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LEAGUEFORSOVIETWARMONGERING 2 0 3
t h e Un i t e d St a t e s c a n a v o i d t h e f a s c i s t a g g r e s s o r s b y r u n n i n g a w a y
f r o mt h e m . D a i l y Wo r k e r , Oc t o b e r 4 , 1 9 3 7 .
Th e w a r b e t w e e n t h e Al l i e s a n d Ge r ma n y i s a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n r i v a l
i mp e r i a l i s t p o w e r s , h e n c e t h e w o r k e r s h a v e n o i n t e r e s t i n s u p p o r t i n g
e i t h e r g r o u p i n t h e c o n t e s t . - Th e Wa r C r i s i s , 1 9 4 0 .
Ei t h e r o f t h e s e s t a t e me n t s ma y b e d e f e n d e d . B o t h s t a t e me n t s
c o mi n g f r o mt h e s a me l e a d e r o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y c o n s t i t u t e p r i ma f a c i e
e v i d e n c e o f p o l i t i c a l t r i c k e r y . Ev e r y p a r t i c i p a n t i n a c o mmu n i s t me e t -
i n g o r r e s o l u t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y - w h e t h e r a C a b i n e t me mb e r
o r a c a b i n e t ma k e r , t h e w i f e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o r t h e w i f e o f a d i t c h -
d i g g e r - w a s a d u p e o f t h e St a l i n i s t c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y h o a x . Id o n o t
f o r a mo me n t a r g u e t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y i d e a w a s i t s e l f a h o a x .
Fo r a l l w e k n o w , t h e w o r l d w o u l d h a v e b e e n s p a r e d i t s p r e s e n t a g o n y
i f f a s c i s t a g g r e s s i o n s h a d b e e n me t w i t h u n mi t i g a t e d f o r c e a t t h e o u t -
s e t . Id o me a n t h a t t h e St a l i n i s t a d v o c a c y a n d l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p o l i c y
w a s f r a u d u l e n t ; a n d t h a t i n s o f a r a s t h e p o l i c y w a s p r e d i c a t e d u p o n
Ru s s i a n c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d l e a d e r s h i p , i t w a s a d e l u s i o n d e s t i n e d t o e n d
b a d l y . St a l i n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y e n g a g e d i n p r i mi n g t h e
h o a x e d mi l l i o n s f o r t h e p l a n n e d b e t r a y a l t h a t c a me , i n e v i t a b l y , i n t h e
St a l i n - H i t l e r P a c t .
Th e Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y w a s t h e p r i n c i p a l v e h i c l e o f
t h e K r e ml i n ' s w a r p o l i c i e s
. It s i n f l u e n c e r e a c h e d i n t o t h e s c h o o l s , t h e
c h u r c h e s , t h e g o v e r n me n t , t h e a r t s . Al l i t s a c t i v i t i e s h a d t h e a u t o ma t i c
b a c k i n g o f t h e w h o l e a r r a y o f o t h e r c o mmu n i s t g r o u p s ; a n d i n t u r n i t
t h r e w i t s w e i g h t i n t o a n y j o b f o r Mo s c o w u n d e r t a k e n b y l e s s e r i n n o -
c e n t s ' g r o u p s . Th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e s y s t e m, w i t h t h e i r i n t e r -
l o c k i n g d i r e c t o r a t e s a n d t h e i r c o mmo n d o mi n a t i o n , h e l p s e x p l a i n t h e i r
a ma z i n g s u c c e s s .
C H AP TERXVIII
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINTH EU
. S. A.
1
I
NOURAme r i c a n o t e v e n Mo t h e r i s mo r e s e n t i me n t a l l y i d e a l i z e d
t h a n Y o u t h
. Th e y o u n g me n a n d w o me n p a s s i n g h a z i l y a n d i n a
c o n d i t i o n o f g l a n d u l a r o v e r e x c i t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e d i f f i c u l t y e a r s b e -
t w e e n c h i l d h o o d a n d a d u l t h o o d a r e c r e d i t e d w i t h a s o r t o f c o l l e c t i v e
w i s d o ma n d c o mp e t e n c e , w i t h s p e c i a l r i g h t s a n d s p e c i a l mo r a l a u t h o r -
i t y
. " St u d e n t mo v e me n t s " a n d " Y o u t h p r o t e s t s " a r e l i k e l y t o b e
t r e a t e d a s s e r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s o f o p i n i o n w h e n t h e y a r e , i n l a r g e p a r t ,
s y mp t o ms o f a p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n - a n a s p e c t o f g r o w i n g p a i n s
.
P a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s g e n u f l e c t b e f o r e t h e a l t a r o f Y o u t h
.
Or g a n i z a t i o n s p u r p o r t i n g t o s p e a k i n t h e s a c r e d n a me o f Y o u t h g e t
h e a r i n g s a n d p r i v i l e g e s t h a t w o u l d n o t , u n d e r s i mi l a r c i r c u ms t a n c e s , b e
g r a n t e d t o t h e i r e l d e r s .
Th i s i s e s p e c i a l l y r e ma r k a b l e b e c a u s e t h e s a me p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s
a n d p o l i t i c i a n s t r e a t t h e s a me b o y s a n d g i r l s - a t h o me o r i n s c h o o l
o r i n i n d u s t r y - q u i t e r e a l i s t i c a l l y
. Th e y r e c o g n i z e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l l y
t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e a r e f a r r e mo v e d f r o mt h e i d e a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f
Y o u t h
. B o y f o r b o y , g i r l f o r g i r l , t h e y a r e w i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s a w k w a r d ,
u n s t a b l e , u n c e r t a i n o f t h e ms e l v e s
. Th e y s w i n g v i o l e n t l y b e t w e e n t h e
e x t r e me s o f s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n a n d g r e e d , a r e i n s u f f e r a b l y f r i v o l o u s o r i n -
s u f f e r a b l y b o o k i s h
. Ev e n t h e mo s t b a l a n c e d a mo n g t h e ma r e i n d a n g e r
o f k e e l i n g o v e r u n d e r t h e s t r e s s a n d s t r a i n o f u r g e n t p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s .
Th e i r o p i n i o n s a r e mo r e c r u d e l y c o l o r e d b y u n d e f i n e d e mo t i o n a l
u r g e s , a t t h i s s t a g e o f r a p i d a d j u s t me n t , t h a n a t a n y o t h e r t i me i n t h e i r
l i v e s
. B e c a u s e o f i mma t u r i t y a n d y o u t h f u l e a g e r n e s s t h e y " f o l l o w t h e
l e a d e r " mo r e b l i n d l y t h a n a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p , a n d a r e p e r f e c t r a w
s t u f f f o r d e ma g o g i c mo l d i n g
. No t o n e o f t h e mi n t e n t h o u s a n d w o u l d
c o n c e i v a b l y b e t r u s t e d t o ma k e p o l i c i e s f o r h i s c o mmu n i t y . Y e t t h e
t e n t h o u s a n d t o g e t h e r , a s Y o u t h w i t h a c a p i t a l Y , i n f l u e n c e p o l i c i e s ,
c o mma n d i n g a t t e n t i o n b e y o n d t h e i r n u mb e r s a n d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o
t h e i r i n e x p e r i e n c e a n d p e c u l i a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s .
2 0 4
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 0 5
Th e g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f Y o u t h i s a mo d e r n d e v e l o p me n t
. It p u t s a
p r e mi u mo n l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , me n t a l f u z z i n e s s a n d i n t u i t i o n a s
a g a i n s t i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d ma t u r i t y
. Iw a t c h e d b o t h It a l i a n Fa s c i s ma n d
Ge r ma n Na z i s ma t c l o s e r a n g e i n t h e i r f o r ma t i v e s t a g e s
. It i s n o t
g e n e r a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d t o w h a t a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e y w e r e b o t h Y o u t h
mo v e me n t s
. D e ma g o g u e s w h o k n e w w h a t t h e y w a n t e d u s e d t h e e n e r -
g i e s a n d e mo t i o n a l d r i v e s o f y o u n g p e o p l e w h o h a d n o t t h e r e mo t e s t
n o t i o n w h a t t h e y r e a l l y w a n t e d
. In b o t h t h o s e c o u n t r i e s , Y o u t h w a s
d e l i b e r a t e l y mo b i l i z e d t o b e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n i n t o a p u l p
.
Wa t c h i n g t h e Y o u t h mo v e me n t s i n t h i s c o u n t r y a g a i n s t t h e me m-
o r y o f It a l y a n d Ge r ma n y , Ih a v e b e e n s t r u c k b y t h e s i mi l a r i t y o f
t h e p r o c e d u r e s
. Ame r i c a n Y o u t h w a s n o l o n g e r d e s c r i p t i v e o f a n
a g e g r o u p p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a d o l e s c e n c e - i t s o r g a n i z e d a n d r e g i me n t e d
mi n o r i t y h a d b e c o me a s l o g a n e e r i n g p o l i t i c a l l o b b y , a b i g g e r a n d
l o u d e r p r e s s u r e g r o u p , c o mp e t i n g w i t h e l d e r s f o r h a n d o u t s a n d
p r i v i -
l e g e s a s t h o u g h i t w e r e a p e r ma n e n t c l a s s r a t h e r t h a n a p e r i o d o f b i o -
l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n . Th e mo r e a r t i c u l a t e a n d c a p a b l e w e r e ma k i n g p r o -
f e s s i o n s a n d c a r e e r s a s Y o u t h l e a d e r s
. P a r t l y t h r o u g h s e n t i me n t a n d
l a r g e l y f o r p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e , p o l i t i c i a n s f l a t t e r e d t h e Y o u t h l o b b i e s
a n d c a t e r e d t o t h e i r p r e t e n t i o u s s e l f - i mp o r t a n c e . It w a s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t
t h e mo s t r i g i d l y o r g a n i z e d , d i s c i p l i n e d a n d p u r p o s e f u l mi n o r i t y w o u l d
t a k e o v e r t h i s Y o u t h r a c k e t a n d u s e i t f o r i t s o w n p u r p o s e s - a n d f o r a
l o n g t i me t h e e l d e r s , f r o mt h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s d o w n ,
w e r e c o n t e n t t o a p p l a u d t h e a n t i c s i n s t e a d o f e x p o s i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e s
a n d mo t i v e s b e h i n d t h e w h o l e s h o w .
Th o s e w h o s h o u l d g u i d e y o u n g p e o p l e a r e c o n t e n t t o f o l l o w , l e a v i n g
t h a t f u n c t i o n t o c r a c k p o t " c h a mp i o n s o f Y o u t h " o r p o l i t i c a l d e ma -
g o g u e s a i mi n g t o c a p t u r e t h e c a mp u s a n d t h e y o u t h . Al o p s i d e d l i b -
e r a l i s mh a s l e d t e a c h e r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t Y o u t h mu s t b e g i v e n c o mp l e t e
i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h a t i t s p r e f e r e n c e s a r e i n v i o l a b l e
. Th e r e s u l t i s t h a t
y o u n g p e o p l e a r e s e t a d r i f t j u s t w h e n t h e y n e e d a n d c r a v e s t e e r i n g ; t h e
f i r s t g r o u p w i t h a p l a u s i b l e a n d e x c i t i n g p r o g r a mt a k e s t h e mo v e r . Wh y
t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a d i s i n t e r e s t e d p e d a g o g u e s h o u l d b e e v i l a n d t h e
a u t h o r i t y o f a n i n t e r e s t e d d e ma g o g u e g o o d i s b e y o n d e x p l a n a t i o n
. It i s
j u s t a n o t h e r p h a s e o f t h e my t h o l o g y o f f a s h i o n a b l e " mo d e r n i s m . "
Th e p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t i s t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s a n d
a d j u s t e d e l d e r s i s d i s p l a c e d b y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a x - g r i n d i n g o u t s i d e r s
a n d p o l i t i c a l c h a r l a t a n s . Me n a n d w o me n w h o h a v e t h e p r e s t i g e o f
i mp o r t a n t p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s a r e c e r t a i n l y d o i n g Ame r i c a a d i s s e r v i c e
2 0 6

TH ERED D EC AD E
w h e n t h e y f o l l o w Y o u t h g r o u p s i n s t e a d o f l e a d i n g t h e m- w h e n t h e y
" p l a y t h e g a me " w i t h p o l i t i c a l mi n o r i t i e s t h a t h a v e c a p t u r e d Y o u t h
o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n s t e a d o f s i d i n g b o l d l y w i t h t h e c a p t i v e s a g a i n s t t h e s e
mi n o r i t i e s .
Th e P o p u l a r Fr o n t a n d Tr o j a n H o r s e t e c h n i q u e s o p e n e d w i d e t h e
g a t e s o f Ame r i c a t o t h e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e n o l e s s t h a n t o i t s
p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n
. Th e r e w a s n o mo r e n e e d f o r s e c t a r i a n e x c l u s i v e -
n e s s o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y h o c u s - p o c u s . Th e Y
. C . L. l e a d e r s , p r o mp t e d b y
t h e a d u l t p a r t y , c o u l d n o w w a v e t h e Ame r i c a n f l a g , o u t s h o u t a n y
j i n g o , j o i n t h e Y o u n g Me t h o d i s t s i n p u b l i c p r a y e r s - a n y t h i n g t o
" b r o a d e n t h e p e o p l e ' s y o u t h f r o n t " a n d s n a r e mo r e u n s u s p e c t i n g o r -
g a n i z a t i o n s
. Ab o v e a l l , t h e y c o u l d n o w f o r g e t t h e i r c o mmu n i s ma n d
c o n c e n t r a t e o n Mo s c o w ' s i mme d i a t e o b j e c t i v e s
. Th e Y i p s e l s - y o u n g
s o c i a l i s t s , - w h o mt h e j u n i o r St a l i n i s t s o n c e d e r i d e d a s " r e f o r mi s t s , "
n o w s e e me d i n t r a n s i g e a n t r e b e l s b y c o n t r a s t
.
Th e n e w t a c t i c s w o r k e d a s w e l l a mo n g y o u n g p e o p l e a s a mo n g
a d u l t s
; s o me t i me s b e t t e r . Th e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s b e c a me a n -
o t h e r i mp o r t a n t i n s t r u me n t o f t h e P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t
. Un d e r t h e c o n -
f u s i o n o f c l a i ms a n d c o u n t e r c l a i ms a s t o t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n
a r e t h e f a mi l i a r a n d i n d u b i t a b l e s i g n s o f p a r t y - l i n e d o mi n a n c e
.
Wh e t h e r Wa l d o Mc Nu t t , Jo s e p h La s h , Wi l l i a mH i n c k l e y , Ja me s
Le r n e r , Mo l l y Y a r d , Jo s e p h C a d d e n , Ed w a r d E
. St r o n g , Ja c k Mc -
Mi c h a e l a n d t h e , r e s t o f t h e t o p - s h e l f l e a d e r s w e r e t e c h n i c a l l y me m-
b e r s o f t h e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e o r t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y i s
a n a c a d e mi c q u e s t i o n
. Th e r e w a s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e y a c t e d a s
g o o d f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s w o u l d a n d w e r e u t i l i z e d b y t h e Ea s t Th i r t e e n t h
St r e e t ma s t e r mi n d s a s mo u t h p i e c e s
. Th e C o n g r e s s r e s o l u t i o n s ma t c h e d
t h e o f f i c i a l St a l i n i s t l i n e , y e a r b y y e a r , e v e n u n t o t h e s e n s a t i o n a l f l i p -
f l o p s a f t e r St a l i n a n d H i t l e r g o t t o g e t h e r a n d a f t e r t h e y s p l i t a g a i n
.
Th e t o t a l i t a r i a n l i b e r a l s , o f c o u r s e , s p u t t e r e d w i t h f u r y a g a i n s t t h o s e
w h o c l a i me d t h a t t h e A. S. U. a n d i t s Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s w e r e
d o mi n a t e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s . Th e y c h e e r e d Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t ' s k n o w -
n o t h i n g c h a mp i o n s h i p o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s
. B u t t h e y c a me t o k n o w
b e t t e r , a n d i n d u e t i me w e r e t o a d mi t i t
. Wr i t i n g i n Ja n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , t h e
Na t i o n i n a n e d i t o r i a l c a s u a l l y w o u l d r e f e r t o " t h e c o mmu n i s t l e a d e r -
s h i p o f t h e A
. S. U. a n d t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s " a n d t h e n e e d
" f o r a d e mo c r a t i c y o u t h mo v e me n t t o f r e e i t s e l f " f r o mt h i s mo n i t o r -
s h i p
. Th e f a c t i s t h a t St a l i n ' s f i n g e r p r i n t s w e r e a l l o v e r t h e s e c a p t i v e
Y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s
.
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 0 7
Y e t t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n i n Wa s h i n g t o n w e n t t h e w h o l e h o g i n s u p -
p o r t o f B r o w d e r ' s j u n i o r i n n o c e n t s ' f r o n t
. Ne w D e a l s t a l w a r t s l i k e
Au b r e y Wi l l i a ms , Ro b e r t H
. Ja c k s o n , El e a n o r Ro o s e v e l t , H a r o l d Ic k e s
t o o k t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e i r b o s o ms a n d d e f e n d e d i t a g a i n s t " s u s -
p i c i o n s " o f c o mmu n i s t c o n t r o l s . Th e P r e s i d e n t r e p e a t e d l y l e n t h i s
n a me a n d t h e p r e s t i g e o f h i s p o s i t i o n t o t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s , a n d t h e
Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t s i n i t s ma n a g e r i a l s e t u p u s e d t h o s e p o l i t i c a l g i f t s
t o t h e l i mi t .
B u t l e t n o o n e t h r o w s t o n e s a t t h e Ne w D e a l w i t h o u t i n v e s t i g a t i n g
t h e b e h a v i o r o f h i s o w n p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l c o l l e a g u e s
. Y o u n g Re p u b -
l i c a n s , j u s t l i k e Y o u n g . D e mo c r a t s , t o o k p a r t i n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s s h i n -
d i g s
. Amo n g t h e Se n a t o r s a n d C o n g r e s s me n , d o z e n s o f t h e mi n t h e
a g g r e g a t e , w h o t r i e d t o ma k e p o l i t i c a l c a p i t a l o u t o f f l a t t e r i n g t h i s
Y o u t h l o b b y , t h e r e w e r e d i e - h a r d Ol d D e mo c r a t s , a n d a n u mb e r o f
Re p u b l i c a n s , a s w e l l a s Ne w D e a l e r s . C o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s , ma y o r s ,
p i o u s d e n o mi n a t i o n a l Y o u t h l e a d e r s j o i n e d t h e p a r a d e
. Th e mo r e
t h a t j o i n e d , t h e e a s i e r i t w a s t o i n v e i g l e o t h e r s
. In p o l i t i c a l a n d p r e s -
s u r e - g r o u p b a n d w a g o n s , n o t h i n g s u c c e e d s l i k e s u c c e s s
.
As o n e r e a d s C o mmu n i s t P a r t y l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e s e y e a r s , t h e r e i s
n o e v a d i n g t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e c o mr a d e s r e g a r d e d t h e Ame r i c a n
Y o u t h C o n g r e s s a s t h e i r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y
. Th e y t r e a t e d i t f r a n k l y a s
t h e i r b a b y , a n d b o a s t e d a b o u t w h a t a g o o d - n a t u r e d a n d c o - o p e r a t i v e
b a b y i t w a s
. Sp e a k i n g i n Mo s c o w , t h e h e a d o f t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u n g
C o mmu n i s t s , Gi l Gr e e n , t o l d h o w " w e " - t h e c o mmu n i s t s - l e d t h e
Y o u t h mo v e me n t a n d d r e w i n e v e r mo r e r e l i g i o u s , l i b e r a l a n d o t h e r
n o n - c o mmu n i s t y o u n g p e o p l e . Th e P a r t y
Or g a n i z e r c o n t i n u a l l y g a v e
i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t Y o u t h C o n g r e s s ma t t e r s , a s b l a n d l y a s t h o u g h i t
w e r e a n o t h e r b r a n c h o f St a l i n ' s p a r t y .
At t h e c e l e b r a t e d Se v e n t h o r Tr o j a n H o r s e C o n g r e s s i n Mo s c o w ,
C o mr a d e K u u s i n e n p r a i s e d h i s Ame r i c a n c o n t i n g e n t s
. " Ou r Ame r i -
c a n c o mr a d e s , " h e i n f o r me d t h e c o n g r e g a t e d d e l e g a t i o n s , " a c h i e v e d a
g r e a t s u c c e s s a t t h i s Y o u t h C o n g r e s s
. . . . An d w h e n , s o me w h a t l a t e r ,
a s e c o n d g e n e r a l Y o u t h C o n g r e s s w a s h e l d , o u r y o u n g c o mr a d e s a l -
r e a d y e n j o y e d a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n i t
. " B r o w d e r c o n f i r me d
t h e c o mp l i me n t
. In h i s b o o k Th e
P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t h e b o a s t e d t h a t " Th e
Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p a r t y h a s f r o m
t h e b e g i n n i n g p l a y e d a n i mp o r t a n t p a r t i n b u i l d i n g t h e Y o u t h C o n -
g r e s s mo v e me n t a n d f o r mu l a t i n g i t s p r o g r a ma n d a c t i v i t i e s
. " Wh i c h
w a s p u t t i n g t h e ma t t e r mi l d l y , o f c o u r s e , f o r p u b l i c c o n s u mp t i o n
. In
2 0 8

TH ERED D EC AD E
h i s b o o k C o mmu n i s mi n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s h e a t t e s t e d t h a t i n t h e
Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s " t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y i s t h e w o r k o f t h e
Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e , " a d d i n g
: " P r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e b a s i c p r o p o s -
a l s a n d p o l i c y c a me f r o mu s a n d f r o mt h o s e i n f l u e n c e d b y u s
. "
" Th e u t mo s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e
Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s , " a n o f f i c i a l p a r t y r e s o l u t i o n s a i d i n t h e
f i r s t y e a r o f t h a t C o n g r e s s . Th e u t mo s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s w h a t i t
r e c e i v e d i n a l l s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s .
B y t h e t i me t h i s s u p e r b i n n o c e n t s ' f r o n t me t f o r i t s f i f t h a n n u a l
c o n v e n t i o n , i n Ne w Y o r k C i t y o v e r t h e Ju l y Fo u r t h w e e k e n d i n 1 9 3 9 ,
i t s d e l e g a t e s c l a i me d t o r e p r e s e n t 5 1 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h a t o t a l o f
4 , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 me mb e r s . Th e f i g u r e s c a n b e h a l v e d a n d i t w o u l d s t i l l b e a n
e x a g g e r a t i o n . D e l e g a t e s l i s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h h a d n e v e r a f f i l i -
a t e d . Sh e p h e r d s ma n e u v e r e d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o t h e l i n e - u p
w i t h o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e o r c o n s e n t o f t h e i r f l o c k s . Y o u n g p e o p l e w h o
h e l d me mb e r s h i p s i n a d o z e n g r o u p s t h u s h a d t h e ms e l v e s t a l l i e d a
d o z e n t i me s . Af t e r e v e r y d i s c o u n t i s ma d e , h o w e v e r , i t w a s s t i l l t h e
l a r g e s t a g g r e g a t e o f y o u n g p e o p l e e v e r l u r e d i n t o o n e p o l i t i c a l e n c l o -
s u r e .
Ab o u t a h u n d r e d r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s w e r e l i s t e d b y t h e me e t i n g a s
p a r t i c i p a n t s - Ev a n g e l i c a l , Me t h o d i s t , Je w i s h , P r e s b y t e r i a n , P o l i s h
C a t h o l i c , e t c . Al o n g w i t h t h e Y o u n g Re p u b l i c a n s a n d Y o u n g D e mo -
c r a t s , t h e Y . M. C . A: s a n d Y . W
. C . A. ' s , t h e r e w e r e ( a s t h e Ne w Re p u b -
l i c r e c o r d e d ) " y o u n g C o u g h l i n i t e s . " Th e To w n s e n d i t e s h a d b e e n i n
t h e f o l d f o r y e a r s
.
Tw o mo n t h s r e mo v e d f r o mt h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e w a r , t h i s l a s t
p r e - p a c t c o n v e n t i o n s t i l l r a g e d a g a i n s t f a s c i s ma n d H i t l e r , s t i l l h u r r a h e d
f o r t h e Ro o s e v e l t s , s t i l l a d h e r e d t o t h e f u l l Fo u r t h P e r i o d c a t e c h i s mo f
t h e C o mi n t e r n . Ne i t h e r t h e d e l e g a t e s n o r t h e mi l l i o n s w h o mt h e y
p r o f e s s e d t o r e p r e s e n t c o u l d g u e s s t h a t a l l t h e i r " v i e w s " w o u l d b e
c a n c e l e d o u t s o s o o n . If t h e r e w a s a n y ma r g i n o f d o u b t a s t o w h o
h e l d t h e l e v e r s o f t h i s y o u t h ma c h i n e , i t w a s w i p e d o u t b y t h e So v i e t -
Na z i a l l i a n c e . Au t o ma t i c a l l y t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s t u r n e d
i s o l a t i o n i s t , e x c h a n g e d i t s a n t i - f a s c i s mf o r " a n t i - i mp e r i a l i s m, " c o n -
v e r t e d i t s a p p r o v a l o f t h e Ne w D e a l Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n i n t o f a n a t i c
h a t r e d , s w i t c h e d f r o ms u p p o r t o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e t o r a u c o u s a t t a c k
o n r e a r ma me n t .
It d i d s o a t t h e s a me t i me a n d a s a r b i t r a r i l y a s t h e Le a g u e f o r P e a c e
a n d D e mo c r a c y , t h e Fr i e n d s o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n , t h e c o mmu n i s t -
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 0 9
c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r u n i o n s a n d e v e r y o t h e r St a l i n i s t f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n
h e r e a n d a b r o a d .
2
Th e s t r a n g e c a s e o f El e a n o r Ro o s e v e l t c a n n o t b e e v a d e d . Sh e h a s
b e e n t h e mo s t c o n s p i c u o u s e x a mp l e o f t h e c u r i o u s l i b e r a l i s mw h i c h
t h r o w s ma l l e a b l e y o u n g p e o p l e t o a n y d e ma g o g i c w o l v e s w h o ma n a g e
t o c o r n e r Y o u t h mo v e me n t s . B y t h i s t i me i t mu s t b e c l e a r t o t h e mo s t
s e n t i me n t a l v i c t i mo f t h e mo t h e r i n g i mp u l s e t h a t St a l i n ' s c h i l d r e n ' s
h o u r w a s mo r e s i n i s t e r t h a n i t s e e me d
. Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t l e d a l l t h e r e s t
i n s i d i n g w i t h t h e St a l i n i s t mi n o r i t y a g a i n s t t h e g r e a t c a p t i v e ma j o r i t y
w i t h i n t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s . Sh e h a d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p o s e t h e
t e c h n i q u e o f d o mi n a t i o n , b u t s h e c h o s e n o t t o i n t e r f e r e . Wh a t e v e r
i t ma y p r o v e a b o u t h e r s y mp a t h i e s a n d f i n e i n t e n t i o n s - s h e d e s e r v e s
e v e r y b e n e f i t o f t h e d o u b t - i t d o e s n o t l e s s e n t h e ma g n i t u d e o f t h e mi s -
c h i e f d o n e
.
Re p e a t e d l y t h e Fi r s t La d y e x p l a i n e d t h a t s h e w a s d e f e n d i n g t h e
r i g h t o f y o u n g p e o p l e t o t h i n k a n d a c t f o r t h e ms e l v e s , e v e n i f t h e y w e r e
c o mmu n i s t s . An d s h e me a n t i t f r o mt h e b o t t o mo f h e r c a p a c i o u s
h e a r t . Un f o r t u n a t e l y s h e w a s d e f e n d i n g t h e e x a c t o p p o s i t e . In a l l o w -
i n g h e r s e l f t o b e u s e d a s r e s p e c t a b l e w i n d o w d r e s s i n g f o r t h e o r g a n i z a -
t i o n , s h e w a s r e a l l y h e l p i n g t h e Y o u t h b u r e a u c r a c y t o p r e v e n t t h e
y o u n g p e o p l e f r o mt h i n k i n g a n d a c t i n g f o r t h e ms e l v e s . Sh e w a s i n
e f f e c t l i n e d u p w i t h t h e c a n n y l e a d e r s a n d t h e i r s e c r e t c a u c u s e s a g a i n s t
t h e ma s s o f me mb e r s
; w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l ma c h i n e a g a i n s t t h e mo r e
n a i v e a n d u n s u s p e c t i n g r e l i g i o u s a n d l i b e r a l a n d s o c i a l a f f i l i a t e s . In a
l a r g e r s e n s e s h e w a s s i d i n g w i t h t h e t i n y o r g a n i z e d l o b b y a g a i n s t t h e
v a s t u n o r g a n i z e d ma s s o f y o u n g p e o p l e
. Li k e t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r
mo t h e r s a n d t e a c h e r s a n d c l e r g y me n Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t h a d u n w i t t i n g l y
a b d i c a t e d i n f a v o r o f B r o w d e r , Gi l Gr e e n a n d t h e i r h e n c h me n , w h o
t o o k o v e r b y t h e d e f a u l t o f t h e n a t u r a l l e a d e r s .
Th e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s a n d i t s c o n t r o l l i n g p o l i t i c a l j u n t a ,
t h e ma n a g e r s o f t h e Ame r i c a n St u d e n t Un i o n , r e p r e s e n t t h e c l o s e s t
Ame r i c a n a p p r o x i ma t i o n o f t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e .
Th e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e g o n e t h r o u g h s e v e r a l ma j o r p o l i c y s o me r -
s a u l t s ; f r o mt h e Ox f o r d P l e d g e t o i n t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y t o
k n o w - n o t h i n g i s o l a t i o n i s m . Su c h p r o f o u n d c h a n g e s w e r e ma d e i n
e v e r y c a s e s u d d e n l y , b y e d i c t f r o ma b o v e , w i t h o u t ma s s d i s c u s s i o n a n d
2 1 0

TH ERED D EC AD E
i n o b v i o u s c o mp l i a n c e w i t h s i g n a l s f r o ma w o r l d - w i d e c o n s p i r a t o r i a l
mo v e me n t
. Th e y o u n g p e o p l e d i d n o t " c h a n g e t h e i r mi n d s
. " Th e i r
mi n d s w e r e n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e b u s i n e s s
. Th e y me r e l y " f o l l o w e d t h e
ma s t e r , " mo s t o f t h e ms c a r c e l y a w a r e w h e r e t h e y w e r e g o i n g , n o n e
o f t h e ma w a r e w h y
. Th e mo r e c o n s c i e n t i o u s a mo n g t h e mr a t i o n a l i z e d
t h e c h a n g e o f v i e w a f t e r w a r d , b u t t h e c h a n g e i t s e l f w a s me c h a n i c a l
:
a r e f l e x o f o b e d i e n c e a n d l o y a l t y t o l e a d e r s
.
Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t - a n d s c o r e s o f o t h e r s w h o ma d e t h e ms e l v e s p a r t
a n d p a r c e l o f t h e g o v e r n i n g c l i q u e i n t h e Y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n - g a v e
t h e l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e t h e mo r a l a u t h o r i t y o f t h e i r s u p p o r t
. Th e
v i c t i ms w e r e l e f t f r i e n d l e s s
. Th e d u t y o f t h e s e a d u l t p a t r o n s , i t s e e ms
t o me , w a s t o c h a l l e n g e t h e s t e a m- r o l l e r i n g o f p r o g r a ms a n d t h e c a mo u -
f l a g i n g o f mo t i v e s .
Th e y mi g h t h a v e e x e r t e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o f o r c e w i d e a n d u n h a m-
p e r e d d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i c i e s
. Th e y o w e d i t t o t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d y o u n g e r
p e o p l e i n t h e r a n k a n d f i l e t o d i g b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e o f p r e t e n s e s , t o
f o l l o w t h e l e a d i n g s t r i n g s t o t h e i r s o u r c e , t o a n a l y z e t h e b u r e a u c r a c y
a n d i t s s e c r e t p u r p o s e s . In s t e a d , t h e y j o i n e d i n t h e c h e e r i n g a n d
s n u b b e d t h e y o u n g s o c i a l i s t s a n d o t h e r s w h o t r i e d t o t e l l t h e t r u t h
a b o u t t h e w h o l e St a l i n i s t d e c e p t i o n
. Th e y s i d e d w i t h t h e Y o u t h
b o s s e s , w i t h c o l l e c t i v e k n o w - n o t h i n g i s ma g a i n s t d e mo c r a t i c a n d i n t e l -
l i g e n t e x p l o r a t i o n o f f a c t s
.
It w a s n o t a q u e s t i o n , a s Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t i n s i s t e d , o f t h e Ame r i c a n
C o n g r e s s h a v i n g t h e r i g h t t o v o t e a s i t p l e a s e d
. Th e p r o b l e m- h e r
p r o b l e mi n p a r t i c u l a r , a s u n c r o w n e d q u e e n o f t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s -
w a s t o f i n d o u t w h y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s v o t i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r
w a y a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i me
. Wh o h a d d e c i d e d i t ? D i d t h e p o l i t i c a l l y
l e s s - s e a s o n e d d e l e g a t e s a n d a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m-
p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e v i e w s f o r c e d o n t h e m? H o w ma n y o f t h e d e l e g a t e s
r e p r e s e n t e d p a p e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? H o w ma n y o f t h e d e l e g a t e s f r o mn o n -
c o mmu n i s t g r o u p s w e r e s e c r e t l y i n t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y ? It w a s a
q u e s t i o n o f l e a d i n g a f r e e e x a mi n a t i o n o f d i s p u t a b l e i s s u e s i n a d e mo -
c r a t i c s p i r i t
; o f d e f e n d i n g t h e r i g h t s o f n o n - c o n f o r mi s t mi n o r i t i e s
w i t h i n t h e C o n g r e s s
; o f g u i d i n g y o u n g p e o p l e t o t h i n k r a t h e r t h a n t o
s h o u t h u r r a h o n a c u e f r o mt h e r o s t r u m
.
Th e h o n e s t y o f Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t ' s o r Ro b e r t Ja c k s o n ' s i n t e n t i o n s
d o e s n o t ma k e t h e i r r o l e a n y t h e l e s s c u l p a b l e
. Th e y w e r e t y p i c a l o f
h u n d r e d s o f o t h e r p o l i t i c i a n s a n d e d u c a t o r s a n d s o c i a l l e a d e r s
. Un -
k n o w i n g l y , b u t i n r e c k l e s s d i s r e g a r d o f w a r n i n g s , t h e y h a n d e d o v e r
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 1 1
y o u t h t o p o l i t i c a l ma n i p u l a t o r s . Th e i r b l a me mu s t b e s h a r e d b y a l l
t h e p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s , t h e c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s , t h e w e l l - me a n i n g Y o u t h
c u l t i s t s w h o a b d i c a t e d t h e i r a d u l t p o s i t i o n a s g u i d e s f o r t h e f u n o f t r a i l -
i n g a g a u d y b a n d w a g o n . In s u p p o r t i n g t h e t i n y g r o u p t h a t h a d
ma n e u v e r e d i t s e l f i n t o c o n t r o l , t h e y w e r e p l a y i n g f a l s e t o t h e r e s t o f
t h e me mb e r s , a n d t o t h e mi l l i o n s o f Ame r i c a n y o u n g me n a n d y o u n g
w o me n n o t r e p r e s e n t e d a t a l l i n t h e s e h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d p r e s s u r e
g r o u p s .
Wh e n t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s , i n a l e r t c o mp l i a n c e w i t h t h e K r e ml i n ' s
n e w ma r c h i n g o r d e r s a f t e r Wo r l d Wa r IIg o t g o i n g , c h a n g e d i t s f o r -
e i g n p o l i c y l i n e , Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t s h o u l d h a v e s u s p e c t e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n
o f t h e c h a n g e . Y e t s h e s p o n s o r e d t h e i r n e x t g a t h e r i n g , h e l d i n Wa s h -
i n g t o n . In d e e d , t h e a r r a n g e me n t s w e r e ma d e i n p a r t d i r e c t l y f r o mt h e
Wh i t e H o u s e , w h e r e Y o u t h l e a d e r s w e r e l i v i n g a s g u e s t s o f t h e
f a mi l y . Sh e s w u n g h e r p r e s t i g e t o o b t a i n s p e c i a l o f f i c i a l p r i v i l e g e s f o r
t h e d e l e g a t e s . H e r w a r d s r e p a i d t h e h o s p i t a l i t y b y s t a g i n g o n e o f t h e
r o w d i e s t a t t a c k s o n t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n i n a l l i t s s e v e n y e a r s . Th e y
b o o e d t h e P r e s i d e n t , p u t o n a r o u g h h o u s e s e s s i o n i n t h e g a l l e r y o f t h e
H o u s e , p a s s e d r e s o l u t i o n s v i l i f y i n g a l l t h o s e w h o s i d e d w i t h t h e Al l i e s
a g a i n s t t h e Na z i s .
Th e Fi r s t La d y g r i t t e d h e r t e e t h a n d t o o k i t . No t u n t i l a y e a r
l a t e r , Fe b r u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , d i d s h e f i n a l l y r e f u s e t o s p o n s o r o r a d d r e s s t h e
C o n g r e s s . Un f o r t u n a t e l y s h e d i d i t w i t h o u t t e a r i n g t h e ma s k f r o m
h e r " y o u n g p e o p l e . " Sh e d i s a v o w e d a n y " d i s i l l u s i o n me n t " w i t h t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s i s t i n g me r e l y t h a t s h e d i d n o t s e e e y e t o e y e w i t h i t o n
Ame r i c a ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Sh e c o u l d d e t e c t n o w r o n g i n t h e i r C o m-
mu n a z i v i e w s o n t h e w a r , b u t h a p p e n e d t o d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e m, t h a t ' s
a l l . In s h o r t , s h e c o n t i n u e d t o t r e a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s t h o u g h i t w e r e
a n i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t Ame r i c a n b o d y , t h i n k i n g o u t p o l i c i e s i n
c o n f o r mi t y w i t h Ame r i c a n i n t e r e s t s !
Ev e n i n b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e g r o u p , Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t t h u s s h i e l d e d i t
a g a i n s t t h e " s l a n d e r s " o f K r e ml i n c o n t r o l - s l a n d e r s a c k n o w l e d g e d a s
t r u e b y c o mmu n i s t l e a d e r s a n d o b v i o u s t o a l l b u t t h e mo s t n a i v e v i c -
t i ms o f St a l i n i s t h o c u s - p o c u s . Af t e r t h e l o n g y e a r s i n w h i c h s h e h a d
t h r o w n t h e c l o a k o f Wh i t e H o u s e p a t r o n a g e a r o u n d t h i s f o r e i g n
a g e n c y , i t w a s h e r mo r a l r i g h t a n d h e r Ame r i c a n d u t y t o a s k : " Wh y
h a v e y o u l e a d e r s o f t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s c h a n g e d y o u r mi n d s
o n f o r e i g n p o l i c y ? Wh y h a v e y o u b e c o me s o e a g e r t o p r e v e n t a B r i t i s h
v i c t o r y o v e r H i t l e r ? Wh y a r e y o u f o l l o w i n g a r o a d i n t h e v e r y o p p o -
2 1 2

TH ERED D EC AD E
s i t e d i r e c t i o n f r o my o u r p r e v i o u s , p r e - p a c t d e s t i n a t i o n ? " Su c h q u e s -
t i o n s , i f a n s w e r e d b o l d l y a n d h o n e s t l y , w o u l d h a v e ma d e c l e a r t o t h e
y o u t h o f Ame r i c a t h a t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o o k i t s l e a d f r o ma f o r e i g n
t y r a n t .
Wh a t e v e r h e r l o g i c , t h e Fi r s t La d y f a i l e d i n h e r d u t y a n d h e r
o p p o r t u n i t y . Sh e l e f t t h e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e i n a p o s i t i o n t o
c a r r y o n i t s w o r k o f o b f u s c a t i o n . Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t r e p r e s e n t s t h e f e l l o w -
t r a v e l e r t y p e a t i t s b e s t - i d e a l i s t i c , e mo t i o n a l , s t u b b o r n i n h o l d i n g o n
t o i l l u s i o n s
. Th e Y o u t h s p o n s o r s h i p w a s o n l y o n e o f d o z e n s o f a c t i v i -
t i e s i n w h i c h s h e i n n o c e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t h e g l a mo r o f h e r n a me , t h e
w e i g h t o f h e r p o s i t i o n , t h e mo r a l c l o a k o f h e r g o o d i n t e n t i o n s t o t h e
K r e ml i n ' s Ame r i c a n f o l l o w e r s . Al i s t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n w h i c h s h e
p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r i n c l u d e s t h e Wo r l d Y o u t h C o n g r e s s ,
t h e So u t h e r n Ne g r o Y o u t h C o n g r e s s , t h e Mo t i o n P i c t u r e Ar t i s t s C o m-
mi t t e e , t h e C h i n a Ai d C o u n c i l o f t h e Ame r i c a n Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d
D e mo c r a c y , t h e Fo s t e r P a r e n t s P l a n f o r Sp a n i s h C h i l d r e n , t h e c o m-
mu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d Lo c a l 5 o f t h e Ame r i c a n Fe d e r a t i o n o f Te a c h e r s ,
t h e Ame r i c a n St u d e n t Un i o n , t h e Wo r k e r s Al l i a n c e , t h e So u t h e r n
C o n f e r e n c e o n H u ma n We l f a r e , t h e Ame r i c a n C o mmu n i c a t i o n s As -
s o c i a t i o n , t h e Na t i o n a l Ne g r o C o n g r e s s , t h e Le a g u e o f Wo me n Sh o p -
p e r s , t h e D a u g h t e r s o f t h e Ame r i c a n D e p r e s s i o n , t h e Fe d e r a l Wo r k e r s
Sc h o o l , t h e Ame r i c a n Ne w s p a p e r Gu i l d , t h e Ame r i c a n Re s c u e Sh i p
Mi s s i o n , e t c . Th e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e i n c o mmo n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y
a r e - o r w e r e - u n d e r f u l l o r p a r t i a l c o mmu n i s t c o n t r o l .
H e r f a i l u r e t o b r e a k s h a r p l y w i t h t h e Y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a n o t h e r
d e mo n s t r a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l o y a l t i e s t h a t s t i l l b i n d f e l l o w -
t r a v e l e r s t o t h e St a l i n i s t c a u s e s , d e s p i t e o u t w a r d d i s a v o w a l s . It ma k e s
t h e ma v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f e v e r y n e w h o a x o r d e r e d b y t h e
C o mmu n i s t P a r t y l e a d e r s .
3
Of t h e t w e n t y ' mi l l i o n s w h o ma k e u p , r o u g h l y , w h a t i s c a l l e d
Ame r i c a n Y o u t h , a b o u t o n e mi l l i o n a r e i n c o l l e g e s a n d n o r ma l s c h o o l s .
Th e Ame r i c a n St u d e n t Un i o n n e v e r c l a i me d mo r e t h a n 2 0 , 0 0 0 o f t h i s
mi l l i o n
. It s d u e s - p a y i n g a d h e r e n t s a t t h e p e a k , i n D e c e mb e r , 1 9 3 8 ,
w e r e p u t a t 9 , 0 0 0
. Of t h e s e , p e r h a p s h a l f w e r e e i t h e r me mb e r s o f t h e
Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e o r w h o l l y c o mmi t t e d t o i t s p r o g r a ma n d
d i s c i p l i n e . B u t t h e Y . C . L
. h a d - a n d h a s - a n a b s o l u t e g r i p o n t h e
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 1 3
A. S. U. ,
w h i c h i n t u r n p l a y s t h e d e c i s i v e r o l e i n t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h
C o n g r e s s , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n c l a i mi n g t o r e p r e s e n t mo r e t h a n 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
a n d t o s p e a k f o r a l l 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
. It a l l a d d s u p t o a p e r f e c t d e mo n s t r a -
t i o n o f t h e c a p a c i t y o f a h i g h l y d i s c i p l i n e d p o l i t i c a l ma c h i n e t o w o r k
i t s w i l l o n a mi l l i o n f o l d a mo r p h o u s ma s s o f u n o r g a n i z e d p e o p l e .
Fr o mt h e b e g i n n i n g t h e A . S. U
. w a s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e a r h e a d a n d
t h e d y n a mi c p o l i t i c a l e l e me n t i n t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s
. Of c o u r s e , i t
a l w a y s h a d t h e d i s c i p l i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f d e l e g a t e s f r o mt h e Y o u n g
C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e , t h e Y o u t h Se c t i o n s o f t h e Ame r i c a n Le a g u e f o r
P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y , t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l Wo r k e r s Or d e r , v a r i o u s c o m-
mu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d C . I. O
. u n i o n s , t h e Na t i o n a l Ne g r o C o n g r e s s , t h e
Wo r k e r s Al l i a n c e a n d a l o n g s e r i e s o f o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d n a me s f o r t h e
s a me t o t a l i t a r i a n ma c h i n e . Ag a i n s t s u c h a b l o c - l e d b y e x p e r t s , f u n c -
t i o n i n g t h r o u g h c a u c u s e s , c o mmi t t e d t o c o n c e a l me n t a n d d u p l i c i t y
a s a ma t t e r o f p o l i c y - t h e d e n o mi n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s , t h e Y
. M.
a n d Y . W. C . A
: s , t h e v a r i o u s l i b e r a l d e l e g a t i o n s , w e r e u t t e r l y h e l p l e s s .
Th e p l u mb i n g o f b l o c c o n t r o l w a s c o n c e a l e d a n d t h e ma j o r i t y w a s
s c a r c e l y c o n s c i o u s t h a t i t w a s b e i n g f o o l e d
.
Th e p r e s t i g e o f t h e A. S. U
. o n t h e Ame r i c a n c a mp u s r o s e r o c k e t -
l i k e w i t h t h e s p r e a d o f t h e i n c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n t o c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s
.
Al w a y s , t h u s , o n e d e p a r t me n t o f t h e a b e r r a t i o n d o v e t a i l e d i n t o a n -
o t h e r , mu l t i p l y i n g t h e c u mu l a t i v e e f f e c t . In B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e a s ma n y
a s 4 8 t e a c h e r s t o o k p a r t i n C o mmu n i s t P a r t y f a c t i o n c a u c u s e s , o u t o f
a f a c u l t y o f s o me 3 0 0
. In d o z e n s o f o t h e r c o l l e g e s , t h e c o n d i t i o n w a s
a n a l o g o u s
. B u t l a r g e o r s ma l l , t h e s e f a c t i o n s c a me i n ma n y p l a c e s t o
d o mi n a t e c o l l e g i a t e l i f e s i n c e t h e y a c t e d t o g e t h e r , s u p p o r t e d o n e
a n o t h e r , a n d c o u l d c o u n t o n t h e a c q u i e s c e n c e i f n o t s u p p o r t o f t h e i r
o w n p e r i p h e r y o f " l i b e r a l " f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s .
C o n t r a r y t o t h e g e n e r a l i mp r e s s i o n , t h e St u d e n t Un i o n o f t e n h a d a
mo r e d i f f i c u l t t i me o f i t i n c i t y a n d s t a t e c o l l e g e s t h a n i n s o me p r i v a t e
a n d mo r e e x c l u s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s
. In p l a c e s l i k e t h e C i t y C o l l e g e o f
Ne w Y o r k o r t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f Wi s c o n s i n t h e c o mmu n i s t s a t l e a s t
h a d t o c o n t e n d w i t h r a d i c a l a n t i - St a l i n i s t s t u d e n t s w h o u n d e r s t o o d
t h e i r t a c t i c s a n d c h a l l e n g e d t h e i r p r e t e n s i o n s
. Li t t l e i f a n y s u c h o p p o -
s i t i o n c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d o n t h e mo r e e x c l u s i v e a n d w e l l - t o - d o c a m-
p u s e s . Th e r e t h e l e a p f r o mi n d i f f e r e n c e t o p s e u d o - c o mmu n i s mh a d
b e e n ma d e b y a l a r g e n u mb e r o f s t u d e n t s a n d p r o f e s s o r s w i t h o u t i n t e r -
me d i a r y s t a t i o n s , p r e c i s e l y a s i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e mi d d l e a n d u p p e r
c l a s s e s .
2 1 4

TH ERED D EC AD E
Ne a r l y e v e r y w h e r e t h e Mu s c o v i t e p r o g r a mt o o k i n me n a n d w o me n
w h o s h o u l d h a v e k n o w n b e t t e r . A
. S. U. c o n f e r e n c e s n o w c o u l d c o u n t
o n t h e d e a n o r p r e s i d e n t a s c h i e f s p e a k e r , a l o n g w i t h s o me o u t s i d e
c o mmu n i s t s b r i n g i n g g r e e t i n g s
. Th e " p e a c e s t r i k e s " - n o w a e u p h e m-
i s mf o r c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y - c o u l d c o u n t i n mo s t p l a c e s o n f a c u l t y
a n d a d mi n i s t r a t i o n s u p p o r t . Ra d i c a l a n d l i b e r a l s t u d e n t s a n d p r o -
f e s s o r s w h o s a w t h r o u g h t h e f r a u d , w h o r e f u s e d t o j o i n i t o r a b a n d o n e d
i t i n d i s i l l u s i o n me n t , w e r e p e r s e c u t e d a s " Tr o t s k y i t e s , " b o y c o t t e d a n d
s u b j e c t e d t o f i l t h y c h a r a c t e r a s s a u l t s .
Th e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t u n i t s a mo n g t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e a d u l t
c o mmu n i s t s a mo n g t h e p r o f e s s o r s o f t e n c a u c u s e d t o g e t h e r
. In ma n y
s c h o o l s t h e y w e r e t h e r e a l p o w e r b e h i n d t h e t h r o n e
. Wh e r e t h e y c o u l d
n o t c a j o l e a n a d mi n i s t r a t i o n i n t o t o e i n g t h e i r l i n e , t h e y r e s o r t e d t o
b r o w b e a t i n g , c a mp u s p i c k e t s , o r g a n i z e d v i t u p e r a t i o n o f f a c u l t y l e a d -
e r s , d e a n s , p r e s i d e n t s . Th e y c o u l d a l w a y s c o u n t o n t h e u n t h i n k i n g
s u p p o r t o f l i b e r a l w e e k l i e s , s e n t i me n t a l c o l u mn i s t s , St a l i n i s t - l e d l o c a l s
o f t h e Te a c h e r s Un i o n
. Th r o u g h i g n o r a n c e o r t h r o u g h f e a r , c a mp u s
a d mi n i s t r a t i o n s i n ma n y p l a c e s e n t e r e d i n t o s i l e n t p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h
t h e c o mmu n i s t t e r r o r .
Th e w h o l e s t o r y o f t h a t t e r r o r h a s n o t y e t b e e n t o l d . It h a s b a r e l y
b e e n s u g g e s t e d i n t h e t e s t i mo n y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e ,
D r
. H a r r y D . Gi d e o n s e , b e f o r e a St a t e l e g i s l a t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o m-
mi t t e e . H e t o l d h o w h i s e f f o r t s t o b r e a k t h e c o mmu n i s t g r i p o n h i s
c o l l e g e ma r k e d h i mf o r f a n t a s t i c c a mp a i g n s o f p i c k e t i n g , a w a r o f
n e r v e s b y me a n s o f n i g h t - t i me t e l e p h o n e c a l l s a n d p e r s o n a l i n s u l t s ,
p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s f r o mf e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e s c h o o l
s y s t e m . Ame mb e r o f h i s f a c u l t y , D r
. B e r n a r d Gr e b a n i e r , h a v i n g p u b -
l i c l y b r o k e n w i t h t h e c o mmu n i s t s , s i mi l a r l y f o u n d h i ms e l f t h e t a r g e t
o f c a r e f u l l y g e n e r a l e d a t t a c k s
. H e w a s o s t r a c i z e d b y h i s f o r me r f r i e n d s ,
s n u b b e d b y f o r me r a d mi r e r s a mo n g t h e s t u d e n t s , p l a s t e r e d w i t h o u t -
r a g e o u s l i b e l s o n h i s p r i v a t e l i f e a n d c h a r a c t e r
. Fo r a t i me t h e r e
w e r e a l s o o p e n a n d p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l b o y c o t t s o f h i s c o u r s e s
.
Mu l t i p l y t h i s p i c t u r e a h u n d r e d f o l d a n d w e h a v e a n i n k l i n g o f
t h e i n c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n o n t h e c a mp u s - w h e n c e i t ma d e i t s e l f f e l t
t h r o u g h Y o u t h g r o u p s o f f t h e c a mp u s , b y d i r e c t a n d c o v e r t c o n t r o l o f
t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s
. Nu me r i c a l l y n e g l i g i b l e , t h e A . S . U
. y e t g a v e t h e
c o l o r o f i t s p o l i t i c a l v i e w s a n d s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o c o l l e g e l i f e a n d i n
l a r g e me a s u r e t o Y o u t h mo v e me n t s g e n e r a l l y . It h a d b e c o me d o mi -
n a n t , a r r o g a n t , f a s h i o n a b l e
. It s 1 9 3 8 c o n v e n t i o n w a s a d d r e s s e d b y
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 1 5
Ma y o r Fi o r e l l o H . La Gu a r d i a o f Ne w Y o r k , b y D r
. Or d w a y Te a d ,
C h a i r ma n o f t h e B o a r d o f H i g h e r Ed u c a t i o n , a n d a n a r r a y o f o t h e r
p u b l i c f i g u r e s . Me s s a g e s o f g r e e t i n g w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o mP r e s i d e n t
Ro o s e v e l t , Go v e r n o r s , Se n a t o r s , C o n g r e s s me n , Re p u b l i c a n a n d D e mo -
c r a t i c l e a d e r s . Th e s e w e r e t h e " d e c o r a t i o n . " Th e l u s t i e s t c h e e r i n g
w a s r e s e r v e d f o r Gi l Gr e e n , H a t h a w a y , B r o w d e r a n d f o r t h e i r s t a n d -
a r d i z e d r e s o l u t i o n s a l o n g t h e c u r r e n t p a r t y l i n e .
Se n s a t i o n a l ma g a z i n e s h a v e a t t e mp t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e p h e n o me n o n
o f c o mmu n i s t p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e c o l l e g e s s i mp l y i n t e r ms o f s e x . Th e
e x p l a n a t i o n i s o n l y p a r t l y t r u e . In e v i t a b l y s e x p l a y s a g r e a t p s y c h o -
l o g i c a l r o l e i n a n y Y o u t h mo v e me n t . Th e u n o r t h o d o x a t t i t u d e s t h a t
g o w i t h r a d i c a l i s mh e l p e d t o a t t r a c t f o l l o w e r s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n
.
B u t s e x w a s o n l y o n e e l e me n t , a n d t h e s ma l l e s t , i n a l a r g e r c u l t u r a l
d e s i g n .
Th e Ame r i c a n St u d e n t Un i o n g a v e i t s f o l l o w e r s c o n c r e t e a n d
c o n v e n i e n t a n s w e r s t o p r e s s i n g q u e s t i o n s , i n y e a r s w h e n D e p r e s s i o n
h a d s t i r r e d u p f e a r s a n d d o u b t s . It g a v e t h e ma s e n s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l
c o mp a n i o n s h i p , a n e x c i t i n g n e w " Ma r x i s t " j a r g o n , a f e e l i n g f o r t h e
v a l i d i t y a n d t h r i l l o f b e i n g a l i v e a n d b e i n g p a r t o f a n u n f o l d i n g h i s -
t o r i c a l p r o c e s s . To p u t t h e ma t t e r b l u n t l y , i t g a v e t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e
w h a t a d e s s i c a t e d a n d r o u t i n i z e d a n d e x c e s s i v e l y " mo d e r n " c u r r i c u l u m
d i d n o t . In u n i t c a u c u s e s a n d " c a u s e p a r t i e s , " i n p i c k e t i n g a n d
s l o g a n e e r i n g , t h e y f o u n d t h e s t i mu l a t i o n w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y t h e y mi s s e d
i n c l a s s r o o ms . Li k e Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t a n d t h e p o l i t i c i a n s , o u r e d u c a t o r s
h a d f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p a n d g u i d a n c e . An i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t -
i c a l p a r t y t o o k t h e i r p l a c e
.
Th e f a u l t , s u r e l y , d o e s n o t r e s t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . It r e s t s w i t h
t h o s e w h o e x p l o i t e d t h e i r y o u t h f u l z e s t f o r a c t i o n a n d t h i r s t f o r
f a i t h . It r e s t s , e v e n mo r e , w i t h t h e e l d e r s w h o r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e a g e - o l d
f u n c t i o n o f l e a d i n g Y o u t h a n d w e r e c o n t e n t t o f o l l o w Y o u t h
.
4
In t h e s u mme r o f 1 9 3 8 t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s p l a y e d h o s t
t o a Wo r l d Y o u t h C o n g r e s s a t Va s s a r C o l l e g e , P o u g h k e e p s i e , Ne w
Y o r k . Un q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e r e w e r e ma n y i n n o c e n t s p r e s e n t , b u t t h e
w h o l e a f f a i r w a s f e r v e n t l y c o mmu n i s t
. Th e w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n h a d
o r i g i n a t e d i n a St u d e n t C o n g r e s s Ag a i n s t Wa r a n d Fa s c i s mi n B r u s -
s e l s , B e l g i u m, f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e . Th e f i r s t Wo r l d Y o u t h C o n g r e s s , h e l d
2
1
6
TH ERED D EC AD E
a t Ge n e v a i n 1 9 3 6 , w a s a t y p i c a l P o p u l a r Fr o n t o c c a s i o n u n d e r
C o mi n t e r n g u i d a n c e
. Th e f a c t a l o n e t h a t t h e s e c o n d w o r l d g a t h e r i n g
w a s b e i n g s t a g e d i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s w a s h i g h t r i b u t e t o Ame r i c a ' s
Re d D e c a d e b y i t s a b s e n t e e p r o mo t e r s
.
Ab r o a d , w h e r e g o v e r n me n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s w e r e l e s s n a i v e a b o u t
s u c h p r o c e e d i n g s , i t w a s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a s a n o t h e r o f St a l i n ' s
f r o n t s
. Th e B r i t i s h La b o r P a r t y f o r t h a t r e a s o n r e f u s e d t o t a k e p a r t .
Th e Un i o n o f So u t h Af r i c a , b r a n d i n g t h e g a t h e r i n g a s p a r t o f t h e
Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t In t e r n a t i o n a l , r e f u s e d p a s s p o r t s t o d e l e g a t e s .
Th e p r e s s i n Mo s c o w c a n d i d l y p l a y e d u p t h e a f f a i r a s a P o p u l a r Fr o n t
t r i u mp h . In Ame r i c a , h o w e v e r , t h o s e w h o c a l l e d t h i s c o mmu n i s t me e t -
i n g b y i t s
r e a l n a me w e r e d e n o u n c e d a s " r e a c t i o n a r i e s " b y t h e " l i b e r a l "
mu d g u n n e r s
. Th e P r e s i d e n t , Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e c o m-
p l a c e n t w i s h f u l - t h i n k i n g g r o u p w h o o p e d i t u p f o r t h e P o u g h k e e p s i e
d e mo n s t r a t i o n w i t h a l l t h e i r mi g h t
.
Th e mo s t a c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a c k i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y f o r t h e
Va s s a r c o n g r e s s c a me f r o mt h e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e , t h e Ame r -
i c a n Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y , t h e Ame r i c a n St u d e n t Un i o n ,
t h e Na t i o n a l Ne g r o Y o u t h C o n g r e s s - d i f f e r e n t n a me s f o r t h e s a me
c l i q u e
. Th e l o u d e s t p r e s s s u p p o r t c a me f r o mt h e D a i l y Wo r k e r , t h e
Ne w Ma s s e s , Fi g h t , C h a mp i o n o f Y o u t h a n d o t h e r p a r t y p a p e r s . Th e
Ame r i c a n d e l e g a t i o n w a s , o f c o u r s e , t h e l a r g e s t . It w a s s o p r e p o n d e r -
a n t l y c o mmu n i s t t h a t n o o n e f a mi l i a r w i t h t h e Le f t c o u l d h a v e d o u b t s
a b o u t t h e c o l o r o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e .
Th e d e l e g a t i o n c o u n t e d Ja me s Le r n e r , Ma r i a n B r i g g s , Jo s e p h La s h ,
Ed w a r d F. St r o n g , Le o n St r a u s , Jo s e p h C a d d e n , Wi l l i a mH i n c k l e y ,
a n d a d o z e n o t h e r f o l l o w e r s o f t h e p a r t y l i n e o f t h a t p e r i o d . * Ame r i -
c a n s a c t i n g a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s i n c l u d e d C e l e s t e
St r a c k o f t h e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e . Th e f o r e i g n d e l e g a t e s w e r e
f o r t h e mo s t p a r t t h e Gi l Gr e e n s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n a t i o n s - C o m-
mu n i s t Y o u t h l e a d e r s l i k e Ra y mo n d Gu y o t o f Fr a n c e , D a v e K a s h t o n
o f C a n a d a , Er n e s t o Gu i d i c e o f Ar g e n t i n e , a n d Jo h n Go l l o n o f En g -
l a n d
. Th e v i s i t o r s ' s e c t i o n s w e r e c o n s t a n t l y j a mme d w i t h w e l l - k n o w n
Ame r i c a n c o mr a d e s
. An d , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e s o l u t i o n s f i n a l l y a d o p t e d
w e r e t h e r o u t i n e Fo u r t h P e r i o d f o r mu l a t i o n s o n e v e r y t h i n g u n d e r t h e
s u n .
B u t n o n e o f t h i s s u f f i c e d t o w a r n w e l l - me a n i n g d u p e s
. Th e P r e s i -
* So me o f t h e m, o f c o u r s e , h a v e s i n c e t h e n r e p u d i a t e d St a l i n i s m
.
STALIN' SC H ILD REN' SH OURINU. S. A.

