .
8 5
T HEPORT UGAL
c l a s s es , l a ng u a g ec ou r s es , a nd g ener a l ed u c a t i ona l l ec -
t u r es h a v eb eeng i v en. . . . ma ny p u b l i c meet i ng s
h a v eb eenh el d , wh i c h h a v eena b l ed emp l oy er s a nd
wor k er s t omeet i na f r i end l y a t mos p h er e . " : 1 1
T h eemp l oy er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons a r ek nowna s
D ec r ee- t a w a nd a r ep r a c t i c a l l y a l l g ov er ned b y D ec r ee- La wN o .
2 3 , 0 4 9 ,
a l s oof Sep t emb er
2 3 . 1 9 3 3 .
Ac c or d i ng t ot h i s
l a w, t h e g r emi os a r et ob ec r ea t ed b y mi ni s t er i a l i ni -
t i a t i v ea nd wea r ec onf r ont ed wi t h wh a t a p p ea r s t ob e
a s p ec i es of c or p or a t i s med ' et a t . T h eg r ea t es t mer i t
of t h i s l a wi s i t s el a s t i c i t y ; nou ni f or mr eg u l a t i ons a r e
p r ov i d ed f or t h e g r emi os , b u t ea c h i s t ob ea d a p t ed t o
t h ep a r t i c u l a r c ond i t i ons of t h ei nd u s t r y wi t h wh i c h
i t i s c onc er ned . And j u s t a s i t i s es s ent i a l t h a t p a r t i -
c u l a r c i r c u ms t a nc es s h ou l d b ea l l owed t omod i f y a nd
t ov a r y t h ea p p l i c a t i onof a ni d ea l , s oi t mu s t b e
r ememb er ed t h a t i mmed i a t eb u t t emp or a r y nec es -
s i t i es mu s t f r eq u ent l y c omp el d ev i a t i onf r omwh a t i s
i nt h eor y b es t . T h ea p p a r ent c or or a t i s med ' et a t of
t h ef i r s t l a wd ea l i ng wi t h t h eemp l oy er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons
wa s p a r t l y a r es u l t of t h ec ond i t i ons p r ev a i l i ng i nt h e
a na r c h y of t h ey ea r s b ef or e 1 9 2 6 , b u t , ev enmor e, i t
wa s a nec es s a r y r es u l t of t h a t i nt er na t i ona l d i s a s t er
t ec h ni c a l l y k nowna s a " c r i s i s ' . ' , or " s l u mp " , wh i c h
h i t t h ewor l d s os oona f t er Sa l a z a r b eg a nh i s
wor k .
B ef or et h ep r omu l g a t i onof t h eC ons t i t u t i on, s ome
b r a nc h es of p r od u c t i onh a d a c t u a l l y a p p ea l ed t ot h e
Gov er nment f or s omes or t of or g a ni s a t i on
. I nt h e
s a r d i nei nd u s t r y , f or i ns t a nc e, wh i c h i s oneof t h e
mos t i mp or t a nt i nPor t u g a l , ma r k et s wer eb ei ng l os t
t of or ei g nc omp et i t i ona nd h ones t f i r ms wer eb ei ng
h op el es s l y ' u nd er c u t b y u ns c r u p u l ou s ex p or t er s of
8 6
OFSALAZAR
t i ns f u l l of c h ea p b u t r a nc i d f i s h . T h ev i c t i mi s ed
f i r ms a p p ea l ed t ot h eGov er nment , a nd Sa l a z a r , t h en
onl y Mi ni s t er of Fi na nc e
( 1 9 3 1 ) ,
c a r r i ed ou t a t h or -
ou g h s t u d y of t h ei nd u s t r y a nd i t s p r ob l em, a nd i s s u ed
a r ep or t . Ont h er ec ommend a t i onof t h i s , r ep or t , , t h e
p r od u c t i ona nd ex p or t of s a r d i nes wer es t r i c t l y r eg u -
l a t ed , a nd a " C ons or t i u mof Sa r d i neC a nner s "
wa s
c r ea t ed , of wh i c h memb er s h i p wa s c omp u l s or y . . T h i s
p i ec eof St a t ei nt er f er enc es a v ed a nex t r emel y i mp or -
t a nt i nd u s t r y f r omr u i na t t h eh a nd s of f or ei g na nd
u ns c r u p u l ou s c omp et i t or s
. Si mi l a r l y , or d er wa s i nt r o-
d u c ed i nt ot h ep or t wi nei nd u s t r y b y c omp el l i ng
t h ec o- op er a t i onof a l l p r od u c er s . T h eor g a ni s a -
t i ons t h ens et u p wer e" p r e- c or p or a t i v e " i nt y p e,
a nd h a v es i nc eb eenr ev i s ed a s t h eC or p or a t eSt a t e
d ev el op s .
W h ent h el eg i s l a t i onof
1 9 3 3
ex t end ed or d er a nd
c o- or d i na t i ont oa l l f or ms of na t i ona l a c t i v i t y , i t i s not ,
t h en, s u r p r i s i ng t of i nd t h a t p r od u c t i onwa s a t f i r s t
or g a ni s ed b y t h eGov er nment , t owh i c h
. p r od u c t i on
h a d i t s el f a p p ea l ed
. B u t v er y s oonwef i nd a s t r i k i ng
p r oof of t h ed es i r eof t h eGov er nment f or a t r u e c or -
p or a t i s med ' a s s oc i a t i on, i nt h ep r ea mb l et oa s ec ond
i mp or t a nt D ec r ee- La wa b ou t t h eg r emi os , t h a t of
D ec emb er 3 , 1 9 3 4 . T h i s d ef end s t h ep r ev i ou s l a won
g r ou nd s of nec es s i t y ; a nd c ont i nu es :
` T h eor g a ni s a -
t i onof emp l oy er s , wh i l ec onf or mi ng t ot h eob j ec t s
p r es c r i b ed f or i t a nd t h ed u t i es i mp os ed u p oni t b y
c or p or a t i v el a w, ou g h t not nor ma l l y t op r oc eed f r om
Gov er nment i ni t i a t i v e, nor a t t emp t c omp u l s or i l y t o
i nc l u d ea l l ent er p r i s es . I t wi l l a r i s ef r omt h ei ni t i a t i v e
of t h os ewh oa r et h ems el v es i nt er es t ed , _ wh o
wi l l
h a v et of u r ni s h t h ei r ownef f or t , a s s u met h ei r own
8 7
T HEPORT UGAL
r es p ons i b i l i t i es , s t u d y t h ep r ob l ems wh i c h c onc er n
t h emmos t nea r l y , a nd ent er i nt ot h er ol ewh i c h f a l l s
t ot h emu nd er t h ec or p or a t e
or g a ni s a t i on . "
T h i s i s mor ei nk eep i ng wi t h t h er es t of Sa l a z a r ' s
l eg i s l a t i on . Gr ou p s t h a t a r eop t i ona l a nd f or med b y ,
i ns t ea d of c omp u l s or y a nd i mp os ed on, t h eemp l oy er s
of l a b ou r , a r enowr ec og ni s ed b y t h eGov er nment .
T h eonl y c ond i t i onma d ei s t h enec es s a r y onet h a t
t h ey s h a l l i nc l u d ea t l ea s t h a l f of a l l t h os eeng a g ed i n
t h ei nd u s t r y i nq u es t i on, ' a nd s h a l l r ep r es ent a t l ea s t
h a l f of t h ef i na nc i a l i nt er es t i nv ol v ed . Ot h er wi s er i v a l
a s s oc i a t i ons mi g h t s p r i ng u p i nc omp et i t i on, or mi nor -
i t i es mi g h t s ec u r er ec og ni t i on, a nd t h er ewou l d not b e
a ny t r u ep a r t i c i p a t i onof t h a t i nd u s t r y i nt h ec or p or a -
t i v es t r u c t u r e . Su c h a s s oc i a t i ons wi l l r ec ei v ef u l l
r ec og ni t i on; t h a t i s , t h ey wi l l b ea c c or d ed j u r i d i c a l
p er s ona l i t y , a nd wi l l l eg a l l y r ep r es ent a l l emp l oy er s
i nt h ei nd u s t r y a nd d i s t r i c t of t h ei r c omp et enc e ; a nd
c ond i t i ons of l a b ou r a g r eed u p onb y t h emi nmeet i ng s
wi t h r ep r es ent a t i v es of t h ewor k er s ' s y nd i c a t es wi l l
b es i mi l a r l y b i nd i ng ona l l , wh et h er memb er s or no .
St ep s t a k enb y t h emf or t h eb enef i t of t h ei nd u s t r y
wi t h wh i c h t h ey a r ec onc er ned s h a l l b eb i nd i ng on
a l l wh ens a nc t i oned b y t h eGov er nment ont h er ec om-
mend a t i onof t h eC or p or a t i v eC ou nc i l .
" Pa r l ' or i ent a t i onnou v el l eq u ' i l v i ent d ed onner a
s a p ol i t i q u ec or p or a t i v e, l e Gou v er nement p or t u g a i s
a d h er e
a i s f or mu l ed ' a u t o- d i s c i p l i ne, enq u oi nou s
v oy ons 1 ' ex p r es s i onl a p l u s s i nc er ed el ' i d eec or p or a -
t i v e, " c omment s Fr . Mu l l er . " D eg r a nd c c eu r nou s
a p p l a u d i s s ons
a c et t ei nnov a t i on, d ont nou s a t t en-
d ons , p ou r l ep r og r es d el ' or g a ni s a t i onp r of es s i onnel l e
a u Por t u g a l , l es p l u s h eu r eu x r es u l t a t s . " 2 3
8 8
OFSALAZAR
I t i s p er h a p s mi s l ea d i ng t or ef er t ot h e
g r emi os a s
" emp l oy er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons " , s i nc et h ey a r eg r ou p i ng s
b y f u nc t i on : a ma nb el ong s t o a g r emi o a s b ei ng a
p r od u c er , a c ont r i b u t or t ot h ena t i ona l wea l t h , r a t h er
t h a na s b ei ng a nemp l oy er of l a b ou r
. N ev er t h el es s ,
a nes s ent i a l p u r p os eof t h es y nd i c a t es a nd t h e
g r emi os
i s t h a t t h ey s h ou l d meet t og et h er t od r a wu p c ol l ec t i v e
l a b ou r c ont r a c t s , a nd t oens u r eg ood r el a t i ons b et ween
emp l oy er s a nd emp l oy ed
. D i s p u t es or d i f f er enc es
a r i s i ng ou t of s u c h c ol l ec t i v eb a r g a i ni ng c omeb e-
f or ei nd ep end ent t r i b u na l s , u nd er t h ea d mi ni s t r a t i v e
a u t h or i t y of t h eN a t i ona l I ns t i t u t eof La b ou r a nd
Soc i a l W el f a r e, a g a i ns t t h ed ec i s i ons of wh i c h a p p ea l s
ma y b ema d e, onp oi nt s of l a w, t ot h eSu p r emeC ou n-
c i l of Pu b l i c Ad mi ni s t r a t i on
.
2 4
B ot h na t i ona l s y nd i c a t es a nd g r emi os h a v ea
c ons u l t a t i v ef u nc t i on, a nd mu s t f u r ni s h a d v i c ea nd
i nf or ma t i ononma t t er s of t h ei r c omp et enc ewh en
r eq u i r ed
. T h ey h a v ea l s oa p ol i t i c a l f u nc t i on, wh i c h
wi l l b er ef er r ed t oi nt h ef ol l owi ng c h a p t er
.
T h es y nd i c a t es a nd
g r emi os c onc er ned i nd i f f er ent
p a r t s of t h ec ou nt r y i nt h es a mei nd u s t r ? a r eg r ou p ed
i nt or eg i ona l or na t i ona l " Fed er a t i ons ' ,
a nd Fed er a -
t i ons c onc er ned wi t h a l l i ed i nd u s t r i es or p u r s u i t s a r e
f u r t h er c o- or d i na t ed i n
" Uni ons " . And a l l t h es e
v a r i ou s g r ou p i ng s a r ef i na l l y t ob ei nt eg r a t ed i nt oC or -
p or a t i ons
. B ei ng r ep r es ent a t i v eof t h eg ener a l i nt er -
es t s of p r od u c t i on, t h eC or p or a t i ons c a nes t a b l i s h
a mong t h ems el v es g ener a l a nd b i nd i ng r u l es d ea l i ng
wi t h t h ei r i nt er na l d i s c i l i nea nd t h ec o- or d i na t i onof
a c t i v i t i es , a l wa y s p r ov i ng t h a t t h ey s h a l l h a v er e-
c ei v ed t h enec es s a r y p ower s f r omt h es y nd i c a t es or
g r emi os ,
Uni ons or Fed er a t i ons , wh i c h c omp r i s e
8 9
T HEPORT UGAL
t h em, a s wel l a s t h ea u t h or i s a t i onof t h eSt a t e . " ( St a -
t u t eof N a t i ona l La b ou r : Ar t . X LI I I . ) I t i s i mp or t a nt
t or ememb er t h a t t h eC or p or a t i ons a r et ob es of a r a s
p os s i b l ea u t onomou s , a nd t h a t a u t h or i t y i s t ot r a v el
u p wa r d s , a s i t wer e, f r omt h eb ot t om, i ns t ea d of d own-
wa r d s f r omt h et op
. T h eC or p or a t i ons c a me l a s t
i nt o
b ei ng : t h ey r ep r es ent t h ef i na l wor k of i nt eg r a t i on
.
Let t h i s b er ememb er ed b y t h os ewh oa t t emp t t oo
h a s t y a c omp a r i s onwi t h I t a l i a nFa s c i s m
.
T h ep u r p os es of t h eC or p or a t i on, a s of t h e' s y nd i -
c a t es a nd ot h er c or p or a t eb od i es , a r enot mer el y
ec onomi c ; a ny mor et h a nt h ep u r p os eof t h emed i ev a l
Gu i l d wa s mer el y ec onomi c
. B u t t h ey g of u r t h er t h a n
d i d t h eGu i l d s i nh a v i ng a p ol i t i c a l f u nc t i on. T h e
C or p or a t i v eb od i es t a k ep a r t i nt h eel ec t i onof t h e
Mu ni c i p a l C h a mb er s , t h ePr ov i nc i a l C ou nc i l s , a nd
t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er
. T h eC h a mb er c r owns t h e
c or p or a t i v eor g a ni s a t i onof t h ena t i on, b r i ng i ng
t og et h er r ep r es ent a t i v es of a l l p h a s es of na t i ona l a c t i -
v i t y t od i s c u s s a nd r es ol v et h ei r c ommonp r ob l ems ,
a nd t os h a p ea l l t h ena t i on' s wor k t owa r d s na t i ona l
wel l - b ei ng a nd p r os p er i t y . T h i s p ol i t i c a l a s p ec t of
c or p or a t i s m i s t h ema t t er of t h enex t c h a p t er , i nwh i c h
t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er wi l l b ed i s c u s s ed i nd et a i l .
I t r ema i ns h er et oment i ont wof u r t h er b od i es t h e
N a t i ona l I ns t i t u t eof La b ou r a nd Soc i a l W el f a r e, a nd
t h eC or p or a t i v eC ou nc i l
. T h ef or mer , wh i c h i s p r e-
s i d ed ov er b y t h eUnd er - Sec r et a r y of St a t ef or t h eC or -
p or a t i ons , ex i s t s i nor d er "
t oens u r et h ef u l f i l ment of
t h el a ws p r ot ec t i ng t h ewor k er s , a nd of ot h er l a ws of
s oc i a l c h a r a c t er , b y i nt eg r a t i ng t h ewor k er s , a nd
ot h er s t a k i ng p a r t i np r od u c t i on, i n t h ec or p or a t i v e
or g a ni s a t i on, a s l a i d d owni nt h eSt a t u t eof N a t i ona l
9 o
OFSALAZAR
La b ou r , a c c or d i ng t ot h es p i r i t of p ol i t i c a l , ec onomi c ,
a nd s oc i a l r enov a t i onof t h ePor t u g u es eN a t i on " . 2 5
T h eC or p or a t i v eC ou nc i l i s t h es u p r emeb od y
t h r ou g h wh i c h i s ex er c i s ed t h eg ener a l s u p er v i s i onof
t h eGov er nment ov er t h ed ev el op ment of t h e c or -
p or a t es t r u c t u r e . Ac c or d i ng t ot h el a w , es t a b l i s h i ng
i t , ' 6 " Al l t h ed ec i s i ons of t h eC ou nc i l , p r ov i d ed t h a t
t h ey b enot a ni nf r i ng ement or a na l t er a t i onof t h e
ex i s t i ng l a ws , a r enor ms t ob ef ol l owed i nt h ec or p or a -
t i v eor g a ni s a t i on, a nd t h ey , a r et ob ei mmed i a t el y p u t
i nt oef f ec t b y t h eMi ni s t r i es a nd d ep a r t ment s c on-
c er ned . " I t s memb er s a r et h ePr es i d ent of t h eC ou n-
c i l of Mi ni s t er s , t woUni v er s i t y Pr of es s or s , a nd a
nu mb er of
ex - of f i c i o
r ep r es ent a t i v es of v a r i ou s mi ni s -
t er i a l d ep a r t ment s . T h i s C ou nc i l wa s c r ea t ed a y ea r
l a t er t h a nt h eN a t i ona l I ns t i t u t eof La b ou r a nd Soc i a l
W el f a r e : a nd i t s eems p os s i b l et h a t a l i t t l ewi d eni ng
of t h es c op eof t h a t I ns t i t u t emi g h t h a v ema d ei t u n-
nec es s a r y , s oa v oi d i ng t h ec r ea t i onof a nex t r a b od y
t h a t h a s nor ep r es ent a t i v es of t h eC or p or a t i ons u p on
i t . B u t nod ou b t t h ePor t u g u es ek nowb es t .
Ha v i ng d es c r i b ed t h ePor t u g u es eC or p or a t eSt a t ea s
i t ex i s t s on p a p er , s omement i onmu s t b ema d eof wh a t
h a s a l r ea d y b eend onet owa r d s t r a ns l a t i ng i t i nt o
r ea l i t y . I s a y a l r ea d y b ec a u s et h e
Es t a d oN ov oi s c om-
i ng i nt ob ei ng s u r el y b u t g r a d u a l l y . Pl a ns f or ed u -
c a t i ng i l l i t er a t emi l l i ons ov er ni g h t , f or b r i ng i ng a b ou t
. 9 I
T HEPORT UGAL
a nu nh ea r d of p r os p er i t y i nt h ec ou r s eof a f ewd a y s ,
h a v ea l wa y s c h a r a c t er i s ed Li b er a l a nd " p r og r es s i v e "
r eg i mes i nt h ePeni ns u l a
; weh a v et h eex a mp l eof t h e
v a s t p r omi s es , s os oonc onf ou nd ed , ma d eb y t h e
Sp a ni s h Rep u b l i c a ns i n
1 9 3 1 . Or a g a i n, t h er ewa s
v er y s oona b i t t er i r ony a b ou t t h er h et or i c a l p r oc l a ma -
t i oni s s u ed t ot h ePor t u g u es ep eop l eb y t h enew
Rep u b l i c a nGov er nment onOc t ob er 5 , 1 9 1 o. " N ow
a t l a s t end s t h es l a v er y of ou r c ou nt r y , a nd , l u mi nou s
i ni t s v i r g i na l es s enc e, r i s es t h eb enef i c ent a s p i r a t i on
of a r eg i meof l i b er t y . " And s oon. T h eRep u b l i c
h a d t og i v et h ep eop l er h et or i c , f or i t h a d not h i ng el s e
t og i v e
. B u t t h er eh a s nev er b eena ny r h et or i c a b ou t
Sa l a z a r :
h i s p r omi s es h a v ea l wa y s b eenmos t g u a r d ed ,
a nd t h er ea l i s a t i onmor et h a nt h ea nt i c i p a t i on . Fi r s t
a nd f or emos t h ei s a r ea l i s t h ei s oneof t h ev er y f ew
p ol i t i c i a ns wh oh a v enev er a l l owed t h ems el v es t ob e
mes mer i s ed b y wor d s
. " Al l oneh ea r s t o- d a y ont h e
s u b j ec t of l i b er t y , " h eh a s wr i t t en, " or of Pa r l i a ment ,
or d emoc r a c y , or a b ou t t h er i g h t s of t h ep eop l ea nd
t h eb r ot h er h ood of ma n- a l l t h a t h a s b eens t a n-
d a r d i s ed t os u c h a nex t ent t h a t wes h a l l s oonb ea b l e
t ob u y s p eec h es r ea d y - ma d et os u i t a l l oc c a s i ons , a s
wec a na l r ea d y b u y l ov e- l et t er s . "
" W i s el y i noc u l a t ed a g a i ns t t h ed i s ea s eof ex t r eme
i d eol og i es , " wr i t es M
. Ma et er l i nc k of h i m, " h ea d mi t s
not h i ng t h a t wi l l not s t a nd t h et es t of d a i l y ex p er i -
enc e
. Hi s mi nd i s a v er i t a b l el a b or a t or y , wh er ed i s -
t i l l ed Ut op i a s a r ema d ep r a c t i c a l .
1 1 2 7
T oq u ot eh i s own
wor d s a g a i n,
" T h ePor t u g u es eRep u b l i c i s a C or -
p or a t eSt a t eb y d ef i ni t i on, b u t t h a t d oes not mea nt o
s a y t h a t t h ec or p or a t i v eor g a ni s a t i oni s a l r ea d y r ea l -
i s ed wh er ev er weh a v ed ec i d ed t h a t i t i s p os s i b l ea nd
9 2
OFSALAZAR
d es i r a b l e. Fa r f r omi t : wec a nh a v enor a p i d a d v a nc e,
b u t a s l owa nd s u r ep r og r es s , a s wea r et r y i ng ou t a
news y s t emwh i c h h a s not y et b eenu s ed s u f f i c i ent l y
t oma k ei t p os s i b l et op r oc eed wi t h ou t ex t r emec a u -
t i on. " 2 Or a g a i n, i n1 9 3 4 : " W ea r ea wa r et h a t t h er e
a r eg r a v eer r or s i nou r ec onomi c a nd s oc i a l or g a ni s a -
t i on- u nj u s t i neq u a l i t i es , i mp er f ec t i ons , mi s er y , f a l s i -
t i es , a nd c ont r a d i c t i ons - a nd weh a v eg ot t or emed y
t h em, or wi p et h emou t . I t i s f or t h a t t h a t wec ont i nu e
ou r r ev ol u t i on ; b u t ou r r ev ol u t i on, i f i t i s t ob el a s t i ng ,
c a nnot d es t r oy t h a t u p onwh i c h i t i s b a s ed - t h ef u n-
d a ment a l p r i nc i p l es ; f ou nd ed i nt h el a b ou r a nd t h e
s u f f er i ng s of p a s t g ener a t i ons , t h eg r ea t r ea l i t i es of
s oc i a l l i f e . " ' 9 And i nh i s f a mou s s p eec h of J u l y 3 0 ,
1 9 3 0 : " B ec a u s ewea r eemb od y i ng ou r i d ea s i na C on-
s t i t u t i on, wemu s t not j u mp t ot h ec onc l u s i ont h a t t h e
r emed y f or a l l p ol i t i c a l ev i l s i s f ou nd . . . I t i s not a
p r og r a mmef or a ng el s . "
T h er ec ons t r u c t i onof Por t u g a l h a s b eena nd i s
b ei ng a s l owma t t er of t r i a l a nd er r or a nd p a t i ent
end ea v ou r , g u i d ed t h r ou g h ou t b y t h os es oc i a l p r i n-
c i p l es wh i c h weh a v et r i ed t os et ou t i nt h ef or eg oi ng
p a g es
. N ev er t h el es s , v er y c ons i d er a b l ep r og r es s h a s
b eenma d e, u nd er t h eg u i d a nc eof Sa l a z a r a nd h i s
Mi ni s t er s , a mong wh oms h ou l d D r . Ped r oT eot oni o
Per ei r a b ees p ec i a l l y ment i oned
.
T h eor g a ni s a t i onof i nd u s t r y a nd c ommer c ewa s
u nd er t a k enf i r s t , b ei ng t h emos t i nt r i c a t ea s wel l a s t h e
mos t u r g ent nec es s i t y
. T h eor g a ni s a t i onb eg a na t t h e
b ot t om : na t i ona l s y nd i c a t es a nd
g r emi os c a mef i r s t .
W eh a v es eenh owi nt h ec a s eof t h el a t t er
t h e i ni t i a -
t i v ec a mei nt h ef i r s t i ns t a nc ef r omt h eGov er nment ,
a s i t h a d t o
; a nd h owt h ewor k er s ' or g a ni s a t i onwa s
9 3
T HEPORT UGAL
t h ewor k of t h ewor k er s t h ems el v es . Und er t h e
"
Li b er a l " r eg i me, a l l T r a d eUni ons wer er eg u l a t ed
b y a r es t r i c t i v el a wof Ma y 9 , 1 8 9 1 ; b u t t h er ewer e
nea r l y 1 , 0 0 0 of t h emi n1 9 3 0 , b ef or eSa l a z a r b eg a n h i s
wor k
. T h er ewer es oma ny b ec a u s emos t of t h emh a d
nomor et h a na p u r el y nomi na l ex i s t enc e . I t wa s
d ou b t f u l wh et h er c ol l ec t i v eb a r g a i ni ng wa s p er mi t t ed
b y t h el a wof 1 8 9 1 , ev eni ni t s wi d es t i nt er p r et a t i on ;
a t a l l
ev ent s , t h eg ener a l i nt er p r et a t i onof i t , wh i c h
c er t a i nl y ex p r es s ed i t s s p i r i t , d i d not a l l owi t
. Ad ec r ee
of D ec emb er
2 1 , 1 9 2 4 , a nt i c i p a t ed t h ef or ma t i onof
f ed er a t ed u ni ons a nd t h ees t a b l i s h ment of p r i nc i p l es
f or c ol l ec t i v eb a r g a i ni ng
" a c c or d i ng t ot h et er ms of a
f u r t h er l a w" ; b u t t h i s f u r t h er l a wnev er a p p ea r ed , a nd
t h ed ec r eewa s nomor et h a na mi r a g e . Onet h i ng ,
a t a ny r a t e, i s ev i d ent : c ol l ec t i v el a b ou r , a g r eement s
h a d nob i nd i ng f or c e ; t h er ewa s noa u t h or i t y t oens u r e
t h ei r a p p l i c a t i on, a nd a p a r t f r omoneor t woi s ol a t ed
a nd i r r eg u l a r ex a mp l es ; Por t u g a l nev er k newt h em. " 3 °
T h e Es t a d oN ov o h a s mea nt J u s t i c ef or t h el a b ou r i ng
Por t u g u es es u c h a s h eh a d not k nownf or ov er a
c ent u r y .
Sa l a z a r h a s a l wa y s p u t t h ewor k i ng - ma nf i r s t
. Hi s
s y nd i c a t es a r enow f u l l y or g a ni s ed a nd f u l l y ef f ec t i v e,
a nd meet a nd c ol l a b or a t ewi t h t h eor g a ni s a t i ons of
h i s emp l oy er s . T h e" Uni ons "
a nd " Fed er a t i ons
d es c r i b ed a b ov ea r ea l s oi nex i s t enc ei nma ny c a s es
;
b u t t h ec omp l et es t r u c t u r eof t h eC or p or a t i ons i s not
y et a c h i ev ed . Por t u g a l i s , h owev er , mor et h a nh a l f -
wa y f r oml i b er a l - c a p i t a l i s t c h a os t oc or p or a t eor d er . .
Al l t h a t h a s b eend onei nt h ev a r i ou s i nd u s t r i es h a s
b eend es c r i b ed i nd et a i l , i nEng l i s h , b y M
. Fr ep p el
C ot t a , i nh i s b ook Ec onomi c Pl a nni ng i n
C or p or a t i v e
9 4
OFSALAZAR
Por t u ~ a l . B u t t h er ea r et wo i n
p a r t i c u l a r , wh i c h c on-
c er nb et weent h ema v er y l a r g ep r op or t i onof t h e
wor k i ng op u l a t i on, i nwh i c h p
a r t i c u l a r p r og r es s h a s
b eenma d et h ei nd u s t r i es of f i s h i ng a nd a g r i c u l t u r e
.
T h es ewel l i l l u s t r a t et h ewor k of t h enewr eg i me
.
For c ent u r i es t h emenof Por t u g a l h a v eb eenmenof
t h es ea : na v i g a t or s a nd f i s h er men
. T h ec a l l i ng of t h e
s ea i s r oot ed d eep l y i na l l t h eh i s t or y a nd t r a d i t i ons of
t h ec ou nt r y
; a nd t h emenof t h ec oa s t a l v i l l a g es wh o
c a t c h f i s h a r el i v i ng t o- d a y t h el i v es t h a t t h ei r f a t h er s
a nd g r a nd f a t h er s h a v el i v ed b ef or et h emt h r ou g h t h e
a g es . T h enewGov er nment h a s not a t t emp t ed t o
i mp os et h ef u l l r i g ou r of c or p or a t i v es y mmet r y u p on
t h i s a nc i ent i nd u s t r y
: h er ea r ewel l i l l u s t r a t ed i t s
t wi nv i r t u es of a d a p t a b i l i t y a nd t h ea v oi d a nc eof
b u r ea u c r a c y . Pa r t i c u l a r p l a ns h a v eb eenma d et os u i t
p a r t i c u l a r need s
. As p ec i a l l a w, d a t ed Ma r c h i i , 1 9 3 7 ,
c onc er ns t h ef i s h er men .
Emp l oy er s a nd p u r c h a s er s , owner s of b oa t s a nd
ot h er s u p onwh omt h ef i s h er mend ep end , a r eg r ou p ed ,
a s nor ma l l y , i nt o
g r emi os . B u t f or t h ement h em-
s el v es t h er ea r enot s y nd i c a t es ont h ena t i ona l p l a n,
b u t s p ec i a l i ns t i t u t i ons c a l l ed
C a s a s d os Pes c a d or es ,
Hou s es of t h eFi s h er men, t owh i c h t h ei r emp l oy er s
a nd t h eowner s of t h ei r f l eet s a r ea l s oob l i g ed t o
b el ong , a nd ov er ea c h of wh i c h - t h er ei s onea t ev e r y
f i s h i ng p or t - a nof f i c i a l c or r es p ond i ng t ot h eEng l i s h
Ha r b ou r Ma s t er p r es i d es . T h e C a s a d os Pes c a d or es ,
t h en, i nc l u d es b ot h ma s t er s a nd men, a nd i s d es i g ned
c h i ef l y a s a nor g a nof s oc i a l c o- op er a t i on
. I t s f u nc -
t i ons ' a r ec l a s s i f i ed u nd er t h r eeh ea d s
: t h er ep r e-
s ent a t i ona nd d ef enc eof p r of es s i ona l i nt er es t s ; t h e
i ns t r u c t i onof t h ey ou ng i nt h ea r t of f i s h i ng
; a nd c a r e
9 3
T HEPORT UGAL
f or t h es i c k , a s s i s t a nc ef or t h os ewh oh a v es u f f er ed l os s
i ns t or ms , a nd g ener a l wel f a r ewor k
. I t i s s omet h i ng
r ema r k a b l y c l os et ot h emed i ev a l g u i l d
. And i t i s of
t h ef i r s t i mp or t a nc et onot et h ef ol l owi ng c l a u s ei nt h e
l a w : " T h e C a s a s d os Pes c a d or es
h a v et h ed u t y of
g u a r d i ng j ea l ou s l y a l l l oc a l t r a d i t i ons a nd c u s t oms ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y t h os er el a t ed i ns p i r i t s p ec i f i c a l l y t omen
of t h es ea . " " As f a r b a c k a s t h ef i r s t h a l f of t h ef ou r -
t eent h c ent u r y , " wr i t es Fr ep p el C ot t a , "
t h ef i s h er f ol k
h a d f or med a d mi r a b l ec onf r a t er ni t i es i nwh i c h r el i -
g i ou s a nd mor a l wel f a r ewa s c omb i ned wi t h ec onomi c
a nd s oc i a l r el i ef , a nd t h ei nf l u enc eof wh i c h wa s s t i l l
v i s i b l ei nt h ep r ev a i l i ng r u l es of f i s h i ng , a nd g ener a l l y
i n t h ec u s t oms of a l l t h ef i s h er f ol k
. T h os ec onf r a -
t er ni t i es wer et h ea c c r ed i t ed r ep r es ent a t i v es of a l l s ea -
f a r er s , a nd wer ed es i g ned t oh el p t h ei r wi d ows , t h e
s i c k a nd t h ed i s a b l ed , a nd ev ent oma k eg ood t h el os s
c a u s ed b y s h i p wr ec k or d a ma g e . T h ei r r ev enu ewa s
d er i v ed f r oml ev i es onc a t c h es or wa g es , c ol l ec t ed a nd
d i s t r i b u t ed a s f a i r l y a s p os s i b l ei na t r u eC h r i s t i a n
s p i r i t
. T h e C a s a s d os Pes c a d or es h a v er et a i ned a s
mu c h a s p os s i b l eof t h os ec onf r a t er ni t i es . " 3 ' N ot h i ng
c ou l d b et t er d emons t r a t et h ees s ent i a l t r a d i t i ona l i s m
of t h e
Es t a d oN ov o, wh i c h i s i nr ea l i t y not a " N ew
St a t e"
a t a l l , b u t t h ea nc i ent Por t u g a l of h i s t or y a nd
t h ec ent u r i es .
T h ewh ol es p i r i t of t h enewc or p or a t i s m, i nd eed ,
ma y b ef ou nd i nt h i s p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i onof i t
. W e
s eei t s t r a d i t i ona l i s m, i t s s y mp a t h et i c p ower of a d a p t a -
t i on, i t s a v oi d a nc eof b u r ea u c r a c y , a nd a t t h es a me
t i met h er ec og ni t i ont h a t t h ei nc or r i g i b l y i l l i t er a t e
a nd u np r a c t i c a l na t u r eof t h ePor t u g u es ep eop l e, a s
wel l a s t h eneed f or c o- or d i na t i on, ma k es nec es s a r y t h e
9 6
OFSALAZAR
c r ea t i onof a mod i c u mof of f i c i a l s . T h ev a r i ou s C a s a s
d os Pes c a d or es , s c a t t er ed r ou nd t h ec oa s t , r ec ei v ec on-
t r ol f r oma c ent r a l b oa r d , wh i c h a d mi ni s t er s t h ei r
c ommonf u nd s , s ot h a t t h os ei nt h el es s p r os p er ou s
l oc a l i t i es ma y b ea d eq u a t el y eq u i p p ed .
Fi s h i ng a nd a g r i c u l t u r e, t h et wool d es t oc c u p a t i ons
of ma nk i nd , t og et h er p r ov i d et h el i v el i h ood of a s u b -
s t a nt i a l ma j or i t y of t h ePor t u g u es e . W eh a v es een
t h a t i t i s t h ei nt ent i onof Sa l a z a r t og i v et oPor t u g a l
a na g r i c u l t u r a l p ea s a nt r y of i nd ep end ent s ma l l p r o-
p r i et or s . W i t h t h i s p u r p os e, ex t ens i v ei r r i g a t i on
s c h emes h a v eb eenu nd er t a k en i n t h eAl emt ej o, i n
t h eb a s i ns of t h eT a g u s a nd Sa d or i v er s , . wh er et h e
r a i nf a l l i s s ma l l a nd i r r eg u l a r , t oma k ep os s i b l es ma l l -
s c a l ef a r mi ng wh er ei t wa s not p os s i b l eb ef or e . " W e
h a v ea l r ea d y ou t l a i d a mi l l i ont oi ni t i a t et h i s i r r i g a t i on
p ol i c y , " Sa l a z a r t ol d Ant oni oFer r o, " a nd y ou wi l l s ee
t h a t p ea c ef u l l y a nd q u i et l y , wi t h ou t a ny k i nd of v i o-
l enc e, wea r ec a r r y i ng ou t a v er y f a r - r ea c h i ng s oc i a l
wor k . W h a t I s a y h a s b eena b s ol u t el y p r ov ed . I n
t h enor t h of I t a l y , f or i ns t a nc e, a nd i nt h eb a s i nof t h e
Eb r oa nd ot h er d i s t r i c t s of Sp a i n, t h ed i v i s i on of
p r op er t y b y wa t er h a s b eens u c c es s f u l l y c a r r i ed ou t ;
a nd i nt h eea s t a nd s ou t h - ea s t of Eu r op e, wh er e, es p ec i -
a l l y s i nc et h eW a r , a p ol i c y of d i s t r i b u t i onof t h el a nd
h a s b eenf ol l owed b y c u t t i ng u p l a r g ees t a t es a s one
wou l d a p i ec eof c l ot h , wi t h ou t r eg a r d f or na t u r a l c on-
d i t i ons , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t os eet h a t t h a t p ol i c y h a s
f a i l ed . " 3 2
T h er ei s i n Por t u g a l , t h en, a l a r g ep op u l a t i onof
s ma l l f a r mer s a nd a g r i c u l t u r a l p ea s a nt s - a p op u l a -
t i onwh i c h i s b ei ng ex t ens i v el y i nc r ea s ed . T h es emen,
t h eg r ea t b a c k b oneof Por t u g a l a nd , i nd eed , of
a ny
9 7

G
T HEPORT UGAL
a
c ou nt r y , a r ef or t h emos t p a r t nei t h er emp l oy er s nor
emp l oy ed
. I f t h ey a r eemp l oy er s , t h ey a r eemp l oy er s
onl y of oneor t wol a b ou r er s
; nor d ot h ey s p ec i a l i s e
b u t p r a c t i s eg ener a l s u b s i s t enc ef a r mi ng
. I t i s ev i d ent
t h a t t h ey c a nnot b ef i t t ed i nt ot h eg ener a l c or p or a t i v e
s c h emeof s y nd i c a t es a nd
g r emi os ; a nd t h i s h a s b een
r ec og ni s ed f r omt h eb eg i nni ng
. I nt h ev er y f i r s t
r t i c l eof t h eD ec r ee- La wof
Sep t emb er 2 3 ,
1 9 3 3 ,
wh i c h g ov er ns t h em; t h e
C a s a s d oPov o, or Hou s es of
t h ePeop l e, a r ec a l l ed b od i es f or s oc i a l c o- op er a t i on,
a nd not s i mp l y a s s oc i a t i ons f or t h ep u r s u a nc eof p r o-
f es s i ona l i nt er es t s , l i k et h es y nd i c a t es
. T h es y nd i c a t es
a l s oa i ma t s oc i a l c o- op er a t i on, wh i c h i nt h ei r c a s e,
owi ng t ot h ei r g r ea t er c omp a c t nes s a nd or g a ni s a t i on,
i s mor eea s i l y , a c h i ev ed
; b u t t h ey a r ep r i ma r i l y p r o-
f es s i ona l a s s oc i a t i ons , v oc a t i ona l g r ou p s
. T h ep u r p os e
of t h e C a s a s d oPov o
i s t op r ov i d er u r a l c ent r es f or
s oc i a l p u r p os es
. T h ey a r ec r ea t ed ont h ei ni t i a t i v eof
t h ep eop l et h ems el v es , or b y t h eGov er nment wh en
i t i s t h ou g h t nec es s a r y
. Al l l a nd - owner s a r eob l i g ed
t oc ont r i b u t et ot h ei r ma i nt ena nc e, a nd g r a nt s a r ea l s o
ma d eb y t h eSt a t ea nd b y l oc a l a d mi ni s t r a t i v eb od i es .
T h ei r f u nc t i oni s t op r ov i d es oc i a l c ent r es , a s s i s t t h e
need y , ed u c a t et h ei g nor a nt ( a c ol os s a l t a s k ) , a nd
g ener a l l y t o . r a i s et h es t a nd a r d of r u r a l l i f e
. T h ey
wi l l ma k el oa ns t op ea s a nt s f or a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p os es
or f or s et t i ng u p
s ma l l h omei nd u s t r i es , a nd p r ov i d e
u nemp l oy ment r el i ef , wh ennec es s a r y , i nt h ef or mof
wor k .
Pr ov i s i onh a s a l s ob eenma d ef or t h ec r ea t i onof
s p ec i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l
g r emi os , t op r ot ec t t h ei nt er es t s of
t h os ewh op r od u c ef or ma r k et , a nd t h es ec a n , b e
or g a ni s ed i nt oUni ons a nd Fed er a t i ons
. - C ommer c i a l
9 8
OFSALAZAR
a g r i c u l t u r ef ol l ows t h eg ener a l p l a n, a nd c or p or a t i v e
or g a ni s a t i oni s wel l a d v a nc ed i nt h ep r od u c t i onof t h e
i mp or t a nt p r od u c t s of wh ea t , wi ne, f r u i t , a nd r i c e .
T h es a mep r i nc i p l es a r eb ei ng f ol l owed i nev er y c a s e :
or d er i s b ei ng b r ou g h t i nt ot h ena t i ona l ec onomy b y
t h a t wh i c h i s i na p p r op r i a t el y enou g h c a l l ed a "
d i c t a -
t or s h i p " - i t i s a d i c t a t or s h i p wh i c h h a s d ec l a r ed f or
a p ol i c y of l a i s s er - f a i r e, b u t wh i c h wi l l l a i s s er - f a i r e not
i s ol a t ed i nd i v i d u a l s b u t or g a ni s ed p r of es s i ons , a u t ono-
mou s c or p or a t i ons .
9 9
C HAPT ERFOUR
C HAPT ER

FOUR
T HE POLI T I C AL ST RUC T URE
I
T i s u nl i k el y t h a t t h os ewh oa r ea c q u a i nt ed wi t h
t h eg r ea t s oc i a l enc y c l i c a l s of Leo X I I I
a nd t h e
p r es ent Pop e, . a nd wh os ek nowl ed g eof t h ePor t u g u es e
Es t a d o N ov oi s nomor et h a nt h ey h a v eob t a i ned f r om
t h ep r ev i ou s c h a p t er s of t h i s b ook , wi l l h a v ea ny s er i -
ou s q u a r r el wi t h t h eop i ni onof t h eAmer i c a nJ es u i t
wh or ec ent l y wr ot et h a t " t h ewh ol e, s y s t em i s , i nef f ec t ,
a na p p l i ed r es u meof , C a t h ol i c p ol i t i c a l p h i l os op h y
a nd of t h ePa p a l . enc y c l i c a l s " . ~ T h ei nf l u enc eof
t h es eu p ont h emi nd of Sa l a z a r h a s a l r ea d y b een
not ed ; a nd Fr . Mu l l er f i nd s a " d i r ec t a g r eement b e-
t ween Qu a d r a g es i moAnno a nd t h eSt a t u t eof
N a t i ona l La b ou r . 2 T h ewor d s of Pi u s X I i n D i v i ni
Red emp t or i s , t h a t " a s ou nd p r os p er i t y i s t ob er es -
t or ed a c c or d i ng t ot h et r u ep r i nc i p l es of . a s a ne
c or p or a t i v es y s t em mi g h t wel l a p p ea r t ob ea n
end or s ement of t h ewor k of Sa l a z a r , a nd of h i s C on-
s t i t u t i oni nwh i c h t h ei nf l u enc eof t h eenc y c l i c a l of s i x
y ea r s ea r l i er i s s oa p p a r ent .
B u t t h er ei s mor et ot h ema t t er . Ma noi l es c o3
r i g h t l y d i s t i ng u i s h es t h r eek i nd s of c or p or a t i v i s m
1 0 3
T HEPORT UGAL
( i ) Pu r e; ( 2 ) mi x ed ; ( 3 ) s u b or d i na t e . I nt h ef i r s t t h e
c or p or a t i ons c ons t i t u t et h es ol es ou r c eof t h es u p r eme
l ei s l a t i v ep ower ; i nt h es ec ond t h a t p ower i s s h a r ed
wi t h ot h er s ou r c es , s u c h a s ' a p a r l i a ment b a s ed on
u ni v er s a l s u f f r a g e ; a nd i nt h et h i r d t h ec or p or a t i ons ,
wi t h t h ei r or g a nof na t i ona l i nt eg r a t i on, h a v eonl y a n
a d v i s or y c a p a c i t y . T oh i mt h eonl y t r u ec or p or a t i v e
s ~ ' s t emi s t h a t of t h ef i r s t k i nd ; a nd i t i s not p os s i b l et o
c l a i mPa p a l a p p r ov a l f or a ny s y s t emof p ol i t i c a l
ma c h i ner y . T h ePop es h a v enot b eenc onc er ned wi t h
p ol i t i c s , b u t onl y wi t h t h et r u t h s of r el i g i ona nd t h e
mor a l p r i nc i p l es wh i c h p ol i t i c s mu s t r es p ec t , a nd
wh i c h i t i s t h eb u s i nes s of t h eC h u r c h t oma i nt a i n .
T h eC h u r c h r eg a r d s i nd i f f er ent l y a ny f or mof g ov er n-
ment , s ol ong a s t h ees s ent i a l mor a l r i g h t s of ma n
a r ea c k nowl ed g ed a nd s a f e? u a r d ed . Ac c or d i ng t o
LeoX I I I i n I mmor t a l eD ei , ` N ot oneof t h es ev er a l
f or ms of g ov er nment i s i ni t s el f c ond emned , a s none
of t h emc ont a i ns a ny t h i ng c ont r a r y t oC a t h ol i c
d oc t r i ne, a nd a l l of t h ema r ec a p a b l e, i f wi s el y a nd
j u s t l y ma na g ed , of ens u r i ng t h ewel f a r eof t h eSt a t e
. "
Li b er a l i s mi s a c ond emned er r or , b ec a u s ei t t ea c h es
t h a t " ev er y ma ni s a l a wu nt oh i ms el f " , a nd b ec a u s e
l i b er t y of t h ou g h t i s i nob v i ou s c onf l i c t wi t h Rev ea l ed
r el i g i on . B u t t h eu s u a l p ol i t i c a l c onc omi t a nt s of
Li b er a l i s m- t h ed oc t r i nes of Pa r l i a ment a r y d emoc -
r a c y , of u ni v er s a l f r a nc h i s e, of p ol i t i c a l t ol er a t i on- d o
not s t a nd c ond emned . And i f Sa l a z a r h a s i nt r od u c ed
i nPor t u g a l a c or p or a t i v i s mot h er t h a nt h et h i r d of
t h et h r eet y p es d i s t i ng u i s h ed b y M . Ma noi l es c o, i f
t h er ei s i nt h ec or p or a t i v es y s t ema ny p ol i t i c a l
s i g ni f i c a nc e, t h eni t i s s omet h i ng mor e t h a nt h ec or -
p or a t i v es y s t emof wh i c h
D i v i ni Red emj t or i s , s p ea k s s
1 0 4
OFSALAZAR
And t h a t i s , i nf a c t , t h ec a s e
. As h a s a l r ea d y b een
p oi nt ed ou t , t h ePor t u g u es ec or p or a t i v es y s t emi s s t i l l
i np r oc es s of d ev el op ment , a nd i t i s not y et p os s i b l e
t os a y wh a t f or mi t wi l l f i na l l t a k e
. B u t i t i s a l r ea d y
c l ea r t h a t t h eC or p or a t i v eC a mb er i s t oh a v emor e
t h a na p u r el y a d v i s or y c a p a c i t y , wh et h er or not i t ma y
u l t i ma t el y b et h es ol el eg i s l a t i v eb od y . Mor eov er ,
t h er ei s ev er y i nd i c a t i ont h a t i t i s t ob et h ec h i ef l eg i s -
l a t i v eb od y , a nd t h a t t h ep r es ent u nd eni a b l y a u t h or i -
t a r i a nGov er nment wi l l g i v ep l a c et oa f or mof or g a ni c
d emoc r a c y wor k i ng ona f u nc t i ona l b a s i s t h r ou g h t h e
c oor a t i ons . I t i s a t l ea s t c er t a i nt h a t Por t u g a l
wnot r ev er t t oLi b er a l p a r l i a ment a r y d emoc r a c y on
t h eEng l i s h p a t t er n
; a nd b ef or eg oi ng ont od i s c u s s t h e
p r es ent s y s t emof g ov er nment a nd t h ep os s i b i l i t i es of
t h ef u t u r e, wewi l l ex p l a i nwh y t h a t i s c er t a i n, b y
d ev ot i ng a f ewp a g es t oa b r i ef h i s t or i c a l s u r v ey of
" d emoc r a c y " i nt h ePeni ns u l a , a nd , i np a r t i c u l a r , i n
Por t u g ' a l '
Ra t h er mor et h a na c ent u r y a g o, c i v i l wa r c a met o
b ot h Sp a i na nd Por t u g a l , wh er ea l r ea d y t h eN a p o-
l eoni c i nv a s i ons h a d wa s t ed a nd d es t r oy ed . I nea c h
c a s et h ewa r wa s oneb et weenr i v a l c l a i ma nt s t ot h e
t h r one, oner ep r es ent i ng t h et r a d i t i ona l Mona r c h y ,
a nd t h eot h er ( i nea c h c a s ea s ma l l g i r l ) r ep r es ent i ng
t h ei d ea s of t h eFr enc h Rev ol u t i on, a nd h ea d i ng wh a t
, mos t h i s t or i a ns t er mt h eC ons t i t u t i ona l p a r t y . I t wa s
s c a r c el y a g ener a t i ons i nc et h ef a l l of t h eB a s t i l l e .
Pa r t i c u l a r l y i nt h es ea p or t t owns of t h ePeni ns u l a ,
t h os ewh os a wp ol i t i c a l or f i na nc i a l p ower wi t h i nt h ei r
g r a s p p l a y ed u p ont h ewa r - wea r i nes s of t h ep eop l et o
s t i mu l a t er ev ol u t i on . D onC a r l os i nSp a i na nd D om
Mi g u el i nPor t u g a l wer eb ot h f ol l owed b y t h eg r ea t er
1 0 5
~ 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
OFSALAZAR
a l s os ent a
B r i t i s h na v a l f or c ei nt h ec a u s e, u nd er
t h ec omma nd of C a p t a i nN a p i er , R. N . , a nex c el l ent
B r i t i s h s a i l or a nd h er oof t h eSy r i a nc a mp a i g nof
1 8 4 0 ,
wh oont h i s oc c a s i onf ou nd i t mor ec onv eni ent t ob e
k nowna s El Al mi r a l C a r l os Ponz a .
Si mi l a r s t ep s wer et a k ent op r es er v eSp a i nf r om
D on
C a r l os
. T h eB r i t i s h Gov er nment l ent £5 4 0 , 0 0 0
t ot h e
c h i l d I s a b el l a f or mi l i t a r y ex p ens es , a nd g a v ep er mi s -
s i on
f or t h er a i s i ng of t ent h ou s a nd meni nEng l a nd
.
T h eB r i t i s h Leg i on, u nd er t h ec omma nd of Si r Geor g e
d e La c y
Ev a ns , d i d not ex a c t l y c ov er i t s el f wi t h g l or y
;
b u t Pa l mer s t on' s " i nt er - med d l i ng " ,
t og et h er wi t h
a s s i s t a nc ef r omf i na nc i a l a nd c ommer c i a l i nt er es t s ,
wa s s u f f i c i ent t oens u r et h es u c c es s of p ol i t i c a l l i b er a l -
i s m
. - T h ef u l l i ni q u i t y of t h i s wor k i s t o- d a y a p p a r ent
;
Sp a i n
i s f i g h t i ng a g a i nt h es a mewa r , a nd t h es a me
i nt er na t i ona l i nt er es t s , t og et h er wi t h ot h er s mor e
d ea d l y , a r ep i t t ed a g a i ns t . h er
. T h a t Por t u g a l ' i s not
a l s ob a t h ed i nb l ood i s d u et oAnt oni o
d e Ol i v ei r a
Sa l a z a r .
T h ewa r a g a i ns t D omMi g u el i nPor t u g a l , a g a i ns t
wh om, a s Pa l mer s t ons a i d i nt h eHou s eof C ommons
i nJ u ne1 8 2 9 ,
" t h ec i v i l i s ed wor l d r i ng s wi t h ex ec r a -
t i ons
" , c ont i nu ed , owi ng t ot h es t r a ng ep r ef er enc e
of t h ePor t u g u es ef or t y r a nny , u nt i l Ma y 1 8 3 4 ,
wh enh ea b a nd oned h i s c l a i ms b y t h eC onv ent i on
of Ev or a Mont e
. T h ec h i l d Ma r i a d a Gl or i a , a t
t h et i mea t s c h ool i nPa r i s , wa s c onf i r med ont h e
t h r one,
a nd
Por t u g a l ent er ed u p on' a c ent u r y of c on-
f u s i on.
.
T h es ea r eb r oa d g ener a l i s a t i ons
; a nd i t i s ea s y f or
ov er - s i mp l i f i c a t i ont ob ec omemer eh i s t or i c a l d i s t or -
t i on.
I t i s h i s t or i c a l d i s t or t i ont os a y t h a t t h eMi g u el i s t
1 0 7
T HEPORT UGAL
wa r wa s s i mp l y a c onf l i c t b et weenna t i ona l s ent i ment
a nd f or ei g ni nt er es t s , i nwh i c h t h el a t t er won . B u t
i t i s a l s oh i s t or i c a l d i s t or t i ont os a y t h a t Sp a i nor
Por t u g a l i na ny wa y d es i r ed or wer es u i t ed t or ep r es en-
t a t i v eg ov er nment . " Oneof t h eg r ea t es t mi s t a k es of
t h eni net eent h c ent u r y , " wr i t es Sa l a z a r , wi t h p r o-
f ou nd t r u t h , " wa s t os u p p os et h a t t h eEng l i s h p a r l i a -
ment a r y s y s t em, Eng l i s h d emoc r a c y , wa s a f or mof
g ov er nment c a p a b l eof a d a p t a t i ont ot h eneed s of a l l
Eu r op ea np eop l es . " 5 I t i s a p i t y t h a t t h a t h i s t or i c a l
f a c t i s not c l ea r t ot h os ewel l - i nt ent i oned Eng l i s h men
wh os ob i t t er l y d enou nc eGener a l Fr a nc oa s a " Fa s -
c i s t " a nd a d es t r oy er of l i b er t y .
I nPor t u g a l , a s i n Sp a i n, Pa r l i a ment a r y g ov er nment
on t h eEng l i s h p a t t er nh a s a l wa y s mea nt a c h a os of
c a ma r i l l a s
a nd c a c i q u i s mo, c or r u p t i on, r ot a t i v i s ma nd
r ev ol u t i on
; i t h a s mea nt t h ec r ea t i on_ of a c l a s s of p r o-
f es s i ona l p ol i t i c i a ns p r ey i ng ont h ep eop l e
: a t r a v es t y
of d emoc r a c y s c r eeni ng t h ema c h i na t i ons of p r o-
f i t eer s . T h a t wi l l s eeml i k ea s ent enc eof ex c i t ed
ex a g g er a t i onu nt i l t h ep ol i t i c a l h i s t or y of Por t u g a l i n
t h eni net eent h c ent u r y c omes t ob ewr i t t eni nEng
l i s h . Eng l i s h - el ec t i oneer i ng met h od s of t h eei g h -
t eent h d onot b ea r c omp a r i s onwi t h t h os eof Por t u g a l .
T h eel ec t or a t e i n 1 8 7 1 wa s l es s t h a ns ev enp er c ent of
t h ep op u l a t i on, a nd wa s wh ol l y c ont r ol l ed , not b y
b r i b es , a s i nt h eg ood ol d Eng l i s h f a s h i on, b u t b y l oc a l
" b os s es " .
T h ePor t u g u es eof t h ey ea r s b ef or e1 9 2 6 c a r ed l i t t l e
a nd k newl es s a b ou t wh a t went ona t Sa nB ent o, , wh er e
t h eC or t es s a t , a nd wh er e( a s h ewa s a l wa y s t ol d ) h e
wa s t h eu l t i ma t ec ont r ol l i ng i nf l u enc e
. " As d i s or d er
f ol l owed d i s or d er , h et u r ned h i ms el f a l wa y s mor e
1 o8
OFSALAZAR
d eep l y t owa r d s h i s
wi f e a nd h i s c h i l d r en, h i s h ou s e,
h i s d a i l y wor k , t h ef i el d , t h eg a r d en, t h ef or es t . T h es e
t h i ng s h a d b eenk nownt oh i s p a r ent s , t oh i s g r a nd -
p a r ent s , a nd t oh i s a nc es t or s t h r ou g h t h ea g es , wh o
h a d s u c c es s i v el y d u g t h es oi l , c u l t i v a t ed t h ev i nea nd
t h ep a t c h of ma i z e, r ea r ed c h i l d r en, s u f f er ed . . . " 6
W h a t u s ewa s t h e" v ot e " t oh i m? Hewa s , a nd r e-
ma i ns , a ni nc or r i g i b l ei l l i t er a t e, c onc er ned onl y wi t h
t h er ea l i t i es of l i f e, wi t h h a r d s h i p a nd t h es oi l , a nd
wi t h et er ni t y .
" I f Li s b ont u r ns T u r k t o- mor r ow, a l l Por t u g a l wi l l
wea r t h eFez , " wr ot et h enov el i s t Ec a d eQu ei r oz . .
T ooof t enh a s t h ev oi c eof t h eLi s b onmob b eent a k en
f or t h e v oi c e of Por t u g a l . I t wa s r ep u b l i c a nLi s b on
t h a t ma d ePor t u g a l a Rep u b l i c i n 1 9 1 0 ; a nd t h er ea -
s ons wh y Li s b onwa s r ep u b l i c a nh a v eb eent ol d i n
a nea r l i er c h a p t er . Onl y a f ewmont h s p r ev i ou s l y
K i ng Ma noel h a d ma d ea j ou r ney t h r ou g h t h ec ou n-
t r y d i s t r i c t s of B ei r a " wh i c h i ns omep l a c es b ec a mea
t r i u mp h a nt p r og r es s t h ep ea s a nt s p r es s i ng ea g er l y t o
wel c omet h ei r K i ng . 7 B u t Li s b ont u r ned T u r k , a nd
Por t u g a l a c c ep t ed , u np r ot es t i ng , u nk nowi ng . For
t h el a s t Mi ni s t r y of t h eMona r c h y , t h eel ec t i ons of
Au g u s t 2 8 , 1 9 1 0 , r et u r ned 1 4 Rep u b l i c a ns a mong
1
4 4
d ep u t i es . Of t h es e
1 4 , 1 oc a mef r omLi s b on. And
wh ent h eRep u b l i c wa s p r oc l a i med , t h emi l l i ons of
Por t u g u es ek newnot h i ng of t h ema t t er , h a d nomor e
h a nd i n
i t t h a nt h ey h a d ev er h a d i nt h ea f f a i r s of
Por t u g a l , a nd wer ec onc er ned i ni t onl y i ns of a r a s t h e
f a nt a s t i c c onf u s i oni nt owh i c h Por t u g u es ep ol i t i c s
wer ei mmed i a t el y p l u ng ed h a d i t s ef f ec t u p ont h ei r
d a i l y l i v es .
T h ec ons t a nt s u c c es s i onof r ev ol u t i ons b et ween
l og
T HEPORT UGAL
1 9 r
oa nd 1 9 2 6 wer eex c l u s i v el y p ol i t i c a l i nc h a r a c t er ;
a nd wer eu nnot i c ed ou t s i d eLi s b on : t h eg ener a l d i s -
a p p ea r a nc eof - a d mi ni s t r a t i v eor d er a nd t t h eg ener a l
r i s ei nt h ec os t of l i v i ng c ont i nu ed s t ea d i l y a nd wi t h -
ou t i nt er r u p t i on . I n r 9 2 6 t h ec ou nt r y r os eweh a v e
t ol d t h es t or y a l r ea d y .
T h eGov er nment t h a t t h en, i nt h ena meof - t h e
na t i on, t ook c ont r ol of a f f a i r s wa s a d i c t a t or s h i p . I t
wa s a d i c t a t or s h i p . i n t h eRoma ns ens eof t h ewor d :
t h a t i s , a Gov er nment t h a t h a d s ei z ed t emp or a r y a b s o-
l u t i s mt omeet a na t i ona l emer g enc y . I t wa s c er t a i nl y
not a d i c t a t or s h i p i n t h emod er ns ens eof a t y r a nny
i t r ep r es ent ed a r el ea s ef r omt y r a nny , f r omt h ei n-
t ol er a b l et y r a nny of t h ep r of es s i ona l p ol i t i c i a ns a nd
t h el oc a l b os s es . At t h eb eg i nni ng of 1 9 2 8 , Gener a l
Os c a r C a r mona . s u b mi t t ed h i s d ef a c t o Pr es i d enc y t o
t h ec ou nt r y ; onMa r c h 2 5 t h a p op u l a r ma nd a t ec on-
f i r med h i mi nh i s of f i c e . Fou r y ea r s l a t er a newC on-
s t i t u t i onwh i c h h a d b eend r a wn u p u nd er t h e
g u i d a nc eof t h eMi ni s t er of Fi na nc e, D r . Sa l a z a r , wa s
a l s os u b mi t t ed t ot h ec ou nt r y f or a p p r ov a l . T h e
p l eb i s c i t ewa s t a k enonMa r c h r 9 ,
1 9 3 3 ,
a nd r es u l t ed
a s f ol l ows
N u mb er of t h eel ec t or a t e 1 , 3 3 0 , 2 6 8
V ot es i nf a v ou r 1 , 2 9 2 , 8 6 4
V ot es op p os i ng 6 , 0 9 0
Sp oi l t v ot es
6 6 o
Ab s t ent i ons 3 0 , 6 5 4
T h eGov er nment t h enc ea s ed t ob ea d i c t a t or s h i p ,
s i nc ei t b ec a meg ov er nment t h r ou g h a p op u l a r l y
a p p r ov ed C ons t i t u t i on. I t r ema i ned a na u t h or i t a r i a n
1 1 0
OFSALAZAR
Gov er nment , a nd onet h a t c a nb es t b ed es c r i b ed a s a
C ons t i t u t i ona l Mona r c h y . ;
f
I s a y a Mona r c h y b ec a u s et h a t wor d mea ns t h e r u l e
of onema n . Sa l a z a r i s a Mona r c h . I nPor t u g a l i n
1 9 2 6 , a s s oof t eni na nc i ent Rome, a nd a s t eny ea r s
l a t er i nSp a i n, i t wa s t h ea r my t h a t g a v eex p r es s i ont o
t h ev oi c eof , t h ep eop l e. I t wa s t h ea r my wh i c h g a v e
p ower t oSa l a z a r ; b u t Sa l a z a r wa s nonet h el es s f a r
f x omb ei ng t h enomi neeof - a mi l i t a r y J u nt a . He
a c c ep t ed of f i c eonh i s ownt er ms , a nd s i nc et h a t t i me
h eh a s p r ov ed h i ms el f t ob ei nt h et r u es t s ens et h e
s er v a nt
of
h i s p eop l e. K i ng s a r es omet i mes t h ep u p -
p et s of ol i g a r c h y
, b u t Mona r c h s a r ea l wa y s t h es er -
v a nt s of t h ei r p eop l e, a nd l os ep ower wh ent h ey c ea s e
t ob es o
. AMona r c h , b y t h es u p p or t of t h e- ma s s es
of h i s s u b j ec t s , h ol d s i nc h ec k a l l t h os ewh o i n
t h e
na t u r eof t h i ng s h ol d h i g h of f i c e
i nt h eSt a t e, a nd
c u r b s t h ea mb i t i onof t h os ewh owou l d t u r na d mi ni s -
t r a t i v ep ower t ot h ei r own
.
end s . AMona r c h i s t h e
a ns wer t ot h ea nc i ent q u es onof J u v ena l Qu i s
c u s t o-
d i et i p s os c u s t od es ? I f h ec ea s es t ob et h ec h a mp i on
of h i s p eol e, t h eb a l a nc ei s l os t ; a u t h or i t y p a s s es
r omh i s h a nd s , a nd t h ec ou nt r y i s g ov er ned b y
ol i g a r c h y . , ,
Por t u g a l wa s g ov er ned d u r i ng t h eni net eent h c en-
t u r y , a nd d u r i ng t h ef i r s t q u a r t er of t h et went i et h , b y a
Li b er a l - Ma s oni c ol i g a r c h y . B u t Sa l a z a r , wh oh a s
er a d i c a t ed b ot h i nd i v i d u a l i s t Li b er a l i s ma nd
a nt i -
f )
p op u l a r Fr eema s onr y , i s a Mona r c h : h i s r u l ei s p op u -
a r a nd na t i ona l , a nd h ewou l d h a v eb eenh ou nd ed
f r omLi s b ony ea r s a g o wer ei t not s o, ei t h er b y t h e
p eop l e, or b y t h ed i s p os s es s ed , ol i g a r c h y a p p ea l i ng t o
t h ec h i mer a of d emoc r a c y .
- I I I
T HEPORT UGAL
T o- d a y , t h en, Por t u g a l i s g ov er ned u nd er a Mon-
a r c h i c a l C ons t i t u t i on. B u t t h er ei s ev er y i nd i c a t i on
t h a t t h i s i s onl y t ol a s t u nt i l t h eC or p or a t eor g a ni s a -
t i onof t h ec ou nt r y i s f u l l y d ev el op ed , wh ent h eC or -
p or a t i v eC h a mb er wi l l b ec omet h ec h i ef , i f not t h e
onl y l eg i s l a t i v eb od y , a nd t h ef or mof g ov er nment wi l l
b ec omeonet h a t c a nb ed es c r i b ed a s or g a ni c d emoc -
r a c y . ' .
T h ev er y f a c t t h a t t h ep r es ent C ons t i t u t i on
c ont a i ns s u c h a mp l ep r ov i s i onf or r ev i s i oni s p er h a p s
a ni nd i c a t i ont h a t i t i s not r eg a r d ed a s f i na l
.
W ewi l l , t h er ef or e, c ons i d er f i r s t t h eC ons t i t u t i ona l
Mona r c h y of t o- d a y , a nd t h ent h ep os s i b i l i t i es of t h e
f u t u r e
. I t wi l l b ei nt er es t i ng t os eewh et h er t h eRoy a l
Hou s eof B r a g a h z a i s r es t or ed
. T h a t ma y h a p p en
ei t h er b ef or eor a f t er t h ep r es ent f or mof g ov er nment
i s s u p er s ed ed
. T h er ei s no h ei r i nt h ed i r ec t l i ne ;
b u t D omD u a r t eN u no, h ei r i nt h eMi g u el i s t l i ne, i s a
y ou ng ma n, a t p r es ent l i v i ng i nAu s t r i a
. Hei s k nown
t ob ei ns y mp a t h y wi t h t h ewor k of Sa l a z a r
. I t i s not
a l t og et h er i mp r ob a b l et h a t i n1 9 4 2 , wh ent h e- t er mof
of f i c eof Pr es i d ent C a r mona c omes t oa nend , t h eC on-
s t i t u t i onwi l l b ea d a p t ed s ot h a t Por t u g a l c a nr ec ei v e
h i mb a c k
; t h enwi l l t h eh i s t or i c Por t u g a l b ef u l l y
v i n-
d i c a t ed
. Gener a l C a r mona i s a nel d er l y ma n, a nd i s
i nh i s s ec ond t er mof of f i c e, h a v i ng b eenr e- el ec t ed ( b y
a nev enl a r g er v ot et h a nb ef or e) i n
1 9 3 5 .
I t i s u nl i k el y
t h a t h ewi l l s t a nd a g a i n . I t i s not i mp os s i b l et h a t i n
f ou r y ea r s f r omnowwes h a l l h a v et h eRoy a l Hou s es
r es t or ed b ot h i nPor t u g a l a nd i nSp a i n
.
T h er es t or a t i onof t h eHou s eof B r a g a nz a wi l l not
h a p p en, of c ou r s e, u nt i l a l l memor i es of t h eol d p a r t y
c onf l i c t s h a v eb eenf or g ot t en . T h enewPor t u g a l d oes
not t ol er a t ep ol i t i c a l f a c t i onof a ny k i nd ) i t d oes not
1 1 2
OFSALAZAR
t ol er a t ea Roy a l i s t f a c t i on
. T h a t i s wh y , i nN ov emb er
1 9 3 7 , Pa i v a C ou c ei r o, l ea d er of Roy a l i s t d i s t u r b a nc es
i n1 9 1 1 , 1 9 1 2 ,
a nd 1 9 1 9 , wa s ex p el l ed f r omt h ec ou n=
t r y
. B u t i na s p eec h i n
1 9 3 2 , 9 Sa l a z a r p a i d a h a nd s ome
t r i b u t et ot h ememor y of K i ng Ma noel a nd g a v et h e
i mp r es s i ont h a t , wh enPor t u g a l i s r ea d y , s h ewi l l c a l l
b a c k h er K i ng s .
I I
T h eC ons t i t u t i onof
1 9 3 3
i s d i v i d ed i nt ot wo
p
a r t s .
T h ef i r s t c onc er ns "
Fu nd a ment a l Gu a r a nt ees " : i t
d ef i nes t h ef u nc t i ons of t h eSt a t e, t h er i g h t s of c i t i z ens ,
t h ei mp or t a nc eof t h ef a mi l y , t h ep r i nc i p l es g ov er n-
i ng t h ea d mi ni s t r a t i on, a nd s oon . I na l l t h a t t h er ei s
not l i k el y t ob es i g ni f i c a nt c h a ng e . Pa r t I I c onc er ns
" T h ePol i t i c a l Or g a ni s a t i onof t h eSt a t e " : i t i s t h a t
wh i c h wenowh a v et od es c r i b e, a nd wh i c h , a s wes u r -
mi s e, ma y u nd er g or ev i s i oni nt h ef u t u r e .
Ar t i c l eLX X I , wh i c h i s t h ef i r s t of Pa r t I I , d ec l a r es
t h a t " Sov er ei g nt y s h a l l r es i d ei nt h eN a t i on . I t s
or g a ns a r et h eHea d of t h eSt a t e, t h eN a t i ona l As s em-
b l y , t h eGov er nment , a nd t h eC ou r t s of J u s t i c e . " I t
r es i d es i nt h eN a t i on, a s d i s t i nc t f r omb ei ng a t t r i b u t ed
t o" t h e, p eop l e " ; t h a t i s , t h eol d a t omi c l i b er a l i s mh a s
b eenr ep l a c ed b y a c onc ep t i onof s oc i et y a s a nor g a ni c
wh ol e. I t wi l l b enot ed t h a t a l t h ou g h t h eGov er nment
i s a c c ou nt ed a nor g a nof s ov er ei g nt y , t h eC or p or a t i v e
C h a mb er i s not s oa t p r es ent .
T h eHea d of t h eSt a t ei s t h ePr es i d ent of t h e
1 1 3

H
T HEPORT UGAL
Rep u b l i c , wh oi s el ec t ed b y d i r ec t s u f f r a g ef or a p er i od
of s ev eny ea r s , a nd i s r e- el i g i b l e, i nd ef i ni t el y
: a v a l u -
a b l emea ns f or s ec u r i ng c ont i nu i t y of p ol i c y i s t h u s
p r ov i d ed . B y Ar t i c l eLX X V I I I , " T h ePr es i d ent of
t h e, Rep u b l i c s h a l l b ed i r ec t l y a nd ex c l u s i v el y r es p on-
s i b l et ot h ena t i onf or a c t i ons p er f or med i nt h eex er -
c i s eof h i s d u t i es . I nt h a t a nd i nh i s ma g i s t r a c y h e
s h a l l b eent i r el y i nd ep end ent of a ny v ot eof t h e
' N a t i ona l As s emb l y . " Henomi na t es t h ePr i me
Mi ni s t er a nd ot h er Mi ni s t er s , wh oh ol d of f i c es u b j ec t
t oh i s wi l l , a nd i s emp ower ed a r b i t r a r i l y t od i s s ol v e
t h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y " wh ent h es u p r emei nt er es t s
of t h eN a t i on s o r eq u i r e
" .
Hea p p ea r s t oh ol d v er y
c ons i d er a b l ep ower .
W h enwec omet oAr t i c l eLX X X I I , h owev er , we
f i nd t h a t " t h ea c t s of t h ePr es i d ent of t h eRep u b l i c
mu s t b ec ou nt er - s i g ned b y t h ePr es i d ent of t h eC ou n-
c i l of Mi ni s t er s , a nd b y a ny ot h er a p p r op r i a t eMi ni s -
t er or Mi ni s t er s , f a i l i ng wh i c h t h ey s h a l l i p s o f a c t o
b enu l l a nd v oi d " . T h r eeex c ep t i ons onl y a r ema d e
t o t h i s r u l e : noc ou nt er s i g na t u r ei s r eq u i r ed f or t h e
a p p oi nt ment or d i s mi s s a l of t h ePr es i d ent of t h e
C ou nc i l of Mi ni s t er s , f or mes s a g es s ent t ot h eN a -
t i ona l As s emb l y , or f or h i s ownr es i g na t i on .
Ar t i c l e LX X X I I I p r ov i d es f or a C ou nc i l of St a t et o
a c t i nc onj u nc t i onwi t h t h ePr es i d ent of t h eRep u b l i c
ona l l i mp or t a nt oc c a s i ons , a nd t oc ons i s t of t h e
Pr es i d ent of t h eC ou nc i l of Mi ni s t er s ( t owh omi t i s
s i mp l er a nd l es s c onf u s i ng t or ef er a s t h ePr i me
Mi ni s t er ) , t h ePr es i d ent s of t h e, N a t i ona l As s emb l y ,
t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er , a nd t h eSu p r emeC ou r t
of j u s t i c e, a nd " f i v ep u b l i c menof ou t s t a nd i ng
a b i l i t y " .
1 1 4
OFSALAZAR
- B u t i t i s
not d i f f i c u l t t os eet h a t r ea l p ower i nt h e
St a t el i es wi t h t h eGov er nment , a nd t h a t r ea l p ower i n
t h eGov er nment l i es wi t h t h ePr i meMi ni s t er , d es p i t e
t h ef a c t t h a t h ec a nb ed i s mi s s ed a t wi l l b y t h ePr es i -
d ent
. T h a t i s , r ea l p ower i nPor t u g a l t o- d a y l i es wi t h
D r . Sa l a z a r
.
"
T h eGov er nment , " s a y s Ar t i c l eC V I I , " s h a l l c on- t
s i s t of t h ePr i meMi ni s t er , wh oma y c ond u c t t h e
a f f a i r s of oneor mor eMi ni s t r i es , a nd t h eMi ni s t er s
. "
Sa l a z a r t o- d a y h ol d s t h eMi ni s t r i es of Fi na nc e, W a r ,
a nd For ei g nAf f a i r s , i na d d i t i on t o
t h ePr emi er -
s h i p
. I °
` - T h ePr i meMi ni s t er s h a l l b er es p ons i b l et ot h e
Pr es i d ent of t h eRep u b l i c f or t h eg ener a l p ol i c y of t h e
Gov er nment , a nd s h a l l c o- or d i na t ea nd d i r ec t t h ea c t i -
v i t i es of a l l t h eMi ni s t er s , wh os h a l l b er es p ons i b l et o
h i mf or t h ei r - p ol i t i c a l a c t s " ( Ar t i c l eC V I I I )
. " T h e
Gov er nment s h a l l d ep end ex c l u s i v el y onnt h ec on-
f i d enc eof t h ePr es i d ent of t h eRep u b l i c , a nd t h ei r
r et ent i onof p ower s h a l l not d ep end ont h ef a t e
s u f f er ed b y t h ei r b i l l s , or ona ny v ot eof t h eN a t i ona l
As s emb l y " - ( Ar t i c l eC X I I )
. Memb er s of t h eGov er n-
ment need not b ed r a wnf r omt h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y
;
i nd eed ,
"
Memb er s of t h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y or of
t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er
wh o
a c c ep t mi ni s t er i a l
of f i c es h a l l not f or f ei t t h ei r ma nd a t es , b u t ma y not s i t
i nt h ei r r es p ec t i v eC h a mb er s " ( Ar t i c l eC X )
.
T h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y i s t h enomi na l l eg i s l a t u r e,
b u t a l l l eg i s l a t i onof i mp or t a nc ec omes i nf a c t f r om
t h eGov er nment , . a nd t h er ei s ev er y r ea s ont os u p p os e
t h a t t h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y i s r ea l l y i nt end ed
i f i t i s
t ob er et a i ned a t a l l - a s a c h ec k ont h eex ec u t i v e
. I t
s i t s f or onl y t h r eemont h s of t h ey ea r a nd a ny memb er
i i $
T HEPORT UGAL
h a s t h ep ower t oi ni t i a t ea ny l eg i s l a t i ont h a t d oes not
i nv ol v ea ni nc r ea s ei nna t i ona l ex p end i t u r eor a
d ec r ea s ei nna t i ona l r ev enu e ; a ny l eg i s l a t i ona p p r ov ed
b y a na b s ol u t ema j or i t y of t h eAs s emb l y i s s u b mi t t ed
t ot h ePr es i d ent of t h eRep u b l i c f or p r omu l g a t i on,
wh i c h ma y b er ef u s ed . And a l l l eg i s l a t i onof c on-
s eq u enc ec omes f r omt h eGov er nment d u r i ng t h e
ni nemont h s of t h ey ea r wh ent h eAs s emb l y i s not
s i t t i ng , i nt h ef or mof D ec r ee- La ws i s s u ed u nd er
Ar t i c l eC I X .
B u t i f t h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y i s not t h enor ma l
l eg i s l a t i v eb od y , i t
t h e
s u f f i c i ent p ower t oa c t a s a n
ef f ec t i v ec h ec k ont h eGov er nment i f nec es s a r y . :. For
t h a t r ea s oni t i s p r ob a b l et h a t i t wi l l b er et a i ned . I n
t h ef i r s t p l a c e, i f a l a wt h a t h a s b eenr ef u s ed p r omu l g a -
t i onb y t h ePr es i d ent i s b r ou g h t u p a g a i ni nt h e
N a t i ona l As s emb l y , a nd , b ei ng v ot ed ona g a i n,
r ec ei v es a t wo- t h i r d s ma j or i t y of t h ev ot es of a l l
memb er s , t h ent h ePr es i d ent c a nnot a s ec ond t i me
wi t h h ol d h i s a s s ent . And i nt h es ec ond p l a c e, a
D ec r ee- La wi s s u ed b y t h eGov er nment mu s t c ome
b ef or et h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y wh ennex t t h a t b od y i s
i ns es s i on, a nd i f r a t i f i c a t i oni s r ef u s ed , t h eni t c ea s es
f r omt h a t d a y t ob ev a l i d .
T h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y c ons i s t s of ni net y memb er s
el ec t ed b y d i r ec t s u f f r a g e. Anel a b or a t es y s t emof
h ol d i ng t h eel ec t i ons h a s b eend ev i s ed t oob v i a t et h e
p os s i b i l i t y of t h ef or ma t i onof a ny p ol i t i c a l p a r t i es .
T h er ea r enoc ons t i t u enc i es . At l ea s t t h i r t y d a y s
b ef or ea nel ec t i on, c omp l et el i s t s of ni net y c a nd i d a t es ,
s i g ned b y a t l ea s t t woh u nd r ed el ec t or s , mu s t b es u b -
mi t t ed t ot h eGov er nment . T h ena mes ona l l s u c h
l i s t s s u b mi t t ed , i f c ons i d er ed el i g i b l e, a r ep u b l i s h ed
z 1 6
OFSALAZAR
i na l p h a b et i c a l or d er i nt h eof f i c i a l j ou r na l , t h e D i a r i o
d oGov er no, a nd i na t l ea s t t woot h er na t i ona l news -
p a p er s
. Ont h ed a y of t h eel ec t i on, v ot er s c r os s of f
f r omt h es el i s t s s u c h c a nd i d a t es a s t h ey ma y not a p -
p r ov e, t h er eb y v ot i ng f or t h er es t ; t h ey ma y not a d d
na mes t h a t d onot a p p ea r . T h eni net y c a nd i d a t es
wh os ena mes a r eu nc r os s ed - of f ont h el a r g es t nu mb er
of l i s t s r ep r es ent t h ep er s onnel of t h enewAs s emb l y .
I t i s nev er l i k el y t ob ea v er y t r u c u l ent b od y , s i nc et h e
Gov er nment c a nr ej ec t a ny c a nd i d a t ed eemed i nel i -
g i b l e, a nd a mong t h er eq u i r ement s i s a p r of es s i onof
f i d el i t y t ot h er eg i me .
T h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er ex i s t s , a c c or d i ng t ot h e
or i g i na l v er s i onof t h eC ons t i t u t i on, " t or ep or t a nd t o
g i v ei t s op i ni oni nwr i t i ng ona l l p r op os i t i ons or p r o-
s ec t s of l a wwh i c h s h a l l b e p r es ent ed t ot h eN a t i ona l
As s emb l y , b ef or et h eop eni ng of d i s c u s s i ont h er e-
u p on " ( Ar t i c l eC I I I ) . B y a na mend ment of Ma r c h
1
9 3 5 , t h ep h r a s e " i nwr i t i ng " wa s d el et ed , a nd t h e
C h a mb er wa s r eq u i r ed a l s ot or ep or t " on
a l l i nt er -
na t i ona l c onv ent i ons or t r ea t i es " .
I nd oi ng t h a t i t i s
c l ea r l y d oi ng s omet h i ng mor et h a np r ov i d i ng t ec h -
ni c a l a d v i c eons p ec i a l i s ed s u b j ec t s . Ag a i n, t h eC on-
s t i t u t i onor i g i na l l y l a i d d ownt h a t i t s h ou l d s i t onl y
wh i l et h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y wa s i ns es s i on ; b u t a n-
ot h er a mend menx of t h es a med a t ea d d ed t h a t " i n
t h ei nt er v a l s b et weenl eg i s l a t i v es es s i ons , t h eGov er n-
ment s h a l l b ea b l et oc ons u l t t h es p ec i a l i s ed d ep a r t -
ment s of t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er ond ec r ee- l a ws i t
i s a b ou t t op u b l i s h , or onl a ws i t p r op os es t ol a y b ef or e
t h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y " . B ot h t h es ea mp l i f i c a t i ons
s eemt os h owt h a t Sa l a z a r i nt end s t h a t , wh ent h eC or -
p or a t i ons a r ep r op er l y or g a ni s ed , a nd t h ePor t u g u es e
I 1 7
i
T HEPORT UGAL
C or p or a t eSt a t eh a s g ot b ey ond i t s p r es ent t r a ns i t i ona l
s t a g e, t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er wi l l b eg i v enwi d er
s c op e. M. Fr ep p el C ot t a i s of t h eop i ni ont h a t " t h e
N a t i ona l As s emb l y wi l l b ed i s p ens ed ' wi t h , a nd t h e
C h a mb er wi l l a c t a s t h ea d v i s er of t h eGov er nment ,
wh i c h wi l l i t s el f l eg i s l a t e" . -
T h a t i s not t h eop i ni onof t h ep r es ent wr i t er ` : h e
p r ef er s t ot h i nk t h a t t h eN a t i ona l As s emb l y wi l l b e
r et a i ned , f or r ea s ons h eh a s s t a t ed , b u t t h a t t h eC or -
p or a t i v eC h a mb er wi l l b ec omet h ec h i ef ' l eg i s l a t i v e
b od y
. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t os a y d ef i ni t el y wh a t i s t h e
i nt ent i onof Sa l a z a r
. I nh i s s p eec h of J a nu a r y 2 6 ,
1 9 3 4 ,
h es p ok eof t h ep r es ent p os i t i onof t h eC or p or a t i v e
C h a mb er a s " t r a ns i t i ona l "
; a nd onD ec emb er 9 t h of
t h a t y ea r h ed el i v er ed a ni mp or t a nt s p eec h ont h e
s u b j ec t , i nwh i c h h es a i d d ef i ni t el y t h a t h ed oes not
p r op os et oa b ol i s h t h eAs s emb l y wi t h ou t t h ep r e-
p a r a t i onof a l ong ex p er i enc e" ; ont h eot h er h a nd h e
v ent u r ed t h eop i ni ont h a t i nt went y y ea r s ' t i met h er e
wi l l b enop u r el y p ol i t i c a l l eg i s l a t i v ea s s emb l i es l ef t i n
Eu r op e. W ec a nb u t wa i t u p onev ent s
. B u t - i t i s a t
a ny r a t ec l ea r t h a t Por t u g u es ec or p or a t i s m, wh i c h
g i v es t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er a v oi c e i ns u c h ma t t er s
a s
t h ec ond u c t of f or ei g na f f a i r s , d oes not f a l l i nt ot h e
t h i r d of t h et h r eet y p es d i s t i ng u i s h ed b y M . Ma noi -
l es c o, a nd t h a t i t t h er ef or er ep r es ent s s omet h i ng mor e
t h a nt h e" s a nec or p or a t i v es y s t emr ec ommend ed b y
t h ep r es ent Pop e.
" W i t h a l i v el y a p p r eh ens i onof i t s r es p ons i b i l i t y
b ef or et h ena t i on- t h eemb od i ment of a l l
t h e-
ma t e- r i a l
a nd mor a l a c h i ev ement s of p a s t g ener a t i ons - - t h e
St a t ei s p r of ou nd l y . na t i ona l , p op u l a r wi t h ou t b ei ng
d ema g og i c , r ep r es ent a t i v e b u t
a nt i ` ' d emoc r a t i c ,
i i 8
OF, SALAZA- R
s t r ong b u t nei t h er t y r a nnou s nor a l l - a b s or b i n
.
" 1 2
T h os ewor d s of Sa l a z a r d es c r i b eh i s i nt ent i ons .
ei s
a g a i ns t " d emoc r a c y
" i nt h es ens ei nwh i c h Por t u g a l
h a s k nowni t :
h eh a s er a d i c a t ed p ol i t i c a l l i b er a l i s m
t og et h er wi t h ec onomi c l i b er a l i s m. B u t t h ees s enc e
of h i s Gov er nment
i s t h a t i t i s p op u l a r , a nd . i t
i s i nc on-
c ei v a b l et h a t M
. C ot t a i s r i g h t i nt h i nk i ng t h a t h ep r o-
p os es t og i v ea l l l eg i s l a t i v ep ower t oa g ov er nment
c ont r ol l ed onl y , a nd s l i g h t l y a t t h a t , b y a Pr es i d ent
el ec t ed ev er y s ev eny ea r s
. I t i s mu c h mor el i k el y ,
wh et h er or not t h eAs s emb l y i s r et a i ned , t h a t t h eC or -
p or a t i v eC h a mb er wi l l b eg i v ens omet h i ng c ons i d er -
a b l y mor et h a na p u r el y a d v i s or y c a p a c i t y , ev eni f i t
d oes not b ec omet h es ol el eg i s l a t u r e, a nd t h a t a r ea l
d emoc r a c y wi l l t h er eb y b ea t t a i ned
. T h ewor k i ng of
t h a t d emoc r a c y wi l l b ed es c r i b ed i nt h enex t s ec t i on
of t h i s c h a p t er .
T h os ewh od i s a g r eewi t h or d onot u nd er s t a nd
t h ei d ea of f u nc t i ona l r ep r es ent a t i on, a nd p r ef er a
l eg i s l a t i v ea s s emb l y ont h el i nes of t h emod em
Eng l i s h Hou s eof C ommons , wou l d d owel l t or e-
memb er t h a t i ni t s f ou r t eent h - c ent u r y or i g i ns , t h e
Eng l i s h Pa r l i a ment wa s a t y p i c a l l y c or p or a t i v eb od y
.
T h a t i s t os a y , i t s memb er s wer enot el ec t ed b y a
f ew
t h ou s a nd mi s c el l a neou s c i t i z ens wh om
. f a t eh a d
p l a c ed a l l wi t h i nt h es a meg eog r a p h i c a l a r ea , b u t
r ep r es ent ed t h eEs t a t es of t h eRea l m, a nd wer ec a l l ed
t oa d v i s et h eK i ng ont h os ema t t er s of wh i c h , f r om
t h ei r p os i t i ons i nl i f e, t h ey h a d p a r t i c u l a r a nd p er s ona l
i nt er es t
. T h ei d ea of c or p or a t i v ed emoc r a c y i s a n
ol d er t h i ng , ev eni nEng l a nd , t h a nt h eLi b er a l d emoc -
r a c y t h a t wa s f or a c ent u r y s ot r a g i c a l l y c op i ed i n
Por t u g a l .
I I 9
I I I
OnJ u ne 3 0 , 1 9 3 0 , Sa l a z a r d el i v er ed a s p eec h t o
wh i c h t h ep h r a s e " ep oc h - ma k i ng " c a na c c u r a t el y b e
a p p l i ed , a nd wh i c h i s " r e& a r d ed a s t h eC h a r t er of t h e
N ewSt a t e " .
1
3 T h eoc c a s i onwa s t h ef ou nd i ng of t h e
Uni a oN a t i ona l - t h e N a t i ona l Uni on- t h eor g a ni s a -
t i onof t h os ewh o, r enou nc i ng a l l p a r t y p ol i t i c s , h a v e
p l ed g ed t h ems el v es t os u p p or t Sa l a z a r i nh i s wor k of
na t i ona l r ec ons t r u c t i on . I nt h i s s p eec h Sa l a z a r , wh o
h a s b eenFi na nc eMi ni s t er f or t woy ea r s , b u t h a s not
y et b ec omePr i meMi ni s t er , d es c r i b es t h ep r i nc i p l es
wh i c h t h ef u t u r eof Por t u g a l wi l l f ol l ow. I t i s t h ef i r s t
i mp or t a nt oc c a s i ononwh i c h h eh a s p u b l i c l y a s s o-
c i a t ed h i ms el f wi t h wi d er ma t t er s t h a nh i s i mmed i a t e
wor k a s s p ec i a l i s t i n ec onomi c s a nd f i na nc e : i t ma r k s
h i s emer g enc ea s t h ena t i ona l l ea d er .
Hei s mor ec onc er ned wi t h t h ep ol i t i c a l f u t u r et h a n
wi t h s oc i a l p r i nc i p l es . " W ek nowonl y t oowel l , h e
s a i d , " t h a t i f t h ed i c t a t or s h i p wer et og o, a nd t og i v e
p l a c et ot h er u l eof f a c t i on, i t wou l d mea nt h eend of
a l l t h ewor k of r ec ons t r u c t i on, of a l l t h ep os s i b i l i t i es
of t h ep r es ent ; t h eol d c a u s es of c h a os a nd r u i nwou l d
r et u r n, t h ei r d es t r u c t i v ef or c ea c c ent u a t ed b y i n-
c r ea s ed i nd i s c i p l i ne, b y ex a c er b a t ed p a s s i ons , b y t h e
c ol l a p s eof a l l ma t er i a l a nd mor a l d ef enc es a g a i ns t d i s -
or d er - ev ent ot h eex t ent of u nd er mi ni ng t h ec ond i -
t i ons nec es s a r y t ot h ev er y ex i s t enc eof s oc i et y . " I t
wa s t r u e
; a r i g or ou s d i c t a t or s h i p wa s a na b s ol u t e
nec es s i t y , i f l i f ewa s t ob ec a r r i ed ona t a l l , i nt h ePor -
1 2 0
T HEPORT UGAL
OFSALAZAR
t u g a l of t h os ey ea r s f ol l owi ng 1 9 2 6 . Ev er y k i nd of
r ev ol u t i ona r y , a nd s u b v er s i v ea c t i v i t y wa s b ei ng c a r -
r i ed ona g a i ns t t h eGov er nment , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y C om-
mu ni s t s a nd ex i l ed p ol i t i c i a ns of t h eol d r eg i me
. T h e
mos t f or mi d a b l ea t t a c k Ga mei n1 9 3 1 , wh enr i ot s a nd
d i s t u r b a nc es i nMa d ei r a , Por t u g u es eGu i nea , a nd t h e
Az or es i nv ol v ed a g ood d ea l of d a ma g ea nd l os s of l i f e
.
T h ep l a nwa s t oma k et r ou b l ei nt h es ep l a c es a nd i n
d i f f er ent p a r t s of t h ec ou nt r y , s o
oc c u p y i ng t h e
Gov er nment , c omp el l i ng i t t os end t r oop s a b r oa d ,
d i v er t i ng ot h er t r oop s t ot h ec ou nt r y d i s t r i c t s of Por -
t u g a l , a nd l a y i ng Li s b onop ent o a c ou p
d ' et a t .
N ot h i ng c a me of i t , owi ng t ot h ef a c t t h a t Por t u g a l
wa s s ol i d l y b eh i nd Sa l a z a r ; a nd T h eT i mes
wa s f r a nk
enou g h t os a y : " I t i s c ommonk nowl ed g et h a t t h i s
t r ou b l ei s t h ewor k of Por t u g u es ep ol i t i c i a ns i n
ex i l e
i nPa r i s , a nd p a r t i c u l a r l y of s omeof t h ef or mer h ea d s
of t h ePor t u g u es eGr a nd Or i ent . " 1 4
T h eD i c t a t or s h i p , t h en, wa s a na b s ol u t enec es s i t y
;
nev er t h el es s , i t wa s nev er r eg a r d ed b y Sa l a z a r a s mor e
t h a na t emp or a r y ex p ed i ent , t og 1 v ep l a c et oc ons t i t u -
t i ona l g ov er nment s os oona s t h enewC ons t i t u t i on
c ou l d b ed r a wnu p , a nd s os oona s t h es mou l d er i ng
a ni mos i t i es of t h eol d l i b er a l p a r t y s y s t ems h ou l d h a v e
s u f f i c i ent l y d i ed d own. " - h er ei s nod ou b t , s a i d
Sa l a z a r ont h ef ou r t h a nni v er s a r y of t h ena t i ona l r i s -
i ng , " t h a t t h ed i c t a t or s h i p , ev enc ons i d er ed onl y a s a
r es t r i c t i ont ot h eGov er nment of t h ep ower t oma k e
l a ws , i s a p ol i t i c a l f or mu l a
; b u t onec a nnot s a y t h a t i t
r ep r es ent s t h el a s t i ng s ol u t i onof t h ep ol i t i c a l p r ob -
l em; i t i s es s ent i a l l y a f or mu l a of t r a ns i t i on
.
"
Si nc ed i c t a t or s h i p s of t ena r i s ef r omc onf l i c t b e-
t weena u t h or i t y a nd t h ea b u s er s of l i b er t y , a nd s i nc e
I ?r 1
T HEPORT UGAL
t h ey g ener a l l y h a v er ec ou r s et omea s u r es r es t r i c t i ng
f r eed omof a s s oc i a t i ona nd t h ef r eed omof t h ePr es s ,
d i c t a t or s h i p i s of t enc onf u s ed wi t h t y r a nny. T h a t i s
not i t s es s enc e ; a nd i f l i b er t y i s u nd er s t ood a s t h e f u l l
g u a r a nt eeof t h er i g h t s
of
a l l - t omy mi nd t h eonl y
t r u ec onc ep t i on, of i t - t h enma y d i c t a t or s h i p , wi t h ou t
s op h i s t r y , r i v a l i nt h i s r es p ec t ma ny r eg i mes wh i c h g o
b y t h ena meof l i b er a l . B u t i t i s
i n
a ny c a s ea na l mos t
u nl i mi t ed p ower , a nd t h i s f a c t ma k es i t a v er y d el i c a t e
i ns t r u ment , wh i c h ea s i l y ou t l i v es i t s u s ef u l nes s , a nd
wh i c h c a nea s i l y b ea b u s ed . For t h i s r ea s on, i t i s
i mp or t a nt t h a t i t s h ou l d not s eek p er ma nenc e. "
T h a t wa s i nMa y 1 9 3 0 : a nd i nt h ef ol l owi ng mont h
h ema d et h ec el eb r a t ed s p eec h t owh i c h wemu s t now
r et u r n, i nwh i c h h eou t l i ned t h et h eor y of d emoc r a c y
wh i c h wa s t os u p er s ed et h ed i c t a t or s h i p wh enc ond i -
t i ons s h ou l d p er mi t of i t .
" T h ep ol i t i c a l l i b er a l i s mof t h eni net eent h c en-
t u r y , " h es a i d , c r ea t ed t h e' c i t i z en' - t h ei nd i v i d u a l
i s ol a t ed f r omt h ef a mi l y , t h ec l a s s , t h ep r of es s i on, t h e
c u l t u r a l mi l i eu , f r omt h eec onomi c wh ol et owh i c h
h eb el ong ed - a nd g a v eh i mt h eop t i ona l r i g h t of t a k -
i ng p a r t i n t h ec ons t i t u t i onof t h eGov er nment . I t
wa s t h er et h a t t h es ou r c eof na t i ona l s ov er ei g nt y wa s
a s s u med t ob e .
" I f wer eg a r d r ea l i t i es , wef i nd ou r s el v es c onf r ont ed
h er ewi t h a na b s t r a c t i on- a ner r oneou s or i na d eq u a t e
c onc ep t - a nd i t i s i nt u r ni ng t owa r d s t h ena t u r a l
g r ou p s nec es s a r y t o i nd i v i d u a l l i f e, a nd u p onwh i c h
p ol i t i c a l l i f er ea l l y d ep end s , t h a t t h ep oi nt of d ep a r -
t u r ewh i c h wes eek wi l l b emor es u r el y f ou nd . T h e
f i r s t of t h es ei s t h ef a mi l y , t h ei r r ed u c i b l es oc i a l u ni t ,
t h eor i g i na l . c or eof t h ep a r i s h , of t h et owns h i p , a nd
1 2 2
OFS. ALAZAR
t h er ef or eof t h ena t i on . Ef f ec t i v el y p r ot ec t ed i ni t s
f or ma t i on, i t s p r es er v a t i ona nd d ev el op ment , ' t h e
f a mi l y ou g h t t oex er c i s e, t h r ou g h t h ev oi c eof i t s h ea d ,
t h er i g h t of el ec t i ng t h ememb er s of t h ea d mi ni s t r a -
t i v eb od i es , a t l ea s t t h os eof t h ep a r i s h , f or t h a t r i g h t
i s nomor et h a nt h ena t u r a l ex p r es s i onof t h eh ea r t h s
a nd h omes , wi t h t h ec ommoni nt er es t s wh i c h a r e
t h ei r s .
Ar t i c l eX I I of t h eC ons t i t u t i on( q u ot ed onp
. 6 9 ,
a b ov e) c ons eq u ent l y d es c r i b es t h ef a mi l y a s
" a f u nd a -
ment a l of p ol i t i c a l a nd a d mi ni s t r a t i v e` or d er , b y i t s
a s s oc i a t i oni nt h ep a r i s h a nd i nt h emu ni c i p a l i t y , , a s
wel l a s b y i t s r ep r es ent a t i oni nt h el oc a l a u t h or i t i es
g ov er ni ng t h es e ' . And Ar t i c l eX I X l a y s d ownt h a t
" t h er i g h t of el ec t i ng t ot h ePa r i s h C ou nc i l s ( j u nt a s
d e f r eg u es i a ) b el ong s ex c l u s i v el y t ot h ef a mi l i es " .
B u t b y Ar t i c l eX X I , I nt h ep ol i t i c a l or g a ni s a t i on
of t h eSt a t e, t h ep a r i s h c ou nc i l s s h a l l t a k ep a r t i nt 1 j g
el ec t i on of t h emu ni c i p a l c h a mb er s a nd p r ov i nc i a l
c ou nc i l s , a nd i nt h ec ons t i t u t i onof
. t h eC or p or a t i v e
C h a mb er . " Loc a l a d mi ni s t r a t i oni s , i nf a c t , t h ef i r s t
i nt er es t of t h os es p ec i f i ed i nAr t i c l eC Hf or r ep r es ent a -
t i oni nt h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er , a nd a t t h ep r es ent
d a y i t h a s mor er ep r es ent a t i v es t h er et h a na ny ot h er
.
T h ef a mi l y wi l l t h u s b es eent o, b ef u nd a ment a l l y
r ep r es ent ed i nt h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er : i t h a s b een
c a l l ed " t h ep r ot ot y p a l c or p or a t i on
" .
C ont i nu i ng t os p ea k of ` t h ena t u r a l g r ou p s nec es -
s t oi nd i v i d u a l l i f e, a nd u p onwh i c h p ol i t i c a l l i f e
r el y d ep end s " , Sa l a z a r t u r ned t o " t h emor a l a nd .
ec onomi c c or p or a t i ons , s u c h a s t h eUni v er s i t i es , - t h e
s c i ent i f i c a c a d emi es , t h el i t er a r y , a r t i s t i c , a nd t ec h ni -
c a l g r ou p s , t h ea g r i c u l t u r a l , i nd u s t r i a l , c ommer c i a l ,
1 2 3
T HEPORT UGAL
c ol oni a l , a nd wor k er s ' a s s oc i a t i ons " ; v oc a t i ona l
g r ou p s c r ea t ed , a s h es a i d , b y t h ei ns t i nc t of c i v i l i s a -
t i on, a nd wh i c h , i nt h ewor d s of Qu a d r a g es i moAnno,
" a r ec ons i d er ed b y ma ny t ob e, i f not es s ent i a l t o
c i v i l s oc i et y , a t l ea s t na t u r a l t oi t " . T h es e, s a i d
Sa l a z a r , " s h ou l d p a r t i c i p a t eb y v ot eor b y r ep r es ent a -
t i oni nt h eC h a mb er s , wh i c h wewi s h t ob et r u l y
r er es ent a t i v eof t h eN a t i on . Onc emor ewea b a nd on
a c t i on- t h ePa r t y - t oma k eof a r ea l i t y - t h eAs s o-
c i a t i on . " And i nAr t i c l eX X of t h eC ons t i t u t i onwe
r ea d : " Al l t h ec omp onent p a r t s of t h eN a t i ons h a l l
b er ep r es ent ed i nt h ec or p or a t i v eor g a ni s a t i ons ,
t h r ou g h t h ei r a p p r op r i a t eor g a ns , a nd i t s h a l l b et h ei r
b u s i nes s t op a r t i c i p a t ei nt h eel ec t i onof t h emu ni c i p a l
c h a mb er s a nd p r ov i nc i a l c ou nc i l s , a s wel l a s i n t h ec on-
s t i t u t i onof t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er . "
" T os u mu p , " s a i d Sa l a z a r , " wes eek t oc ons t r u c t a
s oc i a l a nd c or p or a t i v eSt a t ec or r es p ond i ng ex a c t l y
wi t h t h ena t u r a l s t r u c t u r eof s oc i et y . T h ef a mi l i es ,
t h ep a r i s h es , t h et owns h i p s , t h ec or p or a t i ons , wh er e
a l l t h ec i t i z ens a r et ob ef ou nd wi t h t h ei r f u nd a ment a l
j u r i d i c a l l i b er t i es , a r et h eor g a ni s ms wh i c h ma k eu p
t h ena t i on, a nd a s s u c h t h ey ou g h t t ot a k ea d i r ec t p a r t
i n t h ec ons t i t u t i onof t h es u p r emeb od i es of t h eSt a t e .
Her ei s a nex p r es s i onof t h er ep r es ent a t i v es y s t emt h a t
i s mor ef a i t h f u l t h a na ny ot h er . " Or , a s h ewr ot eon
a not h er oc c a s i on, " I nt h ed oma i nof p ol i t i c a l i ns t i t u -
t i ons t h ec or p or a t i v eor g a ni s a t i oni s f u nd a ment a l . . .
t h emor et h i s or g a ni s a t i oni s d ev el op ed , t h emor ewi l l
t h eSt a t er ep r es ent mor ef a i t h f u l l y t h a ni t d oes t od a y
t h eN a t i oni t s el f , a s a nor g a ni c ent i t y
.. " i s
Soi s t h eC or p or a t i v eC h a mb er a b od y r ep r es ent a
t i v eof t h eN a t i on. I t i s not mer el y a b od y r ep r es ent a -
1 2 4
OFSALAZAR
t i v eof p r od u c er s ' i nt er es t s
: i t i nt eg r a l l y r ep r es ent s t h e
N a t i on, p r od u c er s a nd c ons u mer s a l i k e .
W eh a v e
s t a t ed wh y wet h i nk t h a t i t i s l i k el y t ob ec omet h e
c h i ef l eg i s l a t i v eb od y i nPor t u g a l , a nd weh a v ep r o-
v i d ed t h enec es s a r y d a t a
. T h er ea d er mu s t d ec i d ef or
h i ms el f wh et h er h ea g r ees
.
I 2 5
/
C HAPT ERFI V E
I
C HAPT ER