2 1 7
d e n t o f Va s s a r , D r
. H e n r y N. Mc C r a c k e n , i n a p r e s s s t a t e me n t ma d e
t h e l u d i c r o u s e s t i ma t e o f 5 t o 1 0 c o mmu n i s t s p r e s e n t . H e mu s t h a v e
f e l t h i ms e l f b e t r a y e d w h e n t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l Se c r e t a r y o f t h e g a t h e r -
i n g , B e t t y Sh i e l d s - C o l l i n s , h e r s e l f a d mi t t e d t h a t a mo n g t h e d e l e g a t e s
w e r e " 2 1 r e p r e s e n t i n g c o mmu n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " Ru n n i n g o n e ' s
f i n g e r d o w n t h e l i s t o f d e l e g a t e s , i t i s e a s y e n o u g h t o s p o t t e n t i me s a s
ma n y a s D r
. Mc C r a c k e n e s t i ma t e d .
Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t , i n h e r d a i l y c o l u mn , c i t e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o n f e r -
e n c e o p e n e d a n d c l o s e d w i t h a p r a y e r a s p r o o f t h a t i t w a s n o t c o m-
mu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d . H a d s h e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s e ma t t e r s o n w h i c h s h e
a c t e d s o i mp u l s i v e l y , s h e w o u l d h a v e l e a r n e d t h a t p r a y e r s w e r e s p e c i f i -
c a l l y i n c l u d e d a mo n g t h e Tr o j a n H o r s e t a c t i c s t a u g h t t o c o mr a d e s .
B r o w d e r ' s " d e mo c r a t i c f r o n t " w a s ma k i n g e y e s a t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h
j u s t t h e n , l e t a l o n e t h e l i b e r a l P r o t e s t a n t d e n o mi n a t i o n s , a n d a f e w
p r a y e r s w e r e t h e l e a s t o f t h e c o n c e s s i o n s t h e y w e r e r e a d y t o ma k e .
Th e Fi r s t La d y a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f Va s s a r w e r e d e mo n s t r a t i n g
h o w e a s y i t w a s t o t a k e i n s u c h i n n o c e n t s
. Th e i r b e h a v i o r p r o v i d e s t h e
mo s t i mp r e s s i v e a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n : H o w d i d t h e c o mmu n i s t s
ma n a g e t o p u t i t o v e r ? Th e a n s w e r i s l e s s i n t h e i r o w n t a l e n t s t h a n i n
t h e e a g e r g u l l i b i l i t y o f t h e v i c t i ms
. Mo s t o f t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s l i t e r a -
t u r e a n d l e t t e r h e a d s w e r e p r i n t e d o n t h e s a me p r e s s e s a s t h e C o m-
mu n i s t P a r t y ' s l i t e r a t u r e . C o mp a r i s o n s o f C o n g r e s s p r o n o u n c e me n t s
w i t h t h o s e o f t h e p a r t y o n t h e s a me s u b j e c t r e v e a l s t a r t l i n g s i mi l a r i t y
n o t o n l y i n c o n t e n t b u t s o me t i me s i n p h r a s i n g . Th e s e w e r e ma t t e r s
s p r e a d o n t h e r e c o r d a n d e a s i l y s u b j e c t t o c h e c k i n g .
Y e t t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n a n d v a r i o u s C o n g r e s s i o n a l C o mmi t t e e s
c o n t i n u e d t o t r e a t t h e h e a d s o f t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h g r o u p a s t h e
v o i c e o f y o u n g Ame r i c a i n s t e a d o f t h e v o i c e o f o l d Mo s c o w . It w a s
n o s e c r e t t h a t t h e Y o u n g C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e w a s p a y i n g r a i l r o a d e x -
p e n s e s f o r d e l e g a t e s t o c o n f e r e n c e s t o s w e l l t h e o s t e n s i b l y n o n - c o m-
mu n i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . B e f o r e t h e Th i r d C o n g r e s s , t h e n a t i o n a l o f f i -
c e r s o f t h e Y
. W. C . A. f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o w a r n t h e i r l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s
a g a i n s t b e i n g b r i b e d b y s u c h s u b s i d i e s . Th a t , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t d e t e r
Mr
. Ro o s e v e l t f r o ms e n d i n g h i s f r a t e r n a l l o v e t o t h e me e t i n g , o r
v a r i o u s D e mo c r a t i c a n d Re p u b l i c a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s f r o mf o l l o w i n g h i s
l e a d . In
t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n , t h e Ame r i c a n So c i a l i s t Mo n t h l y e s t i -
ma t e d , " o f t h e e l e v e n h u n d r e d d e l e g a t e s a b o u t s e v e n o r e i g h t h u n d r e d
w e r e c o mmu n i s t s . . . a b o u t 1 0 0 w e r e s o c i a l i s t s a n d t r a d e - u n i o n i s t s ,
t h e b a l a n c e w e r e l i b e r a l s a n d c h u r c h g r o u p s . "
2 1
8
TH ERED D EC AD E
In a c a r e f u l l y d o c u me n t e d p a mp h l e t , Mu r r a y P l a v n e r p r o v e d t h e
c o mmu n i s t d o mi n a t i o n o f t h e Y o u t h C o n g r e s s t o t h e h i l t . * Th e s e l f -
a p p o i n t e d c h a mp i o n s o f t h a t c u mu l a t i v e d e c e p t i o n o f Ame r i c a n Y o u t h
d i d n o t r e p l y t o t h e c h a l l e n g e . Th e y s i mp l y i g n o r e d Mr . P l a v n e r ,
t h u s i mp l y i n g t h a t t h e c o mmu n i s t i n s u l t s a g a i n s t h i mw e r e d e s e r v e d .
H i s w a s t h e f a t e r e s e r v e d f o r a l l w h o t r i e d t o b r i n g f a c t s a n d l o g i c
t o b e a r a g a i n s t u n t h i n k i n g f e r v o r . B u t h i s r e c o r d s t a n d s a s a r e p r o o f
t o t h e t w i t t e r i n g a n d s e l f - r i g h t e o u s p a t r o n s o f St a l i n ' s c h i l d r e n ' s h o u r .
Th e y e a r s s i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s e x p o s e h a v e me r e l y c o n f i r me d
o v e r w h e l mi n g l y h i s e v e r y c h a r g e .
Th e c o n t r o v e r s y a r o u n d t h e p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e Ame r i c a n
St u d e n t Un i o n , t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s a n d t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d
f r o n t s c a n n o t b e d i s mi s s e d l i g h t l y . Th e c o mmu n i s t s t r a n g l e h o l d o n
Y o u t h mo v e me n t s h a s l e f t d e e p i mp r i n t s o n Ame r i c a n l i f e a n d
t h o u g h t . It i s p e r h a p s t h e s t r o n g e s t i n g r e d i e n t i n t h a t s k e p t i c i s ma n d
d i s i l l u s i o n me n t w h i c h i s n o w ma k i n g s o ma n y o f o u r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s
i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e f a t e o f d e mo c r a c y . Th o u s a n d s o f t h o s e w h o w e r e
i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h c o mmu n i s t a mo r a l i s mw i l l h e l p t o s h a p e o u r
Ame r i c a n l i f e o f t o mo r r o w . Ma n y o f t h e ma r e t o d a y i n p l a c e s o f
s t r a t e g i c i mp o r t a n c e i n o u r n a t i o n a l l i f e . H a v i n g r e g i me n t e d a s i z a b l e
s e c t o r o f o u r y o u t h , t h e c o mmu n i s t s h a d n o t r o u b l e i n s w i t c h i n g
t h e mf r o mo n e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t o t h e e x a c t c o n t r a r y p o s i t i o n . Th e
K r e ml i n h a d o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e r a g e i n ma n i p u l a t i n g o u r y o u t h .
Th e e d u c a t o r s a n d p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a n d o t h e r s w h o c o l l a b o r a t e d
t o ma k e t h i s p o s s i b l e c a n n o w ma k e a me n d s i n o n l y o n e w a y . It i s
b y h e l p i n g e x p o s e St a l i n i s t p e n e t r a t i o n , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
e x p o s u r e w i l l l e a v e i n d e l i b l e s t a i n s o n t h e i r o w n r e c o r d s f o r g o o d s e n s e
a n d s o u n d j u d g me n t .
* Is t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s a C o mmu n i s t Fr o n t ? b y Mu r r a y P l a v n e r ,
1 9 3 9 .
C H AP TERXIX
STALINMUSC LESINONAMERIC ANLAB OR
1
S
C AB a n d a s s a s s i n w e r e a mo n g t h e s t a n d a r d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Jo h n
L
. Le w i s , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Un i t e d Mi n e Wo r k e r s o f Ame r i c a ,
c u r r e n t i n g o o d c o mmu n i s t s o c i e t y b e f o r e t h e f l o w e r i n g o f t h e
P o p u l a r Fr o n t
. Le w i s , w h o i s n o s l o u c h i n n a me - c a l l i n g h i ms e l f , p a i d
b a c k i n f u l l me a s u r e
. H e c a r r i e d h i s r a n k i n g a s Nu mb e r On e c o m-
mu n i s t - b a i t e r w i t h a s w a g g e r , p r o u d o f me r i t r e c o g n i z e d
. As l o n g a g o
a s 1 9 2 4 h i s u n i o n f i n a n c e d a n d p u b l i s h e d a n - e a r n e s t i f s l i g h t l y h e c t i c
s t u d y e n t i t l e d At t e mp t
. b y C o mmu n i s t s t o Se i z e t h e Ame r i c a n La b o r
Mo v e me n t .
" Th e c o mmu n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n o n t h e Ame r i c a n c o n t i n e n t , " i t
a s s e r t e d , " i s c o mp o s e d o f mo r e t h a n s i x t h o u s a n d a c t i v e l e a d e r s a n d
l i e u t e n a n t s , a n d a p p r o x i ma t e l y o n e mi l l i o n me mb e r s , " w h o s e p u r p o s e
i t i s t o c a p t u r e t r a d e u n i o n s " a s a s t r a t e g i c i n s t r u me n t i n f u l f i l l me n t o f
t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e s i g n s
. " Th e H o n . H e n r y C a b o t Lo d g e ma d e t h e
c h a r g e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d b y p r e s e n t i n g i t t o t h e Se n a t e
. Tw o y e a r s l a t e r
Mr
. Le w i s d e c l a i me d b e f o r e a c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e Ame r i c a n Fe d e r a t i o n
o f La b o r :
We a r e f u n d a me n t a l l y c o n c e r n e d , h o w e v e r , w h e n t h a t i n t e r e s t
w h i c h n o w e x e r t s a d i c t a t o r s h i p o v e r 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e i n Ru s s i a s y s -
t e ma t i c a l l y a n d p e r s i s t e n t l y a t t e mp t s t o i mp o s e t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y a n d
i mp o s e t h e i r t h e o r i e s o f g o v e r n me n t a n d i mp o s e t h e i r o w n p a r t i c u l a r
ma c h i n e r y a n d t h e i r o w n s p e c i f i c i d e a s u p o n t h e w o r k e r s o f a l l o t h e r
c o u n t r i e s o f t h e c i v i l i z e d w o r l d . . . . Fo r y e a r s p a s t , o u r u n i o n h a s b e e n
s u b j e c t t o t h e i r d e c e i t f u l a t t a c k s , t o t h e i r i n t r i g u e s a n d t o t h e i r c o n -
s p i r a c y .
H i s h a r a n g u e s o n t h e s u b j e c t , i n f a c t , b e c a me f a mi l i a r c o n v e n t i o n f a r e
.
In k i c k i n g o u t Jo h n B r o p h y , P o w e r s H a p g o o d a n d o t h e r r e b e l s f r o m
h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , h e b r a n d e d t h e m
. o n e a n d a l l a s c o mmu n i s t s t o o g e s
w i t h t h e s i z z l i n g i r o n s o f h i s s p e c i a l v o c a b u l a r y f o r t h e s u b j e c t
.
2 1 9
2 2 0

TH ERED D EC AD E
Su c h w a s t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e l o v e a f f a i r b e t w e e n Le w i s a n d t h e
St a l i n i s t s w h i c h s u d d e n l y t u r n e d t h e b e e t l e - b r o w e d o g r e i n t o t h e h e r o
o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , i t s f r i e n d s w i t h i n t h e Ne w D e a l , a n d i t s
w h o l e e mp i r e o f f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Th e f o r ma t i o n o f t h e C o mmi t t e e
( n o w C o n g r e s s ) o f In d u s t r i a l Or g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e A. F. o f L. l a t e
i n 1 9 3 5 c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e l a u n c h i n g o f Mo s c o w ' s " d e mo c r a t i c p o p u -
l a r u n i t e d f r o n t
. " Th e c o mr a d e s h a d c a s t o f f t h e l a s t l i n g e r i n g i n h i b i -
t i o n s a b o u t w o r k i n g w i t h " r e a c t i o n a r i e s
. " Un d e r t h e b a n n e r o f c o m-
mu n i s m- i s - t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y - Ame r i c a n i s mt h e r e w a s r o o mf o r Le w i s ,
Fa t h e r D i v i n e , t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , t h e So c i a l Re g i s t e r a n d Ma y o r
K e l l y o f C h i c a g o
. Ev e r y t h i n g w e n t .
On h i s s i d e , Le w i s n e e d e d me n s k i l l e d i n a g i t a t i o n
. H i s i ma g i n a -
t i o n w a s a f l a me w i t h t h e v i s i o n o f mi l l i o n s o f u n o r g a n i z e d me n a n d
w o me n i n t h e ma s s - p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s e n r o l l e d i n a g r e a t h o r i -
z o n t a l l a b o r f e d e r a t i o n u n d e r h i s c o mma n d
. Th e j o b w a s t o o u r g e n t
f o r s q u e a mi s h n e s s i n c h o o s i n g o r g a n i z e r s a n d l e a d e r s
.
Wh i l e t h e r e w e r e p l e n t y o f u n e mp l o y e d t r a d e - u n i o n o r g a n i z e r s
o f mo r e t e mp e r a t e s t r i p e a v a i l a b l e , t h e y h a d n o t b e e n s o e f f e c t i v e l y
c o n d i t i o n e d t o h a t i n g Wi l l i a mGr e e n a n d t h e Ame r i c a n Fe d e r a t i o n
o f La b o r a s t h e f o o t - l o o s e c o mmu n i s t s
. B e s i d e s , t h e c o mmu n i s t s h a d
f o r ma n y y e a r s s o u g h t t o o b t a i n a g r i p o n ma n y o f t h e v e r y i n d u s t r i e s
w h i c h Le w i s n o w a i me d t o o r g a n i z e . Al t h o u g h t h e i r e f f o r t s h a d b e e n
c o n s i s t e n t l y s t e r i l e , t h e y d i d h a v e t h e s k e l e t o n o f a n a p p a r a t u s i n t h e
f i e l d s o f s t e e l , e l e c t r i c i t y , t r a n s p o r t , ma c h i n e r y , a u t o mo b i l e s , s h i p p i n g
.
Th e y h a d me n l i k e Ju l e s Ems p a c h a n d Ja me s Ma t l e s o n h a n d
i n t h e
e l e c t r i c a l i n d u s t r y , Wy n d h a mMo r t i me r i n t h e D e t r o i t a u t o mo t i v e
a r e a , Jo h n Sa n t o i n t h e Ne w Y o r k t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m, a l o t o f w e l l -
e n t r e n c h e d s t o o g e s a mo n g ma r i t i me a n d d o c k w o r k e r s . Le w i s s e n s e d
t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f t h i s e mb r y o n i c a p p a r a t u s , n o w h i s f o r t h e t a k i n g
.
H e t o o k i t
. Wh a t i f t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e l a y b e y o n d o u r Ame r i c a n s h o r e s ?
H e w o u l d s t r a i g h t e n o u t s u c h d e t a i l s l a t e r .
In h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r r o g a n c e h e n e v e r d o u b t e d h e c o u l d k e e p
t h e mu n d e r c o n t r o l
. " It ' s a g o o d r u l e t o w o r k w i t h a n y o n e w h o w i l l
w o r k w i t h y o u , " h e s a i d w h e n q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t t h e g r o w i n g n u mb e r
o f k n o w n c o mmu n i s t s i n h i s o f f i c e r s ' c o r p s
. At a n o t h e r t i me h e r e -
ma r k e d , " Wh o g e t s t h e b i r d , t h e h u n t e r o r t h e d o g ? "
H e u n d e r v a l u e d St a l i n ' s d o g s
. No r d i d i t o c c u r t o h i m, i n t h e
p r i d e o f h i s l e a d e r s h i p , t h a t h e mi g h t b e t h e b i r d a n d t h a t t h e h u n t e r s
w e r e w o r k i n g f r o ma Un i o n Sq u a r e c o v e r
. In a n y c a s e , h e o p e n e d w i d e
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 2 1
t h e g a t e s o f t h e C . I. O. t o o u t r i g h t a n d t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d c o mmu n i s t s ,
h u n d r e d s o f t h e m
. No w t h a t r e a l i t y h a d c a u g h t u p w i t h h i s e x a g g e r a t e d
f i g u r e s o f a d e c a d e b e f o r e , h e ma d e p e a c e a n d a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h " t h e i r
c o n s p i r a c y . " H e w e l c o me d b a c k d o z e n s o f o r g a n i z e r s w h o mh e h a d
h i ms e l f r e p e a t e d l y a c c u s e d o f b e i n g t o o l s o f Mo s c o w . Wh e n t h e
C . I . O. h a d b r o k e n a w a y f r o mt h e A . F. o f L. , h e p u t ma n y o f B r o w d e r ' s
f a v o r i t e s , me n w h o w e r e f a mi l i a r f i g u r e s a t p a r t y ma s s me e t i n g s a n d
i n p a r t y In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s , i n c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s o n h i s o r g a n i z i n g s t a f f
.
B u t h e k e p t t h e mo u t o f h i s o w n Un i t e d Mi n e Wo r k e r s u n i o n a s
r i g i d l y a s e v e r i n t h e p a s t - h e w a s n ' t ma k i n g a n y e x p e r i me n t s w i t h h i s
o w n b a b y w h e n t h e r e w e r e s o ma n y o r p h a n e d i n d u s t r i e s t o w o r k o n .
Th e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t Le w i s i n t e n d e d t o u s e t h e c o mmu n i s t s
a n d d i s c a r d t h e m, o r a t l e a s t t o t a me t h e mt o h i s p u r p o s e s
. Th e r e i s
l e s s d o u b t t h a t t h e y e n t r e n c h e d t h e ms e l v e s t o a d e g r e e t h a t g a v e t h e m
t h e u p p e r h a n d
. Th e r e i s e v e n a mp l e r o o mf o r s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e
h u n t e r s g o t t h e i r b i r d
.
Wh a t e l s e c o u l d e x p l a i n Le w i s ' s e e mi n g l y s l a v i s h a d h e s i o n t o e v e r y
c h a n g e i n t h e o f f i c i a l c o mmu n i s t p o l i c i e s d i c t a t e d f r o mt h e K r e ml i n ?
Th e o l d ma e s t r o t u r n e d o n t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d t h e Ne w D e a l a b o u t t h e
t i me t h a t a l l o f Mo s c o w ' s a g e n t s d i d s o
. H e d r o p p e d h i s f i g h t o n
H i t l e r i s mf o r s u p p o r t o f t h e p a r t y ' s i s o l a t i o n i s t s l o g a n s , a n d " i mp e r i a l -
i s m" d i s p l a c e d f a s c i s mi n h i s v o c a b u l a r y w h e n t h e w a r s t a r t e d
. * H e
h a s s i d e d i n v a r i a b l y w i t h t h e St a l i n i s t f a c t i o n s i n t h e mu l t i t u d i n o u s
u n i o n d i s p u t e s
. H e h a s n o t e v e n s c r u p l e d t o g o f a r b e y o n d h i s c o n s t i t u -
t i o n a l p o w e r s t o n u l l i f y a n i mp o r t a n t r e g i o n a l me e t i n g w h o s e a c t i o n s
w e r e n o t t o t h e t a s t e o f t h e c o mmu n i s t s
.
Th e d e s p e r a t e a t t e mp t t o k e e p h i mi n t h e p r e s i d e n c y , n o t w i t h -
s t a n d i n g h i s p u b l i c p r o mi s e t o r e s i g n i f We n d e l l Wi l l k i e w e r e d e -
f e a t e d , w a s c o n d u c t e d b y a l l t h e u n i o n s i n t h e c o mmu n i s t b l o c
; s t r o n g
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o n t h e C
. I. O
. Ex e c u t i v e w a s t h e i r c o mp e n s a t i o n f o r
a g r e e i n g t o P h i l i p Mu r r a y a s Le w i s ' s u c c e s s o r
. Si n c e t h e n t h e i r h o l d
o n t h e C . I. O
. ma c h i n e r y h a s b e e n p o w e r f u l e n o u g h t o k e e p Le e
P r e s s me n , Le n D e C a u x a n d o t h e r f a v o r i t e s o f t h e p a r t y - l i n e r s i n o f f i c e
u n d e r t h e n e w a d mi n i s t r a t i o n
. Wh e n t h e Ama l g a ma t e d C l o t h i n g
Wo r k e r s Un i o n , h e a d e d b y Si d n e y H i l l ma n , a n d o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t
u n i o n s a c c e p t e d Mu r r a y a s Le w i s ' s u c c e s s o r , t h e t a c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g
* Wh e t h e r a n d h o w Mr
. Le w i s w i l l a d j u s t h i s i s o l a t i o n i s mt o t h e n e w s i t u a t i o n
c r e a t e d f o r s o ma n y o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s b y t h e Na z i a t t a c k o n Ru s s i a i n Ju n e , 1 9 4 1 ,
i s n o t y e t c l e a r a t t h i s w r i t i n g
.
2 2
2
TH ERED D EC AD E
w a s t h a t t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n s w o u l d b e r e s t r a i n e d i f n o t e x p e l l e d
. In
p r a c t i c e Mu r r a y h a s i g n o r e d t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g
. At e v e r y c r u c i a l
j u n c t u r e h e h a s p l a c a t e d t h e c o mr a d e s i n h i s e n t o u r a g e . In s t e a d o f a
n e w p r e s i d e n t , t h e C . I. O. , i t s o o n a p p e a r e d , me r e l y h a d a p r o x y p r e x y
.
Th e l a u n c h i n g o f t h e C . I. O. me t a d e f i n i t e n e e d f o r t h e h o r i z o n t a l
o r i n d u s t r i a l t y p e o f a l l - i n c l u s i v e u n i o n s . Th e o l d c r a f t u n i o n i s mw a s
n a r r o w a n d o u t mo d e d f o r i n d u s t r i e s w h e r e s p e c i a l i z e d c r a f t s ma n s h i p
w a s a t a mi n i mu m
. It c o i n c i d e d a l s o w i t h t h e Wa g n e r Ac t , t h e a p p a -
r a t u s o f t h e Na t i o n a l La b o r Re l a t i o n s B o a r d , a n d a mi g h t y i mp u l s e
t o w a r d l a b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n
. Th e C . I. O. , a n d i t s St a l i n i s t s e c t o r s i n
p a r t i c u l a r , h a d t h e t a c i t c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n me n t a n d t h e f r a n k
s u p p o r t o f k e y p e o p l e i n k e y p l a c e s l i k e t h e
N. L. R. B . , t h e Ma r i t i me
La b o r B o a r d a n d t h e La Fo l l e t t e C i v i l Li b e r t i e s C o mmi t t e e
. It mo v e d
f o r w a r d b y h u g e l e a p s .
Wo r k e r s i n t h e a u t o mo b i l e , s t e e l , r u b b e r , s h i p b u i l d i n g a n d a s c o r e
mo r e i n d u s t r i e s a c c e p t e d t h e n e w l e a d e r s h i p . Th e y n e i t h e r a s k e d n o r
c a r e d a b o u t t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e me n t h e y f o l l o w e d , a n d n o o n e i n h i s
s e n s e s c a n b l a me t h e m . Th e b l a me r e s t s e l s e w h e r e
. B e n Go l d , t h e
o n l y c o mmu n i s t l a b o r l e a d e r w h o a d mi t s i t , t o o k h i s f u r w o r k e r s i n t o
t h e C . I. O
. Th e l a t e H e y w o o d B r o u n , t h e n i n t h e f l u s h o f h i s c o m-
mu n i s t i n c a r n a t i o n , l e d t h e Ame r i c a n Ne w s p a p e r Gu i l d i n t o t h e f o l d .
Ne a r l y a l l o t h e r St a l i n o i d u n i o n s a b a n d o n e d t h e A. F. o f L. f o r t h e
C . I. O
. B y l a t e 1 9 3 7 Le w i s s t o o d a t t h e h e a d o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t
c l a i me d o v e r f o u r mi l l i o n me mb e r s a n d w a s c o n c e d e d t h r e e mi l l i o n s
b y n e u t r a l l a b o r j o u r n a l i s t s . Th e C . I. O
. w a s a s l a r g e a s t h e p a r e n t
f e d e r a t i o n a n d a p p a r e n t l y d e s t i n e d t o o u t g r o w i t .
Th e n i t b e g a n t o s l i d e . As e r i e s o f u n a u t h o r i z e d w i l d c a t s i t - d o w n
s t r i k e s d e a l t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r i o u s b l o w s . Th e s e s t r i k e s w e r e c l a i me d
a s v i c t o r i e s f o r c o mmu n i s t t a c t i c s b y B r o w d e r ' s p r e s s , i n t o n e s w h i c h
l e f t s ma l l ma r g i n f o r d o u b t a s t o w h o f o me n t e d t h e m . St a l i n i s t c o n -
t r o l g r e w a t t h e c o s t o f g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y . In t e r n a l s c h i s m
s h a t t e r e d p r o mi s i n g u n i o n s
. Ru l e - o r - r u i n s t r u g g l e s f o r c o n t r o l f r i t t e r e d
a w a y e n d l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s . C . I. O
. me mb e r s h i p f e l l o f f b e l o w t h e t w o -
mi l l i o n ma r k .
In v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d o t h e r p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s c u r b e d
N. L. R. B . s u p p o r t
. Le w i s w a s o b l i g e d t o r e mo v e h i ms e l f f r o mo p e n
l e a d e r s h i p , t o o p e r a t e b e h i n d t h e w i n g s t h r o u g h P h i l i p Mu r r a y a n d
o t h e r s .
Th e f e d e r a t i o n s e e me d d e f i n i t e l y o n t h e d o w n g r a d e w h e n h i s t o r y
i n t e r v e n e d . Af t e r s o me h e s i t a t i o n , Ame r i c a u n d e r t o o k a l l - o u t d e f e n s e
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 2 3
a n d a i d - t o - B r i t a i n p r o g r a ms w h i c h v a s t l y s t i mu l a t e d j u s t t h o s e i n d u s -
t r i e s w h e r e t h e C . I. O. w a s a t w o r k . B e t h l e h e mSt e e l , Fo r d Mo t o r s , t h e
So u t h e r n c o a l o p e r a t o r s a n d o t h e r g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l g r o u p s k n u c k l e d
u n d e r . B y mi d - 1 9 4 1 C . I. O. me mb e r s h i p w a s a t a n e w h i g h , p r o b a b l y
o v e r 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . B e c a u s e i t w a s e n t r e n c h e d i n p r o d u c t i o n f i e l d s
c l o s e s t t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Ame r i c a n l i f e w a s f a r
g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e Ame r i c a n Fe d e r a t i o n o f La b o r
.
Th e c o mmu n i s t c a n c e r i n t h e C . I. O. g r e w i n ma l i g n a n c y w i t h
e v e r y p a s s i n g mo n t h
. P r e c i s e l y i n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e f e d e r a t i o n ' s g r e a t -
e s t e x p a n s i o n , So v i e t c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s t o Na z i Ge r ma n y c a l l e d
f o r s t r i k e s i n d e f e n s e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h e mb i t t e r e d Ame r i c a n o p i n i o n
a g a i n s t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d e e p e n e d t h e f e s t e r i n g p o l i t i c a l e n mi t i e s
a n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C
. I. O. ( We s h a l l l o o k mo r e c l o s e l y a t
t h o s e s t r i k e s i n a n o t h e r c h a p t e r . ) No ma t t e r h o w b i g a n d s t r o n g i t ma y
b e c o me , i t s u n i t y a n d i t s v e r y l i f e w i l l b e c o n t i n u a l l y i n d a n g e r b y
r e a s o n o f t h i s a l i e n e l e me n t i n a n Ame r i c a n l a b o r b o d y .
Fo r t h e f o r ma l r e c o r d , t h e r e a r e n o c o mmu n i s t s a n d f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s
a t t h e h e l m
; n o t e v e n H a r r y B r i d g e s , We s t C o a s t d i r e c t o r , w h o w a s
a c t i v e i n c o mmu n i s t w o r k y e a r s b e f o r e t h e C
. I. O. w a s b o r n ; n o t e v e n
Mi c h a e l Q u i l l o f t h e Tr a n s p o r t Wo r k e r s Un i o n o r Jo s e p h C u r r a n o f
t h e Ma r i t i me Wo r k e r s Un i o n
; n o t e v e n Wy n d h a mMo r t i me r , w h o
w a s k n o w n t o f e l l o w - me mb e r s o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y a s Ge o r g e
B a k e r
. Th e p u b l i c c a n b e c o n f u s e d b y s u c h q u i b b l i n g . B u t i n t h e
u n i o n s t h e St a l i n i s t s a r e k n o w n a t o n c e t o a l l b u t t h e mo s t n a i v e b y
t h e p o l i c i e s t h e y f o l l o w w i t h s u c h a ma z i n g u n a n i mi t y , t h e p o l i t i c a l
c o mp a n y t h e y k e e p , e v e n b y t h e e p i t h e t s t h e y a p p l y t o o p p o n e n t s .
In d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f C . I. O. d e c l i n e b e f o r e i t s w a r t i me
r e v i v a l , B e n j a mi n St o l b e r g , o n e o f t h e a b l e s t l a b o r j o u r n a l i s t s i n t h e
c o u n t r y , w r o t e i n t h e Sa t u r d a y Ev e n i n g P o s t :
Th e r e i s o n e b a s i c r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e C
. I. O. Al l
o t h e r r e a s o n s f l o w f r o mi t
. Th e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , w h i c h p e n e t r a t e d
t h e C
. I. O. f r o mt h e b e g i n n i n g , h a s i n c r e a s i n g l y d o mi n a t e d i t s p o l i c i e s ,
s u b v e r t e d i t s p u r p o s e s , d i s s i p a t e d i t s e n e r g i e s a n d d i s r u p t e d i t s u n i o n s .
Th e t r u t h o f h i s j u d g me n t h a s b e e n c o n f i r me d r e p e a t e d l y s i n c e
t h e n , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e n u me r i c a l e x p a n s i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n
.
Un t i l t h e Na z i w a r o n Ru s s i a c h a n g e d t h e p i c t u r e , t h e i s s u e o f d e f e n s e
s t r i k e s r a c k e d t h e w h o l e C . I
. O
. a n d a t t i me s t h r e a t e n e d i t s l i f e
.
2 2 4 TH ERED D EC AD E
Fa n t a s t i c t h o u g h i t s o u n d s t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d , a f o r e i g n g o v e r n me n t
a n d f o r e i g n i s s u e s a r e f a r mo r e i mp o r t a n t i n t h e l i f e o f a g r e a t Ame r i -
c a n l a b o r f e d e r a t i o n t h a n a n y p u r e l y Ame r i c a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ! Lo c a l
a n d n a t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g s o f C . I. O. u n i t s a r e p r i ma r i l y a r e n a s f o r f r a t r i -
c i d a l c o n f l i c t o v e r t h e t w i s t i n g Mo s c o w p a r t y l i n e
.
In e v e r y s u c h c o n f l i c t t h e d i v i s i o n o f f o r c e s i s a s g o o d a s a r o l l
c a l l
. Th e u n i o n s n o t o r i o u s l y u n d e r St a l i n i s t i n f l u e n c e - s u c h a s l o n g -
s h o r e me n , t r a n s p o r t , ma r i t i me , n e w s p a p e r , c o mmu n i c a t i o n s , f u r r i e r s ,
g o v e r n me n t e mp l o y e e s , w o o d w o r k e r s , c a n n e r y w o r k e r s , o f f i c e e m-
p l o y e e s , d i e - c a s t e r s , a i r c r a f t l o c a l s , e t c . - o p e r a t e a s a t i g h t , d i s c i p l i n e d
b l o c . It w a s b y d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e i r mi n o r i t y , a c t i n g a l w a y s t o g e t h e r i n
c o n f o r mi t y w i t h c a u c u s - ma d e d e c i s i o n s , t h a t t h e y o b t a i n e d d i s p r o p o r -
t i o n a t e w e i g h t i n t h e C
. I . O. It i s b y t h e s a me me t h o d s t h a t t h e y
i n t e n d t o h o l d i t , w h a t e v e r t h e c o s t i n t e r ms o f l a b o r u n i o n i s m
.
2
P r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y o n e me n t i o n e d i n t h i s b o o k w o u l d n o t h e s i t a t e ,
u n d e r o a t h , t o d e n y t h a t h e i s i n f a c t o r b y c o n v i c t i o n a c o mmu n i s t
.
Su c h d e n i a l s a r e p a r t o f t h e K r e ml i n c o d e
. We a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a c o n -
s p i r a c y , r a t h e r t h a n a n o p e n a b o v e b o a r d p o l i t i c a l mo v e me n t
. Al t h o u g h
s o ma n y c a r r y r e d c a r d s i n t h e i r w a l l e t s o r t h e i r h e a r t s , w e c a n o n l y
d e s c r i b e t h e i r b e h a v i o r , w h i c h c a n b e p r o v e d , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r
me mb e r s h i p .
H a v i n g ma d e t h i s a c k n o w l e d g e me n t , t h e f a c t r e ma i n s t h a t a g r e a t
ma n y C . I. O. u n i o n o f f i c i a l s a n d o r g a n i z e r s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w e d
t h e Mo s c o w p o l i c i e s f o r f o r e i g n t r a d e u n i o n s ; t h a t t h e s e g e n t r y h a v e
p l a y e d t o g e t h e r a g a i n s t t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d i n d e f e n s e o f t h o s e
p o l i c i e s ; a n d t h a t t h e i r l o y a l t y h a s b e e n h a i l e d a n d s u p p o r t e d b y t h e
c o mmu n i s t p r e s s a n d o t h e r St a l i n i s t a g e n c i e s . Wi t n e s s e s b e f o r e t h e
D i e s C o mmi t t e e h a v e l i s t e d o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d a l l e g e d c o mmu n i s t s
i n i mp o r t a n t p l a c e s i n t h e C . I. O. Wh a t e v e r t h e t a l l y , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n ,
a s c a u t i o u s l y d e f i n e d a b o v e , c e r t a i n l y f i t s me n l i k e H a r r y B r i d g e s ,
D o n a l d H e n d e r s o n , P h i l i p M
. C o n n o l l y , Jo s e p h C u r r a n , Mi c h a e l J
.
Q u i l l , B e n Go l d , Ma r c e l Sh e r e r , Mo r r i s Mu s t e r , Mi l t o n K a u f ma n ,
Wy n d h a mMo r t i me r , Me r v y n Ra t h b o r n e , Le w Mi c h e n e r , Fr e d e r i c k
N. My e r s , Mo r r i s Wa t s o n , Re i d Ro b i n s o n , Me y e r Ad e l ma n , Le w i s
Al l e n B e r n e , H a r o l d C h r i s t o f f e l , Ab r a mFl a x e r , Le w i s Me r r i l l , O
. M
.
Or t o n , Jo s e p h Se l l y a n d d o z e n s o f o t h e r s . Wh e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 2 5
t e c h n i c a l l y c o mmu n i s t s , t h e y d e s e r v e p l o t s o n Re d Sq u a r e o n t h e
b a s i s o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s . Th e v e i l s o f my s t i f i c a t i o n a r o u n d t h e w h o l e
b u s i n e s s a r e b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y l i f t e d b y C . I
. O. l e a d e r s t h e ms e l v e s -
b y Si d n e y H i l l ma n , R. J
. Th o ma s , Gu s t a v St r e b e l , e t c . - a s t h e i n n e r
s t r u g g l e t o r i d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e me n o f Mo s c o w g a i n s i mp e t u s .
Tw o me n a t C . I. O. h e a d q u a r t e r s w h o h a v e r i c h l y e a r n e d s p e c i a l
me n t i o n i n a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s i n t h e s e t u p a r e Le e
P r e s s ma n , t h e p o w e r f u l g e n e r a l C o u n s e l f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d Le n
D e C a u x , p u b l i c i t y d i r e c t o r a n d e d i t o r o f t h e o f f i c i a l o r g a n , C
. I. O.
Ne w s .
P r e s s ma n i s k n o w n t o e x e r c i s e a n i n f l u e n c e f a r b e y o n d h i s
f o r ma l s t a n d i n g a s a t t o r n e y
. H e h a s h e l d Ne w D e a l p o s t s a t v a r i o u s
t i me s , w a s e s p e c i a l l y c l o s e t o t h o s e me mb e r s o f t h e N . L. R. B
. w h o w e r e
p u b l i c l y c h a r g e d w i t h c o mmu n i s t l e a n i n g s , a n d h a s b e e n a s p o n s o r o r
s p e a k e r f o r n u me r o u s P o p u l a r Fr o n t e n t e r p r i s e s
. H e i s g e n e r a l l y
r e g a r d e d a s t h e c l o s e s t a d v i s o r o f Le w i s
. As t o D e C a u x , a c a s u a l p e r u s a l
o f h i s p a p e r a n d h i s p u b l i c i t y o u t p u t d i s c l o s e s a c u r i o u s b i a s i n f a v o r
o f p r e c i s e l y t h o s e p e o p l e a n d u n i o n s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d b y t h e r e s t o f
t h e C . I. O. t o b e f r i e n d l y t o t h e B r o w d e r b o y s . Th e l o n g h a n d o f
p l a n n e d c o i n c i d e n c e
.
We h a v e a l r e a d y t o u c h e d o n t h e r i s e o f t h e Ma r i t i me Wo r k e r s
Un i o n . We h a v e s e e n t h e u n o b t r u s i v e c l u b s f o r s e a me n o n t h e w a t e r
f r o n t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y s p r e a d i n g t h e Mu s c o v i t e d o c t r i n e s , t h e d e v e l o p -
me n t o f t h e Ma r i n e Wo r k e r s In d u s t r i a l Un i o n a n d i t s t r a n s f o r ma t i o n
i n t o t h e Na t i o n a l Ma r i t i me Wo r k e r s . Fr o mt h e s t a r t t h e r e w a s a n
a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n , b u t i t h a s b e e n s l o w l y c h i p p e d a w a y b y a l l t h e
me t h o d s o f u n i o n t e r r o r i s mi n c l u d i n g g o o n s q u a d s a n d f a k e v o t e s
.
Jo s e p h C u r r a n w a s p u s h e d f o r w a r d a s s p o k e s ma n f o r t h e Le f t Wi n g
o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e a n d i s t o d a y a mo n g t h e h a l f d o z e n mo s t
i n f l u e n t i a l l e a d e r s o f t h e c o mmu n i s t - i n s p i r e d s e c t o r o f Ame r i c a n
l a b o r . B o t h t h e Sa t u r d a y Ev e n i n g
P o s t a n d t h e Ame r i c a n Me r c u r y
h a v e d e v o t e d d e t a i l e d a r t i c l e s t o t h e c o mmu n i s t o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e
u n i o n a n d i t s l e a d e r s . Th e l a t t e r i n c l u d e g r a d u a t e s o f a s p e c i a l C o m-
mu n i s t P a r t y s c h o o l f o r ma r i n e o r g a n i z e r s
.
C u r r a n ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n d o v e t a i l s w i t h t h e l o n g s h o r e me n ' s d o ma i n
u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l s h i p o f H a r r y B r i d g e s , t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l Lo n g s h o r e -
me n a n d Wa r e h o u s e Wo r k e r s Un i o n
. B o t h s t r a t e g i s t s h a v e b e e n
w o r k i n g h a r d t o p u t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l f r i e n d s i n c o n t r o l o f t h e w a r e h o u s e
w o r k e r s - t h e s t r u g g l e f o r d o mi n a t i o n i s i n p r o g r e s s f u r i o u s l y a t t h i s
w r i t i n g - w h i c h w o u l d r o u n d o u t t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e mp i r e .
2 2 6

TH ERED D EC AD E
Th e Ame r i c a n C o mmu n i c a t i o n s As s o c i a t i o n , a C . I. O. u n i o n o f
t e l e g r a p h a n d r a d i o o p e r a t o r s , h a s t r a v e l e d c o n s i s t e n t l y o n t h e p a r t y
l i n e
. Me r v y n Ra t h b o r n e , f o r ma n y y e a r s i t s p r e s i d e n t , s u r r e n d e r e d h i s
p o s t t o b e c o me s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Sa n Fr a n c i s c o C
. I. O
. In d u s t r i a l C o u n -
c i l - t h e g e n e r a l b e l i e f b e i n g t h a t h e w a s t h u s b e i n g t a c t i c a l l y s t a t i o n e d
t o r e p l a c e B r i d g e s s h o u l d t h e l a t t e r b e o r d e r e d d e p o r t e d . H i s s u c c e s s o r
a s p r e s i d e n t i s Jo s e p h Se l l y , w h o h a s a l s o b e e n o n d i s p l a y i n f e l l o w -
t r a v e l i n g u n d e r t a k i n g s .
Ob v i o u s l y t h e r a d i o a n d t e l e g r a p h o p e r a t o r s f i t n i c e l y i n t o t h e c o m-
p l e x o f t r a n s p o r t a n d c o mmu n i c a t i o n s
. It me a n s t h a t a s e g me n t o f
Ame r i c a ' s i n d u s t r i a l l i f e e s s e n t i a l t o i t s e x i s t e n c e a n d i t s mi l i t a r y s a f e t y
i s i n l a r g e me a s u r e i n t h e h a n d s o f f r i e n d s o f a f o r e i g n d i c t a t o r ! Th e
e n o r mi t y o f t h i s f a c t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , h a s n o t y e t b e e n g r a s p e d b y t h e
Ame r i c a n p e o p l e
. It d o e s n o t c a l l f o r a n y s p e c i a l p o w e r s o f i ma g i n a t i o n
t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s a b o t a g e - p o t e n t i a l r e p r e s e n t e d b y p r o - So v i e t u n i o n
l e a d e r s i n s h i p p i n g , w a r e h o u s i n g , r a d i o a n d t e l e g r a p h c o mmu n i c a t i o n .
An d i t i s o n r e c o r d t h a t Jo e C u r r a n o n c e b o a s t e d , a t a u n i o n me e t i n g ,
t h a t h i s ma r i t i me o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d " d i c t a t e w h e n a n d w h e r e t h e
g o v e r n me n t c o u l d s h i p mu n i t i o n s
. "
Th e a u t o mo t i v e u n i o n w a s s t a l l e d , a f t e r a b r i l l i a n t s t a r t , b y
c o mmu n i s t a t t e mp t s t o mo n o p o l i z e i t s j o b s a n d p o w e r . Ab a t t e r e d
f r a g me n t w a s l e d i n t o t h e A . F. o f L. b y H o me r Ma r t i n , a n d i s n o w v i r -
t u a l l y e x t i n c t
. Th e r e s t h a s b e e n mu s h r o o mi n g u n d e r t h e i mp u l s e o f
w a r p r o d u c t i o n , b u t i t i s r a c k e d i n t e r n a l l y b y t h e c o mmu n i s t d i s e a s e
.
At o n e e n d , i t s p r e s i d e n t , Ro l a n d J . Th o ma s , i s v o c i f e r o u s l y a n t i - c o m-
mu n i s t
. At t h e o t h e r e n d , v a r i o u s l o c a l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a i r p l a n e
c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y , a r e u n d e r t h e Mu s c o v i t e b r a n d o f l e a d e r s h i p ,
d e f i a n t o f u n i o n o r d e r s , a n d s u s t a i n e d ( f r o ma l l a p p e a r a n c e s ) b y t h e
t o l e r a t i o n o r o u t r i g h t s u p p o r t o f Le w i s , Mu r r a y , a n d a l l t h e i r Le f t
Wi n g C . I. O. u n i t s .
H o me r Ma r t i n , t h e f i r s t h e a d o f t h e C . I. O. e f f o r t i n t h e a u t o mo t i v e
f i e l d , w a s a c o n f u s e d a n d t e mp e r a me n t a l a ma t e u r i n u n i o n ma t t e r s .
H e l e t h i ms e l f b e g u i d e d b y a f e w p e o p l e c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e
e x p e l l e d Lo v e s t o n e g r o u p o f c o mmu n i s t s a n d b l u n d e r e d i n t o e n d l e s s
t r o u b l e . Th e Lo v e s t o n e t i e - i n s u i t e d t h e o r t h o d o x Mo s c o w c r o w d e v e n
l e s s t h a n i f Ma r t i n h a d b e e n a n u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e t r a d e u n i o n i s t .
St a l i n i s t s c o l o n i z e d h i s l o c a l s s o t h o r o u g h l y t h a t Ma r t i n c o u l d n o t k e e p
* Q u o t e d i n a r t i c l e o n t h e Ma r i t i me Wo r k e r s Un i o n b y C h a r l e s Y a l e H a r r i s o n i n
t h e Ame r i c a n Me r c u r y , Oc t o b e r , 1 9 4 0 .
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 2 7
t h e mo u t o f i mp o r t a n t p o s t s , e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e y h a d t h e h e l p o f
Le w i s . Th e f a mo u s 1 9 3 7 s i t - d o w n s t r i k e s , c a r r i e d o u t a g a i n s t Ma r t i n ' s
o r d e r s b u t w i t h t h e t a c i t b l e s s i n g s o f t h e Le w i s ma c h i n e , g a v e t h e c o m-
mu n i s t e l e me n t s a d d i t i o n a l l e v e r a g e . It w a s d u r i n g t h e s e o u t l a w s t r i k e s
t h a t Wy n d h a mMo r t i me r - l a t e r n o t o r i o u s a s l e a d e r o f d e f e n s e -
i n d u s t r y s t r i k e s i n C a l i f o r n i a - f i r s t a c q u i r e d p r o mi n e n c e .
Th e c o mmu n i s t g a n g i n g - u p o n Ma r t i n g r e w i n t o o n e o f t h e mo s t
c o mp l e x a n d v i o l e n t f a c t i o n a l w a r s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Ame r i c a n
l a b o r mo v e me n t . B y 1 9 3 9 Ma r t i n h a d b e e n o u s t e d , t o t h e j u b i l a n t
h u r r a h i n g o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y p r e s s . B u t t h i s a c c o mp l i s h e d ,
s o me o f t h o s e w h o h a d p l a y e d w i t h t h e c o mmu n i s t s n o w t u r n e d a g a i n s t
t h e m, a n d R. J . Th o ma s , a n h o n e s t a n t i - St a l i n i s t a n d a b o n a f i d e t r a d e -
u n i o n l e a d e r , b e c a me p r e s i d e n t . Th e r e w a s mu c h t a l k t o t h e e f f e c t
t h a t t h e a u t o mo t i v e u n i o n h a d b e e n p u r g e d o f Mo s c o w a g e n t s . Fa r
f r o mb e i n g f i n i s h e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t a s k h a s s c a r c e l y b e e n s t a r t e d a n d
i t s c o mp l e t i o n h a s b e e n h a mp e r e d b y i n f l u e n t i a l l e a d e r s a t C
. I. O.
h e a d q u a r t e r s
. Th e t r u c e w i t h St a l i n i s me n c o u r a g e d b y t h e Ru s s o -
Ge r ma n w a r ma k e s t h e c o n f u s i o n mo r e c o n f o u n d e d .
P r o - c o mmu n i s t i n f i l t r a t i o n r e ma i n s v e r y s t r o n g i n t h e D e t r o i t
a r e a , w h i c h i s t h e s o l a r p l e x u s o f t h e a u t o mo t i v e i n d u s t r y ; a l t h o u g h
t h e c o mr a d e s p r o b a b l y d o n o t c o n t r o l t h e l a r g e r a g g r e g a t e s , s u c h a s t h e
Fo r d a n d Ge n e r a l Mo t o r s l o c a l s . Th e y d o s e e mt o e x e r c i s e a d e c i s i v e
w e i g h t i n t h e Mi l w a u k e e a r e a , w h e r e H a r o l d C h r i s t o f f e l i s h e a d o f t h e
Al l i s - C h a l me r s l o c a l a s w e l l a s o f t h e Mi l w a u k e e In d u s t r i a l Un i o n
C o u n c i l
. C o mmu n i s t l e a d e r s h i p , a s o u t l a w s t r i k e s h a v e d e mo n s t r a t e d ,
i s a l s o d o mi n a n t o n t h e We s t C o a s t , w h e r e B r i d g e s r u n s t h e s h o w , a n d
w h e r e me n l i k e Le w Mi c h e n e r a n d Wy n d h a mMo r t i me r h a v e b e e n
a c t i v e i n t h e a i r p l a n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d r i v e s . At t o r n e y f o r t h e a u t o w o r k -
e r s ' u n i o n i s s t i l l Ma u r i c e Su g a r , a D e t r o i t ma n w h o s u e d f o r l i b e l
w h e n b r a n d e d a s a c o mmu n i s t - a n d l o s t i n a j u r y t r i a l .
Th e r o c k b o t t o mf a c t i s t h a t c o mmu n i s t s a r e s o f i r ml y p l a n t e d i n
ma n y s e c t i o n s o f t h e a u t o mo b i l e a n d a i r p l a n e u n i o n s o f t h e C
. I. O. t h a t
a n e a r n e s t a t t e mp t t o o u s t t h e mmi g h t e n d a n g e r t h e l i f e o f t h e u n i o n .
In a l a r g e r s e n s e t h a t i s t r u e o f t h e C
. I. O. a s a w h o l e - t h e c a n c e r h a s
g o n e t o o f a r t o b e o p e r a t e d u p o n w i t h o u t r e a l r i s k t o t h e p a t i e n t ' s l i f e .
An o t h e r c i t a d e l o f t h e C . I. O. t o t a l i t a r i a n s i s t h e Tr a n s p o r t Wo r k -
e r s Un i o n , h e a d e d b y Mi c h a e l Q u i l l , Au s t i n H o g a n , Jo h n Sa n t o a n d
o t h e r p a r t y - l i n e r s . Th e u n i o n w a s b o r n i n 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 a t 8 0 Ea s t El e v e n t h
St r e e t , Ne w Y o r k , a s t r u c t u r e h o u s i n g a h o r d e o f c o mmu n i s t f r o n t
2 2 8 TH ERED D EC AD E
o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t h a t t i me . It s f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e Tr a n s p o r t Wo r k e r s
B u l l e t i n , w a s p r i n t e d o n a C o mmu n i s t P a r t y p r e s s . It s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t ,
Th o ma s O' Sh e a , w a s a me mb e r o f t h e p a r t y , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o w n
t e s t i mo n y
; h e r e s i g n e d s o o n t h e r e a f t e r a n d h a s f o u g h t t h e St a l i n i s t s
l u s t i l y e v e r s i n c e . O' Sh e a t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e t h a t t h e
u n i o n h a d b e e n b u i l t a n d c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s .
Wh i l e e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y s u p p o r t i n g Q u i l l a n d h i s u n i o n , t h e c o m-
mu n i s t p r e s s h a s i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s d i s c l a i me d o w n e r s h i p o f t h e
Tr a n s p o r t Un i o n b y t h e p a r t y . In e a r l i e r y e a r s , h o w e v e r , i t h a d n o t
b e e n s o mo d e s t . In Ma r c h , 1 9 3 5 , t h e P a r t y Or g a n i z e r g a v e a f o u r - p a g e
r e p o r t o n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t i n Ne w Y o r k , i n w h i c h i t r e c o u n t e d
p r o u d l y h o w " c o mr a d e s " h a d b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y " c o n c e n t r a t i n g " o n
t h a t i n d u s t r y . " D u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , " t h e r e p o r t
c o n c l u d e d , " t h e r e h a s b e e n c a r e f u l a n d p l a n n e d u n i t e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e
[ p a r t y ] s e c t i o n a n d t h e Un i o n . " Av i r t u a l o f f i c i a l c l a i mo f p o s s e s s i o n
w a s a l s o ma d e b y t h e n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e p a r t y i n 1 9 3 8 . It
a w a r d e d a w r e a t h t o Ro s e Wo r t i s , c h a i r ma n o f i t s t r a d e - u n i o n s e c t i o n
i n Ne w Y o r k , f o r h e r g o o d w o r k i n o r g a n i z i n g t r a n s p o r t . Th e o n l y
t r a n s p o r t o r g a n i z e d i n h e r t e r r i t o r y h a d b e e n t h e u n i o n h e a d e d b y
Q u i l l .
Re c e n t l y t h e Ne w Y o r k Wo r l d - Te l e g r a mb r o u g h t d o c u me n t a r y
p r o o f t h a t Au s t i n H o g a n , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Ne w Y o r k s e c t i o n o f t h e
u n i o n , h a d r e g i s t e r e d a s a c o mmu n i s t i n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1 9 3 3 a n d 1 9 3 4 .
Th e p o w e r b e h i n d Q u i l l ' s t h r o n e f r o mt h e s t a r t h a s b e e n Jo h n Sa n t o ,
o n c e e d i t o r o f t h e H u n g a r i a n l a n g u a g e c o mmu n i s t o r g a n , Uj El o r e ,
p u b l i s h e d a t t h a t t i me i n C l e v e l a n d . Th e D i e s C o mmi t t e e h a s o n f i l e
a t y p e d p a r t y d o c u me n t h e a d e d " C o n t r o l Ta s k s Ad o p t e d b y En l a r g e d
D i s t r i c t C o mmi t t e e Me e t i n g Ma r c h 8 , 1 9 3 6 . " At o n e p o i n t i t s a y s :
Es p e c i a l l y w e d i d ma k e h e a d w a y . . . i n t r a c t i o n , w h e r e t h e Un i o n ,
b u i l t a n d l e d b y o u r c o mr a d e s , h a s g r o w n t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f 5 0 0 0
me mb e r s .
Th e C . I
. O
. u n i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s - t h e Un i t e d C a n n e r y
Wo r k e r s - i s h e a d e d b y t h e s a me D o n a l d H e n d e r s o n w h o mw e me t
r e p e a t e d l y i n t h e l a u n c h i n g o f In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s .
Th e Un i t e d El e c t r i c a l , Ra d i o a n d Ma c h i n i s t s Un i o n h a d a l a r g e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o mmu n i s t s a l mo s t f r o mt h e b e g i n n i n g , a mo n g t h e m
v e t e r a n s o f Fo s t e r ' s TUULl i k e Ja me s Ma t l e s a n d Ju l e s Ems p a c h
. A
p e r s o n a b l e y o u n g l e a d e r , Ja me s B . C a r e y , b e c a me p r e s i d e n t - h e w a s
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 2 9
f o r y e a r s mo r e t h a n w i l l i n g t o s t r i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e c o mr a d e s , f r o n t i n g
f o r a n u mb e r o f t h e i r f e l l o w - t r a v e l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s
. In t h e e n d ,
h o w e v e r , C a r e y b e c a me f e d u p w i t h t h e Mu s c o v i t e s t e w a n d r e c e n t l y
h a s b e e n f i g h t i n g t h e c o o k s i n h i s u n i o n
.
C o mmu n i s t d o mi n a t i o n o f t h e Ame r i c a n Ne w s p a p e r Gu i l d h a s
l o n g b e e n ma t t e r f o r n a t i o n a l s c a n d a l
. B u t t h e g r i p o f t h e c o mr a d e s
s e e ms t o h a v e b e e n s l o w l y p r i e d l o o s e
; o p t i mi s t s a v e r t h a t t h e c a p t u r e
o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n b y n o n - c o mmu n i s t s i s i n e v i t a b l e
.
Th e f a c t t h a t t h e Na t i o n a l As s o c i a t i o n o f D i e - C a s t e r s i s l i n e d u p
w i t h t h e c o mmu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d w i n g i s s o me t h i n g t h a t s h o u l d - b u t
a p p a r e n t l y d o e s n ' t - w o r r y t h e c o u n t r y
. Sma l l n u me r i c a l l y , t h e u n i o n
c o n t r o l s a n i n d u s t r y w h i c h i s i n t h e t r u e s t s e n s e a " b o t t l e n e c k " o f
n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e p r o d u c t i o n .
B u t t h e s t o r y i s t o o l o n g t o b e t o l d i n f u l l
. Wh e r e t h e c o mmu n i s t s
d o n o t c o n t r o l , t h e y f r e q u e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e a mi n o r i t y s t r o n g e n o u g h
t o n e e d a p p e a s i n g
. Th e i r p r i n c i p a l s p h e r e s o f o p e r a t i o n a r e i n i n d u s -
t r i e s o f p r i ma r y i mp o r t a n c e t o mi l i t a r y s e c u r i t y a n d d e f e n s e o u t p u t .
An y o n e i n t h e l e a s t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o mmu n i s t h i s t o r y k n o w s t h a t
t h e K r e ml i n h a s r e p e a t e d l y i s s u e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r e x c e p t i o n a l e f f o r t s
i n mu s c l i n g i n o n j u s t t h o s e s p h e r e s .
Th e mo s t s e r i o u s a s p e c t o f t h i s p i c t u r e i s i t s t h r e a t t o t h e l a b o r
mo v e me n t i t s e l f
. St a l i n i s t p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e N . L. R. B . n e a r l y w r e c k e d
t h e Wa g n e r Ac t
. Su c h p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e C . I. O. t u r n e d a p r o mi s i n g
u n i o n i z i n g e f f o r t i n t o a c h a o s o f p o l i t i c a l w r a n g l e s a n d a f o c u s f o r
p u b l i c r e s e n t me n t s . Th e a c t i v i t i e s o f c o mmu n i s t mi n o r i t i e s a r e p r o -
v i d i n g a n t i - l a b o r g r o u p s w i t h a p o w e r f u l w e a p o n w i t h w h i c h t o b e a t
a l l l a b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Th e p l a g u e c a n n o t b e c u r e d b y p r e t e n d i n g i t
d o e s n o t e x i s t
. On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t mu s t b e e x p o s e d w h e r e v e r t h e
i n f e c t i o n s h o w s i t s e l f , a n d t h e t a s k i s a b o v e a l l o n e t h a t c h a l l e n g e s t h e
g o o d s e n s e o f l a b o r i t s e l f
.
Amo n g u n i o n s w h i c h ( a t t h i s w r i t i n g ) a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o mt h e
i n f e c t i o n - w h e r e p r o - c o mmu n i s t a n d f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r l e a d e r s h i p i s i n -
f l u e n t i a l i f n o t a c t u a l l y d o mi n a n t - a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g
:
Na t i o n a l Ma r i t i me Un i o n
Tr a n s p o r t Wo r k e r s Un i o n
Ai r c r a f t a n d Ma c h i n i s t s D i v i s i o n s o f t h e Un i t e d
Au t o mo b i l e Wo r k e r s
D i e - C a s t e r s As s o c i a t i o n
Ame r i c a n C o mmu n i c a t i o n s As s o c i a t i o n
2 3 0