F

V E
PORT UGALI SN OT " FASC I ST "
I
"
D wi t h
not , I b eg of y ou , c omp a r e ' t h e I t a l i a nc a s e
wi t h t h ePor t u g u es e, " s a i d Sa l a z a r t oAnt oni o
Fer r o.
Por t u g a l i s not " Fa s c i s t " . T h er ei s a v er y g r ea t
d ea l of c onf u s i ona b ou t t h emea ni ng of t h a t wor d .
Owi ng t oi nt ens i v ea nd ex t r emel y ef f ec t i v ep r op a -
g a nd a f r omt h eLef t , i t h a s c omet ob eg ener a l l y a nd
f a l s el y u s ed t od es c r i b ea ny f or mof na t i ona l i s mwh i c h
wi l l not t ol er a t ei nt er na t i ona l C ommu ni s m, i nt h e
s a mewa y a s i t h a s c omet ob er eg a r d ed b y mi l l i ons of
mu d d l e- h ea d ed B r i t ons a s v a g u el y s y nony mou s wi t h
W a r . B u t t h er ei s onl y onec ou nt r y i nt h ewor l d t o-
d a y t h a t i s Fa s c i s t , a nd t h a t i s I t a l y . Ger ma ny i s not
Fa s c i s t ; nei t h er i s N a t i ona l Sp a i n . T h er ea s on, q u i t e
s i mp l y , i s t h a t Fa s c i s mi s s omet h i ng I t a l i a n .
Gener a l Fr a nc o, wh ena s k ed i na r ec ent i nt er v i ew
wh et h er h ewa s c ommi t t ed t ot h ei d ea l of t h eC or -
p or a t eSt a t e, i s r ep or t ed t oh a v er ep l i ed : " T h a t i s ; a
g ener a l t er m, a nd ma y ea s i l y b emi s u nd er s t ood . C or -
p or a t i s mi nSp a i nwi l l g r a nt t oev er y c i t i z ent h er i g h t h ~ t
t op a r t i c i p a t ei nt h es oc i a l a nd ec onomi c l i f eof t h e
1 2 9

1
T HEPORT UGAL
c ou nt r y ont h eb a s i s of h i s l a b ou r s
. Ou r c or -
p or a t i s m, h owev er , wi l l b ei nd i g enou s , d omes t i c ,
Sp a ni s h
. I t wi l l b es u i t ed t ot h ei nd i v i d u a l i s mof t h e
Sp a ni s h p er s ona l i t y
. I t wi l l not b es l a v i s h l y mod el l ed
onf or ei g np a t t er ns
. I t s h ou l d b enot ed , f or ex a mp l e,
t h a t t h es y s t em
. of c or p or a t i ons s et u p b y D r . Ol i v ei r a
, Sa l a z a r i nPor t u g a l i s I b er i a n, not c ont i nent a l
. W ei n
Sp a i nwi l l f a s h i onou r ownt y p eof c or p or a t i on
. "
Ea r l i er i nt h es a mei nt er v i ewh eh a d s a i d
: " Ob v i -
ou s l y , t h ed oc t r i nes of t h ep a p a l enc y c l i c a l s f u r ni s h a
s ou nd p r og r a mmeof ec onomi c a nd s oc i a l r ec ons t r u c -
t i on
. T h ea p p l i c a t i onof t h ei r p r i nc i p l es , h owev er ,
mu s t b ec ons i d er ed i nr el a t i ont ot h eg eni u s a nd t r a d i -
t i ons of t h eSp a ni s h p eop l e . " ,
Sowi t h Sa l a z a r : t h e
Es t a d oN ov oi s not Fa s c i s t
b ec a u s ei t i s Por t u g u es e
. B u t b y s a y i ng t h a t Por t u g a l
i s not " Fa s c i s t "
I mea nt h r eet h i ng s mor e . I mea n
t h a t t h eN a t i ona l i s mof Por t u g a l i s not t ot a l i t a r i a n
N a t i ona l i s m, i na ny mea ni ng of t h a t a d j ec t i v e, a nd
t h a t t h ec or p or a t i v eor g a ni s a t i onof Por t u g a l i s d i f f er -
ent f u nd a ment a l l y , a s wel l a s i nma ny u ni mp or t a nt
wa y s , f r omt h a t of I t a l y
. I mea na l s ot h a t i t i s not
t r u et or eg a r d Por t u g a l i nh er ex t er na l p ol i c y a s a n
a p p end a g eof t h a t a r t i f i c i a l c ent r a l - Eu r op ea n
b l oc
wh i c h i s k nowna s t h eRome- B er l i na x i s .
T h ep ol i t i c a l p r ob l emof D r
. Sa l a z a r h a s b een
g r ea t l y c omp l i c a t ed s i nc ec i v i l wa r b r ok eou t i nSp a i n
.
N og ov er nment h a s b et t er c a u s et h a nt h ePor t u g u es e
t of ea r t h ed a ng er of wa r s p r ea d i ng b ey ond Sp a i n, a nd
nog ov er nment h a s mor ei mmed i a t ec a u s et of ea r
C ommu ni s mi nt h ePeni ns u l a
. T h i s b ei ng s o, i t wa s
i mp os s i b l ef or Por t u g a l t oa c c ep t wi t h ou t r es er v a t i on
a l l t h ep r op os a l s of t h eI nt er na t i ona l C ommi t t eef or
1 3 0
OFSALAZAR
N on- i nt er v ent i on. B ec a u s eof t h i s , a nd s i nc et h er e
a r ec er t a i nob v i ou s b u t s u p er f i c i a l p oi nt s of s i mi l a r i t y
b et weent h ep ol i t i c a l s y s t emof Por t u g a l a nd t h a t of
I t a l y , wh os ei nt er es t s i nSp a i na r et h es a me, s h eh a s
b eena c c u s ed of d es er t i ng h er c ent u r i es - ol d Eng l i s h
a l l i a nc ei nf a v ou r of Romea nd B er l i n
. Sh eh a s b een
c l a s s ed a s " a Fa s c i s t c ou nt r y " .
Mr . A. L. Rows e, a d i s t i ng u i s h ed ex p onent of
La b ou r ' s v i ews , p u t t h ec ommonb u t q u i t eu nj u s t
j u d g ment onPor t u g a l i nt oones ent enc ei na l et t er t o
T h eT i mes i nAu g u s t l a s t y ea r
( 1 9 3 7 ) .
Hewa s ma i n-
t a i ni ng t h a t Eu r op ei s d i v i d ed i nt ot woop p os i ng a nd
h os t i l ec a mp s , c ons i s t i ng of t h eN a t i ons of t h eRi g h t
a nd t h eN a t i ons of t h eLef t . "
I nPor t u g a l , ev en, " h e
wr ot e, " i t i s a d i c t a t or s h i p of t h eRi g h t wh i c h h a s
d es er t ed t h eol d u nd er s t a nd i ng wi t h t h i s c ou nt r y f or
a newonewi t h Mu s s ol i ni a nd Hi t l er . "
B u t i np oi nt of f a c t , not h i ng of t h ek i nd h a s h a p -
p ened . Por t u g a l i s i nt ens el y j ea l ou s of h er na t i ona l
i nt eg r i t y , a nd wi l l r ep u d i a t ea ny s u g g es t i onof ex -
t er na l d omi na t i on, f r omI t a l y or el s ewh er e, wi t h t h e
s a mep r ou d s c or nwi t h wh i c h , i n1 9 2 8 , s h er ef u s ed t o
a c c ep t t h eGenev a l oa n . Sh ei s a l s oi nt ens el y j ea l ou s
of h er nowa d mi r a b l y a d mi ni s t er ed c ol oni a l Emp i r e ;
a nd Ger ma ny h a s not t r ou b l ed t oc onc ea l h er d es i g ns
ont h ep r os p er ou s W es t Af r i c a nt er r i t or y of Ang ol a .
I f a ny f u r t h er p r oof i s need ed t h a t t h ej u d g ment of
Mr . Rows ewa s mi s t a k en, i t wa s p r ov i d ed a t t h eB r u s -
s el s C onf er enc e . Por t u g a l h a s noi mp or t a nt i nt er es t s
i nt h eFa r Ea s t , a nd s h ewa s a b l eont h a t oc c a s i ont o
ma k ec l ea r t h a t s h ei s not s u b s er v i ent t ot h eRome-
B er l i na x i s . Ag a i n, wh y h a s s h enot j oi ned t h eAnt i -
C omi nt er nPa c t ? I t i s b ec a u s et h a t Pa c t i s a p ol i t i c a l
1 3 1
T HEPORT UGAL
mu t u a l - a s s i s t a nc ep a c t . Por t u g a l i s v i t a l l y c onc er ned
t of i g h t I nt er na t i ona l C ommu ni s m, b u t s h ei s not c on-
c er ned i nt h ep ol i t i c a l ma c h i na t i ons of I t a l y , Ger -
r na ny , a nd J a p a n.
On
J u l y
4 , 1
9 3 7 , a b omb wa s t h r owna t D r . Sa l a z a r
a s h eent er ed a C h u r c h t oh ea r Ma s s , b y menof t h e
k i nd a g a i ns t wh i c h Gener a l Fr a nc oi s f i g h t i ng i n
Sp a i n. T wod a y s l a t er h ed el i v er ed a ni mp or t a nt
s p eec h t or ep r es ent a t i v es of t h ena t i on' s d ef enc e
f or c es , wh oh a d a s s emb l ed t oc ong r a t u l a t eh i monh i s
es c a p ef r omd ea t h . I nt h i s s p eec h h eemp h a s i s ed t h a t
t h eB r i t i s h a l l i a nc emu s t nec es s a r i l y a l wa y s r ema i n
t h eb a s i s of h i s c ou nt r y ' s f or ei g np ol i c y . " T h emos t
v a l u a b l ei t emof ou r ex t er na l p ol i c y i s t h ea g e- ol d a l l i -
a nc ewi t h Gr ea t B r i t a i n ; mu c h of wh a t weh a v ed one
a nd i nt end t od os t i l l a i ms a t t i g h t eni ng t h a t b ond .
Fr omt i met ot i mei nGr ea t B r i t a i n, c er t a i np er s ons ,
s u r el y wi t h nog r ea t s ens eof r es p ons i b i l i t y , i r r i t a t ed
b y ou r a t t i t u d ei not h er ma t t er s ( i . e . , i n Sp a ni s h
p ol i c y ) ,
h a v ep l a c ed t h ei r ownp a s s i ons or r es ent ment
a b ov ena t i ona l a nd i nt er na t i ona l i nt er es t s , a nd h a v e
i nv i t ed t h eB r i t i s h Gov er nment t or ec ons i d er t h e
q u es t i onof t h ea l l i a nc ewi t h Por t u g a l . . . .
W eh a v es p ec i a l i nt er es t s of ou r own i n t h ePeni n-
s u l a , a nd r u nr i s k s wh i c h ot h er c ou nt r i es d onot s h a r e .
W eb el i ev et h a t p u b l i c op i ni oni nc er t a i nc ou nt r i es ,
es p ec i a l l y i nFr a nc ea nd Gr ea t B r i t a i n, i s i l l - i nf or med
a s
t ot h et r u ena t u r eof t h eSp a ni s h p r ob l em, a nd of
t h eev ent s t h a t h a v et a k enp l a c ei nt h a t c ou nt r y . Some
p eop l ed onot b el i ev ei nt h eC ommu ni s t p er i l
; we, on
t h eot h er h a nd , f eel i t , s eei t , a nd f ea r t h a t C ommu -
ni s m, wi t h t h ec onni v a nc eof ot h er c ou nt r i es , ma y t a k e
r oot i nSp a i n, a nd s od es t r oy a ny c h a nc eof t h eSp a ni s h
1 3 2
OFSALAZAR
p eop l ewor k i ng ou t t h ei r ownp ol i t i c a l s a l v a t i on- f or
t h er ec ou l d b enona t i ona l l i b er t y or i nd ep end ent
c h oi c ei na St a t el a r g el y c ont r ol l ed b y s ev er a l I nt er -
na t i ona l s
. Henc eou r u nc omp r omi s i ng a t t i t u d ef r om
t h ev er y s t a r t
:
h enc eou r op p os i t i ont oa ny f or mof
non- i nt er v ent i onwh i c h s h ou l d p r ej u d i c et h ec h a nc es
of Sp a ni s h N a t i ona l i s m, wh i c h s t a nd s b et weenPor - ,
t u g a l a nd I b er i a nC ommu ni s m
; h enc et h eod i u m
wh i c h weh a v ei nc u r r ed i nc er t a i nq u a r t er s - wema y
a d d , q u i t ej u s t i f i a b l y
. "
Por t u g a l , t h en, u nl i k eRi g h t eou s Ru s s i a , h a s nev er
a t t emp t ed t oc onc ea l t h ef a c t t h a t s h ei s i nt er es t ed i n
t h eSp a ni s h i s s u e. Sa l a z a r t ook t h eMi ni s t r y of
For ei g n- Af f a i r s t emp or a r i l y i nt oh i s ownh a nd s on
N ov emb er 6 , 1 9 3 6 , wh eni t b ec a mea p p a r ent t h a t t h e
wa r i nSp a i nwa s t ob ea wa r of y ea r s r a t h er t h a n a
wa r of mont h s . Hi s Gov er nment h a s d onea l l wi t h i n
i t s p ower t oc ol l a b or a t ei ns ec u r i ng g enu i nenon- i nt er -
v ent i on
: i t h a s s c r u p u l ou s l y ob s er v ed a l l u nd er t a k -
i ng s i t h a s ma d e, a nd t h ea mou nt of wa r ma t er i a l t h a t
h a s c r os s ed t h ePor t u g u es ef r ont i er i nt oSp a i ni s l es s
t h a nneg l i g i b l ec omp a r ed t ot h ea mou nt t h a t p ou r ed
a c r os s t h ePy r enees a l l t h r ou g h 1 9 3 7 , u nk nownt o
t h os ewh ok nowEu r op eonl y t h r ou g h t h eB r i t i s h
Pr es s . I nOc t ob er 1 9 3 6 , r ep ea t ed a c c u s a t i ons ma d et o
t h eLond onN on- I nt er v ent i onC ommi t t eeb y t h e
Sov i et r ep r es ent a t i v e, M. Ma i s k y , l ed t h eB r i t i s h
Gov er nment t oc ond u c t a ni nv es t i g a t i onof i t s own,
a s a r es u l t of wh i c h i t r ep or t ed t ot h eC ommi t t eeon
.
Oc t ob er 2 4 t h t h a t i t h a d b eenq u i t eu na b l et od i s c ov er
a ny ev i d enc et h a t Por t u g a l h a d
b eent h ec h a nnel f or
t h ec onv ey a nc eof a ny p r ov i s i ons , money , or a r ms t o
Sp a i n. Fr omt h ev er y b eg i nni ng , t h eSov i et h a s ma d e
1 3 3
T HEPORT UGAL
a ny r ea l p l a nf or non- i nt er v ent i oni mp os s i b l e
. B u t
Por t u g a l , wh oof a l l na t i ons c a nl ea s t a f f or d t ob i nd
h er s el f t oneu t r a l i t y , h a s h onou r ed h er wor d t h r ou g h -
ou t .
T h eC ommu ni s t Pa r t y i nGr ea t B r i t a i ni s a t p r es ent
noi s y b u t neg l i g i b l e
; a nd i t i s d i f f i c u l t f or t h eEng l i s h -
ma nt or ea l i s et h eex t ent of s u b t er r a nea nC ommu ni s t
a c t i v i t y ont h eC ont i nent , j u s t a s i t i s d i f f i c u l t f or h i m
t oc onc ei v et h a t Fr eema s onr y
i n Sp a i na nd Por t u g a l
i s not t h es a mer es p ec t a b l et h i ng t h a t i t i s i nt h i s c ou n-
t r y . Hei s i nc l i ned t ou t t er a c y ni c a l
" Ps h a w " wh en
h eh ea r s ment i onof t h es u b v er s i v ea c t i v i t y of t h e
C omi nt er n
; a l t h ou g h h eh a s b y t h i s t i meb eens u f f i -
c i ent l y i nf or med of t h ema g ni t u d eof t h eC ommu ni s t
c ou p
i nSp a i nwh i c h wa s f or es t a l l ed b y t h eN a t i ona l i s t
r i s i ng
. T h ep l a ni nv ol v ed t h ec r ea t i onof a Fed er a -
t i onof I b er i a nSov i et Rep u b l i c s , t oi nc l u d enot , onl y
Sp a i n, C a t a l oni a , t h eB a s q u eC ou nt r y , a nd t h e
B a l ea r i c I s l a nd s , b u t Por t u g a l a s wel l
. * T h ec a mp a i g n
a g a i ns t Por t u g a l wa s ma d emor eu r
g ent wh enwa r
b r ok eou t
; s i x mi l l i onp es et a s wer ep a i d b y a na g ent of
t h eC a b a l l er oGov er nment t oPor t u g u es ea
g ent s , a nd
t h ewor k of s a b ot a g ep r oc eed ed wi t h ou t d el a y . T h e
Por t u g u es eLeg a t i oni nMa d r i d wa s s a c k ed t of a c i l i -
t a t eq u i et ex a mi na t i onof i t s a r c h i v es
. ' N ex t , i n
Oc t ob er 1 9 3 6 , r ev ol u t i ona r y " c el l s
" wer ep l a nt ed on
t woPor t u g u es ec r u i s er s i na Sp a ni s h h a r b ou r , a nd a
mu t i ny wa s eng i neer ed wh ent h ey r et u r ned t oLi s b on
.
T h ePor t u g u es eAi r For c er es t or ed or d er i nh a l f a n
h ou r
. I nJ a nu a r y
1 9 3 7 ,
ni neb omb s b u r s t s i mu l -
t a neou s l y i n
t h e Mi ni s t er i a l b u i l d i ng s i nLi s b on,
p l a nt ed t h er eb y s i x a g ent s of t h eOk a b a - a B a l k a n

Seep . 2 o, a b ov e .
1 3 4
OFSALAZAR
b r a nc h of t h eC omi nt er n, wh i c h s p ec i a l i s es i ns u c h
wor k . Li t t l ed a ma g ewa s d one, a nd t h e Uni & o
N a c i ona l
r ed ou b l ed i t s v i g i l a nc e
. Fi na l l y c a met h e
a t t emp t ont h el i f eof Sa l a z a r
. I t wa s not a ni s ol a t ed
ou t r a g e, b u t a ni nc i d ent i na l ong c a mp a i g n
. T h e
na t i ona l s ol i d a r i t y of t h ePor t u g u es ei s p r oof a g a i ns t
a ny s er i ou s C ommu ni s t u p h ea v a l , b u t a t t a c k s c on-
t i nu e . Gener a l Fr a nc oh a s s u c c es s f u l l y d r i v ena C om-
mu ni s t Gov er nment ( i nd es i g n, i f not i nna me) f r om
t h e . Por t u g u es ef r ont i er . And i t wou l d b ewel l f or
t h os e i n t h i s c ou nt r y wh od enou nc eh i ms ob i t t er l y t o
r ememb er t h a t i f h eh a d not r i s en, a nd i f I nt er na t i ona l
C ommu ni s mh a d c onq u er ed Sp a i n, i t wou l d u nd ou b t -
ed l y h a v ep r oc eed ed t ot h ed es t r u c t i onof Por t u g a l
;
a nd t h a t , s i nc eGr ea t B r i t a i ni s b ou nd b y t r ea t y t og o
t ot h ea s s i s t a nc eof Por t u g a l s h ou l d s h eb ea t t a c k ed ,
Gener a l Fr a nc oh a s p r ob a b l y s a v ed B r i t a i nf r om
a r med i nt er v ent i on .
T h eAng l o- Por t u g u es ea l l i a nc e, a l l eg ed t oh a v e
b eena b a nd oned , i s i nf a c t b ei ng a t p r es ent s t r eng t h -
ened b y b ot h p a r t i es b y a l l mea ns p os s i b l e . T h e
B r i t i s h a r ea l a r med b y t h ep os s i b i l i t y of u nd u eI t a l i a n
i nf l u enc ei nN a t i ona l i s t Sp a i n
; i f t h eI t a l i a ns a r et o
h a v et h er u nof Sp a ni s h h a r b ou r s , Gr ea t B r i t a i n i s
d et er mi ned t h a t t h eh a r b ou r s of Por t u g a l , wh i c h c om-
ma nd t h eAt l a nt i c a p p r oa c h es t ot h eMed i t er r a nea n,
s h a l l c ont i nu et ob ea t t h ed i s p os a l of t h eRoy a l N a v y ,
a s t h ey h a v eb eenf or t h r eec ent u r i es . Mor eov er , t h e
- a l t er na t i v er ou t et oI nd i a a nd t h eEa s t , b y wa y of t h e
C a p e, i s wel l p r ot ec t ed b y t h r eeg r ou p s of Por t u g u es e
i s l a nd s : Ma d ei r a , t h eAz or es , a nd t h eC a p eV er d e
I s l es . I t i s f or t h es er ea s ons t h a t t h eHomeFl eet i s
p a y i ng a v i s i t t oLi s b on, a nd t h a t a B r i t i s h na v a l
1 3 5
T HEPORT UGAL
a nd mi l i t a r y mi s s i oni s v i s i t i ng Por t u g a l ( Feb r u a r y ,
1 9 3 8 ) .
D r . Sa l a z a r ' s s p eec h of J u l y 6 , 1 9 3 7 , r ea f f i r mi ng t h a t
- t h ea l l i a nc eof Por t u g a l wi t h t h i s c ou nt r y i s t h e
b a s i s of h er f or ei g np ol i c y , wa s not r ep or t ed i nt h e
B r i t i s h Pr es s
. B u t a s B i l b a o, Sa nt a nd er , a nd Gi j on
s u c c es s i v el y f el l , a nd t h eN a t i ona l i s t ma s t er y
i n Sp a i n
b ec a mei nc r ea s i ng l y a p p a r ent , t h eg ener a l B r i t i s h a t u -
t u d et owa r d s Por t u g a l c h a ng ed f r omoneof r a t h er
s u s p i c i ou s i nd i f f er enc et ooneof emp h a s i s ed f r i end l i -
nes s , t h ep r i nc i p a l c ons i d er a t i on, a s h a v es a i d , b ei ng
t h enec es s i t y of c ou nt er i ng i na d v a nc ea p os s i b l e
a d v a nt a g et oI t a l y i nh er b i d f or na v a l s u p r ema c y i n
t h eMed i t er r a nea n . Ab ou t t h emi d d l eof Sep t emb er ,
f or i ns t a nc e, T h eT i mes , wh i c h i s s u p p os ed t o r ef l ec t
of f i c i a l p ol i c y , s t a r t ed r i nt i ng f r eq u ent t es t i mony t o
t h ef r i end l i nes s of t h ePor t u g u es e, wh i c h , a s i t s Li s b on
c or r es p ond ent wa s a b l et or ep or t , " c r ea t ed a nex c el -
l ent i mp r es s i on " . D r . Sa l a z a r ' s - s p eec h wa s r ep or t ed
i ni t s p a g es , mor et h a nt womont s l a t e, onSep t em-
b er 1 4 t h . I t ex t end ed t h ec or d i a l h a nd i na l ea d i ng
a r t i c l eont h es a med a y , a nd i n a not h er l ea d i ng a r t i c l e
onD ec emb er l ot h
. I t d ev ot ed mu c h s p a c e, a nd h a l f
a p a g eof p i c t u r es , t ot h eUni v er s i t y of C oi mb r a , wh en
t h a t es t a b l i s h ment b eg a nt h ec el eb r a t i ons of i t s f ou r -
h u nd r ed t h a nni v er s a r y . T h ef i r s t i nt i ma t i onof t h e
mi s s i ont h a t i s t ob es ent t oPor t u g a l c a meonOc t o-
b er 2 5 t h , a nd t h eof f i c i a l a nnou nc ement wa s p u b l i s h ed
onN ov emb er 3 ot h . OnJ a nu a r y 2 4 t h
T h eT i mes p r o-
d u c ed a not h er l ea d i ng a r t i c l e, a nd a not h er c ol u mn
a nd a h a l f f r omi t s Li s b onc or r es p ond ent . I t i s t ob e_
h op ed t h a t t h i s v i s i t wi l l ma k ei t f i na l l y c l ea r t h a t
B r i t a i n' s ol d es t a l l y i s B r i t a i n' s a l l y s t i l l .
1 3 6
OFSALAZAR
I I
Por t u g a l i s not Fa s c i s t " .
W h et h er t h a t wor d mea ns t h e d ef ens i v et y r a nny of
d ef ea t ed c a p i t a l i s m, , or t h ep a r t i c u l a r f or mof p ol i t i c a l
a nd ec onomi c or g a ni s a t i ont ob ef ou nd i nmod er n
I t a l y , _ s t i l l Por t u g a l i s not Fa s c i s t . I t
. s h ou l d h a v e
a l r ea d y b eenma d ea mp l y c l ea r t h a t Por t u g a l i s not
Fa s c i s t i nt h ef or mer , Ma r x i s t , a nd g ener a l u nd er -
s t a nd i ng of t h a t wor d . W ewi l l p r oc eed t os h owt h a t
Por t u g a l i s not Fa s c i s t i nt h es ec ond a nd c or r ec t mea n-
i nof t h et er m . Ger ma ny i s not a C or p or a t eSt a t e,
s t i l l l es s J a p a n, a l t h ou g h s h ei s d enou nc ed a s Fa s c i s t
f r omLa b ou r p l a t f or ms . I t a l y a l onei s Fa s c i s t , a nd
wea r eh er ec onc er ned t oc ont r a s t c ont emp or a r y Por -
t u a l wi t h c ont emp or a r y I t a l y .
T h eob v i ou s s i mi l a r i t i es a r et h r eei nnu mb er
. I t a l y
i s a C or p or a t eSt a t e
; s oi s Por t u g a l
. I t a l y i s i ns p i r ed
b y a s t r ong na t i ona l i s m
; s oi s Por t u g a l
. And I t a l y
i s g ov er ned l a r g el y b y onema n, t h eh ea d of t h e
Gov er nment , wh oi s k nown
a s a D i c t a t or ; s oi s Por -
t u g a l
. B u t ea c h of t h es es i mi l a r i t i es i s s u p er f i c i a l
;
ea c h of t h es ema t t er s i s v er y d i f f er ent l y c ons i d er ed i n
Por t u g a l a nd i nI t a l y
.
T h e d i f f er enc e
i nc or p or a t i v et h eor y c a nb eex -
p r es s ed q u i t es i mp l y
: t h ec or p or a t i s mof I t a l y
i s a
c or p or a t i s med ' et a t ,
wh i l et h a t of Por t u g a l , a s weh a v e
ex p l a i ned , i s a
c or or a t i s med ' a s s oc i a t i on. I t a l i a n
Fa s c i s mb eg a nwi t h t h ec omp u l s or y
d i s s ol u t i on
of a l l
ex i s t i ng f or ms of T r a d eUni oni s m
; i nPor t u g a l t h er e
wer enoef f ec t i v eT r a d eUni ons b ef or et h ec omi ng of
Sa l a z a r , a nd , a s weh a v ed es c r i b ed , t h e
Es t a d oN ov o
1 3 7
T HEPORT UGAL
p r ov i d ed t h ewor k er f or t h ef i r s t t i mewi t h ma c h i ner y
f or c ol l ec t i v eb a r g a i ni ng , wh i c h wa s not p r ev i ou s l y
l eg a l , a nd f or t h ep r ot ec t i onof h i s r i g h t s . W eh a v e
not ed t h ep a r a l l el b et weent h ePor t u g u es eSt a t u t eof
N a t i ona l La b ou r a nd t h eI t a l i a nC h a r t er of La b ou r
of
1 9 2 7
; b u t t h er ea r es omev er y es s ent i a l d i f f er enc es
b et weent h et wod oc u ment s . Ar t i c l eI I I of t h eI t a l i a n
C h a r t er of La b ou r r u ns : " T h er ei s c omp l et ef r eed om
of p r of es s i ona l or s y nd i c a l or g a ni s a t i on . B u t s y nd i -
c a t es l eg a l l y r ec og ni s ed a nd s u b j ec t t oSt a t ec ont r ol
a l one
h a v et h er i g h t of l eg a l r ep r es ent a t i onof t h e
wh ol ec a t eg or y of emp l oy er s a nd wor k er s f or wh i c h
t h ey a r ec ons t i t u t ed . " Al l of t h i s c a nb ef ou nd i nt h e
Por t u g u es eSt a t u t e, ex c ep t t h a t k ey - p h r a s ewh i c h I
h a v ei t a l i c i s ed . Or a g a i n, i n T h eC or p or a t eSt a t e,
b y
B eni t oMu s s ol i ni , wef i nd t h ef ol l owi ng
: " T h ef i r s t
l eg i s l a t i v ei nd i c a t i onof t h ef u t u r ed ev el op ment of
C or p or a t i ons ma y b ef ou nd i n t h eAc t of Ap r i l 3 , 1 9 2 6
( N . 5 6 3 ) . . . . Ar t . 4 3 s p ec i f i ed t h ec h a r a c t er a nd
na t u r eof t h eC or p or a t i on, wh i c h wa s d ef i ned a s a n
` or g a nof t h eSt a t e' i nt h ef ol l owi ng t er ms
: ` T h e
C or p or a t i oni s not end owed wi t h c i v i l p er s ona l i t y , b u t
i s a nor g a nof St a t eAd mi ni s t r a t i on
. T h ed ec r ee
wh er eb y i t i s c ons t i t u t ed s h a l l s p ec i f y i t s or g a ni s a t i on
a nd r e~ u l a t et h ed u t i es of i t s c ent r a l a nd l oc a l
of f i c es . ' ' 3 W ec ou l d not b et t er i l l u s t r a t et h ep r ec i s el y
op p os i t ena t u r es of I t a l i a na nd Por t u g u es ec or p or a
.
t i s m
. I nPor t u g a l , a s weh a v ea l r ea d y ma d ec l ea r , t h e
C or p or a t i on
i s t ob ea na u t onomou s b od y : weh a v e
q u ot ed Sa l a z a r t ot h i s ef f ec t ( p . 7 4 a b ov e) . B u t i n
I t a l y , a c c or d i ng t oMu s s ol i ni , t h eC or p or a t i oni s t ob e
" a nor g a nof t h eSt a t e
" . Soc a nt h ema t t er b ep u t
i nt ot wol i nes .
1 3 8
OFSALAZAR
T oex t end t h ec ont r a s t : Por t u g u es ec or p or a t i s mi s
i nt eg r a l , wh i l eI t a l i a nc or p or a t i s mi s ex c l u s i v el y
ec onomi c . I nt eg r a l c or p or a t i s m, a c c or d i ng t oMa noi -
l es c o, i s t h a t wh i c h " c ons i d er s a s c or p or a t i ons en-
d owed wi t h a na u t onomou s or g a ni s a t i ona nd t h ei r
ownr i g h t s not onl y t h eec onomi c c or p or a t i ons , b u t
a l s ot h es oc i a l a nd c u l t u r a l c or p or a t i ons of t h ena t i on,
s u c h a s t h eC h u r c h , t h eAr my , t h eJ u d i c i a r y , t h ec or -
p or a t i ons of na t i ona l ed u c a t i on, of p u b l i c h ea l t h , of
t h es c i enc es a nd of t h ea r t s
" . 4
T h eI t a l i a nC or p or a -
t i ons , t oq u ot et h eC h a r t er of La b ou r a g a i n,
" c ons t i -
t u t et h eu ni t a r y or g a ni s a t i on of a l l t h ef or c es of
p r od u c t i on, a nd i nt eg r a l l y r ep r es ent t h ei r i nt er es t s
( Ar t . V I ; my i t a l i c s ) . B u t . t h ePor t u g u es eC or p or a -
t i v eC h a mb er i s r ep r es ent a t i v eof t h ewh ol eof t h e
na t i ona l l i f e . I t i nc l u d es ei g h t s ec t i ons t owh i c h t h er e
i s not h i ng i nI t a l y t oc or r es p ond : t h er ea r er ep r es en-
t a t i v es not onl y of " t h ef or c es of p r od u c t i on " , b u t of
t h eC a t h ol i c C h u r c h a nd h er mi s s i ons , of t h ena t i ona l
d ef enc ef or c es , of t h ej u d i c i a r y , of p u b l i c a nd l oc a l
Ad mi ni s t r a t i on, of t h eUni v er s i t i es a nd Ac a d emi es of
Ar c h i t ec t u r e, Mu s i c , a nd t h eFi neAr t s , a nd ev enof
t h ePor t u g u es eOl y mp i c Ga mes C ommi t t ee.
T h ec ont r a s t b et weenI t a l i a na nd Por t u g u es ec or -
p or a t i s m, t h en, i s p r of ou nd , a nd t h es i mi l a r i t i es a r e
s u p er f i c i a l . B ot h a r eb a s ed ont h ep r i nc i p l et h a t t h e
c ommong ood i s " mor ed i v i ne " , a s Ar i s t ot l ea nd St .
T h oma s s a y , t h a nt h ei nd i v i d u a l g ood , a nd i s d i f f er ent
i nk i nd f r om, t h emer es u mof i nd i v i d u a l g ood s ; b u t
i nPor t u g a l t h a t p r i nc i p l ei s c omp l ement ed b y t h e
p r i nc i p l et h a t t h eSt a t ei s t h es er v a nt of . s oc i et y .
T h a t es s ent i a l s ec ond a x i oml a r g el y ex p l a i ns t h e
d i f f er enc e b et weenPor t u g u es ea nd Fa s c i s t N a t i ona l -
' 3 9
T HEPORT UGAL
i s ms . T h ena t i ona l i s mof Por t u g a l i s a p a t r i ot i s ma nd
p r i d eb or nof h er l ong c ent u r i es - of h i s t or y ; wh er ea s
i t i s a l mos t t r u et os a y t h a t t h eex a g g er a t ed na t i ona l -
i s ms of I t a l y a nd Ger ma ny c a nb eex p l a i ned b y t h ei r ;
l a c k of h i s t or y , a s na t i ons . As wek nowt h emt o- d a y , ,
t h ey b ec a mena t i ons l es s t h a nonec ent u r y a g o ; a nd
t h e et a t i s me of Fa s c i s t I t a l y a nd N a z i Ger ma ny t o-
d a y i s l a r g el y , t h ou g h not wh ol l y , d u et ot h ei r a nx i et y
t h a t u ni t y a nd na t i ona l p r i d es h ou l d a p p ea r t ot h e-
wor l d a s t h ei r c h i ef c h a r a c t er i s t i c s , s i nc ef or c ent u r i es
t h ep eop l es t h a t c omp r i s et h emh a d b eens ou t t er l y
d i s u ni t ed
. B u t Por t u g a l i s a na t i ona s ol d a s Eu r op e,
a nd h er p r es ent f r ont i er s h a v eb eent h es a met h r ou g h
ei g h t c ent u r i es . Sa l a z a r i s i ns p i r ed wi t h a s ens e
. of
r es p ons i b i l i t y t oh i s t or y , t o
"
ou r Lu s i t a ni a n, La t i n,
a nd
. C h r i s t i a np a t r i mony - " ; a nd t h e Es t a d oN ov oi s a
v i nd i c a t i onof t h eh i s t or i c Por t u g a l
. T h a t mu s t b e
s ei z ed a s a c a r d i na l p oi nt i f t h ewor k of Sa l a z a r i s t o
b eu nd er s t ood . Hi s a p p ea l i s not a na p p ea l t ot h e
v a ni s h ed g l or i es of t h ef i f t eent h c ent u r y ; i t i s not a
p ol i t i c a l ex p l oi t a t i onof t h e s a u d a d e. I t i s a na p p ea l .
r a t h er t ot r a d i t i on ; i t i s a r es p ons i b i l i t y t ot h el i v es
a nd s u f f er i ng s of t h ep a s t g ener a t i ons wh i c h h a v ep r o-
d u c ed t h ep r es ent . As h es ees i t , t h eh i s t or y of Por -
t u g a l s u f f er ed a ni nt er r u p t i ond u r i ng t h eni net eent h
c ent u r y , wh ent h ec ou nt r y wa s d omi na t ed b y a l i enn
i d ea s a nd g ov er ned t h r ou g h a l i eni ns t i t u t i ons . Por -
t u g a l f or a p er i od c ea s ed t ob et r u l y Por t u g u es e ; b u t i n
1 9 2 6 t h a t p er i od end ed , a nd t h ePor t u g a l of h i s t or y
c a meonc emor ei nt oi t s own.
B u t i f Sa l a z a r l ook s b a c k a c r os s oneh u nd r ed y ea r s ,
Mu s s ol i ni l ook s b a c k a c r os s t wot h ou s a nd , t ot h e
Emp er or Au g u s t u s , wh os eb i mi l l ena r y h a s j u s t b een
1 4 0
OFSALAZAR
c el eb r a t ed i nRomewi t h s u c h c er emony .
Mu s s ol i ni
a l s oma k es t h ea p p ea l t oh i s t or y ; ' b u t i t i s a na p p ea l
t ot h eh i s t or y of I mp er i a l Rome, not t ot h eh i s t or y
- of t h ep ea s a nt s a nd eol eof I t a l y ; a nd i t i s t h e
p ea s a nt s a nd p eop l eof I t a l y of wh omh ei s t h er u l er .
I ns u p p or t , of t h a t a p p ea l , I t a l y mu s t h a v ea l s o, t h e
i mp r eg na b l ena v y , t h ev a s t a r my , t h ef or ei g na d v en-
t u r e, t h ec ol oni a l emp i r e, a nd s of or t h
. T h es u p r eme
nec es s i t y i s t h a t of p r ov i ng t ot h ewor l d t h a t s h ei s a
g r ea t na t i on . For t h a t mu s t h er p eop l eb er eg ~ ' -
ment ed , mu s t f r eed omb ed es t r oy ed , mu s t b l ood b e
s h ed . T h a t i s t h es u p r ememi s s i onof t h eSt a t e .
I nPor t u g a l i t i s not s o. T h emi s s i onof t h eSt a t e
i s t os er v e, not t or eg i ment . Li b er t y i s r es p ec t ed ,
t h er ef or e
; a nd t h eC ons t i t u t i onl i s t s a nd g u a r a nt ees
t h er i g h t s a nd l i b er t i es of t h ec i t i z ens . s Su b v er s i v e
a c t i v i t y i s not t ol er a t ed , b u t f r eed omof op i ni oni s r es -
p ec t ed . "
Per s ona l l y , " wr i t es Leond ePonc i ns , " I wa s
a s t oni s h ed a t t h eex t r emef r eed omwi t h wh i c h op p o-
nent s of t h er eg i mel ou d l y p r oc l a i med t h ei r c r i t i c i s ms
i nt h ep u b l i c p l a c es
. Al l of t h os ewh os p ok et h u s of
t h es ev er i t y of t h ed i c t a t or s h i p s eemed wel l a wa r et h a t
i f t h ey s a i d i nRu s s i a , i nGer ma ny , or i nI t a l y a t ent h
p a r t of wh a t t h ey op enl y ex p r es s ed i nPor t u g a l , t h i ng s
wou l d g ov er y h a r d f or t h em
. " 6 T h a t wa s b ef or et h e
d a y s of t h eSp a ni s h wa r . " I t wa s s y mp t oma t i c of
D r . Sa l a z a r ' s r € g i me,
a c c or d i ng t o T h e T i mes ,
"
t h a t , a t l ea s t u nt i l t h eSp a ni s h c i v i l wa r , u nd er -
g r a d u a t es mi g h t f r eel y c r i t i c i s et h eGov er nment i n
t h eC oi mb r a c a f es wi t h ou t f ea r i ng t h ep r es enc eof a
p ol i c es p y a t t h enex t t a b l e
. "
B u t t h eSp a ni s h wa r h a s nec es s a r i l y p r od u c ed a
s t a t eof s emi - emer g enc y i nPor t u g a l ; l i b er t i es h a v e
1 4 1
T HEPORT UGAL
h a d t ob er es t r i c t ed " f or t h ed u r a t i on" . W eh a v e
s p ok enof t h es u b t er r a nea na s s a u l t s t h a t Por t u g a l h a s
s u f f er ed a t t h eh a nd s of t h eC omi nt er n ; a nd t h e
Es t a d oN ov o c a nnot f a i r l y b ej u d g ed u nt i l t h ed a ng er
h a s p a s s ed . D ef ens i v enec es s i t y , mor eov er , h a s c om-
p el l ed v a r i ou s ma ni f es t a t i ons of Por t u g u es ena t i ona l
s ol i d a r i t y t h a t s eema t f i r s t s i g h t t oc onf i r mt h ei mp r es -
s i ont h a t Sa l a z a r i s p l a y i ng f r og t oMu s s ol i ni ' s b u n
.
T h eel ev ent h a nni v er s a r y of t h eRev ol u t i on, f or i n-
s t a nc e, wa s c el eb r a t ed onMa y
2 8 , 1 9 3 7 , i na ma nner
r emi ni s c ent of s i mi l a r oc c a s i ons
i n Romeor B er l i n.
Fi f t eent h ou s a nd menof t h ePor t u g u es eLeg i on, f ol -
l owed b y f i v et h ou s a nd b oy s of t h e
Moc i d a d ePor t u -
g u es a - t h e Por t u g u es ey ou t h or g a ni s a t i on, s oomi n-
ou s l y l i k et h eHi t l er Y ou t h a nd t h eI t a l i a n
B a l l i l a s -
ma r c h ed d ownLi s b on' s Av eni d a
d a
Li b er d a d e
a nd
a c r os s t h e T er r ei r od oPa c o, t h ef a mou s B l a c k Hor s e
Sq u a r e, wh i l et ent h r ee- eng i ned b omb er s a nd f i f t een
ot h er f i g h t i ng p l a nes f l ewp a s t ov er h ea d . B u t t h i s s or t
of t h i ng onl y b eg a nt eny ea r s a f t er t h el a u nc h i ng of
t h enewr eg i me, a nd b eg a n, t ot h er eg r et of Sa l a z a r ,
t omeet t h ef i r s t s er i ou s c h a l l eng et h e- r eg i meh a d
r ec ei v ed - a c h a l l eng ef r omwi t h ou t . W i t h h el l l oos e
i nSp a i n, a nd t h eC omi nt er na c t i v e ; wi t h t h eex c i t a b l e
Por t u g u es emi nd r es t l es s a t t h es i g h t of wa r
; wi t h t h e
Sp a ni a r d s f i g h t i ng f or Sp a i na nd t h ei r ex i s t enc e-
t h er ewa s noa l t er na t i v e . W a r i nSp a i nb eg a ni nt h e
s u mmer of 1 9 3 6 . T h e Moc i d a d ePor t u g u es a , mem-
b er s h i p of wh i c h i s c omp u l s or y f or a l l b oy s b et ween
s ev ena nd f ou r t een, wa s f ou nd ed t h en . I nh i s i nt er -
v i ews wi t h Ant oni oFer r o, wh i c h p r ov i d et h ec l a s s i c
g u i d et ot h emi nd of Sa l a z a r , h eh a d s a i d : " I t i s c l ea r
t h a t wenei t h er c a nnor s h ou l d f ol l owt h eI t a l i a ns y s -
1 4 2
OFSALAZAR
t er nof a b s or b i ng t h ec h i l d i nt ot h eSt a t e, or c op y t h e
ex c es s i v el y na t i ona l i s t a nd mi l i t a r i s t or g a ni s a t i onof
t h e B a l l i l a . " 8 Si mi l a r l y , Sa l a z a r h a d l ong b een
op p os ed t ot h ef ou nd a t i onof t h ePor t u g u es eLeg i on,
a v ol u nt a r y mi l i t a r y or g a ni s a t i onf or t h ed ef enc eof
t h er eg i me, wh i c h h a d l on& b eenu r g ed b y t h emor e
u nb a l a nc ed a mong h i s a d v i s er s . Heonl y p er mi t t ed
i t wh eni t b ec a mees s ent i a l f or t h es ec u r i t y of t h e
St a t e, a nd a s s oon. a s i t wa s a p p a r ent t h a t t h ewa r i n
Sp a i nwa s t ob ea wa r t ot h ed ea t h . Ev ens o, i t i s b y
nomea ns t r u et h a t Por t u g a l . i s l i v i ng i na c ond i t i on . of
p er ma nent ma r t i a l l a w, a s I t a l y a nd Ger ma ny a r e
p r a c t i c a l l y d oi n& .
" Y ou c a nnot i ma g i neh owd i f f i c u l t i t i s t owa k eu p
ou r s l eep y a nd a p a t h et i c r a c e, " s a i d Sa l a z a r t o
Ant oni oFer r o. T h ef u nc t i onof ma r t i a l mu s i c a nd
mi l i t a r y d i s p l a y c a nv a r y ; a nd i t i s u s ed t oa wa k en
t h et or p i d Por t u g u es et ou r g ent r ea l i t i es , wh er ea s
Mu s s ol i ni u s es i t t oi nt ox i c a t et h eel ec t r i c I t a l i a n
. B u t
t h er ea r enos p ot l i g h t s onSa l a z a r
; Mu s s ol i ni d el i g h t s
i nt h et h ea t r i c a l , b u t Sa l a z a r a b h or s i t . Hi s d i s t a s t e
f or p u b l i c i t y i s t h ed es p a i r of h i s of f i c i a l s . Hea t t end s
t woof f i c i a l b a nq u et s a y ea r
; f or t h er es t , h eemer g es
i nt ot h el i mel i g h t a s l i t t l ea s p os s i b l e, s p ea k s a s s el d om
a s p os s i b l e, a nd l ea v es t oPr es i d ent C a r mona t h eb u s i - .
nes s of t a k i ng s a l u t es , i ns p ec t i ng g u a r d s of h onou r ,
a nd s of or t h . T h eonl y u ni f or mh eev er wea r s i s a
d a r k s u i t a nd a b owl er h a t .
T h ef a c t t h a t Por t u g a l d u r i ng t h el a s t t eny ea r s h a s
b eenr ea r mi ng h a s a g a i nl ed t ot h ef a c i l ec omp a r i s on
of Sa l a z a r wi t h Aes op ' s f r og . Of c ou r s ePor t u g a l i s r e-
a r mi ng . Ev enc ou nt r i es s op a c i f i c a s Swed ena nd Swi t -
z er l a nd a r eb ei ng c omp el l ed t os t r eng t h ent h ei r
1 4 3
T HEPORT UGAL
d ef enc ef or c es , wi t h a l l Eu r op e, a p p a r ent l y t r ea d i ng
t h ep r i mr os ep a t h t ot h eev er l a s t i ng b onf i r e
. And
Por t u g a l , a p a r t f r omt h emena c ef r omRed Sp a i n, h a s
g r ea t c ol oni a l p os s es s i ons t od ef end , a nd l i s t ens wi t h
a p p r eh ens i ont ot h ec ont i nu a l d ema nd s f or Emp i r e
wh i c h c omef r omI t a l y a nd Ger ma ny , t h os ec ou nt r i es
wi t h wh omh er i nt i ma t ec o- op er a t i oni s nonet h el es s
a l l eg ed .
For t h r eey ea r s p a s t , Por t u g a l h a s b eend r a wi ng
u p onh er f or t u na t el y s t a b l ef i na nc es f or r ea r ma ment ,
p u r c h a s i ng a i r c r a f t a nd mod emna v a l u ni t s i nEng
l a nd , a nd ot h er eq u i p ment el s ewh er e . Her e, a s i na l l
el s e, s h eh a s t oc ont end wi t h p r es s u r ef r omI nt er na -
t i ona l C ommu ni s m, wh i c h c a u s ed t h ef a i l u r eof a
C z ec h o- Sl ov a k f i r mt oa d h er et oi t s c ont r a c t , a nd t h e
s u b s eq u ent r u p t u r eof d i p l oma t i c r el a t i ons , i nAu g u s t
1 9 3 7 .
I n
1 9 3 5
a l one, £1 , 0 4 0 , 0 0 0 wa s s p ent b y Por t u g a l
i n
B r i t i s h na v a l s h i p y a r d s . Mod er ni s a t i onwa s c l ea r l y
l ong ov er d u e : u nt i l 1 9 3 6 , f or i ns t a nc e, t h ef l a g s h i p of
t h ePor t u g u es eN a v y wa s t h ea nc i ent c r u i s er
V a s c o
d a Ga ma , wh i c h h a d b eena f l oa t f or wel l ov er h a l f a
c ent u r y . W h enPor t u g a l ent er ed t h eGr ea t W a r , t h e
Ger ma np a p er Si mp l i c i s s i mu s p u b l i s h ed a
b r i l l i a nt
d r a wi ng wi t h t h et i t l e " T h ePor t u g u es eN a v y p u t s t o
Sea " .
T h a t d r a wi ng wel l s u mma r i s ed t h ec a r es h own
f or na t i ona l p r es t i g eb y t h eLi b er a l - Ma s oni c h eg e-
mony t h a t end ed i n 1 9 2 6 .
T h ePor t u g u es ea r my , a l s o, h a s b eeng r ea t l y i m-
p r ov ed b y Sa l a z a r i nh i s c a p a c i t y a s Pr i meMi ni s t er
s i nc e, i nh i s c a p a c i t y a s Mi ni s t er of Fi na nc e, h ema d e
s u c h i mp r ov ement f i na nc i a l l y p os s i b l e
. I t i s nowa
v er y d i f f er ent f or c et ot h a t r ec ent l y d es c r i b ed b y t h e
1 4 4
OFSALAZAR
l a t eB r i g a d i er - Gener a l C r oz i er i nh i s b ook T h eMen
I Sh ot .
I t s p ea c es t r eng t h a t h omei s Z6 , o7 o, a nd i n
t h ec ol oni es i o, ooo
: s ma l l enou g h f i g u r es , i na l l c on-
s c i enc e, b u t a t l ea s t ef f i c i ent
. OnJ a nu a r y 4 ,
1 9 3 8 ,
a n
i mp or t a nt s er i es of d ec r ees wa s p r omu l g a t ed , f or t h e
r ef or ma nd r eor g a ni s a t i onof t h ea r my
. T h ey t es t i f y ,
c omment s
T h eT i mes , " t o a c ou r a g eou s a t t i t u d eb y
t h eGov er nment i nt h ef a c eof Ser v i c ec ons er v a t i s m
" .
T h ey a l s od emons t r a t et h a t t h eGov er nment
i s not
k ep t i np ower b y t h ea r my , a s i t s enemi es a l l eg e .
m
p
Per h a p s r ea l l y t h emos t i mp or t a nt r ea s onwh y Por -
t u
i s not Fa s c i s t i s t h i s : t h a t Sa l a z a r i s not a p a r t y
p ot i c i a n
. Hei s not , a nd nev er h a s b een, c onc er ned
wi t h p ol i t i c a l ma noeu v r es . I nRu s s i a t h er ei s t h eC om-
mu ni s t
PART Y . I nGer ma ny t h er ei s t h eN a z i
PART Y
.
And i nI t a l y t h er ei s t h eFa s c i s t PART Y .
B u t i nPor -
t u g a l t h er e
i s nop a r t y . Sa l a z a r i s not t h el ea d er of a
a r t y :
h ei s l ea d er of Por t u g a l . T h e Uni a o
N a c i ona l
i s not a p a r t y
. I t i s not c onc er ned ' wi t h p ol i t i c s
; p ol i -
t i c s h a v eb eenb a ni s h ed f r omPor t u g a l
. I t i s t h eex -
p r es s i onof na t i ona l s u p p or t f or t h ewor k of Sa l a z a r
;
a nd t h ewor k of Sa l a z a r i s t or ea l i s et h ena t i ona l
g ood .
"
I l a u g h h u g el y , " h eonc es a i d t oa ni nt er v i ewer ,
" w$ enI h ea r t a l k of t h e` Ri g h t ' a nd t h e` Lef t '
. I n
f a c t , I t h i nk t h a t t h os ewor d s mea nnot h i ng a t a l l
.
For my p a r t , i f y ou t el l met h a t t h eRi g h t s t a nd s f or
s oc i a l d i s c i p l i ne, f or a u t h or i t y , f or u ni t y of d i r ec t i on
- t h en I a mof t h eRi g h t
. B u t i f y ou t el l met h a t t h e
Lef t mea ns a na t t emp t t oi mp r ov et h ec ond i t i ons of
1 4 5

x
I
T HEPORT UGAL
t h el i v es of t h ep eop l e, t oa d mi t t h emt ot h ec a r es of
g ov er nment , t or a i s et h ei r s t a nd a r d of c omf or t a nd
ed u c a t i on- t h eng l a d l y a mI of t h eLef t . B u t t h e
t r u t h i s , i nmy op i ni ona t l ea s t , t h a t t h er ea r enor i g h t s
a nd l ef t s t o- d a y ; t h er ea r eonl y p l a ns of g ov er nment ,
mor eor l es s p r a c t i c a b l e, t h a t a r eei t h er t r i ed ou t or
not . I f t h ey a r ec a r r i ed ou t f or t h er ea t es t g ood of
t h ec ou nt r y , t h ena na t i ona l wor k i s d one, a nd a l l t h e
r i g h t s a nd l ef t s t h a t t h er ema y b ea r et h er ef or ep u t
a s i d e. " 9
" W h enI s p ea k of a • ` N a t i ona l Pol i t y ' , " h et ol d
Ant oni oFer r o, " I u nd er s t a nd t h a t t h eN a t i on- - ou r
N a t i on- i s a l i v i ng r ea l i t y t h a t wewi s h t op r es er v e ;
t h a t t h eN a t i oni s a nor g a ni c ent i t y , c omp os ed of i n-
d i v i d u a l s d i f f er i ng i nt h ei r a b i l i t i es a nd i nt h ei r oc c u -
p a t i ons , wh i c h , d i s s i mi l a r i nt h ems el v es , ma k eu p a
s oc i a l h i er a r c h y ; t h a t t h er ea r ei nt er es t s of t h i s ent i t y
q u i t ed i s t i nc t f r omi nd i v i d u a l i nt er es t s , a nd ev en
s omet i mes c onf l i c t i ng wi t h t h ei mmed i a t ei nt er es t s of
t h ema j or i t y a nd , mu c h mor e, wi t h t h os eof a g r ou p
or c l a s s ; t h a t , f or t h eg ood of t h ena t i ona l i nt er es t ,
t h ena t u r a l or s oc i a l g r ou p i ng s of menmu s t b er ec og -
ni s ed - t h ef a mi l y , t h es oc i et y , t h eT r a d eUni on, t h e
a s s oc i a t i onf or s p i r i t u a l p u r p os es , t h el oc a l a u t h or i t y
- b u t t h a t g r ou p i ng s of a p ol i t i c a l k i nd , or g a ni s ed
f or t h ea c q u i s i t i onof p ower a nd t h ed omi na t i onof
t h eSt a t e, need not nec es s a r i l y b er ec og ni s ed . T h es e
t h i ng s a r es os el f - ev i d ent t h a t nop a r t y d a r es t op r e-
t end t h a t
i t d oes not p r op os et ob r i ng a b ou t s u c h a
na t i ona l p ol i t y , a nd a l l a c c ep t t h ef or eg oi ng p r i nc i p l es
- ex c ep t s u c h a s c onc er nt h ems el v es . N ev er t h el es s ,
ex p er i enc es h ows t h a t t h ey d onot s u c c eed i nb r i ng i ng
i t a b ou t , s i nc ei na l l na t i ona l c r i s es or
i n t i mes of
1 4 6
OFSALAZAR
g ener a l f a t i g u ep r ov ok ed b y t h ep a r t y s p i r i t , oneh ea r s
t h ec r y t h a t t h ep a r t y c ol ou r s s h ou l d b el ower ed i n
f a v ou r of a t r u l y na t i ona l Gov er nment . " " '
Hep r oc eed s t oemp h a s i s et h a t noGov er nment c a n
g ov er nt r u l y i nt h ena t i ona l i nt er es t u nl es s i t c om-
p l et el y t r a ns c end s t h ep a r t y s p i r i t , a nd a c t i v el y
op p os es a ny t end enc y of t h ep a r t y s p i r i t t or et u r n .
I t mu s t a l wa y s b er ememb er ed t h a t h ei s t a l k i ng
a b ou t Por t u g a l , a nd t h a t t h e Es t a d oN ov oi s Por t u -
g u es e. " I h a v enot a h or r or of p a r t i es i na g ener a l
wa y : I , h a v ea h or r or of t h ep a r t y s p i r i t i nPor t u g a l .
Eng l a nd h a s l i v ed f or c ent u r i es u nd er a p a r t y s y s t em,
a nd h a s ma na g ed q u i t ewel l s of a r . B u t i nPor -
t u g a l t h es eg r ou p s h a v ef or med t h ems el v es r ou nd
i nd i v i d u a l s or v es t ed i nt er es t s or s eek er s a f t er p ower ,
s i mp l y i nt h ei r own . i nt er es t s .
T h a t i s t h es or t of
p a r t y s p i r i t t h a t mu s t b eend ed i f wea r e t o a c h i ev e
a ny r ea l wor k of r ec ons t r u c t i on! ' "
' T h emor ep r of ou nd i s ou r f eel i ng of t h eor g a ni c
r ea l i t y of t h eN a t i on, t h emor enec es s a r y i t b ec omes
t ot h r u s t a s i d ea l l f a c t i ons , p a r t i es , a nd g r ou p s t o
wh i c h i nd i v i d u a l s a d h er ea c c or d i ng t oc h a nc ec i r c u m-
s t a nc es . T h er e wi l l b enomor es u c h p ol i t i c s , a nd t wo
b enef i t s wi l l r es u l t : f or t h eN a t i on, t h ef a c t t h a t t h e
Gov er nment wi l l wor k s ol el y f or i t , a nd f or t h e
Gov er nment , t h es p l end i d l i b er t y of b ei ng a b l et o
s er v eonl y t h ena t i on. "
C ont r a s t i ng t h ePor t u g u es ewi t h t h eI t a l i a na nd
ot h er r ev ol t s a g a i ns t t h ep a r t y s y s t em, h ewr i t es : " T h e
mi l i t a r y or i g i n
of
t h ePor t u g u es ed i c t a t or s h i p wi l l
a l wa y s g i v ea s p ec i a l c h a r a c t er i s t i c t oou r r ev ol u t i on .
W i t h u s , i t wa s not a p a r t y , a r ev ol u t i ona r y f or c e,
wh i c h s ei z ed p ower ; i t wa s t h ea r my , t h ev oi c eof t h e
1
4 7
i
T HEPORT UGAL
na t i on, wh i c h i nt er v ened t oc r ea t et h ec ond i t i ons
nec es s a r y t ot h eex i s t enc eof a Gov er nment t h a t
s h ou l d b eb ot h na t i ona l a nd op p os ed t ot h ep a r t i es
.
T h ea r med f or c es d onot c ons t i t u t ea p a r t y , d onot
r ep r es ent a p a r t y , c a nnot d ep end ona ny p a r t y
. " ' 3
T h ePor t u g u es eex p er i enc eh a s not c ons i s t ed
i n t h e
a p p l i c a t i onb y s omet r i u mp h a nt f a c t i onof a p r o-
g r a mmep r ev i ou s l y p r ep a r ed
. W h a t h a s h a p p ened
h a s b eent h a t a c omp l et el y d i s i nt er es t ed Gov er nment
h a s b eenp l a c ed i np ower b y t h ea r my , a nd p r es er v ed
i np ower b y t h eg r a t i t u d eof t h ep eop l e
. T h eb r ea k
wi t h ni net eent h c ent u r y l i b er a l i s mh a s b eenc om-
p l et e :
t h a t wh i c h h a s a r i s eni s c a l l ed t h e Es t a d oN ov o,
t h eN ewSt a t e
; b u t i t i s r ea l l y v er y ol d , a s ol d a s
C h r i s t end oma nd K i ng s .
Por t u g a l , t h en, i s not Fa s c i s t , f or t h i s r ea s on
: t h a t
i nI t a l y , wh i c h i s Fa s c i s t , a p a r t y wi t h a p r og r a mme
g a i ned p ower a nd a p p l i ed i t
. I nPor t u g a l , a ma nwi t h
a nu mb er of f u nd a ment a l p r i nc i p l es , a nd t h os e' p r i n-
c i p l es l i t t l emor et h a nt h eb a s es of C h r i s t i a nmor a l s ,
wa s p l a c ed i nc ont r ol a nd f os t er ed a nd d ev el op ed a
t r u l y Por t u g u es ePor t u g a l .
T h er ei s no et a t i s me
i nPor t u g a l : t h a t i s wh y Por -
t u g a l i s not Fa s c i s t
. I nr ej ec t i ng Li b er a l i s m, Sa l a z a r
h a s p r es er v ed l i b er t y . Heh a s p r es er v ed Por t u g a l
f r oma ny f or mof t ot a l i t a r i a ni s m. T oq u ot e
h i m
a g a i n : "
T h eSt a t ewh i c h wou l d s u b or d i na t ea l l wi t h -
ou t ex c ep t i on- i t s mor a l i t y , i t s l a w, i t s p ol i t i c s , i t s
ec onomy - t ot h ei d ea of na t i onor of r a c ea s r ep r e-
s ent ed b y i t s el f wou l d c omef or wa r d a s a nomni p ot ent
b ei ng , a b eg i nni ng a nd end i ni t s el f , t owh i c h a l l
ex i s t enc es , b ot h i nd i v i d u a l a nd c ol l ec t i v e, mu s t b e
s u b j ec t ed , a nd wou l d g i v er i s et oa wor s ef or mof a b s o-
r 4 8
OFSALAZAR
l u t i s m- t h a nt h a t t owh i c h t h eLi b er a l r eg i mes s u c -
c eed ed . Su c h a St a t ewou l d b ees s ent i a l l y p a g a n, of
i t s na t u r ei nc omp a t i b l ewi t h t h es p i r i t of ou r C h r i s t i a n
c i v i l i s a t i on . . . .
" T h e( Por t u g u es e) C ons t i t u t i on, a p p r ov ed b y p op u -
l a r p l eb i s c i t e, r ej ec t s a s i r r ec onc i l a b l ewi t h i t s end s a l l
t h a t p r oc eed s , d i r ec t l y or i nd i r ec t l y , f r omt h i s t ot a l i -
t a r i a nc onc ep t i on
. I t b eg i ns b y es t a b l i s h i ng t h emor a l
l a wa nd j u s t i c ea s l i mi t s t oi t s owns ov er ei g nt y ; i t
ob l i g es t h eSt a t et or es p ec t i t s na t u r a l ob l i g a t i ons t o-
wa r d s t h ei nd i v i d u a l , t h ef a mi l y , t h ec or p or a t i on, a nd
l oc a l g ov er nment
; i t a s s u r es l i b er t y a nd i nv i ol a b i l i t y
of r el i g i ou s b el i ef s a nd p r a c t i c es ; i t a c k nowl ed g es t h e
r i g h t of p a r ent s t oed u c a t et h ei r ownc h i l d r en ; i t
g u a r a nt ees t h er i g h t s of p r op er t y , c a p i t a l , a nd l a b ou r ,
wi t h i nt h es oc i a l h a r mony , i t r ec og ni s es t h eC h u r c h ,
wi t h t h eor g a ni s a t i ons wh i c h a r ep r op er t oh er , a nd
l ea v es h er f r eet oc a r r y onh er s p i r i t u a l wor k
.
" I t wi l l oned a y b er ec og ni s ed t h a t Por t u a l
i s
g ov er ned b y a u ni q u es y s t em, wh i c h a c c or d s wi t h er
ownh i s t or i c a nd g eog r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i on, q u i t ed i f f er -
ent f r om a l l ot h er s
; a nd wewi s h i t t ob ec l ea r l y u nd er -
s t ood t h a t weh a v enot p u t a s i d et h eer r or s a nd wr ong s
of f a l s eLi b er a l i s ma nd f a l s ed emoc r a c y mer el y i n
or d er t oa d op t ot h er s wh i c h ma y b ey et wor s e
; b u t , on
t h ec ont r a r y , t or eor g a ni s ea nd s t r eng t h ent h ec ou n-
t r y a c c or d i ng t ot h ep r i nc i p l es of a u t h or i t y , or d er , a nd
na t i ona l t r a d i t i on, i nh a r mony wi t h t h os eet er na l v er i -
t i es wh i c h a r eh a p p i l y t h eh er i t a g eof h u ma ni t y , t h e
a p p a na g e
of C h r i s t i a nc i v i l i s a t i on
. " r 4
Sa l a z a r , t h en, i s f u l l y a wa r eof h i s Eu r op c a nr es p on-
s i b i l i t y , of Por t u g a l ' s d u
of p r es er v i ng h er s h a r eof
ou r c ommonh er i t a g eof u r op ea nd t h eFa i t h
. And
1 4 9
T HEPORT UGAL
j u s t a s t h ec or p or a t i v ei d ea l s y nt h es i s es a l l t h ev a r i ou s
el ement s i nt h eSt a t e, a nd d i s c i p l i nes t h emi nt oone
c ommonh a r mony , s od oes i t r eg a r d wes t er nc i v i l i s a -
t i ona s a wi d er , u ni t y , c omp r i s i ng d i f f er ent p eop l es ,
d i f f er ent c u l t u es , a nd d i f f er ent na t i ona l t r a d i t i ons .
I nt er na t i ona l c o- op er a t i on, a nd t h es u b or d i na t i onof
i mmed i a t ena t i ona l i nt er es t s t ot h el a r g er i nt er es t s of
Eu r op e, a r ep r i nc i p l es i mp l i c i t i nt r u ec or p or a t i s m.
T h ey a r ea c c ep t ed b y Por t u g a l ; t h ey a r enot a c c ep t ed
b y Fa s c i s t I t a l y . N a t i ona l s el f - s u f f i c i enc y i s c ons t a nt l y
emp h a s i s ed b y Mu s s ol i ni a s a nes s ent i a l p a r t of h i s
p ol i c y .
B u t Sa l a z a r h a s wr i t t en : " T h er ei s not a
s i ng l ec ou nt r y i n t h ewor l d t o- d a y t h a t c a ns a y t h a t
i t i s op ent ot h ef r eeex c h a ng eof g ood s ; nev er t h el es s ,
ou r s i s a mong t h os ei nwh i c h t h er es t r i c t i ons a r el ea s t .
W er eg a r d a s a g r ea t er r or t h a t ex t r emeec onomi c
na t i ona l i s mwh i c h wes eea r i s i ng ev er y wh er e, t a k i ng
noa c c ou nt of t h ena t u r a l c ond i t i ons of ex i s t enc eof
t h ep eop l es , a nd d es t r oy i ng , t ot h ep r ej u d i c eof
h u ma ni t y , t h es p ec i a l c h a r a c t er s of t h ev a r i ou s
na t i ona l ec onomi es . Fa r f r oms ol v i ng t h ep r ob l ems
of t h ed a y , t h ec r ea t i onof , s el f - s u f f i c i ent ec onomi c
u ni t s wi l l s er v eonl y t oc r ea t eot h er p r ob l ems i nt h e
f u t u r e
. " 1
5
T h eN a t i ona l ec onomy of Por t u g a l , wh i c h d i s c i -
p l i nes t owa r d s t h ec ommonend a l l p r i v a t ei nt er es t s ,
mu s t not b ec onf u s ed wi t h t h eec onomi c na t i ona l i s m
of I t a l y or of Ger ma ny
. Sh er eg a r d s h er s el f a nd h er
f or ei g np os s es s i ons a s f or mi ng a s i ng l ewh ol e ; t h e
c ol oni es a r e " p r ov i nc es d ' ou t r emer " , a nd h er f i r s t r es -
p ons i b i l i t y i s t ot h em
. B u t h er r es p ons i b i l i t y t o
Eu r op e
i s a l wa y s a c k nowl ed g ed . I t i s a c k nowl ed g ed
i nAr t i c l eX X X of t h eC ons t i t u t i on, wh i c h s a y s t h a t
I SO
OFSALAZAR
" t h eSt a t es h a l l r eg u l a t ei t s ec onomi c r el a t i ons wi t h
ot h er c ou nt r i es a c c or d i ng t ot h ep r i nc i p l eof a p p r o-
p r i a t ec o- op er a t i on " , eq u a l l y a s b y Ar t i c l eI V , a c c or d -
mg t owh i c h " i t i s i nc u mb ent u p oni t t oc o- op er a t e
wi t h ot h er St a t es i nt h ep r ep a r a t i ona nd a d op t i onof
mea s u r es d es i g ned t op r omot ep ea c ea mong p eop l es
a nd t h ep r og r es s of ma nk i nd " .
I
N OT EST OT HEC HAPT ERS
N OT EST OC HAPT ERI ( PAGES 1 3 t o3 0 )
I d e l a T ou r d u Pi n : " Ap h or i s mes d ep ol i t i q u es oc i a l e. " 3 r d
ed i t i on : Pa r i s , i 9 3 o, p . t 6 .
z D i v i ni Red emp t or i s , p a r . 3 2 .
3 J . M. K ey nes
:
T h eEnd
of La i s s ez - Fa i r e
.
Lond on : 1 9 2 7 , p
. 4 t -
4 c f . G. M. God d en : C onf l i c t i nSp a i n
. " I t c a nnot b et ooof t en
r ep ea t ed t h a t Gener a l Fr a nc oi s Rep u b l i c a n, a nd t h a t h eh a s nev er
b eena Fa s c i s t . I nt h eN ewSp a i nt h es t a t ewi l l b ec or p or a t i v e, a nd
wi l l f ol l owont h el i nes of t h eN u ov a Es t a d o( s i c ) of Por t u g a l . " ( p . l oo. )
3 H
. A. L. Fi s h er : A Hi s t or y of Eu r op e ( Onev ol u meed i t i on) , p . 6
5 9 .
6 T h eT i mes : Ma r c h 2 2 ,
1 9 3 3 -
7 Mi h a l l Ma noi l es c o : Le Si ec l e d u C or p or a t i s me. ( Fel i x Al c a n
Pa r i s , 1 9 3 6 ) . Qu ot ed b y M. Fr ep ~ el C ot t a i n
Ec onomi c Pl a nni ng i n
C or p or a t i v ePor t u g a l : ( Lond on : Y . & S. K i ng , 1 9 3 7 ) , p
. 1 6 , not e .
s
I n1 9 3 5 t h er ewer e2 9 2 b i r t h s a nd
1 7 6
d ea t h s i nPor t u g a l f or ev er y
t ent h ou s a nd i nh a b i t a nt s . B ot h t h es ef i g u r es a r eh i g h ; c omp a r et h em
wi t h Eng l a nd ' s 1 4 7 b i r t h s a nd 1 1 7 d ea t h s . B et weenI 9 I 3 a nd
1
9 3 5
t h eb i r t h - r a t ei nPor t u g a l d ec l i ned b y t wel v ep er c ent
; i nEng l a nd
d u r i ng t h es a mep er i od , h owev er , t h ed ec l i newa s t h i r t y - ni nep er
c ent .
( Fi g u r es q u ot ed i n T h eT a b l et ,
Oc t ob er 2 ,
1 9 3 7 , f r omt h e D os s i er s
d eL' Ac t i onPop u l a i r e. )
9 D ou g l a s Gol d r i ng : Por t u g a l . Lond on,
1
9 3 3
,
t o
A. F. G. B el l : Por t u g a l of t h ePor t u g u es e.
Lond on, 1 9 1 5 .
1 1 T h es eC h r oni c l es h a v eb eenp u b l i s h ed i na n. ex c el l ent Eng l i s h
t r a ns l a t i on, ed i t ed b y Senh or a d eC a s t r oeAl mei d a . ( Al l en& Unwi n
1 9 3 6 . )
1 2
T h ep h r a s ei s t h a t of Mr . S. Geor g eW es t , l ec t u r er i nPor t u g u es e
a t Lond onUni v er s i t y , f r omh i s ex c el l ent l ec t u r eon " T h eN ew
C or p or a t i v eSt a t eof Por t u g a l " , d el i v er ed a t K i ng ' s C ol l eg e, Lond on,
onFeb r u a r y i 1 9 3 7 , a nd s i nc er ep r i nt ed
.
Fu r t h er d et a i l s of t h ef i na nc i a l a c h i ev ement of D r . Sa l a z a r a r eg i v en
l a t er i nt h i s b ook , b u t t h os ei nt er es t ed a r er ec ommend ed t or ea d
Pr of es s or Ol i v ei r a Sa l a z a r ' s Rec or d , b y T oma z W y l i eFer na nd es
( Li s b on, 1 9 3 6 : i nEnl i s h ) , or La Rena i s s a nc eFi na nc i t r eet Ec ono-
mi. q u ed u Por t u g a l ,
y
Pa u l La v a g ne,
i n
t h e Rev u ed es Sc i enc es
Pol i t i q u es , J u l y - Sep t emb er ,
1 9 3 5 -
1 5 3
T HEPORT UGAL
N OT EST OC HAPT ERI I ( PAGES3 3 t o 6 7 )
1
Mr . D a v i d Ha nna y i nt h e C a mb r i d g eMod er nHi s t or y : V ol . X I I ,
C h a p t er X
.
2
A. F. G. B el l : op . c i t . , p p . 1 8 5
- 7 -
3 Si r Geor g eY ou ng : Por t u g a l : AnHi s t or i c a l St u d y . ( Ox f or d ,
1 9 1 7 ) , p .
2 7 4 -
4 Pa r i s :
Ga b r i el B ea u c h es neet Fi l s : 1 9 3 6
.
T h i s b ook g oes i nt oa n
i mmens ea mou nt of c i r c u ms t a nt i a l d et a i l , a nd a mong ot h er t h i ng s
p r i nt s t h et ex t of La wN o . 1 , g 1 o of Ma y 2 1 ,
1 9 3 5 ,
b y wh i c h a l l s ec r et
s oc i et i es wer ema d ei l l eg a l i nPor t u g a l , a nd g i v es d et a i l s of t h eev ent s
l ea d i ng u p t ot h a t l a w .
5 Y ou ng : op . C i t . , p . 2 8 6 .
6 Senh or F. E. d a Si l v a , i na na d d r es s t ot h eSoc i 6 t 6 d ' Ec onomi e
Pol i t i q u ed eB el g i q u e : B r u s s el s , D ec emb er
1 9 3 4
.
c f . a l s oPa u l
La v a g nei n La Rev u ed es Sc i enc es Pol i t i q u es , J u l y - Sep t emb er ,
1 9 3 5 ,
on
" La Rena i s s a nc eFi na nc i 6 r eet Ec onomi q u ed u Por t u g a l " . " La
g u er r e, q u i i mp os a 1 ' ent r et i end ec or p s ex p 6 d i t i onna i r es , i s l a f oi s en
Fr a nc eet enAf r i q u e, n' a u r a i t memep a s , Ael l es eu l e, c omp r omi s
d a ng er eu s ement l es r es s ou r c es d u p a y s , s i l ' or d r ey a v a i t 6 t 6 mi s
.
La p a r t i c i p a t i onp or t u
g a i s ea v a i t t 6 f i na nc 6 ep a r i ' At l $ l et er r eet
c et t ed et t e, p or t & ed a ns l es c omp t es
,
p ou r u nea nnu i t 6 r 6 g u h 8 r e, a u r a i t
u ev ent u el l ement f a i r el ' ob j et d a r r a n& ement s p l u s s u p p or t a b l es .
Ees b ons d u T r 6 s or
( 8 7
mi l l i ons a u 3 0 j u l n 1 g 1 g , a u l i eu d e 1 , 2 5 0 en
1 9 2 8 ) p ou v a i ent enc or et i t r ec ons i l i d 6 s .
" Ma t s l es ex t r a v a g a nc es f i na nc i 6 r es , i nh 6 r ent es a h a p 6 r i od ed ' h os t i -
l i t 6 s , l a i s s er ent d a ns t ou s l es p a y s u nef u nes t es emenc ed ' i mp r 6 -
v oy a nc eet d ed 6 s or d r e q u i t r ou v a u nt er r a i nd ' 6 l ec t i ona u Por t u g a l .
C ef u r ent a l or s 1 ' a b a nd ond et ou t c ont r b l e, l ' a c c r oi s s ement d u g a s p i l -
l a g e, l a p r ed i l ec t i onp ou r l es s ol u t i ons p a r es s eu s es , l ef onc t i onna r i s me
h y p er t r op h i 6 , l ' i nc oor d i na t i ong 6 ner a l i s ee, l a d i s p a r i t i ond es r es p on-
s a b 1 l 1 t 6 s ; t ou t c el a , f a v or i s 6 p a r l ' a g i t a t i oni nc es s a nt ed es p a r t i s . '
7 B el l : op . c i t . , p p .
2 1 3 - 1 5 -
8
Leond ePonc i ns : LePor t u g a l Rena i t , p .
4 7 -
9 I b i d , p p . 4 7 - 9 ; W eb s t er : Sec r et Soc i et i es a nd Su b v er s i v eMov e-
ment s , p . 2 8 3 .
1 o
T h eT i mes : Ma r c h
1 3 . ; 9 3 5 -
1 1 Gonz a g u ed eRey nol d : Por t u g a l ( Pa r i s , Sp es , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 2 7 0 .
1 2
Ant oni oFer r o
: LePor t u g a l et s onC h ef
( Pa r i s , B er na r d Gr a s s et ,
1 9 3 4 ) , p
. 1 7 8 .
T h i s b ook , a Fr enc h t r a ns l a t i onof a s er i es of i nt er v i ews g i v enb y
Sa l a z a r wh i c h wa s p u b l i s h ed i nt h ePor t u g u es enews p a p er , D i a r i od e
N ot i c i a s i n D ec emb er 1 9 3 2 , g i v es a na d mi r a b l ep i c t u r eof Sa l a z a r a nd
h i s i d ea s . Ant oni oFer r oi s nowh ea d of t h eSec r et a r i a d od a Pr op a -
g a nd a N a c i ona l a t Li s b on .
1 5 4
OFSALAZAR
1 3 I b i d , p . 1 0 4 .
1 4 H: C h
. C h d r y i n Sep t ; J u l y ' 9 3 7
.
N OT EST OC HAPT ERI I I ( PAGES
6 1 t o9 9 )
1
T h i s or i g i na l l y a p p ea r ed i nt h eC ons t i t u t i ona s Ar t i c l eX I V
. T h e
C ons t i t u t i onh a s b eena mend ed i ni t s d et a i l s ons ev er a l oc c a s i ons
r ef er enc es t h r ou g
h ou t t h i s b ook a r et oi t a s i t wa s a f t er D ec emb er 2 1 ,
1 9 3 6
. I t s h ou l d b enot ed t h a t t h et r a ns l a t i oni s t h ea u t h or ' s own, a nd
not of f i c i a l
; nev er t h el es s h et h i nk s a nd h op es t h a t i t ma y b er eg a r d ed
a s a c c u r a t e .
2 Qu a d r a g es i moAnno : p a r . 8 o .
3 D i v i ni Red emp t or i s
: p a r
. 3 2 -
4
Fer r o : op . c i t . , p p
. 1 3 3 - 4 .
3
Per ei r a d os Sa nt os : UnEt a t C or p or a t i f : La C ons t i t u t i onSoc i a l e
et Pol i t i q u ePor t u g a i s e. Pa r i s : REc u ei l Si r ey , 1 9 3 5 , p
. 5 6
. T h i s i s
a l ong a nd d oc u ment ed s t u d y of t h ePor t u g u
es eC ons t i t u t i on, wr i t t en
a s a t h es i s f or a D oc t or a t ea t Lou v a i n, a nd mu s t b ev a l u a b l et oa ny
wh owou l d s t u d y t h e Es t a d oN ov o i nd et a i l
. I t i s , h owev er , r a t h er
t oomi nu t ea nd ex a c t i ng i nex a mi na t i on, s i nc et h ePor t u g u es e
Es t a d o
N ov oi s a d mi t t ed l y onl y i na nex p er i ment a l s t a g ea t p r es ent
; s u c h a
wor k wi l l b eof g r ea t er v a l u ewh ens omes or t of f i na l i t y h a s b een
a c h i ev ed .
6 Ar t i c l e4 1 of t h eI r i s h C ons t i t u t i on( 1 9 7 ) b eg i ns t h u s
: " T h e
St a t er ec og ni s es t h eFa mi l y a s t h ena t u r a l p r i ma r y a nd f u nd a ment a l
u ni t g r ou p of Soc i et y , a nd a s a mor a l i ns t i t u t i onp os s es s i n g
i na l i en-
a b l ea nd i mp r es c r i p t i b l er i g h t s , a nt ec ed ent a nd s u p er i or t oa l l p os i t i v e
l a w. "
And Ar t .
4 2 :
" T h eSt a t ea c k nowl ed g
es t h a t t h ep r i ma r y a nd
na t u r a l ed u c a t or of t h ec h i l d i s t h eFa mi l y
. "
7 Sa l a z a r : Sp eec h onMa r c h 1 3 ,
1 9 3 3 -
8
Sa l a z a r : Sp eec h a t B r a g a : Ma y 1 9 3 6 .
9 Ar t . V I , x , q u ot ed a b ov e ; a l s oAr t . I V .
1 o
Fr . Al b er t Mu l l er , S. J . ,
p a p er r ea d a t t h eI nt er na t i ona l Uni onof
Soc i a l St u d i es :
Ma l i nes , Sep t emb er
1
9 3 7 .
1 1
Sa l a z a r
: I nt r od u c t i ont ot h eFr enc h ed i t i onof h i s c ol l ec t ed
s p eec h es : UneRev ol u t i ond a ns l a Pa i x . Pa r i s : Fl a mma r i on, 1 9 3 6 ,
p . x x v .
1 2
Qu a d r a g es i moAnno : p a r . 9 5 . Seet h eenc y c l i c a l " N ona b b i a mo
b i s og no " of t h ef ol l owi ng mont h - J u ne1 9 3 1 - f or a f u r t h er d i s c u s -
s i onof Fa s c i s t I t a l y .
1 3
Gonz a g u ed eRey nol d : op . c i t . , p . 3 1 0 .
1 5 5
I
T HEPORT UGAL
0 4 Sa l a z a r
: I nt r od u c t i ona s c i t ed : p p . x x i i i : i v .
1 5 Gonz a g u ed eRey nol d : op . c i t . , p . 3 1 1 .
1 6 Fr . Mu l l er
: La Pol i t i q u eC or p or a t i v e : B r u s s el s , 1 9 3 5 , p p
. 8 o- 0 .
1 7 Sp eec h of Sa l a z a r : Ma r c h
1 6 , x 9 3 3 -
1 8
Qu a d r a g es i moAnno : p a r s
. 8 3 a nd 8 5 .
1 9 St a t u t eof N a t i ona l La b ou r
: Ar t . V I I I .
2 oI b i d :
Ar t . I X . C ons t i t u t i on : Ar t
. X X X I X .
2 1 Fr ep p el C ot t a : op . c i t . , p .
1 5 3 -
2 2 c f . J oa oLu mb r a l es i n
Pol i t i q u e : Pa r i s , Ma y
1 9 3 4 -
2 3 La Pol i t i q u eC or p or a t i v e, p . 8 8 .
2 4 St a t u t eof N a t i ona l La b ou r
: Ar t s . L, LI , LI I .
2 5 Ar t . I I
of D ec r ee- La wN o . 2 3 , 0 5 3 : Sep t emb er
2 3 ,
1 9 3 3 -
2 6 D ec r ee- La wN o . 2 4 , 3 6 2 : Au g u s t
1 5 , 1 9 3 4 .
2 7 I na f or ewor d t o
UneRev ol u t i ond a ns l a Pa i x .
2 8 Sa l a z a r
: I nt r od u c t i ont ot h es a me, p
. x x i i i .
2 9 Sp eec h onJ a nu a r y
2 8 ,
1
9 3 4 -
3 0 J oAoLu mb r a l es :
op . c i t .
3 1 Fr ep p el C ot t a : op . c i t . , p .
1 6 o.
3 2 Fer r o : op . c i t . , P.
1 3 6 .
N OT EST OC HAPT ERI V ( PAGES
1 0 3 t o 1 2 5 )
1 Mi c h a el K enny ,
S. J . , i n T h e Si g n ( U. S
. A. ) .
Ma y
1 9 3 7 -
2 op . c i t . , p
.
6 5
.
3 Mi h a i l Ma noi l es c o :
Le Si a c l ed u C or p or a t i s me . Qu ot ed b y
M
. Fr ep p el C ot t a i n Ec onomi c Pl a nni ng i nC or p or a t i v ePor t u g a l
.
4 Ar t i c l eb y G. W
. P. Mc La c h l a ni na s p ec i a l s u p p l ement p u b l i s h ed
b y T h eT i mes
ont h eoc c a s i onof t h ec ent ena r y of pt h e P.
& O
. St ea m-
s h i p C o. Sep t emb er
7 , 1 9 3 7 .
5 I nt r od u c t i ona s c i t ed , p . x x x i
. T h ef ol l owi ng q u ot a t i onf r oma
s p eec h of Gener a l Fr a nc oa l s oh a s i nt er es t i ng b ea r i ng ont h ep r es ent
c h a p t er : "
W ed onot b el i ev ei ns u f f r a g e
. T h eSp a ni s h na t i ona l wi l l
wa s nev er f r eel y ex p r es s ed t h r ou g h t h eb a l l ot b ox . B ef or e, f i r s t t h e
p ol i t i c a l b os s es a nd a f t er wa r d s t h et y r a nni c a l s y nd i c a t es f or c ed t h e
Sp a ni s h p eop l et ov ot ea c c or d i ng t ot h ei r wh i m, g i v i ng t h emor d er s .
T h ep op u l a r wi l l i n t h enewSt a t ewi l l ex p r es s i t s el f t h r ou g h t ec h -
ni c a l or g a ni s a t i ons a nd c or p or a t i ons , wh i c h , h a v i ng d eep r oot s i n
t h ec ou nt r y , wi l l r ep r es ent t h eg enu i ned es i r es a nd i d ea l s of t h e
p eop l e . . . .
Ou r Gov er nment wi l l b es t r ong - a Gov er nment f or t h e
p eop l e . T h os ewh ot h i nk wea r eg oi ng t os u p p or t t h ep r i v i l eg es
of
c a p i t a l i s ma r eent i r el y wr ong .
W es h a l l s u p p or t t h emi d d l ea nd
h u mb l ec l a s s es . " ( Rep or t ed i nt h e Ob s er v er : Oc t ob er 4 , 1 9 3 6 . )
I $ 6
OFSALAZAR
6 Sa l a z a r : Sp eec h a t B r a g a , Ma y 1 9 3 6 .
7 A. F. G. B el l , op . c i t . , p
. 1 9 4 .
8 T h ep r es ent wr i t er ex p r es s ed t h i s op i ni on i n a na r t i c l ei nt h e
D u b l i nRev i ew, f or Oc t ob er 1 9 3 7 , wh i c h h es ent , i nv i t i ng c r i t i c i s m,
t oSenh or J
. L. d a Si l v a D i a s , of t h eSec r et a r i a d od a Pr op a g a nd a
N a t i ona l a t Li s b on. Senh or Si l v a D i a s r ep l i ed a t l eng t h , d i s a g r ee-
i ng wi t h s ev er a l t h i ng s , b u t wi t h ou t c omment i ng ont h i s p a r t i c u l a r
op i ni on
.
9 Sa l a z a r : Sp eec h onN ov emb er 2 3 , 1 9 3 2 .
l o
Hea s s u med t h eMi ni s t r y of W a r onMa y i z , 1 9 3 6 , a nd t h e
Mi ni s t r y of For ei g nAf f a i r s onN ov emb er 6 of t h es a mey ea r , b ot h
p a r i nt er i m- t h a t i s , t omeet t h eemer g enc y oc c a s i oned b y t h e
Sp a ni s h W a r .
1 1
op . c i t . , p . 2 5 .
1 2
Sa l a z a r : i na b r oa d c a s t : D ec emb er 9 ,
1 9 3 4 -
1 3
Fer r o : op . c i t . , ~ 1 i . 3 1 7 . Hep r i nt s t h es p eec h i nf u l l , b u t er r o-
neou s l y d a t es i t 1 9 2 8 . T h emi s t a k eh a s b eenc op i ed b y Gonz a g u e
d eRey nol d .
1 4
T h eT i mes : Au g u s t 2 8 , 1 9 3 1 . Qu ot ed b y I k ond ePonc i ns , a nd
. t r a ns l a t ed b a c k f r omh i s Fr enc h b y me . I h a v enot h a d t h eop p or -
t u ni t y t ol ook u p t h eor i g i na l : d ePonc i ns q u ot es a l ong c u t t i ng ,
b ei nni ng " I i es t d enot or i 6 t 6 c ou r a nt eq u ec et t ea g i t a t i ona
et f oment 6 ep a r l es p ol i t i c i ens p or t u g a i s ex i l es a Pa r i s , et p a r t i c u -
l i 8 r ement p a r q u el q u es p r ec ed ent s c h ef s d u Gr a nd Or i ent d u
Por t u g a l . " op . c i t . , p
. 7 5 .
7 5 Sa l a z a r : I nt r od u c t i ona s c i t ed , p
. x l i .
N OT EST OC HAPT ERV ( PAC ES 1 2 9 t o1 5 1 )
, I nt er v i ewr ep or t ed i n T h eC a t h ol i c Her a l d : D ec
. 3 , 1 9 3 7 .
2
T h ed et a i l s of t h es eev ent s I h a v eonl y ont h ea u t h or i t y of
J eSu i s Pa r t ou t a nd Lej ou r ; b u t t h eg ener a l f a c t s a r ec ommon
k nowl ed g e .
3 T h eC or p or a t eSt a t e, b y B eni t oMu s s ol i ni
: Fl or enc e, V a l l ec c h i
Ed i t or e.
1 9 3 6 .
p p .
9 6 - 7 .
4 Qu ot ed b y Fr ep p el C ot t a , p .
2 3 -
5
C ons t i t u t i on : Ar t i c l eV I I I . W ewi l l l i s t i t s mor ei mp or t a nt
p r ov i s i ons
T h ef ol l owi ng c ons t i t u t et h er i g h t s a nd i nd i v i d u a l g u a r a nt ees
of Por t u g u es ec i t i z ens
i . T h er i g h t t ol i f ea nd p er s ona l i nv i ol a b i l i t y
.
1 5 7
I
T HEPORT UGAL
2 .
T h er i g h t t og ood na mea nd r ep u t a t i on
.
3
. Li b er t y a nd i nv i ol a b i l i t y of r el i g i ou s b el i ef s a nd p r a c t i c e.
4 . T h ef r eeex p r es s i onof t h ou g h t i na ny f or m
.
5
. Fr eed omof ed u c a t i on .
6
. I nv i ol a b i l i t y of d omi c i l ea nd s ec r ec y of c or r es p ond enc e, s u b -
j ec t t ot h et er ms of t h el a w
. ,
8
. N oones h a l l b ed ep r i v ed of p er s ona l l i b er t y or a r r es t ed
wi t h ou t a c h a r g eb ei ng b r ou g h t
.
i i
. N oones h a l l s u f f er p u ni s h ment b y p er p et u a l i mp r i s onment ,
or t h ep ena l t y of d ea t h , ex c ep t , a s r eg a r d s t h el a t t er ,
d u r i ng a s t a t eof b el l i g er enc y wi t h a f or ei g np ower , i n
wh i c h c a s et h es ent enc emu s t b ec a r r i ed ou t ont h es c ene
of t h ewa r .
i d
. T h er es h a l l b enoc onf i s c a t i onof g ood s . .
. f r oma d el i n-
q u ent .
1 4
. Fr eed omof meet i ng a nd a s s oc i a t i on.
1 5 . T h er i g h t of p r op er t y
. . . .
r 6
. T h er es h a l l b enop a y ment of t a x es wh i c h h a v enot b een
d ec r eed i na c c or d a nc ewi t h t h eC ons t i t u t i on .
1 8
. T h er i g h t of ma k i ng r ep r es ent a t i ons or p et i t i on, c l a i mor
c omp l a i nt , t oGov er nment d ep a r t ment s or t oa ny a u t h or i -
t i es , i nd ef enc eof p er s ona l r i g h t s or g ener a l i nt er es t s .
1 9
. T h er i g h t of r es i s t a nc et oa ny or d er wh i c h ma y i nf r i ng e
i nd i v i d u a l g u a r a nt ees , u nl es s t h ey h a v eb eenl eg a l l y
s u s p end ed , a nd of r eel l i ng b y f or c ep r i v a t ea i g r es s i on
wh enr ec ou r s et op u b i c a u t h or i t y i s i mp os s i b l e . '
6
Leond ePonc i ns : op . c i t . , p .
1 8
3 -
7 T h eT i mes : D ec emb er
1 0 ,
1 9 3 7 . I nt h ema t t er of f r eed omt o
c r i t i c i s et h er eg i me, i t i s i nt er es t i ng t onot et h emet h od s a d op t ed
b y Sa l a z a r , t h r ou g h t h eSec r et a r i a d od a Pr op a g a nd a N a c i ona l , t o
i nc u l c a t eh i s i d ea s i nt ot h ena t i on . " T h eSec r et a r i a d oc l a s s i f i es a l l
p er i od i c a l s a c c or d i ng t ot h ei r a t t i t u d et owa r d s t h er eg i me . T h er e
a r et h os ewh i c h a r ef a v ou r a b l e, t h os ewh i c h a r es y mp a t h et i c ,
t h os ewh i c h a r eneu t r a l , a nd t h os ewh i c h a r eh os t i l e
. T h eSec r e-
t a r i a d os end s a r t i c l es t ot h eed i t or s of t h ema l l .
T h ey h a v eno
ob l i g a t i ont oa c c ep t t h em ; i f t h ey r ef u s et h em, nos t ep s of a ny k i nd
wi l l b et a k ena g a i ns t t h em . And h er ea r es omes t a t i s t i c s : T h e
Sec r et a r i a d ob eg a ni t s wor k i nD ec emb er .
1 9 3 3 .
Up t oD ec emb er
1 9 3 4 , i t h a d s ent 1 , 3 1 oa r t i c l es t o6 7 p er i od i c a l s
; f r omD ec emb er 1
9 3 4 ,
t oD ec emb er
1 9 3 5
2 , 0 2 7 a r t i c l es t o7 5 p er i od i c a l s .
T h enu mb er of
neu t r a l , a nd ev enof op p os i t i onj ou r na l s wh i c h i ns er t ed a r t i c l es s u p -
p l i ed b y t h eSec r et a r i a d oi nc r ea s ed c ons i d er a b l y , a nd f r omt h et i me
t h a t t h i s wor k wa s b eg u nt h ewh ol et oneof t h ePr es s b eg a nt ob e
mor emod er a t e. I nD ec emb er
1 9 3 3 ,
ou t of 2 5 1 p ol i t i c a l p er i od i c a l s ,
4 0 wer ef or t h eGov er nment , 6 1 s y mp a t h et i c , 6 9 neu t r a l , a nd
8 1 i n
p os i t i on
. B y D ec emb er 1 9 3 4 , ou t of 2 4 7 p er i od i c a l s , 6 2 wer ef or
eGov er nment , 8 6 wer es y mp a t h et i c , 4 3 wer eneu t r a l , a nd onl y
1 5 8
OFSALAZAR
5 6 i nop p os i t i on. Sod omet h od s of p er s u a s i ong ener a l l y s u c c eed
b et t er t h a nmet h od s of c ons t r a i nt
. " ( Gonz a g u ed eRey nol d : op .
c i t . , p . 3 0 7
. ) T h eonl y f a c t t h a t d i s ma y s onei s t h a t t h er es h ou l d b e
z 5 i p ol i t i c a l p er i od i c a l s i na c ou nt r y of onl y s ev enmi l l i oni nh a b i -
t a nt s 1
8 Fer r o, op . c i t . , p
. 2 2 i
.
9 Sa l a z a r , i na ni nt er v i ewg i v ent o L' Ami d u Peu p l e, Pa r i s ,
Ma r c h 2 6 , 1 9 3 6 .
1 o
Fer r o, op . c i t . , p p
. 3 9 - 4 1
1 1
I b i d , p
. 2 3 1 -
1 2 Sa l a z a r : Sp eec h of Oc t ob er 2 i , 1 9 2 9
.
1 3
Fer r o, op
. c i t
. , p p
. 4 4 - 5 .
1 4 Sa l a z a r : Sp eec h of Ma y 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 -
1 5
Sa l a z a r : I nt r od u c t i ona s c i t ed : p . x x i i .