TH ERED D EC AD E
Ma r i t i me Fe d e r a t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c
In t e r n a t i o n a l Lo n g s h o r e me n a n d Wa r e h o u s e Wo r k -
e r s
In t e r n a t i o n a l Wo o d w o r k e r s Un i o n
Ame r i c a n Ne w s p a p e r Gu i l d
Un i t e d El e c t r i c a l , Ra d i o a n d Ma c h i n i s t s Un i o n
Fa r mEq u i p me n t Wo r k e r s Or g a n i z i n g C o mmi t t e e
St a t e , C o u n t y a n d Mu n i c i p a l Wo r k e r s Un i o n
Un i t e d Ta n n e r y Wo r k e r s Un i o n
P a c k i n g H o u s e Wo r k e r s Or g a n i z i n g C o mmi t t e e
Mi n e , Mi l l a n d Sme l t e r Wo r k e r s Un i o n
Un i t e d Of f i c e a n d P r o f e s s i o n a l Wo r k e r s Un i o n
B o o k a n d Ma g a z i n e Gu i l d
Q u a r r y Wo r k e r s Un i o n
Fi s h e r me n ' s Un i o n
Fu r n i t u r e Wo r k e r s Un i o n
Se c t i o n s o f t h e Un i t e d Fe d e r a l Wo r k e r s o f Ame r i c a
Fu r Wo r k e r s Un i o n
Se c t i o n s o f t h e Al u mi n u mWo r k e r s
Fe d e r a t i o n o f Ar c h i t e c t s , C h e mi s t s En g i n e e r s a n d
Te c h n i c i a n s
Ar t i s t s Un i o n
Un i t e d Sh o e Wo r k e r s
Re t a i l a n d Wh o l e s a l e Wo r k e r s , Lo c a l 6 5
In l a n d B o a t me n ' s Un i o n
Ma r i n e C o o k s a n d St e w a r d s Un i o n
Un i t e d C a n n e r y , Ag r i c u l t u r a l , P a c k i n g a n d Al l i e d
Wo r k e r s o f Ame r i c a
C . I. O. In d u s t r i a l C o u n c i l s o f Gr e a t e r Ne w Y o r k ,
Q u e e n s , C h i c a g o , C l e v e l a n d , Mi l w a u k e e , Se a t t l e ,
P o r t l a n d , Sa n Fr a n c i s c o , Lo s An g e l e s , B r i d g e p o r t ,
B a l t i mo r e , e t c . ; a l s o St a t e In d u s t r i a l C o u n c i l s
( C . I. O. ) o f C o n n e c t i c u t , C a l i f o r n i a , Wi s c o n s i n ,
Te x a s , Wa s h i n g t o n
Al a b a ma Fa r me r s Un i o n
Lo c a l 5 o f Te a c h e r s Un i o n , A . F. o f L. ( e x p e l l e d )
Lo c a l 5 3 7 C o l l e g e Te a c h e r s Un i o n , A . F. o f L
. ( e x -
p e l l e d )
A. F. o f L
. P a i n t e r s D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l No . 9 , Ne w
Y o r k
Wo r k e r s Al l i a n c e
Ga s a n d C h e mi c a l Wo r k e r s Un i o n
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 3 1
3
Th e l o n g - d r a w n h e a r i n g s , i n t h e s u mme r o f 1 9 3 9 , t o d e t e r mi n e
w h e t h e r o r n o t H a r r y B r i d g e s i s a c o mmu n i s t w o u l d b e c o mi c i f t h e y
w e r e n o t s y mp t o ma t i c o f t h e g e n e r a l mu d d l e h e a d e d n e s s o f o u r c o u n -
t r y a n d o u r g o v e r n me n t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e St a l i n i s t t h r e a t . Fo r t u n a t e l y
f o r Mr
. B r i d g e s , h i s c a s e h e a d e d u p a t t h a t t i me t o a Fe d e r a l d e p a r t -
me n t w i t h a t y p i c a l s t a r r y - e y e d l i b e r a l a s i t s Se c r e t a r y
. Th e h e a r i n g s
w e r e t u r n e d o v e r t o a n o t h e r o f t h e s a me b r e e d . Fr a n c e s P e r k i n s , D r
.
Ja me s Mc C a u l e y La n d i s a n d t h e i r k i n d a r e a d mi r a b l e i n t h e i r p l a c e .
Wh e t h e r t h a t p l a c e s h o u l d i n c l u d e a s s i g n me n t s c a l l i n g f o r t o u g h ,
h a r d h e a d e d , c l e a r - e y e d l e a d e r s i s n o t e v e n o p e n t o q u e s t i o n . P e o p l e
l e s s s u i t e d t o d e a l w i t h f o r e i g n c o n s p i r a t o r s a n d s u b s i d i z e d mu s c l e - me n
i n a t i me o f w o r l d c r i s i s c a n s c a r c e l y b e i ma g i n e d
.
Ma d a mP e r k i n s s e e ms t o l i v e i n d r e a d o f c r i t i c i s mf r o mt h e Le f t .
Sh e c a n t a k e l a mb a s t i n g f r o mt h e Ma n u f a c t u r e r s As s o c i a t i o n a n d
e n j o y i t
. B u t r e p r i ma n d s f r o mw r i t e r s i n t h e Ne w Re p u b l i c a n d t h e
Ne w Ma s s e s w o r r y h e r d e e p l y . Wh i l e s a v i n g f a c e f o r t h e l a w b y v a r i -
o u s d e v i c e s , s h e p e r mi t t e d C o mr a d e B r i d g e s t o f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t i n t e r -
r u p t i o n y e a r a f t e r y e a r
. It a l l w e n t u n d e r t h e h e a d o f " l i b e r a l i s m" -
a n d t h e c o u n t r y l a t e r d r e w d i v i d e n d s o n t h e i n v e s t me n t i n t h e
f o r mo f s t r i k e s o n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t
. Th e n h e r d e p a r t me n t s t a g e d h i s
h e a r i n g s i n a f a s h i o n t h a t g a v e B r i d g e s a n d h i s f r i e n d s t h e c h a n c e t o
l a u g h a t h e r p u b l i c l y i n s t e a d o f me r e l y p r i v a t e l y . Th e d e p o r t a t i o n
a c t i o n w a s i n i t i a t e d i n t h e a u t u mn o f 1 9 3 7
. It w a s a l l o w e d t o d r a g
u n t i l t h e s u mme r o f 1 9 3 9
. In a l e t t e r t o Ed w a r d J. Sh a u g h n e s s y o f t h e
D e p a r t me n t o f La b o r , w r i t t e n b y R. P
. B o n h a mo f t h e d e p a r t me n t ' s
We s t C o a s t o f f i c e o n Se p t e mb e r 2 3 , 1 9 3 7 , t h e r e i s t h i s c u t e i n f o r ma -
t i o n :
Ib e l i e v e i t i s p r o p e r t h a t Ia c q u a i n t t h e C e n t r a l Of f i c e w i t h t h e
f a c t t h a t w h e n Ii n t e r v i e w e d Mr
. B r i d g e s s o me t i me a g o o n a n o t h e r
ma t t e r h e b o a s t e d t h a t h e h a d s e e n t h e C e n t r a l Of f i c e f i l e r e l a t i n g t o
h i ms e l f a n d a l s o t h a t t h e y h a d a n e x c e l l e n t " i n t e l l i g e n c e " o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f t h e i r o w n t h a t k e p t t h e mw e l l i n f o r me d o f w h a t w a s g o i n g o n
Mr
. B r i d g e s h a d n o t ma d e a n e mp t y b o a s t . H i s i n t e l l i g e n c e s e r v i c e
ma y h a v e h a d n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h i t - b u t t h e C e n t r a l Of f i c e d o c u -
* Q u o t e d i n t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l Re c o r d , Ja n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 3 9 .
2 3 2

TH ERED D EC AD E
me n t s i n q u e s t i o n d i s a p p e a r e d f r o mt h e D e p a r t me n t o f La b o r f i l e
d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g mo n t h s !
In Ma r c h , 1 9 3 9 , B r i d g e s a p p e a r e d a t t h e Immi g r a t i o n Se r v i c e i n
B a l t i mo r e a c c o mp a n i e d b y Le e P r e s s ma n a n d w a s r e l e a s e d o n h i s o w n
r e c o g n i z a n c e . B e t w e e n t h a t t i me a n d t h e a c t u a l h e a r i n g s mo r e t h a n
a y e a r l a t e r , Ma d a mP e r k i n s a n d h e r a s s o c i a t e s w e r e u n d e r t h e r e l e n t -
l e s s p r e s s u r e o f o r g a n i z e d a p p e a l s i n B r i d g e s ' b e h a l f .
Th e s e l e c t i o n o f D e a n La n d i s w a s a p r o d u c t o f t h a t mo r a l i n t i mi -
d a t i o n . Ev e r y l i n e o f h i s v e r d i c t i n B r i d g e s ' f a v o r a t t e s t s t o a c h a r mi n g
c o mp l a c e n c y a b o u t t h e c h a r g e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Th e d e c i s i o n
t o h o l d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t An g e l Is l a n d w a s ma d e a t t h e i n s i s t e n c e
o f Mr . B o n h a m, w h o u r g e d t h a t i n Sa n Fr a n c i s c o i t w o u l d b e i mp o s -
s i b l e t o a v o i d " c o mmu n i s t i c d e mo n s t r a t i o n s " a n d " i n t i mi d a t i o n o f
w i t n e s s e s . " D r . La n d i s w a s a u t h o r i z e d t o i s s u e p a s s e s " a s h e s a w f i t . "
H e s a w f i t t o i s s u e t h e mt o D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t , El l a Wi n t e r a n d
o t h e r w e l l - k n o w n St a l i n i s t s , t h u s h e l p i n g c o n v e r t t h e o c c a s i o n i n t o a
p l e a s a n t a n d c o mr a d e l y l i t t l e c o me d y . H i s a t t i t u d e ma y h a v e b e e n b i g -
h e a r t e d , b u t i t w a s p o l i t i c a l l y f r i v o l o u s .
Ab o o k l e t a b o u t t h e c a s e - e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p r o - B r i d g e s - w a s p u b -
l i s h e d b y Mo d e r n Ag e B o o k s , w h o s e l i s t i s l o a d e d w i t h St a l i n o i d l i t e r a -
t u r e . Th e a u t h o r , E. E . Wa r d , w r i t e s : " Ti me a n d a g a i n B r i d g e s h a d
D e a n La n d i s c h u c k l i n g . . . . B y t h i s t i me La n d i s a n d B r i d g e s w e r e
c h a t t i n g a s t w o me n w o u l d b e f o r e a f i r e s i d e . . . . Th a t d r e w La n d i s a n d
B r i d g e s i n t o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n
. " C o mr a d e B r i d g e s
t h e r e u p o n e x p l a i n e d t o t h e H a r v a r d p r o f e s s o r h o w mu c h b e t t e r o f f
So v i e t s a i l o r s a r e t h a n t h e i r f e l l o w - w o r k e r s i n o t h e r l a n d s a n d a l s o
e n l a r g e d o n t h e s p e c i a l b e a u t i e s o f c i v i l l i b e r t i e s u n d e r St a l i n .
Th r o u g h o u t , t h e b o o k l e t r e v e a l s D e a n La n d i s a s i n c r e d i b l y c h i l d l i k e i n
t r e a t i n g s e r i o u s l y t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d c o mmu n i s t h o k u mw h i c h e v e n
P a r k Av e n u e h o s t e s s e s n o l o n g e r b e l i e v e d .
H e r e ma i n e d b l i s s f u l l y i n n o c e n t o f t h e f o r c e s a t w o r k b e h i n d t h e
c a s e , a n d t h e D e p a r t me n t o f La b o r d i d n o t d i s t u r b i t s f i l e s t o e d u c a t e
h i m . H e k n e w n o t h i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f ma n y l e t t e r s c o n t a i n i n g d a t a
s u c h a s t h i s ( f r o mMr . B o n h a mo n t h e C o a s t t o Mr . Sh o e ma k e r i n
Wa s h i n g t o n , Ma r c h 2 9 , 1 9 3 8 ) : " C o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r ma t i o n h a s a l s o
r e a c h e d me , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o b e v e r y c r e d i b l e , t h a t t h e s a me g r o u p o f
c o mmu n i s t s t h a t h a n d l e d t h e p r o p a g a n d a a n d i n t i mi d a t i o n p r o g r a mi n
t h e Ea r l K i n g e t a l mu r d e r c a s e , h a s b e e n d e t a i l e d f o r t h e s a me p u r -
p o s e s i n t h e B r i d g e s c a s e . " On Ap r i l 1 1 , 1 9 3 8 , Ar t h u r J
. P h e l a n h a d
STALINMUSC LESIN

2 3 3
c o n v e y e d i n f o r ma t i o n f r o mSa n Fr a n c i s c o t o t h e e f f e c t " t h a t B r i d g e s
h a d a l r e a d y t o l d h i s ` b e e f s q u a d ' t o g e t i n a l o t o f p r a c t i c e b e c a u s e a f t e r
h i s h e a r i n g i s o v e r t h e r e w i l l b e a l o t o f ` w o r k ' f o r t h e mt o d o o n
w i t n e s s e s t o a p p e a r a g a i n s t h i m! ' *
Th e c i t a t i o n s c o u l d b e c o n t i n u e d f o r p a g e s - p a g e s w h i c h D e a n
La n d i s n e v e r s a w . Th e d e p a r t me n t i n s t e a d ma d e a l a u g h i n g s t o c k o f
t h e w h o l e a f f a i r a n d , a s Mr . Wa r d p u t s i t , g a v e B r i d g e s " a g i g a n t i c
s o u n d i n g b o a r d . "
.
. . " B r i d g e s l i t e r a l l y e mb r a c e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h
a w r e s t l e r ' s c l u t c h . " Th e La n d i s v e r d i c t f o r B r i d g e s i s n o mo r e r e ma r k -
a b l e , c o me t o t h i n k o f i t , t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t s o ma n y o t h e r s o f h i s
g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l ma k e - u p w e r e e n l i s t i n g i n t h e Tr o j a n c a v a l r y
.
It w a s , i n d e e d , a s e g me n t o f t h e s a me p i c t u r e . Th e s c h o l a r g e n e r o u s l y
w e n t b e y o n d t h e i mme d i a t e i s s u e t o a s s e r t t h a t t h e c o mmu n i s t s ma y
h a v e g i v e n u p t h e i r f o r me r v i o l e n t ma n n e r s a n y h o w . Th i s h e f i g u r e d
o u t o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e " d e mo c r a t i c l i n e " - a c o u p l e o f mo n t h s b e f o r e
i t w a s w i t h d r a w n !
D e s p i t e t h e h e a r i n g s a n d t h e v e r d i c t , t h e p r e s u mp t i v e e v i d e n c e
o f B r i d g e s ' a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h c o mmu n i s mi s o v e r w h e l mi n g . H e f i r s t
c a me i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l s p o t l i g h t a s l e a d e r o f t h e Sa n Fr a n c i s c o s h i p p i n g
s t r i k e f o r w h i c h t h e c o mmu n i s t s h a v e o p e n l y c l a i me d c r e d i t
. Ex -
c o mmu n i s t s i n a p o s i t i o n t o k n o w i n t i ma t e l y - a mo n g t h e mB e n j a mi n
Gi t l o w a n d Jo s e p h Z a c k , t o p - r a n k p a r t y me n i n t h e i r d a y - t e s t i f i e d
t h a t h e h a d b e e n o n e o f t h e m . B r i d g e s h a d t a k e n d i r e c t p a r t i n o r
s p o n s o r e d n u mb e r l e s s St a l i n i s t u n d e r t a k i n g s . Fo r y e a r s h e h a s b e e n
t h e c e n t e r o f h o p e a n d a d u l a t i o n i n t h e c o mmu n i s t p r e s s
. H i s
d e f e n s e a t t o r n e y s h a v e i n c l u d e d p e o p l e s p e c i a l i z i n g i n t h e d e f e n s e o f
c o mmu n i s t s , ma k i n g h i mp a r t o f a n e x c l u s i v e c l i e n t e l e t h a t i n c l u d e s
B r o w d e r a n d Mr s . B r o w d e r . Th e B r i d g e s D e f e n s e C o mmi t t e e w a s a
t y p i c a l St a l i n i s t f r o n t . B r i d g e s h i ms e l f t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e s o l i c i t e d a n d
r e c e i v e d t h e h e l p o f t h e p a r t y a n d i t s o f f i c i a l o r g a n s
. H i s p o l i t i c a l
o p i n i o n s h a v e c o i n c i d e d a t a l l t i me s w i t h t h e o p i n i o n s p r e s c r i b e d b y
Mo s c o w - a n d h a v e c h a n g e d w h e n t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n c h a n g e d
.
No n e o f t h e s e t h i n g s , s t a n d i n g a l o n e , i s d e c i s i v e
. Al l t a k e n t o g e t h e r
p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e w h i c h o n l y e a g e r a n d w i l l f u l s o p h i s t r y c a n s mu d g e
.
D e a n La n d i s , n o w t h a t i t i s a l l o v e r , ma y h a t c h t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t H a r r y
B r i d g e s i s a c o mmu n i s t
. In t h e l i g h t o f e v e n t s a f t e r t h e St a l i n - H i t l e r
p a r t n e r s h i p w a s a n n o u n c e d , h e ma y e v e n r e v i s e h i s v i e w s o n t h e c o m-
* C o n g r e s s i o n a l Re c o r d , Ja n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 3 9
.
2 3 4
TH ERED D EC AD E
mu n i s t " r e f o r ma t i o n
. " P e r h a p s h e w i l l g o a s f a r a s t o a s k h i ms e l f
w h e t h e r , a l l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s a s i d e , B r i d g e s i s r e a l l y a s a f e ma n t o b e
e n t r u s t e d w i t h a s t r a n g l e h o l d o n a l a r g e s e c t o r o f Ame r i c a n s h i p p i n g ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n o t h e r s e c t i o n s a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y h i s f r i e n d s a n d
p o l i t i c a l a l l i e s .
Wh e t h e r D e a n La n d i s a s k s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s o r n o t , t h e Ame r i c a n
p e o p l e s c a r c e l y c a n a v o i d d o i n g s o s o o n e r o r l a t e r , a n d i n s i s t i n g o n r e a l -
i s t i c a n s w e r s . *
* In Fe b r u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , t h e D e p a r t me n t o f j u s t i c e - n o w i n c h a r g e o f i mmi g r a t i o n
ma t t e r s - r e o p e n e d t h e B r i d g e s d e p o r t a t i o n c a s e
. Na t u r a l l y , a l l t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n
l i b e r a l s i n s t a n t l y s h r i e k e d " r e d - b a i t i n g ! " a n d c h a r g e d a n " a n t i - l a b o r " mo v e
.
Th e i mp l i c a t i o n t h a t l a b o r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r p e t u a t i n g Mo s c o w ' s r i g h t t o c o n -
t r o l t h e Ame r i c a n w a t e r f r o n t i s w h o l l y u n j u s t i f i e d
.
C H AP TERXX
RUSSIANP URGESAND AMERIC AN
LIB ERALS
1
O
NC Ea g a i n w e mu s t p a u s e t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s i n s i d e
Ru s s i a . Th e p r o - So v i e t o b s e s s i o n s i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s ma k e n o
s e n s e w i t h o u t c o n t i n u o u s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r p o i n t o f o r i g i n
. Th e
w h o l e P o p u l a r Fr o n t a n d e a c h o f i t s e mb o d i me n t s i n l e a g u e s , c o n -
g r e s s e s a n d c o c k t a i l p a r t i e s r e s t e d i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s o n t h e my t h o f
t r i u mp h a n t s o c i a l i s ma n d t h e h a p p y l i f e i n t h e So v i e t r e a l m
.
Th a t my t h w a s s u b j e c t e d , f r o mt h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1 9 3 5 f o r w a r d ,
t o a s e r i e s o f b o d y b l o w s a s t h e b l o o d i e s t p o l i t i c a l p u r g e o f mo d e r n
t i me s u n f o l d e d i n St a l i n ' s l a n d . It w a s o f f i c i a l c a r n a g e u n p r e c e d e n t e d
f o r s i z e a n d i mb e c i l i c i n d e t a i l
. B e f o r e i t r a n i t s s a n g u i n a r y c a r e e r , a
w h o l e g e n e r a t i o n o f So v i e t l e a d e r s - t h e g e n e r a t i o n t h a t h a d ma d e
t h e B o l s h e v i k Re v o l u t i o n - w a s s l a u g h t e r e d
; a t l e a s t f i f t y t h o u s a n d
c o mmu n i s t s , o f f i c i a l s , p r o f e s s o r s , e c o n o mi s t s w e r e k i l l e d w i t h o u t t h e
f o r ma l i t y o f t r i a l s ; t h e c o u n t r y ' s f o r e mo s t g e n e r a l s , a d mi r a l s a n d ma r -
s h a l s w e r e e x e c u t e d a n d f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e h i g h e r o f f i c e r s ' c o r p s , a b o u t
3 0 , 0 0 0 Re d Ar my , Na v y a n d Av i a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s , w e r e " l i q u i d a t e d " b y
e x i l e , d e mo t i o n s a n d e x e c u t i o n
; a t e r r o r mo r e f r i g h t f u l t h a n a n y t h i n g
i n a t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f Ru s s i a ' s s a n g u i n a r y h i s t o r y s w e p t t h r o u g h t h e
c o u n t r y , l e a v i n g mo u n t a i n s o f c o r p s e s i n i t s w a k e .
Fo r t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d a n d t h e So v i e t p o p u l a t i o n i t s e l f t h e p r o c e s s
w a s d r a ma t i z e d i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f " s h o w t r i a l s " i n w h i c h t h e h e r o e s
o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n , g r o u p a f t e r g r o u p , " c o n f e s s e d " t o h i d e o u s d u p l i c i t y ,
t r e a s o n a n d b l o o d t h i r s t . No t a s h r e d o f h o n o r o r i d e a l i s mw a s l e f t f o r
t h e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n b y t h e Ti me i t s mo s t r e n o w n e d a r c h i t e c t s ,
" c o n f e s s i n g " t o t h e i mp o s s i b l e a n d t h e i n c r e d i b l e , h a d r e v i s e d t h e i r
o w n b i o g r a p h i e s i n t h e g l a r e o f t h e s e f a n t a s t i c t r i a l s
. H a l f - t r u t h s a n d
p a l p a b l e i n v e n t i o n s w e r e b l e n d e d i n s u p r e me i n s a n i t y t o t h e mu s i c o f
r i f l e s q u a d s a n d t h e g r o a n s o f t h e d y i n g , w h i l e ma s s s u i c i d e s a n d a l mo s t
d a i l y a n n o u n c e me n t s o f l i q u i d a t i o n s b e h i n d c l o s e d d o o r s p r o v i d e d a
2 3 5
2 3 6

TH ERED D EC AD E
s i n i s t e r b a c k d r o p
. H a d s o me s a t a n i c e n e my o f t h e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u -
t i o n , i t s f o u n d e r s a n d i t s t r a d i t i o n s , a i me d t o d e f i l e i t s me mo r y a n d
d e s t r o y i t s l i v i n g w i t n e s s e s , h e c o u l d n o t h a v e d o n e t h e j o b mo r e
t h o r o u g h l y
. Th e o n l y h y p o t h e s i s , i n d e e d , o n w h i c h t h e c u mu l a t i v e
o b s c e n i t y o f d e a t h a n d d i s h o n o r c a n b e e x p l a i n e d i s t h a t Jo s e p h St a l i n
w a s mo v e d b y a p a t h o l o g i c a l h a t r e d o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n h e h a d c a p t u r e d
f r o mi t s o r i g i n a l f a t h e r s .
Th e o u t s i d e w o r l d w a s c h i e f l y a w a r e o f " t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s " w i t h
t h e i r b e w i l d e r i n g p a t t e r n o f s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n , s e e mi n g l y u n mo t i v a t e d
t r e a c h e r y , c r u d e l i e s a n d d e v i o u s i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . Th e r e w a s t h e
f a s c i n a t i o n o f u l t i ma t e h o r r o r a b o u t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s , a ma c a b r e q u a l -
i t y t h a t l e f t t h e w o r l d g a s p i n g
. Th e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t e v e r y o n e o f t h e
a c t o r s i n t h e s i n i s t e r me l o d r a ma w a s t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h e x p l a i n s n o t h i n g
;
i f t h e y w e r e a h u n d r e d t h p a r t a s d e p r a v e d a s t h e y c l a i me d , t h i s f i n a l
a c t o f c o n t r i t i o n a f t e r t w e n t y y e a r s o f c r i mi n a l i t y a n d p o l i t i c a l p e r v e r -
s i o n w o u l d b e l u d i c r o u s l y o u t o f c h a r a c t e r . Th e o p p o s i t e a s s u mp t i o n -
o f a n e l a b o r a t e , c o n f u s e d a n d i l l - f i t t i n g p o l i c e f a b r i c a t i o n t o w h i c h
s e v e r a l s c o r e a g i n g me n w e r e f o r c e d s o me h o w t o l e n d t h e ms e l v e s -
l e a v e s mu c h u n e x p l a i n e d , b u t i t a t l e a s t me e t s t h e mi n i mu md e ma n d s
o f c o mmo n s e n s e .
Is h a l l n o t a t t e mp t t o s u mma r i z e , l e t a l o n e a n a l y z e , t h e n i g h t ma r e
i n a f e w p a g e s . B u t a f e w s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s u s u a l l y i g n o r e d i n d i s c u s s i n g
t h e h o r r o r mu s t b e s e t d o w n .
Th e mo s t c r u c i a l o f t h e mi s t h i s : Th a t o n l y t h o s e f u l l y p r e p a r e d t o
c o n f e s s w e r e b r o u g h t t o p u b l i c t r i a l
. Fo r e v e r y i mp o r t a n t B o l s h e v i k
" c o n f e s s i n g " a n d p r o s t r a t i n g h i ms e l f b e f o r e St a l i n , h u n d r e d s w e r e
d i s p o s e d o f i n t h e d a r k , d o z e n s t o o k t h e i r o w n l i v e s , r e f u s i n g t o g i v e
t h e ms e l v e s t o St a l i n ' s s h o w t r i a l s . P r e s u ma b l y t h e y d i e d d e f i a n t . Th e
i mp r e s s i o n w a s ma n u f a c t u r e d t h a t a l l t h o s e a c c u s e d a d mi t t e d g u i l t a n d
s a l u t e d t h e ma s t e r o f t h e K r e ml i n . Th e t e r r i f y i n g t r u t h i s t h a t o n l y
t h o s e w i l l i n g t o g o t h r o u g h t h e mu mme r y w e r e b r o u g h t t o t r i a l .
Wh a t e v e r t h e p r e s s u r e s e mp l o y e d i n mo n t h s a n d y e a r s o f s o l i t a r y
c o n f i n e me n t , w h a t e v e r t r a n s p i r e d i n t h e t o r t u r e c h a mb e r s o f t h e
G. P . U. , o n l y t h o s e w h o s u c c u mb e d t o t a l l y w e r e e x h i b i t e d t o t h e
w o r l d . Th e p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r e x h i b i t i o n w a s t h e i r c o n s e n t t o p l a y a n
a s s i g n e d a n d r e h e a r s e d r o l e . No t u n t i l t h e a r c h i v e s a r e t h r o w n o p e n b y
St a l i n ' s s u c c e s s o r s w i l l w e k n o w p r e c i s e l y w h a t t e r r i b l e p r e s s u r e s c o u l d
h a v e e x t r a c t e d s u c h t e r r i b l e s a c r i f i c e s . Fo r t h e p r e s e n t w e k n o w o n l y
t h e o b v i o u s : t h a t b a r g a i n s o f s e l f - i mmo l a t i o n h a d b e e n s t r u c k .
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2 3 7
Th e w o r l d t h u s s a w o n l y o n e t i n y f a c e t o f t h e p i c t u r e , a f a c e t
p a i n s t a k i n g l y s t a g e - ma n a g e d . Th e r e s t w a s i n v i s i b l e . In e l e me n t a r y
j u s t i c e t o t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e e v e n t o f o u r e p o c h , t h e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u -
t i o n , w e mu s t a s s u me t h a t t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r s d i e d n o b l y , p r o t e s t i n g
t h e i r i n n o c e n c e a n d a c c u s i n g t h e i r k i l l e r s . Amo n g t h e mw e r e me n
a n d w o me n o f t o p r a n k i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n - Ge n e r a l Tu k -
h a c h e v s k y , Ge n e r a l Y e g o r o v , Ab e l Y e n u k i d z e , K a r a k h a n , Md i v a n i ,
To ms k y , Ga ma r n i k , a h u n d r e d o t h e r s . H a d s u c h p e o p l e b e e n w i l l i n g
t o p l a y t h e s t r a n g e g a me o f p u b l i c e x e c u t i o n e r s o f t h e i r o w n r e p u t a -
t i o n s , w o u l d St a l i n h a v e s p a r e d t h e mt h e f i n a l h u mi l i a t i o n ? If t h e
w h o l e s t o r y i s e v e r k n o w n , w h a t w a s e x h i b i t e d t o t h e w o r l d a s g i b b e r i n g
d e p r a v i t y ma y p r o v e t o h a v e b e e n me r e l y a d e v i c e f o r c o n c e a l i n g a n
e p i s o d e o f ma s s i v e s a c r i f i c e f o r h o n o r a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t e g r i t y .
As e c o n d p o i n t o f t h e u t mo s t i mp o r t a n c e mu s t b e k e p t f i r ml y i n
mi n d . In t h e g r e a t ma s s o f s o - c a l l e d e v i d e n c e p i l e d u p i n t h e t r i a l s ,
y e a r a f t e r y e a r , o n l y a f e w s c a t t e r e d i t e ms w e r e s u b j e c t t o i n d e p e n d -
e n t c h e c k i n g . Th o s e w e r e t h e i n c i d e n t s a l l e g e d t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e
o u t s i d e Ru s s i a . An d i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e t h a t e v i d e n c e t u r n e d o u t t o b e
f a l s e .
Th e r e w a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s u p p o s e d me e t i n g b e t w e e n o n e o f t h e
t r i a l d e f e n d a n t s a n d Le o n Tr o t s k y i n a C o p e n h a g e n h o t e l . In v e s t i g a -
t i o n d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e h o t e l i n q u e s t i o n h a d b e e n r a z e d y e a r s b e f o r e
t h e r e n d e z v o u s ! D e f e n d a n t P i a t i k o v " c o n f e s s e d " t o h a v i n g f l o w n f r o m
B e r l i n t o Os l o f o r a s e c r e t me e t i n g w i t h Tr o t s k y
. C h e c k - u p o f t h e
r e s p e c t i v e a i r f i e l d s a n d Sw e d i s h p o l i c e r e c o r d s f o r t h e p e r i o d i n q u e s -
t i o n - Tr o t s k y w a s u n d e r c o n t i n u o u s s u r v e i l l a n c e , h i s e v e r y v i s i t o r a
ma t t e r o f r e c o r d - c a n c e l e d o u t t h a t s t o r y c o mp l e t e l y . Aw i t n e s s
c l a i me d t o h a v e d e l i v e r e d a me s s a g e t o Tr o t s k y a t a r e n d e z v o u s i n
P a r i s - a t a t i me w h e n Tr o t s k y w a s d e mo n s t r a b l y h u n d r e d s o f mi l e s
f r o mP a r i s , g u a r d e d d a y a n d n i g h t b y t h e p o l i c e
. An o t h e r p i e c e o f
t e s t i mo n y r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e d e l i v e r y o f a l e t t e r t o Tr o t s k y a t
a s p e c i f i e d d a t e - b u t h e w a s t h e n i n mi d - At l a n t i c o n h i s w a y t o
Me x i c o !
Th u s e p i s o d e a f t e r e p i s o d e , w h e r e n e u t r a l c o n f i r ma t i o n w a s p h y s i -
c a l l y p o s s i b l e , w a s e x p o s e d a s p u r e i n v e n t i o n
. Th e c i r c u ms t a n c e t h a t
w e c a n n o t e x p l a i n a s y e t w h y t h e s e u n h a p p y c r e a t u r e s l i e d a g a i n s t
t h e ms e l v e s i n t h e f a c e o f c e r t a i n d e a t h d o e s n o t a l t e r t h e f a c t t h a t
t h e i r t e s t i mo n y w a s f r a u d u l e n t
. At t h e v e r y l e a s t i t t h r o w s a p a l l o f
d o u b t a r o u n d a l l t h e r e s t o f t h e t e s t i mo n y - w h o l l y u n d o c u me n t e d ,
2 3 8
TH ERED D EC AD E
b a s e d o n l y o n s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n , mu t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d i mp o s s i b l e o f
i n d e p e n d e n t e x a mi n a t i o n .
At h i r d a s p e c t o f t h e t r i a l s t h a t i s u s u a l l y o v e r l o o k e d s e e ms t o me
e s p e c i a l l y r e v e a l i n g . Ir e f e r t o t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h
s u c c e s s i v e b a t c h o f
p r i s o n e r s t o l d p r e c i s e l y t h e s t o r y mo s t u s e f u l t o t h e K r e ml i n a t t h e
mo me n t o f t h e t r i a l
. D e l i b e r a t e l y t h e y t o o k u p o n t h e ms e l v e s t h e
b l a me f o r e c o n o mi c d i s a s t e r s , p o l i t i c a l e x c e s s e s a n d o t h e r c a u s e s o f
p o p u l a r d i s c o n t e n t
. Th e y w e r e f a s h i o n i n g a l i b i s f o r t h e K r e ml i n i n
ma t t e r s w h i c h c a n n o t r e a s o n a b l y b e b l a me d o n " p l o t s " - i n ma t t e r s
w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t o p l a g u e t h e c o u n t r y l o n g a f t e r t h e s u p p o s e d p l o t -
t e r s w e r e d e a d
. Ev e r y t r i a l s e r v e d t o d i v e r t t h e p e o p l e ' s a n g e r o v e r
s p e c i f i c t r o u b l e s f r o mt h e r u l e r s t o a g r o u p o f a p p o i n t e d s c a p e g o a t s
.
B u t t h i s ma t c h i n g o f p o l i t i c a l n e e d s a n d c o n f e s s i o n s w a s e v e n mo r e
s t a r t l i n g l y a r t i f i c i a l i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s
. Th e c r i me s
t o w h i c h t h e d e f e n d a n t s s o v o l u b l y c o n f e s s e d ma y h a v e d a t e d b a c k
t e n o r t w e n t y y e a r s , b u t mi r a c u l o u s l y t h e y c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e p o l i c y
n e e d s o f St a l i n ' s g o v e r n me n t a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r j u n c t u r e
. Th e r e h a d
b e e n a k i n d o f c o n s i d e r a t e a n d p r o p h e t i c f o r e s i g h t i n t h e i r s i n n i n g .
Le t me i l l u s t r a t e . Th e 1 9 3 7 t r i a l s i mp l i c a t e d Ge r ma n y , Ja p a n a n d
It a l y , e v e n i n a l l e g a t i o n s h a r k i n g b a c k t o t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e r e v o l u -
t i o n
. Th o s e w e r e t h e n a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e Ol d B o l s h e v i k s a b o u t t o
d i e c l a i me d t o h a v e c o n n i v e d t o b e t r a y t h e i r c o u n t r y a n d t h e i r l i f e ' s
w o r k
. Ne i t h e r Fr a n c e n o r En g l a n d w a s a c c u s e d . B y Ma r c h , 1 9 3 8 ,
w h e n t h e t h i r d o f t h e g r e a t s h o w t r i a l s w a s s t a g e d , Ru s s i a ' s r e l a t i o n s
w i t h t h e We s t e r n d e mo c r a c i e s h a d t a k e n a s h a r p t u r n f o r t h e w o r s e
.
An t h o n y Ed e n h a d b e e n o u s t e d a n d a p p e a s e me n t w a s i n t h e a s c e n d -
a n c y
. So v i e t p r o p a g a n d a t h e w o r l d o v e r w a s b e g i n n i n g t o p r e p a r e
l i n e s o f r e t r e a t f r o mt h e d e mo c r a t i c f r o n t . An d t h e Ol d B o l s h e v i k s
n o w o n d i s p l a y , i t t u r n e d o u t , h a d p l o t t e d n o t o n l y w i t h f a s c i s t
n a t i o n s , b u t w i t h We s t e r n d e mo c r a c i e s !
Is u b mi t t h a t t h i s mi r a c l e o f c o i n c i d e n c e c o n s t i t u t e s p r e s u mp t i v e
p r o o f o f d o c t o r i n g o f t h e t r i a l s , r e v i s i o n o f t h e " c o n f e s s i o n s , " c o l l a b o -
r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c u s i n g s t a t e a n d i t s p u p p e t s o n t r i a l
. Su c h c r u d e
r e c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h e p a s t " c r i me s " t o s u i t c u r r e n t p o l i c y g a v e a w a y
t h e w h o l e ma c a b r e d e c e p t i o n
.
2
Ab o v e a l l , h o w e v e r , l e t u s r e me mb e r t h a t t h e t r i a l s w e r e o n l y a
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2 3 9
n e g l i g i b l e f r a c t i o n o f t h e w h o l e b l o o d p u r g e
. Th e y mo n o p o l i z e d
a t t e n t i o n b e y o n d t h e i r d e s e r t s - w h i c h i s e x a c t l y w h a t t h e d i r e c t o r s
o f t h e a f f a i r i n t e n d e d
. Ev e n i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e y e a r s , t h e s e t r i a l s
i n t h e f o r e f r o n t c u t o f f a n u n i mp e d e d v i e w o f t h e t h o u s a n d f o l d
g r e a t e r b l o o d l e t t i n g b e h i n d t h e m . Th e e l e me n t s o f b e w i l d e r me n t i n
t h e t r i a l s s h e d t h e i r c o n f u s i o n o n e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a n d p r e v e n t a n u n d e r -
s t a n d i n g o f t h e b i g g e r s i t u a t i o n w h i c h , d i v o r c e d f r o mt h e my s t e r y o f
t h e t r i a l s , s e e ms mu c h mo r e l o g i c a l a n d c o mp r e h e n s i b l e .
In p r e v i o u s n a t i o n w i d e p u r g e s t h e v i c t i ms h a d b e e n r e mn a n t s o f
t h e f o r me r p r e - B o l s h e v i k u p p e r a n d e d u c a t e d c l a s s e s
. Th e y h a d b e e n
o l d - t i me e n g i n e e r s , c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o f e s s o r s , e x - me mb e r s o f f o r me r
a n t i - B o l s h e v i k p a r t i e s
; i n s h o r t , a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l e n e mi e s o f t h e
So v i e t St a t e
. In t h e g r e a t e s t p u r g e o f a l l , h o w e v e r , t h e v i c t i ms w e r e
o v e r w h e l mi n g l y t h e n a t u r a l f r i e n d s o f t h e So v i e t i d e a - p r o mi n e n t
B o l s h e v i k s , h i g h o f f i c i a l s , t h e u p p e r c r u s t o f t h e Re d Ar my , t h e l e a d e r s
o f mi n o r i t y - n a t i o n a l i t y C o mmu n i s t P a r t i e s , c o mmu n i s t s a l l
. Th e
s i t u a t i o n a d d s u p e s s e n t i a l l y t o a p l a n n e d a n d r u t h l e s s b l o t t i n g o u t o f
t h e B o l s h e v i k h e r i t a g e . D e e p c h a n g e s i n So v i e t p o l i c i e s a n d So v i e t a t -
t i t u d e s h a d t r a n s f o r me d Ru s s i a b e y o n d r e c o g n i t i o n b y i t s r e v o l u -
t i o n a r y f o u n d e r s
. Th e p h y s i c a l e x t e r mi n a t i o n o f t h o s e w h o s e l o y a l t i e s
w e r e s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e h e r i t a g e a n d o f t h e y o u n g e r p e o p l e w h o h a d
b e c o me i n f e c t e d w i t h s u c h l o y a l t i e s w a s a n i n e v i t a b l e p a r t o f t h e
p r o c e s s
.
Ih a v e a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d i n b r o a d o u t l i n e e l s e w h e r e t h e f a r - r e a c h i n g
r e v i s i o n o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n : t h e r e v i v a l o f n a t i o n a l i s t i c p a t t e r n s o f
t h o u g h t , t h e r e t r e a t f r o ma d v a n c e d i d e a s i n e v e r y d a y l i f e a n d c u l t u r e ,
t h e e x p u n g i n g o f t h e l a s t s h r e d s o f w o r k e r s ' c o n t r o l i n i n d u s t r y , t h e
v i r t u a l s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e r u l i n g p a r t y b y a r u l i n g b u r e a u c r a c y
. St a l i n
w a s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e a s w e l l a s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e s e c h a n g e s
. Fo r l a c k
o f a mo r e p r e c i s e w o r d Ic a n o n l y d e s c r i b e t h e s l o w b u t t h o r o u g h
r e v i s i o n a s t h e f a s c i z a t i o n o f So v i e t Ru s s i a
. It w a s a p r o c e s s t h a t l e f t
Ru s s i a d i f f e r e n t f r o mGe r ma n y , e v e n a s It a l y
. i s d i f f e r e n t , b u t i d e n t i -
c a l a t t h e i r c o r e , i n mo r a l t e mp e r a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l o u t l o o k
. On l y t h e
f a c t t h a t t h e l a b e l s r e ma i n e d t h e s a me - t h a t t h e r e w a s a c o n t i n u i t y o f
t h e g o v e r n me n t a l ma c h i n e r y a n d e x t e r n a l t r i mmi n g s - h i d f r o mt h e
w o r l d w h a t w a s a p p a r e n t t o a f e w s t u d e n t s o f Ru s s i a n a f f a i r s
: t h e
t r i u mp h a n t c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n .
Th e g r e a t s l a u g h t e r o f 1 9 3 5 - 3 8 w a s t h e c o n f i r ma t i o n o f t h a t
c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n t e r ms o f h u ma n b e i n g s
. Th e a c t u a l a n d p o -
2 4 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
t e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e c h a n g e w e r e e l i mi n a t e d i n t h e o n l y w a y t h a t
d i c t a t o r s h i p k n o w s , b y d e a t h
. H a d t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f
t h e s t a t e a n d t h e mu r d e r o f a l l t h o s e t i e d t o t h e d i s p l a c e d o r d e r b e e n
a c h i e v e d b y a n o u t s i d e r , t h e f a c t o f t h e c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n w o u l d h a v e
b e e n o b v i o u s t o a c h i l d . B e c a u s e i t w a s a c c o mp l i s h e d f r o mt h e i n s i d e
b y i n s i d e r s , e v e n e r u d i t e h i s t o r i a n s f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e r e a l i t y .
St a l i n d i d t h e j o b o f w i p i n g o u t a l l n u c l e i o f p o s s i b l e r e v o l t a g a i n s t
t h e f a s c i z a t i o n w i t h a p r o f l i g a c y o f b r u t a l i t y i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f Iv a n
t h e Te r r i b l e a n d P e t e r t h e Gr e a t
. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l w h o r e ma i n e d o f
Le n i n ' s c l o s e s t c o mr a d e s w e r e s l a u g h t e r e d
: Z i n o v i e v , B u k h a r i n , Ry k o v ,
K a me n e v , Se r e b r i a k o v , Smi l g a , Smi r n o v , To ms k y , Y e n u k i d z e , K r e s -
t i n s k y , o n a n d o n i n t o t h e d o z e n s a n d t h e s c o r e
. ( On l y t h e c h i e f f i g u r e ,
Le o n Tr o t s k y , e v a d e d t h a t f a t e u n t i l 1 9 4 0 , w h e n a G . P . U. k i l l e r f i n a l l y
c o r n e r e d h i mi n Me x i c o a n d l i t e r a l l y d u g o u t w i t h a n a l p e n s t o c k t h e
b r a i n t h a t St a l i n f e a r e d . )
Mo s t o f t h e s u r v i v i n g h e r o e s o f t h e c i v i l w a r w e r e k i l l e d o f f , a l o n g
w i t h t h e o f f i c e r s w h o mi g h t s t i l l r e t a i n s o me a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e r e v o l u -
t i o n a r y p a s t o f t h e Re d Ar my a n d f o r t h e e x e c u t e d g e n e r a l s a n d
a d mi r a l s . Amo n g t h e ma j o r So v i e t d i p l o ma t s , o n l y t h o s e w h o h a d
n e v e r b e e n t o o c l o s e t o t h e B o l s h e v i k P a r t y o r h a d a c t u a l l y s e r v e d o n
t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l f e n c e - i n c l u d i n g Me n s h e v i k s l i k e
Ma i s k y , Tr o y a n o v s k y , a n d Su r i t z - r e ma i n e d a l i v e . Th e h e a d s o f a l l
t h e a u t o n o mo u s n a t i o n a l r e p u b l i c s w e r e e i t h e r e x e c u t e d o r d r i v e n t o
s u i c i d e
. Th e me n w h o d r e w u p a n d c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t h e Fi v e Y e a r
P l a n w e r e d e s t r o y e d . Th e v e r y G. P . U
. c h i e f t a i n s w h o o r g a n i z e d t h e
e a r l i e r i n s t a l l me n t s o f t h e g i g a n t i c k i l l i n g w e r e t h e ms e l v e s t h r o w n o n
t h e a l t a r o f c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n b y t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s
. At l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s
o f t h e Tz i k C o mmi t t e e w h i c h h a d d r a f t e d t h e St a l i n C o n s t i t u t i o n
w e r e l i q u i d a t e d .
Ov e r a n d a b o v e t h e me n a n d w o me n w h o s e n a me s a r e i mb e d d e d
i n So v i e t h i s t o r y , t h e r e w a s o f c o u r s e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f g r e a t ma s s e s o f
t h e l o w l y c o mmu n i s t s , mi n o r o f f i c i a l s , e c o n o mi s t s , p r o f e s s o r s , w r i t e r s
.
Th e r e i s n o w a y o f o v e r e s t i ma t i n g t h e ma g n i t u d e o f t h e " c l e a n s i n g . "
Ima g i n e a n e w g o v e r n me n t t a k i n g o v e r p o w e r i n a g r e a t n a t i o n a n d
e x p e l l i n g a l l t h o s e s u s p e c t e d o f l i n g e r i n g s y mp a t h y f o r t h e o u s t e d
r e g i me . Th a t i s w h a t h a p p e n e d - e x c e p t t h a t t h e e x p u l s i o n w a s p e r ma -
n e n t , t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l a n n i h i l a t i o n .
Wh a t e v e r e l s e ma y c o me o f t h e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n , i t h a s a t l e a s t
s e t a n e w l o w f o r o f f i c i a l s a d i s m, a n e w h i g h f o r o f f i c i a l mu r d e r , f o r
P URGESAND AMERIC ANLIB ERALS