{

THE PORTUGAL OF SALAZAR
By
MICHAEL DERRICK

LONDON THE PALADIN PRESS SANDS : 15 KING STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W .C.2 AND AT GLASGOW

C... BRITISH ISLES. FOR SANDS : THE PALADIN PRESS.PRINTED IN GUERNSEY. IS KING ST .I . W . LONDON. 2 FIRST PUBLISHED 1 93 8 . BY THE STAR AND GAZETTE LTD. COVENT GARDEN. C .

CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE PAGE I Introductory U Portugal - - 13 23 CHAPTER TWO I The Record of the Republic II The Man from Nowhere III Salazar CHAPTER THREE Principles and Practice of the Corporate State CHAPTER FOUR The Political Structure CHAPTER FIVE Portugal is not " Fascist " NOTES TO THE CHAPTERS 33 44 51 61 - 103 - 129 153 .

I .

" OLIVEIRA SALAZAR . WE ARE OPPOSED TO ALL THAT DISINTEGRATES. TO LIBERTARIAN SYNDICALISM . WE ARE AGAINST ALL THE GREAT HERESIES OF OUR AGE. " WE ARE OPPOSED TO ALL THE INTERNATIONALISMS. TO SOCIALISM. AGAINST THE IDEA THAT MIGHT IS RIGHT . SERVES ONLY TO UNDERMINE THE FOUNDATIONS OF OUR CIVILISATION ." WE DO NOT ASK FOR M UCH . WE ARE AGAINST THOSE WHO KNOW NO COUNTRY AND NO GOD . OF AUTHORITY AND OF OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY . IN THE HANDS OF THE BARBARIANS OF MODERN TIMES. OR DISSOLVES THE FAMILY . OF VIRTUE AND OF THE SACRED NATURE OF RELIGION-THAT IS WHAT IS ESSENTIAL IN THE MENTAL AND MORAL FORMATION OF A CITIZEN OF THE ' ESTADO NOVO'. OF THE OBLIGATION TO LABOUR . ALL THE MORE BECAUSE WE HAVE YET TO BE CONVINCED THAT THERE IS ANY PART OF THE WORLD WHERE LIBERTY TO PROPAGATE SUCH HERESIES HAS BEEN THE CAUSE OF ANYTHING GOOD : SUCH LIBERTY. OF THE FAMILY. THE PRIMARY SOCIAL UNIT . WE ARE OPPOSED TO THE CLASS STRUGGLE . OPPOSED TO COMMUNISM. DIVIDES. AGAINST THE BONDAGE OF THE WORKERS. AGAINST THE PURELY MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF LIFE. A N UNDERSTANDING AND CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE FATHERLAND AND OF NATIONAL UNITY . OF THE SPIRITUAL VALUES OF LIFE AND OF THE RESPECT THAT IS OWING TO MAN .

.

CHAPTER ONE .

I .

destined. And in all countries capitalism has left' as its legacy a class of property-less and irresponsible workers. Internationally. and would itself provide the be-all and the end-all. The age of laisseztfaire.of unrestricted private enterprise and competition has ended in deadlock and confusion. and with our generation and in the next lies the task of reconstructing Europe . . and there I3 . laissez-passer. C H A P T E _R O N E INTRODUCTORY UR generation has witnessed the Onineteenth centuryLiberalism whichfinal collapse of the economic prevailed the . There is the Marxist totalitarianism. to lead subhuman existences in conditions of poverty and squalor. despite an overproduction resulting from unique technical achievement. of human existence . has of necessity given place 'to an age of planned economy . are emerging . which would eliminate from society all classes save the workers and from life all spiritual values. the period. and parallel to the collapse of economic Liberalism has been the failure of political Liberalism . In their place the new totalitarian ideologies.

The conflict of ideologies to-day resents the gravest threat to the peace of the wore but there is one man in Europe who. but which remembers also what have for so long been forgotten : the Duties of Man. The component parts of society are disciplined. and which appeals to Nationalism with due regard. for the responsibilities of the Nation as a component part of a common European whole. brought into being in Portugal a Christian and Corporate State which provides justice for the long-exploited working classes without preaching the appalling doctrine of the class war. which would discipline the individual to an almost mystical conception of the State . but they are self-disciplined . The Corporate conception of society is in its essence as old as Europe and the Faith. and the rule of plutocracy. In its essence it is no more than an organic conception of society which does not forget the Rights of Man. the State regulates the common whole in the common good.THE PORTUGAL is the totalitarianism of the new nationalisms. more than any other. has shown that totalitarianism is not the only alternative to undisciplined individualism. and the neo-Corporatism of Salazar is no more than an attempt to supersede what is known as Capitalism by building according to the principles that were rejected when Capitalism began. during the past ten years. Oliveira Salazar has. class exploitation. which provides order in the nation without arrogating to the State functions which do not properly belong to it. and that there is a possible form of social and economic Order that is not the impersonal order of the new ideologies. but " the State is no more than an artificial mechanism at the service I4 .

' the p"rindples of which have long been advocated by the Catholic school of de Mun and Vogelsang and de la Tour du Pin.. and that every man has a duty towards his neighbour. A. J.OF SALAZAR of that natural organism which is the community those who in it exercise power have only duties towards society. Penty and Mr. led by Mr . is an attempt towards the establishment of that sane corporative system of which Pope Pius XI speaks.A. integral parts of society. Maitland introduced into England the writings of Otto Gierke. whose ideas may be traced back to Ruskin. The C rate State of the New Portugal. which alone has rights ". of the Portugal of Salaaar. of the integral parts of society. towards the community 'into which he was born . And Professor Maynard Keynes has expressed himself in favour of a form of economic organisation remarkably close to the system of cororations : rather than State Socialism he would see ` the growth of semi-autonomous bodies within the State-bodies whose criterion of action within. But it is an ideal towards which even in England we have witnessed many approaches from various angles . Neo-corporatism seeks to restore such bodies to society. who taught the organic nature.I The medieval Guilds were corporate bodies. It seeks to reassert that every Right can be expressed conversely as a Duty. in some form suitable to the very changed needs and conditions of contemporary life and civilisation . We have seen the Guild Socialists. R . their own field is solely the public good as they understand Is . alike protecting their members from others and others from their members . the Real Personality. Orage.

3 Thanks chiefly to misuse of the word " Fascism " by left-wing propaganda. or any form of neo-paganism . But the work of Salazar constitutes an experiment unique in modern Europe. there is a general impression abroad that Corporatism implies Imperialism. but are subject in the last resort to the sovereignty of the democracy expressed through Parliament " . Italy is a Corporate State. Conditions 16 . or a conviction that guns are more necessary than butter . Nor is it true that Corporatism implies etatisme. or economic nationalism. there are the beginnings of corporatism in Switzerland. It is not accurate to refer to Germany as a Corporate State . Internationally. there is crippled corporatism in Austria.THE PORTUGAL it. and from whose deliberations motives of private advantage are excluded-bodies which in the ordinary course of affairs are mainly autonomous within their prescribed limitations. It is true that since the summer of 1936 the war in Spain has given rise in Portugal to a state of national emergency. which has compelled Salazar to take some measures that he would not have countenanced during the eight years of comparative tranquillity in which he held office previous to that war . and there has been corporative experiment in Bulgaria and elsewhere . laissez passer. but she appears to reject the international aspect of the corporate principle . for in contemporary Portugal may be seen the truest attempt that has yet been made towards a realisation of corporative theory . There is Fascist corporatism in Italy and pseudo-corporatism in Germany . What it does imply it is the purpose of this book to tell. she still seems to plead laissezfaire.

as distinct from a corporatisme d'etat . But the real and ultimate issue is not the issue between Fascism and Communism : That is not the issue in Spain . Those who condone the Spanish Government against which General Franco has led Spain in revolt think it is merely godless . or will it be pagan or (which is worse) purely atheist and anthropocentric? It can be put as simply as that . OF SALAZAR of national danger do not permit any political experi ment to take its natural course. It is not true to say of the New Portugal that the State has arrogated to itself anything beyond the things which are Caesar's . ' But S azar did enough during those eight years to show that he is bringing into being in Portugal a genuine corporatism. as essentially Spanish as the Portugal of Salazar is Portuguese . Europe to-day is threatened with a war of ideologies . whateverr emerges in Spain will be different from all of these. When Franco has won. It is this : will that which emerges be Christian. those who fear it think it hates God. as Naziism is something German and Soviet Communism something Oriental. That is the second important reason why consideration should be given to the Portugal of Salazar . a corporatisme d'association. there will be an inevitable period of 17 B . the threat from the German frontier that has crippled the corporative experiment of Schusch ni and the martyred Dollfuss in Austria . It is. Fascism is something Italian. The issue that is being fought to the death in Spain is the issue which is before Europe . At present there is every indication that Franco will win . least of all one which seeks to reduce the functions of the State to a minimum .

of whom the Portuguese are one . to Salazar than to Mussolini. But General Franco is the declared opponent .THE PORTUGAL martial law . Every political experiment must be conditioned by the nature of the people with whom it is concerned . there -are. for a long time there must be sporadic unrest. At all events. But gradually the New Spain will emerge . although. but Castile is the heart of Spain . There is no natural frontier between Spain and Portugal. There are many different peoples in the Iberian Peninsula. Any Corporate State that arises in Spain will take its nature from the people of Spain. with the exception of a brief period at the dose of the sixteenth century. no greater reasons for her independence 'than there are for the independence of Catalonia or the Spanish Basques. and there is every indication that it will follow closely the lines of the New Portugal . and even by men like Bottai and Manoilesco the Rumanian. He will be influenced much more by the Spanish and Portuguese . Portugal has been an 'independent nation for eight centuries. and will `be closely akin to the Corporate State of the neighbouring people of Portugal . integral corporativists. and guerilla warfare will be carried on in the eastern provinces . than by the model of Italian Fascism . That is not to say that it would not be a terrible crime . no clearer idea of what the Spanish Nationalists are fighting to achieve in the material order can be gained than by studying the Portugal of Salazar . and probably much nearer in every way.4 Franco is a man much nearer in blood. if Portugal were forcibly incorporated in Spain . and. They are much more akin to the Castilians than are the Catalans. of regional autono12 . apart from history.

OF SALAZAR mies in Spain. In speculating thus about the possible evil results to Portugal of excessive Italian influence accompanying a Nationalist victory in Spain. "Lisbon is the key to the Mediterranean. Nevertheless. If when the civil was is over. Fisher. Great Britain will therefore be vitally interested . A. It is unlikely that there is substance in these reports."S In the possible but. it is hoped. The mouth of the Tagus providess what is probably the finest natural harbour in Europe. improbable event of an Italo-Spanish offensive being launched against Portugal at some future date. she will be bound by treaty to go to the assistance of Portugal . Moreover. it should not be forgotten that the victory of international Communism would have presented her with a much more certain ig w . and it has been virtually at the disposal of the British fleet 'ever' since Britain had an interest in the Mediterranean . or that General Franco intends at any date to challenge Portuguese independence. General Franco proves to be unduly under the influence of Italy. L . according to Mr. and reports have reached Lisbon of maps seen pinned to the wall at military headquarters at Burgos and Salamanca in which Portugal appears as a Province of Spain . the possibility cannot be ruled out. after an interval for national recuperation. indeed. H. For the basis of Portuguese Foreign Policy is and will remain her British alliance . as is feared by many . The harbours of Portugal are of the utmost importance to any Power concerned in the Mediterranean . a military offensive against Portugal will be launched . and if Italy is then still continuing her policy of opposing British naval power in the Mediterranean. it is conceivable that.

THE PORTUGAL menace . " A union of Iberian Soviet republics-that is, our aim," said Largo Caballero to, the American journalist Edward Knoblaugh . "The Iberian peninsula will again be one country. Portugal will come in, peaceably we hope, but by force if necessary. . . . Lenin declared Spain would be the second Soviet Reublic in Europe . Lenin's prophecy will come true . shall be the second Lenin who shall make it come true ." If any such onslaught had been made, Portu&al would equally have had the right to demand the intervention of Great Britain . Let this be remembered by those who so bitterly denounce General Franco, the defender of Portugal as well as of Spain from the Comintern . There is no doubt that the present years are extremely critical ones for Portugal, and the Anglo-Portuguese alliance provides the third important reason why attention should be given in England to Salazar and his work . That alliance is the oldest in Europe . On October 25, 1937, Lisbon celebrated the seven hundred and ninetieth anniversary of the first- cooperation of the English with the Portuguese against a common foe. In 1147 Affonso Henriquez, the first King of Portugal, took Lisbon from the Moors, with the assistance of some English Knights on their way to the second Crusade, and an English monk of Winchelsea became the first Bishop of Lisbon . The citadel then captured is still known as the Castle of St . George . Six centuries ago, on May 9, 1386, the English_ and Portuguese signed a Treaty at Windsor, "for ever" ; and although the alliance dates really only from the time of Cromwell, it has endured to this day : the desao

OF SALAZAR tinies of two Atlantic Euro pean nations have been linked together. The English navigators followed the great Portuguese discoverers of the age of Prince uese Henry the Navi gator (whose mother was an English woman) to found the British Empire . When a Portuguese princess of the Royal House of Braganza married Charles II of England, she brought to England as her dowry Bombay, an important base in India, and Tangier, which was England's first naval base in the Mediterranean. The alliance was renewed a generation later by the Methuen Treaty, and the English gentry, to the great detriment of their health but to the benefit of an historic friendship, began to drink por t, instead of claret. A century later, British and Portuguese fought together to drive Napoleon from the Peninsula, and in 1916 they were fighting together in Flanders . To-day the alliance is as secure as ever, and is strengthened b y important commercial bonds . In February 1938, a British naval and military mission will visit Portugal to investigate the present possibilities of collaboration in war should the necessity arise . The connections between Great Britain and Portugal, then, are of the closest. In 1933, when the new Portuguese Constitution was approved by a national lebiscite, The Times wrote in a leading article that p the course of the new regime will be followed with ` the greatest sympathy and interest in this country "6 That was nearl y five years ago ; yet practically no public interest has been shown ; while public sympathy has been steadily diminishing ever since war broke out in Spain and the Comintern be g an to put about the legend, at once accepted, that Portugal is
21

THE PORTUGAL

"Fascist" and a satellite state of Italy. Despite the prophecy of The Times, this brief book represents the first attempt that has been made by an En glishman to understand and to describe the mind and work of Salazar. It is its purpose to indicate what is the real nature of contemporary Portugal . It will attempt also to indicate what contemporary Portugal is not . M. Mihazl Manoilesco has done some valuable debunking in his book Le Siecle du Corporatisme? He makes clear five important things about corporatism (i) That modern corporatism must necessarily be very. different from, and is not to be confused with, the medieval Guild system .
(2) That it cannot be confounded with Fascism, in

spite of the progress, which, in the exclusively economic form, it has made under that regime. (3) That it is not a hypocritical instrument for the consolidation of the existing social conditions with all their iniquities . (4) That it does not restrict itself to the organisation of the material forces of the nation only, but that it constitutes the sole means of integrating every aspect of the national life . (5) That it does not mean the mobilisation of 'the egotism of groups against the national interest, but, on the contrary, the acceptance of the principle of the common good. .
22

that Salazar would not countenance the degree of etatisme that appears in his exposition of corporative theory .254 square miles.826. and to many. Thus Mr. although the d. and an Atlantic coastline of some 350 miles. howevr Tortugal may be compared to Ireland : she looks out on to the Atlantic. and is to-day probably about seven millions. although declining.Werences between the two countries are oh23 .OF SALAZAR We would not say that we agree in all things with M. her population is therefore considerably greater than that of Ireland. compact. and we think. Nevertheless. Many travellers have been reminded of the Irish b y the Portuguese.' Although in area she is about the same. Douglas Goldring wrote recently : " Portugal is a small. for instance. and her people are people of the Celtic frin ge. and manageable (sic) country about the size of Ireland. these five caveats must be borne well in mind by all who would understand the corporatism of Portugal and Salazar. II PORTUGAL Portugal has an area on the mainland of Europe of 34. At least. since the birth-rate.000. Mandilesco . I found myself constantly thinking of Ireland as I travelled through it. from the western edge of Europe. is still substantially higher than the death-rate . Her population in 1930 was 6. In many wa y s. which in a q ueer indefinite way it resembles . the Portu guese land scape has been strangely reminiscent of Ireland.

There are many peoples in Spain. the dregming melancholy. The Portuguese have been all over the world. rather than about the Portuguese eo ple." And since this is a book about the present condition of Portugal. We will not attempt to trace their racial pedi gree that would be impossible .THE PORTUGAL vious . Generosity. but that those who know the Irish will know also the Portuguese in some degree . if you take the Irish peasantry. add hot sun. and so on-but the Portuguese have been an independent people for eight centuries. of course-the dwellers in the high lands of Beira and the Minho and Tras os Montes . but the Portuguese are different from them all . . and h rhaps something of the negro's vanity and slight old on life. The quick intelligence. and habits as un practical as could be desired . . Mr. You get very different ty p es in different parts of the country. we will leave it at that : that none can know the Portuguese without visiting their country. and it is im p ossible to say (I write in December 1937) when again they will live under a common rule . and that could not have been so had they not been a race apart from Spain . the wit and imagination are here. and the power of expression in words . the farmers of the Alemtejo. Aubrey Bell writes in what has become a standard work about the Portuguese'° : " In some measure. the slyness and love of intrigue. too. a spice of the East. the excitable algarvios of the south . and all over the world they have 24 . . the land beyond the Tagus ."9 Or again. those who know the Irish peasant know the Portuguese. you have the Portuguese . with the exception of sixty uneasy years between i 58o and i 640.. Indeed.

but Portugal looks out upon the Atlantic. for their extremely mixed blood is an undoubted source of weakness to the race . although the Portuguese have yet to produce 25 . A result is that the Portuguese for centuries retained their colonial Empire without the help of any considerable army . Spain is a Mediterranean country. The Chronicles o f AzuraraI' describe how the systematic introduction of African negroes into Portugal dates from the time of Henry the Navigator . The CeltIberian stock of Portugal survived the centuries of Moorish overlords as it had survived the overlordship of Romans and Visigoths : but into that Celt-Iberian stock has been infused a surprising amount of negroid blood. It is rare to-day to meet a coloured man in Portugal. It would not be an altogether bad thing it ortuguese nationalism to-day became infected with a little of the racial madness that characterises the nationalism of Germany. in the almost complete absence of that colour prejudice so characteristic of the AngloSaxons. The Spanish conquistadores and the English discoverers of the sixteenth century followed where the Portuguese led . Right up to the end of the eighteenth century all the big families of Portugal had large numbers of negro servants. or even in Lisbon . and. but the negroid strain is very often a parent. negroid strain in the Portuguese people has resulted .OF SALAZAR intermarried with their native dependents . To-day there is in Africa a great contrast between the way the Portuguese and British regard their black colonials . it is the Atlantic that has made the greatness of Portugal . To-day. it accentuates the contrast with the Spanish . However. a definite.

and the Portuguese Azores a half-way house . Her culture is Romano-Celtic rather than Iberian. Lisbon provides the starting place for the most important north Atlantic crossing by air. Portugal looks out upon the Ocean. but it was under the inspiration of his son. Prince Henry 26 . first King of the House of Aviz. and she is isolated from Europe by the Pyrenees. and father by his English wife of Prince Henry the Navigator . Spain turns her life towards her great Mediterranean coast that runs from Cape Cervera to the Straits of Gibraltar . and is linked by the Ocean to Europe : she is the little Europe beyond Spain. her Atlantic coastline is no more than a narrow strip. who proclaimed himself after the famous battle of Ourique in 1139. . from which dates the complete independence of Portugal . The nation reached the frontiers which are hers to-day during the rein of Affonso III (12481279) . in 1385. THE PORTUGAL great airmen. and a long period of intermittent warfare with Leon and Castile ended with the battle of Ajubarrota. separated from the interior by the Cantabrian mountains. During the whole of the fourteenth century a vigorous civilisation was developing in Portugal and in particular that splendid tradition of seamanship which was to be the national glory was being steadily built up. That battle was won by Joao I. The reconquest of Portugal from the Moors took place eight centuries ago : the first King of Portugal was the half-legendary Affonso Henriquez. with the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 . Under Joao I the period of maritime expan-' sion began. She is so big and her life is so various that she is almost complete as a continent by herself.

The story of Bartolomeo Diaz and Vasco de Gama. and in China she has 27 . That is a fact now looked upon by the Germans with a jealous eye. as the colonisers of lrazil. She has also Cabinda. which is about twenty-five times the size of Portugal in Europe. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to round the Cape.square miles. Thomas.OF SALAZAR . to which she proudly refers as " The State of India ". has been told often enough by historians since it was sung in epic verse by Camoees. and Guinea . the Navigator. and which is the only part of India not under British sovereignty . The Portuguese Empire of to-day represents a total area of over 85o. they shared with the Spanish the discovery of the new world .ooo . which are regarded for administrative purposes as provinces of the mainland. the national poet : it cannot be told again here . the Bissagos Islands. On the west coast of India she still has Goa.. In the East Indies she shares the island of Timor with the Dutch. The Portugal of Salazar has the memory of her great age in her colonial Empire . of Affonso Albuquerque and Duarte Pacheco Pereira. Portugal has the archipelagoes of Madeira and the Azores. and off the west coast she owns a considerable number of islands. and St . In Africa she has the extremely valuable territories of Angola on the west coast and Mozambique on the east. that Portugal discovered the world for Europe . although it must be remembered that there are three other European powers whose foreign possessions are proportionately more extensive . Prince's Island. In Europe. of which the most important are the Cape Verde Islands. the first toreach India . a small piece of the coastline of the Belgian Congo.

Salazar which it is the chief purpose of this book to discuss . is an application of the corporative theory of Dr. the Public Orator described him as " a second founder of the Portuguese Colonial Empire ". as members of the same commonwealth. so is the Empire. 1930. 27552 . As the nation is an organic whole. Its present position and the principles to be observed in its administration are defined in the Colonial Act of July 8. THE PORTUGAL Macao. Dr. which was drawn up by Dr . with its later complementary laws. Salazar. Monteiro is now ambassador in London. Armindo Monteiro. The colonies are bound to co-operate. as . and when an honorary degree was recently conferred upon him by the University of Oxford. but the greatest possible measure of autonomy is to be given to each colonial government. and. by Article CXXXIII of the Constitution of 1933. but its main bases were defined early in 1937 by Decree-Law No . From the preamble to that we may quote a si cant 28 . The underlying idea is decentralisation so far as is consonant with a high sense of common destiny and a common responsibility . a trading station opposite Hong-Kong at the mouth of the Si-Kiang River. " the provisions of the Colonial Act shall be regarded as constitutional matter ". Dr . The problems and affairs of the Portuguese Empire are outside the scope of this book. The Colonial Act.to each corporation . The corporative organisation of each colony has not yet been carried very far. as are the corporative bodies. who temporarily assumed the Ministry of Colonies for that purpose . The very pressing colonial problem was then vigorously tackled by a brilliant Colonial Minister.

the Portugal of Salazar. and desires principally to co-ordinate the economic activity of the colonies so that the highest possible results may be secured. added to. and its continual and frank acknowledgment that its present stage is urely experimental . since in the matter of the colonial Empire we have found a brief preliminary reflection of the corporatism of Salazar . There is no claim of infallibility made for schemes outlined in the present Decree-Law . both objectively. as actual practice shall dictate . how they are Christian and." In that paragraph we see illustrated one of the greatest strengths of the Estado Novo : that is. and subjectively. They may'have to be altered. . The Portugal of Salazar is a Christian and Corporate State . The purpose of this book is to give some indication of what that means. in the truest sense of that muchabused word. or even replaced by others. its avoidanceof a " cast-iron " system. The Government have no wish to formulate cast-iron regulations which subsequently might be found to be impracticable or prejudicial. will live . a truly national resurrection after a century in which an alien and artificial Liberalism 29 p . and how it differs from the experiments in national reconstruction that are in process in Italy and Germany . in describing how it represents a vindication of the historic Portugal. democratic.OF SALAZAR passage.` in describing the principles on which it is built. The principles formulated are purposely broad and general. so as to be applicable to existing conditions . " The time has come to lay down the principles of Colonial Corporativism . That is one of the chief reasons why the Estado Novo.

or of public works. In telegraphic and telephonic communications. On a basis of sound finance an extensive programme of public works has been undertaken . and has made her " almost independent of international finance ". in Portugal. Motor roads have been made throughout a country which previously was almost inaccessible except by mule . To many. I . it is almost miraculous. in railways.able . The Estado Novo is essentially Christian : it is also essentially Portu ese . But we shall not assess Portugal's 'debt to Dr. will be surprised to find little reference to such criteria in this book. He found his country mortgaged and bankrupt : he has set her affairs in order for the first time for centuries.12 In any country his financial administration would have been remark. The Englishman who can think of a national only in terms of what is known as " the standard of living or of trade balance. . It was in that capacity that he first entered public life . in harbour works. Dr . has been done . and in housing.THE PORTUGAL OF SALAZAR reduced the country to chaos . Salazar is known only as one of the most brilliant Finance Ministers of modern times . in education. Salazar in terms of reinforced s concrete .

CHAPTER TWO .

.

says the Cambridge Modern History. The only way to introduce Salazar is to give some idea of the Portugal into which he was born and in which he grew up . The country. 19o6. rather possible toshewhat than what has been like in the past. For years the Regeneradores and the Progressistas. did that which led directly to his murder two years later he gave charge of the Portuguese Government to a man who represented neither of the two parties which had for long been alternating in power . But it is not discuss Salazar without placing him in his historical context. and caciquismo. each a political gang depending on demagogy. we will go back to the last years of the Monarchy. corruption. or the support of petty tyrants. C H A P T E R T W 0 THE RECORD OF THE REPUBLIC T is the purpose of this book to describe I Portugal is like to-day. On May i8. was "governed by contending factions of professional politicians. had played the political game unchallenged . and particularly in his context in recent Portuguese history . King of Portugal. Carlos I. who C 33 . when he was a boy being educated at aseminary in Upper Beira .

who had led the Masonic revolution in Oporto in 189i. By May 34 . by King Carlos. and of the " White Ants ". and whose organisation was both formidable and extensive . four important Republican deputies were returned to the Cortes. who had long sought to install a completely Masonic oligarchy. which word means "Free" .THE PORTUGAL have no other care than their own immediate personal advantage" . The system was ostensibly Liberal democracy on the English pattern . He had the temerity publicly to express the hope that this man might prove strong enough to administer the nation in the national interest . leader of the Carbonarios. The immediate result was a great storm of protest. in fact it was the worst kind of government b y oligarchy . This state of affairs was challenged in May. and probably the most unscrupulous demagogue that Portugal has ever known . That is understatement . a sordid scramble that concealed the unchallenged sway of the rich. the terrorist forces of Masonry. 19o6. when he called to power a man named Franco. editor of the Republican newspaper 0 Mundo. In the elections of August. and Affonso Costa.. Chief among the Republicans were the Freemasons of the Portuguese Grand Orient. The politicians at San Bento had this care. that their machinations should not interfere with the oligarchy that exploited the nation . including Antonio Jose de Almeida. his own particular organisation. while the people starved and the nation drifted more and more into the control of foreign bondholders. and the redoubling of efforts to secure the overthrow of the Monarchy . The perpetual political puppetshow was no more than a drop-scene.

OF SALAZAR 1907. . and hated them when coming from another. all those who wished to gain credit by themselves initiating the reforms. cowardly attacks on Senhor Franco-it is scarcely surprising that he should have been obliged to resort to methods more arbitrary. .. The budgetary deficit. It was a dictatorship. in so far as the professional politicians had for the time being been thrust aside . something was achieved. and the first thing the 'Government of Joao Franco did was to give it liberty . And "all those whose interests were menaced by the proposed reforms. one may well add. On May loth he dissolved the Cortes. He had not begun by employing arbitrary methods . 35 . but it was only a temporary dictatorship." wrote an English Liberal who was in Lisbon at the time .' wrote a Portuguese journalist. and a relatively honest administration brought the national finances into a more promising position than they had known for years . which for years had been steadily increasing. was diminished. and Joao Franco stood alone. . the most hated man in Lisbon. He at once embarked on a programme of reform . Despite all opposition. and the King was faced with the alternatives of dismissing Franco or dissolving the Cortes . " Never have party passions so blinded all the politicians of a country to that country's interests as in the violent and. 19o8 . there was complete political deadlock. since elections had been promisfor the A pril of the following year. `The Republican party. `asked above all for liberty. which of course drew scandalised cries of rage from those who had made them necessary . were united against Senhor Franco. all the comfortable rotativists and political hypocrites.

Five weeks later. On December 25th there appeared in the Bulletin of the Associa= tion anti-maconnique de France a prediction by the Abbe Tourmentin that the overthrow of King Carlos was imminent. of Regenerador and Progressista alike. and the journals of Republican and Royalist. An address delivered by him at the Cosmos Lodge in Paris on November iq. on February i. who had seen her husband shot down. was shot dead in the streets of Lisbon . 1908. together with his eldest son." He was engaged in his diplomatic mission until the end of the year . The brief reign of the young King Manoel opened with the dismissal of Franco by Queen Amelia. appeared on the agenda paper in these terms : "Portugal-decay of the Monarchy. but in the name of Portugal .' "2 Franco was governing in the name of no party or clique. But opposition more formidable than mere newspaper abuse was being marshalled to crush this new concept of government as a-public service .THE PORTUGAL What was the result? The Republicans declared in the newspapers that they did not want the liberty given them by the Government . the King. in opposition to him . for once. Five years later the political ang who called themselves the " Democrats " erected' a mausoleum in Lisbon in honour of Buica and Costa. necessity of a Republicanism-the future of the Republic . were united. 1907. the men of the Carbonarios who did the deed. Dom Luis. The Grand Master of the Portuguese Grand Orient. Dr . all in touch with Masonry knew what was afoot . Magalhaes Lima. went abroad to discuss with the heads of international Freemasonry what was to be done. and knew to what 36 .