2 4 1
mo d e r n t i me s . Iv a n a n d P e t e r s e e mr e s t r a i n e d i n t h e i r o r g i e s o f c a r -
n a g e c o mp a r e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s u c c e s s o r i n t h e K r e ml i n
.
3
As p e c i e s o f p a n i c w a s p r o d u c e d a mo n g f o r e i g n f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s b y
t h e r e p e a t e d s h o c k s o f t h e Ru s s i a n s l a u g h t e r ! H e r e a n d t h e r e i n d i -
v i d u a l c o mmu n i s t s i n Ame r i c a a n d e l s e w h e r e w e n t t h r o u g h a r e v u l -
s i o n o f f e e l i n g . B u t b y a n d l a r g e t h e p e r i p h e r y o f " s y mp a t h i z e r s " a n d
s e c r e t c o mmu n i s t s a n d v a g u e c a mp - f o l l o w e r s s w a l l o w e d t h e b l o o d
p u r g e a s t h e i r f o r e r u n n e r s h a d g u l p e d d o w n t h e ma n - ma d e f a mi n e .
It w a s i n t h e mi d s t o f t h e p u r g e s , i n f a c t , t h a t t h e l i b e r a l mi d d l e a n d
u p p e r - c l a s s c o n v e r s i o n s t o t h e C o mi n t e r n r e l i g i o n h a d t h e i r g r e a t e s t
g r o w t h . No s t r o n g e r p r o o f c a n b e a d d u c e d o f t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e
w h o l e b u s i n e s s . It t h r i v e d o n b l o o d
. It d e r i v e d a c e r t a i n e c s t a s y f r o m
t h e c o n t i n u o u s s p e c t a c l e o f h u ma n s a c r i f i c e
. No r i s i t t h e f i r s t t i me
i n t h e h i s t o r y o f p s e u d o - r e l i g i o u s o b s e s s i o n s t h a t b l o o d p l a y e d t h i s
r o l e o f h e i g h t e n i n g e mo t i o n .
To t h e s o - c a l l e d c o mmu n i s t s o f t h i s p e r i o d , 9 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e m
n e w r e c r u i t s , i g n o r a n t o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y , t h e n a me s o f t h e Ol d
B o l s h e v i k s w h o w e r e b e i n g k i l l e d o f f me a n t n o t h i n g . Th e r e w a s f o r
t h e mn o ma g i c i n n a me s l i k e Z i n o v i e v , B u k h a r i n , Ry k o v , Ra k o v s k y ,
Tu k h a c h e v s k y , So k o l n i k o v . Th e y f e l t n o s e n s e o f h o r r o r a n d s a c r i l e g e
i n t h e s h o o t i n g o f t h e a u t h o r s o f a r e v o l u t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e y h a d
i d e n t i f i e d t h e ms e l v e s t w e n t y y e a r s t o o l a t e a n d i n i t s p e r i o d o f d e g r a d a -
t i o n . In d e e d , a t b o t t o mi t w a s t h e n e w , k n o w - n o t h i n g , t o u g h c o u n t e r -
r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r o f t h e So v i e t r e g i me w h i c h a t t r a c t e d t h e m .
Th e e r a s u r e o f a l o t o f p o l y s y l l a b i c a n d u n p r o n o u n c e a b l e n a me s a s s o -
c i a t e d w i t h a l o n g - p a s t a n d e s s e n t i a l l y d i s r e p u t a b l e a f f a i r b a c k
i n 1 9 1 7
i n v o l v e d n o p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i o l e n c e f o r t h e f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s .
Th e y e a r s o f a p o l o g e t i c s f o r t h e b l o o d l e t t i n g i n t h e p a r l o r s a n d p e n t -
h o u s e s o f a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d c o mf o r t a b l e Ame r i c a n h o me s , a mo n g
t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d a r t i s t s a n d s c h o l a r s o f o u r c o u n t r y , r e p r e s e n t t h e
l o w e s t e b b o f Ame r i c a n " l i b e r a l i s m . " It h a d l o s t i t s i n s t i n c t s o f f a i r -
n e s s a n d i t s n a t u r a l r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t l a r g e - s c a l e b r u t a l i t y . It h a d b e -
c o me e s s e n t i a l l y t o t a l i t a r i a n i n i t s r e f l e x e s , s i d i n g a u t o ma t i c a l l y w i t h
p o w e r - w i t h t h e e x e c u t i o n e r s a g a i n s t t h e v i c t i ms , w i t h t h e p o l i c e
a g a i n s t t h e t e r r o r i z e d .
Ih a v e b e f o r e me a s Iw r i t e a f i l e o f Na t i o n a n d Ne w Re p u b l i c e d i -
2 4 2 TH ERED D EC AD E
t o r i a l s a n d a r t i c l e s o n t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s
. An a r o ma o f d e c a y s e e ms t o
me t o p e r v a d e t h e ma l l . H e r e a n d t h e r e , t o w a r d t h e e n d o f t h e h o r -
r i b l e p r o c e s s , t h e r e a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f " r e g r e t " a n d a p p e a l s t o St a l i n t o
s h u t o f f t h e t a p s o f d e a t h
. B u t t h e ma s s o f w o r d s a s a w h o l e i s p u -
t r e s c e n t i n i t s e a g e r n e s s f o r a l i b i s f o r t h e k i l l e r s a n d i n s u l t s f o r t h e
k i l l e d . Th e s a me e d i t o r s a n d w r i t e r s w h o o n c e s p o k e u p f o r Mo o n e y ,
f o r Sa c c o a n d Va n z e t t i , w h o p r e s u ma b l y c h e r i s h e d t h e me mo r y o f t h e
w o r l d r e s p o n s e t o a D r e y f u s o r Me n d e l B a y l i s c a s e , n o w g a v e e v e r y
b e n e f i t o f t h e d o u b t t o a n o mn i p o t e n t s t a t e a n d i t s f i r i n g s q u a d s , r a t h e r
t h a n t o i t s v i c t i ms .
Wi t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h e C o w l e y s a n d K i r c h w e y s a n d B l i v e n s f u s s e d
o v e r t h e d e t a i l s o f t h i s o r t h a t t r i a l , s t e a d f a s t l y r e f u s i n g t o a s s a y t h e
w h o l e c h a i n o f e v e n t s , w h i c h a l o n e mi g h t h a v e g i v e n t h e mt h e c l u e
t o t h e t r a g e d y . It s u i t e d t h e i r b e l a t e d i n s i d e - o u t r e v o l u t i o n i s mt o t e l l
t h e ms e l v e s t h a t t h i s w a s a me r e a c c i d e n t , a n u n h a p p y i n t e r l u d e , r a t h e r
t h a n a n e x p r e s s i o n o f a d e e p i n t r i n s i c c h a n g e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e So v i e t
r e g i me , o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f Le n i n i s t a mo r a l i s m . If o n l y t h e y c o u l d
c o n v i n c e t h e ms e l v e s t h a t Z i n o v i e v d i d p o i s o n t h e s o u p i n a f a c t o r y
k i t c h e n , t h a t t h e a s c e t i c B u k h a r i n
h a d " s a b o t a g e d " s o me t h i n g s o me -
w h e r e , t h e y c o u l d r e c o n c i l e t h e ms e l v e s t o t h e s l a u g h t e r o f a h u n d r e d
t h o u s a n d a n d t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f a l l t h e ma k e r s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n e x c e p t
Le n i n a n d St a l i n i n t o a b a n d o f mo n e y - g r u b b i n g c u t t h r o a t s
. In t h e i r
s a d " a d mi s s i o n s " t h a t s o me t h i n g mu s t b e a mi s s t h e St a l i n o i d l i b e r a l s
w e r e e v e n mo r e p i t i f u l t h a n i n b o l d a p o l o g e t i c s , s i n c e t h e y d a r e d n o t
f o l l o w t h e l o g i c o f t h e i r a d mi s s i o n s , b u t i n v a r i a b l y e n d e d w i t h a p i o u s
" n e v e r t h e l e s s " a n d " d e s p i t e e v e r y t h i n g . "
Wh a t w a s t h e Na t i o n ' s f i r s t r e a c t i o n t o t h e a n n o u n c e me n t o f t h e
i n i t i a l " Tr o t s k y i s t " t r i a l ? No t e v e n d e c e n t a s t o n i s h me n t
. " It w a s t o b e
e x p e c t e d t h a t u n d e r t h e v e l v e t g l o v e o f t h e Ne w So v i e t c o n s t i t u t i o n , "
i t w r o t e , " t h e r e w o u l d s t i l l b e t h e f i r mo u t l i n e s o f t h e i r o n h a n d
. Th e r e
c a n b e n o d o u b t t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p i n Ru s s i a i s d y i n g a n d t h a t a n e w
d e mo c r a c y i s s l o w l y b e i n g b o r n . " Th e i mp e n d i n g d e a t h o f t h o u s a n d s
o f c o mmu n i s t s w a s t h u s a n o t h e r c o n f i r ma t i o n t h a t t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p i s
d y i n g l P r o o f ? Wh y , " Lo u i s Fi s c h e r , i n h i s a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s
i s s u e , s a y s t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ma r k s t h e a b d i c a t i o n o f t h e d i c t a t o r -
s h i p a n d
t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a n e w e r a i n c i v i l l i b e r t i e s . " Wh a t o t h e r
p r o o f i s n e e d e d ? Th e s t a r t o f t h e a p p a l l i n g p u r g e a n d t h e a b d i c a t i o n
o f t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p a l l i n o n e p a c k a g e !
As t h a t n e w e r a o f c i v i l l i b e r t i e s r e a l l y g o t g o i n g , w i t h h u n d r e d s o f
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2 4 3
e x e c u t i o n s w e e k l y a n d t h e s p r e a d o f a t e r r o r mo r e t o t a l t h a n t h e w o r l d
h a d y e t s e e n a n y w h e r e i n mo d e r n t i me s , t h e Na t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o t a k e
i t s mo r a l b e a r i n g s f r o mt h e s a me ma n w h o h a d t i p p e d t h e mo f f o n t h e
a b d i c a t i o n , w i t h r e i n f o r c e me n t f r o mt h e d i s p a t c h e s o f Wa l t e r D u r a n t y .
Th e g a l l a n t Ne w Re p u b l i c i n i t s f i r s t r e a c t i o n b l a n d l y a s s u me d t h a t
t h e f a n t a s t i c c h a r g e s c o mp o u n d e d b y t h e G. P . U. w e r e t r u e . " P e r -
h a p s t h e d e e p e s t l e s s o n t o b e l e a r n e d f r o mt h e Ru s s i a n t r i a l , " i t d e -
c l a r e d , " i s t h e p r o f o u n d , u n c h a n g e a b l e s t u b b o r n n e s s o f h u ma n n a t u r e
.
Fr o mt h e s t a n d p o i n t o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y , t h e s e me n h a d l i t t l e t o
g a i n a n d mu c h t o l o s e b y t h e i r e f f o r t t o b r i n g d o w n t h e So v i e t s t a t e i n
r u i n s . " Th u s a n o f f h a n d a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e p o l i c e c l a i ms e l a b o r a t e d b y
c o r n e r e d a n d t e r r o r i z e d me n w e r e t r u e ! Th i s s o r t o f b i g - h e a r t e d c o n -
s i d e r a t e n e s s f o r t h e St a l i n t y r a n n y ma r k e d a l l t h e " l i b e r a l " c o mme n t
.
It w a s s o c o mp l a c e n t l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d o me s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , s o
f o r g i v i n g o f t h e mi n o r p e c c a d i l l o e s o f a h a r d - w o r k e d d i c t a t o r !
Mr . D u r a n t y , o f a l l p e o p l e , h a d b e e n r u s h e d b y t h e Ne w Y o r k
Ti me s t o c o v e r t h e t r i a l . H e a c t e d a s a l i f e s a v e r f o r e mb a r r a s s e d St a l i n -
i s t s h e r e b y e v o l v i n g t h e t h e o r y o f a s p e c i a l Ru s s i a n p s y c h o l o g y t o
e x p l a i n e v e r y t h i n g . Ic a n r e a d i l y i ma g i n e t h e t w i n k l e i n h i s e y e a n d
t h e b u l g e i n h i s c h e e k a s h e o f f e r e d t h i s c o n s o l a t i o n t o t h e f a i t h f u l
a b r o a d . Th e v i c t i ms , s a i d h e , w e r e j u s t a l o t o f D o s t o i e v s k y c h a r a c t e r s
e n j o y i n g s e l f - t o r t u r e a n d i n d u l g i n g t h e i r Sl a v s o u l s ! Ne v e r mi n d t h a t
Z i n o v i e v , K a me n e v , Ra d e k a n d d o z e n s o f o t h e r s h a d a b o u t a s mu c h
Sl a v b l o o d i n t h e i r v e i n s a s D u r a n t y . Ne v e r mi n d t h a t o t h e r Sl a v
r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n o t h e r t i me s h a d e x h i b i t e d t h e i r D o s t o i e v s k y s t r e a k
b y d e f y i n g t h e C z a r a n d h i s Ok h r a n a i n o p e n c o u r t , b y f a n a t i c h e r o i s m
r a t h e r t h a n f a n a t i c s e l f - a b u s e . Th e " l i b e r a l s " w o u l d n o t s p o i l a s o o t h -
i n g a l i b i b y t o o mu c h t e s t i n g
.
D u r a n t y , t h e Ne w Re p u b l i c w a s p l e a s e d t o a n n o u n c e t o i t s r e a d .
e r s , " h a s a p p a r e n t l y b e e n f o r c e d t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e c o n f e s s i o n s
a r e t r u e . " Th e w o r d " f o r c e d " i s a n e x q u i s i t e t o u c h . Me s s r s . C o w l e y ,
B l i v e n , e t a l , k n o w i n g h o w c o n s i s t e n t l y Mr . D u r a n t y h a d r e s i s t e d t h e
t e mp t a t i o n o f s a y i n g a n y t h i n g p l e a s a n t a b o u t St a l i n , c o u l d s e e h i m
s t r u g g l i n g t o e x p o s e t h e t r i a l b u t f i n a l l y b e i n g f o r c e d o v e r t h e l i n e b y
t h e o v e r w h e l mi n g a n d i r r e s i s t i b l e p r o o f s . " An d i t s e e ms t o u s , " t h e y
a d d e d k n o w i n g l y , " t h a t t h e w e i g h t o f t h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s Mr . D u .
r a n t y ' s v i e w . " Th u s e v e r y t h i n g w a s n e a t l y i r o n e d o u t .
In e d i t o r i a l a f t e r e d i t o r i a l t h e l i b e r a l w e e k l i e s " s u s p e n d e d j u d g -
me n t . " In o n e i n s t a n c e t h e Na t i o n c o n v e n i e n t l y s u s p e n d e d i t f o r a
2 4 4

TH ERED D EC AD E
h u n d r e d y e a r s
. Wi t h e a c h s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l t h i s Ol y mp i a n a l o o f n e s s
b e c a me mo r e d i f f i c u l t t o ma i n t a i n
. B u t , t o q u o t e t h e Ne w Re p u b l i c o n
t h e l a s t t r i a l :
At t h e s a me t i me w e mu s t n o t , H a ml e t - l i k e , c o n t e mp l a t e t h i s t r a g -
e d y s o e x c l u s i v e l y t h a t w e mi s j u d g e t h e USSRi n i t s p r e s e n t s t r e n g t h .
Th e r e i s n o r e a l r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t h a s b e e n s e r i o u s l y w e a k e n e d
b y r e c e n t e v e n t s i n a mi l i t a r y s e n s e . . .
. Th e USSRi s i n ma n y r e s p e c t s
t h e s t r o n g e s t n a t i o n o n e a r t h - a s Ja p a n a n d Ge r ma n y ma y f i n d o u t
t o t h e i r c o s t .
No t u n t i l Ma r c h 1 6 , 1 9 3 8 , d i d t h e Ne w Re p u b l i c c o me a r o u n d t o
c o n c e d i n g t h a t " Mo s c o w l o s e s c a s t e . " B u t t h e y e a r s o f e q u i v o c a t i o n ,
a p o l o g y a n d c o mp l a c e n t s u s p e n s i o n o f j u d g me n t h a d h e l p e d t h e i n -
c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n a b s o r b t h e p u r g e s , t o e me r g e s t r o n g e r a f t e r t h e
i n v i g o r a t i n g d r a u g h t o f b l o o d
. Mo r e o v e r , t h e ma g a z i n e ' s l i t e r a r y e d i -
t o r , Ma l c o l mC o w l e y , h a v i n g a s s u me d t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a l e g a l e x p e r t
me r e l y b e c a u s e t h e t r i a l t r a n s c r i p t s w e r e b e t w e e n b o o k c o v e r s , c o n -
t i n u e d t o f i n d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s f a i r a n d t h e e v i d e n c e t r u e
. Th i s h e
a c h i e v e d b y c a r e f u l l y p a s s i n g o v e r t e e mi n g i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s
a n d o b v i o u s f a l s e h o o d s a n d b y r e f u s i n g t o p l a c e t h e p u r g e s i n t h e i r
l a r g e r s e t t i n g o f c h a n g i n g So v i e t a t t i t u d e s
. Ev e n a f t e r t h e v o l u mi n o u s
r e c o r d s h a d b e e n c a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e d a n d d i g e s t e d b y a c o mmi t t e e
h e a d e d b y P r o f e s s o r Jo h n D e w e y , r e v e a l i n g t h e a b s u r d i t y o f t h e c o n -
f e s s i o n s , n e i t h e r C o w l e y n o r h i s j o u r n a l h a d t h e h u mi l i t y t o f a c e t h e i r
mi s t a k e s
. Th r o u g h o u t t h e i r p r o - So v i e t y e a r s t h e l i b e r a l s w e r e mo r e
c o n c e r n e d w i t h s a v i n g f a c e t h a n f a c i n g f a c t s .
Wh e n t h e Mo d e r n Q u a r t e r l y p o s e d t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r " Tr o t s k y
i s g u i l t y o f t h e c h a r g e s l i s t e d i n t h e i n d i c t me n t s , " a p r o f o u n d j u r i s t l i k e
Le o H u b e r ma n n e e d e d o n l y o n e w o r d t o s e t t l e t h e ma t t e r
. " Y e s , " h e
r e p l i e d - n e i t h e r mo r e n o r l e s s , j u s t " Y e s . " An o t h e r e x p e r t , Th e o d o r e
D r e i s e r , f o u n d t h e t r i a l s c o n f u s i n g , " B u t s o me h o w t h e y s e e mc h a r a c -
t e r i s t i c o f w h a t mi g h t b e c a l l e d t h e Ru s s i a n t e mp e r a me n t . . . . Th e
t r i a l s r e p r e s e n t a r e a l t r i u mp h o f t h e s p i r i t o f s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n . . . . As
f o r Tr o t s k y , Ib e l i e v e t h a t h e i s g u i l t y o f a l l t h e c h a r g e s ma d e a g a i n s t
h i m . "
Ot h e r s ma y h a v e r e t a i n e d a n e d g e o f d o u b t o r a f r i n g e o f c o n f u s i o n ,
b u t n o t Ru s s i a n e x p e r t s l i k e Sh e r w o o d Ed d y
. Th e mo u n t i n g p i l e s o f
d e a d c o mmu n i s t s i n e v e r y c o r n e r o f t h e So v i e t r e a l mw e r e n o p r o b l e m
P URGESAND AMERIC ANLIB ERALS

2 4 5
f o r h i s b i g - h e a r t e d e r u d i t i o n
. " In my o w n mi n d , " h e i n f o r me d t h e
i mp a r t i a l D a i l y Wo r k e r , " a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e s e t w o t r i a l s ,
t h e g u i l t o f t r e a s o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h o s e w h o w e r e s e n t e n c e d , a n d t h e
d o u b l e g u i l t o f Tr o t s k y a s t h e a r c h c o n s p i r a t o r , i s n o w t h o r o u g h l y
e s t a b l i s h e d . " An d t h a t w a s t h a t
. . . .
Ma x w e l l St e w a r t , o n e o f t h e Na t i o n e d i t o r s , r e t u r n e d f r o ma v i s i t
t o t h e So v i e t Un i o n d u r i n g t h e s l a u g h t e r y e a r s w i t h g l a d t i d i n g s f o r
f r i e n d s o f t h e e x e c u t i o n e r s . H e h a d l e a r n e d , a n d n o w t r a n s mi t t e d t h e
n e w s s o l e mn l y , t h a t t h e b l o o d p u r g e s w e r e r e a l l y a n e x p r e s s i o n o f n e w
So v i e t d e mo c r a c y . Th e ma s s e s , h e e x p l a i n e d , w e r e n o w k i l l i n g o f f u n -
p o p u l a r l e a d e r s
; c l e a n i n g h o u s e , s o t o s p e a k . D i s c o n t e n t w h i c h " h a d
b e e n f e s t e r i n g f o r s o me y e a r s " n o w " o n l y b e l a t e d l y ma d e i t s e l f f e l t . . . .
Th e mo t i v e f o r c e o f t h e p u r g e h a s c o me a l mo s t e x c l u s i v e l y f r o mb e -
l o w . " Th e p e o p l e , St e w a r t d i s c o v e r e d , " p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s e n t e d t h e
s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s a c q u i r e d b y t h e n e w c l a s s o f b u r e a u c r a t s " - h e n c e
t h e p u r g e t o s o o t h e t h e i r r e s e n t me n t . * St a l i n , Y a g o d a , Y e z h o v a n d
Vi s h i n s k y w e r e me r e t o o l s i n t h e h a n d s o f a n a r o u s e d d e mo c r a c y
.
Th e r e w e r e n o i n t e l l e c t u a l a c r o b a t i c s w h i c h t h e f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s
w o u l d n o t u n d e r t a k e t o s a v e t h e i r l o v e l y f a i t h i n Ru s s i a
. Y e a r a f t e r
y e a r t h e y h a d a c c e p t e d a n d e x p l a i n e d a w a y h o r r o r a n d s u p e r - h o r r o r
:
f a l s i f i c a t i o n s o f h i s t o r y , c o r r u p t i o n , t e r r o r , ma n - ma d e f a mi n e , t h e d e a t h
p e n a l t y f o r mi n o r t h e f t s , t h e p u n i s h me n t o f r e l a t i v e s f o r a l l e g e d c r i me s
c o mmi t t e d b y me mb e r s o f t h e i r f a mi l y t h o u s a n d s o f mi l e s a w a y , c a p i -
t a l p u n i s h me n t f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a mp s w i t h a p o p u -
l a t i o n r u n n i n g i n t o mi l l i o n s
. Th e y h a d d e v e l o p e d a s e t o f c a r d - i n d e x e d
f o r mu l a s o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r w a s h i n g o u t s u c h mi n o r b l e mi s h e s o n
t h e b e l o v e d d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t .
Th e K r e ml i n ' s s o l a r s y s t e mo f " ma s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s " a b r o a d p r o s -
p e r e d e n o r mo u s l y d e s p i t e t h e p u r g e s - p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e m . Th e
l i b e r a l s ' b e t r a y a l o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e a n d t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s t a n d s s t a r k
a n d u g l y o n t h e p a g e s o f r e c e n t h i s t o r y .
* Na t i o n , D e c e mb e r 1 7 , 1 9 3 8 .
C H AP TERXXI
H OORAY FORMURD ER!
1
A
D EFINITIVEj u d g me n t o f t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s , a n d o f t h e ma s s
k i l l i n g s w i t h o u t t r i a l b e h i n d t h e m, c a l l s f o r a p r o f o u n d k n o w l -
e d g e o f t h e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n , i t s l e a d e r s , i t s e t h i c s a n d mo t i -
v a t i o n s . As a mi n i mu mi t p r e s u p p o s e s a t h o r o u g h s t u d y o f t h e t r i a l
r e c o r d s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f e x p o s u r e o u t s i d e Ru s s i a , a n i n t i ma t e f a mi l i a r -
i t y w i t h t h e l i f e s t o r i e s o f t h e Ol d B o l s h e v i k s a c t u a l l y o n t r i a l . Th e
ma t e r i a l s o f t h e t r a g i c e p i s o d e , w e ma y b e s u r e , w i l l b e e x a mi n e d a n d
a n a l y z e d b y g e n e r a t i o n s o f h i s t o r i a n s a n d j u r i s t s
.
B u t t h e r e w e r e s o me 1 5 0 Ame r i c a n s f o r w h o mt h e p r o b l e mw a s
e a s y a s p i e
. Th e y s a w i n i t n e i t h e r my s t e r y n o r c o n f u s i o n
. Th e y k n e w
a n d p r o c l a i me d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e . Wi t h a s w e e p i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e
t h a t s a v o r s o f h i g h e r r e v e l a t i o n t h e y d i a g n o s e d t h e Ru s s i a n p u r g e s
a n d ma d e t h e i r f i n d i n g s p u b l i c
. Th o s e f i n d i n g s w e r e n o t t e n t a t i v e ,
a l l o w i n g f o r t h e r e mo t e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d o u b t
. No , t h e i r s w a s a n u n q u a l -
i f i e d a n d u n e q u i v o c a l v e r d i c t j u s t i f y i n g Jo s e p h St a l i n a n d h i s o v e r -
w o r k e d e x e c u t i o n e r s .
Th e b o l d a s s u r a n c e o f l o n g - d i s t a n c e e x p e r t s o n So v i e t h i s t o r y a n d
j u r i s p r u d e n c e i s t h e mo r e r e ma r k a b l e w h e n w e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y w e r e
n o t p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d e n t s o f w o r l d a f f a i r s n o r s p e c i a l i z e d l e g a l s a v a n t s
.
Tr u t h t o t e l l , f e w o f t h e mc o u l d e v e n p a s s a t e s t i n p r o n o u n c i n g t h e
n a me s o f t h e d o z e n s o f Ru s s i a n s u p o n w h o s e l i q u i d a t i o n t h e y p l a c e d
t h e s e a l o f t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e a p p r o v a l . Th e y w e r e , t o q u o t e t h e p r o u d
a n n o u n c e me n t o f t h e p h e n o me n o n i n t h e c o l u mn s o f t h e D a i l y
Wo r k e r , me r e l y " mo v i e a c t o r s , " " B r o a d w a y f i g u r e s , " " c o mp o s e r s " a n d
t h e l i k e
. Le t t h a t b r a v e n e w s p a p e r ( Ap r i l 2 8 , 1 9 3 8 ) t e l l t h e a s t o n i s h -
i n g s t o r y i n i t s o w n mo d e s t f a s h i o n :
Ne a r l y 1 5 0 p r o mi n e n t Ame r i c a n a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , c o mp o s e r s , e d i t o r s ,
mo v i e a c t o r s , c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s a n d B r o a d w a y f i g u r e s y e s t e r d a y i s s u e d
a s t a t e me n t i n s u p p o r t o f t h e v e r d i c t s o f t h e r e c e n t Mo s c o w t r i a l s o f
t h e Tr o t s k y i t e - B u k h a r i n i t e t r a i t o r s .
2 4 6
H OORAY FORMURD ERI

2 4 7
Th a t t r a i t o r s a r e g u i l t y o f t r e a c h e r y i s s c a r c e l y a n e x c i t i n g d i s c o v e r y ,
b u t t h e c l u ms i n e s s o f t h e a n n o u n c e me n t ma y b e b l a me d o n t h e z e a l
o f t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r
. Th e p a p e r w e n t o n t o q u o t e t h e s t a t e me n t i t s e l f
.
Th e a ma t e u r j u r i s t s g a v e i t a s t h e i r s o l e mn a n d c o n s i d e r e d , n a y i mp a s -
s i o n e d , o p i n i o n t h a t t h e t r i a l s " h a v e b y s h e e r w e i g h t o f e v i d e n c e e s t a b -
l i s h e d a c l e a r p r e s u mp t i o n o f t h e g u i l t o f t h e d e f e n d a n t s
. " Th e y e v e n
w e n t b e y o n d t h e i r mo r a l a n d j u r i d i c a l v e r d i c t t o w a r n t h a t " t h e p r e s e r -
v a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e d e mo c r a c y " i n o u r o w n c o u n t r y ma k e s i t n e c e s -
s a r y f o r d e mo c r a t s a n d p r o g r e s s i v e s - t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e ms e l v e s - t o
" s u p p o r t " St a l i n ' s p o l i c y o f b l o o d p u r g e s
.
Wh o w e r e t h e s e s p e c i a l i s t s i n h i s t o r y a n d So v i e t l a w ? Th e mi r a c l e
o f s u c h c e r t a i n t y o n p e r p l e x i n g ma t t e r s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a c t s a n d
e t h i c s f l o u r i s h i n g a l l u n s u s p e c t e d o n B r o a d w a y a n d o n H o l l y w o o d l o t s
i s a n Ame r i c a n p h e n o me n o n w o r t h y o f n o t e o u t s i d e t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r
a n d t h e Ne w Ma s s e s t o w h i c h t h e g l a d n e w s w a s a t t h a t t i me
c o n f i n e d .
On l y 1 2 3 o f t h e 1 5 0 w e r e n a me d i n t h e c o mmu n i s t p r e s s
. Th e
mi s s i n g 2 7 mu s t t h e r e f o r e b e d e p r i v e d o f t h e i mmo r t a l i t y o f t h e s e
p a g e s
. Th o s e i n t h e p u b l i s h e d l i s t i n c l u d e d s u c h f a mo u s Ru s s i a n a n d
l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s a s Li o n e l St a n d e r , Mu r i e l D r a p e r , D a s h i e l l H a mme t t ,
D o r o t h y P a r k e r , P h i l i p Lo e b , H a r o l d J
. Ro me - w h i c h i s t o s a y , c o me -
d i a n s , l y r i c i s t s , a c t o r s , s o c i e t y l a d i e s , f i c t i o n w r i t e r s
. B u t t h e l i s t
a l s o i n c l u d e d s c h o l a r s a n d s c i e n t i s t s
. Th a t , p e r h a p s , i s e v e n mo r e
e x t r a o r d i n a r y . Su r e l y me n l i k e D r . H e n r y E
. Si g e r i s t , P a u l d e K r u i f ,
a n d P r o f e s s o r Je r o me D a v i s i n t h e i r o w n f i e l d s o f k n o w l e d g e a p p l y
r i g i d s c i e n t i f i c c r i t e r i a o f j u d g me n t . Wo u l d D r
. Si g e r i s t d i a g n o s e a
c a s e o f s ma l l p o x , l e t u s s a y , o n t h e t h i r d - h a n d a s s u r a n c e s o f a n a g e n t
p e r v e r s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s p r e a d o f s ma l l p o x ? Wo u l d Mr
. d e K r u i f
t h i n k o f ma k i n g s u c h s w e e p i n g j u d g me n t s o n a q u e s t i o n o f me d i c a l
h i s t o r y , i n t u i t i v e l y s o t o s a y , a s h e d i d i n t h i s ma t t e r o f p o l i t i c a l
h i s t o r y ?
Th e v a r i e t y o f t h e s i g n e r s o f t h i s a ma z i n g w h i t e w a s h o f St a l i n p r e -
p a r e d b y mo v i e a c t o r s a n d s c i e n t i s t s mu s t s t a n d a s a s y mb o l o f t h e Re d
D e c a d e . It s i n s a n i t y w a s s u r p a s s e d o n l y o n c e , f i f t e e n mo n t h s l a t e r , b y
f o u r h u n d r e d e x p e r t s w h o p u b l i c l y d e n i e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n y c o m-
mo n g r o u n d b e t w e e n Ru s s i a a n d Ge r ma n y - n i n e d a y s b e f o r e t h e t w o
n a t i o n s ma d e t h e i r a l l i a n c e i n t h e K r e ml i n . H e r e , f o r t h e r e c o r d , i s
t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d l i s t , e x a c t l y a s p u b l i s h e d b y t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r o f
Ap r i l 2 8 , 1 9 3 8 :
2
4
8
Ar t h u r Ar e n t
Ne l s o n Al g r e n
B e r i l B e c k e r
Th o ma s B . B e n n e t t
Ar n o l d B l a n c h
Ma r c B l i t z s t e i n
Ro ma n B o h n e n
Mi l l e n B r a n d
P h o e b e B r a n d
D o r o t h y B r e w s t e r
J. R. B r o w n
Ed w i n B e r r y B u r g u m
Al a n C a mp b e l l
Mo r r i s C a r n o v s k y
Ve r a C a s p a r y
Si - l a n C h e n
H a a k o n M. C h e v a l i e r
C h ' a o - t i n g C h i
H a r o l d C l u r ma n
Ro b e r t C o a t e s
Me r l e C o l b y
Ja c k C o n r o y
C u r t C o n w a y
Te d C o u d a y
Ma l c o l mC o w l e y
B r u c e C r a w f o r d
K y l e C r i c h t o n
Ro b e r t M
. C r o n b a c h
Le s t e r C o l e
H . W. L. D a n a
Je r o me D a v i s
St u a r t D a v i s
P a u l d e K r u i f
Mu r i e l D r a p e r
Ro b e r t W. D u n n
D r . Ga r l a n d Et h e l
P h i l Ev e r g o o d
Gu y En d o r e
Lo u i s Fe r s t a d t
Fr e d e r i k V. Fi e l d
El i z a b e t h G. Fl y n n
Ju l e s Ga r f i e l d
TH ERED D EC AD E
H u g o Ge l l e r t
Ro b e r t Ge s s n e r
H a r r y Go t t l i e b
Emme t t C o w a n
B . D . N
. Gr e b a n i e r
Ri c h a r d Gr e e n l e a f
D a s h i e l l H a mme t t
Ab r a h a mH a r r i t o n
H e n r y H a r t
Li l l i a n H e l l ma n
Gr a n v i l l e H i c k s
La n g s t o n H u g h e s
Ro l p h H u mp h r i e s
Le o H u r w i t z
B u r t o n C . Ja me s
Fl o r e n c e B
. Ja me s
Jo e Jo n e s
V. D . K a z a k e v i c h
Ad e l a i d e K l e i n
H . S. K r a f t
Jo h n H o w a r d La w s o n
C o r l i s s La mo n t
C a t h e r i n e La w r e n c e
Me l v i n Le v y
Ja y Le y d a
P h i l i p Lo e b
Lo u i s Lo z o w i c k
Wi l l i a mC
. Ma c l e o d
Al b e r t Ma l t z
V. J . Mc Gi l l
Se l d e n C
. Me n e f e e
Al f r e d Mo r a n g
El i z a b e t h Ol d s
Jo h n O' Ma l l e y
A. L
. Ot t e n h e i me r
Sa mu e l Or n i t z
Ra y mo n d Ot i s
D o r o t h y P a r k e r
P a u l P e t e r s
Jo h n H y d e P r e s t o n
Re b e c c a E. P i t t s
Sa mu e l P u t n u m
C h a r l e s Re c h t
Wa l l i n g f o r d Ri e g g e r
Ly n n Ri g g s
H o l l a n d D . Ro b e r t s
An n a Ro c h e s t e r
H a r o l d J . Ro me
H e n r y Ro t h
P a u l Ro ma i n e
Ma r g a r e t Sc h l a u c h
Mo r r i s U. Sc h a p p e s
Ed w i n Se a v e r
Ge o r g e Se l d e s
H o w a r d Se l s a m
Ir w i n Sh a w
D r . H e n r y E. Si g e r i s t
Ge o r g e Sk l a r
H a r r y Sc h l o c h o w e r
B e r n a r d Smi t h
E. Tr e d w e l l Smi t h
Je s s i c a Smi t h
H OORAY FORMURD ER!
H e s t e r So n d e r g a a r d
Ra p h a e l So y e r
Li o n e l St a n d e r
B e r n a r d J . St e r n
H o u s e l y St e v e n s , Jr .
P h i l i p St e v e n s o n
Ma x w e l l B . St e w a r t
P a u l St r a n d
Jo h n St u a r t
Ge n e v i e v e Ta g g a r d
Na h u mTs c h a b a s o v
Et h e l Tu r n e r
K e e n e Wa l l i s
Ma x We b e r
Ge o r g e T. Wi l l i s o n
Fr a n c e s Wi n w a r
Ma r t i n Wo l f s o n
Ri c h a r d Wr i g h t
Vi c t o r A. Y a k h o n t o f f
2
4 9
Amo r e c u r i o u s l y a s s o r t e d j u r y h a s r a r e l y s a t i n j u d g me n t o n a s e t
o f c o mp l i c a t e d f a c t s . Ma n y o f t h e m, o f c o u r s e , h a v e s i n c e t h e n p u b -
l i c l y d e n o u n c e d t h e i r o w n f r i v o l i t y i n t h u s e n d o r s i n g o f f i c i a l mu r d e r ;
b u t t h i s i s a h i s t o r y a n d t h e r e c o r d s t a n d s . Fo r p i q u a n c y t h i s l i s t o f
Ame r i c a n a p o l o g i s t s f o r t h e G . P . U. me t h o d s i s e x c e e d e d b y o n l y o n e
o t h e r d o c u me n t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s a me mi r a c l e o f i n s t i n c t i v e
k n o w l e d g e . It i s t h e l e t t e r s o l i c i t i n g s i g n a t u r e s t o t h i s w h i t e w a s h s e n t
o u t s e v e r a l w e e k s e a r l i e r ( Ap r i l 2 ) b y a c o mmi t t e e o f f i v e s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d
" l i b e r a l s a n d p r o g r e s s i v e s . " Th e i r n a me s s h o u l d b e e n s h r i n e d i n s o me
mu s e u mo f p o l i t i c a l c u r i o s i t i e s : Ro b e r t C o a t e s , Ma l c o l mC o w l e y ,
St u a r t D a v i s , Ma r c B l i t z s t e i n a n d P a u l St r a n d
.
Th e c o mb i n a t i o n o f l i b e r a l i s m, p r o g r e s s , St a l i n ' s s t a g e d t r i a l s a n d
e x e c u t i o n s w i t h o u t t r i a l i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a s t o n i s h i n g . B u t i t p a l e s b e f o r e
t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l e t t e r i t s e l f . Th e s e g e n t l e me n a r g u e d t h a t t h e g o r y
Ru s s i a n d o i n g s w e r e r e a l l y b r i l l i a n t ma n e u v e r s f o r f r e e d o m, d e mo c r a c y
a n d a s u p e r i o r k i n d o f j u s t i c e . Th e l o g i c mi g h t b e r o u n d a b o u t a n d
o b s c u r e , b u t t o t h e s e f i v e s p o n s o r s t h e b u s i n e s s w a s a t b o t t o ma d e f e n s e
o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s a n d c u l t u r a l l i b e r t i e s . Th o s e h o n o r e d w i t h a n i n -
v i t a t i o n w e r e a p p r i s e d :
2 5 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
Y o u r v o i c e . . . w i l l l e n d e v e n g r e a t e r w e i g h t t o t h e w o r l d w i d e
d e f e n s e o f t h e r i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s p e a k , w r i t e , c r e a t e , a n d o t h e r -
w i s e e n g a g e i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n c o mp l e t e f r e e d o m .
Wh e n If i r s t s a w t h i s l e t t e r It h o u g h t i t a h o a x p l a y e d o n t h e f i v e
me n . It o o k t h e t r o u b l e t o t i p o f f Mr . C o w l e y t h a t h i s n a me w a s b e i n g
u s e d o n a f a n t a s t i c a l l y p r e p o s t e r o u s c i r c u l a r l e t t e r . It w a s n o t e a s y t o
b e l i e v e t h a t Ame r i c a n s i n t h e i r r i g h t mi n d a n d w i t h o u t G . P . U. c o m-
p u l s i o n w o u l d r e c o mme n d c u l t u r a l f r e e d o mo f t h e k i n d v o u c h s a f e d
t o Ol d B o l s h e v i k s a n d Re d Ar my ma r s h a l s b e f o r e t h e y a r e s h o t . B u t
i t w a s n o h o a x . Th e c i r c u l a r n o t o n l y w a s g e n u i n e , b u t i t s c r y s t a l - c l e a r
l o g i c w e n t s t r a i g h t t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f 1 5 0 s c i e n t i s t s , a r t i s t s a n d
B r o a d w a y f i g u r e s .
Th e s t r a n g e d o c u me n t w o u l d n o t b e w o r t h n o t i c e i f i t w e r e a g r i m
b u t i s o l a t e d s t u n t b y 1 5 0 p o l i t i c a l i l l i t e r a t e s
. Un f o r t u n a t e l y i t w a s
t y p i c a l o f t h e i n c r e d i b l e b e h a v i o r o f t h e g r o w i n g n u mb e r o f f r e s h l y
mi n t e d n e o - c o mmu n i s t s o n B r o a d w a y a n d P a r k Av e n u e , i n H o l l y w o o d
a n d o n c o l l e g e c a mp u s e s . Th e y i n d u l g e d t h e ms e l v e s g l o r i o u s l y i n s a f e
" r u t h l e s s n e s s " a n d s t o o d r e a d y t o s e e St a l i n t h r o u g h i f i t k i l l e d t h e l a s t
b l o o mi n ' Ru s s i a n . At t h e b a r g a i n p r i c e o f a n o c c a s i o n a l d o n a t i o n t o
t h e c a u s e , a n o c c a s i o n a l s i g n a t u r e o n s o me o u t r a g e o u s s t a t e me n t , t h e s e
b o g u s r a d i c a l s f a n c i e d t h e ms e l v e s b r a v e s o u l s d e f y i n g t h e s o c i a l o r d e r
.
Th e y me t t h e " b e s t p e o p l e " a n d e x c i t i n g " B r o a d w a y f i g u r e s , " a n d
l o o k e d d o w n w i t h a g l o w o f c o n d e s c e n s i o n o n h u md r u mn e i g h b o r s
w h o h a d n o t y e t " f o u n d " t h e r e v o l u t i o n .
Th e g a me w a s s o p a t e n t l y p h o n y t h a t t h e a v e r a g e Ame r i c a n c o n -
f r o n t e d w i t h a s p e c i me n o f St a l i n i s t h o c u s - p o c u s w a s i n c l i n e d t o r e -
ma r k t h a t t h e r e a i n ' t n o s u c h a n i ma l . B u t i t w a s r e a l e n o u g h i n t h a t
p o l i t i c a l w o n d e r - z o o i n h a b i t e d b y c o mmu n i s t s , f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s , s t o o g e s
a n d i n n o c e n t s .
2
Le o n Tr o t s k y , t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n t h e l u n a t i c t a l e t o l d b y t h e Mo s -
c o w t r i a l s , w a s b e y o n d t h e i mme d i a t e r e a c h o f St a l i n ' s p o l i c e . On e o f
h i s s o n s , w o r k i n g i n Ru s s i a a s a n e n g i n e e r , w a s p u t t o d e a t h . Th e
r e ma i n i n g s o n , Se d o v , d i e d o f p o i s o n i n g s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r i n P a r i s ,
u n d e r c i r c u ms t a n c e s w h i c h l e f t n o d o u b t i n t h e mi n d s o f h i s f r i e n d s
a n d f a mi l y t h a t h e h a d b e e n " g o t t e n " b y K r e ml i n a g e n t s . Tr o t s k y h i m-
H OORAY FORMURD ER!

2 5 1
s e l f w a s f i n a l l y a s s a s s i n a t e d , i n 1 9 4 0 , a f t e r s e v e r a l a b o r t i v e a t t e mp t s
.
B u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p u r g e t r i a l s , h e w a s a t l a r g e , f i r s t i n
No r w a y a n d t h e n i n Me x i c o
. H i s s h a r p c o mme n t a r y o n t h e p r o c e e d -
i n g s r e c e i v e d s o me c i r c u l a t i o n , b u t n o t o n e - t h o u s a n d t h p a r t o f t h e
n o t o r i e t y g i v e n t o t h e h o r r i b l e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t h i ms e l f a n d a g a i n s t t h e
w h o l e B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n a s d r a ma t i z e d b y St a l i n
.
As t h e p e r s o n mo s t c o n c e r n e d i n a l l e g a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e k e e p i n g
t h e So v i e t e x e c u t i o n e r s w o r k i n g o v e r t i me , t h e l e a s t h e me r i t e d w a s a
f u l l h e a r i n g o f h i s s i d e o f t h e s t o r y
. B e s i d e s , e a c h n e w t r i a l b r o u g h t
i n t o f o c u s a c c u s a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e o p e n t o n e u t r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a b r o a d
.
Th e l e a s t t h a t t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d t h e r e f o r e c o u l d d o - e s p e c i a l l y t h e
p o r t i o n o f i t t o w h o mt h e t r a g e d y w a s e x t r e me l y v i t a l i n r e l a t i o n t o
t h e i r o w n s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l v i e w s - w a s t o l o o k c l o s e l y a t t h o s e
p h a s e s o f t h e t e s t i mo n y , a s a s a mp l i n g o f t h e w h o l e G
. P . U. s t r u c t u r e
o f e v i d e n c e .
Th e s e mi n i ma l a c t s o f d e c e n c y a n d j u s t i c e w e r e u n d e r t a k e n b y
P r o f e s s o r Jo h n D e w e y , Ame r i c a ' s f o r e mo s t l i v i n g p h i l o s o p h e r , i n a s s o -
c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r w e l l - k n o w n l i b e r a l s , l a b o r me n , p r o g r e s s i v e s a n d
r a d i c a l s
. Al t h o u g h t h e c o mmu n i s t a n d f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r p r e s s i n s t a n t l y
b r a n d e d t h e ma s " Tr o t s k y i t e s , " t h e r e w a s n o t a s i n g l e me mb e r o r
s u p p o r t e r o f Tr o t s k y ' s w i n g o f c o mmu n i s mi n t h e c o mmi s s i o n o f i n -
v e s t i g a t o r s
. In t h e Ame r i c a n C o mmi t t e e f o r t h e D e f e n s e o f Le o n
Tr o t s k y , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e w e r e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e e x i l e d l e a d e r
; i t w a s
o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t h i s f r i e n d s s h o u l d c o me f o r w a r d i n h i s d e f e n s e
. B u t
P r o f e s s o r D e w e y a n d h i s f e l l o w - c o mmi s s i o n e r s w e r e i n n o w a y r e -
s p o n s i b l e t o a n y o n e b u t t h e ms e l v e s
.
On t h e f a c e o f i t , s u c h a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e v e n i f i t f a i l e d t o u n e a r t h
n e w f a c t s , c o u l d d o n o h a r m- a f t e r a l l P r o f e s s o r D e w e y h a d n o r i f l e
s q u a d s a t h i s c o mma n d
. Wh y s h o u l d a n y o n e o b j e c t t o a n a t t e mp t t o
a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r o r n o t v a r i o u s s u p p o s e d me e t i n g s b e t w e e n Tr o t s k y
a n d h i s s e l f - c o n f e s s e d c o n f e d e r a t e s h a d a c t u a l l y t a k e n p l a c e ? Th e
c l a i mt h a t s u c h a n a t t e mp t w o u l d h u r t t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e So v i e t
Un i o n a n d t h e r e b y " p l a y i n t o t h e h a n d s o f H i t l e r a n d H e a r s t " w a s
p a l p a b l e n o n s e n s e
. No t h i n g a n y o u t s i d e g r o u p mi g h t d o c o u l d a d d
p e r c e p t i b l y t o t h e mo u n t a i n o f h o r r o r p r o u d l y d i s p l a y e d b y t h e K r e m
.
l i n i t s e l f
. No r e p o r t ma d e b y t h e D e w e y c o mmi s s i o n c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y
p a i n t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a n d i t s ma s t e r s i n mo r e r e p u l s i v e c o l o r s t h a n t h e
t r i a l s a n d t h e p u r g e s h a d a l r e a d y d o n e
.
B u t a n a ma z i n g a n d u g l y t h i n g t r a n s p i r e d
. Sc o r e s o f Ame r i c a n
2 5 2

TH ERED D EC AD E
me n a n d w o me n w h o h a d p r a t e d o f j u s t i c e a l l t h e i r ma t u r e l i v e s n o w
j u mp e d w i t h b o t h f e e t o n t h e o c t o g e n a r i a n p r o f e s s o r a n d t h o s e a s s o c i -
a t e d w i t h h i mi n t h e t h a n k l e s s u n d e r t a k i n g . On l y p e o p l e a w a r e o f t h e
s o c i a l p o w e r h e l d b y t h e St a l i n i s t s o n t h e Le f t a t t h i s t i me c a n a p p r e -
c i a t e t h e v a l o r o f t h a t u n d e r t a k i n g
. Ev e r y o n e w h o j o i n e d D r . D e w e y
k n e w a s a c e r t a i n t y t h a t h e o r s h e w o u l d b e d e n o u n c e d a s a " Tr o t s k y -
i s t " - a w o r d t h a t me a n t o s t r a c i s mi n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r mi l i e u - a n d
s me a r e d w i t h o u t me r c y . Th e y w e r e c h a l l e n g i n g t h e b e s t o r g a n i z e d ,
mo s t a r t i c u l a t e , l e a s t s q u e a mi s h p r e s s u r e g r o u p i n Ame r i c a n l i f e , a
p r e s s u r e g r o u p b a c k e d b y t h e t o t a l p r e s t i g e a n d r e s o u r c e s o f a g r e a t
f o r e i g n n a t i o n . On l y t h o s e f a mi l i a r w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e i n c r e d i b l e
r e v o l u t i o n u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e D e w e y e n t e r p r i s e w a s
a n a c t o f h e r o i s m.
No t o n l y d i d t h e s o - c a l l e d l i b e r a l p r e s s f a i l t o w e l c o me a n d s u p p o r t
t h e e f f o r t , b u t i t j o i n e d l u s t i l y i n t h r o w i n g mu d a t i t . Th o s e w h o
j o i n e d t h e d e f e n s e c o mmi t t e e w e r e i n s t a n t l y b u r i e d u n d e r f i l t h y e p i -
t h e t s i n t h e c o mmu n i s t p r e s s
. Th e y w e r e ma d e t h e t a r g e t s o f o r g a n -
i z e d c a mp a i g n s o f t e l e p h o n e c a l l s - u s u a l l y a f t e r mi d n i g h t f o r mo r e
e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n w e a r i n g d o w n t h e i r n e r v e s - a n d b a r r a g e s o f t e l e -
g r a ms a n d l e t t e r s . Ma n y o f t h e mw e r e v i s i t e d b y d e l e g a t i o n s . Th e y
w e r e g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d l o s e t h e i r f r i e n d s a n d i n
s o me c a s e s t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s i f t h e y p e r s i s t e d i n t h e f o l l y o f o f f e n d i n g
t h e d o mi n a n t c o mmu n i s t o p i n i o n o f t h e i r c i r c l e s
. Ug l y r u mo r s w e r e
s e t a f l o a t r e f l e c t i n g o n t h e p r i v a t e c h a r a c t e r o f t h o s e w h o p e r s e v e r e d
i n t h e u n d e r t a k i n g , f r o mP r o f e s s o r D e w e y d o w n
. Af e w c o mr a d e s
j o i n e d t h e c o mmi t t e e , i t s e e me d , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y mi g h t r e s i g n p u b -
l i c l y a n d s me a r t h e c o mmi t t e e i n t h e r o l e o f e x - me mb e r s . Af e w w e r e
t e r r o r i z e d i n t o r e s i g n i n g , a f e w o t h e r s p e r h a p s w e r e h o n e s t l y c o n v i n c e d
t h a t t o e x p o s e t h e t r i a l s w o u l d " h u r t t h e r e v o l u t i o n : '
Th e c a mp a i g n a g a i n s t t h e D e w e y p r o p o s a l , t o o , p r o d u c e d i t s s y m-
b o l i c d o c u me n t . Ei g h t y - e i g h t o p e n a n d c o v e r t c o mmu n i s t s a n d a n
a r r a y o f g u l l i b l e i n n o c e n t s p u b l i s h e d a n Op e n Le t t e r t o Ame r i c a n Li b -
e r a l s e x h o r t i n g t h e mn o t t o h e l p P r o f e s s o r D e w e y
. Th a t l e t t e r d e s e r v e s
a p l a c e o f h o n o r a mo n g t h e c u r i o s a o f t h e Re d D e c a d e
. It w o u l d b e
i n t e r e s t i n g t o a s k t h e s i g n e r s n o w , i n v i e w o f w h a t s o me o f t h e mh a v e
s i n c e t h e n l e a r n e d a b o u t St a l i n ' s Ut o p i a , b o w t h e y f e e l a b o u t t h e i r
o w n r o l e i n c o n c e a l i n g t h e t r u t h a b o u t t h e p u r g e s .
H e r e w e r e s u p p o s e d l i b e r a l s o b j e c t i n g t o a n o u t s i d e i n v e s t i g a t i o n
H OORAY FORMURD ERI

2 5 3
o f a g r u e s o me o f f i c i a l c r i me , a t a t i me w h e n t h o u s a n d s w e r e s t i l l b e i n g
s h o t mo n t h l y b y t h e So v i e t g o v e r n me n t . Th e i r p r i n c i p a l e x c u s e - d e -
f e n s e o f t h e " g o o d n a me " o f a d i c t a t o r s h i p w h i c h w a s i t s e l f d o i n g i t s
u t mo s t t o b l a c k e n t h a t n a me . Th e y w e r e d e ma n d i n g , i n e f f e c t , t h a t
Tr o t s k y b e mu z z l e d a n d t h a t n o s t e p s b e t a k e n t o c h e c k u p o n t r i a l
t e s t i mo n y e v e n w h e r e s u c h c h e c k i n g c o u l d n o t b e s t y mi e d b y t h e
So v i e t p o l i c e
. No t o n l y w e r e t h e y o b j e c t i n g t o P r o f e s s o r D e w e y ' s
c o mmi t t e e - t h e y w e r e a g a i n s t a n y s o r t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s i n c e , t h e y
w a r n e d , i t w o u l d " l e n d s u p p o r t t o f a s c i s t f o r c e s
. " Th i s w a s t h e i r
r e a s o n i n g :
Sh o u l d n o t a c o u n t r y r e c o g n i z e d a s e n g a g e d i n i mp r o v i n g c o n d i -
t i o n s f o r a l l i t s p e o p l e , w h e t h e r o r n o t o n e a g r e e s w i t h a l l t h e me a n s
w h e r e b y t h i s i s b r o u g h t a b o u t , b e p e r mi t t e d t o d e c i d e f o r i t s e l f w h a t
me a s u r e s o f p r o t e c t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y a g a i n s t t r e a s o n a b l e p l o t s t o a s s a s -
s i n a t e a n d o v e r t h r o w i t s l e a d e r s h i p a n d i n v o l v e i t i n w a r w i t h f o r e i g n
p o w e r s ?
C o n s i d e r t h e c h i c a n e r y o f t h i s f o r mu l a t i o n . In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e
q u e s t i o n i t i s a s s u me d t h a t St a l i n ' s v i c t i ms w e r e g u i l t y o f t h e c h a r g e s
a g a i n s t t h e m . Th e i mp l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e So v i e t r e g i me c o u l d d o n o
w r o n g a n d mu s t b e i t s o w n j u d g e o f i t s o w n s l a u g h t e r h o u s e p r o c e d u r e s
.
On l y t h e a r d o r o f b l i n d f a i t h o r t h e n a i v e t e o f e x c e p t i o n a l i g n o -
r a n c e o f p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s c a n e x p l a i n t h e s i g n a t u r e s
. Th e f a c t t h a t
t h e y i n c l u d e d n a me s l i k e Li l l i a n D
. Wa l d i s a c o mme n t a r y o n t h e
i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i ma t e w h i c h p r e v a i l e d i n s o - c a l l e d p r o g r e s s i v e c i r c l e s a t
t h e t i me .
Id o n o t k n o w h o w t h e i n n o c e n t s w e r e c o r n e r e d a n d h i g h - p r e s s u r e d
i n t o j o i n i n g t h e c a mp a i g n f o r s u p p r e s s i o n o f c r u c i a l f a c t s o n a n a f f a i r
o f e p o c h a l i mp o r t a n c e . Id o k n o w t h a t a l a r g e n u mb e r w e r e f a r f r o m
i n n o c e n t - t h e i r n a me s w e r e s t a n d a r d o n n e a r l y a l l c o mmu n i s t - i n s p i r e d
d o c u me n t s
. Amo n g t h o s e w h o e s c a p e d t h e c o mmu n i s t c o n t a g i o n , t h e
s i g n a t o r i e s a c q u i r e d f a me u n d e r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e " s t i n k e r s '
c o mmi t t e e
. " Th o s e w h o ma n e u v e r e d t h e mi n t o s i g n i n g t h e Op e n
Le t t e r c l e a r l y w a n t e d t o s u r r o u n d t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n a d v a n c e w i t h a
b a d s me l l . In a n y c a s e , h e r e i s t h e l i s t o f s i g n e r s * a s a t t a c h e d t o l e t t e r s
r e c e i v e d b y a s s o c i a t e s o f P r o f e s s o r D e w e y :
* P u b l i s h e d
i n So v i e t Ru s s i a To d a y , Ma r c h , 1 9 3 7 .
2 5 4
Jo h n C . Ac k l e y
Ne w t o n Ar v i n
H e y w o o d B r o u n
Ed w i n B e r r y B u r g u m
Al a n C a mp b e l l
H a a k o n C h e v a l i e r
Et h y l C l y d e
H u mp h r e y C o b b
Gi f f o r d C o c h r a n
Ma l c o l mC o w l e y
Ad d i s o n T. C u t l e r
Je r o me D a v i s
D o r o t h y D o u g l a s
Th e o d o r e D r e i s e r
Ma r y D u b l i n
Gu y En d o r e
Mi l d r e d Fa i r c h i l d
Ro b e r t Ge s s n e r
Lo u i s Fi s c h e r
B . Z . Go l d b e r g
Al p h o n s e Go l d s c h mi d t
Wy l l i s t i n e Go o d s e l l
Li l l i a n H e l l ma n
Gr a n v i l l e H i c k s
Ar t h u r K a l l e t
Vl a d i mi r K a z a k e v i c h
Ro c k w e l l K e n t
P a u l K e r n
Jo h n A. K i n g s b u r y
Ma r y Va n K l e e c k
C o r l i s s La mo n t
Ri n g La r d n e r , Jr .
Ma x Le r n e r
Ro b e r t Mo r s s Lo v e t t
K a t h e r i n e Lu mp k i n
Ro b e r t S. Ly n d
Wi l l i a mMa l i s o f f
Wi l l i a mP . Ma n g o l d
Na i t a Ma r b u r g
El i z a b e t h D u b l i n Ma r s h a l l
Ge o r g e Ma r s h a l l
C l i f f o r d T. Mc Av o y
TH ERED D EC AD E
Jo h n Mc Al p i n Mi l l e n
Le w i s Mi l e s t o n e
V. J . Mc Gi l l
C a r e y Mc Wi l l i a ms
H e r b e r t A
. Mi l l e r
Lo r e n Mi l l e r
Ed w i n Mi ms , Jr .
M. Y
. Mu n s o n
D u d l e y Ni c h o l s
Sa mu e l Or n i t z
D o r o t h y P a r k e r
Wa l t e r N. P o l a k o v
D . W. P r a l l
Sa ms o n Ra p h a e l s o n
C o l . Ra y mo n d Ro b i n s
H e n r y Ro t h
Ma r g a r e t Sc h l a u c h
Wi l l i a mSe a g l e
H o w a r d Se l s a m
Ar n o l d Sh u k u t o f f
D r . H e n r y E. Si g e r i s t
Ir i n a Sk a r i a t i n a
B e r n a r d Smi t h
E. Tr e d w e l l Smi t h
Ro b e r t K . Sp e e r
Re v
. Wi l l i a mD . Sp o f f o r d
Vi o l a B r o t h e r s Sh o r e
Te s s Sl e s i n g e r
B e r n a r d J . St e m
D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t
Ma x w e l l St e w a r t
An n a Lo u i s e St r o n g
P a u l M. Sw e e z y
Li l l i a n D . Wa l d
Ma r k Wa l d ma n
Ed a Lo u Wa l t o n
Ly n d Wa r d
C l a r a We a t h e r w a x
Ma x We b e r
Lo u i s We i s n e r
Na t h a n i e l We s t
D a v i d Mc El v y Wh i t e
H OORAY FORMURD ER!

2 5 5
Ja me s Wa t e r ma n Wi s e

Wi l l i a mZ o r a c h
Ar t Y o u n g

Le a n e Z u g s mi t h
Th e l i s t i s ma d e u p p r e d o mi n a n t l y o f w r i t e r s , n e a r - w r i t e r s , t e a c h e r s ,
s o c i a l w o r k e r s , w i t h a f e w a r t i s t s a n d c l e r g y me n f o r b a l l a s t
. Th e s e c l a s -
s i f i c a t i o n s i d e n t i f y f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y t h e c h i e f a r e a s o f St a l i n o i d i n f e c -
t i o n . Al t h o u g h s o me b u s i n e s s me n , a f e w mi l l i o n a i r e s ' s o n s a n d a l a b o r
ma n h e r e a n d t h e r e w e r e s w e p t u p b y t h e e p i d e mi c , i t ma y b e r e g a r d e d
p r i ma r i l y a s a d i s e a s e o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , h e n c e p r o p e r l y t h e d o ma i n
o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s
. Aj o u r n a l i s t c a n o n l y g a t h e r s o me o f t h e r a w ma t e r i a l s ,
t h e s y mp t o ma t i c d a t a , f o r t h e e x p e r t i n p a t h o l o g y w h o w i l l o n e d a y
t a c k l e t h i s ma s s s u p p o r t o f a f a r - o f f a n d b l o o d t h i r s t y d i c t a t o r s h i p b y
o t h e r w i s e s a n e a n d l a r g e l y w e l l - me a n i n g p e o p l e .
Th o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P r o f e s s o r D e w e y o n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o m-
mi s s i o n w e r e Jo h n C h a mb e r l a i n , Al f r e d Ro s me r , P r o f e s s o r Ed w a r d
Al s w o r t h Ro s s , Ot t o Ru e h l e , B e n j a mi n St o l b e r g , C a r l o Tr e s c a , Fr a n -
c i s c o Z a mo r a , We n d e l i n Th o ma s , Su z a n n e La Fo l l e t t e , a n d Jo h n F .
Fi n e r t y a s c o u n s e l . As u b c o mmi s s i o n w h i c h g a t h e r e d d a t a i n Eu r o p e
w a s h e a d e d b y t h e e x i l e d It a l i a n s o c i a l i s t l e a d e r G . E. Mo d i g l i a n i , a n d
i n c l u d e d Mme . C e s a r C h a b r u n , M. Ma t h e , Je a n Ga l t i e r - B o i s s i e r e ,
P r o f e s s o r Ja c q u e s Ma d a u l e a n d Ma u r i c e D e l e p i n e
.
Th e y w o r k e d f o r l o n g mo n t h s u n d e r t h e h a n d i c a p o f l a c k o f f u n d s ,
l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y , G
. P . U
. t e r r o r i z a t i o n , a n d a c r e s c e n d o o f v i l i f i c a t i o n
i n t h e St a l i n i s t p r e s s t h e w o r l d o v e r . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
t h e i r a c h i e v e me n t i s t r u l y a ma z i n g . Th e p u b l i s h e d v o l u me o f t h e i r
f i n d i n g s i s c l e a r , d e t a i l e d a n d t o a n u n p r e j u d i c e d mi n d u t t e r l y d e s t r u c -
t i v e o f t h e w h o l e p o l i c e f a b r i c a t i o n i n Mo s c o w . Th e j o b o f a n a l y z i n g
t h e t r i a l r e c o r d s , i s o l a t i n g t h e e n d l e s s a b s u r d i t i e s a n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ,
n e e d e d t o b e d o n e . Ev e n w i t h o u t t h e n e w i n f o n n a t i o n o n d o z e n s
o f d i s p u t e d p o i n t s t h e D e w e y r e p o r t t h e r e f o r e s h e d l i g h t o n a
ma t t e r s t e e p e d i n d a r k n e s s . In t h i s b o o k , h o w e v e r , Ia ml e s s c o n c e r n e d
w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r i n q u i r y t h a n Ia mw i t h t h e i n c i d e n t a l l i g h t
t h a t i t t h r o w s o n t h e t e mp e r o f t h e Re d D e c a d e
.
As a f o o t n o t e t o t h e s t o r y Io f f e r i n e x h i b i t Mr . Wa l d o Fr a n k .
Wh e n Mr . Fr a n k e x c h a n g e d h i s p r i v a t e my s t i c i s mf o r t h e f a s h i o n a b l e
my s t i c i s mo f t h e Mu s c o v i t e a b e r r a t i o n , h e w a s h a i l e d a s a h e r o i n t h e
c o mmu n i s t p r e s s . H e w a s ma d e c h a i r ma n o f o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l p l a n -
e t s i n St a l i n ' s s o l a r s y s t e m, t h e Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s . Al l w e n t
w e l l u n t i l t h e So v i e t b l o o d l e t t i n g t o u c h e d Mr . Fr a n k ' s c o n s c i e n c e . H e
2 5 6 TH ERED D EC AD E
w r o t e a l e t t e r t o t h e Ne w Re p u b l i c s u g g e s t i n g a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a b o r
a n d s o c i a l i s t i n q u i r y i n t o t h e w h o l e ma t t e r . Imme d i a t e l y h i s s e r v i c e s
t o t h e c a u s e w e r e f o r g o t t e n a n d h i s n a me w a s mu d . H e h a d c o mmi t t e d
t h e d e a d l y s i n o f d o u b t i n g . Wh e n t h e n e x t Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s C o n -
g r e s s f o r e g a t h e r e d , h e w a s my s t e r i o u s l y mi s s i n g
. Le t t h e i n n o c e n t l i t -
e r a t i w h o c o n t i n u e d t o c l a i mt h a t t h e Le a g u e a n d i t s C o n g r e s s e s w e r e
i n d e p e n d e n t , e x p l a i n t h e t e c h n i q u e b y w h i c h Wa l d o Fr a n k w a s e l i m-
i n a t e d a f t e r h i s s l i p , a n d h i s p l a c e t a k e n b y o n e o f H o l l y w o o d ' s b e s t ,
D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t
.
C H AP TERXXII
" FRIEND SOFTH E
G. P . U. "
1
I
NTH Ef r a n t i c c a mp a i g n t o s me a r a n d d i s c r e d i t t h e s o - c a l l e d
Tr o t s k y C o mmi s s i o n h e a d e d b y P r o f e s s o r Jo h n D e w e y , t h e g e n -
e r a l i s s i mo w a s C o r l i s s La mo n t , o n e o f t h e mo r e p a t h e t i c f i g u r e s
t h r o w n u p t o p u b l i c v i e w b y t h e Re d D e c a d e . H e s p a r e d n e i t h e r h i s
mo n e y n o r h i s e n e r g y i n d e f e n d i n g t h e ma s s s l a u g h t e r i n Ru s s i a a n d
i n d a mn i n g t h o s e w h o d a r e d e x a mi n e t h a t h o r r o r .
Th e p a t h o s o f D r . La mo n t d e r i v e s p r i ma r i l y f r o ma c i r c u ms t a n c e
f o r w h i c h h e i s n o t i n t h e l e a s t t o b l a me
. Ir e f e r t o t h e f a c t t h a t h e
i s t h e s o n o f t h e mu l t i mi l l i o n a i r e b a n k e r a n d Mo r g a n p a r t n e r , Th o ma s
W. La mo n t
. Th i s g a v e h i s e v e r y St a l i n i s t u t t e r a n c e a n d g e s t u r e a n
a c c i d e n t a l me l o d r a ma t i c q u a l i t y . B y mu l t i p l y i n g h i s St a l i n i s ma h u n -
d r e d f o l d , h i s f a mi l y c o n n e c t i o n s o me h o w ma d e i t s e e m, l i k e mo s t
t h i n g s b i g g e r t h a n l i f e - s i z e , p e c u l i a r l y g r o t e s q u e . Th e c o mr a d e s w e r e
n o t c o n t e n t t o e x p l o i t h i s w e a l t h f o r s u p p o r t o f t h e i r ma n y c a u s e s .
Th e y d e l i g h t e d i n e x h i b i t i n g h i mf o r h i s p r o p a g a n d a v a l u e a s a f r e a k ,
r a t h e r l i k e b i g o t e d a t h e i s t s e x h i b i t i n g a r e n e g a d e b i s h o p . In t i me a
p a t i n a o f f r e a k i s h n e s s c a me t o c o v e r p o o r La mo n t ' s i d e n t i t y f r o mh e a d
t o t o e .
H e h a s a l s o h a d t h e mi s f o r t u n e o f t a n g l i n g , a g a i n a n d a g a i n , w i t h
me n o f e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r : me n l i k e P r o f e s s o r D e w e y , Si d -
n e y H o o k , Ma x Ea s t ma n . H i s s h o r t c o mi n g s h a v e c o n s e q u e n t l y b e e n
l i mn e d mo r e c l e a r l y t h a n t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n h a d h e , w i t h mo r e b e -
c o mi n g h u mi l i t y , c o n f i n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n s t o me mb e r s o f h i s Fr i e n d s
o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n . Fo r i n s t a n c e , a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e D e w e y
c o mmi s s i o n ' s r e p o r t , D r
. La mo n t h a d t h e t e me r i t y t o r u s h t o t h e r a d i o
w i t h a r e p l y . No o n e w h o l i s t e n e d t o t h e t w o me n t h a t e v e n i n g c a n
f o r g e t t h e p a t h o s o f t h e c o n t r a s t . P r o f e s s o r D e w e y ma d e a c a l m, c a r e -
f u l l y r e a s o n e d a n d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d o c u me n t e d r e p o r t
. H e w a s f o l l o w e d
b y D r
. La mo n t w i t h a s h r i l l y e mo t i o n a l " r e p l y " t h a t n o w h e r e e v e n
t o u c h e d t h e o l d e r ma n ' s c h a r g e s a n d p l e a d e d w e a k l y f o r a l l - o u t f a i t h i n
St a l i n a n d i n Ru s s i a .
2 5 7
2 5 8
TH ERED D EC AD E
B u t p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e h e h a s b e e n a c c i d e n t a l l y " b l o w n u p " l a r g e r
t h a n l i f e , i t i s e a s i e r t o e x a mi n e D r
. La mo n t a s a t y p e - t h e u p p e r - c l a s s
n e a r - i n t e l l e c t u a l d r i v e n p e r v e r s e l y t o a s s e r t h i ms e l f b y a n e x t r e mi s t
p o s e
. If h e h a d n o t b e e n b o r n i n t o e x c e s s i v e mi l l i o n s , y o u n g La mo n t
mi g h t e a s i l y h a v e g r o w n i n t o a d r a b b u t c o n t e n t e d p e d a g o g u e
. Or h e
mi g h t h a v e t u r n e d i n t o a c l e r g y ma n - h i s f i r s t e n t h u s i a s mw a s f o r
r e v e a l e d r e l i g i o n . B u t t h e p r o mi n e n c e o f h i s f a t h e r , t h e e a s e w i t h
w h i c h h e c o u l d i n d u l g e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i mp u l s e s , w e r e h i s u n d o i n g . To
b e r i c h o r t o b e c o me r i c h e r w o u l d b e n o a c h i e v e me n t b u t o n l y a c o n -
f i r ma t i o n o f h i s s e c o n d a r y r o l e . H e mu s t h a v e b e e n u n d e r i n n e r c o m-
p u l s i o n t o a s s e r t h i ms e l f i n s o me w a y d i f f e r e n t f r o mh i s f a t h e r ' s
- n a y , i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e t h i n g s s y mb o l i z e d b y h i s f a t h e r
.
Th i s p r o t e s t f i r s t t o o k t h e f o r mo f f r a n t i c a t t a c k s a g a i n s t " s u p e r -
n a t u r a l i s m, " a g a i n s t t h e r e l i g i o n h e h a d f i r s t c h a mp i o n e d . Fr o mt h e r e
h e w e n t o n n a t u r a l l y t o a t t a c k b a n k e r s a n d c a p i t a l i s t s . Su r e l y , h e ma y
h a v e f e l t i n w a r d l y , n o o n e c a n d o u b t t h a t Ir o s e i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y
mo v e me n t o n my o w n r a t h e r t h a n o n i n h e r i t e d v a l u e s . H e d i d r i s e -
t o t h e e mi n e n c e o f c h a i r ma n s h i p o f t h e Fr i e n d s o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n ,
a n h o n o r e d p l a c e o n e v e r y l i s t o f i n n o c e n t s t h r o w n t o g e t h e r t o c o v e r
u p s o me n e w Ru s s i a n a t r o c i t y , f e a t u r e d b o o k i n g f o r e n d l e s s c o mmu n -
i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d ma s s me e t i n g s . B u t Id o u b t w h e t h e r h e h a s
r e a l l y a c h i e v e d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a t h a r s i s w h i c h h e s o u g h t
. Th e r e
mu s t b e mo me n t s i n w h i c h h e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t e v e n i n t h e r a n k s o f
n o n - c o mmu n i s t c o mmu n i s t s h e r o s e s o r a p i d l y mo r e b y r e a s o n o f h i s
n e w s w o r t h y n a me a n d h i s f a t d o n a t i o n s t h a n t h r o u g h u n a d u l t e r a t e d
a b i l i t y .
Th e f a c t a l o n e t h a t h e w a s s e l e c t e d t o h e a d t h e Fr i e n d s - t h e l e a s t
d i s g u i s e d o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y a p p e n d a g e s - a n d n o t o n e o f t h e
t e e mi n g " c u l t u r a l " f r o n t s w a s a s u b t l e i n s u l t . Le s s s u b t l e w a s t h e
f a s h i o n i n w h i c h h e w a s u s e d c o n t i n u a l l y a s a p u b l i c i t y c o me - o n , h i s
n a me a s s u r i n g a t t e n t i o n w h e r e Jo e Z i l c h c o u l d n e v e r o b t a i n i t .
In e a r l i e r y e a r s t h e Fr i e n d s o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n a n d i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s
w e r e h e a d e d f r a n k l y b y p a r t y me mb e r s . It w a s t h e " r e s p e c t a b l e " a u x i l -
i a r y o f t h e p a r t y , b u t t h e i n t i ma t e c o n n e c t i o n w a s n o t c o n c e a l e d
. A
r e s e r v o i r f o r n o n - p a r t y s y mp a t h i z e r s , i t s p u r p o s e w a s t o ma k e t h e m
o v e r i n t o p a r t y c o mr a d e s . Th e F. S. U. l i t e r a t u r e r e a d v e r y mu c h l i k e
t h e p a r t y l i t e r a t u r e . In t h e Th i r d P e r i o d t h e me mb e r s h i p c a r d i d e n t i -
f i e d t h e Fr i e n d s a s " a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s
i n ma n y c o u n t r i e s , d e v o t e d t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y
" FRIEND SOFTH E
G. P . U. "

2 5 9
o f t h e w o r k i n g ma s s e s f o r t h e s u p p o r t a n d d e f e n s e o f t h e So v i e t
Un i o n . " At i t s n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e i n C h i c a g o , Ja n u a r y , 1 9 3 4 , C o m-
r a d e s Mi n o r , H a t h a w a y a n d Tr a c h t e n b e r g s p o k e a s " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
o f t h e C e n t r a l C o mmi t t e e o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y . " Th e F. S. U.
ma g a z i n e , So v i e t Ru s s i a To d a y , w o u l d h a v e h a d n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t t r o u -
b l e p a s s i n g t h e mo s t r i g i d Mo s c o w c e n s o r s h i p . It s e d i t o r i a l c o u n c i l , a t
t h e z e n i t h o f t h e Re d D e c a d e , i n c l u d e d t h e u s u a l a ma l g a mo f o p e n
a n d n o t - s o - o p e n f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s : Ma l c o l mC o w l e y , Ro b e r t W. D u n n ,
A. A. H e l l e r , D r
. Jo h n K i n g s b u r y , Is o b e l Wa l k e r So u l e , Ma x w e l l S
.
St e w a r t , e t c
.
Th e f a c t t h a t D r . La mo n t w a s r a i s e d t o s u p r e me c o mma n d i n t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f " w o r k i n g ma s s e s " i s t y p i c a l o f t h e h u mo r l e s s r e v i s i o n
w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e i n c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n . H e w a s t h e e x a g g e r a t e d
e q u i v a l e n t o f C o n g r e s s ma n Vi t o Ma r c a n t o n i o , a n a l l e g e d Re p u b l i c a n ,
a s h e a d o f t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l La b o r D e f e n s e - s t a r t e d b y Wi l l i Mu e n -
z e n b e r g a n d i n b e t t e r y e a r s h e a d e d b y p a r t y s t a l w a r t s l i k e Ja me s
C a n n o n . No t e v e n La mo n t ' s n a me , h o w e v e r , c o u l d b l u r t h e v i r t u a l
i d e n t i t y o f h i s Fr i e n d s a n d t h e o f f i c i a l p a r t y .
Th e r e i s l i t t l e t o r e c o r d o f t h e Fr i e n d s , s i n c e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f
La mo n t ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n c o i n c i d e d e x a c t l y w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f B r o w -
d e r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n . It s " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " me r e l y e n a b l e d i t t o g i v e l a r g e r
b a n q u e t s a n d t o i n v i t e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f Ame r i c a n s w h o w o u l d h a v e
s h u n n e d t h e o f f i c i a l p a r t y .
Th e h i g h p o i n t o f F. S. U. a c h i e v e me n t w a s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a
Go l d e n B o o k o f Ame r i c a n Fr i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e So v i e t Un i o n i n No -
v e mb e r , 1 9 3 7 , t o ma r k t h e t w e n t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e B o l s h e v i k
Re v o l u t i o n . Se v e r a l h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d s i g n a t u r e s w e r e g a t h e r e d f o r
t h a t b o o k . In v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e K r e ml i n w a s t h e n i n t h e mi d s t
o f b l o o d y p u r g e s w h i c h w i l l c o n t i n u e t o h o r r i f y ma n k i n d f o r g e n e r a -
t i o n s , t h e s i z e o f t h e B o o k i n d i c a t e s o n c e mo r e h o w e x t e n s i v e t h e
St a l i n i s t p e n e t r a t i o n o f Ame r i c a n l i f e h a d b e c o me . At a g a l a me e t i n g
i n C a r n e g i e H a l l , t h e B o o k w a s t u r n e d o v e r t o So v i e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,
w i t h h y mn s o f p r a i s e b e i n g s u n g f r o mt h e s t a g e b y a n a r r a y o f s p e a k e r s
t h a t i n c l u d e d Ja me s Wa t e r ma n Wi s e , D r . H e n r y E. Si g e r i s t , Je r o me
D a v i s , Ma r y Va n K l e e c k , Fr e d e r i c k L. Sc h u ma n , Jo s h u a K u n i t z , C o n -
g r e s s ma n Er n e s t Lu n d e e n , Lo u i s Fi s c h e r , Ma u r i t z H a l l g r e n , H a r r y W .
L. D a n a , D o n a l d H e n d e r s o n , Ge n e r a l V. A. Y a k h o n t o f f .
P r e s s r e p o r t s o f t h e o c c a s i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t n o o n e o f t h e mv e n t u r e d
t o me n t i o n t h e h e r o e s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n t h e y w e r e c e l e b r a t i n g . Th e y
2 6 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
h a d u n f o r t u n a t e l y j u s t b e e n l i q u i d a t e d w h o l e s a l e b y t h e s u b - h e r o t o
w h o mt h e y s e n t t h e i r Go l d e n
B o o k o f Fr i e n d s h i p
.
2
Th e h i g h p o i n t i n C o r l i s s La mo n t ' s o w n c a r e e r a mo n g t h e c o m-
r a d e s w a s p r o v i d e d b y h i s a f o r e me n t i o n e d c o mma n d o f t h e a n t i - D e w e y
c a mp a i g n
. An a n a l y s i s o f La mo n t ' s c u r i o u s l y p a s s i o n a t e d e f e n s e o f
t h e p u r g e s w a s p u b l i s h e d a t t h e t i me i n t h e Mo d e r n Mo n t h l y ( Ma r c h ,
1 9 3 8 ) b y Si d n e y H o o k
. Ic a n d o n o b e t t e r t h a n t o s u mma r i z e a n d
p a r a p h r a s e i t .
D r
. La mo n t h a d n o q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e j o b o t h e r t h a n e n t h u s i -
a s m
. H e k n e w n o mo r e a b o u t t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s t h a n a n y o t h e r n e w s -
p a p e r r e a d e r . H i s c h a i r ma n s h i p o f t h e F. S. U
. s c a r c e l y l e f t h i mo p e n t o
t h e s u s p i c i o n o f u n b i a s e d j u d g me n t
. B u t h e r u s h e d h e a d l o n g i n t o t h e
j o b a n d , a s mi g h t b e e x p e c t e d , b r u i s e d h i s s e l f - e s t e e ma n d h i s r e p u t a -
t i o n e v e n a mo n g t h o s e w h o w e r e w i l l i n g t o g i v e h i mt h e b e n e f i t o f t h e
d o u b t .
Th e r e p o r t o f t h e D e w e y C o mmi s s i o n w a s e x t r e me l y d e t a i l e d
. It
d e mo n s t r a t e d : f i r s t , t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c h a r g e s i n t h e Mo s c o w
t r i a l s r e s t e d o n t h e c l a i ms o f d e f e n d a n t s w h o " c o n f e s s e d " t h a t t h e y
h a d a c t e d a s i n t e r me d i a r i e s b e t w e e n Tr o t s k y , h i s s o n Se d o v a n d t h e
a l l e g e d p l o t t e r s i n Ru s s i a
; s e c o n d , t h a t i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e t h e s e c l a i ms ,
b e i n g s u b j e c t t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n a b r o a d , w e r e p r o v e d f a l s e . It r e a c h e d
t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e e x p o s u r e o f t h e s e f u n d a me n t a l p i e c e s o f e v i -
d e n c e i n v a l i d a t e d t h e c o n f e s s i o n s a s a w h o l e
. Th i s w a s t h e s t o r y a s t o l d
t o t h e Ame r i c a n p e o p l e o v e r t h e r a d i o b y P r o f e s s o r D e w e y
.
" No w t h e v e r y l e a s t o n e c o u l d h a v e e x p e c t e d f r o mLa mo n t , " P r o -
f e s s o r H o o k w r o t e , " w a s a n a t t e mp t t o a n s w e r t h e s e d a mn i n g r e v e l a -
t i o n s w h i c h ma d e t h e f r o n t p a g e o f e v e r y i mp o r t a n t p a p e r f r o mc o a s t
t o c o a s t . B u t a l l La mo n t c o u l d s a y - a n d mi n d y o u a f t e r h e h a d r e a d
t h e C o mmi s s i o n ' s a b s t r a c t - w a s t h a t h e w a s ` c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e
So v i e t a u t h o r i t i e s a c t e d i n a j u s t a n d p r o p e r ma n n e r . ' An d h i s r e a s o n s ?
` Th e d e f e n d a n t s o p e n l y c o n f e s s e d a n d p l e a d e d g u i l t y
. . . : La mo n t
h a d r u s h e d t o d e f e n d t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o a n s w e r
a s i n g l e p o i n t i n t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h p r o v e d t h e mt o b e f r a me - u p s . "
Th e mo s t r e ma r k a b l e p a s s a g e i n h i s s p e e c h w a s t h i s : " Th e So v i e t
r e g i me a n d i t s a c h i e v e me n t s a r e i n d i v i s i b l e ; a n d w e c a n n o t b e l i e v e t h a t
i t s s y s t e mo f j u s t i c e i s c o mp l e t e l y o u t o f s t e p w i t h i t s s p l e n d i d a c c o m-
" FRIEND SOFTH E G. P . U. "

2 6 1
p l i s h me n t s i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o t h e r f i e l d s : ' Ev e n w i t h o u t a r g u i n g t h e
" s p l e n d i d a c h i e v e me n t s , " t h e l o g i c o f t h i s a r g u me n t i s a ma z i n g . It
s i mp l y me a n t t h a t La mo n t w a s d i s p o s e d i n a d v a n c e t o b e l i e v i n g a n y -
t h i n g t h a t c a me o u t o f Mo s c o w , b e c a u s e i t s v i r t u e w a s " i n d i v i s i b l e . "
Ag a i n s t r e a s o n a n d f a c t h e b r o u g h t t o t h e r a d i o h i s a ma z i n g p l e a t h a t
n o b o d y s h o u l d a s k e mb a r r a s s i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t St a l i n ' s a c t s b e c a u s e
h e , La mo n t , k n e w t h e ma p r i o r i t o b e p e r f e c t .
D r . La mo n t l a t e r p u l l e d a n o t h e r b o n e r t h a t a g a i n l e f t h i ms a d l y
s t r i p p e d t o t h e p u b l i c v i e w
. An Ame r i c a n e n g i n e e r n a me d Li t t l e p a g e
w r o t e t h r e e a r t i c l e s o n Ru s s i a f o r t h e Sa t u r d a y Ev e n i n g P o s t . In t h e
s e c o n d o f t h e s e h e s a i d t h a t s a b o t a g e a n d b r i b e r y a n d o t h e r s k u l d u g g e r y
w e r e r i f e i n t h e n e w Ru s s i a - a f a c t w h i c h n o o n e d e n i e d
. Li t t l e p a g e
a l s o t o l d a s t r a n g e a n e c d o t e i n t e n d e d t o s h o w t h a t o n e o f t h e t r i a l d e -
f e n d a n t s , P i a t a k o v , h a d b e e n i mp l i c a t e d i n a p i e c e o f s a b o t a g e w h i c h
d i d n o t c o me o f f
. No w t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f s a b o t a g e i n Ru s s i a n o mo r e
p r o v e d t h a t Ry k o v a n d Z i n o v i e v a n d Ra d e k h a d s a b o t a g e d t h a n t h e
p r e v a l e n c e o f mu r d e r i n Ame r i c a , l e t u s s a y , p r o v e d t h a t La mo n t h a d
mu r d e r e d a n y o n e . Li t t l e p a g e ' s s u s p i c i o n o f P i a t a k o v , e v e n i f i t w e r e
t r u e , p r o v e d n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e b i g g e r c h a r g e s a g a i n s t h i ma n d t h e
c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r v i c t i ms o f t h e p u r g e s .
B u t D r . La mo n t p r o c e e d e d t o c i r c u l a r i z e t h e me mb e r s o f t h e
D e w e y c o mmi t t e e w i t h t h e s e c o n d Li t t l e p a g e a r t i c l e , c l a i mi n g i t a s
" n e w a n d c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e o f w r e c k i n g a c t i v i t i e s : '
Th e l o g i c a l n o n s e q u i t u r w a s t u r n e d i n t o f a r c e t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k ,
w h e n t h e P o s t p u b l i s h e d Li t t l e p a g e ' s t h i r d a r t i c l e u n d e r t h e t i t l e " Th e
Se r f s o f t h e So v i e t s . " H a v i n g p l a y e d u p t h e a u t h o r a s a r e l i a b l e w i t -
n e s s , p o o r La mo n t n o w h a d t o r e a d t h i s ma n ' s a p p a l l i n g p i c t u r e o f
f o r c e d l a b o r i n Ru s s i a f o r mi l l i o n s o f w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s u n d e r h o r -
r i b l e c o n d i t i o n s . To s u mi t u p : D r . La mo n t d i s d a i n e d e x a mi n a t i o n o f
e v i d e n c e b e c a u s e o f t h e " s p l e n d i d a c h i e v e me n t s " o f Ru s s i a . Th e n h e
d e c i d e d t o a d v a n c e o n e p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g - a n d h i s
s o l e w i t n e s s p r o c e e d e d t o p i c t u r e t h o s e " s p e n d i d a c h i e v e me n t s " a s a
p e c u l i a r l y b r u t a l t y p e o f ma s s e n s l a v e me n t . H e h a d e n o u g h g o o d
s e n s e , o n e h o p e s , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e h o p e l e s s n e s s o f h i s o w n c o n f u s i o n .
No o n e h a s a n y w a r r a n t f o r d o u b t i n g t h e s i n c e r i t y w i t h w h i c h s u c h
a ma n f i r s t e n t e r e d t h e c o mmu n i s t o r b i t
. B u t p o l i t i c s h a s i t s o w n
l o g i c . H a v i n g l e n t h i ms e l f t o t h e ma c h i n a t i o n s o f t h e B r o w d e r b o y s ,
h e s a n k d e e p e r a n d d e e p e r i n t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s w a mp s . B y t h e t i me
St a l i n e mb r a c e d H i t l e r , h e w a s t o o p r o f o u n d l y c o mp r o mi s e d p s y c h o -
2
6
2 TH ERED D EC AD E
l o g i c a l l y f o r r e t r e a t . H e d i d n o t e v e n h a v e t h e c o u r a g e t o d i s s o l v e t h e
Fr i e n d s o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n , b u t a l l o w e d i t t o e x p i r e w i t h o u t b e n e f i t
o f p u b l i c n o t i c e
.
Ma x Ea s t ma n o n c e ma d e a n e l o q u e n t a p p e a l t o D r
. La mo n t ' s c o n -
s c i e n c e a s a s c h o l a r a n d a h u ma n b e i n g . Th e t r a g e d y o f C o r l i s s La mo n t
i s s u mme d u p i n a f e w p a r a g r a p h s f r o mt h a t a p p e a l :
Y o u a r e n o t s o b l i n d t o t h e r a y s o f j u s t i c e , i f y o u r e y e s w e r e n o t
h e l d s h u t , a s t o a c c e p t t h e s e s h o w t r i a l s o f a f e w d o z e n w h o w e r e r e a d y
t o " c o n f e s s " a s p r o o f o f t h e g u i l t , a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e mu r d e r b e -
h i n d c l o s e d d o o r s , o f h u n d r e d s , a n d i n d e e d t h o u s a n d s , w h o w e r e n o t
.
Y o u a r e n o t s o s u p e r i o r t o t h e i d e a o f me r c y t h a t y o u w o u l d n a t u r a l l y
i g n o r e t h e s t i l l u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n : Wh a t h a s b e c o me o f t h e w i v e s
a n d c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e t h o u s a n d s o f mu r d e r e d c o mmu n i s t s ? Y o u w o u l d
u n d e r n o r ma l c o n d i t i o n s , s e n s e t h e u g l i n e s s o f y o u r o w n p o s i t i o n - t h e
s o n o f a l e a d i n g f i n a n c e c a p i t a l i s t e n g a g i n g i n a c a mp a i g n o f s l a n d e r
b y p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o n e n g r a v e d s t a t i o n e r y a g a i n s t t h e e x e c u t e d
l e a d e r s o f t h e Ru s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n , a s c i o n o f t h e h o u s e o f Mo r g a n a s -
s i s t i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e i r d i s h o n o r b y c i r c u l a t i n g a r g u me n t s f r o m
t h e Sa t u r d a y Ev e n i n g P o s t b a s e d u p o n t h e p r e mi s e s o f b l a c k r e a c t i o n
.
Su r e l y y o u c o u l d f i n d a mo r e a p p r o p r i a t e w a y t o s e r v e t h e c a u s e o f
l a b o r ! An d y o u w o u l d f i n d i t , i f y o u w e r e f r e e f r o mp r e s s u r e , f r e e t o
b e y o u r s i mp l e , c h i v a l r o u s s e l f . . . .
Th e o n e p r i c e l e s s t h i n g y o u c o u l d h a v e b r o u g h t t o t h e p r o l e t a r i a n
mo v e me n t , c o mi n g f r o mt h e s o u r c e y o u d o a n d w i t h y o u r e d u c a t i o n ,
w a s t r u e k n o w l e d g e a n d a b s o l u t e p r i n c i p l e d i n t e g r i t y
. In s t e a d y o u a r e
b r i n g i n g a l i t t l e mo n e y , a s ma l l g i f t e v e n w h e n i t i s l a r g e , a n d a n i n -
c r e a s e o f me n t a l c o n f u s i o n a n d mo r a l d e c a y . *
3
Th e Li t t l e p a g e " e v i d e n c e " s o a v i d l y l a p p e d u p b y La mo n t a n d
t h e Ne w Ma s s e s
r e c a l l s t o my mi n d a n o t h e r p i e c e o f " e v i d e n c e " w h i c h ,
a t a b o u t t h e s a me t i me , w a s f e a t u r e d b y w r i t e r s i n t h e Ne w Re p u b l i c
a n d w i d e l y q u o t e d i n f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r c i r c l e s t o j u s t i f y t h e St a l i n
mu r d e r s
.
An Ame r i c a n e n g i n e e r , w h o mIr e me mb e r e d r a t h e r v a g u e l y f r o m
Ru s s i a , c a me t o s e e me a t my o f f i c e . H e h a d w o r k e d f o r t h e So v i e t s f o r
e i g h t o r n i n e y e a r s . In t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f h i s s o j o u r n h e h a d ma r r i e d
* Th e Ne w In t e r n a t i o n a l , Ap r i l , 1 9 3 8 .
" FRIEND SOFTH E G. P . U. "

2 6 3
a Ru s s i a n w o ma n t o w h o mh e b e c a me d e e p l y a t t a c h e d . B u t w h e n h i s
c o n t r a c t w a s e n d e d , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s h a d r e f u s e d t o l e t h i s w i f e a c -
c o mp a n y h i mo u t o f Ru s s i a
. H e h a d b e e n k n o c k i n g a t o f f i c i a l d o o r s ,
w r i t i n g l e t t e r s a n d c a b l i n g w i l d l y i n t h e h o p e o f o b t a i n i n g h e r r e l e a s e .
It w a s a f a mi l i a r s t o r y - d o z e n s o f f o r e i g n e n g i n e e r s , h a v i n g t a k e n
Ru s s i a n w i v e s , t r i e d f o r y e a r s t o g e t t h e mo u t o f t h a t c o u n t r y .
At t h e s a me t i me h e t o l d me i n d e t a i l a b o u t h i s p l a n s t o d o a b o o k
a b o u t h i s l o n g r e s i d e n c e i n Ru s s i a
. As h e t o l d i t , h i s w o u l d b e a n o t h e r
g r u e s o me r e c o r d o f c h a o s , i n j u s t i c e , s t a r v a t i o n
.
" We l l , " Ia s k e d h i m, " w h i c h i n t e r e s t s y o u mo r e - g e t t i n g o u t a
b o o k o r g e t t i n g b a c k y o u r w i f e ? "
" My w i f e , o f c o u r s e , " h e s a i d . " I' md e s p e r a t e . I' d d o a n y t h i n g
a l mo s t t o r e s c u e h e r . "
" In t h a t c a s e , " Is mi l e d , " y o u a r e d o i n g j u s t t h e w r o n g t h i n g .
D o n ' t f o r Go d ' s s a k e , c o me t o v i s i t p e o p l e l i k e my s e l f , w h o a r e o n t h e
So v i e t b l a c k l i s t . An d d o n ' t w r i t e o r s p e a k a w o r d a b o u t t h e s e h o r r o r s
.
If s u c h s t u f f r e a c h e d t h e c o mr a d e s , a n y r e mo t e h o p e y o u ma y s t i l l h a v e
f o r g e t t i n g h e r o u t w i l l b e e n d e d . On t h e c o n t r a r y , y o u o u g h t t o c o n -
v i n c e t h e Ru s s i a n s s o me h o w t h a t y o u a r e f r i e n d l y t o t h e m ; o t h e r w i s e
y o u r w i f e , j u s t b e c a u s e y o u d o l o v e h e r , w i l l b e h e l d a s a s o r t o f
h o s t a g e . "
Th e e n g i n e e r l e f t . If o r g o t a b o u t h i m . B u t f i v e o r s i x w e e k s l a t e r
Iw a s s t a r t l e d b y a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s u n d e r h i s n a me i n So v i e t Ru s s i a
To d a y . H e h a d t a k e n my a d v i c e r a t h e r l i t e r a l l y
. Th e a r t i c l e s w e r e s o
c o n t r i v e d a s t o s e e ma n i n d i r e c t c o n f i r ma t i o n o f t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t
t h e v i c t i ms o f t h e p u r g e ! So o n Iw a s b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s
" e v i d e n c e " b y e a r n e s t f e l l o w t r a v e l e r s s e e k i n g t o b r e a k d o w n my d i s a p -
p r o v a l o f t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s . . . . Ic o u l d n o t t e l l t h e mw h a t Ik n e w , f o r
f e a r o f s p o i l i n g t h a t b a r g a i n . Ic a n o n l y h o p e t h a t St a l i n c a me t h r o u g h
a t h i s e n d a n d t h a t t h e r a n s o me d w i f e i s n o w i n Ame r i c a
. If s h e i s n ' t
h e r e b y n o w , d e s p i t e t h o s e a r t i c l e s , h e r c a s e i s h o p e l e s s a n d t h i s l i t t l e
t a l e c a n d o n o h a r m .
4
Th e In t e r n a t i o n a l La b o r D e f e n s e ma y b e b r a c k e t e d w i t h D r
.
La mo n t ' s l a t e u n l a me n t e d Fr i e n d s o f t h e So v i e t Un i o n a mo n g t h e l e a s t
c a mo u f l a g e d o f St a l i n ' s Tr o j a n H o r s e s . It s o f f i c i a l o r g a n , La b o r D e -
f e n d e r , r e p e a t e d l y i d e n t i f i e d i t a s " t h e Ame r i c a n s e c t i o n o f t h e In t e r -
2 6 4

TH ERED D EC AD E
n a t i o n a l Re d Ai d . " In
Ap r i l , 1 9 3 4 , t h e ma g a z i n e a d d e d : " It w a s u n d e r
t h e b a n n e r o f o u r p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t D i mi t r o v w a s f r e e d ; t h a t
t h e Sc o t t s b o r o c a mp a i g n b e c a me i n t e r n a t i o n a l . "
B u t Vi t o Ma r c a n t o n i o , c h a i r ma n o f t h e
I. L. D . ,
c a n n o t b e
b r a c k e t e d w i t h D r . La mo n t . H e i s a s e l f - ma d e ma n ; t h e h a mme r i n g
o f t h e p r o c e s s h a s b e e n l o u d a n d d i s c o r d a n t , t h e r e s u l t a n t c a r p e n t r y
p r e t t y r o u g h . Th e p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s mo f h i s e v e r y mo v e h a s b e e n
e x c e e d i n g l y i n e v i d e n c e .
Ma r c a n t o n i o - me r e l y b y w a y o f s u mmi n g u p h i s t a l e n t s - l a n d e d
i n C o n g r e s s u n d e r t h e j o i n t a u s p i c e s o f t h e Ri g h t Wi n g o f t h e Re -
p u b l i c a n P a r t y a n d t h e Le f t Wi n g o f t h e Ame r i c a n La b o r P a r t y ; t o o k
p a r t i n It a l i a n p r o - f a c i s t me e t i n g s a n d c o mmu n i s t me e t i n g s a l mo s t
s i mu l t a n e o u s l y ; d e ma n d e d n a t i o n a l a r ma me n t a n d s o o n t h e r e a f t e r
o p p o s e d n a t i o n a l a r ma me n t w i t h e q u a l f e r v o r ; a n d t o t o p i t a l l , f i r ml y
d e n i e s a l l t h e s e f a c t s i n t u r n a s c a l l e d f o r b y a n y s p e c i f i e d o c c a s i o n . H e
i s b y a l l o d d s t h e mo s t " d e n y i n g e s t " p o l i t i c i a n i n c a p t i v i t y .
Ma r c a n t o n i o h a s a p p e a r e d a s a s p e a k e r b e f o r e t h e Le o n a r d o d a
Vi n c i Ar t Sc h o o l , w h i c h P r o f e s s o r Sa l v e mi n i h a s c i t e d a s a f r o n t f o r
t h e It a l i a n g o v e r n me n t ' s " c u l t u r a l " w o r k h e r e . On e o f t h e c h i e f s o f
Ma r c a n t o n i o ' s Re p u b l i c a n C l u b i n Ea s t H a r l e m, Ne w Y o r k , i s P a o l o
D e l B a g n o , w h o w a s p r e s i d e n t o f t h e C i r c o l o Ma r i o Mo r g a n t i n i , a n
o r g a n i z a t i o n n a me d i n h o n o r o f a f a s c i s t h e r o a n d o n r e c o r d a s " l o y a l
t o t h e D u c e . "
B u t C o n g r e s s ma n Ma r c a n t o n i o i n d i g n a n t l y d e n i e s a n y s y mp a t h y
f o r f a s c i s m
.
No t o n l y i s h e h e a d o f t h e Mu s c o v i t e I
. L
. D . b u t h i s n a me h a s a p -
p e a r e d o n e n d l e s s c o mmu n i s t s p e a k e r s ' l i s t s a n d d o c u me n t s
. H i s e l e c -
t i o n w a s t h e p r i n c i p a l t a s k o f t h e p r o - c o mmu n i s t w i n g o f t h e La b o r
P a r t y . H i s w o r k s a n d w o r d s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y r u n g t h e b e l l o f c o m-
mu n i s t e n t h u s i a s mi n t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r a n d o t h e r p a r t y p a p e r s . H i s
v i e w s o n p u b l i c q u e s t i o n s h a v e r u n p a r a l l e l t o t h o s e o f B r o w d e r , e v e n
u n t o h i s l o n e - w o l f o p p o s i t i o n t o n a t i o n a l - s e c u r i t y me a s u r e s i n t h e
H o u s e o f Re p r e s e n t a t i v e s . No o n e i n t h e l e a s t f a mi l i a r w i t h t h e r e a l i -
t i e s o f Ame r i c a n c o mmu n i s mh a s a n y d o u b t t h a t Ma r c a n t o n i o , w i t h -
o u t j o i n i n g t h e p a r t y , s e r v e d i t e x t r e me l y w e l l .
B u t C o n g r e s s ma n Ma r c a n t o n i o d e n i e s , n o l e s s i n d i g n a n t l y , t h a t h e
i s a c o mmu n i s t .
An d h e c a r r i e s t h e p a s s i o n f o r d e n i a l t o t h e p o i n t o f d e n y i n g t h a t
" FRIEND S OFTH E
G. P . U. "

2 6 5
t h e I. L
. D . w h i c h h e c a p t a i n s i s
a s t o o g e Mo s c o w o r g a n i z a t i o n - t h i s
d e s p i t e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o w n c a n d o r i n t h e ma t t e r
. Th e f a c t r e ma i n s ,
a l l t h e s a me , t h a t t h e I. L. D .
i s t h e l e g a l d e f e n s e a r mo f Ame r i c a n
c o mmu n i s m
. Oc c a s i o n a l l y i t a l s o a c t s i n b e h a l f o f n o n - c o mmu n i s t s
.
B u t i t h a s n e v e r s p a r e d a n a n g r y a d j e c t i v e i n s u p p o r t o f a n y l a b o r o r
r a d i c a l p r i s o n e r k n o w n t o b e h o s t i l e t o c o mmu n i s m
. In d e e d , t h e
I. L. D .
a n d i t s c a p t a i n h a v e n o t y e t i n d i c a t e d p u b l i c l y a n y a w a r e n e s s
o f t h e mo s t p r o mi n e n t Ame r i c a n l a b o r p r i s o n e r - Fr e d
E. B e a l , v i c t i mo f
t h e Ga s t o n i a , No r t h C a r o l i n a , t e x t i l e s t r i k e s i t u a t i o n
. B e a l , i t h a p p e n s ,
h a d f o r f e i t e d c o mr a d e l y s y mp a t h y b y d e n o u n c i n g t h e So v i e t Ut o p i a
.
Su c h a r e Ma r c a n t o n i o a n d h i s Ame r i c a n b r a n c h o f f i c e o f t h e In t e r -
n a t i o n a l Re d Ai d
. In 1 9 3 7 i t c l a i me d 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 me mb e r s , i n 8 0 0 b r a n c h e s
s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h 4 7 s t a t e s
. If t h e f i g u r e w a s h a l f c o r r e c t , i t mu s t h a v e
me a n t s o me t h i n g t o a y o u n g a mb i t i o u s p o l i t i c i a n
. B u t w e ma y a s s u me
h e d e n i e s i t .
5
In
t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o l i f e r a t i n g In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s a n d
t h e u n r e g i me n t e d s y mp a t h i z e r s , w e mu s t n o t l o s e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e
ma c h i n e r y f a r b e h i n d t h e f r o n t s
. Th e o f f i c i a l C o mmu n i s t P a r t y ,
s e c t i o n o f t h e C o mi n t e r n , w a s a l w a y s t h e r e , c o u n t i n g t h e " t a k e , " d i s -
t r i b u t i n g t h e j o b s a n d s o p p i n g u p t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t g r a v y
.
Th e n o n - p a r t y ma s s e s a n d t h e Ame r i c a n p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y s a w
B r o w d e r , Fo s t e r , Mi n o r , B e d a c h t , H a t h a w a y a n d t h e r e s t o n l y o n d r e s s
p a r a d e , s o t o s p e a k , w r a p p e d i n Ame r i c a n f l a g s a n d s i n g i n g Y a n k e e
D o o d l e
. Th e y w a t c h e d Mo t h e r B l o o r b e h a v i n g l i k e B a r b a r a Fr i e t c h i e ,
Mi n o r a s Ma s s a To mJe f f e r s o n , Ea r l B r o w d e r s t r e t c h i n g t o l o o k l i k e
H o n e s t Ab e , a n d Mi k e Go l d p o s i n g a s a d o me s t i c a t e d To mP a i n e
.
B u t b e t w e e n t h e a c t s t h e s e p e o p l e h a d a p r o s p e r i n g p a r t y t o ma n a g e , a
p a r t y n o w e x p a n d e d t o B i g B u s i n e s s s c a l e
. We mu s t v i s u a l i z e t h e
i n n e r mo s t a d mi n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n , w i t h i t s d i r e c -
t i v e s f r o mMo s c o w , i t s d e c r e e s
f r o m Un i o n Sq u a r e
. i t s t h o u s a n d s o f
c a u c u s e s a n d c o n f l i c t s .
Fa c t i o n a l i s mi n t h e o p e n d o g - e a t - d o g s p i r i t o f Gi t l o w ' s a n d Lo v e -
s t o n e ' s d a y s w a s n o mo r e , o f c o u r s e
. Li k e i t s So v i e t p r o t o t y p e , t h e
Ame r i c a n p a r t y w a s n o w p r o p e r l y " mo n o l i t h i c
. " B r o w d e r w a s t h e
Ame r i c a n e q u i v a l e n t o f St a l i n , Ja me s W
. Fo r d w a s t h e Ne g r o c o u n t e r -
p a r t o f B r o w d e r , t h e l a t e Mo i s s a y e Ol g i n w a s t h e Je w i s h v e r s i o n o f
2 6 6 TH ERED D EC AD E
Fo r d , a n d s o d o w n t h e l i n e . Ev e r y r a c e , c i t y , c a t e g o r y h a d i t s B e l o v e d
Le a d e r i n a h i e r a r c h y a s r i g i d a n d v e n e r a t e d a s i n a n y c h u r c h . Ar i t u a l
o f " a f f e c t i o n " d e v e l o p e d , c l o s e l y mo d e l e d o n t h e " a f f e c t i o n " e n f o r c e d
f o r t h e Le a d e r o f Le a d e r s i n t h e K r e ml i n . Th e f a i t h f u l e v e n s t a g e d
h u r r a h i n g r e c e p t i o n s a t r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n s w h e n t h e B e l o v e d B r o w d e r
r e t u r n e d f r o ma p r o p a g a n d a t o u r
. Th e r e w a s n o t h i n g l i k e i t i n Ne w
Y o r k s o u t h o f Fa t h e r D i v i n e .
Un d e r t h e mo n o l i t h i c c a l m, h o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s p l e n t y o f c o mp e t i -
t i o n f o r j o b s a n d h o n o r s
. As t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t f l e s h p o t s g r e w mo r e
n u me r o u s a n d j u i c i e r , t h e c o n t e s t f o r p r e f e r me n t t e n d e d t o r e a c h
mu r d e r o u s i n t e n s i t y
. C o mr a d e s s p i e d o n o n e a n o t h e r ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s
n o t o n l y f r o mz e a l f o r t h e c a u s e b u t , a l a s , f r o mh u n g e r f o r t h e e r r i n g
o n e ' s l u c r a t i v e p o s t
. Th e r e w e r e t r i a l s a n d p u r g e s o f e v e r y d e g r e e .
We l l - k n o w n c o mr a d e s d i s a p p e a r e d f r o mt h e D a i l y Wo r k e r s o c i a l
c o l u mn s , s o me t i me s t u r n i n g u p i n t h e H e a r s t p u b l i c a t i o n s
. Sc a r c e l y
a mo n t h w e n t b y w i t h o u t i t s q u o t a o f " f a s c i s t s , Tr o t s k y i s t s a n d
c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i s t s " r e a d o u t o f t h e p a r t y . Ie v e n h e a r d t h e f a n -
t a s t i c d e t a i l s o f a p u r g e t r i a l i n a Ne w Y o r k h i g h s c h o o l a g a i n s t a
l i t t l e g i r l s u s p e c t e d o f h e r e s y .
Ac o n s t a n t f e r me n t o f p u r g i n g a n d s me a r i n g , s p i c e d w i t h c o n f e s -
s i o n s o f s i n a n d Mu s c o v i t e r i t u a l s o f s e l f - d e g r a d a t i o n , p r o v i d e d t h e
p s y c h o l o g i c a l e l e me n t i n w h i c h t h e h i g h e r s t r a t a o f p a r t y p e o p l e l i v e d
a n d w o r k e d a n d i n t r i g u e d . An d Mo s c o w r e ma i n e d , n o w a s i n t h e l e a n
a n d h u n g r y d a y s o f y o r e , t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r o n a l l t h i n g s i n t h e Ame r i c a n
p a r t y
. " Re p s " o f t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l s a t o n t h e p a r t y e x e c u t i v e a n d
e x e r c i s e d v e t o p o w e r s
. Me s s e n g e r s , d u l y e q u i p p e d w i t h f a l s e p a s s p o r t s ,
c a me a n d w e n t b e t w e e n Mo s c o w a n d Ne w Y o r k . Le a d e r s f r o mB r o w -
d e r d o w n w e r e s u b j e c t t o s u d d e n a n d f r i g h t e n i n g s u mmo n s f r o mt h e
Le a d e r o f Le a d e r s , a n d t h e e n t i r e p a r t y h e l d i t s c o l l e c t i v e b r e a t h u n t i l
t h e i r r e t u r n .
Th e n o t o r i o u s Ro b i n s o n - Ru b e n s c a s e f o r a mo me n t l i t u p t h e
l u r i d t a l e o f St a l i n ' s " p a s s p o r t mi l l " i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s
. Ad o l p h
Ar n o l d Ru b e n s , a La t v i a n w o r k i n g f o r t h e So v i e t s , a n d h i s Ame r i c a n
w i f e w e r e a r r e s t e d i n Mo s c o w
. Th e i n t r i g u e i s t o o c o mp l e x t o b e t r a c e d
h e r e
. B u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g mo n t h s i t b e c a me c l e a r t h a t Ru b e n s h a d
o p e r a t e d i n Ne w Y o r k a c o mmu n i s t mi l l f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f a k e
Ame r i c a n p a s s p o r t s f o r t h e u s e o f c o mmu n i s t l e a d e r s a n d So v i e t e s p i -
o n a g e a g e n t s t h e w o r l d o v e r
. Th r e e o f h i s mi n o r c o n f e d e r a t e s i n Ma y ,
1 9 3 9 , r e c e i v e d p r i s o n t e r ms a f t e r c o n v i c t i o n i n a Fe d e r a l c o u r t
. Ac -
c o r d i n g t o H e r b e r t So l o w , w h o ma d e a n e x h a u s t i v e s t u d y o f t h e s c a n -
" FRIEND SOFTH EG
. P
. U. "