. Magalha&Lima went again on a diplomatic tour in September 1910. the . We had the secret of this glorious event.' said M . " It was a thunderbolt for the non-instructed public. Secretary to the British Legation at Lisbon . Paris. and Portugal became a Republic . Dr. it is not to be maintained that all Republicans were 37 . Grand Orator of the Belgian Grand Orient . House of Braganza ."3 Plans for the proclamation of the Republic proceeded rapidly. and of Masonry. conferring with the heads of Masonry in Brussels. now more constitutional and less of a monarchy than ever. In the first days of October the Revolution took place .. It is not to be denied that the Monarchy was effete . " The Cortes at once relapsed into the frenzy of faction that has nullified its function ever since the end of the old routine rotativism in 19o6 . and Madrid .OFSALAZAR he owed his death . . my brethren. " The Constitutional Monarchy. but it was very nearly true . which wished thereby to gather control of the country solely to itself . or even weeks ." wrote Machado Santos. " But we. could offer the nation nothing but empty promises. under the inspiration of some few who genuinely thought that therein lay the solution to the country's difficulties. Furnemont. the young lieutenant who had led it after the unfortunate suicide of Admiral Candido dos Reis. and no coalition of factions had any consistency." " The work of the Portuguese Revolution is due exclusively to Masonry. on page 34 of the Report which he published in 1911 : It was not a true boast. No faction had any public force behind it. we knew. .went into exile." wrote Sir George Young. so that ministries followed one another at intervals of one or two months.

and which in thus seeking to exclude its opponents from government and to impede the practice of the Faith of Europe represents the very negation of democracy . fully documented. they will find in the appendix to that work. In 191 o. supported throughout by quotation from Masonic documents. Lisbon was threatened with a general strike. "In igi r. But it is to be maintained that that gang of Masonic Republicans that made the Portuuese Republic in i g i o made it to secure a heemony or themselves .THE PORTUGAL dishonest men . and local strikes were epidemic everywhere ."5 And so on : nothing like it had been 38 f . the difficult first year of the Republic. but they were at once involved in conflict with organisations of the working classes .. a revolutionary strike in Lisbon was only quelled by the declaration of martial law and the arrest of over a thousand syndicalists . They called themselves democrats. In January 19m. in Le Portugal Renait.power . that Masonic gang among the Republicans 'who chose to call themselves "Democrats" were installed in. Those who wish for a fuller account of Masonic intervention will find it. I am aware that to attribute all the evils of this time to Freemasonry is as absurd as the attribution by anti-clericals of all evils to the Jesuits . any idea of the part that is played and has been played in the past in continental politics by international Freemasonry. a detailed exposition of the way in which the Lusitanian Grand Orient has aspired to the domination of the Portuguese Republic . But I am also aware that few English readers have . which seeks to reserve all power to itself and to crush the Catholic Church. In particular. then.4 by the Vicomte L6on de Poncins .

although bad. Revolution in Portugal became a by-word in Europe. and in 1912 the Archbishops of Portalegre and Braga were expelled from the country . but they maintained themselves in power by the terror of the Carbonarios and by the cult of the bomb. extolled as the instrument of liberty. but they at once began a systematic and rigorous persecution of the religion of the poor . They called themselves democrats. or five times during that period.OF SALAZAR known before . The first Government of the Republic did not last ten weeks . Budgetary deficits reached appalling figures. giving detailed directions regarding the persecution of the Church and the penalisation of religion . The first act of the Republic. the longest lasted little over a year . The nation's finances passed from a condition which. Church property was confiscated. seemed redeemable. to one which in 1927 was apparently hopeless . The family was attacked by the secularisation of marriage and the institution of divorce . so that these changes of government were not even in appearance connected with the people) . was to expel all the religious orders and to confiscate their property . in i g i o. and there were forty-three different Ministries (although by the 1911 Constitution elections were to take pace every three years. and periodical borrowings to cope with them sent the national debt 39 . The record of the Republic between 191 o and 1926 may thus be summarised in figures : during those sixteen years there were eight Presidents of the Republic (although by the 1911 Constitution the President was to be elected for four years) . In 1911 a lengthy decree was promulgated. They called themselves democrats.

the resources of Portugal were not unduly taxed by the War-the crisis came from what may be called the spirit of the War-that is to say. but the Great War might have seen the rehabilitation instead of the further collapse of the national finances. In January 1915. of squandering. the spirit of makeshift. The financial question will be summarised later the only point to be made here is that the nation was administered before Salazar in the very short-sighted interests of an oligarchy. who challenged the oligarchy. A vice-governor of the Bank of Portugal has emphasised : "Unlike those of most other nations. a military pronunciamiento led to the overthrow of the seventh Government of the 40 .5 to the pound . of disorder . We have noted the episode of Joao Franco. since it brought to the national credit the financial backing of the City of London .."6 A chief cause of the national bankruptcy was an inadequate revenue due to under-taxation and corrupt exemption under the Republic. The cost of living increased twenty-five fold. Before Portugal left the gold standard. THE PORTUGAL to an amount equally appalling. in 1891. and the currency fell to one thirty-third part of its gold value. of laxity. There were two further challenges made before it was crushed by the national rising of 1926 : those of General Pimenta de Castro and President Sidonio Paes. But in 1925 the average rate was 131 .563 to the pound . It is true that the Great War had intervened .25 to the pound . the exchange value of the Escudo (which is the Portuguese monetary unit) was 4. In 1913 the rate of exchange was still 5.

their so-called 'Committee of Public Safety' abolished. and than whom no living Englishman has a more intimate knowledge of Portugal . Bell is writing in June 1915) that the Democrats having installed themselves in powerand they had been in power in fact if not in name since the Revolution-could never be dislodged by constitutional means .the Cham- OF SALAZAR Republic and gave power to General Pimenta de Castro. and finally in April a general amnesty emptied the prisons and allowed the eleven exiles of the 194 4 amnesty to return to Portugal. their majorities in the town councils throughout the country. say the Democrats. proved the most moderate Government that Portugal had seen since the Revolution of 191 o. this 'tyranny'. It became necessary to dissolve these 4I . this `dictatorship'. F . and in the officials responsible for returning the new deputies. Lest this brief factual summary be taken for mere pamphleteer advocacy of authoritarianism we will quote again from Mr. The Constitution has been so ordered (Mr. who is a Librarian of the British Museum. 0 but. A. G. and by an odd paradox this new Government born of a military movement. it was all so unconstitutional 1 Such a dictatorship 1 . the `White Ants' were sent about their business. equally secure . Their m ajority . Of course it was unconstitutional. " There was a general breath of relief throughout the country. officials arbitrarily dismissed were restored to their posts. Churches were restored to the use of the faithful. With equal moderation and firmness one measure after another was enacted in order to bring about the long-dreamt reconciliation of all Portuguese. Bell. in ber of Deputies was secure.

But the country which had suffered from four years of constitutional tyranny was delighted to ' have a little unconstitutional moderation . by force if they would not go willingly . and acts in every respect so fairly and moderately. Bell is. is a dictatorship. the Government which empties the prisons. a fortnight after Affonso Costa had become Prime Minister for the third time . 1917.5.THE PORTUGAL bodies. "will always be known as the party which. I repeat. which."7 Sidonio Paes became President of the Portuguese Republic on May 9. He knew exactly what he was writing about. Paes (whose name means " the country ") was a man 42 . He' wrote this judgment on Pimenta de Castro at Estoril. he is not a political controversialist. raised itself to power over the dead bodies of its fellow countrymen ." he wrote. `The Democrat party. before the words " Fascist " and " Nazi " had been invented . an Englishman and a Liberal . in June 19 1 . in May 19z5."7 Mr. engineered mutiny in the army and the navy in order to displace Pimenta de Castro and restore itself to power. answered commonsense opinion. then may all succeeding Governments be tarred with the dictatorial brush. If. under cover of the World War. but a distinguished man of letters who has lived all his life in Portugal. In vain the Democrats cried out that it was a dictatorship worse than the dictatorship of Joao Franco. and exactly what Liberal Democracy means and always has meant in the Iberian Peninsula : he knew exactly the value of that Portuguese political party which called itself " Democrat ". maintains order. a few miles outside Lisbon. Only so will the future of the Republic and of Portugal be secure .

which. Affonso Costa at the head of the Government. he enjoyed a great popularity in the eyes of the masses of the country. is nearly always in Spain and Portugal the truest indication of national opinion . That meant that he would be attacked and attacked again. Diplomatic relations with the Vatican were 43 . It should be remembered that in these days before Mussolini and Hitler the word " dictatorship " was still used in the sense in which the Romans used it : it meant the temporary concentration of power in one man in time of national necessity ."' In a Latin and Catholic country like Portugal. it also had the support of the army.OF SALAZAR with a great popular following and a strong patriotic sense . he was certain of it now . and democratic . For seven months he tried to work through the 19 I I Constitution : it was not possible. the treatment of religion always provides a sure indication of the extent to which a Government is genuinely popular. he challenged that political hegemony which Affonso Costa represented. That meant death. being a cross-section of the people and relatively immune from political browbeating. which quickly felt the happy results of his good administration. "Acclaimed by the crowd. The dictatorship of Sidonio Paes had the support of the people . Sidonio Paes gave j ustice to the Church which had been so relentlessly persecuted by the anti-clerical Masonry of the Republic. least of all with Dr . Affonso Costa was imprisoned : if the President had been in danger of assassination before. as Franco and de Castro had done. He was also an ex-Mason (his name in the Lodges had been brother Carlyle) . On December 5th he turned out the Government and proclaimed a dictatorship .

1921. It became increasingly difficult to borrow to pay interest due on previous debts . who had led the Portuguese Expeditionary Force to Flanders 44 . Terrorism and political assassination became general . he was murdered by a hireling of the Freemasons on the platform of the main station at Lisbon. But the rule of Sidonio Paes lasted only a year. with many others . The affairs of the country were in complete disorder . II THE MAN FROM NOWHERE The Nation rose in May 1926 : it was again the army that gave.. met his death. when the Prime Minister. the bloodiest night was that of October 1g. 1918. the Cardinal Archbishop was allowed to return to Lisbon . From i g i g to 1926 the succession of "Governments " became even more rapid and bewildering. the people became more and more restless . 9 and Portugal fell back into confusion for another eight years . And beneath the surface of chaos in public affairs. Three hundred and twenty-five bombs burst in the streets of Lisbon (according to official police figures) between ig2o and 1925 . signed by the veteran Marshal Gomez da Costa. At midnight on the night of December 14.THE PORTUGAL restored . On May 27th a brief manifesto. The rule of the Republic was anarchy . Antonio Joaquim Granjo. It was against this that the nation rose in May 1926.the freedom of the Freemasons was terror. expression to the anger and despair of the people .

from the first Kingdom of Portugal from which Lisbon and the south had been wrested eight centuries before from the Moors . and Cabecadas. renounced his charge in a letter to Commander Mendez Cabecadas. da Costa. who took power into his own hands until Marshal da Costa formally. made over the leadership to General Oscar Carmona : it is to these three men. Not a shot had been fired . for the liberty and honour of the Nation ! " On the following day. told what was the purpose of the coup d'etat 45 . Republican and Royalist alike. from the capital of the ancient Kings. The Government. Bernardino Machado. Portugal : to arms. resigned on May 3oth . entered the city at the head of the army on June 17th . A brief proclamation. da Costa. feeling that his work was done. signed by Marshal da Costa. the sixth of Ant6nio da Silva. followed the army in a march on Lisbon : it was a march of . appeared on the walls of the garrison city of Braga "For men of dignity and honour the political condition of the country is intolerable . on the 31st the President of the Republic. men of every political opinion. a day which has become famous in the history of Portugal. apostle of the bomb. Carmona. Shortly afterwards.OFSALAZAR in the Great War. that the revolution that was to end revolution is due . leader of the revolution in Lisbon. patriots against the oligarchy It was a march from the north. By the middle of June the drift of a nation to disaster had been arrested .

composed of its most able citizens. But in the matter of constructive politics the. to brin g back to the administration of the State its lost discipline and honour. and not only reform. It wants a strong Government. capable of presenting a brave face to internal and external foes . Da Costa was rather vague in his diagnosis of the situation : he was a soldier and no politician. Carmona was a man of longer vision who asked for radical reform." The military junta was rapidly able to establish public order.THE PORTUGAL "The Nation desires a National Government. gallant soldiers had no very precise ideas . whose object shall be the saving of the country and the institution of a real representation of the genuine. 46 . and permanent interests of Portugal. but he had professed Liberalism all his life. I proclaim the National interest against the fatal sway of politicians and parties. " The Nation has had enough of the tyranny of irresponsible politicians . but re-formation of the political structure of the nation . and I offer to the tormented country a strong Government. living. and was not able to understand that Liberalism as known in Portugal was responsible for the sad situation against which he had led the army . He knew that if that were not forthcoming the military coup d'etat of 1926 would be of no more ultimate effect than had been those of 1915 and 1917 . " United with you in the hope of the redemption of our country.

OF SALAZAR Fortunately for Portugal, his urgency prevailed and Marshal da Costa withdrew in his favour . The most immediate and pressing necessity was to find .a man capable of taking charge of the nation's finances . The soldier who was first given responsibility for that department called together the various officials of his Ministry and (so the story goes) announced to them : I know absolutely nothing about finances myself, except that my own are in complete disorder ." So were those of the nation : and the restoration of some sort of order to them-an apparently hopeless task-was necessarily the first step to be taken in any work of national reconstruction . It was decided that the best thing to do was to approach the Professor of Political Economy in the University of Coimbra . The Professor reluctantly agreed to undertake the work : he arrived at his Ministry on Friday, June 4, 1926. On the following Thursday, finding that he was required to work circumscribed by restrictions which made work impossible, he took the train back to Coimbra. He would not, and could not, assume responsibility unless he were given absolute discretion. The Ministry was then given to General Sinel de Cordes, who was quite unequal to the situation . In the autumn of 1927 it was decided that there was no alternative but to apply to the Financial Committee of the League of Nations for a loan such as had been granted through it to Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and other countries whose recovery from the War would otherwise have been impossible . The sum of Ci2,ooo,ooo was required as being necessary for financial reconstruction and monetary stabilisation . 47

THE PORTUGAL A League Commission visited Portugal and reported favourably; the loan should be granted, but its administration should be left in the hands of the League of, Nations, which should also conduct an exhaustive preliminary inquiry into the financial condition of the nation and of the Bank of Portugal . These conditions were immediately rejected by the Government and by popular opinion alike . National sentiment had been roused by the recent revolution, and by the appeal to history of those res ponsible for it; and the humiliating pro p osal that the national administration should be subjected to international control was not considered for a day . The scorn of Senhor da Silva, of the Bank of Portugal, was typical : it was at Lisbon, he said, and not on the shores of an Alpine lake, that the crisis would be solved . Meanwhile the Professor of Political Economy at Coimbra had been attracting some attention with a series of articles on the financial situation in the Catholic newspaper As Novidades . When the Geneva loan had been rejected, Carmona turned again to this man . His name was Dr. Antonio de Oliveira Salazar . He had had some previous experience of politics, and at first when approached he refused to take office . Eventually he yielded, in response to an appeal to his sense of patriotic duty; but he only yielded on condition of being given absolute discretion, absolute power in his own sphere . If he was to be Minister of Finance, it was essential that he should be completely independent of any interested influence . On April 27, 1928, he entered that Ministry for the second time . " I thank you," he said, addressing General Vicente de Freitas, the Premier, at a meeting 48

OF SALAZAR of the Cabinet on that date, " for having decided, after discussion with the Cabinet, to entrust to me the portfolio of Finance, and also for the kind words which you have addressed to me. You must not thank me for having accepted this responsibility, for it represents to me a sacrifice so great that I would not make it for any man merely in friendship. I make it for my country, simply as a duty dictated by my conscience ." He then proceeded to enumerate the conditions on which alone he undertook the Ministry ; they were accepted, and he holds that Ministry to this day, although he since assumed as well other and greater responsibilities . It is apparent, therefore, that Salazar is not a man who fought his way to power, and that he accepted office as the nominee of no party or faction . He became a statesman reluctantly, and on his own terms . Always he longs for the academic quiet of his University at Coimbra : by disposition he is a scholar, and even a recluse . He is the homme d'etat malgre lui . Power is for him a heavy responsibility, an arduous public duty which he would greatly prefer to repudiate ; he professes himself willing at all times to return to Coimbra should it be wished . But too much depends on him . Practically alone he has set Por. tugal on her feet again . He has completely, and in credibly, rehabilitated the national finances . It is always advisable to quote when making apparently wild statements, so we will quote The Times" to say that " it is impossible to deny that the economic improvement recorded in Portugal since 1928 is not only without parallel anywhere else in the world, but is an achievement for which history can show but few 49 D

The national credit stands high in foreign markets . the internal price-level has long been steady. although mostly indirect. industry prospers. but at least it is equitable. In the Portugal of Salazar we have something that is unique in Europe . although ordinary expenditure has always been met from revenue. Liberal individualism has been superseded. and has been generally recognised as such by a world that is less ready to approve his achievements in other directions . 1932. and for the Corporative organisation of the Portuguese Republic that was then initiated . Salazar has been the most relentless of administrators. On July 5. the external floating debt has been completely paid off . and the most just. the Escudo has been stabilised . but freedom remains . and extensive public works have been undertaken . A multiplicity of superfluous but salaried offices has been swept away . which was not the case before . no artificial devices. The underlying principle in all this has been. and in this capacityhe was chiefly responsible for the Constitution of 1933. under obligation to no one and fearing none. no short cuts to solvency . Inaccessible in his room in the Finance Ministry. Taxation. is high. without recourse to loans . 50 . The Portuguese budget has shown a substantial surplus every year since 1928. he succeeded General Domingo de Oliveira as President of the Council of Ministers. Moreover. We have a Corporative State that is untainted with any form of totalitarianism . He is without doubt one of the greatest Finance Ministers of our time. the subordination of all things to the national interest . there has been no repudiation of obligations.THE PORTUGAL precedents ". and is.

51 . Their son is a Portuguese of the Portuguese. to General Carmona. national drift. it may appear to be idle conjecture . his mother was a peasant woman . Portugal to-day would be dead .OF SALAZAR 11 And the debt of Portugal to Salazar is the greater when it is remembered that had it not been for him Portugal to-day would almost undoubtedly be a Soviet Republic . with daily knowledge of poverty and of Faith. . owes a great debt to Marshal da Costa. between Coimbra and Vizeu . a village in Upper Beira. schooled in a hard school. the man who in 1926 took the initiative . as well as Portugal. Had the military rising of 1926 effected nothing more than a temporary order. and to Oliveira Salazar. That is conjecture . Joan of Arc to save his country. But Europe. the man who (the phrase is that of Gonzague de Reynold) " carries his power as a Christian carries his Cross ". and Europe might well by to-day have been in flames. had Salazar not come from obscurity like Cincinnatus or St . brought up in close contact with the realities of life and death. In SALAZAR Antonio de Oliveira Salazar was born in 1889 at Santa Comba Dao. to arrest the. the subjection of Spain would have been relentless and brief. that is. the man who saw a vision . His father kept a little inn in the village . then the first Soviet offensive in Western Europe would have come quite certainly from both sides of the Iberian Peninsula simultaneously .

he mistrusts it. " and a Professor he remains . he spends his leisure on the holding at Santa Comba Dao where he was born. To-day. he shields himself from the importunate . where six . He works at the affairs of State with the same rigorous method and the same objectivity that he brought to the preparation of his lectures. travelling between there and the capital as an ordinary citizen. of. He does nothing without careful consideration. Finally. after a distinguished academic progress. At the age of twenty-one he left for the University of Coimbra. He will not be hurried or disturbed . Being at heart a shy man. where he later taught . He held this chair for twelve years before' he was called to the service of the State. He does not cultivate popularity . and of his studies . The room at the Ministry of Finance in 52 . Deliberately he has earned the reputation of being inaccessible . and he received the minor orders there before he decided that he was not called to the ' priesthood . years later. but he has remained also the peasant . the peasant . " A Professor he was. of his books."" He has remained always the student. he appears as little as possible in public . the simplicity of needs. when he guides the destinies of Portugal.THE PORTUGAL He was educated at the seminary at Vizeu. he is fiercely independent. and withdraws the moment he perceives that anyone is seeking to override his judgment. and hearing unrecognised the gossip of himself in the train or street ." says Gonzague de Reynold. . to influence him. or to enlist his support. These are the characteristics of the intellectual. the Professor of Economics . e was appointed to the chair of Political Economy . He retains the frugality.

. if I remember rightly. his salary-decided by himself--is 5. the famous sonnet of Plantin. the work he has in hand. regulating his personal affairs as meticulously as he regulates those of Portugal . " In some ways.OF SALAZAR which he works has thus been described by Antonio Ferro : " A nondescript settee bearing a few cushions. is seated at the desk . Salazar's chair. and even of Cardinal Mercier. to keep out the cold. on which are two or three sets of documents which have just been examined. and the sympathetic portrait of an aged woman. Chancellor of Austria. only three adornments on the walls : the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.ooo Escudos a month. and. sustained in the course of his work. on the stairs at the Ministry. and sold a field at Santa Comba Dao to meet the charge . who wears his overcoat while he works. ` Le bonheur de ce Monde'." says Gonzague de Reynold. It was proposed that the doctors' expenses should be met from public money . Salazar. a pile of dossiers on a fragile table that seemed to be emulatin the leaning tower of Pisa. with its back to the window. He has remained always a poor man : he has remained also the man who had thought to become a priest. Some shelves with boos. He is profoundly Catholic. "he reminds me of Mgr Ignace Seipel. and the injury. The story is told of an occasion on which he broke a leg in a fall. Salazar would not hear of it. In the centre of this humble room." At the University of Coimbra he 53." As President of the Council and Minister of Finance. or less than £55o a year . and he lives strictly within this figure. and comes of a profoundly Catholic stock . took some time to heal. and his desk.

returning at once to Coimbra in disgust. but his particular subject remained the study of economics and finance . a nationalist movement influenced by and analogous to the Action Francaise of Charles Maurras . but he sat only for a single day. His politics have always been governed by Catholic principles . When the revolution of 54 . " I was and I am a situle Professor of Finance at the University of Coimbra . As a young man at Coimbra. From then until 1926 the support which he gave to the Centre Party was intellectual alone.THE PORTUGAL was the leading member of a little group engaged in studying social questions in the light of the encyclicals of Leo XIII.of his career may be continued in his own words . The great encyclical Quadragesimo Anno of Pius XI was published in 1931. During the War he was concerned in the formation of the Catholic Centre Party. In 1921 he ventured for the first time into practical politics. to meditate on the wickedness of party politics . Le Play and de Mun and de la Tour du Pin . The story. of a challenge to the existing social and political order. and it it easy to trace the influence which it had on the new Portuguese Constitution upon which Salazar was at' that time engaged. with its squabbling politicians and its down-trodden people . and of the work of the French Catholic sociologists. As Novidades . He was interested in anything that gave promise of a national awakening. and which was promulgated two years later . of a revival of the historic Latin and Christian Portugal. and wrote extensively on the need for reform in its newspaper. and was elected to Congress . he was attracted by a movement preaching " Integralismo Lusitano ".

As you see. He will tolerate no cliques or factions of any kind whatsoever. It was Duarte Pacheco. But they insisted so much that in the end I went to Lisbon. the Catholics have always been strangers to M7 political career. they remembered me again. a few days later. pursuing its own ends. to the exclusion of all else . together with some friends from the University who had also formed part of the Government .OF SALAZAR May 28th broke out. After the attempts of Commandant Filomeno da Camara and General Sinel de Cordes. I excused myself on grounds of sickness and left for Santa Comba Dao. "13 That final sentence is important . Salazar is influenced by no sub-national 55 . the military committee at Lisbon came to offer me the portfolio of Finance. at present Minister of Public Works. who this time came to Coimbra to fetch me in the name of the Government . At the re-shuffling of the Ministry I returned to Coimbra. his accession to power had nothing to do with that association . and I then became Minister for five days . Associated with the Catholic Centre Party. where. A party in Portugal means not so much a way of approach to common problems as a gang. he would have no more parties in Portugal. and engaged in perpetual struggle witother parties. a camarilla. and here I am . having the quite false idea that to Professors such as me all things are known . I refused the invitation for that reason. they came to seek me . to these successive voyages to and om Lisbon . and interviewed General Gomez da Costa at Amadora . When he came to power he diverted its activities into Catholic Action. knowing the distance that separates the intellectual from the man of action .

He has done all in his power to preserve spiritual values against the rising tide of materialism . one knows that he' is Christian through and through." He is profoundly Catholic . mais tout imjregne de spiritualisme ". in that he has shown 56 . Manuel Cerejeira. It might have been expected that the Government of Portugal would soon become (in the usual but offensive phrase) " priest-ridden ". He has built up a New State. As a youth at Vizeu he had received the minor orders . as a young' man at Coimbra he shared a room with a 'young priest. and how he found . He has ended anticlerical persecution in Portugal . and that he governs a Christian people . " that the Professor from the University of Coimbra is not merely `mindful of spiritual values'. or of Class . on a foundation of Christian moral principles . But he has equally refused to countenance clericalism . A writer in the French Dominican journal Sejbt' 4 has described a visit to the Pavilion. who became Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon about the same time as Salazar entered the service of the State." he continues. But nothing of the kind has happened . the Estado Novo. in a grand synthesis of all that is best in Portugal . He is profoundly Catholic : so is Portugal . there evidences of " un redressement economique. The Portuguese Pavilion at the Paris Exhibition must have made this clear to millions of visitors .THE PORTUGAL interest. " One feels. Salazar has kept Church and State quite apart . into a government that is genuinely Portuguese . of State. but is concerned solely in a work of integration. of which possibly the chief characteristic was hatred of the Church . and that still less is he influenced by the mths of Race. he has suppressed Masonry.

it will be said that it was priest-ridden . " to find that the Estado Novo has so far done relatively little for the Church . So will the Church thrive best. I was astonished. 57 . It is probable (although I have not yet been able to confirm this) that the Government of Salazar has already been set down by the Liberals as a tyranny of the Romish Church . Should the Estado Novo be challenged. it will be said that she controlled the wealth and destinies of the country ." Yet should she suffer persecution in Portugal again." says Gonzague de Reynold.OF SALAZAR himself supremely wise .

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CHAPTER THREE .

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C H A P T E R T H R E E PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF THE CORPORATE STATE I HE Portuguese State Tcorporative Republic. together with the other associations that men may have formed for various purposes. and to encourage and to assist in their formation . and on the participation of all the elements that make up the nation in the administrative life and in the enactment of its laws ". social.is defined byasArticle V of the Constitution of March 1933. on the free access of all classes to the benefits of civilisation. unless prevented by existing legislation. The word " Corporative " means that the nation is regarded as an organic whole. " a unitary and founded on the equality of its citizens before the law. and that these Corporations. or bodies representing the different phases of its life . are made the basis of the political and administrative life of the country . By Article XVI." 6I .I "It shall be the duty of the State to authorise. and economic purposes. and not as an accidental agglomeration of individuals . that it is organised by means of " Corporations ". all corporative organisations. for intellectual. since man is a social animal.

are the Constitution of March 1 933.THE PORTUGAL This corporative organisation has two aspects : the economic and social. they can be summarised by saying that Fascism is something Italian whereas the Estado Novo is Portuguese. It disciplines the national activity in a common harmony of interests. providing machinery for securing equal Justice for all concerned therein . of government which can best be described as an organic democracy. which codifies what are taken to be the fundamental rights and duties of property. as defining principles. and a series of Decree-Laws dated September 23rd of the same year. Under both these aspects it lays emphasis on the Rights of Man (although in that matter it has masters other than the prophets of the French Revolution) . That is done in a later chapter : for the present. the first. In the present chapter the economic and social aspects of the Corporate State in Portugal will be discussed . points of similarity between the Italian and Portuguese regimes makes it the more important that the distinctions should be emphasised . and which defines the part to be played by the State in regulating the national economy. capital. the corporatism of Italian Fascism 62 . but it lays equal emphasis on what are conceived to be the duties of man . and the political . and that although Italy is a Corporate State. and the fact that there are many. and labour. This document is undoubtedly modelled on the Italian Charter of Labour of 1927 . if superficial. and. is very much the most important . The chief documents that will be considered. considered politically. it provides for the nation a form. known as the Statute of National Labour. Of these latter.

while Dr . In particular the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno. parallel phrases will be cited from the two documents . This influence is so considerable that. After a consideration of the principles and theory that are embodied in the Portuguese Constitution and subsequent laws. by defining and enforcing the rights and guarantees that 63 . and to establish order according to law. we will proceed to a summary of what has already been achieved towards their realisadon . But no account of him would be accurate that did not recognise the extent to which his ideas are derived from Catholic teaching. It is not proposed to make the papal encyclicals the sole criterion of excellence for the work of Salazar . If it cannot be denied that Salazar owes a certain debt to Mussolini. purely as a matter of history. the present brief study is not intended solely or even primarily for Catholics. published in May 1931. it is very apparent that his greatest debt is to the social teaching of the Catholic Church . Salazar has rejected etatisme in all its forms . 1933 . Article VI of the Constitution runs as follows " It is the duty of the State (1) To promote the unity of the Nation. will be found to have had a profound influence on the Constitution which was drawn up by Salazar for his country during the following eighteen months and approved by a national plebiscite on March 19.OF SALAZAR is (in the French phrase for which there is no adequate translation) a corporatisme d'etat.

(2) To co-ordinate. and to prevent their standard of life from falling below the minimum necessary to human subsistence . equity. The function of the State is defined as " to co-ordinate. and its primary concern for the poor. watching. or law. occupations. and direct all social activities so that a just harmony of interests may prevail. both public and private. as circumstances suggest and necessity demands " . that cannot fail to recall the encyclicals .THE PORTUGAL derive from morals. whereas Quadragesimo Anno used the words "directing. and labour . stimulate. 64 . (3) To strive for improvement in the condition of the least favoured classes of society. of which the text is as follows " The State has the right and the obligation to supervise the co-ordination and control of economic and social life with the following objects (i) To establish a proper balance in the population._ The point is expanded in Article VII of the Statute of National Labour. with its primary reference to the moral law. stimulate. and other corporate bodies. and in Article XXXI of the Constitution. the local authority. the professions. taking account of the legitimate subordination of private interests to the general well-being . restraining. for the benefit of the individual. and direct " . capital. stimulating. the family." Here is a citation from the Constitution.

and regulate emigration. and commercial ventures of a parasitic nature. to protect emigrants. one another as members of the same collectivity . industrial." The function of the State. but that they rather are encouraged to collaborate with."3 65 E . and the national credit . (3) To ensure the lowest prices and the highest wages that are consistent with the just remuneration of the other factors of production. or of a character incompatible with the higher interests of human life ." And Article XXXIV " The State shall encourage the formation and the development of the national corporate economy . It shall ward carefully lest the elements which comprise it tend to establish among themselves an unrestricted competition such as is contrary to the just ends of society and of themselves. as here defined corresponds exactly to that given to it by the Pope. who insists. by means of the improvement of technique. that " all the occupational groups (which make up a nation) should be fused into an harmonious unity. And the genuine and chieff function of public and civil authority consists precisely in the efficacious furthering of this harmony and co-ordination of all social forces. (i) To develop settlement in the national territories. inspired by the principle of the common good .OF SALAZAR (z) To protect the national economy against agricultural. public services.

and to obtain social advantages superior to those whicbh would be obtained otherwise . 155. the State cannot take a direct part in the administration of private enterprises unless it is called upon to finance them in order to obtain such results " (Article VI : cp . as leading to the greatest individual and collective effort in the family and in society. wholly or in part. Art. even if the result of such enterprises is designed. XXXIII) . 15 . and as one of the first bases of social conservation and progress" (Article XII). 66 . and thee powers of using and disposing of property that follow therefrom. p . It is a right that has beern denied equally by Capitalism and by Socialism. Private ownership is a fundamental fact in the Portugal of Salazar. as a rational necessity deuced from the nature of man. or in the form of monopoly.THE PORTUGAL It is further laid down by the Statute of National Labour that " the State should abjure all industrial or commercial exploitation. see note 5. "The State recognises the right of ownership. also the Constitution. The State recognises in private initiative the most fruitful instrument of progress and of national l economy" (Article IV) . and other rights upon which Liberal constitutions lay exclusive emphasis (Article VIII. Similarly. whether in the form of competition with private enterprises in the economic sphere. together with freedom of thought and of meeting and association. below) . It shall only be able to establish or carry on exploitations of this kind in exceptional cases. it is defined as fundamental at the beginning of the Constitution. The right to own is one of the chief of the rights of man as there conceived . to for be used public services .

we cannot be either for or against the large or the small owner : we must favour the one here and the other there. happiness. completed or corrected by other realities-such as tranquillity. and regard man. Salazar would restore ownership to many . and therefore denies men the natural right of ownership . Salazar has said. on the other hand. if we find that that aspect of life. It is a necessary principle . of production. Capitalism means the concentration of ownership in the hands of a few. as a machine for producing and consuming wealth. however . well-being. and decide at once for a policy of breaking up. and above all of the so-called Capitalist States. as do the Russians. far from assisting communism and socialism. So you see that the proper interest of States. with the principles of those who materialise life. and economic conditions. If we are obsessed exclusively by the idea of wealth. climatic. Socialism seeks to remedy the state of affairs so produced by withdrawing ownership even from the few. not reduce the life of society to terms of the production and the utilisation of wealth . the great rural estates.OF SALAZAR which is the logical conclusion of Capitalism . and. will become a solid conservative foundation for 67 . and of systematically making small-holdings in which peasant families can be established in their ownership . and the beauty of family life-then we can laugh at the cut-and-dried formulas for higher productivity. but it conflicts.necessary. " Such a policy is an essential part of my ideas . is to create the largest possible number of small proprietors. should be tempered. according to geographical. But-and this is my point-if we do . who.

"4 Salazar goes on to describe what steps have been' taken and are being taken to carry out this policy of encouraging the small proprietor . stimulating.THE PORTUGAL the Nation. just as they associate Fascism vaguely 'with castor-oil and concentration-camps. or to the protection which is due to them ". But it is not only in agriculture that the small man is encouraged and protected . and directing ". and will oppose to the last all libertarian ideas . let it be noted that they do not include expropriation of the rich . but without prejudice to the social benefit conferred by small home industries. Threefifths of the Portuguese are engaged in agricultural work. The work that has been done in Portugal towards the creation of an independent and owning peasantry will be referred to in the fourth section of this chapter . If the English reader finds it difficult to understand unless it is assimilated to some -ism that is known to him. But it is better to keep -isms out of the matter altogether. and this large-scale policy in favour of small farmers at once characterises the new regime . It is popular . it is much more nearly true to say of the Portugal of Salazar that it is a Distributist State than to say that it is Fascist . the State. In pursuance of its duty of " co-ordinating. by Article XXXII of the Constitution. 68 . think only of Distributism-if they think of it at allin connection with beer and the cult of the homespun . must " encourage those private economic activities which are most profitable in proportion to their costs. It is rarely that "the social benefit conferred by small home industries " has received constitutional recognition . more especially as so many.

OF SALAZAR The whole of Section III of the first part of the Constitution concerns the position of the Family in the Estado Novo . this . That is. it appertains to the State and to local authorities 69 ."5 He refers those who doubt to no less than six modern constitutions . " To our knowledge." says genhor Pereira dos Santos. but he was writing. as the source of preservation and development of the race. the sole reason that justifies the protection of the family by the public authority . the moral importance of the institution of the family is recognised equally as its merely physiological importance as " the source of the preservation and development of the race ". Generally. of course. by its association in the parish (freguesia) and in the municipality. in his exhaustive treatise on the Portuguese Constitution.6 Article XIV of the Portuguese Constitution is this : " With the object of protecting the Family. before the publication of the remarkable new Constitution of tire. . Article XII enumerates the claims of the family to the protection of the State : " The State shall ensure the constitution and protection of the family. it is only its physiological function that is cited as. " there is no other constitutional text on the role of the family in the State that is so comprehensive as . as well as by its representation in the local authorities governing these . . as the first basis of education and of social discipline and harmony. and as a fundamental of political and administrative order. It is "the first basis of education and of social disciline and harmony ". .

" says the Portuguese Statute of National Labour . The fourth clause of the above article. that the State exists for society. But to define constitutionally that taxation must consider pre-eminently the necessity of provid ing the family with adequate means of subsistence is an." The third and fourth clauses here seem . and not society for the State . The family wage is but an extension of the principle of the living wage . "There is.THE PORTUGAL (i) To encourage the establishment of separate homes under healthy conditions. is 70 . excellent application of the principle . (3) To establish taxation in accordance with the legitimate expenses of the family. (S) To take all effective precautions to guard against the corruption of morals. of particular significance . and to co-operate with them by means of public institutions for education and correction. " Remuneration ought not to be insufficient to support a frugal and well-behaved wage-earner. however. and to promote the adoption of the family wage . (4) To assist parents in the discharge of their duty of instructing and educating their children. a minimum of wage or salary which corresponds to the needs of existence. or by encouraging private establishments destined for the same purpose . (2) To protect maternity . by principle." says Rerum Novarum. and the institution of the family household.

colossal houses for the workers. with their adjoining restaurants and their common table. better constituted . Freedom of education is another of those liberties guaranteed by the Constitution under Article VIII . we prefer the small independent house. and every child is bound to receive at least an elementary education. maintained in Portugal by the State. and. or when it is unable to undertake its proper function . That is why great blocks of flats.OF SALAZAR the most remarkable. in a private school. and it is a liberty which ."' The family. and technical colleges. is the natural milieu of the child. and the home is considered to be the normal place . "is not in Portugal the chief educator. then. family." says Salazar. the educative function lies primarily with the . owning. more stable. are . with which the State collaborates. "The State. family. do not interest us ."7 7I . All that is all right for the chance encounters of life.inhabited by the family which owns it . for the already semi-nomadic populations of our great contemporary civilisation . moreover. We will again sum the-matter up in the words of Salazar. In England it is increasingly denied. The first right of parents is the right of caring for their own children. . is the primary social unit . only substituting itself when the family does not exist. The family. for our independent.in England is not enjoyed . Elementary and secondary schools. But every parent is free to decide whether his child shall receive that education at home. nature and simpler tastes. and it is a right which in Portugal is recognised. or in a State school . and not the Stateowned and compulsory school. "The family which dwells beneath its own roof is necessarily more thrifty. the independent.

plus haut. " puis un . of defining the principles of moral law . We are not going to arrogate to the State the function of decreeing belief. It is made abundantly clear in his speeches . It is so throughout the legal documents which embody the principles . mass. We are led.THE PORTUGAL II Two important points must be seized from the foregoing brief summary of Salazar's conception of society and of the functions and position of the State . of the Estado Novo . therefore. homas Aquinas deduced it . puis un but national . comme la statue ou aboutissent toutes les lignes de la 72 p . The work of Salazar has been to achieve a Christian and traditionalist re-awakening . as St. " Certes. or Vice-we do not challenge God . or Riches. and his basic acceptance of Christian concepts of the nature of man and of society . ity a d'abord un but economique.9 Man's right to own roperty is " deduced from the nature of man "." writes Gonzague de Reynold. or Beauty. and we have sought to avoid the error or the crime of deifying the State.but social."' It is the moral law which is first acknowledged by the Portuguese Constitution. we have need of an absolute . or Force. The first characterises his work throwghout : it is his constant and primary deference to the natural and moral law. and we are not going to create that which exists outside and above us with our own hands . "Apart altogether from the intrinsic value of religious truth to the individual and society. to consider Power as morally limited. au fond de l'avenue.

But it is always manna. that they have fallen and cannot get up again.OF SALAZAR perspective. it should be remembered what manner of people are the Portuguese. stimulate. which must be emphasised before we proceed to discuss the practical details of the Portuguese Corporate State. The fifth clause of Article VII of the Statute of National Labour 73 . it y a le but moral. that there is nothing for it but to sing and to wait for to-morrow. The duty of the State. Its role consists essentially in making good the shortcomings of spontaneous initiative. This function has never been exceeded . if it be thought that at times rather a large degree of State assistance has been required to complement individual effort. Nevertheless. manana. Le regime corporatiste est nettement spiritualiste . melancholy people. it does not ngrmally take the first step ." The second point. of complementing individual effort . or to impose from above . It has abjured bureaucracy . the State has reduced its own obtrusiveness to a minimum. is to "encourage " : to " co-ordinate. characterised by the saudade. as with the Spanish . It is an indolence inherited of centuries against which the Government of Salazar has to work . which we have already quoted (p . manna. and direct" the corporative organisation. sad. 61). the State must "authorise" : that is. In the words of Article XVI of the Constitution. when they will be great again . . the feeling that their days of greatness are past. as has already been said. is that it is to be so far as is possible a spontaneous development . it is not the duty of the State itself to create. They will never do to-day what can possibly be done to-morrow : it is manna. They are a strange.

not to be paralleled in any other corporative regime. to regulate economic and social life in those professions which are directly concerned in export and import" that is." says Fr. of bodies " designed to co-ordinate. the preamble to the Decree-Law of July 8. Muller.THE PORTUGAL says : "The State shall reduce to the indisperasable minimum the sphere of action of its officials in the national economy. " will serve both as instruments for the exercise of State supervision and as a means of giving to the Corporations a degree of autonomy . "These bodies. T ultimate ideal is that the Corporations representing the various industrial and commercial activities of the nation shall be entirely autonomous . and. to supervise and ensure that "dust harmony of interests" and the "legitimate subordination of private interest to the general well-being " of which the Constitution speaks. " The State." Again." writes Salazar. and illustrates the desire of the Portuguese `dictatorship' to reduce State intervention to a minimum. "refrains from itself directing 74 i r . declares that the Corporate State can only live if it is administered through organs as far as possible removed from the Portuguese equivalent of Whitehall. Their comosition is designed to bring the representatives of the State and of the interests concerned into direct collaboration. 1936. and it goes on to provide for the institution by the Minister of Commerce and Industry. in the last resort. the distinguished Belgian student of corporative theory. and as nearly as possible in contact with the different members of the corporate body . and. even in the exercise of the most necessary control. It is a new idea. to leave as much as is possible to he viate initiative .

in 1931. that for which they are working. but . It is feared that the new syndical and corporative organisation tends to have an excessively bureaucratic and political character . again to quote Go nzague de Reynold. after briefly recapitulating Fascist theory.' .". and not a cor oratisme d'etat ."3 75 a . . it would be better to refer to the Corporate Nation . and that the interests of the community are protected . and is one of the chief reasons why the corporatism of Portugal is essentially different from Italian Fascism . in its opinion. The Corporate State is a misleading term . To go further would. Pius XI. This is the chief criticism which. . not only be to complicate the task of government."i` This is a fact of the utmost importance. . "both continuemphasised their strong opposition to etatisme. and Salazar has repeatedly declared that there shall not be . It does not apply to the Corporate State of Portugal. and only reserves for itself the right -which it regards as a duty-of ensuring that the law is carried out.OF SALAZAR the Corporation. there are some who fear that the State is substituting itself in the place of private initiative. he had to make of the Corporate State of Italy. That for which they wish. "During long conversations which I had the honour to have with Senhor Teotonio Pereira. instead of limiting itself to necessary and sufficient assistance . There is no etatisme in Portugal . and with Salazar himself. then Under-Secretary of State for the Corporations. writes : " Little reflection is required to perceive the advantages of the institution thus summarily described . but to prejudice social life . is a corporatisme d'association.

We have seen how Salazar as a young man was associated with these 'tendencies. but the seed from which it springs is deep in the soil of Portugal. and exploited to the full by English and German capital. and confusion became steadily worse confounded. and as the century led wore on. During the remainder of the nineteenth century Portugal was dominated by alien influences. becomes but a vindication of the historic Portugal . It would be absurd to pretend that the ancient Guild system had not outlived its usefulness in 1834. The historic Guild system survived in Portugal in a very real form until the nineteenth century. A political invasion accompanied the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal : what Salazar has described as the " alien and exotic plant " of Liberalism was obtruded on a country exhausted by thirty years of invasion and civil war. 1834 . and was only finally su ppressed. His work in restoring the corporative system to Portugal. By the side of this revival of the ancient theory of economic organisation came a strong movement for political nationalism . it is being tended from a ove. and it received great stimulus towards the end of the century from the publication of the great social encyclical of Leo XIII. she began to re-assert herself.THE PORTUGAL The Portuguese Corporate State is growing organically. Rerum Novarum. The old Corporative ideal found more and more adherents as the effects of political and economicLiberalism made themselves apparent.. just as 76 . in the name of Liberalism. like a plant. even if trampled underfoot . But the true and historic Portugal was not dead. by a decree of May 7. seen in its historical perspective. He has ended the long period of alien domination.

It possesses a degree of ada tibility. But what I have written remains true : Salazar has restored Portugal to herself ."14 To M . Sometimes we have to make experiments with pre-corporative bodies before envisaging typically corporative organisation. because it is coming into continual conflict 77 . What also is meant is that the corporate organisation is not imposed from above. as it were. or into one of State bureaucracy. from the people. " Although we have not yet completely constituted a single Corporation. It is growing organically . from the Nation . That is partly what is meant by saying that the corporatism of the Estado Novo is a corj oratisme d'association .OF SALAZAR it would be absurd to press too far the analogy between the ancient Guild and the modern Corporation. either into a system of trusts. of suppleness. de Reynold he said : It is essential to go slowly in organising} the Corporations. rather than run the risk of compromising an ideal by lack of preparation . " the corporative spirit is beginning to penetrate the national economy. For the present. but encouraged to develop from below. It is not a system so much as a principle : the organisation of the nation is being modified to suit particular circumstances. which will be made clear as this discussion of it proceeds. He has realised a spontaneous and natural movement .. and that is essential for the success of the regime ." wrote Salazar in 1936. to open the way. and which is one of its chief strengths . shaped to local conditions . without which the Corporations must risk degenerating. for it is first and foremost necessary to develop the corporative spirit. the State is forced into continual intervention.

the decree concerning the national syndicates is all compressed into twenty-five articles . has no more. The third section of the Statute of National Labour. We do not wish to introduce corporatism everywhere all at once . " in studying the new corporative regime of Portugal. is all contained in ten articles . to expatiate on the exact working and the precise balance of its strictly ordered organisations. and a change from the cut-and-dried systems to which certain enthusiasts for the corporative idea have accustomed us . Muller. beginning at the beginning. Such people like to display before our eyes the pieces of an ingenious mechanism which they have invented. "A bewildering brevity indeed. bringing it into being.THE PORTUGAL with individualist opposition and with Portuguese apathy. We have scarcely any information about the organisation and internal administration of the employers' associations.that 78 . or employers' associations. we are proceeding as we can." writes Fr . The constitution and administration of the syndicates have alone been treated in some detail . and taking account of local circumstances . and we know nothing at all about the Federations envisaged as intermediary in the corporative structure . apparently without being aware that society is organic . to describe the unfailing precision of its various parts."IS " One cannot but be astonished. devoted to the corporative organisation. the decree concerning the gremios. On the Corporations themselves the Statute of National Labour provides only some very general principles. by the remarkable restraint shown inn the legislative documents which are .