2 6 7
d a l , h u n d r e d s o f p a s s p o r t s h a d b e e n ma n u f a c t u r e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g
y e a r s . Af t e r t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e u n d e r l i n g s , h e w r o t e :
B e h i n d t h e i r t r i a l l i e s a s e n s a t i o n a l s t o r y o f o r g a n i z e d u n d e r g r o u n d
So v i e t a c t i v i t i e s o n Ame r i c a n s o i l b y a g e n t s s e n t f r o mRu s s i a t o w o r k
i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Ame r i c a n c o mmu n i s t s . Th e s t o r y s h o w s t h a t ,
j u s t a s H i t l e r u t i l i z e s h i s s y mp a t h i z e r s i n t h e Ge r ma n - Ame r i c a n B u n d
a n d i t s a u x i l i a r i e s t o p r o p a g a n d i z e a n d s p y f o r Ge r ma n y , s o St a l i n
u t i l i z e s me mb e r s a n d h a n g e r s - o n o f t h e Ame r i c a n C o mmu n i s t P a r t y
f o r t h e K r e ml i n e s p i o n a g e
. .
. . Th e c e n t r a l f a c t o f t h e s t o r y u n f o l d e d
h e r e i s t h a t t h e Ame r i c a n C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , a n d i t s p e r i p h e r y o f s y m-
p a t h i z e r s a n d f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s , c o n s t i t u t e a v a s t r e s e r v o i r o f s p i e s f o r t h e
K r e ml i n
Gi t l o w a f t e r h i s e x p u l s i o n , h e a d s p y Ni c k D o z e n b e r g , t h e l a t e
Ge n e r a l K r i v i t s k y , Ja n Va l t i n i n Ou t o f t h e Ni g h t , a n d o t h e r s h a v e i n
r e c e n t y e a r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p i c t u r e o f So v i e t e s p i o n a g e i n Ame r i c a .
An t i - St a l i n i s t s h a v e c h a r g e d a l a c k o f v i g i l a n c e o n t h e p a r t o f h i g h
a u t h o r i t i e s i n h u n t i n g d o w n s u c h i n t r u d e r s . In a n y c a s e , t h i s n e t w o r k
o f St a l i n ' s u n d e r c o v e r a g e n t s i s o n l y a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e o p e n p a r t y
me mb e r s h i p , a n d f r e q u e n t l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o k n o w w h e r e o n e e n d s
a n d t h e o t h e r b e g i n s . Th e f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s , w h e t h e r i n g o v e r n me n t o r
l i t e r a t u r e o r l a b o r u n i o n s , n e e d n o t c o n s o l e t h e ms e l v e s t h a t t h e y o n l y
w o r k e d w i t h t h e " l e g a l " e n d o f t h e c o mmu n i s t c o n s p i r a c y . Th e w h o l e
St a l i n i s t s y s t e mi s t o o w e l l i n t e g r a t e d f o r s u c h d i v i s i o n s . At b e s t t h e y
a r e l a b e l s t o c o n f u s e t h e u n w a r y .
As u r f a c e r e f u r b i s h i n g o f t h e Ame r i c a n p a r t y w a s u n d e r t a k e n i n
t h e s e y e a r s t o ma k e t h e " d e mo c r a t i c " h o a x mo r e c r e d i b l e . An e w
p a r t y c o n s t i t u t i o n w a s a d o p t e d , f o r i n s t a n c e . Th e c o mr a d e s d i p p e d
t h e i r p e n s i n t h e i n k a n d t h e i r t o n g u e s i n t h e i r c h e e k s a n d w r o t e :
Th e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y o f Ame r i c a i s a w o r k i n g c l a s s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y
c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d t o d a y t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f Je f f e r s o n , P a i n e , Ja c k s o n a n d
Li n c o l n , a n d o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f In d e p e n d e n c e ; i t u p h o l d s t h e
a c h i e v e me n t s o f d e mo c r a c y , t h e r i g h t s o f " l i f e , l i b e r t y a n d t h e p u r s u i t
o f h a p p i n e s s , " a n d d e f e n d s t h e Un i t e d St a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n a g a i n s t i t s
r e a c t i o n a r y e n e mi e s w h o w o u l d d e s t r o y d e mo c r a c y a n d a l l p o p u l a r
l i b e r t i e s .
No t e v e n t h e mo s t r a b i d e n t h u s i a s t f o r t h e K r e ml i n ' s e x e c u t i o n t e c h -
n i q u e c o u l d o b j e c t t o t h a t ; n o t a l o u d a n y h o w .
* Ame r i c a n Me r c u r y , Ju l y , 1 9 3 9 .
C H AP TERXXIII
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y
1
FTERt h e f i r s t h e c t i c y e a r o f t h e Sp a n i s h c i v i l w a r s , c o n t r o l o f
t h e Lo y a l i s t g o v e r n me n t a p p a r a t u s w a s u n i f i e d a n d s y s t e ma -
t i z e d - i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e c o mmu n i s t s a n d t h e i r c r e a t u r e s
.
La r g o C a b a l l e r o , h a v i n g r e f u s e d t o o u t l a w t h e Le f t i s t P . O. U. M
. g r o u p
a n d t o s u r r e n d e r t h e Wa r D e p a r t me n t a n d h i s c o n s c i e n c e t o St a l i n i s t
d i c t a t i o n , h a d b e e n o u s t e d
. Mo s c o w ' s t h r e a t o f c u t t i n g o f f c o mp l e t e l y
t h e f l o w o f o u t s i d e a r ms a n d s u p p l i e s g a v e t h e c o mmu n i s t mi n o r i t y
t h e u p p e r h a n d
. D r
. Ju a n Ne g r i n , w h o h a d b e e n c a r e f u l l y " b u i l t
u p " i n t h e St a l i n i s t p r e s s a n d w a s o p e n l y w o r k i n g w i t h t h e K r e ml i n
c r o w d , d i s p l a c e d t h e s o c i a l i s t t r a d e - u n i o n v e t e r a n
.
Th e r e a f t e r t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e Lo y a l i s t r e g i me mo s t r i g i d l y s u p e r -
v i s e d b y Mo s c o w ' s a g e n t s w a s p r o p a g a n d a i n a l l i t s b r a n c h e s
. Th e
c e n s o r s h i p w a s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f C o n s t a n c i a D e La Mo r a a n d o t h e r
t r u s t e d St a l i n i s t s
. Ne w s o u t o f Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n w a s f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h
c o mmu n i s t s i e v e s , r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d a n d i n p a r t l a v i s h l y s u b s i d i z e d
.
H u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s w e n t t h r o u g h t h e h a n d s o f a s i n g l e
a l l e g e d " i n d e p e n d e n t " Ame r i c a n w r i t e r a c t u a l l y o n t h e Lo y a l i s t p a y
r o l l - t h i s a c c o r d i n g t o a f f i d a v i t s f r o mLo y a l i s t l e a d e r s o n f i l e i n o f f i c i a l
q u a r t e r s h e r e
. In a d d i t i o n t o p a i d j o u r n a l i s t i c a g e n t s , t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n
p r o p a g a n d a s e t u p e n j o y e d t h e f a t u o u s a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c h e l p o f n e u t r a l
r e p o r t e r s t o o c h i l d i s h p o l i t i c a l l y t o s e e t h r o u g h t h e g a me
. Ex c i t e d
l i t e r a t i f r o mma n y c o u n t r i e s h a d r u s h e d t o t h e s c e n e
. Th e y f a i l e d t o
d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e Lo y a l i s t ma s s e s - p r e d o mi n a n t l y a n a r c h o -
s y n d i c a l i s t a n d s o c i a l i s t a n d p l a i n d e mo c r a t i c - a n d t h e c o mmu n i s t
b u r e a u c r a c y t h a t h a d b l a c k j a c k e d i t s w a y t o c o n t r o l
.
Th e r e s u l t w a s t h a t t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d h e a r d t h e Lo y a l i s t s t o r y o n l y
f r o mt h e c o mmu n i s t a n g l e
. No t o n e i n a t h o u s a n d s u p p o s e d l y w e l l -
i n f o r me d n e w s p a p e r r e a d e r s e v e n t o d a y k n o w s t h a t t h e r e w a s a n y
o t h e r a n g l e t o t h e s t o r y
. Th e s u p p r e s s e d a n d p e r s e c u t e d a n t i - c o m-
mu n i s t ma j o r i t y n e v e r g o t a b r e a k
. On l y t h e g e n e r a l s i n t h e K r e ml i n ' s
2 6 8
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 6 9
i d e o l o g i c a l l i v e r y w e r e f e a t u r e d a s h e r o e s
; ma g n i f i c e n t f i g h t e r s f r o mt h e
s o c i a l i s t , a n a r c h i s t a n d o t h e r n o n - St a l i n i s t r a n k s w e r e l o a d e d w i t h
b l a me a n d o b l o q u y
. Th e o n e ma n w h o c a me n e a r e s t t o r e p r e s e n t i n g
t h e o v e r w h e l mi n g ma j o r i t y o f t h e a n t i - Fr a n c o mi l l i o n s , C a b a l l e r o , w a s
s y s t e ma t i c a l l y ma l i g n e d i n t h e f o r e i g n p r e s s
. St a l i n ' s h o r r i f y i n g
me t h o d s i n d e a l i n g w i t h a n t i - f a s c i s t s o f o t h e r t h a n c o mmu n i s t p e r -
s u a s i o n w e r e e i t h e r i g n o r e d o r b l a n d l y r e p o r t e d a s " v i c t o r i e s
. "
Th e c a l c u l a t e d n e w s s u c c e e d e d i n r e d u c i n g t h e w h o l e Sp a n i s h
t r a g e d y , f r o mFr a n c o ' s r e b e l l i o n i n Ju l y , 1 9 3 6 , t o h i s f i n a l t r i u mp h
i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 3 9 , t o a b e g u i l i n g l y n e a t b l a c k - a n d - r e d p a t t e r n
. It
s h o w e d a l i f e - a n d - d e a t h s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n f a s c i s ma n d d e mo c r a c y , w i t h
H i t l e r a n d Mu s s o l i n i a i d i n g t h e r e b e l s a n d St a l i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e d e mo -
c r a t s
. Th i s w a s a f a n t a s t i c s i mp l i f i c a t i o n o f a ma e l s t r o mo f e v e n t s a n d
p u r p o s e s - o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y i mp u l s e s , g r e e d y
f o r e i g n s e l f - i n t e r e s t s , p r o f o u n d i n n e r t e n s i o n s w i t h i n b o t h t h e Fr a n c o
a n d t h e Lo y a l i s t c a mp s
. Th e p i c t u r e w a s f a l s e a n d c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y
t o t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e Lo y a l i s t c a u s e .
P e r h a p s i t s mo s t mi s c h i e v o u s e f f e c t w a s t h i s
: t h a t i t t h r e w t h e
w h o l e w e i g h t o f w o r l d - w i d e a n t i - f a s c i s t e mo t i o n b e h i n d t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n
e l e me n t s w h i c h h a d h i j a c k e d t h e Lo y a l i s t c a u s e
. Ah e a l t h y a n d
i n t e l l i g e n t s u p p o r t f r o ma b r o a d mi g h t h a v e g i v e n t h e a n t i - c o mmu n i s t
ma j o r i t y a f i g h t i n g c h a n c e
. B u t n e a r l y e v e r y d o l l a r o f o u t s i d e c o n t r i -
b u t i o n s , e v e r y o u n c e o f o u t s i d e s e n t i me n t , e v e r y v o l u n t e e r f o r t h e
f i g h t i n g f r o n t s , w e n t d i r e c t l y t o t h e St a l i n i s t s ! Te n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f
Ame r i c a n s w h o t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y w e r e " h e l p i n g t h e Lo y a l i s t s " w e r e
o n l y h e l p i n g t h e Mo s c o w g a n g i n Sp a i n t o d o mi n a t e t h e Lo y a l i s t s
.
Th e b l a c k - a n d - r e d s i mp l i f i c a t i o n w a s t h e p r o d u c t o f d e l i b e r a t e a n d
e x p e r t p r o p a g a n d a . It s i mp r i n t i s s t i l l s o d e e p o n t h e w o r l d ' s i ma g i -
n a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a mo n g l i b e r a l s , t h a t w h a t Ia ms a y i n g h e r e w i l l s o u n d
t o t h e ml i k e w i l d b l a s p h e my
. Y e t o n l y t h e mo s t " r e l i g i o u s " St a l i n i s t s
a n d t h e h o p e l e s s l y n a i v e c o u l d h a v e f a i l e d t o s e n s e , b y t h i s t i me , t h a t
t h e p i c t u r e w a s n o t q u i t e s o n e a t
. Th e y mu s t h a v e g a t h e r e d , h o w e v e r
v a g u e l y , f r o mt h e b e l a t e d h i n t s b y Er n e s t H e mi n g w a y a n d t h e w r i t i n g s
o f Lo y a l i s t l e a d e r s i n e x i l e , t h a t t h e r e w a s s o me t h i n g my s t e r i o u s a n d
s i n i s t e r i n t h e b u s i n e s s w h i c h t h e y h a d f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d
. Th e y
mu s t b e a w a r e b y n o w t h a t t h o u s a n d s o f e a r n e s t a n t i - f a s c i s t s , f r o m
c o n s e r v a t i v e r e p u b l i c a n s t o u l t r a - r e v o l u t i o n a r y r a d i c a l s , a g r e e i n b l a m-
i n g Ru s s i a ' s h i g h h a n d e d i n t r u s i o n f o r t h e Lo y a l i s t f a i l u r e
. Th e me r e
f a c t t h a t Ru s s i a d o e s n o t g i v e r e f u g e t o a n y o f t h e Lo y a l i s t s s t i l l c o o p e d
2 7 0

TH ERED D EC AD E
u p i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a mp s i n Fr a n c e h o l d s s i g n i f i c a n t i mp l i c a t i o n s
.
Th o s e w h o a r e p o l i t i c a l l y mo r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d ma y e v e n h a v e c a u g h t
a g l i mme r o f t h e i d e a t h a t t h e Sp a n i s h p e o p l e w e r e t h e v i c t i mi z e d
p a w n s i n a c o mp l i c a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l g a me o f p o w e r - p o l i t i c s . Sl o w l y
b u t i n e v i t a b l y , t h e b a s i c t r u t h i s e me r g i n g - t h e t r u t h t h a t St a l i n ,
o s t e n s i b l y t h e w o u l d - b e s a v i o r o f Sp a n i s h d e mo c r a c y , a c t u a l l y h a d
o t h e r f i s h t o f r y . Ul t i ma t e l y i t mu s t b e c o me c l e a r t h a t t h e Mu s c o v i t e
d i c t a t o r s h i p d i v e r t e d , s a b o t a g e d , a n d d e mo r a l i z e d t h e Lo y a l i s t s t r e n g t h
i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l a t t e mp t t o g r a b t o t a l c o n t r o l . " Th e i n n e r - l i n e c o m-
mu n i s t t a c t i c s o f w i n n i n g t h e u p p e r h a n d p a r a l y z e d t h e mi l i t a r y a n d
p o l i t i c a l e f f o r t s n e c e s s a r y t o b e a t t h e s t r o n g e n e my , " Lu i s Ar a q u i s t a n ,
t h e Lo y a l i s t Amb a s s a d o r t o Fr a n c e a n d a l i f e l o n g p o p u l a r d e mo c r a t i c
l e a d e r , h a s s t a t e d i n r e c o r d i n g t h e b l a c k o u t o f f r e e d o mi n h i s n a t i v e
l a n d
.
P i e c e b y p i e c e t h e s t o r y h a s b e e n c o mi n g o u t o f t h e mi s t s o f p r o p a -
g a n d i s t v e r b i a g e - t h e s t o r y o f h o w Ru s s i a " mu s c l e d i n " o n t h e Sp a n i s h
r e v o l u t i o n , c a p t u r i n g a s c e n d a n c y b y f r a u d , b l a c k ma i l , a n d p r o f l i g a t e
v i o l e n c e . In t h e p r o c e s s i t s p l i n t e r e d a n d d e mo r a l i z e d t h e a n t i - Fr a n c o
ma s s e s , e mp t i e d t h e Lo y a l i s t c a u s e o f i t s e mo t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y d r i v -
i n g p o w e r , a n d t h e r e b y i n e f f e c t g u a r a n t e e d t h e v i c t o r y f o r t h e f a s c i s t s .
H a v i n g h i j a c k e d t h e Lo y a l i s t r e g i me , t h e St a l i n i s t s p r o c e e d e d t o
c a p t u r e a n t i - Fr a n c o s e n t i me n t t h e w o r l d o v e r a n d t o c a n a l i z e i t f o r t h e i r
o w n p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s . In t h i s t h e y h a d t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n , a s Ih a v e
s a i d , o f p a i d p r o p a g a n d i s t s f r o mma n y c o u n t r i e s a n d v o l u n t e e r i n n o -
c e n t s . We h a v e s e e n h o w i n r e l a t i o n t o Ru s s i a i t s e l f h u n d r e d s o f w e l l -
me a n i n g l i b e r a l s t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e s e r v i n g " p r o g r e s s " a n d e v e n
" d e mo c r a c y " b y c o v e r i n g u p a n d j u s t i f y i n g St a l i n ' s c r i me s a n d b l u n -
d e r s . Ev e n t h u s w r i t e r s l i k e H e mi n g w a y a n d Ra l p h B a t e s , An d r e Ma l -
r a u x a n d H e r b e r t L. Ma t t h e w s , Ja y Al l e n a n d Vi n c e n t Sh e e a n , d o z e n s
f r o ma l l o v e r t h e w o r l d c o n v i n c e d t h e ms e l v e s h o n e s t l y t h a t t h e y w e r e
" f i g h t i n g f a s c i s m" b y e x p l a i n i n g a w a y t h e c r i me s a n d t h e b l u n d e r s
o f St a l i n i s t mu s c l e - me n i n Sp a i n . To o l a t e mo s t o f t h e ma r e n o w f i n d -
i n g o u t t h a t t h e y h a d s i d e d w i t h a t o t a l i t a r i a n i n v a d e r a g a i n s t t h e
Sp a n i s h r e v o l u t i o n .
Th e Lo y a l i s t s t o r y , i t b e a r s r e p e a t i n g , w a s t o l d a l mo s t e x c l u s i v e l y
t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s o r i n n o c e n t c o mmu n i s t mo u t h p i e c e s . Th e r e s t o f
t h a t s t o r y h a s a p p e a r e d o n l y i n l i t t l e ma g a z i n e s , i n t h e l a b o r a n d s o c i a l -
* Ne w Le a d e r , Ju n e 3 , 1 9 3 9 .
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 7 1
i s t p r e s s , i n f l a s h e s o f t r u t h h e r e a n d t h e r e i n r e c e n t n o v e l s a b o u t Sp a i n
.
Th e r e p o r t s o f Sp a n i a r d s a n d Ame r i c a n s l i k e Ar a q u i s t a n , Jo h n D o s
P a s s o s , La r g o C a b a l l e r o , Sa mB a r o n , Li s t o n Oa k , An i t a B r e n n e r - p e o -
p l e w h o s e d e e p l o a t h i n g f o r f a s c i s mi s b e y o n d p o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n - s i m-
p l y h a v e n o t r e g i s t e r e d . Th e y h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e
g r e a t f a l s e h o o d a b o u t Ru s s i a ' s r o l e " s o l d " t o t h e w o r l d b y a p o w e r f u l
g o v e r n me n t o p e r a t i n g a v a s t a g i t a t i o n a l ma c h i n e a n d d i s p o s i n g o f u n -
l i mi t e d f i s c a l a n d mo r a l r e s o u r c e s .
Ma n y Ame r i c a n v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e Lo y a l i s t a r mi e s , t h o u g h t h e y
p r o v e d t h e i r h o n e s t y b y r i s k i n g t h e i r l i v e s , n o t me r e l y d o l l a r s , h a v e
t r i e d t o t e l l t h e t r u t h a b o u t t h e c o mmu n i s t b l i g h t o n Sp a n i s h d e mo c -
r a c y
. Th e y h a v e b e e n i g n o r e d . Th e s t o r i e s b y v o l u n t e e r s a n d t h e
f a mi l i e s o f v o l u n t e e r s t o l d b e f o r e t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e a n d i n v a r i o u s
ma g a z i n e a r t i c l e s h a v e b e e n b r u s h e d a s i d e a s " i n c r e d i b l e " a n d " f a n -
t a s t i c " me r e l y b e c a u s e t h e t r u t h w a s , i n d e e d , i n c r e d i b l e a n d f a n t a s t i c .
D i s c i p l i n e d c o mmu n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a b e t t e d b y s i l l y w o me n a n d
g u s h i n g l i b e r a l s w h o c a n n o t s e e b e y o n d a n e n t i c i n g s l o g a n , h a v e ma n -
a g e d t o t a r a n d f e a t h e r e v e r y c r i t i c o f St a l i n ' s p o l i c i e s i n Sp a i n a s
" Fr a n c o a g e n t s , " " f a s c i s t s " a n d " Tr o t s k y i s t s . "
Ne v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f a c t s a r e e me r g i n g . Sp a n i s h l e a d e r s w h o c o l -
l a b o r a t e d w i t h t h e c o mmu n i s t i n v a s i o n , t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e o r c u p i d i t y
o r u n d e r mo r a l d u r e s s , a r e b e g i n n i n g t o s p e a k o u t . Th e j o u r n a l i s t i c
v i c t i ms o f t h e p r o p a g a n d a s e t u p s i n B a r c e l o n a a n d Ma d r i d a r e b e -
g i n n i n g , i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t i me , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n t o u r s o f St a l i n ' s
r e a l p u r p o s e s . It t o o k y e a r s f o r e l e me n t a r y t r u t h s a b o u t Ru s s i a u n d e r
St a l i n t o s e e p t h r o u g h t h e t h i c k l a y e r s o f mi s c o n c e p t i o n a n d w i s h f u l
t h i n k i n g . It w i l l t a k e y e a r s f o r t h e e l e me n t a r y f a c t s a b o u t Sp a i n u n d e r
St a l i n t o c o me t h r o u g h . B u t u l t i ma t e l y t h e y w i l l b e k n o w n .
In Fe b r u a r y , 1 9 4 1 , f o r i n s t a n c e , o n e p h a s e o f t h e s a d s t o r y , a p h a s e
e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r Ame r i c a n s , w a s ma d e p u b l i c t h r o u g h t h e
p r e s s b y a p r o mi n e n t Ne w Y o r k p h y s i c i a n , D r . Jo h n Ja c o b P o s n e r
.
Fo r s i x mo n t h s h e h a d b e e n t h e c h i e f o r a l s u r g e o n f o r t h e Ame r i c a n
H o s p i t a l s i n Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n , a n e n t e r p r i s e t o w h i c h Ame r i c a n s c o n -
t r i b u t e d $ 1 , 7 5 6 , 0 0 0 t h r o u g h t h e Me d i c a l B u r e a u t o Ai d Sp a n i s h
D e mo c r a c y a n d i t s a f f i l i a t e s . H e l e f t i n d i s g u s t , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s t e c h -
n i c a l a s s i s t a n t , Mi s s Ma r t h a E . Mi t c h e l l , a n d a n o t h e r Ame r i c a n p h y s i -
c i a n , D r . Z . M. St a d t . Th e y h a d f o u n d i t i mp o s s i b l e t o w o r k u n d e r a
h o s p i t a l r e g i me w h i c h w a s mo r e d e v o t e d t o p r o mo t i n g St a l i n ' s o b -
j e c t i v e s t h a n f i g h t i n g d i s e a s e .
2 7 2

TH ERED D EC AD E
On r e t u r n i n g t o Ame r i c a , t h e t h r e e v o l u n t e e r s p l a c e d d e t a i l e d
c h a r g e s , b a c k e d b y a ma s s o f d o c u me n t s , b e f o r e a s u b c o mmi t t e e o f t h e
Me d i c a l B u r e a u . Th e y s h o w e d t h a t t h e Ame r i c a n h o s p i t a l s w e r e e n -
t i r e l y c o mmu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d a n d s e r v e d St a l i n i s t r a t h e r t h a n Lo y a l i s t
p u r p o s e s ; i n a d d i t i o n t h e y s h o w e d h o w t h e ma n a g e me n t o f " p o l i t i c a l
c o mmi s s a r s " c a u s e d c o n f u s i o n , i n e f f i c i e n c y a n d t h e s p r e a d o f d i s e a s e .
H a v i n g v o l u n t e e r e d a s Ame r i c a n s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i e v i n g s u f f e r i n g , t h e y
h a d d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e y w e r e e x p e c t e d t o b e h a v e l i k e Ru s s i a n c o m-
mu n i s t a g e n t s . Ro b e r t Mi n o r , o n e o f t h e c h i e f l e a d e r s o f t h e Ame r i -
c a n C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , w a s t h e f i n a l a u t h o r i t y o n a l l ma t t e r s i n t h e s e
h o s p i t a l s s p o n s o r e d i n n o c e n t l y b y p e o p l e l i k e P r o f e s s o r Al b e r t Ei n -
s t e i n , P a u l Mu n i , Li l l i a n D . Wa l d , Ne w b o l d Mo r r i s , Gr a c e Ab b o t t ,
D r . Wa l t e r B . C a n n o n a n d h u n d r e d s o f o t h e r s . Na t u r a l l y t h e c o m-
p l a i n t s o f D r . P o s n e r a n d h i s t w o a s s o c i a t e s w e r e i g n o r e d . Th e y h a d
s i mp l y b e e n h o a x e d a l o n g w i t h e v e r y ma n a n d w o ma n w h o h a d c o n -
t r i b u t e d t o w a r d t h e $ 1 , 7 5 6 , 0 0 0 .
Mo s c o w ' s s e i z u r e o f a mo n o p o l y o f a n t i - f a s c i s t e mo t i o n w a s t h e
ma j o r St a l i n i s t t r i u mp h o f t h e s e y e a r s
. It g a v e t h e c o mmu n i s t s a n
a b s o l u t e mo r a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r mi l l i o n s o f me n a n d w o me n t h r o u g h o u t
t h e w o r l d w h o , a t b o t t o m, h a d n o r e a l s y mp a t h y w i t h t h e Ru s s i a n
t y r a n n y . Th a t , mo r e t h a n a n y o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r , ma d e p o s s i b l e t h e
a ma z i n g g r o w t h o f P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t s , In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s , my t h i c a l u n i t e d
f r o n t s , a n d t h e St a l i n i s t i n t e l l e c t u a l t e r r o r s k e t c h e d i n t h e s e p a g e s .
An d i t w a s t h e s t r a n g l e h o l d o n Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n w h i c h a b o v e a l l g a v e
t h e c o mmu n i s t s t h a t mo n o p o l y . Th a t i s w h y t h i s c h a p t e r i s p a r t a n d
p a r c e l o f t h e h i s t o r y o f B o l s h e v i s mi n Ame r i c a .
Th e f i g h t a g a i n s t Fr a n c o h a d b e c o me a s y mb o l o f d e mo c r a c y ' s
s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l - St a l i n g r a b b e d t h a t s y mb o l a n d t u r n e d i t i n t o a
So v i e t r a c k e t .
2
Ir v i n g P f l a u mi s a n Ame r i c a n w h o r e p o r t e d t h e Lo y a l i s t s i d e o f t h e
c i v i l w a r s f r o mt h e s t a r t f o r t h e Un i t e d P r e s s . H i s b i a s w a s f r a n k l y a n d
p a s s i o n a t e l y a g a i n s t Fr a n c o a n d a g a i n s t f a s c i s m . Wr i t i n g i n t h e Ame r i -
c a n Me r c u r y s o o n a f t e r t h e Lo y a l i s t c o l l a p s e , h e b e g a n t h u s :
Th r e e d i c t a t o r s h i p s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Sp a n -
i s h Re p u b l i c . It a l y , Ge r ma n y - a n d Ru s s i a . Y e s , Ru s s i a . Wh e n t h e
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 7 3
s t o r y i s f i n a l l y t o l d i n f u l l i t w i l l b e c o me a p p a r e n t t h a t St a l i n ' s d o mi -
n a t i o n o f t h e Lo y a l i s t r e g i me s i n c e Ma y 1 9 3 7 w a s o n e o f t h e mo s t d e -
c i s i v e f a c t o r s i n a s s u r i n g v i c t o r y f o r Fr a n c o . No w t h a t t h e Lo y a l i s t
c a u s e i s l o s t , s i l e n c e o n t h e s u b j e c t c a n n o l o n g e r b e j u s t i f i e d o n a n y
g r o u n d s .
Lu i s Ar a q u i s t a n i s a t r u e - a n d - t r i e d s o c i a l i s t l e a d e r o f Sp a i n
; h e
s e r v e d t h e Re p u b l i c a s Amb a s s a d o r i n B e r l i n a n d l a t e r a s Lo y a l i s t Am-
b a s s a d o r i n P a r i s
. In a n a l y z i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e b a c l e , h e , t o o ,
s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y
: " Th e c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y g o e s t o t h e C o m-
mu n i s t P a r t y
. " An d s i n c e t h e Sp a n i s h c o mmu n i s t s t h e ms e l v e s w e r e a
n e g l i g i b l e f e w w h e n t h e f i g h t s t a r t e d , h e p o i n t e d o u t , t h e b l a me mu s t
r e s t s q u a r e l y o n t h e So v i e t g o v e r n me n t .
Me x i c o h a d s e n t a r ms e v e n b e f o r e Ru s s i a h a d d e c i d e d t o d o s o .
" Ot h e r c o u n t r i e s i n t h e l a t e r d a y s o f t h e c i v i l w a r s o l d u s i mp o r t a n t
q u a n t i t i e s o f a r ms , " Ar a q u i s t a n c o n f i r me d . B u t t h e s e n e i t h e r d e -
ma n d e d n o r o b t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f t h e Lo y a l i s t g o v e r n me n t o r a r my o r
p r e s s
. On l y Ru s s i a e x t o r t e d n o t me r e l y e x o r b i t a n t c a s h p a y me n t s i n
a d v a n c e , b u t f a r - r e a c h i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n c e s s i o n s
. At a t i me w h e n Sp a i n ,
i n i t s d e s p e r a t i o n , c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o h a g g l e , t h i s w a s p l a i n b l a c k ma i l .
C o n t r o l o f a r ms a n d mu n i t i o n s , d o l e d o u t p a r s i mo n i o u s l y a t p r o f i t e e r -
i n g p r i c e s , g a v e St a l i n a d e c i s i v e w e a p o n o f b r i b e r y a n d b l a c k ma i l . Th e
c o mmu n i s t s - a n d t h i s t h e w o r l d h a s n o t g r a s p e d - d i d n o t s i mp l y t u r n
o v e r t h e i r " a i d " t o t h e Sp a n i s h p e o p l e . Th e f r a c t i o n t h a t d i d r e a c h
Sp a i n w a s s t o r e d i n c o mmu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d w a r e h o u s e s a n d d i s p e n s e d
b y t h e St a l i n i s t s , ma k i n g a n d b r e a k i n g g e n e r a l s a t w i l l b y g i v i n g o r
w i t h h o l d i n g w e a p o n s a n d s u p p l i e s
. Th e v e r y f i r s t b o a t l o a d e d w i t h
s u p p l i e s f r o mRu s s i a , r e a c h i n g B a r c e l o n a , r e f u s e d t o u n l o a d u n t i l
c e r t a i n me n k n o w n t o b e a n t i - c o mmu n i s t w e r e r e mo v e d f r o mt h e
C a t a l o n i a n C a b i n e t
. Th e h a r d - p r e s s e d Sp a n i a r d s y i e l d e d - a n d i t w a s
o n l y t h e f i r s t i n a n e n d l e s s c h a i n o f h i g h h a n d e d a c t s o f b l a c k ma i l
.
C a b a l l e r o t o l d a n Ame r i c a n s o c i a l i s t , Sa mB a r o n , i n d e t a i l h o w s u c h
j u g g l i n g o f " a i d " s a v e d Fr a n c o f r o mw h a t mi g h t h a v e b e e n k n o c k o u t
d e f e a t s . At l e a s t t h r e e t i me s d u r i n g C a b a l l e r o ' s t e r ma s P r e mi e r - a t
Gu a d a l a j a r a , P o z o b l a n c o a n d Ar a g o n - t h e f l o w o f mu n i t i o n s w a s
a r b i t r a r i l y c u t o f f b y t h e c o mmu n i s t ma n a g e r s o f s u p p l i e s j u s t i n t i me
t o s a v e t h e f a s c i s t f o r c e s . " Ib e l i e v e t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e w a r w a s
d e l i b e r a t e , " C a b a l l e r o c h a r g e d . " Ar ms w e r e h e l d b a c k u n t i l c o m-
mu n i s t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e a r my w a s a s s u r e d . "
2
7 4
TH ERED D EC AD E
Th e P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t g o v e r n me n t w h i c h t h e c o mmu n i s t s h a d ma -
n e u v e r e d i n t o b e i n g , i t h a d b e c o me c l e a r e v e n b e f o r e t h e Fr a n c o
p u t s c h , w a s f o r t h e ms i mp l y a n o t h e r " t a c t i c , " a p i e c e o f p o l i t i c a l l e g e r -
d e ma i n . It s o o n b e c a me o b v i o u s , Ar a q u i s t a n h a s w r i t t e n , t h a t " t h e y
d i d n o t w a n t a j u s t , s a n e p o l i t i c a l p o w e r
. Th e y w a n t e d c o mp l e t e c o n -
t r o l - t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l l o t h e r p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s . . . . D e mo c r a c y w a s
o n l y o n e o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l t o o l s t o u n i t e t h e a b s o l u t e p o w e r i n t h e i r
h a n d s . . . . Af t e r t h e f i r s t t w e l v e mo n t h s o f t h e c o a l i t i o n , i t w a s c l e a r
t o e v e r y b o d y t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d P o p u l a r Fr o n t c o n c e p t i o n w a s n o t h i n g
e l s e t h a n a s i mp l e c o mmu n i s t r u s e . "
It s h o u l d b e r e c a l l e d t h a t w h e n t h e c i v i l w a r s b e g a n , i n t h e s u mme r
o f 1 9 3 6 , t h e K r e ml i n w a s i n t h e v e r y mi d s t o f i t s a mb i t i o u s " t a c t i c " o f
l i n i n g u p Fr a n c e , a n d i f p o s s i b l e B r i t a i n a n d Ame r i c a , a s a l l i e s i n t h e
e v e n t o f a Ge r ma n - Ja p a n e s e s q u e e z e o n Ru s s i a . Si mu l t a n e o u s l y i t w a s
c o n d u c t i n g s e c r e t n e g o t i a t i o n s l o o k i n g t o w a r d a p o s s i b l e p a c t w i t h
Ge r ma n y . Sp a i n , a t h o u s a n d Sp a i n s , me a n t l e s s t o St a l i n t h a n t h e
s a f e t y o f h i s o w n p o l i t i c a l h i d e
. On l y b e f u d d l e d c o mr a d e s i n Ne w
Y o r k a n d Lo s An g e l e s , P a r i s a n d Lo n d o n , t o o k t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r e -
t e n s i o n s s e r i o u s l y . Fo r St a l i n , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s d i c t a t o r s h i p c a me
f i r s t .
On c e h e h a d i n j e c t e d h i ms e l f i n t o t h e p i c t u r e , h e n e e d e d a b s o l u t e
d o mi n a t i o n a n d h e p r o c e e d e d t o t a k e t h a t , a t a n y r i s k t o t h e Lo y a l i s t
s i d e . Ar e p u b l i c a n v i c t o r y w o u l d h a v e b e e n me a n i n g l e s s t o h i m, e v e n
d a n g e r o u s , i f h i s p o l i t i c a l e n e mi e s , s y n d i c a l i s t s a n d s o c i a l i s t s - t h e o n l y
l a b o r g r o u p i n g s t h a t c o u n t e d i n Sp a i n - r e ma i n e d i n c o n t r o l . Ra t h e r
t h e h a z a r d o f a Fr a n c o Sp a i n , s o f a r a s Mo s c o w w a s c o n c e r n e d ) Mo r e -
o v e r , c o n t r o l i n Sp a i n g a v e h i mb a r g a i n i n g p o w e r w h e t h e r i n r e l a t i o n
t o H i t l e r o r t o t h e An g l o - Fr e n c h l e a d e r s .
Th e K r e ml i n h a d h e s i t a t e d f o r n e a r l y f o u r mo n t h s b e f o r e mo v i n g
a f i n g e r i n b e h a l f o f t h e Lo y a l i s t s : t h e mo s t c r u c i a l mo n t h s o f a l l i n
ma n y r e s p e c t s . Th e l e g e n d t h a t Ru s s i a h a s t e n e d b o l d l y t o t h e d e f e n s e
o f Sp a n i s h d e mo c r a c y i s a s i l l y l a t e r i n v e n t i o n . An d r e Gi d e , t h e Fr e n c h
n o v e l i s t , h a p p e n e d t o b e i n Ru s s i a d u r i n g t h o s e mo n t h s . In h i s b o o k
o n t h a t v i s i t h e t e l l s o f h i s c o n s t e r n a t i o n i n f i n d i n g Ru s s i a n s , h i g h a n d
l o w , i n d i f f e r e n t t o Sp a i n , e mb a r r a s s e d w h e n h e me n t i o n e d t h e s u b j e c t ;
t h e y h a d n o t y e t b e e n i n s t r u c t e d h o w t o t h i n k a n d f e e l o n Sp a i n .
Wh e n St a l i n f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o e n t e r , i t w a s o n t e r ms f a t a l t o
Sp a n i s h d e mo c r a c y . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , h e ma d e l i t t l e s e c r e t o f i t t h a t
n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t o t a l i t a r i a n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t r i c k e n n a t i o n w o u l d
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 7 5
s a t i s f y h i m . In t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , h e q u i c k l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e w o u l d
s t a n d f o r n o r e v o l u t i o n a r y n o n s e n s e !
St r a n g e a s t h i s ma y s o u n d t o p e o p l e w h o r e g a r d e d Ru s s i a a s " r e v o -
l u t i o n a r y , " i t s s e l f - i mp o s e d f u n c t i o n i n Sp a i n a t t h a t j u n c t u r e w a s t o
h e a d o f f a n y r e a l Le f t r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t l a n d l o r d s a n d i n d u s t r i a l i s t s .
Th e So v i e t St a t e w a s e a g e r t o d e mo n s t r a t e t o c a p i t a l i s t d e mo c r a c i e s
w h o s e f a v o r s i t w a s s e e k i n g t h a t i t h a d r e n o u n c e d i t s f o r me r r e v o l u t i o n -
a r y p o l i c i e s
. It w a s a l s o h o p i n g t o p r o mo t e t h e Sp a n i s h " d r e s s r e -
h e a r s a l " i n t o a f u l l - f l e d g e d a l l - Eu r o p e a n w a r b e t w e e n t h e Ro me -
B e r l i n Ax i s a n d t h e d e mo c r a c i e s , i t s e l f r e t r e a t i n g t o t h e s i d e l i n e s . It
c o u l d h o p e t o d o s o o n l y b y ma k i n g s u r e t h a t t h e Lo y a l i s t c a u s e d i d n o t
g e t o u t o f h a n d i n a g e n u i n e s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d f r i g h t e n o f f
Fr a n c e a n d En g l a n d
.
Fo r t h e s a me r e a s o n t h a t i n Ame r i c a a n d e v e r y w h e r e t h e c o m-
mu n i s t s h a d s u d d e n l y b e c o me o s t e n s i b l e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s
s t a t u s q u o , t h e y w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e a n a n t i - b o u r g e o i s r e v o l u t i o n i n
Sp a i n . Wi t h c o mmu n i s t a s c e n d a n c y c a me t h e o r g a n i z e d s ma s h i n g o f
f a r ma n d i n d u s t r i a l c o l l e c t i v e s , t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f w o r k e r s ' mi l i t i a s
w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f Le f t mo v e me n t s .
Th e c o mmu n i s t mu s c l i n g i n c o n s e q u e n t l y t o o k t h e f o r mo f v i o l e n t
a t t a c k a g a i n s t t h e n o n - c o mmu n i s t Le f t s . Mo r e t h a n 9 5 p e r c e n t o f
t h e o r g a n i z e d ma s s e s , a t t h e o u t s e t , w e r e u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f n o n -
c o mmu n i s t l a b o r a n d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e t h e C . N. T. a n d t h e
U
. G. T. In u n d e r t a k i n g t o d i s r u p t a n d r e mo v e t h i s l e a d e r s h i p , St a l i n
i n e f f e c t d e c l a r e d w a r o n t h e Lo y a l i s t ma s s e s . So me mi d d l e - c l a s s ,
d i l e t t a n t e a n d e v e n s e mi - f a s c i s t e l e me n t s f l o c k e d t o h i s s t a n d a r d , i f
o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e f r i g h t e n e d o f t h e d e e p e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y r u m-
b l i n g s . It i s o n e o f t h e ma j o r i r o n i e s o f o u r t i me t h a t So v i e t Ru s s i a , b y
t h e l o g i c o f i t s s e l f - i n t e r e s t s , b e c a me t h e s p e a r h e a d a n d o r g a n i z e r o f
c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n . It i s a r o l e w h i c h t h e s e l f s a me
l o g i c ma y i mp o s e o n Ru s s i a a g a i n a n d a g a i n i n t h e f u t u r e .
In c u r b i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y i mp u l s e s o f t h e ma s s e s , St a l i n d i d
mo r e f o r Fr a n c o t h a n H i t l e r a n d Mu s s o l i n i c o mb i n e d
. So me t h i n g
mo r e t h a n a n i n e r t c o n s c r i p t e d a r my w a s n e e d e d i f t h e s u p e r i o r mi l i -
t a r y f o r c e s o f t h e f a s c i s t s w e r e t o b e o v e r c o me . Th e b o u n d l e s s z e a l o f
mi l l i o n s o f s i mp l e me n a n d w o me n h a d t o b e g a l v a n i z e d i n t o h e r o i c
a c t i o n , i n t o a d o - o r - d i e g u e r r i l l a s p i r i t , i n t o t h e k i n d o f r o ma n t i c a n d
d e s p e r a t e r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h , b a c k i n 1 9 1 8 - 2 1 , e n a b l e d t h e Ru s s i a n s t o
d e f e a t i mme n s e a r mi e s i n t h e c i v i l w a r s o f t h o s e y e a r s . Th a t s p i r i t w a s
2
7
6
TH ERED D EC AD E
c h o k e d o f f v i o l e n t l y b y t h e St a l i n i s t d i c t a t o r s h i p . Th e c o mmu n i s t r o l e
w a s t o s q u e l c h t h e a r d o r , j a i l a n d mu r d e r t h e p e o p l e ' s t r u s t e d l e a d e r s ,
a n d g i v e t h e Lo y a l i s t s a c h o i c e o n l y b e t w e e n a Sp a i n u n d e r Fr a n c o a n d
a Sp a i n u n d e r St a l i n .
Ru s s i a p o s s e s s e d t h e r e s o u r c e s t o e n a b l e t h e Lo y a l i s t s t o ma k e
s h o r t w o r k o f t h e r e b e l s , h a d i t s o d e s i r e d . B u t i t w o u l d t a k e n o
c h a n c e s o f o f f e n d i n g t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s i n Fr a n c e a n d En g l a n d . Ne i t h e r
w o u l d i t r i s k b r e a k i n g i r r e t r i e v a b l y w i t h It a l y a n d Ge r ma n y . Al l
t h r o u g h t h e Sp a n i s h w a r s Ru s s i a n o i l , b y w a y o f It a l y , h e l p e d t o f u e l
Fr a n c o ' s p l a n e s a n d t a n k s . So me Sp a n i a r d s e v e n i n s i s t t h a t St a l i n
s o u g h t t o ma k e a d e a l w i t h H i t l e r a t Sp a i n ' s e x p e n s e , b u t t h a t H i t l e r
w a s n o t y e t r e a d y t o p l a y t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a r d ; i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s u b s e -
q u e n t So v i e t - Na z i a l l i a n c e t h e s e c h a r g e s n o l o n g e r s o u n d a s f a r f e t c h e d
a s t h e y o n c e d i d . H o w e v e r t h a t ma y b e , St a l i n c e r t a i n l y w a s c a r r y i n g
o u t a d e v i o u s a n d c o mp l i c a t e d p o l i c y - w i t h t h e f a t e o f " Sp a n i s h d e -
mo c r a c y " t h e l e a s t o f h i s c o n c e r n s .
Ju s t a s i t h a d c o n t i n u e d t o s e l l o i l a n d g r a i n t o It a l y w h i l e p r e t e n d -
i n g t o o p p o s e t h e Et h i o p i a n a g g r e s s i o n , s o Mo s c o w n o w r e s t r a i n e d
t h e Lo y a l i s t s w h i l e p r e t e n d i n g t o h e l p t h e m . Fi r s t St a l i n w a n t e d t o
ma k e s u r e t h a t h e r u l e d t h e r o o s t - a n d t h a t h e h a d t h e b l e s s i n g s o f
An g l o - Fr e n c h l e a d e r s . H e ma n e u v e r e d , p l a y e d a c a t - a n d - mo u s e g a me ,
d o l e d o u t s u p p l i e s w h e r e t h e y w o u l d h e l p e n t r e n c h c o mmu n i s t s . P e r -
h a p s h e h o p e d f o r t h e u l t i ma t e d e f e a t o f Fr a n c o - b u t o n l y i f h e
w e r e c e r t a i n Sp a i n w o u l d t h e n f a l l s u p i n e l y i n t o Ru s s i a ' s l a p .
3
Th e me t h o d s w h e r e b y Mo s c o w h i j a c k e d c o n t r o l o f Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n
p r o v i d e s o me o f t h e g r i mme s t a n d b l o o d i e s t p a g e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s
e p o c h , w h i c h i s s a y i n g a l o t . On D e c e mb e r 1 7 , 1 9 3 6 , o n l y t w o mo n t h s
a f t e r t h e K r e ml i n h a d s o l d i t s f i r s t a r ma me n t s t o Sp a i n , t h e Mo s c o w
P r a v d a w r o t e e d i t o r i a l l y :
As f o r C a t a l o n i a , t h e p u r g i n g o f t h e Tr o t s k y i t e s a n d t h e a n a r c h o -
s y n d i c a l i s t s h a s b e g u n . It w i l l b e c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e s a me e n e r g y w i t h
w h i c h i t w a s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e U. S. S. R.
Th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s s t a t e me n t c a n n o t b e o v e r e mp h a s i z e d . Al r e a d y
Ru s s i a w a s s p e a k i n g o f Sp a i n a s t h o u g h i t w e r e j u s t a n o t h e r So v i e t
p r o v i n c e l
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 7 7
Th e Sp a n i s h c o mmu n i s t s c l a i me d o n l y s o me 1 0 , 0 0 0 me mb e r s w h e n
t h e w a r s t a r t e d , c o mp a r e d w i t h mi l l i o n s o r g a n i z e d i n o t h e r l a b o r a n d
r a d i c a l g r o u p s . Th e y h a d o n l y o n e d e p u t y i n t h e f i r s t Re p u b l i c a n
C o r t e s , o n l y a d o z e n o u t o f 5 0 i n t h e l a s t C o r t e s j u s t b e f o r e w a r b r o k e
o u t - a n d t h o s e t h r o u g h a d e a l , a s a g i f t , a n d n o t o n t h e b a s i s o f v o t i n g
s t r e n g t h . Y e t St a l i n h a d t h e g a l l t o t h r e a t e n p u r g e s !
Wh a t i s mo r e , h e c a r r i e d t h e mt h r o u g h " w i t h t h e s a me e n e r g y
w i t h w h i c h i t w a s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e U. S. S. R. " H i s a g e n t s mo v e d i n
a n d d i d t h e i r s t u f f . Th e y u s e d t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e t r i c k l e o f So v i e t
s u p p l i e s , a n d b e y o n d t h a t t h e y u s e d o r d i n a r y g a n g s t e r me t h o d s
.
St a l i n i s t a g e n t s b y t h e t h o u s a n d d e s c e n d e d o n b l e e d i n g a n d p r o s t r a t e
Sp a i n f r o ma l l d i r e c t i o n s , b u t c h i e f l y f r o mRu s s i a . Th e y d e l i b e r a t e l y
b a t t e r e d d o w n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f Sp a n i s h l a b o r , o u s t e d a n d mu r -
d e r e d l e a d e r s w h o mt h e y c o u l d n o t f l a t t e r o r b u y i n t o s t o o g i n g , a n d
s t a r t e d a n o p e n a n d s e c r e t t e r r o r t h a t d i d a s mu c h d a ma g e t o t h e
Lo y a l i s t s a s Fr a n c o h i ms e l f .
Th e c o mmu n i s t s d e v e l o p e d a n e x t r a l e g a l G. P . U. , t h e i r o w n s e c r e t
p r i s o n s , o f f - r e c o r d t r i b u n a l s , t o r t u r e c h a mb e r s a n d e x e c u t i o n s q u a d s .
An t i - f a s c i s t l e a d e r s r e f u s i n g o b e d i e n c e t o St a l i n w e r e c o r n e r e d a n d
mu r d e r e d . Sc u me l e me n t s w e r e mo b i l i z e d a n d s u b s i d i z e d f o r s p e c i a l
t a s k s - n o t a g a i n s t t h e f a s c i s t s b u t a g a i n s t s o c i a l i s t s , a n a r c h i s t s a n d
o t h e r r a d i c a l s . Ev e n f r o mf a r - o f f C u b a t h e s e c r e t C h e k a i mp o r t e d
g a n g s t e r s , b r o t h e l - t o u g h s , p a s s p o r t f o r g e r s , p a t h o l o g i c a l s a d i s t s , a c -
c o r d i n g t o r e v e l a t i o n s i n C u b a n l a b o r p a p e r s . ( Ni c e l a d i e s o n P a r k
Av e n u e a n d mo v i e q u e e n s i n H o l l y w o o d c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r h o me s
a n d t h e i r mo n e y t o f i n a n c e t h i s n o b l e w o r k . . . . )
In s h o r t , t w e n t y y e a r s o f Ru s s i a n p r a c t i c e i n t e r r o r i s mw e r e v i s i t e d
u p o n t h e Sp a n i s h l a b o r a n d r e p u b l i c a n mo v e me n t s . Th o s e w h o t a l k e d
o u t o f t u r n , Sp a n i a r d s o r f o r e i g n e r s , w e r e i mp r i s o n e d a n d i n h u n d r e d s
o f i n s t a n c e s a s s a s s i n a t e d . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e w e r e f a n a t i c c o mmu n i s t s
a mo n g t h e s e i n t r u d e r s , b u t t h e y d r e w t o t h e ms e l v e s a d v e n t u r e r s a n d
c a r e e r i s t s o f e v e r y v a r i e t y . Th e y h a d t h e j a mp o t s o f p o w e r a n d mo n e y
a n d t h e i n s e c t s f l o c k e d t o t h e m . ( Th e s e c r e t G. P . U: s i n Ma d r i d ,
To l e d o a n d o t h e r c e n t e r s , i t d e v e l o p e d a t o n e p o i n t , w e r e d o i n g a l u -
c r a t i v e t r a d e o n t h e s i d e i n r e l e a s i n g f a s c i s t s f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . )
C a b a l l e r o w a s a t h o r n i n t h e s i d e o f t h e c o mmu n i s t i n v a d e r s
. As
e a r l y a s Ja n u a r y o f 1 9 3 7 t h e " b u i l d - u p " o f t h e o b s c u r e p r o f e s s o r , D r .
Ne g r i n , h a d b e g u n . In Ma y t h e c o mmu n i s t s g o a d e d t h e B a r c e l o n a
w o r k e r s i n t o a d e s p e r a t e a n t i - c o mmu n i s t r e v o l t a n d d r o w n e d i t i n
2
7
8 TH ERED D EC AD E
b l o o d t o s e r v e a s t h e r e a d y - ma d e a l i b i f o r e l i mi n a t i n g t h e w o r k e r s '
l e a d e r s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s
. Wh e n C a b a l l e r o r e f u s e d t o o u t l a w a n t i -
c o mmu n i s t l a b o r g r o u p i n g s , h i s f a t e w a s s e a l e d . " Th e r e i s n o r e a s o n
w h a t s o e v e r t o d i s s o l v e a l e g a l Sp a n i s h w o r k e r s ' p a r t y , " h e p r o t e s t e d .
An d t h e s o c i a l i s t Ad e l a n t e o f Va l e n c i a w r o t e ( Ma y 1 1 , 1 9 3 7 ) :
" A
g o v e r n me n t c o mp o s e d i n i t s ma j o r i t y o f p e o p l e f r o mt h e l a b o r mo v e -
me n t c a n n o t u s e me t h o d s r e s e r v e d f o r r e a c t i o n a r y a n d f a s c i s t - l i k e
g o v e r n me n t s . "
Tw o mo n t h s l a t e r Lo u i s Fi s c h e r , w h o s e v i e w s n o r ma l l y r e f l e c t e d
o f f i c i a l St a l i n i s t v i e w s , w i r e d t o t h e Na t i o n : " An a r c h i s t s a r e b e i n g e l i mi -
n a t e d a s a n a c t i v e f a c t o r . Th e C a b a l l e r o s o c i a l i s t s , i f t h e y p e r s i s t i n
t h e i r p r e s e n t t a c t i c s , ma y b e o u t l a w e d w i t h i n f i v e mo n t h s . " Na t i o n
r e a d e r s w e r e n o t i n f o r me d t h a t t h i s me a n t t h e p u r g i n g o f a n o v e r -
w h e l mi n g ma j o r i t y b y a t i n y mi n o r i t y w h i c h w a s s e i z i n g c o n t r o l b y
v i o l e n c e a n d t r i c k e r y .
It w a s C a b a l l e r o ' s r e f u s a l t o t u r n o v e r c o n t r o l o f t h e mi l i t a r y ma -
c h i n e r y t o Mo s c o w ' s h e n c h me n w h i c h w a s t h e i mme d i a t e c a u s e o f h i s
e x p u l s i o n . At a me e t i n g o f h i s f r i e n d s i n Ma d r i d h e t h u n d e r e d , " Th e y
d e ma n d t h a t It u r n o v e r t h e Mi n i s t r y o f Wa r t o t h e c o mmu n i s t s , w i t h
w h i c h t h e y s h a l l d o a s t h e y p l e a s e . Ne v e r , n e v e r , n e v e r ! " Th e " n e v e r s "
d i d n o g o o d . H e w a s f o r c e d o u t a n d D r . Ne g r i n w a s i n s t a l l e d i n h i s
p l a c e . Fr o mt h a t d a y t o t h e e n d St a l i n w a s b o s s .
Th e " l i b e r a l " a n d " a n t i - f a s c i s t " p r e s s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e w o r l d
o v e r o b e d i e n t l y a t t a c k e d C a b a l l e r o , t h e s y n d i c a l i s t s , a n y o n e w h o m
t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a ma t e u r f i n g e r - me n p o i n t e d o u t . A" u n i f i e d c o m-
ma n d " w a s i mp o s e d - n o t t h e u n i f i e d c o mma n d r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l f a c -
t i o n s w h i c h e v e r y o n e f a v o r e d , b u t a s i n g l e a l l - St a l i n i s t g e n e r a l s h i p
.
Of f i c e r s w h o d e mu r r e d w e r e d e p r i v e d o f a r ms
. Lo c a l n e w s p a p e r e d i -
t o r s w e r e i mp r i s o n e d i f t h e y r e f u s e d t o c o l o r t h e n e w s t o ma t c h t h e
c o mmu n i s t l i n e
. On l y t r u s t e d c o mmu n i s t s w e r e a s s i g n e d a s " p o l i t i c a l
c o mmi s s a r s " a t t h e f i g h t i n g f r o n t s , w h i c h me a n t t h a t " u n d e s i r a b l e "
s o l d i e r s a n d o f f i c e r s b y t h e h u n d r e d w e r e s o o n b e i n g l i q u i d a t e d o r
p u t i n t h e mo s t d a n g e r o u s a n d e x p o s e d p o s i t i o n s . Th e v o l u n t e e r s y s -
t e mw a s a b o l i s h e d i n f a v o r o f a " d i s c i p l i n e d " c o n s c r i p t a r my . En t h u s i -
a s mw a s d i s p l a c e d b y w h i p s a n d f i r i n g s q u a d s .
As e mb l a n c e o f c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n me n t r e ma i n e d , o f c o u r s e , a s a
p o l i t i c a l s t r a t a g e m
. B u t t h e k e y p o s t s - e s p e c i a l l y c o n t r o l o f t h e p r e s s ,
t h e a r my , c e n s o r s h i p , c o mmu n i c a t i o n s - w e r e h e l d f i r ml y b y St a l i n ' s
a g e n t s a n d t h o s e w h o , f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , p l a y e d w i t h t h e m
. La t e i n
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 7 9
1 9 3 8 t h e p a t h e t i c P r e s i d e n t Az a n a t r i e d t o b r e a k t h e G . P . U . t h r o t t l e
h o l d o n h i s c o u n t r y b y d i s mi s s i n g Ne g r i n . H e f a i l e d . Ne g r i n t h r e a t -
e n e d t o p u t h i ms e l f a t t h e h e a d o f c o mmu n i s t d i v i s i o n s t o f i g h t t h e
o u s t e r , a n d Az a n a y i e l d e d .
In t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , t h e s i mp l i f i e d b l a c k - a n d - r e d p a t t e r n w a s i m-
p o s e d o n t h e f a i t h f u l
. Th e St a l i n i s t o v e r l o r d s h i p w a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e
g l o w i n g c o l o r s o f a " d e f e n s e o f d e mo c r a c y . " Na i v e o r c y n i c a l f o r e i g n -
e r s , i n c l u d i n g a b a t c h o f Ame r i c a n s , p i t c h e d i n t o r e i n f o r c e t h e d e c e p -
t i o n f r o mMa d r i d a n d B a r c e l o n a , e v e n a s t h e i r k i n d h a d d o n e f o r
y e a r s f r o mMo s c o w
. So me o f t h e m, i n f a c t , w e r e me r e l y c o n t i n u i n g
i n Sp a i n t h e v o l u n t e e r p r e s s - a g e n t i n g j o b s s t a r t e d i n Ru s s i a .
As e a r l y a s Se p t e mb e r , 1 9 3 7 , a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f So v i e t " C h e k i s t "
me t h o d s b e h i n d t h e Lo y a l i s t l i n e s w a s o f f e r e d t o t h e Ame r i c a n p u b l i c
b y An i t a B r e n n e r i n a l o n g d o c u me n t e d s t u d y i n t h e Mo d e r n Q u a r -
t e r l y
. No o n e p a i d a n y a t t e n t i o n - t h e l i b e r a l s a n d c a v i a r c o mmu n i s t s
w e r e t o o b u s y p o u r i n g c o c k t a i l s a n d d a n c i n g " f o r Sp a i n " t o k n o w o r
t o c a r e . Th e s p e c t a c l e w a s g h a s t l y . Me n w h o w e n t t o Sp a i n f o r t h e
C o mmu n i s t P a r t y b u t c o u l d n o t " t a k e " t h e St a l i n i s t h o r r o r s t r i e d d e s -
p e r a t e l y , o n g e t t i n g b a c k h e r e , t o l e t t h e d e l u d e d o n e s k n o w - t h e y
w e r e o n l y t o l d o f f a s " f a s c i s t s p i e s " f o r t h e i r p a i n s .
Wi t h e v e r y mo n t h o f c o mmu n i s t d o mi n a t i o n t h e c h a n c e s o f a
Lo y a l i s t v i c t o r y r e c e d e d . P o p u l a r h a t r e d f o r t h e c o mmu n i s t ma s t e r s
c o u l d n o mo r e e x p r e s s i t s e l f i n Sp a i n t h a n i n Ru s s i a . On l y i n t h e
l a s t c a t a s t r o p h i c w e e k s , w h e n t h e r o t t e n s t r u c t u r e b e g a n t o c o l l a p s e
a n d t h e So v i e t b i g s h o t s f l e d i n s h a me l e s s p a n i c , d i d t h e r e p r e s s e d
h a t r e d s b u r s t t o t h e s u r f a c e . Ev e n Fi s c h e r w a s o b l i g e d t o c a b l e t o t h e
Na t i o n ( Ma r c h 1 3 , 1 9 3 9 ) t h a t "
a p o w e r f u l h a t r e d o f c o mmu n i s mh a d
d e v e l o p e d i n Sp a i n " a n d t h a t " t h e c o mmu n i s t s ma d e ma n y e n e mi e s b y
t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g a t t e mp t s
. . . t o c o n t r o l i mp o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . "
B e l a t e d t h o u g h t h i s a d mi s s i o n ma y h a v e b e e n , c o mi n g f r o ma
St a l i n i s t i t g a v e a h i n t o f t h e t r u t h s o l o n g s u p p r e s s e d . As Ir v i n g
P f l a u mp u t i t , " Wh e n Ge n e r a l Jo s e Mi a j a e a r l y i n Ma r c h t u r n e d h i s
g u n s a g a i n s t t h e c o mmu n i s t s i n t h e Ma d r i d a r e a , t h e d e e p c o n t r a d i c -
t i o n b e t w e e n Sp a i n a n d i t s Ru s s i a n s a v i o r s b e c a me o b v i o u s t o t h e
w o r l d : '
Un f o r t u n a t e l y i t b e c a me o b v i o u s t o o n l y a f e w i n t h e w o r l d . Th o u -
s a n d s o f Ame r i c a n s h a v e s t i l l t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y w e r e c o - o p e r a t i n g
w i t h t h e b e t r a y e r s o f Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n u n d e r t h e t r a g i c d e l u s i o n t h a t t h e y
w e r e h e l p i n g Sp a n i s h d e mo c r a c y . Wi t h t h e i n t o l e r a n c e o f n e w c o n -
2 8 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
v e r t s , t h e y h a d s t o n e d t h o s e w h o t r i e d t o s a v e t h e mf r o mt h e i r f o l l y
.
4
Re f e r r i n g t o Sp a n i a r d s r a t h e r t h a n f o r e i g n e r s , Lu i s Ar i q u i s t a n l a t e r
w r o t e :
Imu s t me n t i o n a n i mp o r t a n t g r o u p w h i c h p a r t l y i n n o c e n t l y c o n -
t r i b u t e d t o o u r d o w n f a l l . Ia ms p e a k i n g n o w o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " c o m-
mu n i s t s y mp a t h i z e r s , " t h e f e l l o w t r a v e l e r s w h o w e r e s o a c t i v e i n g i v i n g
t h e Sp a n i s h c o mmu n i s t s t h e p o w e r a n d i n f l u e n c e t h e y a c t u a l l y
h a d . . . .
Th e y w e r e a s t o n i s h i n g l y n u me r o u s a mo n g o u r b o u r g e o i s i e
w h e r e t h e y f o r me d l a r g e a n d i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p s
. Wr i t e r s , j o u r n a l i s t s ,
a r t i s t s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . . . . Ia mme n t i o n i n g t h e u n h a p p y p a r t t h i s
g r o u p p l a y e d i n Sp a i n b e c a u s e Ih a p p e n t o k n o w t h e g r e a t i n f l u e n c e
s i mi l a r g r o u p s a r e e x e r t i n g i n Fr a n c e , En g l a n d a n d t h e U . S. A. On e o f
t h e r e a s o n s w h y Ia mg i v i n g t h i s r e s u me o f Sp a n i s h e x p e r i e n c e s i s t o
t e a c h t h e mt h i s l e s s o n . *
It w a s p r e c i s e l y a mo n g s u c h p e o p l e t h a t t h e " Sp a n i s h a i d " r a c k e t s
h a d t h e i r g l o r i o u s s u c c e s s . In e v e r y l a r g e Ame r i c a n c i t y t h e c o mmu n i s t -
c o n t r o l l e d c o mmi t t e e s f o r Sp a i n r a k e d i n f o r t u n e s i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s
t h a t w e n t t o f e r t i l i z e c o mmu n i s t a c t i v i t i e s h e r e a n d a b r o a d
. Th e i n n o -
c e n t s r e l i s h e d t h e t h r i l l o f b e i n g f l e e c e d a n d r e s i s t e d e v e r y e f f o r t t o d i s -
c l o s e c o mmu n i s t c o n t r o l o r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h e
mi l l i o n s f l o w i n g i n t o St a l i n i s t c o f f e r s . t
* Ne w Le a d e r , Ju n e 3 , 1 9 3 9 .
1 In a r e p o r t i s s u e d i n Ap r i l , 1 9 4 0 , t h e C o mmi t t e e f o r C u l t u r a l Fr e e d o mo f f e r e d
t h e f o l l o w i n g s k e t c h o f c o mmu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d Sp a n i s h r e l i e f o r g a n i z a t i o n s : " Th e
o r i g i n a l c o mmu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s t h e Me d i c a l B u r e a u t o Ai d Sp a n i s h
D e mo c r a c y . Th e r e f o l l o w e d Th e No r t h Ame r i c a n C o mmi t t e e t o Ai d Sp a n i s h D e mo c -
r a c y . In 1 9 3 8 t h e t w o w e r e me r g e d a n d r e n a me d , Me d i c a l B u r e a u a n d No r t h Ame r i -
c a n C o mmi t t e e t o Ai d Sp a n i s h D e mo c r a c y , i n t o w h i c h w a s l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d Th e
Ame r i c a n Fr i e n d s o f Sp a n i s h D e mo c r a c y . Af t e r t h e c i v i l w a r h a d e n d e d , i n Ap r i l ,
1 9 3 9 , a n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s f o r me d , Th e Sp a n i s h Re f u g e e Re l i e f C a mp a i g n , f r o m
w h i c h So c i a l i s t a n d C o mmu n i s t P a r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e r e a s k e d t o d r o p o u t . Ac r i s i s
w a s p r e c i p i t a t e d w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Ma r c h , 1 9 4 0 , w h e n u n a u t h o r i z e d s t a t e -
me n t s w e r e i s s u e d f r o mt h e C a mp a i g n o f f i c e s a n d w h e n , t o p r o t e s t a f o r g e d g o v e r n -
me n t ` d e c r e e , ' c o mmu n i s t me mb e r s o r d e r e d t h e p i c k e t i n g o f t h e Fr e n c h C o n s u l a t e .
Th e c h a i r ma n , Fr a n c i s J . Mc C o n n e l l , a n d t h e s e c r e t a r y , H e r ma n F . Re i s s i g , d i s a s s o c i -
a t e d t h e Sp a n i s h Re f u g e e Re l i e f C a mp a i g n f r o ma l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e mo n s t r a -
t i o n a n d w r e s t e d t h e n a t i o n a l b o d y f r o mc o n t r o l o f t h e c o mmu n i s t s
. Th e Ne w Y o r k
s e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , r e ma i n e d i n c o mmu n i s t h a n d s a n d w a s t e mp o r a r i l y c a l l e d Th e
Eme r g e n c y C o n f e r e n c e t o Sa v e Sp a n i s h Re f u g e e s . It s ` p e r ma n e n t ' n a me i s n o w Th e
No r t h Ame r i c a n Sp a n i s h Ai d C o mmi t t e e . Ov e r n i g h t t h e r e s p r u n g u p D o r o t h y
P a r k e r ' s Sp a n i s h C h i l d r e n ' s Re l i e f Fu n d , w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s i n t h e o f f i c e s o f Th e
No r t h Ame r i c a n Sp a n i s h Ai d C o mmi t t e e . "
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 8 1
No o n e h a s e s t i ma t e d h o w ma n y " Sp a n i s h c a u s e " p a r t i e s t o o k
p l a c e d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s , b u t w i t h o u t d o u b t t h e y c a me t o t e n s o f
t h o u s a n d s . C o c k t a i l p a r t i e s , b r i d g e a n d r o u l e t t e s e s s i o n s , g a r d e n a n d
s w i mmi n g p o o l p a r t i e s , t h e a t r e b e n e f i t s , r a f f l e s , s t r e e t c o l l e c t i o n s , ma s s
me e t i n g s , l i t t l e p r i v a t e d i n n e r s a t a h u n d r e d d o l l a r s a p l a t e , d a n s a n t s ,
mu s i c a l e s - w i t h a c o mmu n i s t t r u s t y a l w a y s o n h a n d t o c a r r y o f f t h e
" t a k e . " Th e r e w e r e c o c k t a i l p a r t i e s i n p e n t h o u s e s a n d a r i s t o c r a t i c
ma n s i o n s , a n d f i f t y - c e n t - a d mi s s i o n e v e n i n g s i n mi d d l e - c l a s s f l a t s
.
Th e w h o l e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u mp t i o n - t h a t Lo y a l i s t Sp a i n n e e d e d
c a s h - w a s a f a k e t o b e g i n w i t h . Sp a i n n e e d e d t h e r i g h t t o i mp o r t a r ms
a n d s u p p l i e s a c r o s s e mb a r g o b a r r i e r s , b u t i t h a d p l e n t y o f mo n e y
.
Sp a n i s h c r e d i t s i n v a s t a mo u n t s w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n Fr a n c e a t t h e d i s p o s a l
o f t h e Lo y a l i s t l e a d e r s
. Av a s t g o l d h o r d e w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o Ru s s i a -
mo r e t h a n h a l f a b i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s t h e e s t i ma t e g i v e n b y Lo y a l i s t l e a d e r s
l i k e Ar a q u i s t a n a n d c o n f i r me d b y f o r me r So v i e t a g e n t s l i k e K r i v i t s k y .
Fr o ma l l i n d i c a t i o n s t h e g o l d h a s r e ma i n e d t h e r e a s St a l i n ' s l o o t
. On l y
mi n u t e d r i b b l e s o f t h e mi l l i o n s g a t h e r e d i n b y t h e St a l i n i s t c o mmi t -
t e e s e v e r r e a c h e d Sp a i n . Ev e n t h e p o r t i o n w h i c h w a s t r a n s f e r r e d
a b r o a d me r e l y w e n t i n t o t h e c e n t r a l t r e a s u r i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m-
mu n i s t c o mmi t t e e s . Th e f u n d s s e r v e d t o s u p p o r t b e v i e s o f c o mmu n i s t
b u r e a u c r a t s a n d t o p a y f o r t h e c o s t s o f h o a x i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s . Th e
f u n d - r a i s i n g a l s o p r o v i d e d a t e c h n i q u e f o r p e p p i n g u p t h e n e w l y f a i t h -
f u l a n d e x p a n d i n g t h e w h o l e i n c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n .
Ou t o f c u r i o s i t y Ia t t e n d e d a n u mb e r o f t h e Sp a n i s h f u n d - r a i s i n g
p a r t i e s . On e o f t h e mw a s i n a s w a n k y ma n s i o n o n Ma n h a t t a n ' s f a s h -
i o n a b l e Ea s t Ri v e r f r i n g e . Al l t h e g u e s t s w e r e i n d r e s s c l o t h e s a n d
t h e r e w a s a s h i mme r o f j e w e l s . Fo u r f l o o r s w e r e j a mme d w i t h Ne w
Y o r k ' s s o c i a l a n d l i t e r a r y e l i t e , s p i n n i n g t h e r o u l e t t e w h e e l s , p l a y i n g
b l a c k j a c k , s h o o t i n g c r a p s , b u y i n g d r i n k s , p l a y i n g b r i d g e , r a f f l i n g o f f
t r i n k e t s . . . t h e h o u s e t a k i n g a g e n e r o u s c u t f o r t h e c a u s e a n d a f e w
c o mr a d e s o n h a n d t o t a k e o v e r t h e p r o c e e d s . Ag o o d t i me w a s h a d b y
a l l d e s p i t e s o me o b s t r e p e r o u s d r u n k s . In a We s t Si d e a p a r t me n t t h e
p r i c e s w e r e c h e a p e r , t h e g u e s t s i n mu f t i , b u t t h e t e mp e r w a s n o l e s s
b i z a r r e . Ag r e a t c r o w d d a n c e d t o t h e r a d i o , d r a n k b a d p u n c h a t a
q u a r t e r a t h r o w , ma d e l o v e i n c o r n e r s - a l l f o r t h e Lo y a l i s t s .
Mu l t i p l y t h e s e a n d e n d l e s s o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f c a u s e g a t h e r i n g s a
t h o u s a n d f o l d a n d y o u h a v e s o me n o t i o n o f h o w t h e r a c k e t p r o s p e r e d
d u r i n g a n y w e e k e n d s t r a i g h t a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . It p r o s p e r e d s o w e l l ,
i n d e e d , t h a t t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y i s s u e d ma n u a l s t o g u i d e i t s a r my
2 8 2
TH ERED D EC AD E
o f c o l l e c t o r s
. Ih a v e o n e o f t h o s e b e f o r e me a s Iw r i t e
: Gi v e a P a r t y f o r
t h e P ARTY i t i s c a l l e d , a n d i t i s i n s c r i b e d " Is s u e d b y Ne w Y o r k St a t e
C o mmi t t e e , C o mmu n i s t P a r t y
. " Th e c a u s e s f o r w h i c h t h e s e g a t h e r -
i n g s w e r e g i v e n mi g h t b e g r i me n o u g h - c i v i l c o n f l i c t i n Sp a i n , t h e
s u f f e r i n g s o f s h a r e c r o p p e r s , t h e d y i n g C h i n e s e - b u t t h e p a mp h l e t i s
g a y a n d b l i t h e
. Th e c o v e r c a r t o o n , b y A . Re d f i e l d , s h o w s a p a i r o f
d i c e p r a n c i n g , y o u n g p e o p l e i n t h e t h r o e s o f t h e B i g Ap p l e , a j a z z
b a n d i n f u l l b l a s t
. Th e c o n t e n t s a r e i n t h e s a me c h a r a c t e r .
Q
Fu n a n d f r o l i c f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n , b o y s
. " H a v e a ` g u e s t b o o k ' t o
r e g i s t e r n a me s a n d a d d r e s s e s
. Th i s ma k e s a ma i l i n g l i s t a f t e r w a r d s , "
t h e ma n u a l i n s t r u c t s
. " Fo r e n t e r t a i n me n t c a l l t h e P a r t y En t e r t a i n -
me n t C o mmi t t e e s . . . . "
" Ad d r e f r e s h me n t s , d a n c i n g , mi x w e l l a n d
d i s h o u t ! " " Fo r b e e r p a r t i e s , c o mr a d e s , r e me mb e r t h a t p o u r i n g i n
t h e mi d d l e g i v e s mo r e f o a ma n d l e s s l i q u i d - s t r e t c h e s e a c h b a r r e l
f u r t h e r
. " Fo r t h e l u c r a t i v e g a me o f D e f i n i t i o n s , " Ge t a c o p y o f Li s
f o r La b o r b y Le a n e Z u g s mi t h , i s s u e d b y t h e Le a g u e o f Wo me n Sh o p -
p e r s
. " Al s o , c o mr a d e s , " D o n ' t f o r g e t p e r i o d i c a l s a n d s u b s c r i p t i o n s f o r
t h e m
. St a t e o f Af f a i r s , D a i l y a n d Su n d a y Wo r k e r , Ne w Ma s s e s , H e a l t h
a n d H y g i e n e , C h i n a To d a y , Mo s c o w Ne w s , Sc i e n c e a n d So c i e t y
u a r t e r l y , Th e C o mmu n i s t , e t c . "
Lo y a l i s t w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s w e r e d y i n g b y t h e h u n d r e d t h o u -
s a n d . G. P . U
. s q u a d s w e r e " l i q u i d a t i n g " s o c i a l i s t s a n d s y n d i c a l i s t s a n d
j u s t p e o p l e
. B a r c e l o n a a n d Ma d r i d w e r e b e i n g b o mb e d o u t o f s h a p e
.
Wh a t b e t t e r e x c u s e f o r d o w a g e r s a n d s i mp l e H a u s f r a u s t o g i v e g a y
p a r t i e s ? Th e l u n a c y w e n t o n mo n t h a f t e r mo n t h , y e a r a f t e r y e a r
. Ev e n
a f t e r t h e c o l l a p s e , t h e r a c k e t w a s n o t c a l l e d o f f
. No w t h e r e f u g e e s b e -
c a me t h e f o c u s o f f u n d - r a i s i n g e n t e r p r i s e
. On e o f t h e f i v e h u n d r e d
mi l l i o n s i n g o l d p u r l o i n e d b y t h e So v i e t s f r o mSp a i n mi g h t s o l v e t h e
p r o b l e m
. B u t Ru s s i a w a s n o t a d mi t t i n g e v e n t h e v o l u n t e e r s i t h a d
i t s e l f l u r e d i n t o u n i f o r m! At t h i s w r i t i n g St a l i n i s t c o mmi t t e e s a r e s t i l l
g a t h e r i n g i n s h e k e l s u n d e r p r o mi s e t o p l a c e Sp a n i s h r e f u g e e s i n
Me x i c o , i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s - e v e r y w h e r e b u t i n Ru s s i a , w h i c h w i l l h a v e
n o n e o f t h e mn o w t h e y h a v e b e e n u s e d a n d d i s c a r d e d
.
Fa t u o u s Ame r i c a n l i b e r a l s w o r k e d w i t h t h e p a r t y s t a l w a r t s t o r e -
c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s f o r t h e c o mmu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d f o r e i g n a r mi e s i n Sp a i n
.
Th e y g o t t h e t h r i l l o f s a f e v i c a r i o u s h e r o i s mb y s e n d i n g h i g h - s p i r i t e d ,
i d e a l i s t i c b o y s t o t h e i r d e a t h s
. Of t h e t h o u s a n d s r e c r u i t e d h e r e , n o t
mo r e t h a n h a l f r e t u r n e d
. Mo s t o f t h e md i e d i n b a t t l e , t h e r e s t d i e d a t
t h e h a n d s o f St a l i n ' s f i r i n g s q u a d s
. Th o s e w h o e n l i s t e d f o r d e f i n i t e
C OC K TAILSFORSP ANISH D EMOC RAC Y