First among those principles is that Portugal shall be Portugal .. it is born. stimulate. But he will never abandon the fundamental principles to which in his speeches and writings he constantly returns . Corporative organisation is not assembled like a machine . to modify." He has proved that to be true . restrain'. When first he took office he said : " I know exactly what I want and where I am going. watch. but on which it is useless for him to attempt to impose his will .' Salazar is never afraid or reluctant to admit mistakes. . Even the Constitution of Portugal contains ample provision for revision . We have made a general comparison between the Portuguese people and the Irish . But in the fundamental principles on which the work of national reconstruction is based there can be no revision. to abandon any scheme which in practice proves unsatisfactory . and the acceptance toy the people' of new Constitutions inspired by 79 .OF SALAZAR life does not permit of prescribed rules for its development. to go back. and of French political and intellectual influences : the francezismo . and perhaps one of the most important things about Salazar is his dictum that " the State represents a doctrine in action ". Perhaps one of the most important things about the Portuguese Corporate State is that it is still frankly experimental . it grows and flourishes from the imeulse of internal and spontaneous forces which the legislator can certainly `direct. For a century she has suffered the encroachments of English and German financial and commercial interests. and both in Portugal and in Ireland have the years since the Great War seen a revolt against alien domination.".

we have thought only of his value as a producing machine. We have called forth the woman and the child as factors in production.. " We have gone further : we have dispersed his home. we have divorced it from its object. that life is not in him alone. .THE PORTUGAL Christian principles equally as by a spirit of national pride. in fact. his dignity as a human being . We have put it into a separate category. less efficient but cheaper -as detached units. " We have distorted the idea of wealth . and we have imagined that the destiny of individuals. At one stroke. without bonds. ` We have distorted the idea of labour. we have destroyed the family. apart from the interests of the community and apart from moral concepts . and his home . having increased competition amongst the workers b y introducing the labour of 8o a . but in his wife. without a life in common .we have measured or -weighed his productive power and we have not so much as remembered that he is a member of a family. which is to serve worthily the life of man. and. of States. elements entirely independent of one another. is to accumulate goods without regard for social utility. without regard for justice in their cquisition or their use . without affection. his children. we have broken into the family circle . and of nations. and we have forgotten the personality of the labourer.

have mounted the machine with a great show of system. women. by reaction. has disappeared. have carried this to its conclusion. not with the aim of helping to co-ordinate all the various factors in the work of the production of wealth. Those who. whom he regarded as a hostile class. with the apparent infallibility of science and advanced technique . not in order to achieve unity. even in opposition to other workers . . . . or of the improvement of professional technique. but in opposition to someone or somethingin opposition to the State. which regulated the production. he remained alone . no spirit of co-operation-nothing but hate. . caught up in the colossal mechanism that is without mercy and without mind . without the discipline of the association. in the organisation of the national economy . but defenceless . in opposition to his employers. the MAN. and then into an all-absorbing intervention. " We detached the worker from the natural surroundings of his profession : free from the bonds of association. . " We forced the State. we have not accorded to each family in salaries the value of the industry of a good housewife. and the distribution of wealth." 8z F OF SALAZAR . Next we allowed him to ally himself with others and he did so. blindly driven by the logic of their false principles. of the social usefulness of the mother of a family . into an absolute passivity. . whether willingly or not. We have seen the workers mobilised like machines. the consumption. but the free worker. unconcerned. or of insurance or provident work . destructive hate . No objects of intellectual or moral advancement. shifted like cattle when the pasture fails . which is the guardian of order. he became free. at first.

Society was disintegrated by Liberalism. and not more for that than for such purposes as the development of professional technique. form corporate groups . And men who work in different ways will form different professional associations. Employers will have their associations. by reconstruction. He seeks to restore to society the groupings which are natural to man. and the various Corporations will be co-ordinated in a Corporative Chamber. so those who practise the same trade or profession. The Corporations represent no more than the 82' . Wider organisations will co-ordinate into a Corporation all concerned in a given branch of activity . but they are not. the pursuance of-common ideals. the protection of their fellows in times of adversity and misfortune . The family is to be protected and preserved . A man lives first in his family. instead of by regimentation . in the economic field or any other." "In these cor porations the common interests of the whole vocational group must predominate . and among these interests the most important is to promote as much as possible the contribution' of each trade or profession to the common good . secondly in his trade. and workers theirs .THE PORTUGAL That is an indictment by Salazar of the Liberal inheritance . "It is natural that just as those who dwell in close proximity constitute townships. not so much for defence of their professional interests as to make possible their collaboration in the life of the community . in which also national problems and public affairs will be discussed by those with particular knowledge of them ." . Salazar seeks a solution by synthesis.' These words might well be those of Salazar.

considered functionally . but there is this in common : that society is regarded as being divided. and. as we have already said.OFSALAZAR different occupations in which men are engaged. as it were. there will be authority and obedience. it must see that they are adequately rewarded for their work. there are not upper. It is. . "The hierarchy of functions and . middle. the interests of its component parts are ultimately identical with the national interest. an organic whole. says the Statute of National Labour. For the Corporations are the component parts of the nation. but there are men concerned in the cork industry. Each Corporation. is responsible for its own corporate life. each occupational group. 83 . it must provide for them in times of misfortune . and lower lasses . social interests is an essential condition of the national economy. organised so that they may adequately collaborate withh the State in promoting the national well-being . vertically. It must protect all those engaged in the branch of activity with which it is concerned . So far as the Portuguese State is concerned. it must defend their rights. since the nation is an entity. In each industry " the hierarchy of functions" must remain . misleading to press the analogy with the medieval Guild system too far. and so on. and it should "'9 seen be at once that that is not inconsistent with the vertical division of society. as were the Medieval Guilds. men concerned in the wine industry. It is an elementary principle that all idea of the class-war is to be repudiated . according to trade or profession or occupation. instead of horizontally according to social status or (what is worse) according to income .

There are associations alike of employers and employed . he requires 84 . They do not vary much : the interests of the working-man are very much the same in all places . but the first purpose of these is not to defend the interests of a class. That is why it is misleading to refer to the workers' associations as" Trade Unions ". according to Article IX of the Decree-Law which governs them. not more than one syndicate will be recognised for each industry in the same neighbourhood . The key principle in all corporative theory is the principle of the common good . and. but to collaborate in the interests of the community. in collaboration with the State and with the higher organs of production and of labour ". and declare readiness to co-operate with the other factors in the national economy . Strikes and lock-outs and all such methods of class defence are specifically declared illegal both by the Constitution and by the Statute of National Labour. as it has different associations in different places . the word "syndicate " is also misleading. but the Portuguese use it.THE PORTUGAL but not absolute authority and wage-slavery . of course. must expressly repudiate the class struggle.. and their formation has from the start been left freely to the initiative of those concerned. so we must do the same . Whatever his trade and wherever he lives. The national syndicates group together the employees and wage-earners in a given industry . although they must secure Government recognition. Their statutes. with its implication of motives of defence . The Portuguese national syndicates. should subordinate their own interests to the interests of the national economy. to receive approval and recognition.

and obtained good and cheap houses. reasonable conditions of work. and " some syndicates have built schools for their members' children. and so on. sanatoria and creches. Technical • The " District "-Distrito-is a Portuguese administrative area corresponding. Subsidies in sickness and unemployment have been provided . 1933. Consequently. 23. OF SALAZAR reasonable hours. roughly. to orFanise agencies for finding employment for workers in the trade with which tey are concerned. Rules governing their organisation are also given .050 of September 23. Part of the function of the syndicates is to negotiate collective labour contracts with the employers' associations . to the English county . but that juridical personality will be granted to the syndicates.* that the capital town of the district will normally be its headquarters . out of those built by the State. that not more than one syndicate for each trade may be formed in each district . which vary considerably. good housing. Article XII imposes on them the obligation to set up syndical providential societies. the terms of the law governing the syndicates are much more precise than is possible for those concerning the employers' associations. whether members or not . 85 . Decree-Law No . an adequate wage. provided medical aid and medicines. for their members . and to establish and maintain schools for professional and technical instruction . that membership will not be compulsory. which will legally represent all workers in its industry and district. but they are also essentially concerned with the welfare of their members . lays down that ordinarily no syndicate containing fewer than a hundred members will be recognised .

which is one of the most important in Portugal. it was a necessary result of that international disaster technically known as a " crisis'.'. no uniform regulations are provided for the gremios. law. for instance. but. . some branches of production had actually appealed to the Government for some sort of organisation . even more. . the gremios are to be created by ministerial initiative and we are confronted with what appears to be a species of corporatisme d'etat.1933. The greatest merit of this law is its elasticity . language courses. so it must be remembered that immediate but temporary necessities must frequently compel deviation from what is in theory best. The apparent cor oratisme d'etat of the first law dealing with the employers' associations was partly a result of the conditions prevailing in the anarchy of the years before 1926.049. .THE PORTUGAL classes. which have enabled employers and workers to meet in a friendly atmosphere . which hit the world so soon after Salazar began his work. Before the promulgation of the Constitution. markets were being lost to foreign competition and honest firms were being hopelessly 'undercut by unscrupulous exporters of 86 . many public meetings have been held. Decree-Law also of September 23. and general educational lectures have been given. And just as it is essential that particular circumstances should be allowed to modify and to vary the application of an ideal.":11 The employers' associations are known as and are practically all governed byDecree-taw No . or " slump ". According to this 23. but each is to be adapted to the particular conditions of the industry with which it is concerned . In the sardine industry.

report. then only Minister of Finance (1931). On the recommendation of this. to which .production had itself appealed . The victimised firms appealed to the Government. that of December 3.OF SALAZAR tins full of cheap but rancid fish. The organisations then set up were " pre-corporative " in type. When the legislation of 1933 extended order and co-ordination to all forms of national activity. then.. the production and export of sardines were strictly regulated. Similarly. while conforming to the objects prescribed for it and the duties imposed upon it by corporative law. But very soon we find a striking proof of the desire of the Government for a true corporatisme d'association. It will arise from the initiative of those who are themselves interested. and Salazar. 1934 . it is not. and continues : `The organisation of employers. _who will have to furnish their own effort. order was introduced into the port wine industry by compelling the co-operation of all producers . This defends the previous law on grounds of necessity . surprising to find that production was at first organised by the Government. of which membership was compulsory. nor attempt compulsorily to include all enterprises . carried out a thorough study of the industry and its problem. This piece of State interference saved an extremely important industry from ruin at the hands of foreign and unscrupulous competitors . assume their own 87 . and issued a report. in the preamble to a second important Decree-Law about the gremios. and a " Consortium of Sardine Canners " was created.. and have since been revised as the Corporate State develops . ought not normally to proceed from Government initiative.

The only condition made is the necessary one that they shall include at least half of all those engaged in the industry in question. Muller. le Gouvernement portugais adhere a is formule d'auto-discipline. Groups that are optional and formed by. whether members or no . " Par l'orientation nouvelle qu'il vient de donner a sa politique corporative.THE PORTUGAL responsibilities. the employers of labour. they will be accorded juridical personality. and there would not be any true participation of that industry in the corporative structure . and conditions of labour agreed upon by them in meetings with representatives of the workers' syndicates will be similarly binding on all. and enter into the role which falls . instead of compulsory and imposed on. Steps taken by them for the benefit of the industry with which they are concerned shall be binding on all when sanctioned by the Government on the recommendation of the Corporative Council . study the problems which concern them most nearly. are now recognised by the Government . and will legally represent all employers in the industry and district of their competence . that is. 'and shall represent at least half of the financial interest involved . dont nous attendons. en quoi nous voyons 1'expression la plus sincere de l'idee corporative. Otherwise rival associations might spring up in competition. les plus heureux resultats . Such associations will receive full recognition. pour le progres de l'organisation professionnelle au Portugal."23 88 ." to them under the corporate organisation This is more in keeping with the rest of Salazar's legislation ." comments Fr . " De grand cceur nous applaudissons a cette innovation. or minorities might secure recognition.

always proving that they shall have received the necessary powers from the syndicates or gremios. on points of law. And all these various groupings are finally to be integrated into Corporations . which comprise 89 . an essential purpose of the syndicates and the gremios is that they should meet together to draw up collective labour contracts. Nevertheless. Disputes or differences arising out of such collective bargaining come before independent tribunals. which will be referred to in the following chapter . Unions or Federations. the Corporations can establish among themselves general and binding rules dealing with their internal disci line and the co-ordination of activities. and to ensure good relations between employers and employed . They have also a political function. The syndicates and gremios concerned in different parts of the country in the same industr? are grouped into regional or national "Federations' . under the administrative authority of the National Institute of Labour and Social Welfare. 24 Both national syndicates and gremios have a consultative function. since they are groupings by function : a man belongs to a gremio as being a producer. a contributor to the national wealth.OF SALAZAR It is perhaps misleading to refer to the gremios as " employers' associations ". to the Supreme Council of Public Administration . and Federations concerned with allied industries or pursuits are further co-ordinated in " Unions ". and must furnish advice and information on matters of their competence when required. rather than as being an employer of labour . Being representative of the general interests of production. against the decisions of which appeals may be made.

as it were. and to shape all the nation's work towards national well-being and prosperity. and others taking part in production. as laid down in the Statute of National 9o THE PORTUGAL . which is presided over by the Under-Secretary of State for the Corporations. as of the'syndicates and other corporate bodies. Let this be remembered by those who attempt too hasty a comparison with Italian Fascism . The purposes of the Corporation. But they go further than did the Guilds in having a political function. by integrating the workers. instead of downwards from the top . any more than the purpose of the medieval Guild was merely economic . It remains here to mention two further bodies the National Institute of Labour and Social Welfare. in which the Corporative Chamber will be discussed in detail . The Corporative bodies take part in the election of the Municipal Chambers. The former. The Chamber crowns the corporative organisation of the nation. bringing together representatives of all phases of national activity to discuss and resolve their common problems. This political aspect of corporatism is the matter of the next chapter. are not merely economic .them. XLIII . from the bottom." (Statute of National Labour : Art. The Corporations came last into being : they represent the final work of integration . and the Corporative Chamber . in the co rporative organisation. exists in order " to ensure the fulfilment of the laws protecting the workers. and that authority is to travel upwards. the Provincial Councils. and of other laws of social character.) It is important to remember that the Corporations are to be so far as possible autonomous. as well as the authorisation of the State . and the Corporative Council.

are norms to be followed in the corporative organisation. Having described the Portuguese Corporate State as it exists on paper. I say already because the Estado Novo is coming into being surely but gradually . But no doubt the Portuguese know best . economic. so avoiding the creation of an extra body that has no representatives of the Corporations upon it. establishing it. for bringing about . According to the law . according to the spirit of political. and they." Its members are the President of the Council of Ministers. and social renovation of the Portuguese Nation ". 9I .are to be immediately put into effect by the Ministries and departments concerned.25 The Corporative Council is the supreme body through which is exercised the general supervision of the Government over the development of the corporate structure . This Council was created a year later than the National Institute of Labour and Social Welfare : and it seems possible that a little widening of the scope of that Institute might have made it unnecessary. two University Professors. Plans for educating illiterate millions overnight. some mention must be made of what has already been done towards translating it into reality. provided that they be not an infringement or an alteration of the existing laws.OF SALAZAR Labour.'6 " All the decisions of the Council. and a number of ex-officio representatives of various ministerial departments.

" And so on. and. luminous in its virginal essence. The Republic had to give the people rhetoric. so soon confounded." writes M . where distilled Utopias are made practical . have always characterised Liberal and " progressive " regimes in the Peninsula . or democracy. we have the example of the vast promises. Or again. or about the rights of the people and the brotherhood of man-all that has been standardised to such an extent that we shall soon be able to buy speeches ready-made to suit all occasions. 1127 To quote his own words again." he has written. as we can already buy love-letters. " he admits nothing that will not stand the test of daily experience . First and foremost he is a realist he is one of the very few politicians who have never allowed themselves to be mesmerised by words . "Now at last ends the slavery of our country. and the realisation more than the anticipation . but that does not mean to say that the corporative organisation is already realised wherever we have decided that it is possible and 92 . " All one hears to-day on the subject of liberty. " or of Parliament. there was very soon a bitter irony about the rhetorical proclamation issued to the Portuguese people by the new Republican Government on October 5. made by the Spanish Republicans in 1931 . Maeterlinck of him. But there has never been any rhetoric about Salazar : his promises have always been most guarded. " The Portuguese Republic is a Corporate State by definition." " Wisely inoculated against the disease of extreme ideologies.THE PORTUGAL an unheard of prosperity in the course of a few days. 191 o. His mind is a veritable laboratory. for it had nothing else to give . rises the beneficent aspiration of a regime of liberty .

OF SALAZAR desirable."2 Or again. as it had to . we must not jump to the conclusion that the remedy for all political evils is found . We have seen how in the case of the latter the initiative came in the first instance from the Government."'9 And in his famous speech of July 30. It is not a programme for angels. and how the workers' organisation was 93 . under the guidance of Salazar and his Ministers." The reconstruction of Portugal has been and is being a slow matter of trial and error and patient endeavour. The organisation began at the bottom : national syndicates and gremios came first. imperfections. among whom should Dr . if it is to be lasting. cannot destroy that upon which it is based-the fundamental principles . very considerable progress has been made. guided throughout by those social principles which we have tried to set out in the foregoing pages . . falsities. as we are trying out a new system which has not yet been used sufficiently to make it possible to proceed without extreme caution. founded in the labour and the sufferings of past generations. or wipe them out . misery. Pedro Teotonio Pereira be especially mentioned . Far from it : we can have no rapid advance. but a slow and sure progress. The organisation of industry and commerce was undertaken first. the great realities of social life . and contradictions-and we have got to remedy them. being the most intricate as well as the most urgent necessity . 1930 : " Because we are embodying our ideas in a Constitution. Nevertheless. It is for that that we continue our revolution . . but our revolution. in 1934 : " We are aware that there are grave errors in our economic and social organisation-unjust inequalities.

Freppel Cotta. All that has been done in the various industries has been described in detail. by M . there was no authority to ensure their application. however. more than halfway from liberal-capitalist chaos to corporate order. at all events. agreements had no binding force . A decree of December 21.THE PORTUGAL the work of the workers themselves . and meet and collaborate with the organisations of his employers. 1891 . anticipated the formation of federated unions and the establishment of principles for collective bargaining " according to the terms of a further law " . before Salazar began his work . which certainly expressed its spirit. Salazar has always put the working-man first . Portugal is. the general interpretation of it. Portugal never knew them. in his book Economic Planning in Corporative 94 . did not allow it . all Trade Unions were regulated by a restrictive law of May 9. in English. It was doubtful whether collective bargaining was permitted by the law of 1891. at any rate. Under the " Liberal " regime. 1924.000 of them in 1930."3° The Estado Novo has meant Justice for the labouring Portuguese such as he had not known for over a century. and the decree was no more than a mirage . even in its widest interpretation . but the complete structure of the Corporations is not yet achieved. His syndicates are now fully organised and fully effective. is evident : collective labour. and apart from one or two isolated and irregular examples . but this further law never appeared. The " Unions " and " Federations described above are also in existence in many cases .. One thing. but there were nearly 1. There were so many because most of them had no more than a purely nominal existence .

which concern between them a very large proportion of the working opulation. Its functions' are classified under three heads : the representation and defence of professional interests . These well illustrate the work of the new regime . the instruction of the young in the art of fishing . but special institutions called Casas dos Pescadores. concerns the fishermen . Particular plans have been made to suit particular needs . owners of boats and others upon whom the fishermen depend. then. to which their employers and the owners of their fleets are also obliged to belong. and care 93 OF SALAZAR . But for the men themselves there are not syndicates on the national plan. Houses of the Fishermen. The new Government has not attempted to impose the full rigour of corporative symmetry upon this ancient industry : here are well illustrated its twin virtues of adaptability and the avoidance of bureaucracy. For centuries the men of Portugal have been men of the sea : navigators and fishermen . The Casa dos Pescadores. are grouped. into gremios. But there are two in particular. 1937. dated March i i. Employers and purchasers. as normally. A special law. in which p articular progress has been made the industries of fishing and agriculture . and is designed chiefly as an organ of social co-operation. The calling of the sea is rooted deeply in all the history and traditions of the country . includes both masters and men.Portu~al. and the men of the coastal villages who catch fish are living to-day the lives that their fathers and grandfathers have lived before them through the ages . and over each of which-there is one at eve ry fishing port-an official corresponding to the English Harbour Master presides.

assistance for those who have suffered loss in storms. The whole spirit of the new corporatism. The Casas dos Pescadores have retained as much as possible of those confraternities. the sick and the disabled." "As far back as the first half of the fourteenth century. Their revenue was derived from levies on catches or wages. but the ancient Portugal of history and the centuries. and were designed to help their widows." writes Freppel Cotta. its avoidance of bureaucracy. and general welfare work . which is in reality not a "New State " at all. and generally in the customs of all the fisherfolk . We see its traditionalism."3' Nothing could better demonstrate the essential traditionalism of the Estado Novo. its sympathetic power of adaptation. Those confraternities were the accredited representatives of all seafarers. and at the same time the recognition that the incorrigibly illiterate and unpractical nature of the Portuguese people. and even to make good the loss caused by shipwreck or damage . may be found in this particular application of it . as well as the need for co-ordination. collected and distributed as fairly as possible in a true Christian spirit. It is something remarkably close to the medieval guild . particularly those related in spirit specifically to men of the sea .for the sick. and the influence of which was still visible in the prevailing rules of fishing. And it is of the first importance to note the following clause in the law : "The Casas dos Pescadores have the duty of guarding jealously all local traditions and customs. makes necessary the 96 THE PORTUGAL . indeed. " the fisherfolk had formed admirable confraternities in which religious and moral welfare was combined with economic and social relief.

These men. The various Casas dos Pescadores. without any kind of violence. the two oldest occupations of mankind. the division of property by water has been successfully carried out . of any G 97 . " and you will see that peacefully and quietly. then. extensive irrigation schemes have been undertaken in the Alemtejo. to make possible smallscale farming where it was not possible before . We have seen that it is the intention of Salazar to give to Portugal an agricultural peasantry of independent small proprietors . a large population of small farmers and agricultural peasants-a population which is being extensively increased . Fishing and agriculture. we are carrying out a very far-reaching social work. receive control from a central board. especially since the War. indeed. in the basins of the Tagus and Sado rivers. With this purpose. the great backbone of Portugal and." Salazar told Antonio Ferro. so that those in the less prosperous localities may be adequately equipped . together provide the livelihood of a substantial majority of the Portuguese ."32 There is in Portugal. OF SALAZAR creation of a modicum of officials . for instance. What I say has been absolutely proved . scattered round the coast. it is not difficult to see that that policy has failed. and in the east and south-east of Europe. without regard for natural conditions. In the north of Italy. which administers their common funds. where. " We have already outlaid a million to initiate this irrigation policy. a policy of distribution of the land has been followed by cutting up large estates as one would a piece of cloth. . and in the basin of the Ebro and other districts of Spain. where the rainfall is small and irregular.

or by the Government when it is thought necessary. or Houses of the People. and provide unemployment relief. like the syndicates. are for the most part neither employers nor employed. The purpose of the Casas do Povo is to provide rural centres for social purposes . in the form of work. are called bodies for social co-operation. raise the standard of rural life . which in their case. educate the ignorant (a colossal task). and grants are also made by the State and by local administrative bodies . If they are employers.THE PORTUGAL country. and this has been recognised from the beginning . owing to their greater compactness and organisation. All land-owners are obliged to contribute to their maintenance. but they are primarily professional associations. assist the needy. and not simply associations for the pursuance of professional interests. . They will make loans to peasants for agricultural purposes or for setting up small home industries. The syndicates also aim at social co-operation. is more easily. 1933. achieved . It is evident that they cannot be fitted into the general corporative scheme of syndicates and gremios . In the very first article of the Decree-Law of September 23. vocational groups . be organised into Unions and Federations. which governs them. Their function is to provide social centres. when necessary. and these can .Commercial 98 . the Casas do Povo. They are created on the initiative of the people themselves. Provision has also been made for the creation of special agricultural gremios. they are employers only of one or two labourers . to protect the interests of those who produce for market. nor do they specialise but practise general subsistence farming. and generally to .

but which will laisser-faire not isolated individuals but organised professions. autonomous corporations . fruit.OF SALAZAR agriculture follows the general plan. 99 . The same principles are being followed in everycase : order is being brought into the national economy by that which is inappropriately enough called a " dictatorship"-it is a dictatorship which has declared for a policy of laisser-faire. and rice . wine. and corporative organisation is well advanced in the production of the important products of wheat.

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CHAPTER FOUR .

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and of his Constitution in which the influence of the encyclical of six years earlier is so apparent . Muller finds a " direct agreement between Quadragesimo Anno and the Statute of National Labour.2 The words of Pius XI in Divini Redem ptoris. But there is more to the matter. encyclicals " . C H A P T E R F O U R THE POLITICAL STRUCTURE Estado Novo is no more than they have obtained from the previous chapters of this book. Catholic political philosophy and of the Papal . an applied resume of. and Fr. that " a sound prosperity is to be restored according to the true principles of .. in effect.~ The influence of these upon the mind of Salazar has already been noted. a sane corporative system might well appear to be an endorsement of the work of Salazar. will have any serious quarrel with the opinion of the American Jesuit who recently wrote that " the whole. Manoilesco3 rightly distinguishes three kinds of corporativism 103 unlikely that those who are acquainted with I T isgreat social whose knowledge Leo the Portuguese the encyclicals of XIII and the present Pope. system is. and of .

have only an advisory capacity . and it is not possible to claim Papal approval for any system of political machinery. if there is in the corporative system any political significance. Manoilesco.THE PORTUGAL (i) Pure. and all of them are capable. To him the only true corporative s~' stem is that of the first kind . And if Salazar has introduced in Portugal a corporativism other than the third of the three types distinguished by M . because it teaches that " every man is a law unto himself ". of ensuring the welfare of the State . then it is something more than the corporative system of which Divini Redemjtoris. with their organ of national integration. but only with the truths of religion and the moral principles which politics must respect.speakss 10 4 . of political toleration-do not stand condemned. The Popes have not been concerned with politics. `Not one of the several forms of government is in itself condemned. in the second that power is shared with other sources. of universal franchise. But the usual political concomitants of Liberalism-the doctrines of Parliamentary democracy. and which it is the business of the Church to maintain . and because liberty of thought is in obvious conflict with Revealed religion. if wisely and justly managed. and in the third the corporations. such as ' a parliament based on universal suffrage . According to Leo XIII in Immortale Dei. (2) mixed . The Church regards indifferently any form of government. In the first the corporations constitute the sole source of the supreme leislative power ." Liberalism is a condemned error. (3) subordinate . as none of them contains anything contrary to Catholic doctrine. so long as the essential moral rights of man are acknowledged and safe?uarded.

Particularly in the seaport towns of the Peninsula. by devoting a few pages to a brief historical survey of "democracy" in the Peninsula. in particular. in Portug'al' Rather more than a century ago. one representing the traditional Monarchy.most historians term the Constitutional party . It was scarcely a generation since the fall of the Bastille . and it is not yet possible to say what form it will finall take . and the other (in each case a small girl) representing the ideas of the French Revolution. and before going on to discuss the present system of government and the possibilities of the future. and that the present undeniably authoritarian Government will give place to a form of organic democracy working on a functional basis through the co orations . It is at least certain that Portugal w not revert to Liberal parliamentary democracy on the English pattern . As has already been pointed out. in fact. In each case the war was one between rival claimants to the throne. there is every indication that it is to be the chief legislative body. and heading what . the Portuguese corporative system is still in process of development. But it is already clear that the Corporative Camber is to have more than a purely advisory capacity. whether or not it may ultimately be the sole legislative body . civil war came to both Spain and Portugal.OF SALAZAR And that is. we will explain why that is certain. Don Carlos in Spain and Dom Miguel in Portugal were both followed by the greater 105 . the case . those who saw political or financial power within their grasp played upon the war-weariness of the people to stimulate revolution . and. Moreover. where already the Napoleonic invasions had wasted and destroyed .

~3~~~~~~~~~~ .

together with assistance from financial and commercial interests.N. " the civilised world rings with execrations ". at the time at school in Paris. when he abandoned his claims by the Convention of Evora Monte . and gave permission for the raising of ten thousand men in England . The British Legion. did not exactly cover itself with glory . These are broad generalisations . continued. and it is easy for over-simplification to become mere historical distortion. The British Government lent £540. her.. under the command of Captain Napier. The child Maria da Gloria. It is historical distortion tosay that the Miguelist 107 . and Portugal entered upon' a century of confusion. against whom.The full iniquity of this work is to-day apparent . That Portugal' is not also bathed in blood is due to Antonio de Oliveira Salazar. and the same international interests. under the command of Sir George de Lacy Evans. R. as Palmerston said in the House of Commons in June 1829.000 to the child Isabella for military expenses.OFSALAZAR also sent a British naval force in the cause. are pitted against. until May 1834. owing to the strange preference of the Portuguese for tyranny. The war against Dom Miguel in Portugal. an excellent British sailor and hero of the Syrian campaign of 1840.. . was sufficient to ensure the success of political liberalism . Similar steps were taken to preserve Spain from Don Carlos. but Palmerston's " inter-meddling ". together with others more deadly. was confirmed on the throne. who on this occasion found it more convenient to be known as El Almiral Carlos Ponza . Spain is fighting again the same war.

and was wholly controlled. But it is also historical distortion to say that Spain or Portugal in any way desired or were suited to representative government. and where (as he was always told) he was the ultimate controlling influence . but by local " bosses ". as in the good old English fashion. with profound truth.war was simply a conflict between national sentiment and foreign interests.. corruption. it has meant the creation_ of a class of professional politicians preying on the people : a travesty of democracy screening the machinations of profiteers . where the Cortes sat. The Portuguese of the years before 1926 cared little and knew less about what went on at San Bento. That will seem like a sentence of excited exaggeration until the political history of Portugal in the nineteenth century comes to be written in Eng lish." writes Salazar. English democracy. he turned himself always more 1o8 THE PORTUGAL . English -electioneering methods of the eighteenth do not bear comparison with those of Portugal . not by bribes. " As disorder followed disorder. was a form of government capable of adaptation to the needs of all European peoples . Parliamentary government on the English pattern has always meant a chaos of camarillas and caciquismo. as in Spain. in which the latter won . rotativism and revolution . " One of the greatest mistakes of the nineteenth century. In Portugal."5 It is a pity that that historical fact is not clear to those well-intentioned Englishmen who so bitterly denounce General Franco as a " Fascist " and a destroyer of liberty . The electorate in 1871 was less than seven per cent of the population. " was to suppose that the English parliamentary system.

" If Lisbon turns Turk to-morrow. . his daily work. unknowing . 1910. suffered . cultivated the vine and the patch of maize. the elections of August 28. Too often has the voice of the Lisbon mob been taken for the voice of Portugal. Only a few months previously King Manoel had made a journey through the country districts of Beira " which in some places became a triumphant progress the peasants pressing eagerly to welcome their King . his house. unprotesting.OF SALAZAR deeply towards his wife and his children. with hardship and the soil. and the reasons why Lisbon was republican have been told in an earlier chapter . the millions of Portuguese knew nothing of the matter. to his grandparents. The constant succession of revolutions between log . and Portugal accepted. . the garden. who had successively dug the soil. an incorrigible illiterate. These things had been known to his parents. 1 o came from Lisbon. and to his ancestors through the ages. It was republican Lisbon that made Portugal a Republic in 1910 . and with eternity.7 But Lisbon turned Turk. and remains. and were concerned in it only in so far as the fantastic confusion into which Portuguese politics were immediately plunged had its effect upon their daily lives . had no more hand in it than they had ever had in the affairs of Portugal. the field. And when the Republic was proclaimed. For the last Ministry of the Monarchy. Of these 14. all Portugal will wear the Fez. the forest . reared children. returned 14 Republicans among 1 44 deputies . concerned only with the realities of life."6 What use was the " vote " to him? He was.." wrote the novelist Eca de Queiroz .

and resulted as follows Number of the electorate 1.090 Spoilt votes 66o Abstentions 30.THE PORTUGAL 19 r o and 1926 were exclusively political in character . Four years later a new Constitution which had been drawn up under the guidance of the Minister of Finance. It remained an authoritarian 110 . in the Roman sense of the word : that is. In r926 the country rose we have told the story already .330. took control of affairs was a dictatorship .268 Votes in favour 1. At the beginning of 1928. a Government that had seized temporary absolutism to meet a national emergency . Salazar. since it became government through a popularly approved Constitution. General Oscar Carmona . Dr . 1 933. from the intolerable tyranny of the professional politicians and the local bosses. It was certainly not a dictatorship in the modern sense of a tyranny it represented a release from tyranny. on March 25th a popular mandate confirmed him in his office . It was a dictatorship . The Government that then.292. and were unnoticed outside Lisbon : the general disappearance of-administrative order and tthe general rise in the cost of living continued steadily and without interruption . was also submitted to the country for approval . in the name of -the nation.864 Votes opposing 6.submitted his de facto Presidency to the country . The plebiscite was taken on March r9.654 The Government then ceased to be a dictatorship.

A Monarch. and he would have been hounded from Lisbon years ago were it not so. but Monarchs are always the servants of their people. -III . I say a Monarchy because that word means the rule of one man .masses of his subjects. is a Monarch : his rule is popuf) ar and national.. In Portugal in 1926. or by the dispossessed.a military Junta. who has eradicated both individualist Liberalism and antipopular Freemasonry. Salazar is a Monarch. and since that time he has proved himself to be in the truest sense the servant of his people. It was the army which gave power to Salazar . it was the army that gave expression to the voice of . oligarchy appealing to the chimera of democracy . and curbs the ambition of those who would turn administrative power to their own . A Monarch is the answer to the ancient queson of Juvenal Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? If he ceases to be the champion of his peo le. authority passes from his hands. Kings are sometimes the puppets of oligarchy. by the support of the. but Salazar was none the less far fxom being the nominee of . holds in check all those who in the nature of things hold high office in the State. and lose power when they cease to be so .OF SALAZAR Government. . the balance is lost . and one that can best be described as a Constitutional Monarchy . ends. by a Liberal-Masonic oligarchy . and the country is governed by oligarchy . and during the first quarter of the twentieth. and as ten years later in Spain. But Salazar. Portugal was governed during the nineteenth century.the people. He accepted office on his own terms. either by the people. as so often in ancient Rome..

if not the only legislative body. It is unlikely that he will stand again . The new Portugal does not tolerate political faction of any kind) it does not 112 THE PORTUGAL . It is not impossible that in four years from now we shall have the Royal Houses restored both in Portugal and in Spain . when the Corporative Chamber will become the chief. But there is every indication that this is only to last until the Corporate organisation of the country is fully developed. The very fact that the present Constitution contains such ample provision for revision is perhaps an indication that it is not regarded as final . until all memories of the old party conflicts have been forgotten . but Dom Duarte Nuno. then. General Carmona is an elderly man. That may happen either before or after the present form of government is superseded . consider first the Constitutional Monarchy of to-day.'.To-day. therefore. He is known to be in sympathy with the work of Salazar . having been re-elected (by an even larger vote than before) in 1935. when the-term of office of President Carmona comes to an end. and is in his second term of office. The restoration of the House of Braganza will not happen. then will the historic Portugal be fully vindicated. and the form of government will become one that can be described as organic democracy. We will. and then the possibilities of the future. of course. at present living in Austria . It is not altogether improbable that in 1942. Portugal is governed under a Monarchical Constitution. is a young man. the Constitution will be adapted so that Portugal can receive him back . It will be interesting to see whether the Royal House of Bragahza is restored . There is no heir in the direct line . heir in the Miguelist line.

the old atomic liberalism has been replaced by a conception of society as an organic whole. Its organs are the Head of the State. 1912. as we surmise. was expelled from the coun= try. when Portugal is ready. Part II concerns "The Political Organisation of the State " : it is that which we now have to describe. and which. It will be noted that although the Government is accounted an organ of sovereignty. OF SALAZAR II The Constitution of 1933 is divided into two parts . she will call back her Kings . declares that " Sovereignty shall reside in the Nation . the National Assembly. and 1919. In all that there is not likely to be significant change . the Corporative Chamber is not so at present ." It resides in the Nation. and so on . as distinct from being attributed to " the. people " . tolerate a Royalist faction . The first concerns " Fundamental Guarantees " : it defines the functions of the State. the rights of citizens. the importance of the family. the principles governing the administration. which is the first of Part II. Article LXXI. the Government. and the Courts of Justice . Paiva Couceiro. that is. may undergo revision in the future . The Head of the State is the President of the 113 H . That is why. But in a speech in 1932. in November 1 937.9 Salazar paid a handsome tribute to the memory of King Manoel and gave the impression that. leader of Royalist disturbances in 1911.

indefinitely : a valuable means for securing continuity of policy is thus provided. and "five public men of outstanding ability ".Republic shall be directly and exclusively responsible to the nation for actions performed in the exercise of his duties . we find that " the acts of the President of the Republic must be counter-signed by the President of the Council of Ministers. " The President of the. Three exceptions only are made to this rule : no countersignature is required for the appointment or dismissal of the President of the Council of Ministers.THE PORTUGAL Republic. who is elected by direct suffrage for a period of seven years. and the Supreme Court of justice. the Corporative Chamber. When we come to Article LXXXII. for messages sent to the National Assembly. National Assembly. who hold office subject to his will." He nominates the Prime Minister and other Ministers. and is empowered arbitrarily to dissolve the National Assembly " when the supreme interests of the Nation so require ". the Presidents of the. Article LXXXIII provides for a Council of State to act in conjunction with the President of the Republic on all important occasions. He appears to hold very considerable power . In that and in his magistracy he shall be entirely independent of any vote of the 'National Assembly . By Article LXXVIII. failing which they shall ipso facto be null and void ". however. or for his own resignation . and to consist of the President of the Council of Ministers (to whom it is simpler and less confusing to refer as the Prime Minister). and by any other appropriate Minister or Ministers. 1 14 . and is re-eligible.

But it is not difficult to see that real power in the State lies with the Government. despite the fact that he can be dismissed at will by the President .I° `. but may not sit in their respective Chambers" (Article CX) .The Prime Minister shall be responsible to the President of the Republic for the general policy of the Government. real power in Portugal to-day lies with Dr. indeed. It sits for only three months of the year and any member ii$ . and shall co-ordinate and direct the activities of all the Ministers." Salazar to-day holds the Ministries of Finance. Members of the Government need not be drawn from the National Assembly . "The Government shall depend exclusively onn the confidence of the President of the Republic. but all legislation of importance comes in fact from the Government."shacon-t sist of the Prime Minister.(Article CXII) . who may conduct the affairs of one or more Ministries. War. " TheGovrnmt.OF SALAZAR . and Foreign Affairs. or on any vote of the National Assembly ". That is."sayAicleCVI. and their retention of power shall not depend on the fate suffered by their bills. Salazar. and there is every reason to suppose that the National Assembly is really intended if it is to be retained at all-as a check on the executive . . and that real power in the Government lies with the Prime Minister. in addition to the Premiership. " Members of the National Assembly or of the Corporative Chamber who accept ministerial office shall not forfeit their mandates. The National Assembly is the nominal legislature. who shall be responsible to him for their -political acts" (Article CVIII) . and the Ministers .

in the form of Decree-Laws issued under Article CIX. and. In the first place. which may be refused . if considered eligible. The names on all such lists submitted. then it ceases from that day to be valid . if a law that has been refused promulgation by the President is brought up again in the National Assembly. are published z16 . then the President cannot a second time withhold his assent. For the that reason it is probable that it will be retained. The National Assembly consists of ninety members elected by direct suffrage. There are no constituencies . it sufficient power to act as an effective check onthe Government if necessary . a Decree-Law issued by the Government must come before the National Assembly when next that body is in session.THE PORTUGAL has the power to initiate any legislation that does not involve an increase in national expenditure or a decrease in national revenue . any legislation approved by an absolute majority of the Assembly is submitted to the President of the Republic for promulgation. complete lists of ninety candidates. receives a two-thirds majority of the votes of all members. must be submitted to the Government .:. But if the National Assembly is not the normal legislative body. An elaborate system of holding the elections has been devised to obviate the possibility of the formation of any political parties . being voted on again. At least thirty days before an election. And in the second place. And all legislation of consequence comes from the Government during the nine months of the year when the Assembly is not sitting. and if ratification is refused. signed by at least two hundred electors.

the Diario do Governo. The Corporative Chamber exists. " to report and to give its opinion in writing on all propositions or prosects of law which shall be presented to the National Assembly. On the day of the election. and among the requirements is a profession of fidelity to the regime . and the Chamber was required also to report " on all international conventions or treaties ". thereby voting for the rest . Both these amplifications seem to show that Salazar intends that. since the Government can reject any candidate deemed ineligible. Again. and the Portuguese I17 . the Government shall be able to consult the specialised departments of the Corporative Chamber on decree-laws it is about to publish.OF SALAZAR in alphabetical order in the official journal. when the Corporations are properly organised. but another amendmenx of the same date added that " in the intervals between legislative sessions. according to the original version of the Constitution. By an amendment of March 1 935. and in at least two other national newspapers . voters cross off from these lists such candidates as they may not approve. the Constitution originally laid down that it should sit only while the National Assembly was in session . before the opening of discussion thereupon " (Article CIII). The ninety candidates whose names are uncrossed-off on the largest number of lists represent the personnel of the new Assembly . they may not add names that do not appear . In doing that it is clearly doing something more than providing technical advice on specialised subjects . It is never likely to be a very truculent body. or on laws it proposes to lay before the National Assembly ". the phrase " in writing " was deleted.

Manoilesco. representative but anti `'democratic . and that it therefore represents something more than the " sane corporative system recommended by the present Pope. and on December 9th of that year he delivered an important speech on the subject. M. which will itself legislate" . That is not the opinion of the present writer` : he prefers to think that the National Assembly will be retained. It is difficult to say definitely what is the intention of Salazar . In his speech of January 26. "With a lively apprehension of its responsibility before the nation-the embodiment of all themate-rial and moral achievements of past generations--the State is profoundly . popularwithout being demagogic. and the Chamber will act as the adviser of the Government. the Corporative Chamber will be given wider scope . in which he said definitely that he does not propose to abolish the Assembly without the preparation of a long experience " . Freppel Cotta is of the opinion that " the National Assembly will be dispensed' with. for reasons he has stated. does not fall into the third of the three types distinguished by M . We can but wait upon events . he spoke of the present position of the Corporative Chamber as " transitional " . on the other hand he ventured the opinion that in twenty years' time there will be no purely political legislative assemblies left in Europe. but that the Corporative Chamber will become the chief 'legislative body. which gives the Corporative Chamber a voice in such matters as the conduct of foreign affairs. 1 934.THE PORTUGAL Corporate State has got beyond its present transitional stage. But -it is at any rate clear that Portuguese corporatism. national. ii8 i .

and that a real democracy will thereby be attained . but represented the Estates of the Realm. even in England. even if it does not become the sole legislature.OF.SALAZA-R strong but neither tyrannous nor all-absorbin . it is inconceivable that M . by a President elected every seven years . they had particular and personal interest . from their positions in life. than the Liberal democracy that was for a century so tragically copied in Portugal. the English Parliament was a typically corporative body . and. whether or not the Assembly is retained. and prefer a legislative assembly on the lines of the modem English House of Commons. would do well to remember that in its fourteenth-century origins. and slightly at that. "12 e is Those words of Salazar describe his intentions . The idea of corporative democracy is an older thing. its members were not elected by a few thousand miscellaneous citizens whom . That is to say. I I9 . The working of that democracy will be described in the next section of this chapter . But the essence of his Government is that it is popular. that the Corporative Chamber will be given something considerably more than a purely advisory capacity. It is much more likely. fate had placed all within the same geographical area. Cotta is right in thinking that he proposes to give all legislative power to a government controlled only. against "democracy " in the sense in which Portugal has known it : he has eradicated political liberalism together with economic liberalism. Those who disagree with or do not understand the idea of functional representation. and were called to advise the King on those matters of which.

describes the principles which the future of Portugal will follow." It was true . It is the first important occasion on which he has publicly associated himself with wider matters than his immediate work as specialist in economics and finance : it marks his emergence as the national leader . Salazar delivered a speech to which the phrase " epoch-making " can accurately be applied. he said. have pledged themselves to support Salazar in his work of national reconstruction . In this speech Salazar. the old causes of chaos and ruin would return. if life was to be carried on at all. and which is " re&arded as the Charter of the New State ".THE PORTUGAL III On June 30. " We know only too well. He is more concerned with the political future than with social principles . 1 3 The occasion was the founding of the Uniao National-the National Union-the organisation of those who. by the collapse of all material and moral defences against disorder-even to the extent of undermining the conditions necessary to the very existence of society . their destructive force accentuated by increased indiscipline. who has been Finance Minister for two years. " that if the dictatorship were to go. but has not yet become Prime Minister. and to give place to the rule of faction. by exacerbated passions. of all the possibilities of the present . it would mean the end of all the work of reconstruction. in the Por120 . a rigorous dictatorship was an absolute necessity. renouncing all party politics. 1930.

then. and since I? 1 r . and the Azores involved a good deal of damage and loss of life . The most formidable attack Game in 1931. and particularly of some of the former heads of the Portuguese Grand Orient . nevertheless. it was never regarded by Salazar as more than a temporary expedient. and The Times was frank enough to say : "It is common knowledge that this trouble is the work of Portuguese politicians in exile in Paris. and so soon as the smouldering animosities of the old liberal party system should have sufficiently died down.OF SALAZAR tugal of those years following 1926. ". Portuguese Guinea. diverting other troops to the country districts of Portugal. is a political formula . " Since dictatorships often arise from conflict between authority and the abusers of liberty. was an absolute necessity . Every kind of revolutionary."14 The Dictatorship. owing to the fact that Portugal was solidly behind Salazar . to g1ve place to constitutional government so soon as the new Constitution could be drawn up. " that the dictatorship. Nothing came of it. and subversive activity was being carried on against the Government. when riots and disturbances in Madeira. so occupying the Government. even considered only as a restriction to the Government of the power to make laws.here is no doubt. particularly by Communists and exiled politicians of the old regime . it is essentially a formula of transition . compelling it to send troops abroad. The plan was to make trouble in these places and in different parts of the country. said Salazar on the fourth anniversary of the national rising. and laying Lisbon open to a coup d'etat . but one cannot say that it represents the lasting solution of the political problem.

in which he outlined the theory of democracy which was to supersede the dictatorship when conditions should permit of it . But it is in any case an almost unlimited power. without sophistry. core of the parish." he said. That is not its essence . " The political liberalism of the nineteenth century . and this fact makes it a very delicate instrument. and if liberty is understood as the full guarantee of the rights of all-to my mind the only true conception. we find ourselves confronted here with an abstraction-an erroneous or inadequate concept-and it is in turning towards the natural groups necessary to individual life. the profession." That was in May 1930 : and in the following month he made the celebrated speech to which we must now return. For this reason. the class.THE PORTUGAL they generally have recourse to measures restricting freedom of association and the freedom of the Press. of it-then may dictatorship. The first of these is the family. the original . and 122 . created the 'citizen '-the individual isolated from the family. the cultural milieu. that the point of departure which we seek will be more surely found . It was there that the source of national sovereignty was assumed to be . the irreducible social unit. and upon which political life really depends. and which can easily be abused . " If we regard realities. dictatorship is often confused with tyranny. of the township. it is important that it should not seek permanence. from the economic whole to which he belonged-and gave him the optional right of taking part in the constitution of the Government . which easily outlives its usefulness. rival in this respect many regimes which go by the name of liberal .

artistic. the right of electing the members of the administrative bodies. The family will thus be seen to. be fundamentally represented in the Corporative Chamber : it has been called " the prototypal corporation ". the first interest of those specified in Article CH for representation in the Corporative Chamber. its preservation and development. Article XII of the Constitution (quoted on p . the Corporative Chamber. Continuing to speak of ` the natural groups necess to individual life. by its association in the parish and in the municipality. the parish councils shall take part in t1jg election of the municipal chambers and provincial councils. And Article XIX lays down that "the right of electing to the Parish Councils (juntas de freguesia) belongs exclusively to the families ". as well as by its representation in the local authorities governing these '. commercial. 'the family ought to exercise. for that right is no more than the natural expression of the hearths and homes." Local administration is. In the political organisation of the State. 123 . the agricultural. and at the present day it has more representatives there than any other .ALAZAR therefore of the nation . and upon which political life rely depends ". industrial. above) consequently describes the family as " a fundamental of political and administrative` order. such as the Universities. and in the constitution of .. economic corporations. -the scientific academies. Salazar turned to " the moral and . with the common interests which are theirs. in fact. and technical groups. the literary. at least those of the parish. 69. But by Article XXI. Effectively protected in its formation. through the voice of its head.OF S.

as well as in the constitution of the Corporative Chamber. if not essential to civil society. the corporations. through their appropriate organs. which we wish to be truly re resentative of the Nation . are the organisms which make up the nation. " should participate by vote or by representation in the Chambers. and as such they ought to take a direct part in the constitution of the supreme bodies of the State ." " To sum up. by the instinct of civilisation." Or. the parishes. . the more this organisation is developed. " we seek to construct a social and corporative State corresponding exactly with the natural structure of society . and workers' associations ". and it shall be their business to participate in the election of the municipal chambers and provincial councils." said Salazar. . These.THE PORTUGAL colonial. in the words of Quadragesimo Anno. the townships. " In the domain of political institutions the corporative organisation is fundamental . Here is an expression of the representative system that is more faithful than any other . The families. Once more we abandon a ction-the Party-to make of a reality-the Association. vocational groups created. at least natural to it" . as he said. the more will the State represent more faithfully than it does today the Nation itself." And in Article XX of the Constitution we read : "All the component parts of the Nation shall be represented in the corporative organisations."i s So is the Corporative Chamber a body representa tive of the Nation. where all the citizens are to be found with their fundamental juridical liberties. as he wrote on another occasion. said Salazar.. as an organic entity . It is not merely a body representa124 . and which. " are considered by many to be.

producers and consumers alike . The reader must decide for himself whether he agrees.OF SALAZAR tive of producers' interests : it integrally represents the Nation. and we have provided the necessary data . We have stated why we think that it is likely to become the chief legislative body in Portugal. I25 .