2 8 3
p e r i o d s , u s u a l l y s i x mo n t h s , w e r e n o t a l l o w e d t o l e a v e w h e n t h e t e r m
e n d e d . Al l Ame r i c a n p a s s p o r t s w e r e c o n f i s c a t e d a n d a r e e v e n n o w
b e i n g u s e d b y So v i e t e s p i o n a g e o p e r a t i v e s a l l o v e r t h e g l o b e .
H u n d r e d s w h o w e r e q u i c k l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d a n d d a r e d t o i n d i c a t e i t
w e r e " l i q u i d a t e d " o r me r e l y s e n t t o s p o t s w h e r e t h e i r l i q u i d a t i o n b y
Fr a n c o w a s c e r t a i n . No t a f r a c t i o n o f t h e u g l y s t o r y h a s a s y e t b e e n
t o l d . In l i n e w i t h t h e Fo u r t h P e r i o d t e c h n i q u e , t h e St a l i n i s t v o l u n -
t e e r s w e r e c a mo u f l a g e d w i t h n a me s l i k e Ab r a h a mLi n c o l n B r i g a d e - o n e
c a n s e e St a l i n s mi l i n g t h r o u g h h i s mu s t a c h e s a t t h e c y n i c a l t r i c k .
D o z e n s o f t h e s e b o y s , h a v i n g b e e n a l i e n r e s i d e n t s i n Ame r i c a a t t h e
t i me t h e y j o i n e d t h e B r i g a d e , c o u l d n o t r e t u r n a n d a r e s t i l l l a n g u i s h -
i n g i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a mp s . Th e s u r v i v o r s w h o g o t b a c k , p e n n i l e s s ,
o f t e n c r i p p l e d , w e r e h e l p l e s s ; t h r o u g h e c o n o mi c p r e s s u r e ma n y o f
t h e mc o n t i n u e d t o p l a y t h e r o l e s o f h e r o e s f o r t h e c o mr a d e l y c o mmi t -
t e e s a n d a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n s
. Th o s e w h o r e f u s e d w e r e
s me a r e d i n t h e p a r t y p r e s s a n d a mo n g t h e i r f r i e n d s a s s p i e s o r " Tr o t s k y -
i t e s . "
B u t l i t t l e t h i n g s l i k e t h a t c o u l d n o t b e a l l o w e d t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h
p e n t h o u s e p a r t i e s . Th e r a c k e t w e n t o n l o n g a f t e r d e mo c r a t i c Sp a i n
w a s d e a d
. H i g h - mi n d e d l i b e r a l s s t i l l g a v e t h e i r i mp e c c a b l e n a me s a s
d e c o r a t i o n f o r " r e s c u e s h i p s " a n d o t h e r g a d g e t s w h i c h o n l y t h e w i l l -
f u l l y b l i n d c o u l d f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e a s c o mmu n i s t s t o o g e s e t u p s .
Ih a v e n o mo r e t h a n h i n t e d a t t h e o b s c e n i t y . St a l i n ' s c r i me a g a i n s t
Sp a i n - a n d t h e j o y f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t b y g u l l i b l e h e r d s o f Ame r i -
c a n s - c a n n o t b e c o mp a s s e d i n a c h a p t e r o r a b o o k . B u t e v e n t h i s
s k e t c h y o u t l i n e ma y h e l p u s u n d e r s t a n d t h e Re d D e c a d e . Th e
e mo t i o n a l l e v e r a g e o f Sp a i n , t h e h e r o i c s y mb o l i s mo f t h e s t r u g g l e
t h e r e , w e r e f o r c e s u t i l i z e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s i n Ame r i c a , a s e l s e w h e r e ,
t o p e n e t r a t e d e e p e r a n d s t i l l d e e p e r i n t o Ame r i c a n l i f e
.
C H AP TERXXIV
REVOLUTIONC OMESTOH OLLY WOOD
AND B ROAD WAY
1
H OLLY WOOD p a r t y h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d t o me i n s u c h h i l a r i -
A
o u s d e t a i l b y o n e o f t h o s e p r e s e n t t h a t i t s t i c k s i n my me mo r y .
It w a s o n Ne w Y e a r ' s Ev e i n o n e o f t h o s e p a l a t i a l B e v e r l y H i l l s
h o me s , a n d o n l y t r u e - b l u e r e d s w e r e i n v i t e d . Th e r e w e r e b i g w i g s o f
t h e Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s , a c t i v i s t s f r o mt h e H o l l y w o o d An t i -
Na z i Le a g u e , o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Mo t i o n P i c t u r e s Ar t i s t s C o mmi t t e e . Th e
w e l l - h e e l e d p r o l e t a r i a n s - a v e r a g e s a l a r y $ 1 , 0 0 0 . a w e e k - w e r e d o i n g
n o b l y b y t h e f o o d a n d l i q u o r . Li v e r i e d b u t l e r s mo v e d a b o u t s i l e n t l y
d i s t r i b u t i n g c h a mp a g n e a n d p i c k i n g u p b r o k e n g l a s s e s . On t h e s t r o k e
o f mi d n i g h t t h e g u e s t s r o s e t o t h e i r f e e t , a f e w o f t h e mu n s t e a d i l y b u t
a l l o f t h e ms o l e mn l y . Th e y r a i s e d t h e i r c h a mp a g n e a l o f t , t h e o r g a n
w e n t i n t o s t r i d e a n d t h e y a l l i n t o n e d t h e " In t e r n a t i o n a l e "
:
Ar i s e , y e p r i s o n e r s o f s t a r v a t i o n
;
Ar i s e , y e w r e t c h e d o f t h e e a r t h . . .
H o l l y w o o d , b e l c h i n g w i t h s a t i e t y , i n t h e r o l e o f a p r i s o n e r o f s t a r -
v a t i o n ) It w a s c o z y a n d c r a z y a n d h e a r t - w a r mi n g . It w a s H o l l y w o o d ,
w h e r e " c o l o s s a l " i s a d i mi n u t i v e
. P e r h a p s i t w a s n o mo r e t h a n a p p r o -
p r i a t e t h a t t h e ma k e - b e l i e v e r e v o l u t i o n o f Mo s c o w ' s Fo u r t h P e r i o d
s h o u l d f i n d o n e o f i t s mo s t b i z a r r e e mb o d i me n t s i n t h e w o r l d ' s c a p i t a l
o f ma k e - b e l i e v e
.
Th e r e v o l u t i o n t h a t c a me t o t h e t o w n w a s o n t h e mu n i f i c e n t s c a l e
o f i t s s a l a r i e s , i t s r a c e t r a c k s , i t s s w i mmi n g p o o l s : " t h e g o o f i e s t e r a i n
c i n e ma l e g e n d - a c o mp o u n d o f h i g h i d e a l s a n d l o w
I. Q
. ' s ; p a r t y l i n e s
a n d j u s t p a r t i e s ; n o b l e s l o g a n s a n d i g n o b l e p o l i t i c a l r a c k e t s . " Th e
q u o t a t i o n i s f r o ma n a r t i c l e i n t h e Ame r i c a n Me r c u r y ( Fe b r u a r y , 1 9 4 0 )
b y Wi l l i a mB l e d s o e , w h o e d i t e d t h e Sc r e e n Gu i l d Ma g a z i n e a n d s a w
t h e w o n d e r s i n c l o s e - u p . H e g r o w s r h a p s o d i c a l i n t h e t e l l i n g
:
2 8 4
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 8 5
Is a w t h e C e l l u l o i d Up r i s i n g i n i t s mo s t f a n t a s t i c h o u r s . . . . Iw i t -
n e s s e d t h e r e v o l t o f t h e H o l l y w o o d w a g e s l a v e s a n d t h e St a l i n p u t s c h .
Is a w So c i a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s q u i c k e n a n d c o me t o a b o i l i n a c t o r s , w r i t -
e r s a n d d i r e c t o r s w h o s e n a me s r i v a l Ri n s o a n d C a me l s a s h o u s e h o l d
w o r d s . If o l l o w e d t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n ma s s me e t i n g b y ma s s me e t i n g ,
c o c k t a i l p a r t y b y c o c k t a i l p a r t y , u n t i l ma n y a B i g Na me w a s mo r e o r
l e s s s e c r e t l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y o r t a g g i n g a l o n g
s o l e mn l y i n o n e o f t h e " f r o n t " l e a g u e s a n d c o mmi t t e e s . Th e p o l i t i c a l
p i g - La t i n o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e , a n t i - f a s c i s m, a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y t a c t i c s r i p -
p l e d a r o u n d s w i mmi n g p o o l s a n d a c r o s s d a n c e f l o o r s . Fi v e - t h o u s a n d -
d o l l a r s - a - w e e k p r o l e t a r i a n s r a t t l e d t h e i r g o l d c h a i n s o f s e r v i t u d e a s
Ru s s i a , Sp a i n , t h e s h a r e c r o p p e r s , C h i n a a n d t h e Ne w Ma s s e s w e r e
s a v e d a n e w a n d d e f e n d e d o n c e mo r e .
In t h e h e r o i c e a r l y d a y s o f t h e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n , w h e n b e i n g a
B o l s h e v i k me a n t s o c i a l o s t r a c i s ma n d r e a l s a c r i f i c e , H o l l y w o o d w a s
a w a r e o f i t o n l y a s a n o c c a s i o n a l t h e me f o r s l a p s t i c k c o me d y . No w
t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n h a d d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o a d i c t a t e d s l a u g h t e r h o u s e ,
t h e c i n e ma c a p i t a l w e n t w h o l e - h o g o n t h e i d e a
. Gl a mo u r g i r l s a n d
s c e n a r i o ma e s t r o s t o o k p e r s o n a l c r e d i t f o r e v e r y t h i n g Le n i n h a d d o n e
( t h o u g h t h e y r e ma i n e d e x t r e me l y v a g u e a s t o w h a t i t w a s ) a n d t h r e w
i n t h e Fr e n c h Re v o l u t i o n f o r g o o d me a s u r e . It w a s n o t t h e f i r s t t i me , o f
c o u r s e , t h a t a c o mf o r t a b l e u p p e r c l a s s h a d r e v o l t e d v i c a r i o u s l y f o r t h e
l o w e r o r d e r s
. B u t ( a s Mo r r i e Ry s k i n d p o i n t e d o u t o n c e ) t h e r e w a s
t h i s d i f f e r e n c e : t h e H o l l y w o o d r e b e l s , w i t h t h e i r g e n i u s f o r p r e t e n d i n g ,
a c t u a l l y f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e i n p e r s o n t h e d o w n t r o d d e n , t h e w r e t c h e d ,
t h e p r i s o n e r s o f s t a r v a t i o n . Th e y w e r e t i t i l l a t i n g l y s o r r y f o r t h e m-
s e l v e s .
It i s c r e d i b l y r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e c o mr a d e s , h a v i n g r e a d Th e
Gr a p e s o f Wr a t h , w a s s o mo v e d t h a t h e b r o k e i n t o h i s p r o d u c e r ' s o f f i c e
t o d e ma n d a $ 5 0 0 r a i s e , c r y i n g , " Y o u c a n ' t d o t h i s t o me ! "
It i s Mr . B l e d s o e ' s t h e o r y t h a t H o l l y w o o d i s a c i t y o f " u n h a p p y s u c -
c e s s f u l p e o p l e " a n d t h a t " c o mmu n i s mw i t h t w o b u t l e r s a n d a s w i m-
mi n g p o o l " g a v e t h e ma t l a s t " a Re a s o n f o r Li v i n g a n d a n a l i b i f o r
l i v i n g s o a b s u r d l y w e l l . " Wh i c h p e r h a p s i s n o t s o d i f f e r e n t f r o mmy
o w n t h e o r y
. Wa t c h i n g t h e g r e a t p i l g r i ma g e o f g l a mo u r t o t h e s h r i n e s
o f t h e Mu s c o v i t e c u l t , If e l t t h a t t h e c o n v e r t s w e r e b e i n g c h a s e d n o t
o n l y b y a c h i n g i n f e r i o r i t y c o mp l e x e s b u t b y a c h i n g c o n s c i e n c e s . In a
t i me o f g e n e r a l u n e mp l o y me n t a n d mi s e r y , i t i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r c o m-
f o r t a b l e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t o e n j o y a s i x - f i g u r e i n c o me . Th e w a t e r e d -
2 8 6 TH ERED D EC AD E
d o w n c o mmu n i s mo f t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t g a v e t h e ma n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
w i t h t h e mi s e r a b l e h e r d , w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i r i n c o me s . Th e
c o n s o l a t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o n , a s d i s p e n s e d b y t h e l o c a l c o mmi s s a r s
o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , f i t t e d t h e i r s o u l s e x a c t l y ; i t w a s a n u n g u e n t
a n d d e l i c i o u s l y p e r f u me d . Th e y l o v e d i t , t h e y p a i d f o r i t , t h e y l i v e d i t
mo r e e a r n e s t l y t h a n a n y o t h e r f a d t h a t h a d c o me t h e i r w a y .
Th e e a r n e s t p a r t o f i t n e e d s e mp h a s i s . Le t i t b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t
t h e i mp e t u s b e h i n d t h e g o o f i n e s s w a s f i n e a n d n o b l e . Th e o v e r t o n e s
o f s a d i s mw e r e w o r k e d o f f o n H i t l e r , k u l a k s a n d Tr o t s k y i t e s ; f o r t h e
r e s t o f h u ma n k i n d t h e r e w a s o n l y l o v i n g k i n d n e s s . Th e c i n e ma r e b e l s
w e r e g e n u i n e l y a n g r y a t t h e Na z i s a n d g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d f o r Sp a n i s h
d e mo c r a c y , Sp a i n ' s o r p h a n s , C h i n e s e f r e e d o m, a n d s h a r e c r o p p e r s
.
Th e y h a d n o t t h e r e mo t e s t i d e a w h a t c o mmu n i s mw a s i n t e r ms o f
e c o n o mi c s t r u c t u r e s o r p o l i t i c a l s u p e r s t a t e s . Fo r n e a r l y a l l o f t h e m
i t w a s a n i n t o x i c a t e d s t a t e o f mi n d , a g l o w o f i n n e r v i r t u e , a n d a s o r t o f
c o mr a d e s h i p i n s u p e r - c h a r i t y .
Ma n y , i f n o t mo s t , o f t h o s e w h o s w e l l e d t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y ' s
t r e a s u r y a n d f r o l i c k e d a t i t s d o - g o o d s h o w s a n d d a n c e s a n d s i g n e d
s h r i l l ma n i f e s t o e s f o r i n f i n i t e c a u s e s d i d n o t k n o w s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t t h e y
w e r e b e i n g t a k e n i n t o w b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s . Th e y w e r e n o t " p l o t -
t i n g . " Th e y w e r e j u s t d o i n g e mo t i o n a l c a l i s t h e n i c s . Fe w o f t h e m
b o t h e r e d t o w o n d e r w h e r e t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s w e r e g o i n g , h o w t h e i r
n a me s w e r e u s e d t o c o v e r u p mo n s t r o u s t e r r o r i n Sp a i n o r Ru s s i a .
Af e w d o z e n H o l l y w o o d n a me s a p p e a r e d o n a l mo s t a l l c o mmu n i s t
l i s t i n g s b e t w e e n 1 9 3 6 a n d 1 9 3 9 w h e n t h e Re d D e c a d e c a u g h t u p w i t h
t h e mo v i e s . In n o c e n c e s o l o n g ma i n t a i n e d i s a k i n d o f a c h i e v e me n t ,
s i n c e t h e r e mu s t b e a p o i n t a t w h i c h e v e n c i n e ma s t a r s b e c o me a w a r e
o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l l o v e a n d p o l i t i c a l r a p e . Th e ma -
j o r i t y w e r e w e l l - me a n i n g a n d b e f u d d l e d .
Th e y w e r e l e d b y t h e i r h e a r t s t r i n g s i n t o b l i n d a l l e y s o f p o l i t i c a l
s k u l d u g g e r y , s l u g g e d w i t h s l o g a n s a n d ma d e t o s h e l l o u t . Th e p o l i t i c a l
" c o mmi s s a r s " - w h e t h e r H e r b e r t B i b e r ma n a n d Sa mD a r c y l o c a l l y , o r
e mi s s a r i e s l i k e V. J. Je r o me f r o mTh i r t e e n t h St r e e t - w o r k e d o n t h e
s i mp l i c i t y o f t h e H o l l y w o o d p e a s a n t r y
. On c e a D a i l y Wo r k e r i n t e r -
v i e w w i t h a ma l e g l a mo u r l a d , w r i t t e n b y B e t h Mc H e n r y , u n c o n -
s c i o u s l y b e t r a y e d t h e c o n t e mp t i n w h i c h t h e c o mr a d e s h e l d t h e e a s y -
ma r k s . " H e s t r i k e s y o u , " s h e w r o t e o f t h e a c t o r , " a s b o t h h e a l t h y a n d
i n t e l l i g e n t a n d i t ' s o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y t h a t y o u r e me mb e r h e i s a n a r t i s t . "
Va r i e t y a n d Fi l mD a i l y mi g h t c o n t i n u e t o c o v e r t h e d r a b w o r k a -
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 8 7
d a y H o l l y w o o d , b u t t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p o r t e d t h e s o u l
o f H o l l y w o o d
. Th e r e y o u f o u n d t h e r e c o r d o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l e ma n a -
t i o n s o f t h e a w a k e n e d c o n s c i e n c e o f t h e mo v i e c a p i t a l - i t s c o l l e c t i o n s
f o r " p r o g r e s s , " t h e b l o s s o mi n g o f e v e r n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e s p e c i a l
s h o w i n g s o f Sp a n i s h p r o p a g a n d a f i l ms , t h e g a y p a r t i e s a n d p u b l i c i t y
s t u n t s f o r t h e c a u s e . Th e r e y o u r e a d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h C l i f f o r d Od e t s ,
Wi l l i a mD i e t e r l e , K i n g Vi d o r a n d a n y n u mb e r o f o t h e r s w h o s e o p i n -
i o n s , b y s o me c o i n c i d e n c e , f i t t e d i n t o t h e c u r r e n t d r i v e s b a c k e d b y t h e
Wo r k e r . Ab o v e a l l , St a l i n ' s t r a d e j o u r n a l c a r r i e d t h e d a y - t o - d a y s t o r y
o f t h e g e n e r o u s c a s h c o n t r i b u t i o n s b y s t a r d o m; b u s i n e s s i s b u s i n e s s
u n d e r a n y r e g i me .
On e e s t i ma t e h a s i t t h a t t h e St a l i n i s t s mi l k e d t h e c o l o n y f o r a t
l e a s t t w o mi l l i o n d o l l a r s i n t h e h e y d a y o f t h e Re d D e c a d e . B i b e r ma n
d e p o s i t e d $ 8 9 , 8 9 2 . 5 1 i n a l o c a l b a n k f o r j u s t o n e f r o n t , t h e An t i - Na z i
Le a g u e , b e t w e e n Ma y 1 4 , 1 9 3 6 , a n d Au g u s t 1 6 , 1 9 3 9 . Th e n e o -
B o l s h e v i k s , H o l l y w o o d mo d e l , f o l l o w e d t h e n e w p o l i t i c a l s c r i p t s a s
b l i n d l y a s a n y t h a t f e l l t o t h e i r s h a r e o n l o c a t i o n
. B u t l e t u s p i c k u p
t h e c o mp a s s i o n a t e Mr . B l e d s o e a g a i n :
Th e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y t r a d e d o n t h i s e mo t i o n a l s t e w a n d c a s h e d
i n b i g . . . .
Al o t o f u n r e a l i s t i c , n a i v e , s o me t i me s n o t o v e r l y b r i g h t p e o -
p l e l o o k i n g f o r s o me t h i n g t o h o l d o n t o w e r e s u c k e d i n t o a p o l i t i c a l
r a c k e t . Mo s c o w a g e n t s s t u mb l e d o n H o l l y w o o d a b o u t t h e mi d d l e
o f 1 9 3 6 , a n d f o u n d i t c o l o s s a l - B i g Na me s w i t h ma g i c a l p r o p a g a n d a -
c a r r y i n g p o w e r . B a r r e l s o f mo n e y . . . On l y o n e t h i n g s u r p r i s e d t h e p i o -
n e e r i n g c o mmu n i s t s p r o s p e c t i n g i n t h e mt h a r B e v e r l y H i l l s
: t h e s e e d
a n d s i z e a n d e a s e o f t h e i r s t r i k e s . . . . Th e d e c i s i v e b a t t l e s o f ~ t h e
H o l l y w o o d Re v o l u t i o n w e r e f o u g h t i n t h e l i v i n g a r e n a o f ma s s me e t -
i n g s , b o y c o t t s , b e n e f i t s , l e a g u e s , c o mmi t t e e s , c o n g r e s s e s , c o n v e n t i o n s ,
s p e e c h e s , r e l i e f mo n e y , t e l e g r a ms , p r o t e s t s , p a mp h l e t s , p a r a d e s , p i c k e t
l i n e s , p i c t u r e s , p a r t i e s , p o l i t i c s , p l e d g e s , p e t i t i o n s , d i n n e r s , d a n c e s ,
s l o g a n s a n d a l l t h e r e s t o f t h e e f f e c t s t h a t ma d e u p t h e u n i t e d - f r o n t
s h o w
. . .
. Fa n s a n d a u t o g r a p h h o u n d s i n t h e k n o w d i d n ' t w a s t e t i me
h a n g i n g a r o u n d t h e B r o w n D e r b y o r Tr o c a d e r o . Th e r e a l p i c k i n g s
w e r e a t t h e ma s s me e t i n g s i n t h e Sh r i n e a n d P h i l h a r mo n i c Au d i -
t o r i u ms a n d t h e H o l l y w o o d Le g i o n St a d i u m .
It w a s a t o n e o f t h e s e me e t i n g s t h a t Gy p s y Ro s e Le e c h i d e d h e r
a u d i e n c e t o t h i s g e n e r a l e f f e c t : " Ih a v e n o t c o me t o l i f t my s k i r t s , b u t
t o l i f t t h e e mb a r g o o n Sp a i n ! " It w a s a l l mo s t t h r i l l i n g . At t h e H o l l y -
2 8 8

TH ERED D EC AD E
w o o d H e a l t h C a f e t e r i a , i n a h y g i e n i c v e g e t a r i a n s e t t i n g , s c r e e n f o l k
d i s c o v e r e d y e t a n o t h e r Ma r x i n a s o r t o f i n f o r ma l w o r k e r s ' s c h o o l
u n d e r t h e t u t e l a g e o f B i b e r ma n , Sa mOr n i t z , Li o n e l St a n d e r a n d
o t h e r s
. Ja me s C a g n e y w a s s a i d t o b e a mo n g t h e b r i g h t e s t o f t h e e a r l i e r
c r o p o f s t u d e n t s
. C l a s s - c o n s c i o u s w a g e s l a v e s i n d r e s s c l o t h e s ma d e
d i a l e c t i c n o i s e s i n t h e l o b b y o f Fi l ma r t e Th e a t r e e v e r y t i me a n e w
Ru s s i a n p i c t u r e c a me t o t o w n . P a r d o n me , n o t Ru s s i a n b u t So v i e t
.
On e o f t h e s i n s o f t h e n e w d i s p e n s a t i o n w a s t o c a l l Ru s s i a o t h e r w i s e
t h a n t h e So v i e t Un i o n .
Fr e d K e a t i n g w r o t e a t o r r i d p i e c e e n t i t l e d " Ar e We La b o r e r s ? "
H e d e mo n s t r a t e d n i c e l y t h a t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n c o me s
a n d s h o w y e s t a t e s t h e y w e r e , l i k e t h e h o r n i e s t - h a n d e d p r o l e t a r i a n s ,
s l a v e s o f Th e Sy s t e m
. Fr a n k Sc u l l y p u b l i c l y p o s e d t h i s q u e s t i o n : " Is
t h e Mi d d l e C l a s s i n t h e Mi d d l e ? " H e d e c i d e d t h u s
: " If t h e mi d d l e
c l a s s w a n t s t o g e t r i d o f i t s w h i t e c o l l a r o f s e r v i t u d e , i t h a d b e t t e r g e t
i t s p i c k e t l i n e s i n o r d e r . "
It w a s l o o n y b u t w o n d e r f u l - t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , t h e mi d d l e c l a s s e s ,
t h e e n l i g h t e n e d c a p i t a l i s t s a n d B r o w d e r ' s b o y s a l l i n o n e b i g h a p p y
f a mi l y , ma k i n g f a c e s a t H i t l e r
. So me h o w i t d i d w o n d e r s f o r t h e t a s t e
o f As t r a k h a n c a v i a r a n d t h e f e e l o f Ru s s i a n s a b l e s .
It d i d w o n d e r s , t o o , f o r t h e s e l f - e s t e e mo f me n a n d w o me n w h o
w e r e a t b o t t o ma s h a me d o f t h e i r s t a t u s a s i n t e l l e c t u a l s l a v i e s o f t h e
mo v i e mo g u l s
; w h o d r e a me d o f w r i t i n g a g r e a t n o v e l o r t a k i n g B r o a d -
w a y b y s t o r m, b u t me a n w h i l e h a d t o b e c o n t e n t w i t h d u n k i n g i n
s w i mmi n g p o o l s
. Fo r y e a r s t h e y h a d s ma r t e d u n d e r t h e j i b e s o f e n v i -
o u s b u t s u p e r i o r " i n t e l l e c t u a l s . " No w t h e y w e r e n o t o n l y a c c e p t e d b y
t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a b u t ma d e t o f e e l e q u a l s . P e r h a p s a f e w o f t h e md i d
r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y w e r e me r e l y b u y i n g t h a t b o g u s e q u a l i t y w i t h c a s h
c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g v a l u e
. B u t t h e
r e s t g l o w e d w i t h a n e w s e l f - i mp o r t a n c e
. Th e Re d D e c a d e g a v e a l o t
o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l o w - b r o w s a c h a n c e t o p o s e t o t h e ms e l v e s a s h e a v y
t h i n k e r s . Th e y p a i d f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e , a n d g l a d l y
.
2
" In t h e s t u d i o l a b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , " B l e d s o e w r i t e s , " t h e c o mr a d e s
h a d o n l y mi x e d s u c c e s s
. " Th e p a i n t e r s ' u n i o n w e n t o v e r t o t h e s i d e
o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n . Th e Sc r e e n Wr i t e r s ' Gu i l d j o i n e d t h e P o p u l a r
Fr o n t , d e s p i t e b r a v e a t t e mp t s o f t h e Au t h o r s ' Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a t o
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 8 9
w r e s t t h e H o l l y w o o d s e c t i o n f r o mt h e St a l i n i s t g r i p . In t h e f u r i o u s f i g h t
a g a i n s t t h e " f a s c i s t s " - me a n i n g a n y o n e w h o o b j e c t e d t o c o mmu n i s t
d o mi n a t i o n - D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t a c t e d a s g e n e r a l i s s i mo , w i t h
s u c h f i n e l i e u t e n a n t s a s D u d l e y Ni c h o l s , Fr a n c i s H a c k e t t , H u mp h r e y
C o b b , D a l t o n Tr u mb o , Ir w i n Sh a w , Te s s Sl e s i n g e r , Sa mOr n i t z , Fr a n k
Sc u l l y , Ol i v e r H
. P
. Ga r r e t t , Li l l i a n H e l l ma n , B o r i s In g s t e r , Jo h n
H o w a r d La w s o n , Le s t e r C o l e , Jo e l Sa y r e , Ma d e l i n e Ru t h v e n
. Ma n y
o f t h e s e , o f c o u r s e , " h a d n ' t b e e n s h o w n t h e s c r i p t a n d d o u b t l e s s
a r e s t i l l i n n o c e n t , " a s Mr . B l e d s o e p u t s i t . Th e p o i n t o f t h e s t o r y ,
t h r o u g h o u t , i s t h a t t h e i n n o c e n t s t r a i l e d a l o n g a n d j o i n e d t h e s h o u t -
i n g , e n t i c e d b y " p r o g r e s s i v e " l a b e l s o n t o t a l i t a r i a n g o o d s .
Th e Sc r e e n Ac t o r s Gu i l d , h o w e v e r , s u c c e e d e d i n f i g h t i n g o f f t h e
t e n d e r a t t e n t i o n s o f t h e o v e r z e a l o u s " p r o g r e s s i v e s " i n
t h e i r mi d s t . It
r e ma i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t d e s p i t e i t s Le f t Wi n g e r s . Fo r a w h i l e t h e Le f t
Wi n g s u c c e e d e d i n s t e e r i n g t h e Gu i l d i n t o t h e w i d e - o p e n a r ms o f t h e
g a l l a n t Wi l l i e B i o f f , b y l i n k i n g i t u p w i t h t h e Fe d e r a t i o n o f Mo t i o n
P i c t u r e C r a f t s a n d t h e c o mmu n i s t i c s t u d i o p a i n t e r s ' u n i o n . Af t e r a
g r e a t t u s s l e , h o w e v e r , t h e Gu i l d s h o o k o f f mo s t o f t h e B i o f f c r o w d .
H o l l y w o o d n e e d s t o b e s e e n i n t h e l a r g e r s e t t i n g o f C a l i f o r n i a . Th e
St a l i n i s t c o mr a d e s h a d t a k e n o v e r t h e r e mn a n t s o f Up t o n Si n c l a i r ' s
EP IC , t h e s c a t t e r e d D e mo c r a t i c P a r t y u n i t s , a n d w e l d e d i t a l l i n t o
a Ne w D e a l p a r t y w h i c h c a r r i e d t h e s t a t e . Th e n e w Go v e r n o r , b e i n g
a n o l d - f a s h i o n e d l i b e r a l , w a s f r a c t i o u s b u t Li e u t e n a n t Go v e r n o r P a t -
t e r s o n mo v e d p r e t t y c o n s i s t e n t l y a l o n g t h e p a r t y l i n e a n d ma n y St a t e
o f f i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r e l i e f s e t u p , w e r e j a mme d w i t h c o mr a d e s . In
Lo s An g e l e s i t s e l f t h e p a r t y g a v e i t s h e l p i n g h a n d t o a r e f o r ma d mi n i s -
t r a t i o n a n d s a t p r e t t y p o l i t i c a l l y . Th e C . I. O. u n d e r H a r r y B r i d g e s
w a s b o s s i n g t h e c o a s t a n d a g r e a t ma n y i n t e r i o r i n d u s t r i e s .
To me r g e y o u r s e l f w i t h St a l i n i s m, t h e r e f o r e , w a s d e c i d e d l y n o t a
f o r mo f s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n . It w a s a s p e c i e s o f s o c i a l c l i mb i n g . In C a l i -
f o r n i a a t t h a t t i me i t me a n t t h e i n s i d e t r a c k i n l o c a l c o c k t a i l s o c i e t y
a s w e l l a s g o v e r n me n t , l a b o r , t h e Ne w D e a l
. Th e H o l l y w o o d An t i -
Na z i Le a g u e c l a i me d 4 , 0 0 0 me mb e r s . Th e Mo t i o n P i c t u r e D e mo c r a t i c
C o mmi t t e e , a f r o n t f o r St a l i n i s t f u n d - r a i s i n g , h a d n o t r o u b l e r o u n d -
i n g u p 1 , 7 0 0 me mb e r s . Th e c u l t u r a l s e n s a t i o n o f o n e y e a r - t h e y e a r ,
a l a s , w h e n t h e r e v o l u t i o n h i t t h e r o c k s a n d t u r n e d my s t e r i o u s l y a n t i -
Ro o s e v e l t i n t h e i mp a c t - w a s a s h o w w i t h t h e t h e me s o n g Mr . Ro o s e -
v e l t , Wo n ' t Y o u P l e a s e Ru n Ag a i n ? Th i s p l a i n t i v e s e n t i me n t w a s
e mb e d d e d i n t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Mo t i o n P i c t u r e Gu i l d , a o n e -
2
9 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
r e e l e r c a l l e d AMe s s a g e f r o m
H o l l y w o o d , mu s i c b y Ja y Go r n e y , w o r d s
b y H e n r y Me y e r s , d i r e c t e d b y H e r b e r t B i b e r ma n a n d Fr a n k Tu t t l e .
It w a s n o f a u l t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e s e e n t h u s i a s t s d i d
n o t k n o w w h e r e t h e Ne w D e a l e n d e d a n d St a l i n i s mb e g a n
. Fo r t h a t
ma t t e r , t h e y d i d n o t k n o w w h e r e i n t e l l e c t u a l c l o w n i n g e n d e d a n d
g r i mr e a l i t y b e g a n
. An y h o w , e v e r y b o d y w a s mo s t e mb a r r a s s e d .
Un d e r t h e t o mf o o l e r y t h e r e w a s p l e n t y o f t o u g h s e l f - i n t e r e s t
. Fo r
t h e y o u n g e r me mb e r s o f t h e c o l o n y , a v i d f o r t h e f a t t e r f l e s h p o t s ,
St a l i n i s mb e c a me t h e s h o r t c u t t o s u c c e s s
. At " c a u s e p a r t i e s " t h e y
r u b b e d s h o u l d e r s a n d b o s o ms w i t h b i g s h o t s t h e y c o u l d n o t h a v e me t
o t h e r w i s e
. Th o s e w h o t r i e d t o d e t o u r t h e r e v o l u t i o n , u n l e s s t h e y w e r e
s t a r s w e l l f i x e d i n t h e f i r ma me n t , f o u n d t h e ms e l v e s s l i p p i n g f r o m
f a v o r
. It w a s a t o n c e a mo v e me n t a n d a l o b b y , a r e l i g i o n a n d a r a c k e t
.
3
Th e r e w a s n o d e a r t h o f c o mmi t t e e s t o c h a n n e l o f f t h e a mo r p h o u s
a n d p u e r i l e e n t h u s i a s ms . Me s s r s
. B i b e r ma n , Je r o me , Li o n e l St a n d e r ,
J
. Ed w a r d B r o mb e r g , Me l v y n D o u g l a s , D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t a n d
t h e o t h e r s n e e d e d o n l y t o t o u c h b u t t o n s ma r k e d " Sp a i n , " " C h i n a , "
" b o y c o t t , " " c h i l d r e n , " " a n t i - f a s c i s t , " a n d n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s l e a p e d
i n t o b e i n g
. Th o s e n o t b o l d e n o u g h t o j o i n t h e mo r e o p e n l y St a l i n i s t
Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y , f o u n d s a n c t u a r y i n t h e H o l l y w o o d
An t i - Na z i Le a g u e , w h i c h d i d a g o o d j o b o f h i d i n g i t s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h
t h e Lo s An g e l e s b r a n c h o f t h e mo t h e r - l e a g u e
. Th o s e h e s i t a n t a b o u t
a f f i l i a t i n g s h o w e d t h a t t h e i r h e a r t s w e r e i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e b y s i g n i n g
a f e w r e s o l u t i o n s , t a k i n g p a r t i n f l o o r s h o w s , j o i n i n g w e l c o mi n g c o m-
mi t t e e s f o r Sp a n i s h Lo y a l i s t s o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s e r i e s o f f i l m-
ma k i n g e n t e r p r i s e s a n d f i l m- p r o mo t i o n p r o j e c t s s t a r t e d b y t h e f e l l o w -
t r a v e l i n g g e n t r y .
Th e r e w a s t h e Th e a t r e C o mmi t t e e f o r t h e D e f e n s e o f t h e Sp a n i s h
Re p u b l i c , s t a r t e d i n t h e Ea s t i n Au g u s t , 1 9 3 6 , w h i c h f o u n d H o l l y w o o d
b o o s t e r s q u i c k l y
. Amo n g i t s o r i g i n a l o f f i c i a l s a n d s p o n s o r s w e r e Ge o r g e
Ab b o t t , H e y w o o d B r o u n , Re x In g r a m, Al b e r t Ma l t z , H e r ma n Sh u m-
l i n , Al b e r t B e i n
. Af e w mo n t h s l a t e r Ame r i c a n La b o r P i c t u r e s , In c
. ,
w a s f o u n d e d t o ma k e a s p e c i a l p i c t u r e
. " Mo n e y f o r t h e f i l m, " t h e
D a i l y Wo r k e r r e p o r t e d , " h a s b e e n s u p p l i e d b y s o me o f t h e mo r e
p r o mi n e n t mo v i e me n w i t h Le f t - Wi n g t e n d e n c i e s
. " An o n y mi t y w a s
r a p i d l y t h r o w n t o t h e w i n d s , h o w e v e r , a s t h e f a s h i o n c a u g h t o n
. B y t h e
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 9 1
t i me t h e c o mmu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d Sc o t t s b o r o c a s e f o r me d i t s H o l l y w o o d
c o mmi t t e e , i t c o u l d a n n o u n c e Ro b e r t B e n c h l e y a s c h a i r ma n o v e r
n i n e t y - s i x " s w e l l n a me s " f r o mt h e s t u d i o r o s t e r s .
Af e w mo n t h s t h e r e a f t e r t h e H o l l y w o o d C i t i z e n s C o mmi t t e e f o r
t h e Fe d e r a l Th e a t r e c o u l d p r o u d l y l i s t , a l o n g w i t h mo r e f a mi l i a r f e l l o w -
t r a v e l e r n a me s , a l s o H e l e n Ga h a g a n , Gi l b e r t Ga b r i e l , An t h o n y Ve i l l e r ,
Jo s e p h Sa n t l e y , Vi o l a B r o t h e r s Sh o r e , Sy l v i a Si d n e y , Al a n C a mp b e l l ,
e t c . * Fi l ms f o r D e mo c r a c y , a l i t t l e f a r t h e r i n t h e c a r e e r o f t h e r e v o -
l u t i o n , w a s a b l e t o o f f e r t h e w o r l d a n Or g a n i z a t i o n C o mmi t t e e a n d
Ad v i s o r y B o a r d w h i c h w e r e p e r f e c t b l e n d s o f p o l i t i c a l St a l i n i s t s a n d
g l a mo r o u s c e l l u l o i d n a me s ; a me r e s a mp l i n g , h e r e w i t h : Ne d H . D e a r -
b o r n , H e l e n H a l l , D u d l e y Ni c h o l s , Ga r d n e r Ja c k s o n , Le e P r e s s ma n ,
H e r ma n Sh u ml i n , P e r c i v a l Wi l d e , Or d w a y Te a d , Wi l l i a mE . D o d d ,
Fr a n k P . Wa l s h , Ir e n e Le w i s o h n , Li b b y H o l ma n , Wa l t e r Wa n g e r ,
Je r o me D a v i s , a n d Mo r r i s U. Sc h a p p e s . f Th e e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y w a s
o n e o f t h e mo s t c o mp l a c e n t St a l i n i s t f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s , Sa mRo d ma n , a
f o r me r Mo s c o w c o r r e s p o n d e n t w h o s h o u l d h a v e k n o w n b e t t e r . In
1 9 3 9 t h e Mo t i o n P i c t u r e Gu i l d w a s l a u n c h e d t o p r o d u c e Er i k a Ma n n ' s
Sc h o o l f o r B a r b a r i a n s . Th e f a c t t h a t B i b e r ma n a n d Te s s Sl e s i n g e r
w e r e t o d o t h e s c e n a r i o , t h a t t h e s p o n s o r s i n c l u d e d Li l l i a n H e l l ma n ,
Si d n e y B u c h ma n , Jo r i s Iv e n s , Ir v i n g Re i s s a n d o t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d
n a me s i n d i c a t e s i t s t e mp e r
.
Th e c h i l d i s h n e s s o f ma n y o f t h o s e w h o f l o c k e d t o t h e s e e n t e r -
p r i s e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y a n a n e c d o t e t o l d b y Mo r r i e Ry s k i n d :
So me s i x mo n t h s a g o o n e o f o u r mo r e p r o mi n e n t s t a r s , e n t h r a l l e d
b y t h e l e a g u e p a mp h l e t s , c o r r a l l e d a d o z e n c y n i c s f o r l u n c h i n a n
e f f o r t t o i n d u c e u s t o j o i n . Af t e r a h e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n i n w h i c h h e
p o o h - p o o h e d o u r o b j e c t i o n s , a b a r g a i n w a s s t r u c k : t h e s t a r s a i d h e
w o u l d g e t t h e n a me c h a n g e d t o t h e H o l l y w o o d An t i - Na z i a n d An t i -
C o mmu n i s t Le a g u e p r o v i d e d w e w o u l d t h e r e u p o n j o i n . H e l e f t u s ,
p r o mi s i n g h e w o u l d h a v e t h e t r a n s f o r ma t i o n c o mp l e t e w i t h i n a n
h o u r . As Is a i d , t h a t w a s s i x mo n t h s a g o .
In t h e t o n s o f r e s o l u t i o n s a n d p a mp h l e t s g r o u n d o u t b y t h e H o l l y .
w o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t a s y l l a b l e c a n b e f o u n d t h a t r e f l e c t s o n
Ru s s i a - t h a t i s , o n t h e So v i e t Un i o n . Th e c o u n t r y f i g u r e s e x t e n s i v e l y
* D a i l y Wo r k e r , Fe b r u a r y 1 9 ,
1
9 3 8 .
t D a i l y Wo r k e r , No v e mb e r 2 6 , 1 9 3 8 .
2
9 2
TH ERED D EC AD E
b u t o n l y a s t h e mo s t d e mo c r a t i c , mo s t a n t i - Na z i c o u n t r y i n t h e
w o r l d a n d t h e s o l e t r u e f r i e n d o f p e a c e a n d f r e e d o m
. An d a s a l r e a d y
n o t e d , H o l l y w o o d n a me s l e d a l l t h e r e s t o n s t a t e me n t s " s u p p o r t i n g "
t h e d e mo c r a t i c a c h i e v e me n t s o f Mo s c o w ' s f i r i n g s q u a d s a n d p o l i t i c a l
k a n g a r o o c o u r t s
.
Af t e r t h e r e t r e a t f r o mt h e g r i t t y l i t e r a r y i d e a l s o f P r o l e t c u l t , t h e
Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s w a s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i l u t e d w i t h t h e p s e u d o -
w r i t e r s o f H o l l y w o o d
. Th e d i s p l a c e me n t o f Wa l d o Fr a n k , a n o v e l i s t
i n t h e h i g h e r a r t i s t i c b r a c k e t s , b y D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t , a H o l l y -
w o o d p u n s t e r i n t h e h i g h e r f i n a n c i a l b r a c k e t s , a s h e a d o f t h e o r g a n -
i z a t i o n t e l l s t h e s t o r y
. Th e l i t e r a r y a v e r a g e t o o k a n o s e d i v e , b u t t h e
i n c o me a n d p u b l i c i t y a v e r a g e s k y r o c k e t e d
. Th e a n n u a l e x o d u s f r o m
H o l l y w o o d t o Ne w Y o r k f o r t h e C o n g r e s s o f Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s w a s
a n a f f a i r o f g r e a t s o c i a l e c l a t
. B u t t h e r e w e r e a l s o l o c a l s h i n d i g s s u c h
a s We s t C o a s t Wr i t e r s c o n g r e s s e s .
At o n e o f t h e s e Iw a s s i n g l e d o u t f o r a t t e n t i o n
. H a r c o u r t , B r a c e
&C o
. h a d a n n o u n c e d We C o v e r t h e Wo r l d , a b o o k b y f o r e i g n c o r -
r e s p o n d e n t s , w i t h my s e l f b o t h e d i t o r a n d a c o n t r i b u t o r
. Al t h o u g h t h e
b o o k h a d n o t y e t b e e n p u b l i s h e d , t h e H o l l y w o o d l i t e r a t i r e s o l v e d s i g h t
u n s e e n t o w a r n t h e w o r l d i n a p r e s s r e l e a s e t h a t w h a t Ly o n s s a i d a b o u t
Ru s s i a i n t h a t v o l u me w a s u n w o r t h y a n d a l i e
. Al a s f o r t h e i r d i g n i t y ,
w h e n t h e b o o k a p p e a r e d i t t u r n e d o u t t h a t Ly o n s h a d n o t w r i t t e n
a b o u t Ru s s i a a t a l l b u t a b o u t P e r s i a ! An e d i t o r i a l i n t h e Sa t u r d a y Re -
v i e w o f Li t e r a t u r e r i b b e d t h e s e p r o t e s t e r s - i n - a d v a n c e - b y - i n t u i t i o n .
In f l u e n c e d p e r h a p s b y t h e p s e u d o - Sp a n i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e
c i n e ma s t u d i o s , t h e c o l o n y f e l l e s p e c i a l l y h a r d f o r t h e Lo y a l i s t c a u s e a s
i n t e r p r e t e d a n d e x p l o i t e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s
. Th e D a i l y Wo r k e r , i n r e -
p o r t i n g t h a t e v e r y Lo y a l i s t me e t i n g i n H o l l y w o o d b r o u g h t f r o mf i v e
t o e i g h t t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s i n t o t h e c o mr a d e l y c o f f e r s , a d d e d , " Th i n k
o f t h a t , y o u Ne w Y o r k p r o v i n c i a l s ! "
Th e w h o l e a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e mw a s e x c e e d i n g l y c o y a n d
s o c i a b l e
. D a n c e s , s w i mmi n g p o o l p a r t i e s , mo o n l i g h t r o ma n c e f o r t h e
v i c t i ms o f b o mb s i n B a r c e l o n a
. Wh e n An d r e Ma l r a u x , t h e n s t i l l a
l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y c o mmu n i s t , r e a c h e d t h e mo v i e c a p i t a l , h e w a s g r e e t e d
b y a c o mmi t t e e h e a d e d b y Fr a n c h o t To n e a n d f i l l e d w i t h g i l t - e d g e d
s t a r n a me s
. Ev e r y b o d y h a d l o t s o f f u n b u y i n g , e q u i p p i n g a n d a u t o -
g r a p h i n g t w o a mb u l a n c e s f o r t h e Lo y a l i s t s , a mo n g t h e a n n o u n c e d
d o n o r s b e i n g Fr e d K e a t i n g , Fr a n c h o t To n e , Gu y En d o r e , H e r b e r t
B i b e r ma n , Si d n e y B u c h ma n , H u mp h r e y C o b b , Le w i s Mi l e s t o n e ,
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 9 3
Ga l e So n d e r g a a r d , D u d l e y Ni c h o l s , St e l l a Ad l e r a n d , o f c o u r s e , D o n a l d
Og d e n St e w a r t . * La t e r a s t a mp s a l e s c a mp a i g n w a s l a u n c h e d b y t h e
c o mr a d e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Sp a i n , w i t h Ed w a r d Ar n o l d , Ri c h a r d
Ar l e n a n d Fl o r e n c e El d r i d g e a mo n g t h e e a s y - ma r k s . B u t t h e s t o r y
t e n d s t o g e t r e p e t i t i o u s .
Th e s u d d e n p r o mi n e n c e o f Gy p s y Ro s e Le e i n t h e Lo y a l i s t r a n k s
h a s i t s s a t i r i c a l o v e r t o n e s . In t h e a u t u mn o f 1 9 3 6 s h e w a s s t i l l a s y mb o l
o f b o u r g e o i s d e c a d e n c e i n Mo s c o w ' s e y e s . Th u s t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r ,
u n d e r a p i c t u r e o f t h e g a l
: " Ay o u n g l a d y w h o p r o v e s t h a t t h e c a p i -
t a l i s t s y s t e mi s i n t h e l a s t s t a g e s o f v e r y b e a u t i f u l d e c a d e n c e . . . . Sh e
i s w h a t i s q u a i n t l y k n o w n a s a s t r i p - t e a s e r , a n a r t w h i c h h a s b l o s -
s o me d u n d e r t h e D e p r e s s i o n w h i l s t a l l e l s e d e c l i n e d . " B u t s o o n s h e
w a s s o a c t i v e i n t h e c a u s e t h a t s h e p r a c t i c a l l y f o r me d a n u n d r a p e d
f r o n t i n h e r s e l f . Ex p l o i t i n g t h e d e c a d e n t b o u r g e o i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f
s h a p e l y a n d u n i mp e d e d f l e s h , t h e c o mr a d e s ma d e t h e y o u n g l a d y
c h a i r ma n o f a c o mmi t t e e t o g a t h e r c l o t h e s f o r t h e Lo y a l i s t s . Th e a d v e r -
t i s e me n t s f o r " a n y o l d c l o t h e s " w e r e i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a s c a n t i l y c l a d
Gy p s y .
4
H e r b e r t B i b e r ma n , w h o s e w i f e i s Ga l e So n d e r g a a r d , i s a t a l l , h e a v y ,
b e s p e c t a c l e d p e r s o n w h o w a s o n c e a d i r e c t o r o n a mo v i e l o t . In t h e
g o o f y e r a h e d e v e l o p e d i n t o d i r e c t o r o f t h e l a r g e r ma k e - b e l i e v e c o v e r -
i n g t h e w h o l e H o l l y w o o d a r e a . H e h a s b e e n i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f t h e
C e l l u l o i d Up r i s i n g , r e c r u i t i n g s h e k e l s f o r c a u s e s a n d me mb e r s f o r a l l
St a l i n i s t b o o b y f r o n t s a n d e n c o u r a g i n g Ame r i c a n l a d s t o f i g h t i n Sp a i n .
H e i s a l s o c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e l e a d r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e w d e c l a r a -
t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , a s o f 1 9 3 8
. On l y H o l l y w o o d c o u l d h a v e d o p e d
t h a t o n e o u t , b u t t h e s c e n a r i s t s mu s t b e a s h a me d o f t h e ms e l v e s o v e r
t h e e x c e e d i n g l y u n h a p p y a n d a b s u r d e n d i n g
.
Th e d e c l a r a t i o n c a l l e d f o r n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e i mme d i a t e b r e a c h
o f a l l e c o n o mi c r e l a t i o n s w i t h Ge r ma n y
. Ne a r l y a l l H o l l y w o o d
c l a mo r e d f o r t h e h o n o r o f s i g n i n g , f o r t h e mo s t p a r t n e i t h e r k n o w i n g
n o r c a r i n g t h a t i t w a s a t b o t t o ma n o t h e r c o mmu n i s t f u n d - r a i s i n g a n d
p r o p a g a n d a s t u n t . Un l u c k i l y o n l y f i f t y - s i x h a d s i g n e d t h e o r i g i n a l
d o c u me n t i n 1 7 7 6 , w h e r e f o r e n o mo r e c o u l d e n d o r s e t h e n e w o n e .
Amo n g t h e l u c k y o n e s t o r a t e a s H o l l y w o o d H a n c o c k s w e r e : Jo a n
* D a i l y Wo r k e r , Au g u s t 2 6 , 1 9 3 7 .
2 9 4