/

CHAPTER FIVE

I

it has come to be generally and falsely used to describe any form of nationalism which will not tolerate international Communism. General Franco. in the same way as it has come to be regarded by millions of muddle-headed Britons as vaguely synonymous with War. Germany is not Fascist. neither is National Spain . a general term. and may easily be misunderstood . and that is Italy . is that Fascism is something Italian . There is a very great deal of confusion about the meaning of that word . quite simply. is reported to have replied : " That is. compare 'the Italian case D with the Portuguese. Portugal is not " Fascist ". Corporatism in Spain will grant to every citizen the right h~t to participate in the social and economic life of the 129 1 . C H A P T E R F V E PORTUGAL IS NOT "FASCIST" " I not. The reason. I beg of you. when asked in a recent interview whether he was committed to the ideal of the Corporate State. But there is only one country in the world today that is Fascist." said Salazar to Antonio with Ferro. Owing to intensive and extremely effective propaganda from the Left.

So with Salazar : the Estado Novo is not Fascist because it is Portuguese . I mean that the Nationalism of Portugal is not totalitarian Nationalism. and that the corporative organisation of Portugal is different fundamentally. it was impossible for Portugal to accept without reservation all the proposals of the International Committee for 130 . that the system . must be considered in relation to the genius and traditions of the Spanish people . from that of Italy . I mean also that it is not true to regard Portugal in her external policy as an appendage of that artificial central-European bloc which is known as the Rome-Berlin axis . Oliveira . however.THE PORTUGAL Our corcountry on the basis of his labours . the doctrines of the papal encyclicals furnish a sound programme of economic and social reconstruction . The application of their principles. It should be noted. The political problem of Dr .". Salazar has been greatly complicated since civil war broke out in Spain . No government has better cause than the Portuguese to fear the danger of war spreading beyond Spain. domestic. It will not be slavishly modelled on foreign patterns . for example. We in Spain will fashion our own type of corporation . of corporations set up by Dr. and no government has more immediate cause to fear Communism in the Peninsula . not continental ." Earlier in the same interview he had said : " Obviously. will be indigenous. But by saying that Portugal is not " Fascist " I mean three things more . Spanish. poratism. It will be suited to the individualism of the Spanish personality . however.Salazar in Portugal is Iberian. This being so. in any meaning of that adjective. as well as in many unimportant ways.

nothing of the kind has happened. in 1928. she has been accused of deserting her centuries-old English alliance in favour of Rome and Berlin . she refused to accept the Geneva loan . consisting of the Nations of the Right and the Nations of the Left ." But in point of fact. and since there are certain obvious but superficial points of similarity between the political system of Portugal and that of Italy. Mr. a distinguished exponent of Labour's views. and will repudiate any suggestion of external domination. He was maintaining that Europe is divided into two opposing and hostile camps. Portugal is intensely jealous of her national integrity. whose interests in Spain are the same. Portugal has no important interests in the Far East. even. Because of this. L. "it is a dictatorship of the Right which has deserted the old understanding with this country for a new one with Mussolini and Hitler . She has been classed as " a Fascist country " . Rowse was mistaken. She is also intensely jealous of her now admirably administered colonial Empire . and she was able on that occasion to make clear that she is not subservient to the RomeBerlin axis . and Germany has not troubled to conceal her designs on the prosperous West African territory of Angola . Again." he wrote. Rowse. from Italy or elsewhere. it was provided at the Brussels Conference . why has she not joined the AntiComintern Pact? It is because that Pact is a political 131 . If any further proof is needed that the judgment of Mr. " In Portugal. A.OF SALAZAR Non-intervention. put the common but quite unjust judgment on Portugal into one sentence in a letter to The Times in August last year (1937). with the same proud scorn with which.

irritated by our attitude in other matters (i. Salazar as he entered a Church to hear Mass. and Japan.e. by men of the kind against which General Franco is fighting in Spain. and run risks which other countries do not share . . and have invited the British Government to reconsider the question of the alliance with Portugal . We have special interests of our own in the Peninsula. From time to time in Great Britain. In this speech he emphasised that the British alliance must necessarily always remain the basis of his country's foreign policy . " The most valuable item of our external policy is the age-old alliance with Great Britain . but she is not concerned in the political machinations of Italy. . we. and fear that Communism. a bomb was thrown at Dr. 1 937. on the other hand. may take root in Spain. Portugal is vitally concerned to fight International Communism. Some people do not believe in the Communist peril . On July 4. see it.. feel it. Gerrnany. We believe that public opinion in certain countries. Two days later he delivered an important speech to representatives of the nation's defence forces. have placed their own passions or resentment above national and international interests.THE PORTUGAL mutual-assistance pact . in Spanish policy). much of what we have done and intend to do still aims at tightening that bond . is ill-informed as to the true nature of the Spanish problem. especially in France and Great Britain. surely with no great sense of responsibility. with the connivance of other countries. who had assembled to congratulate him on his escape from death . and of the events that have taken place in that country . and so destroy any chance of the Spanish 132 . certain persons. .

October 24th that it had been quite unable to discover any evidence that Portugal had been the channel for the conveyance of any provisions. Hence our uncompromising attitude from the very start : hence our opposition to any form of non-intervention which should prejudice the chances of Spanish Nationalism. M. hence the odium which we have incurred in certain quarters-we may add. unknown to those who know Europe only through the British Press . Maisky. as a result of which it reported to the Committee on . led the British Government to conduct an investigation of its own. when it became apparent that the war in Spain was to be a war of years rather than a war of months . the Soviet has made 133 . 1936. which stands between Por-. His Government has done all within its power to collaborate in securing genuine non-intervention : it has scrupulously observed all undertakings it has made. has never attempted to conceal the fact that she is interested in the Spanish issue. From the very beginning. or arms to Spain. quite justifiably . tugal and Iberian Communism . repeated accusations made to the London Non-Intervention Committee by the Soviet representative. money." Portugal. and the amount of war material that has crossed the Portuguese frontier into Spain is less than negligible compared to the amount that poured across the Pyrenees all through 1937. Salazar took the Ministry of Foreign-Affairs temporarily into his own hands on November 6.OF SALAZAR people working out their own political salvation-for there could be no national liberty or independent choice in a State largely controlled by several Internationals . then. unlike Righteous Russia. In October 1936.

nine bombs burst simultaneously in the Ministerial buildings in Lisbon. although he has by this time been sufficiently informed of the magnitude of the Communist coup in Spain which was forestalled by the Nationalist rising . six million pesetas were paid by an agent of the Caballero Government to Portuguese a gents.* The campaign against Portugal was made more ur gent when war broke out . But Portugal. who of all nations can least afford to bind herself to neutrality. and the Balearic Islands. has honoured her word throughout. The Portuguese Legation in Madrid was sacked to facilitate quiet examination of its archives . and the work of sabotage proceeded without delay . in October 1936. revolutionary " cells " were planted on two Portuguese cruisers in a Spanish harbour. and a mutiny was engineered when they returned to Lisbon . any real plan for non-intervention impossible . He is inclined to utter a cynical " Pshaw " when he hears mention of the subversive activity of the Comintern .' Next. THE PORTUGAL above . the Basque Country. The plan involved the creation of a Federation of Iberian Soviet Republics. just as it is difficult for him to conceive that Freemasonry in Spain and Portugal is not the same respectable thing that it is in this country. 134 . and it is difficult for the Englishman to realise the extent of subterranean Communist activity on the Continent. only Spain. to include not. The Portuguese Air Force restored order in half an hour . planted there by six agents of the Okaba-a Balkan • See p . but Portugal as well . The Communist Party in Great Britain is at present noisy but negligible . Catalonia. 2o. In January 1937.

if the Italians are to have the run of Spanish harbours. which specialises in such work. General Franco has probably saved Britain from armed intervention . shall continue to be at the disposal of the Royal Navy. and the Cape Verde Isles . since Great Britain is bound by treaty to go to the assistance of Portugal should she be attacked. It was not an isolated outrage. which command the Atlantic approaches to the Mediterranean. is in fact being at present strengthened by both parties by all means possible . the Azores. The national solidarity of the Portuguese is proof against any serious Communist upheaval. but attacks continue . Portuguese frontier .OF SALAZAR branch of the Comintern. Little damage was done. if not in name) from the . Finally came the attempt on the life of Salazar . it would undoubtedly have proceeded to the destruction of Portugal . General Franco has successfully driven a Communist Government (in design. alleged to have been abandoned. The Anglo-Portuguese alliance. by way of the Cape. as they have been for three centuries . and that a British naval 135 . is well protected by three groups of Portuguese islands : Madeira. It is for these reasons that the Home Fleet is paying a visit to Lisbon. Great Britain is determined that the harbours of Portugal. and that. The British are alarmed by the possibility of undue Italian influence in Nationalist S p ain . the -alternative route to India and the East. And it would be well for those in this country who denounce him so bitterly to remember that if he had not risen. and the Uni&o Nacional redoubled its vigilance . but an incident in a long campaign . and if International Communism had conquered Spain. Moreover.

which. and the Nationalist mastery in Spain became increasingly apparent. " created an excellent impression ". started rinting frequent testimony to the friendliness of the Portuguese. But as Bilbao. the principal consideration. the general British atutude towards Portugal changed from one of rather suspicious indifference to one of emphasised friendliness. and in another leading article on December loth . The Times. It is to be _ hoped that this visit will make it finally clear that Britain's oldest ally is Britain's ally still. and another column and a half from its Lisbon correspondent. It extended the cordial hand in a leading article on the same day. to the University of Coimbra. and the official announcement was published on November 3oth . was not reported in the British Press . It devoted much space. and half a page of pictures. when that establishment began the celebrations of its fourhundredth anniversary. About the middle of September. Dr. On January 24th The Times produced another leading article. Dr. Santander. as have said. 136 THE PORTUGAL . which is supposed to reflect official policy. on September 14th. being the necessity of countering in advance a possible advantage to Italy in her bid for naval supremacy in the Mediterranean . reaffirming that -the alliance of Portugal with this country is the basis of her foreign policy. as its Lisbon correspondent was able to report. and Gijon successively fell. Salazar's speech of July 6. Salazar's-speech was reported in its pages. 1937. for instance. 1938) . more than two monts late. The first intimation of the mission that is to be sent to Portugal came on October 25th.and military mission is visiting Portugal (February.

and general understanding of that word. is a cor oratisme d'association . and. We will proceed to show that Portugal is not Fascist in the second and correct meanin of the term . so is Portugal. The obvious similarities are three in number . so is Portugal . Italy is a Corporate State . the head of the Government. or the particular form of political and economic organisation to be found in modern Italy. The difference in corporative theory can be expressed quite simply : the corporatism of Italy is a corporatisme d'etat. Whether that word means the defensive tyranny of defeated capitalism. while that of Portugal. so is Portugal. who is known as a Dictator. Italy alone is Fascist. as we have explained..OF SALAZAR II Portugal is not Fascist ". although she is denounced as Fascist from Labour platforms . as we have described. each of these matters is very differently considered in Portugal and in Italy . the Estado Novo 137 . Italy is inspired by a strong nationalism . and we are here concerned to contrast contemporary Portu al with contemporary Italy . in Portugal there were no effective Trade Unions before the coming of Salazar. should have already been made amply clear that Portugal is not Fascist in the former. still less Japan._ still Portugal is not Fascist . Italian Fascism began with the compulsory dissolution of all existing forms of Trade Unionism . It . And Italy is governed largely by one man. Marxist. But each of these similarities is superficial . Germany is not a Corporate State.

. tism. But in Italy." All of this can be found in the Portuguese Statute. which was defined as an ` organ of the State' in the following terms : `The Corporation is not endowed with civil personality. which was not previously legal. Article III of the Italian Charter of Labour runs : " There is complete freedom of professional or syndical organisation . the Corporation is to be an autonomous body : we have quoted Salazar to this effect (p . Art. as we have already made clear. 74 above) . but there are some very essential differences between the two documents . in The Corporate State. except that key-phrase which I have italicised . Or again. 563). So can the matter be put into two lines . but is an organ of State Administration . 43 specified the character and nature of the Corporation. The decree whereby it is constituted shall specify its organisation and re~ulate the duties of its central and local offices . according to Mussolini. We have noted the parallel between the Portuguese Statute of National Labour and the Italian Charter of Labour of 1927 . In Portugal. 138 . we find the following : " The first legislative indication of the future development of Corporations may be found in the Act of April 3. . 1926 (N. and for the protection of his rights .' '3 We could not better illustrate the precisely opposite natures of Italian and Portuguese corpora . But syndicates legally recognised and subject to State control alone have the right of legal representation of the whole category of employers and workers for which they are constituted . by Benito Mussolini.THE PORTUGAL provided the worker for the first time with machinery for collective bargaining. the Corporation is to be " an organ of the State ". .

VI . But . the corporations of national education. and integrally represent their interests (Art. of the sciences and of the arts ". is that which " considers as corporations endowed with an autonomous organisation and their own rights not only the economic corporations.the Portuguese Corporative Chamber is representative of the whole of the national life . Both are based on the principle that the common good is " more divine ". but also the social and cultural corporations of the nation. than the individual good. such as the Church. of public health. the Army. of public and local Administration. and the similarities are superficial . Integral corporatism. according to Manoilesco. of the Universities and Academies of Architecture. the Judiciary. Thomas say. of the national defence forces. while Italian corporatism is exclusively economic. " constitute the unitary organisation of all the forces o f production. then. but of the Catholic Church and her missions. is profound. and the Fine Arts. as Aristotle and St .4 The Italian Corporations. It includes eight sections to which there is nothing in Italy to correspond : there are representatives not only of " the forces of production ". my italics) . and even of the Portuguese Olympic Games Committee. That essential second axiom largely explains the difference between Portuguese and Fascist National'39 . Music.society . but in Portugal that principle is complemented by the principle that the State is the servant of . to quote the Charter of Labour again.OF SALAZAR To extend the contrast : Portuguese corporatism is integral. the mere sum of individual goods . of the judiciary. The contrast between Italian and Portuguese corporatism. and is different in kind from.

Portugal for a period ceased to be truly Portuguese . of responsibility to history. they became nations less than one century ago . But if Salazar looks back across one hundred years. and the etatisme of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany today is largely. As we know them to-day.. it is a responsibility to the lives and sufferings of the past generations which have produced the present . rather to tradition . Latin. Salazar is inspired with a sense . lack of history. the history of Portugal suffered an interruption during the nineteenth century. to " our Lusitanian. when the country was dominated by alienn ideas and governed through alien institutions . That must be seized as a cardinal point if the work of Salazar is to be understood . Mussolini looks back across two thousand. The nationalism of Portugal is a patriotism and pride born of her long centuries. since for centuries the peoples that comprise them had been so utterly disunited . whereas it is almost true to say that the exaggerated nationalisms of Italy and Germany can be explained by their .of history . to the Emperor Augustus. but in 1926 that period ended. and the Portugal of history came once more into its own. Christian patrimony-". and. But Portugal is a nation as old as Europe. though not wholly. It is an appeal. due to their anxiety that unity and national pride should appear to theworld as their chief characteristics. His appeal is not an appeal to the vanished glories of the fifteenth century . as nations . and the Estado Novo is a vindication of the historic Portugal .THE PORTUGAL isms. it is not a political exploitation of the saudade . As he sees it. whose bimillenary has just been 1 40 . and her present frontiers have been the same through eight centuries.

" that. "It was symptomatic of Dr. but freedom of opinion is respected . Liberty is respected. the foreign adventure. or in Italy a tenth part of what they openly expressed in Portugal. in Germany. In Portugal it is not so. at least until the Spanish civil war. All of those who spoke thus of the severity of the dictatorship seemed well aware that if they said in Russia. and it is the peasants and people of Italy of whom he is the ruler."6 That was before the days of the Spanish war . must freedom be destroyed. The mission of the State is to serve." But the Spanish war has necessarily produced a state of semi-emergency in Portugal .' but it is an appeal to the history of Imperial Rome. " Personally. not to the history -of the peasants and eo le of Italy . things would go very hard for them. That is the supreme mission of the State . Mussolini also makes the appeal to history .OF SALAZAR celebrated in Rome with such ceremony . Italy must have also. not to regiment . Thesupreme necessity is that of proving to the world that she is a great nation . liberties have 141 . of that appeal. " I was astonished at the extreme freedom with which opponents of the regime loudly proclaimed their criticisms in the public places . Salazar's r€gime. undergraduates might freely criticise the Government in the Coimbra cafes without fearing the presence of a police spy at the next table . For that must her people be reg~'mented." writes Leon de Poncins. therefore . the vast army. In support.s Subversive activity is not tolerated. according to The Times. and the Constitution lists and guarantees the rights and liberties of the citizens . the colonial empire. the impregnable navy. and so forth . must blood be shed.

has compelled various manifestations of Portuguese national solidarity that seem at first sight to confirm the impression that Salazar is playing frog to Mussolini's bun .THE PORTUGAL had to be restricted "for the duration" . to the regret of Salazar. was celebrated on May 28. With hell loose in Spain. moreover. membership of which is compulsory for all boys between seven and fourteen. so ominously like the Hitler Youth and the Italian Ballilasmarched down Lisbon's Avenida da Liberdade and across the Terreiro do Paco. Defensive necessity. The eleventh anniversary of the Revolution. with the excitable Portuguese mind restless at the sight of war . and the Estado Novo cannot fairly be judged until the danger has passed. But this sort of thing only began ten years after the launching of the new regime. and the Comintern active . The Mocidade Portuguesa. which provide the classic guide to the mind of Salazar. was founded then . he had said : " It is clear that we neither can nor should follow the Italian sys142 . while ten three-engined bombers and fifteen other fighting planes flew past overhead. Fifteen thousand men of the Portuguese Legion. We have spoken of the subterranean assaults that Portugal has suffered at the hands of the Comintern . and began. the famous Black Horse Square. with the Spaniards fighting for Spain and their existencethere was no alternative . in a manner reminiscent of similar occasions in Rome or Berlin. for instance. In his interviews with Antonio Ferro. 1937. followed by five thousand boys of the Mocidade Portuguesa-the Portuguese youth organisation. to meet the first serious challenge the-regime had received-a challenge from without . War in Spain began in the summer of 1936.

as it was apparent that the war in Spain was to be a war to the death . Even so. which had lon& been urged by the more unbalanced among his advisers . for the rest. but Salazar abhors it. Even countries so pacific as Sweden and Switzerland are being compelled to strengthen their 1 43 . and as soon. and leaves to President Carmona the busi. whereas Mussolini uses it to intoxicate the electric Italian . and it is used to awaken the torpid Portuguese to urgent realities.." said Salazar to Antonio Ferro. He attends two official banquets a year .OF SALAZAR tern of absorbing the child into the State. " You cannot imagine how difficult it is to wake up our sleepy and apathetic race. ness of taking salutes. as Italy and Germany are practically doin& . The fact that Portugal during the last ten years has been rearming has again led to the facile comparison of Salazar with Aesop's frog. His distaste for publicity is the despair of his officials . it is by no means true that Portugal . inspecting guards of honour. The only uniform he ever wears is a dark suit and a bowler hat . The function of martial music and military display can vary . He only permitted it when it became essential for the security of the State.is living in a condition. But there are no spotlights on Salazar . he emerges into the limelight as little as possible. and so forth . Mussolini delights in the theatrical. Of course Portugal is rearming. a voluntary military organisation for the defence of the regime.of permanent martial law. speaks as seldom as possible. Salazar had long been opposed to the foundation of the Portuguese Legion."8 Similarly. or copy the excessively nationalist and militarist organisation of the Ballila.

Portugal has been drawing upon her fortunately stable finances for rearmament. purchasing aircraft and modem naval units in Eng land. in August 1 937 . It is now a very different force to that recently described by the 144 THE PORTUGAL . apparently treading the primrose path to the everlasting bonfire . also. those countries with whom her intimate co-operation is none the less alleged . has been greatly improved by Salazar in his capacity as Prime Minister since. Here. which had been afloat for well over half a century . apart from the menace from Red Spain. the flagship of the Portuguese Navy was the ancient cruiser Vasco da Gama.defence forces.040. The Portuguese army. When Portugal entered the Great War. for instance. and listens with apprehension to the continual demands for Empire which come from Italy and Germany. £1. Modernisation was clearly long overdue : until 1936. in his capacity as Minister of Finance. In 1935 alone. has great colonial possessions to defend.000 was spent by Portugal in British naval shipyards. and other equipment elsewhere . he made such improvement financially possible . And Portugal. as in all else. and the subsequent rupture of diplomatic relations. with all Europe. For three years past. she has to contend with pressure from International Communism. the German paper Sim plicissimus published a brilliant drawing with the title " The Portuguese Navy puts to Sea ". which caused the failure of a Czecho-Slovak firm to adhere to its contract. That drawing well summarised the care shown for national prestige by the Liberal-Masonic hegemony that ended in 1926.

late Brigadier-General Crozier in his book The Men I Shot . The Uniao Nacional is not a party . It is the expression of national support for the work of Salazar . He is not.ooo : small enough figures. for authority. "w$en I hear talk of the `Right' and the `Left' . In fact. for the reform and reorganisation of the army . It is not concerned' with politics .o7o. Its peace strength at home is Z6. as its enemies allege . comments The Times. m Perhaps really the most important reason why Portu is not Fascist is this : that Salazar is not a party po tician . an important series of decrees was promulgated. They also demonstrate that the Government is not kept in power by the army. And in Italy there is the Fascist PARTY. For my part. 1938. Salazar is not the leader of a party : he is leader of Portugal ." he once said to an interviewer. politics have been banished from Portugal . " I laugh hugely. "to a courageous attitude by the Government in the face of Service conservatism ". in all conscience. But in Portugal there is no party. They testify. but at least efficient . In Germany there is the Nazi PARTY . if you tell me that the Right stands for social discipline. But if you tell me that the Left means an attempt to improve the conditions of x 145 OF SALAZAR I . I think that those words mean nothing at all . and never has been. and in the colonies io. In Russia there is the Communist PARTY . and the work of Salazar is to realise the national good. concerned with political manoeuvres . On January 4. for unity of direction -then I am of the Right .

"9 "When I speak of a • `National Polity'. If they are carried out for the reatest good of the country. to admit them to the cares of government. that there are interests of this entity quite distinct from individual interests. more or less practicable.the lives of the people. organised for the acquisition of power and the domination of the State. much more. dissimilar in themselves. But the truth is. that the Nation is an organic entity. the local authority -but that groupings of a political kind. with those of a group or class. and even sometimes conflicting with the immediate interests of the majority and. Nevertheless. experience shows that they do not succeed in bringing it about. the natural or social groupings of men must be recognised-the family. the Trade Union. there are only plans of government. to raise their standard of comfort and education-then gladly am I of the Left. in my opinion at least. which. that there are no rights and lefts to-day. and all accept the foregoing principles -except such as concern themselves. These things are so self-evident that no party dares to pretend that it does not propose to bring about such a national polity. since in all national crises or in times of 146 THE PORTUGAL . for the good of the national interest. the society. then a national work is done. that are either tried out or not. make up a social hierarchy . that." he told Antonio Ferro. composed of individuals differing in their abilities and in their occupations. need not necessarily be recognised . the association for spiritual purposes. and all the rights and lefts that there may be are therefore put aside. " I understand that the Nation--our Nation-is a living reality that we wish to preserve .

and has managed quite well so far . have a horror of the party spirit in Portugal . simply in their own . he writes : " The military origin of the Portuguese dictatorship will always give a special characteristic to our revolution . it was the army. England has lived for centuries under a party system. the splendid liberty of being able to serve only the nation. the voice of the 1 47 i . the more necessary it becomes to thrust aside all factions. There will be no more such politics. That is the sort of party spirit that must be ended if we are to achieve any real work of reconstruction!'" ' The more profound is our feeling of the organic reality of the Nation.OF SALAZAR general fatigue provoked by the party spirit. parties. It must always be remembered that he is talking about Portugal. and two benefits will result : for the Nation. and for the Government. and groups to which individuals adhere according to chance circumstances . and actively opposes any tendency of the party spirit to return . it was not a party.""' He proceeds to emphasise that no Government can govern truly in the national interest unless it completely transcends the party spirit. which seized power . But in Portugal these groups have formed themselves round individuals or vested interests or seekers after power. the fact that the Government will work solely for it. one hears the cry that the party colours should be lowered in favour of a truly national Government . interests ." Contrasting the Portuguese with the Italian and other revolts against the party system. With us. and that the Estado Novo is Portuguese . a revolutionary force. "I have not a horror of parties in a general way : I.

" '3 The Portuguese experience has not consisted in the application by some triumphant faction of a programme previously prepared . then. which is Fascist. To quote him again : " The State which would subordinate all without exception-its morality. and preserved in power by the gratitude of the people . and would give rise to a worse form of absor48 THE PORTUGAL . Salazar has preserved liberty. must be subjected. for this reason : that in Italy. is not Fascist. the New State . a man with a number of fundamental principles. both individual and collective. He has preserved Portugal from any form of totalitarianism . its economy-to the idea of nation or of race as represented by itself would come forward as an omnipotent being. In rejecting Liberalism. as old as Christendom and Kings. There is no etatisme in Portugal : that is why Portugal is not Fascist . which intervened to create the conditions necessary to the existence of a Government that should be both national and opposed to the parties . cannot depend on any party . In Portugal. The armed forces do not constitute a party. a party with a programme gained power and applied it . to which all existences. The break with nineteenth century liberalism has been complete : that which has arisen is called the Estado Novo. a beginning and end in itself. and those' principles little more than the bases of Christian morals. was placed in control and fostered and developed a truly Portuguese Portugal . its politics. but it is really very old. Portugal. What has happened has been that a completely disinterested Government has been placed in power by the army. its law.nation. do not represent a party.

capital. . within the social harmony. with the organisations which are proper to her. it assures liberty and inviolability of religious beliefs and practices . to reorganise and strengthen the country according to the principles of authority. it acknowledges the right of parents to educate their own children . and national tradition. on the contrary. it obliges the State to respect its natural obligations towards the individual."r4 Salazar. directly or indirectly. and local government . quite different from all others . from this totalitarian conception . "It will one day be recognised that Portu al is governed by a unique system. . and leaves her free to carry on her spiritual work . it guarantees the rights of property. and we wish it to be clearly understood that we have not put aside the errors and wrongs of false Liberalism and false democracy merely in order to adopt others which may be yet worse .OF SALAZAR lutism. then. It begins by establishing the moral law and justice as limits to its own sovereignty . . the family. is fully aware of his Europcan responsibility. the corporation. Such a State would be essentially pagan. " The (Portuguese) Constitution. in harmony with those eternal verities which are happily the heritage of humanity. order. approved by popular plebiscite. rejects as irreconcilable with its ends all that proceeds. it recognises the Church. of its nature incompatible with the spirit of our Christian civilisation . the appanage of Christian civilisation . of Portugal's du of preserving her share of our common heritage of urope and the Faith . which accords wit her own historic and geographical situation. And 149 . and labour. but.than that to which the Liberal regimes succeeded.

THE PORTUGAL just as the corporative ideal synthesises all the various elements in the State. and different national traditions . which disciplines towards the common end all private interests. nevertheless. which says that ISO . They are accepted by Portugal ."1 5 The National economy of Portugal. the creation of. the special characters of the various national economies. and disciplines them into one common harmony. We regard as a great error that extreme economic nationalism which we see arising everywhere. It is acknowledged in Article XXX of the Constitution. so does it regard western civilisation as a wider. are principles implicit in true corporatism. Far from solving the problems of the day. ours is among those in which the restrictions are least . the colonies are " provinces d'outremer ". She regards herself and her foreign possessions as forming a single whole . they are not accepted by Fascist Italy . unity. International co-operation. and the subordination of immediate national interests to the larger interests of Europe. different cultues. and her first responsibility is to them . self-sufficient economic units will serve only to create other problems in the future . taking no account of the natural conditions of existence of the peoples. must not be confused with the economic nationalism of Italy or of Germany . to the prejudice of humanity. National self-sufficiency is constantly emphasised by Mussolini as an essential part of his policy. But her responsibility to Europe is always acknowledged . But Salazar has written : " There is not a single country in the world to-day that can say that it is open to the free exchange of goods. comprising different peoples. and destroying.

accordmg to which " it is incumbent upon it to co-operate with other States in the preparation and adoption of measures designed to promote peace among peoples and the progress of mankind" .OF SALAZAR " the State shall regulate its economic relations with other countries according to the principle of appropriate co-operation ". I . equally as by Article IV.

NOTES TO THE CHAPTERS
NOTES TO CHAPTER I
(PAGES

13 to 30)

I de la Tour du Pin : " Aphorismes de politique sociale." 3rd edition : Paris, i93o, p. t6 . z Divini Redemptoris, par. 32 . 3 J . M. Keynes : The End of Laissez-Faire . London : 1927, p . 4t4 cf. G. M. Godden : Conflict in Spain . "It cannot be too often repeated that General Franco is Republican, and that he has never been a Fascist. In the New Spain the state will be corporative, and will follow on the lines of the Nuova Estado (sic) of Portugal ." (p. loo.) 3 H. A . L . Fisher : A History of Europe (One volume edition), p . 659. 6 The Times : March 22, 1 9337 Mihall Manoilesco : Le Siecle du Corporatisme. (Felix Alcan Paris, 1936) . Quoted by M. Frep~ el Cotta in Economic Planning in . 16, note . Corporative Portugal : (London : Y. & S . King, 1937), p s In 1935 there were 292 births and 176 deaths in Portugal for every ten thousand inhabitants . Both these figures are high ; compare them with England's 147 births and 117 deaths . Between I9I3 and 1 935 the birth-rate in Portugal declined by twelve per cent ; in England during the same period, however, the decline was thirty-nine per cent . (Figures quoted in The Tablet, October 2, 1937, from the Dossiers de L'Action Populaire.) 9 Douglas Goldring : Portugal. London, 1 933, to A. F. G . Bell : Portugal of the Portuguese. London, 1915 . 11 These Chronicles have been published in an . excellent English translation, edited by Senhora de Castro e Almeida. (Allen & Unwin 1936.) 12 The phrase is that of Mr. S. George West, lecturer in Portuguese at London University, from his excellent lecture on " The New Corporative State of Portugal ", delivered at King's College, London, on February i 1937, and since reprinted. Further details of the financial achievement of Dr . Salazar are given later in this book, but those interested are recommended to read Professor Oliveira Salazar's Record, by Tomaz Wylie Fernandes (Lisbon, 1936 : in En lish), or La Renaissance Financitre et Economi .que du Portugal, y Paul Lavagne, in the Revue des Sciences Politiques, July-September, 1 9351 53

THE PORTUGAL
NOTES TO CHAPTER II
(PAGES 33

to

67)

1 Mr . David Hannay in the Cambridge Modern History : Vol. XII, Chapter X . 2 A. F . G . Bell : op . cit ., pp . 185 -73 Sir George Young : Portugal : An Historical Study. (Oxford, 1917), p. 2 744 Paris : Gabriel Beauchesne et Fils : 1936. This book goes into an immense amount of circumstantial detail, and amon g other things prints the text of Law No . 1,g1o of May 21, 1935, by which all secret societies were made illegal in Portugal, and gives details of the events leading up to that law . 5 Young : op. Cit ., p. 286. 6 Senhor F . E. da Silva, in an address to the Soci6t6 d'Economie Politique de Belgique : Brussels, December 1934. cf. also Paul Lavagne in La Revue des Sciences Politiques, July-Se ptember, 1935, on " La Renaissance Financi6re et Economique du Portugal ". " La gu erre, qui imposa 1'entretien de corps exp6ditionnaires, is la fois en France et en Afrique, n'aurait meme pas, A elle seule, compromis dangereusement les ressources du pays, si l'ordre y avait 6t6 mis . La participation portu gaise avait t6 financ6e par i'Atl$leterre et cette dette, port&e dans les comptes ,pour une annuit6 r6guh8re, aurait u eventuellement faire l'objet d arran&ements plus supportables . Ees bons du Tr6sor (87 millions au 30 juln 1g1g, au lieu de 1,250 en 1928) pouvaient encore titre consilid6s . "Mats les extravagances financi6res, inh6rentes a ha p6riode d'hostilit6s, laisserent dans tous les pays une funeste semence d'impr6voyance et de d6sordre qui trouva un terrain d'6lection au Portugal . Ce furent alors 1'abandon de tout contrble, l'accroissement du gaspillage, la predilection pour les solutions paresseuses, le fonctionnarisme hypertrophi6, l'incoordination g6neralisee, la disparition des responsab1l1t6s ; tout cela, favoris6 par l'agitation incessante des partis .' 7 Bell : op. cit., pp. 21 3 -1 58 Leon de Poncins : Le Portugal Renait, p. 479 Ibid, pp . 47-9; Webster : Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, p. 283. 1o The Times : March 1 3. ;93511 Gonzague de Reynold : Portugal (Paris, Spes, 1936), p . 270 . 12 Antonio Ferro : Le Portugal et son Chef (Paris, Bernard Grasset, 1 934), p . 178 . This book, a French translation of a series of interviews given by Salazar which was published in the Portuguese newspaper ,Diario de Noticias in December 1932, gives an admirable picture of Salazar and his ideas . Antonio Ferro is now head of the Secretariado da Propaganda Nacional at Lisbon .

154

xxv. Paris : REcueil Sirey. 32 4 Ferro : op . such a work will be of greater value when some sort of finality has been achieved. 2 Quadragesimo Anno : par. 12 Quadragesimo Anno : par . 42 : " The State acknowled ges that the primary and natural educator of the child is the Family . and must be valuable to any who would study the Estado Novo in detail . p..4. however. pp . 1935. quoted above . 1 I 55 . p . x. nevertheless he thinks and hopes that it may be regarded as accurate . 9 Art . Albert Muller. 3 Pereira dos Santos : Un Etat Corporatif : La Constitution Sociale et Politique Portugaise. p.. NOTES TO CHAPTER III (PAGES 61 to 99) 1 This originally appeared in the Constitution as Article XIV . also Art . 1936. 13 Gonzague de Reynold : op . The Constitution has been amended in its details on several occasions references throughout this book are to it as it was after December 21. 8o . 310. It is. 14 H: Ch . IV. 11 Salazar : Introduction to the French edition of his collected speeches : Une Revolution dans la Paix. Chdry in Sept. antecedent and superior to all positive law." 7 Salazar : Speech on March 13. It should be noted that the translation is the author's own. Paris : Flammarion.J . 95 . cit . and as a moral institution possessin g inalienable and imprescriptible rights.. 104. rather too minute and exacting in examination. 6 Article 41 of the Irish Constitution (197) begins thus : " The State recognises the Family as the natural primary and fundamental unit group of Society. July '937 . September 1 937 . 1 9338 Salazar : Speech at Braga : May 1936. since the Portuguese Estado Novo is admittedly only in an experimental stage at present ." And Art. cit. 1o Fr . 56 . written as a thesis for a Doctorate at Louvain. p. and not official . VI. paper read at the International Union of Social Studies : Malines. 3 Divini Redemptoris : par. 1936. 133.OF SALAZAR 13Ibid. This is a long and documented study of the Portu guese Constitution. See the encyclical " Non abbiamo bisogno " of the following month-June 1931-for a further discussion of Fascist Italy. S .

2o Ibid : Art . 8o-0 . II of Decree-Law No . 1936 . cit. x93318 Quadragesimo Anno : pars. 88 . September 7. xxxi . 1935. 16 Fr . p . 3 Mihail Manoilesco : Le Siacle du Corporatisme . 19 Statute of National Labour : Art. Constitution : Art.. 21 Freppel Cotta : op . 1937 .053 : September 23. which. McLachlan in a special supplement published by The Times on the occasion of the centenary ofpthe P . May 19372 op. xxiii: iv. P. giving them orders .362 : August 15. LI. 1934 .S .J . L. in The Sign (U. first the political bosses and afterwards the tyrannical syndicates forced the Spanish people to vote according to their whim. 29 Speech on January 28. 5Introduction as cited. having deep roots in the country. 31 Freppel Cotta : op. Quoted by M . 1 93326 Decree-Law No . 15 Gonzague de Reynold : op . P. XXXIX . Before. The following quotation from a speech of General Franco also has interesting bearing on the present chapter : " We do not believe in suffrage . Muller : La Politique Corporative : Brussels. 1 5322 cf. Steamship Co. 136 . Those who think we are going to support the privileges of capitalism are entirely wrong . & O. cit . IX . VIII. p . Our Government will be strong-a Government for the people . Joao Lumbrales in Politique : Paris.A . 25 Art. will represent the genuine desires and ideals of the people . p .. W ... p. 311 . cit ." (Reported in the Observer : October 4. The Spanish national will was never freely expressed through the ballot box . LII . 24. p . . We shall support the middle and humble classes. 32 Ferro : op . 17 Speech of Salazar : March 16. 83 and 85 . May 1 93423 La Politique Corporative. cit. 4 Article by G . 28 Salazar : Introduction to the same. NOTES TO CHAPTER IV 1 Michael (PAGES 103 to 125) Kenny. 27 In a foreword to Une Revolution dans la Paix. 16o. cit. pp. 24 Statute of National Labour : Arts.). xxiii.THE PORTUGAL 04 Salazar : Introduction as cited : pp.. . 23. cit .) I$6 . 1 93430 JoAo Lumbrales : op . . p .. Freppel Cotta in Economic Planning in Corporative Portugal . The popular will in the new State will express itself through technical organisations and corporations. p . 65 . S.

2 3We will list its more important 5 Constitution : Article VIII. p. A . 1937 . provisions The following constitute the rights and individual guarantees of Portuguese citizens i . L. 9 6. 12 Salazar : in a broadcast : December 9. May 1936 .. 4 Quoted by Freppel Cotta. and . 1 9341 3 Ferro : op. 9 Salazar : Speech on November 23. 7 6 NOTES TO CHAPTER V (PACES 129 to 151) . cit. cit . but without commenting on this particular opinion .translated back from his French by me . inviting criticism. G . 1932 . Bell. disagreeing with several things. ~1i . The mistake has been copied by Gonzague de Reynold.OF SALAZAR Salazar : Speech at Braga. He prints the speech in full.. 75 Salazar : Introduction as cited. be inning "Ii est de notori6t6 courante que cette agitation a et foment6e par les politiciens portugais exiles a Paris. 1931 . xli . The right to life and personal inviolability . to Senhor J. of the Secretariado da Propaganda National at Lisbon. which he sent. 3 . 14 The Times : August 28. 2 The details of these events I have only on the authority of Je Suis Partout and Le jour . 8 The present writer expressed this opinion in an article in the Dublin Review. 317 . p .. pp. 1 57 I . 11 op . cit . 3 The Corporate State." op. p . and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on November 6 of the same year. but erroneously dates it 1928 . 75 . op .. 1936. for October 1937. Vallecchi Editore. but the general facts are common knowledge . Senhor Silva Dias replied at length. to meet the emergency occasioned by the Spanish War. et particuli8rement par quelques precedents chefs du Grand Orient du Portugal. lo He assumed the Ministry of War on May i z. I have not had the opportunity to look up the original : de Poncins quotes a long cutting. by Benito Mussolini : Florence. da Silva Dias. p . p . 1936. cit . Quoted by Ikon de Poncins. both par interim-that is. 194 . 25 .7 . Interview reported in The Catholic Herald : Dec . F.

no steps of any kind will be taken against them . The Secretariado sends articles to the editors of them all . except. There shall be no confiscation of goods .THE 2. . In December 1933. those which are neutral. to inculcate his ideas into the nation .. from a delinquent. " The Secretariado classifies all periodicals according to their attitude towards the regime . it had sent 1. No one shall be deprived of personal liberty or arrested without a charge being brought . 1933 . 4. The right of property. 14. 158 . and from the time that this work was begun the whole tone of the Press began to be more moderate. And here are some statistics : The Secretariado began its work in December . Freedom of education . id . 61 sympathetic. 40 were for the Government. . as regards the latter. 62 were for e Government. unless they have been legally suspended. There shall be no payment of taxes which have not been decreed in accordance with the Constitution .' 6 Leon de Poncins : op. out of 251 political periodicals. in which case the sentence must be carried out on the scene of the war. Liberty and inviolability of religious beliefs and practice. They have no obligation to accept them . claim or complaint. 6. it is interesting to note the methods adopted by Salazar. By December 1934. 69 neutral. In the matter of freedom to criticise the regime. 1937. from December 1 934 . during a state of belligerency with a foreign power. cit. 5. Freedom of meeting and association.31o articles to 67 periodicals . in defence of personal rights or general interests . or the penalty of death. and 81 in position . 15. 43 were neutral. . and of re elling by force private aigression when recourse to pubic authority is impossible . those which are sympathetic. Up to December 1934. subject to the terms of the law. The right of making representations or petition. and only 3. The right of resistance to any order which may infringe individual guarantees. r6. No one shall suffer punishment by perpetual imprisonment.027 articles to 75 periodicals. The number of neutral. p. and even of opposition journals which inserted articles supplied by the Secretariado increased considerably. through the Secretariado da Propaganda Nacional. 18. . . . i i . The free expression of thought in any form . if they refuse them. Inviolability of domicile and secrecy of correspondence. out of 247 periodicals. and those which are hostile . 1837 The Times : December 10. 86 were sympathetic. to December 1935 2. 19. to Government departments or to any authorities. There are those which are favourable. PORTUGAL The right to good name and reputation . 8 .

1929 . p .. op.. 14 Salazar : Speech of May 26. p . 307 . So do methods of persuasion generally succeed better than methods of constraint .OF SALAZAR 56 in opposition. cit . in an interview given to L'Ami du Peuple. 193415 Salazar : Introduction as cited : p. Paris.. xxii . op . op. 1936. 39 -41 11 Ibid. 9 Salazar. March 26. 44-5 .) The only fact that dismays one is that there should be z5i political periodicals in a country of only seven million inhabitants 1 8 Ferro. 23112 Salazar : Speech of October 2i.. 1o Ferro." (Gonzague de Reynold : op . cit. . p . 22i . pp . 13 Ferro. pp . cit . cit.