TH ERED D EC AD E
C r a w f o r d , My r n a Lo y , P a u l Mu n i , Jo h n Fo r d , Jo h n C r o mw e l l , H
. M.
Wa r n e r , Wa l t e r Wa n g e r , Ed w a r d G
. Ro b i n s o n , Ro l a n d Y o u n g ,
Gl o r i a St u a r t , Me l v y n D o u g l a s , Ro s a l i n d Ru s s e l l , Ja me s C a g n e y , Ga l e
So n d e r g a a r d , D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t , K e n n e t h Ma c g o w a n , Jo s e f v o n
St e r n b e r g , C a r l La e mml e , H e n r y Fo n d a , Ja c k Wa r n e r , Ro s e ma r y
La n e , Fa y B a i n t e r , H e r b e r t B i b e r ma n , P r i s c i l l a La n e , Nu n n a l l y Jo h n -
s o n , Fr a n k Tu t t l e , B e t t e D a v i s , Gr o u c h o Ma r x , Ge o r g e B r e n t , B e n
H e c h t , Jo a n B e n n e t t , B r u c e C a b o t , El l i o t Nu g e n t , Ge o r g e O' Ne i l , An n
Sh e r i d a n , D i c k P o w e l l , C h a r l e s Ma c Ar t h u r , C l a u d e Ra i n s , Mi r i a m
H o p k i n s .
Th e l i s t i s p r o o f e n o u g h t h a t t h e e n t e r p r i s e w a s i n n o c e n t s o f a r a s
mo s t o f t h e s i g n e r s w e r e c o n c e r n e d
. On e s i g n e d b e c a u s e t h e o t h e r s
d i d , b e c a u s e i t w a s t h e f a s h i o n o f t h e mo me n t t o j o i n t h a t p a r l o r g a me .
C e l l u l o i d r e v o l u t i o n w a s i n t h e a t mo s p h e r e ; t h e B i b e r ma n s a n d
Tu t t l e s l e d , t h e r e s t f o l l o w e d l i k e s o ma n y s h e e p .
Th e a c t u a l s i g n i n g t o o k p l a c e a t t h e B e v e r l y H i l l s s t u d i o s o f
Tw e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y Fo x , w i t h f l o o d l i g h t s b l a z i n g a n d c a me r a s g r i n d -
i n g . If o n l y t h e Fo u n d i n g Fa t h e r s b a c k i n ' 7 6 h a d h a d s u c h a d -
v a n t a g e s ! As t h e c e r e mo n y p r o c e e d e d , t h e y e a r 1 9 3 9 c a me o v e r t h e
h o r i z o n , b u t n o n e o f t h e a c t o r s c o u l d g u e s s t h a t i t h e l d a n t i - c l i ma x
f o r t h e i r v e n t u r e . Th e s c h e me u n f o l d e d i n t h e n e x t mo n t h s
. " C o m-
mi t t e e s o f 5 6 " w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n o t h e r c i t i e s , a n d i t w a s a n n o u n c e d
t h a t t w e n t y mi l l i o n s u b s i d i a r y s i g n a t u r e s t o t h e d e c l a r a t i o n w o u l d b e
g a t h e r e d , f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C o n g r e s s t o f o r c e a b r e a k w i t h Ge r ma n y
.
Th e Ne w Y o r k 5 6 ' e r s , t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r a p p r i s e d , w o u l d b e c a p t a i n e d
b y D o r o t h y P a r k e r , Sy l v i a Si d n e y , Fr a n c e s Fa r me r , D a s h i e l l H a m-
me t t , Jo h n Ga r f i e l d a n d o t h e r s .
Th e g a t h e r i n g o f t h e s i g n a t u r e s w a s s t i l l u n d e r w a y w i t h B i b e r ma n
t o u r i n g t h e n a t i o n w h e n St a l i n s h i f t e d i n t o r e v e r s e . H e ma d e f r i e n d s
w i t h H i t l e r a n d l e f t p o o r H o l l y w o o d h o l d i n g t h e b a g , w h e r e i n t h e
d e c l a r a t i o n a n d s u b s i g n a t u r e s a n d n e w s r e e l s o n t h e s u b j e c t b u l k e d
l a r g e a n d u n c o mf o r t a b l e
. Th e d r a ma h a d t u r n e d t o f a r c e . B i b e r ma n
a p o l o g i z e d f o r h a v i n g b e e n t e mp o r a r i l y a w a r mo n g e r a n d t h e d e c l a r a -
t i o n w a s h u r r i e d o u t o f s i g h t i f n o t o u t o f mi n d .
To c o mp l i c a t e ma t t e r s t h e H o l l y w o o d An t i - Na z i Le a g u e h a d e l e c -
t i o n s s c h e d u l e d f o r Se p t e mb e r j u s t a f t e r St a l i n h a d g o t t h e w a r
s t a r t e d
. B e f o r e d e c i s i o n s c o u l d b e ma d e t o a b a n d o n t h e a n t i - Na z i
l a b e l , t h e me e t i n g w a s u p o n t h e m
. Ap l e n i p o t e n t i a r y f r o mNe w Y o r k
h a i l e d t h e So v i e t - Na z i P a c t a s a g l o r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w o r l d p e a c e
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 9 5
a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e w a r a s a n " i mp e r i a l i s t " o n e f o r d i v i s i o n o f s p o i l s .
On l y t h e mo s t p u r e - mi n d e d a n d t h e t r u e s t o f t h e b r e t h r e n w o u l d h a v e
s t u c k o u t t h e i r n e c k s a t t h i s t i me . Th o s e w h o w e n t a l o n g a f t e r t h i s
d a t e p r e s u ma b l y r e p r e s e n t t h e c r e me d e l a c r e me o f H o l l y w o o d St a l i n -
i s m .
Th e o f f i c e r s e l e c t e d a t t h i s me e t i n g a r e t h e r e f o r e a k i n d o f
h o n o r r o l l : P r e s i d e n t , D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t ; Vi c e - P r e s i d e n t , Fr a n k
Tu t t l e ; Se c r e t a r y , D u d l e y Ni c h o l s
; Tr e a s u r e r , B e r n B e r n h a r d
; Ex e c u t i v e
B o a r d , Mi l t o n Me r l i n , Ed w a r d C h o d o r o f f , P r o f e s s o r B y r n e , Ma r i o n
Sp i t z e r , J . E. B r o mb e r g , Ma r v i n H a r r i s , C h a r l e s K a t z , Mr s . B e a t r i c e
B u c h ma n , Ma x w e l l Sh a n e , D o n a l d Ro s e , H e r b e r t B i b e r ma n , Fr a n c i s
Fa r a g o h , Ir a Ra t n e r , Mr s . C h a r l e s P a g e , H y C r a f t , Ja y Go r n e y , Fr a n k
Sc u l l y , Mr s . Je r o me Sa c k h e i m . *
Th e St a l i n - H i t l e r P a c t , h e r e a s e v e r y w h e r e , s p e l l e d c a t a s t r o p h e .
Wh i l e a l a r g e r n u mb e r t h a n mo s t mo v i e - g o e r s s u s p e c t h e l d o n g r i ml y
t o t h e p a r t y l i n e , l e a r n e d t o c u r s e Ro o s e v e l t a n d t o b l e s s i s o l a t i o n i s m
a n d t o a v o i d h a r s h w o r d s a b o u t C o mr a d e H i t l e r , t h e g l o w h a d d e -
p a r t e d . As t h e u s e f u l Mr . B l e d s o e w r o t e e a r l y i n 1 9 4 0
: " Wh a t St a l i n
i s d o i n g t o Fi n l a n d i s n o t h i n g c o mp a r e d t o w h a t h e h a s d o n e t o t h e
i n n o c e n t , h i g h - p i t c h e d , h y p n o t i c f a i t h o f H o l l y w o o d . Fo r o n c e t h e
c i t y f a c e d Re a l i t y , a n d i t t u r n s o u t t o b e j u s t a n o t h e r p i e c e o f ma k e -
b e l i e v e
. " Al a s , mo v i e s t a r s u p o n w h o mJe r o me a n d B i b e r ma n o n c e
c o u l d c o u n t i mp l i c i t l y n o w v i s i t e d C o n g r e s s ma n D i e s t o d e n y i t a l l .
Me l v y n D o u g l a s a c c e p t e d t h e l e a d i n s u c h s a c r i l e g i o u s p i c t u r e s a s
Ni n o t c h k a a n d H e St a y e d f o r B r e a k f a s t , s w o r e o f f c o mmu n i s t o r g a n -
i z a t i o n s a n d e v e n b e g a n t o w r i t e f o r t h e a n t i - St a l i n Ne w Le a d e r . So me
o f t h e b a b e s i n t h e H o l l y w o o d s a r e s t i l l r u b b i n g t h e i r e y e s a n d w o n -
d e r i n g w h e t h e r i t r e a l l y h a p p e n e d . In a w h i s p e r f o r t h o s e w h o ma y
q u e r y me o r a s s a i l me o n t h e s u b j e c t : " I' ms o r r y , b u t i t d i d h a p p e n .
An d h o w l "
5
B r o a d w a y w a s a p a l e r e f l e c t i o n o f H o l l y w o o d . It c o u l d n o mo r e
c o mp e t e w i t h t h e c e l l u l o i d i n d u s t r y i n r e v o l u t i o n t h a n i n o t h e r t y p e s
o f a mu s e me n t . B u t i t t r i e d h a r d a n d c h a l k e d u p s o me n o t a b l e v i c -
t o r i e s . Th e u l t r a - Le f t d a y s o f t h e Ne w Th e a t r e Le a g u e h a d p e t e r e d
o u t t h o u g h t h e e r mi n e a n d c h i n c h i l l a l a d i e s w e r e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r
* D a i l y Wo r k e r , Se p t e mb e r 2 9 , 1 9 3 9 .
2 9 6
TH ERED D EC AD E
p r o l e t a r i a n d r a ma o p e n i n g s
. B u t a Th e a t r e Ar t s C o mmi t t e e - TAC
f o r s h o r t - h a d c o me i n t o b e i n g a s c a t c h a l l f o r c o mr a d e l y a c t i v i t i e s
.
Th e ma g a z i n e Ne w Th e a t r e f o l d e d t h e s a me mo n t h TAC , w i t h i t s
o w n ma g a z i n e , w a s b o r n
. TAC h a d b e e n s p o n s o r e d b y t h e u b i q u i t o u s
Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 3 7 , b u t i t g r e w
s o l u s t y t h a t i t c o u l d g o o n b y i t s e l f
. It s p r o u t e d b r a n c h e s i n , H o l l y -
w o o d , Wa s h i n g t o n , C h i c a g o a n d o t h e r c i t i e s
. B u t t h e f r u i t s o f t h e
Ne w Y o r k mo t h e r - t r e e a r e b e s t r e c o r d e d .
Amo n g t h e p r o mi n e n t t h e a t r i c a l a n d c i n e ma f o l k w h o h a v e h a d
p l a c e s o n t h e TAC e x e c u t i v e b o a r d a r e Ro b e r t B e n c h l e y , Re mo
B u f a n o , C o n s t a n c e C u mmi n g s , Ja n e D u d l e y , An g n a En t e r s , Fr a n c e s
Fa r me r , Jo h n Ga r f i e l d , Li l l i a n H e l l ma n , Re x In g r a m, Fr e d K e a t i n g ,
Ed w a r d K e r n , P h i l i p Lo e b , Ro b e r t Re e d , H e r ma n Sh u ml i n , Vi r g i n i a
St e v e n s , Mr s
. D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t ( s h e f u n c t i o n e d t h u s o r u n d e r
t h e ma i d e n a p p e l l a t i o n o f El l a Wi n t e r , a s n e e d r e q u i r e d ) , P a u l St r a n d ,
Ma r t i n Wo l f s o n
. Wh i l e w e i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z e n a me s f a mi l i a r o n a l l
St a l i n i s t l i s t s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g e n u i n e i n n o c e n t s i s l a r g e r
. Wh y
s h o u l d a n y o n e e x p e c t t h e a t r e p e o p l e t o l o o k b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e o f
p o l i t i c a l ma k e - u p , a n d u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e y s a w a n y mo r e t h a n c o l l e g e
p r o f e s s o r s o r c l e r g y me n ?
TAC r a i s e d mo n e y f o r a l l t h e c a u s e s O
. K . ' d b y t h e c o mmi s s a r s . It
d i d s o d i r e c t l y a n d b y p r o v i d i n g a r t i s t i c t a l e n t t o f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
On e C h r i s t ma s i t e v e n p u t u p a h u g e C h r i s t ma s t r e e o n C o l u mb u s
C i r c l e , Ne w Y o r k , w i t h r e c e p t a c l e s f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e c o r r e c t
c a u s e s . . . . St a l i n i n t h e r o l e o f Sa n t a C l a u s , n o l e s s ! TAC p u t o n
s k i t s a n d s a n g s o n g s a b s o l u t e l y p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e p a r t y l i n e
: p r o mo t i n g
c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y , a t t a c k i n g f a s c i s t a g g r e s s o r s , e x t o l l i n g t h e So v i e t
Un i o n ' s p e a c e a n d d e mo c r a c y
. Un a w a r e t h a t i t w o u l d s o o n h a v e t o
t a k e a n i mp a s s i o n e d s t a n d f o r i s o l a t i o n , a g a i n s t Fi n n i s h r e l i e f a n d f o r
a i d a n d c o mf o r t t o H i t l e r , TAC i n i t s g l o r y w h o o p e d i t u p f o r t h e v e r y
o p p o s i t e o f t h e s e s e n t i me n t s
. In No v e mb e r , 1 9 3 8 , i t s o f f i c i a l ma g a z i n e
w r o t e
: " P r o - f a s c i s t i n t e r e s t s i n Ame r i c a a r e p l e a d i n g i s o l a t i o n a t t h i s
c r u c i a l t i me . Is o l a t i o n i s a p r e l u d e t o c a t a s t r o p h e , n o t o n l y f o r Eu r o p e
b u t f o r Ame r i c a . " In t h e f o l l o w i n g mo n t h TAC p e t i t i o n e d P r e s i d e n t
Ro o s e v e l t f o r a n e mb a r g o a g a i n s t Ge r ma n y
. In Ap r i l , 1 9 3 9 - t h r e e
mo n t h s b e f o r e i t r e a l i z e d t h a t H i t l e r w a s j u s t a n o t h e r i mp e r i a l i s t l i k e
Ro o s e v e l t a n d C h u r c h i l l - TAC t o l d t h e t h e a t r e w o r l d :
We w h o l e h e a r t e d l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e Un i t e d St a t e s mu s t t a k e a
REVOLUTIONC OMES

2 9 7
l e a d i n g p a r t i n t h e b l o c o f d e mo c r a t i c n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e o r g a n i z i n g
t o r e s i s t H i t l e r
. WEMUSTSTOP H ITLER.
Th e me mb e r s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , f i v e h u n d r e d s t r o n g , s h o w e d t h e y
me a n t b u s i n e s s b y ma r c h i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g Ma y " St o p H i t l e r "
P a r a d e .
At h e a t r i c a l s e t u p i s p e r f e c t f o r l u r i n g t h e u n s u s p e c t i n g . Th e r e i s
a b o u t i t a n a u r a o f t h e p l a y w o r l d a n d c h i l d l i k e i n n o c e n c e t h a t d e f i e s
s u s p i c i o n . On l y t h a t c a n e x p l a i n t h e c i r c u ms t a n c e t h a t TAC f u n d -
r a i s i n g f o r c o mr a d e l y c o f f e r s o n o c c a s i o n e n s n a r e d t h e h e l p o f p e o p l e
l i k e B r o o k s At k i n s o n , H e l e n H a y e s , Le e Si mo n s o n , d o z e n s o f o t h e r s .
Gl a mo r o u s p l a y - a c t i n g n a me s o n t h e b i l l b o a r d s o f d r i v e s a n d c o m-
mi t t e e s - p a r t y s t a l w a r t s i n t h e w i n g s t o d i r e c t t h e w o r k a n d r a k e i n
" t h e t a k e . " It w a s a p e r f e c t d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r , i f r a t h e r i mp e r f e c t d i v i -
s i o n o f s p o i l s .
Th e c o u n s e l o f TAC w a s H a r r y Sa c h e r , w h o u s e d t o t e a c h a t t h e
C o mmu n i s t Wo r k e r s ' Sc h o o l i n C h i c a g o , a n d w a s a l s o l e g a l a d v i s o r
t o Q u i l l ' s Tr a n s p o r t Wo r k e r s Un i o n . It s f i n a n c i a l a d v i s e r w a s B e r n a r d
Re i s , w h o s e n a me a p p e a r e d o n v a r i o u s " f r o n t " l i s t s . Ev e r y TAC
a c t i v i t y a u t o ma t i c a l l y r a t e d f u l l c o v e r a g e i n t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r a n d
g l o w i n g r e v i e w s i n t h e Ne w Ma s s e s . Of t h e TAC b o a r d o f t w e n t y -
e i g h t , t w e n t y h a d b e e n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e Ne w Th e a t r e - t h e c o n t i n u i t y
o f t h e s e e f f o r t s i s t r u l y r e ma r k a b l e a n d r e v e a l s t h e u n s u b t l e h a n d o f
t h e s t a g e ma n a g e r s .
Th e Th e s p i a n s , p l a y w r i g h t s , s c r i p t w r i g h t s , d i r e c t o r s , s t r i p - t e a s e
a r t i s t s , e t c . , f u n c t i o n e d b o t h t h r o u g h t h e i r o w n B r o a d w a y a n d H o l l y -
w o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t h r o u g h t h e mo r e g e n e r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Th e y
w e r e a t o n c e a s o u r c e o f i n c o me t o t h e c o mmu n i s t mo v e me n t a n d
a n i n v a l u a b l e d e c o r a t i v e e l e me n t . Th e c e r t a i n t y o f me e t i n g o n e o r
a n o t h e r o f t h e e f f u l g e n t o n e s w a s a mo n g t h e l u r e s h e l d o u t b y mo n e y -
r a i s i n g c o c k t a i l p a r t i e s , ma s s me e t i n g s , a n d e v e n p i c k e t l i n e s .
Wi t h t h e c h a n g e i n t h e p a r t y l i n e a f t e r t h e l o v e f e l t w i t h H i t l e r ,
t h e b e s t d a y s o f t h e H o l l y w o o d - B r o a d w a y - Mo s c o w Ax i s w e r e o v e r .
Y e t e n o u g h o f t h e Ax i s r e ma i n e d t o s u p p o r t St a l i n ' s " l i b e r a t i o n o f
Fi n l a n d " a n d t o t h r o w mo n k e y w r e n c h e s i n t o t h e ma c h i n e r y o f o u r
o w n n a t i o n a l r e a r ma me n t a n d o u r o w n n a t i o n a l mo r a l e . H o w e v e r
i n n o c e n t l y s o me o f t h e mma y h a v e s t a r t e d o u t i n p l a y i n g w i t h t o t a l i -
t a r i a n i s m, i t s f u me s p e n e t r a t e d t h e i r mi n d s a n d h e a r t s t o o d e e p l y f o r
e a s y f u mi g a t i o n .
C H AP TERXXV
AMERIC A' SOWNP OP ULARFRONT
GOVERNMENT
1
T
H Ema i n p u r p o s e o f t h e C o mi n t e r n i n i t s f a b u l o u s " d e mo c r a t i c "
p e r i o d , o f c o u r s e , w a s t o e s t a b l i s h P e o p l e ' s o r P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v -
e r n me n t s i n a s ma n y c o u n t r i e s a s p o s s i b l e . Th e P o p u l a r Fr o n t
i d e a , h o w e v e r , mu s t n o t b e c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e r u n - o f - t h e - mi n e c o a l i -
t i o n g o v e r n me n t . It s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g ma r k w a s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e
c o mmu n i s t s - n o t s o mu c h a s a d o me s t i c p o l i t i c a l e l e me n t b u t f r a n k l y
a s a g e n t s a n d s p o k e s me n o f So v i e t Ru s s i a .
In Fr a n c e , w h e r e t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t r e g i me u n d e r Le o n B l u m
o f f e r e d t h e c l e a r e s t e x e mp l i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s u n i q u e p o l i t i c a l i n s t r u me n t ,
e v e r y o n e c o n c e r n e d t o o k i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e Fr e n c h
c o mmu n i s t s o n e v e r y i s s u e , d o me s t i c a n d f o r e i g n , w e r e d e c i d e d i n
Mo s c o w . Ap r o p e r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v e r n me n t ,
t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d b e
: a c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n me n t w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r
Ru s s i a
. Su c h i n c l u s i o n o f a f o r e i g n g o v e r n me n t i n a s o v e r e i g n d o me s t i c
c a b i n e t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y b i z a r r e
. It s e q u i v a l e n t s w e r e p r o v i d e d l a t e r i n
s o me w h a t d i f f e r e n t f o r mb y p u p p e t r e g i me s i n w h i c h Ge r ma n y p a r -
t i c i p a t e d t h r o u g h l o c a l Na z i p a r t i e s .
Wh e r e t h e C o mi n t e r n c o u l d n o t a c h i e v e a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
u n i t e d - f r o n t g o v e r n me n t s , i t e x e r c i s e d p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e t h r o u g h i t s
b l o c o f c o mmu n i s t d e p u t i e s i n v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . B u t i n
En g l a n d a n d t h e Un i t e d St a t e s , w h e r e p o l i t i c a l c o mmu n i s mi s a
n e g l i g i b l e f o r c e , i t c o u l d o n l y o p e r a t e i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h f e l l o w - t r a v e l -
i n g , " s y mp a t h e t i c , " t o t a l i t a r i a n - l i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s .
It d i d s o w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s
.
We w i t n e s s e d t h e u n f o l d me n t i n t h i s c o u n t r y o f a n a ma z i n g u n -
o f f i c i a l P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v e r n me n t - u n r e c o g n i z e d , u n a d mi t t e d , i n d e -
p e n d e n t o f t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n , y e t o p e r a t i n g e n e r g e t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e
Ne w D e a l f r a me w o r k . It a d d e d u p t o t h e mo s t p o t e n t a n d u b i q u i t o u s
2 9 8
AMERIC A' SOWNP OP ULARFRONT

2 9 9
i n f l u e n c e i n
Wa s h i n g t o n , a h a l f - c l a n d e s t i n e g o v e r n me n t - w i t h i n - t h e -
g o v e r n me n t , a r r o g a n t l y o p e n i n s o me s p o t s o n s o me o c c a s i o n s b u t
c o n s p i r a t o r i a l i n e s s e n c e
. Th e Ro o s e v e l t Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n w a s a w a r e
o f t h e i n t r u s i o n a n d n e v e r q u i t e h a p p y a b o u t t h e e mb a r r a s s i n g c o l -
l a b o r a t i o n
. No w a n d t h e n i t ma d e f a c e - s a v i n g b u t f u t i l e g e s t u r e s t o
s h o o o f f t h e i n t r u d e r s
. B u t w i t h e v e r y p a s s i n g mo n t h t h e p e n e t r a t i o n
w a s d e e p e r , t h e e n t a n g l e me n t c l o s e r
. Th e l e a d e r s o f t h i s s u b r o s a
p o w e r w e r e f o r t h e mo s t p a r t n o t i n o f f i c e t h e ms e l v e s , b u t w o r k e d
t h r o u g h h u n d r e d s o f b i g a n d l i t t l e o f f i c i a l s d e p l o y e d t h r o u g h t h e
l e n g t h a n d b r e a d t h o f t h e mu s h r o o mi n g Ne w D e a l b u r e a u c r a c y
.
P e r h a p s Ic a n ma k e t h e p i c t u r e mo r e c o mp r e h e n s i b l e b y d e s c r i b i n g
i t i n mo r e f a mi l i a r Ame r i c a n t e r ms a s a
s u p e r - l o b b y , b i g g e r t h a n a l l
o t h e r l o b b i e s r o l l e d t o g e t h e r
. It i s t h e r o u t i n e t e c h n i q u e o f g r e a t
l o b b i e s t o a n g l e f o r s u p p o r t e r s i n h i g h p l a c e s , t o s mu g g l e t h e i r
c r e a t u r e s i n t o e v e r y g o v e r n me n t d e p a r t me n t , t o e x p l o i t t h e s o c i a l a s
w e l l a s p o l i t i c a l f o c u s e s o f i n f l u e n c e , t o d i s g u i s e s e l f - i n t e r e s t s a s u r g e n t
p o p u l a r c a u s e s
. Th e So v i e t s u p e r - l o b b y me r e l y f o l l o w e d t h i s t i me -
h o n o r e d t e c h n i q u e . Th e t h i n g w a s e x t r a o r d i n a r y o n l y i n t h e s i z e o f
i t s s u c c e s s a n d i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e u l t i ma t e c o n t r o l o f t h e a mb i t i o u s
u n d e r t a k i n g r e s t e d a t a l l t i me s i n t h e f i s t s o f a d i s t a n t d i c t a t o r
.
Mo s t o f t h o s e i n o f f i c i a l a n d s e mi - o f f i c i a l c i r c l e s w h o l e n t t h e m-
s e l v e s t o t h e s c h e me , w e ma y g r a n t , w e r e i g n o r a n t o f i t s i n s p i r a t i o n
a n d i t s i mp l i c a t i o n s . Th e y h a d - a n d mo s t l y r e t a i n t o t h i s d a y - a c o n -
f u s e d s e n s e o f t h e i r o w n v i r t u e a n d b o l d " l i b e r a l i s m" a s c h a mp i o n s
o f g l i t t e r i n g c a u s e s
. Th e y r e s e n t e d a n d s t i l l r e s e n t b e i n g r e mi n d e d
t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n ma n i p u l a t e d b y G
. P . U. a n d C o mi n t e r n o p e r a t i v e s .
C e r t a i n l y a l l b u t a f e w o f t h e u p p e r b r a c k e t Ne w D e a l e r s w h o w e r e
ma n e u v e r e d i n t o g i v i n g a i d a n d c o mf o r t t o t h i s f o r e i g n l o b b y w e r e
me r e l y v i c t i ms o f t h e i r o w n h i g h - mi n d e d e n t h u s i a s ms
. At w o r s t t h e y
w e r e d u p e s o f a n a ma t e u r Ma c h i a v e l l i s mw h i c h r e c o n c i l e d t h e m
t o a n y a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r n o b l e e n d s
. Th e St a l i n i s t s l o g a n s o f t h e p e r i o d
w e r e s o b e g u i l i n g t h a t t h e mo r e b e f u d d l e d o f f i c i a l s - l i k e t h e p r o f e s s o r s
a n d l i t e r a t i a n d p e n t h o u s e r e b e l s - s a w n o h a r mi n t a g g i n g a l o n g .
Th e Ne w D e a l d o o r s , p o l i t i c a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y , w e r e t h u s o p e n e d w i d e
t o t h e t e mp o r a r y K r e ml i n - d e mo c r a t s
.
Th e s u b
r o s a P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v e r n me n t w a s b o d i e d f o r t h i n t h e
f l o u r i s h i n g Wa s h i n g t o n c h a p t e r s o f a l l t h e p a r t y s e t u p s - t h e Le a g u e
f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y , t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s , t h e In t e r -
3
0 0 TH ERED D EC AD E
n a t i o n a l La b o r D e f e n s e , t h e Le a g u e o f Wo me n Sh o p p e r s , t h e Na t i o n a l
La w y e r s Gu i l d , v a r i o u s Sp a n i s h Ai d o u t f i t s , Fi l ms f o r D e mo c r a c y , t h e
Wo r k e r s Al l i a n c e , e t c . It f u n c t i o n e d t h r o u g h a s y s t e mo f w h a t mi g h t
b e c a l l e d i d e o l o g i c a l n e p o t i s m, g u a r a n t e e i n g a h o s t o f l i t t l e j o b s i n
s t r a t e g i c o f f i c e s f o r c o mr a d e s a n d t h e i r s y mp a t h i z e r s . It ma d e i t s e l f
ma n i f e s t i n t h a t e n d l e s s c h a i n o f g a r d e n a n d c o c k t a i l p a r t i e s , i n t i ma t e
d o - g o o d a n d s e r i o u s - t h i n k e r c o n f e r e n c e s a n d o t h e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s -
i n t h e h o me s o f Ne w D e a l b i g s h o t s , d o w n t o t h e c h i n t z y r o o ms o f
h u mb l e s t e n o g r a p h e r s w i t h s e x a p p e a l .
Th e P o p u l a r Fr o n t p r o s p e r e d i n Wa s h i n g t o n t h r o u g h t h e s n o b
a p p e a l o f t h e Ne w D e a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , a n d s u b c o n t r a c t o r b r a i n - t r u s t e r s
a n d p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l l a w y e r s a n d w r i t e r s - t u r n e d - p o l i t i c i a n
. C e r t a i n
C o n g r e s s me n a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e b o r e d w i v e s o f p o l i t i c i a n s w e r e t h r i l l e d
a n d f l a t t e r e d b y f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e p o l y s y l l a b i c s o p h i s t i c a t e s s c a t t e r e d
t h r o u g h a l l t h e n e w b u r e a u s , a g e n c i e s , p r o j e c t s . It a l l f i t t e d i n t o t h e
a mo r p h o u s c r u s a d i n g f e r v o r o f t h e Ne w D e a l e r a . P o l i t i c a l p a t r o n a g e
w a s b e i n g l a p p e d u p g r e e d i l y b y b o y s a n d g i r l s w h o t a l k e d Ve b l e n ,
Sp e n g l e r , Ma r x a n d t h e p a r t y l i n e a s g l i b l y a s t h e mo r n i n g ' s n e w s
.
Th e w h o l e s h o w w a s a g o d s e n d f o r u p - a n d - c o mi n g y o u n g l a w y e r s ,
f l u t t e r y s o c i a l w o r k e r s a n d c a p i t a l l a d i e s o f a r e s t l e s s r i p e n e s s o f y e a r s .
Th e y p l u n g e d i n t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l l i n g o a n d a c t i v i t i e s - a l l s o e x c i t i n g l y
u n o r t h o d o x , e d g e d w i t h c o n s p i r a c y y e t s e e mi n g l y h a r ml e s s .
Th e t r u t h i s t h a t d e s p i t e i t s f l a s h y p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s ma n d i t s
p o s e o f s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , Ne w D e a l Wa s h i n g t o n w a s i n f i n i t e l y
n a i v e a n d i n f i n i t e l y b e w i l d e r e d
. Th e c o mmu n i s t s g a v e s o me d i r e c t i o n
a n d c o n s i s t e n c y t o a v a g u e d o - g o o d i t c h
. In f a c t t h e mo r e s i n c e r e l y
r e f o r mi s t t h e n e w o f f i c i a l s w e r e , t h e e a s i e r ma r k s t h e y p r o v e d f o r
c a n n y , d i s c i p l i n e d c o mr a d e s a c t i n g a s a u n i t , a l l r e l e n t l e s s l y p u s h i n g
t h e s a me l i n e o f g o o d s w i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f c a u c u s e s a n d " d i r e c t i v e s
. "
Ne w D e a l e r s l i k e Le o n H e n d e r s o n , Wi l l i a m0 . D o u g l a s , H a r o l d L.
Ic k e s , Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t , Fr a n c e s P e r k i n s , Ro b e r t H . Ja c k s o n , J. Wa r r e n
Ma d d e n , e t c
. , e a c h c o mp e t e n t i n h i s o w n s p h e r e , w e r e a s h e l p l e s s
i n t h e p r a c t i c e d h a n d s o f t h e c o mr a d e s a s a n y p a r l o r f u l o f a g i n g l a d i e s
b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d i n h o w t o s a v e t h e w o r l d
.
Th e s u c c e s s o f t h e B r o w d e r b o y s i n Wa s h i n g t o n i s r e a l l y n o mo r e
r e ma r k a b l e t h a n t h e i r s u c c e s s o n t h e c a mp u s , a mo n g w r i t e r s , a mo n g
mo v i e a c t o r s , a mo n g l i b e r a l s g e n e r a l l y
. Th e P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v e r n -
me n t - w i t h i n - t h e - g o v e r n me n t w a s o n l y a s e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r Fo u r t h
P e r i o d p a t t e r n .
AMERIC A' SOWNP OP ULARFRONT

3 0 1
2
At t h e r i s k o f mi n o r r e p e t i t i o n s , l e t u s s u mu p a g a i n t h e t h r e e
s t a g e s o f t h e c o mmu n i s t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Ne w D e a l . Wh a t n e e d s
n o t i n g i s t h a t t h e i n i t i a t i v e a t e a c h t u r n w a s t a k e n b y t h e c o mr a d e s
o n e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o mt h e C o mi n t e r n b o s s e s . Th e r e w a s n o
b a s i s f o r t h e c h a n g e s i n s p e c i f i c a l l y Ame r i c a n e v e n t s
.
1 . Un t i l l a t e 1 9 3 5 . Th e c o mmu n i s t s w e r e s h r i l l y h o s t i l e
. F. D . R.
w a s a " f a s c i s t . . . f i n a n c i a l d i c t a t o r . . .
i mp e r i a l i s t , " g i v e n t o " s h a me -
l e s s d e ma g o g y " a n d " d r a s t i c a t t a c k s u p o n t h e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s o f t h e
ma s s e s . . . t e r r o r i z a t i o n o f t h e Ne g r o . . . s y s t e ma t i c d e n i a l o f c i v i l
r i g h t s . " Th e s e a r e o n l y mi l d s a mp l e s o f St a l i n i s t a p p r a i s a l s o f Mr .
Ro o s e v e l t ' s g o v e r n me n t .
2 . Fr o m1 9 3 5 u n t i l t h e So v i e t - Na z i a l l i a n c e
. Wi t h o u t s o mu c h a s
a d e c e n t i n t e r v a l o f t r a n s i t i o n , t h e P r e s i d e n t e me r g e d i n c o mmu n i s t
c i r c l e s a s t h e d o u g h t y s a v i o r w h o w a s " k e e p i n g o u r c o u n t r y o n t h e
p a t h o f p r o g r e s s i v e a n d d e mo c r a t i c d e v e l o p me n t , " t o q u o t e C o mr a d e
B r o w d e r
. Th e h o s a n n a s f o r t h e Ne w D e a l i n t h e Mu s c o v i t e p r e s s
h e r e a n d i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n s o f a l l t h e f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e c a me f r e n -
z i e d . P a g e s c o u l d b e f i l l e d w i t h St a l i n i s t h y mn s t o Ro o s e v e l t w h i c h
n o t e v e n h i s e x p l i c i t r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i r s u p p o r t c o u l d s q u e l c h f o r a
mo me n t . Th e p a r t y d i d i t s b e s t i n 1 9 3 6 a n d i n s u b s e q u e n t e l e c t i o n s
t o r o l l u p v o t e s f o r t h e Ne w D e a l t h r o u g h La b o r ' s No n - P a r t i s a n
Le a g u e , t h e Ame r i c a n La b o r P a r t y i n Ne w Y o r k a n d o t h e r c h a n n e l s .
D o u b t o f t h e Ne w D e a l o r a n y o f i t s p r o j e c t s - i n c l u d i n g t h e Su p r e me
C o u r t e n l a r g e me n t s c h e me , t h e n o mi n a t i o n o f j u s t i c e B l a c k , t h e r e -
o r g a n i z a t i o n b i l l - w a s a c c o u n t e d c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e r e mo t e s t
r e a c h e s o f t h e p e r i p h e r y . P e r h a p s t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l Wo r k e r s Or d e r ,
h e a d e d b y a n e x e c u t i v e me mb e r o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , b e s t o w e d
t h e s u p r e me a c c o l a d e w h e n i t l i s t e d Mr . Ro o s e v e l t ' s b i r t h d a y a l o n g -
s i d e o f Le n i n ' s i n i t s a n n u a l c a l e n d a r , a mo n g t h e n o t a b l e e v e n t s i n
h u ma n p r o g r e s s .
3
. Af t e r t h e Mo s c o w - B e r l i n P a c t . Lo v e f o r t h e g o v e r n me n t , b o r n
mi r a c u l o u s l y w i t h o u t a p e r i o d o f g e s t a t i o n , e x p i r e d a b r u p t l y w i t h o u t
a n i n t e r v a l o f a i l me n t . P r e t e n d i n g t h a t F. D . R. ,
r a t h e r t h a n t h e p a r t y
l i n e o n F. D . R. , h a d s u d d e n l y c h a n g e d , t h e c o mr a d e s a n n o u n c e d t h a t
h e h a d b e e n " t r a n s f o r me d a l mo s t o v e r n i g h t . . .
f r o ma Ne w D e a l ,
p r o g r e s s i v e a d mi n i s t r a t i o n . . . i n t o t h e l e a d e r a n d o r g a n i z e r o f a l l
r e a c t i o n a r y f o r c e s i n t h e c o u n t r y , " c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h " t h e Wa l l St r e e t
3 0 2
TH ERED D EC AD E
c a mp " i n " s p r e a d i n g t h e w a r , " g u i l t y o f " s c r a p p i n g t h e Ne w D e a l
s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , c u r b i n g a n d w e a k e n i n g t h e l a b o r mo v e me n t a n d
o p p r e s s i n g t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y
. " Th e q u o t e s a r e f r o mB r o w d e r .
Ev e r y o n e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l p r i v a t e a n d p o -
l i t i c a l f a mi l i e s h a d l o n g g r a c e d w i t h t h e i r p a t r o n a g e - i n c l u d i n g a f e w
w h i c h Mr s
. Ro o s e v e l t , Mr . Ja c k s o n , Mr
. H e n d e r s o n a n d o t h e r s c o n -
t i n u e d s t u b b o r n l y t o p a t r o n i z e e v e n a f t e r t h i s - n o w d i s c o v e r e d u n a n i -
mo u s l y t h a t Mr
. Ro o s e v e l t w a s a " w a r mo n g e r " a n d , o f a l l t h i n g s , a n
Ec o n o mi c Ro y a l i s t .
Th e i l l i c i t p a r t n e r s h i p h a d b e e n s t a r t e d b y t h e C o mi n t e r n a n d
c a l l e d o f f b y t h e C o mi n t e r n
. It w a s n e i t h e r mo r e n o r l e s s t h a n a
K r e ml i n " t a c t i c . " Ma n y o f t h o s e i n Wa s h i n g t o n w h o f e l l i n l i n e w i t h
t h e t a c t i c ma y h a v e k i d d e d t h e ms e l v e s t h a t t h e y w e r e u s i n g t h e c o m-
mu n i s t s . B y t h i s t i me t h e y k n o w , o n e h o p e s , t h a t t h e y w e r e b e i n g
u s e d - a n d d e s p i s e d f o r t h e i r i n n o c e n c e . Th e b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e l a t e r
c o mmu n i s t a t t a c k s o n t h e Ne w D e a l w a s a me a s u r e o f t h e d i s d a i n i n
w h i c h t h e d u p e s h a d b e e n h e l d a l l a l o n g .
3
Th e Ne w D e a l , g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o mo t i n g l a b o r u n i o n i z a -
t i o n , w a s p l a y i n g w i t h t h e C . I. O. Th e C . I. O. i n t u r n w a s p l a y i n g w i t h
t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y . An i n c r e a s i n g l y c l o s e a n d o v e r l a p p i n g c o n t a c t
a mo n g t h e t h r e e g r o u p s w a s t h e r e f o r e i n e v i t a b l e . Th e c o - o p e r a t i o n
w a s f a i r l y o b v i o u s i n p l a c e s l i k e t h e D e p a r t me n t o f La b o r , t h e Na t i o n a l
La b o r Re l a t i o n s B o a r d , t h e Ma r i t i me La b o r B o a r d .
No o n e i n h i s s e n s e s w o u l d s u s p e c t t h e p r i ma n d h i g h - mi n d e d
Ma d a mP e r k i n s , Se c r e t a r y o f La b o r , o f b e i n g a c o mmu n i s t . Th e i d e a
i s l u d i c r o u s . Y e t h e r a w e d r e s p e c t f o r " l i b e r a l " o p i n i o n , h e r i n t i mi -
d a t e d me e k n e s s a s a g a i n s t t h e b e e t l e - b r o w e d Le w i s , h e r c o n f u s e d e a g e r -
n e s s t o d o t h e Le f t t h i n g , ma d e h e r p u t t y i n St a l i n i s t h a n d s . Th e y
s t o c k e d h e r d e p a r t me n t w i t h " d e p e n d a b l e " c o mr a d e s . Th e D i e s
C o mmi t t e e w a s a b l e t o l i s t f i f t y - s i x Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y
t r a n s mi s s i o n - b e l t e r s i n Ma d a mP e r k i n s ' b a i l i w i c k , ma n y o f t h e mc o m-
mu n i s t a c t i v i s t s . Th e H a r r y B r i d g e s c r o w d , a s w e h a v e s e e n , b o a s t e d
o f i t s a c c e s s t o La b o r D e p a r t me n t f i l e s , a n d i t s i n f l u e n c e s u f f i c e d t o
t u r n a d e p o r t a t i o n h e a r i n g i n t o a f a r c i c a l w h i t e w a s h .
Ma d a mSe c r e t a r y ' s c o n f i d e n t i a l f i l i n g c l e r k w a s a w o ma n w h o l a t e r
ma r r i e d t h e n o t o r i o u s a n d s e l f - c o n f e s s e d So v i e t s p y , Ni c k D o z e n -
AMERIC A' SOWNP OP ULARFRONT

3 0 3
b e r g , r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d f r o mFe d e r a l p r i s o n . On e o f t h e p a r t y ' s mo s t
u s e f u l " d e c o r a t i o n s " i n t h e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , Me r l e D
. Vi n c e n t , b e c a me
D i r e c t o r o f H e a r i n g s i n t h e d e p a r t me n t ' s Wa g e a n d H o u r D i v i s i o n
.
H i s h i g h a n d d e l i c a t e o f f i c e d i d n o t d e t e r h i mf r o ms h a r i n g t h e p l a t -
f o r mw i t h El i z a b e t h Gu r l e y Fl y n n a n d o t h e r r a n k i n g c o mmu n i s t
l e a d e r s - e v e n a f t e r t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n o f w h i c h h e w a s p a r t w a s b e i n g
b r u t a l l y l a mb a s t e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s . On e o f H a r r y B r i d g e s ' c l o s e
f r i e n d s , D r . Lo u i s B l o c h , w a s a p p o i n t e d t o t h e Un i t e d St a t e Ma r i -
t i me La b o r B o a r d , a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h h e h a d t o ma k e i mp o r t a n t
d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g n o t o n l y B r i d g e s ' u n i o n s b u t a l s o Jo e C u r -
r a n ' s Na t i o n a l Ma r i t i me Un i o n . An d t h o s e a r e o n l y p e a k - p o i n t s ; t h e
p e n e t r a t i o n b e c a me mo r e e x t e n s i v e t h e d e e p e r o n e w e n t i n t o t h e
l o w e r s t r a t a o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y . An e w s p a p e r ma n h a s t o l d h o w , d u r i n g
h i s v i s i t t o t h e D e p a r t me n t o f In t e r i o r b u i l d i n g , h e h e a r d t h e e l e v a t o r
b o y i n c y n i c a l j e s t c a l l t h e f l o o r s " Se c o n d So v i e t , " " Th i r d So v i e t , "
e t c . On b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d , t h e b o y e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e s o ma n y
c o mmu n i s t s o n c e r t a i n f l o o r s t h a t t h e h e l p a r o u n d t h e b u i l d i n g r e -
f e r r e d t o t h e ma s So v i e t s .
AC o n g r e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a s u n c o v e r e d s o me o f t h e c o m-
mu n i s t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e Na t i o n a l La b o r Re l a t i o n s B o a r d , a s w e l l a s
i t s c o n s i s t e n t l o a d i n g o f t h e d i c e i n f a v o r o f t h e c o mmu n i s t w i n g o f
t h e C
. I. O. Un f o r t u n a t e l y o f f i c i a l s t u p i d i t y t o o k i t s f i r s t r e v e n g e n o t
o n a c o mmu n i s t b u t o n t h e v e r y ma n w h o h a d f o r y e a r s b e e n c o m-
b a t i n g St a l i n i s t i n f l u e n c e , D r . D a v i d Sa p o s s . H e h a d b e e n a t h o r n
i n t h e f l e s h o f t h e p a r t y b l o c i n t h e N. L. R. B . , w h i c h c l e v e r l y d i r e c t e d
t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l l i g h t n i n g a g a i n s t h i m, o f a l l p e o p l e . Th e f a c t t h a t
h o n e s t Ame r i c a n r a d i c a l s a n d l i b e r a l s a r e ma d e t o s u f f e r f o r t h e
ma c h i n a t i o n s o f St a l i n ' s f o r e i g n a g e n t s i s o n e o f t h e t r a g e d i e s o f t h e
s i t u a t i o n , b u t d e c i d e d l y i t d o e s n o t r e l i e v e t h e mo f t h e d u t y o f e x -
p o s i n g t h o s e a g e n t s . Th e c o mmu n i s t s k n o w t h e a n c i e n t " St o p t h i e f ! "
d e v i c e a n d u s e i t u n s p a r i n g l y .
In t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e l i f e o f t h e La b o r B o a r d , i t s r e i g n i n g t r i -
u mv i r a t e c o n s i s t e d o f Ed w i n S . Smi t h , Na t h a n Wi t t a n d Th o ma s I .
Eme r s o n - a l l o f w h o m, i t g o e s w i t h o u t s a y i n g , d e n y t h a t t h e y a r e i n
a n y s e n s e c o mmu n i s t s . Th e c h a i r ma n o f t h e b o a r d a t t h e t i me , J .
Wa r r e n Ma d d e n , w a s n o ma t c h f o r h i s a s s o c i a t e s
. Th e r e i s e v i d e n c e
t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t Na t h a n Wi t t , s e c r e t a r y o f t h e b o a r d , h a s b e e n
e x t r e me l y c l o s e t o p r o - c o mmu n i s t t r a d e - u n i o n o f f i c i a l s . Mr . Eme r s o n ,
a s s i s t a n t g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o f t h e b o a r d , w a s , a l o n g w i t h Wi t t , a mo n g t h e
3 0 4
TH ERED D EC AD E
f o u n d e r s o f t h e Na t i o n a l La w y e r s Gu i l d a n d l e a d e r s o f i t s e x t r e me
p r o - c o mmu n i s t f a c t i o n
. B o t h r e ma i n e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a f t e r i t
h a d b e e n p u b l i c l y d e n o u n c e d b y Ad o l p h A
. B e r l e , As s i s t a n t Se c r e t a r y
o f St a t e , a s c o mmu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d
. B o t h o f t h e ma r e f a mi l i a r f i g u r e s
a mo n g t h e s p o n s o r s o f o t h e r St a l i n i s t In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s . *
Ed w i n S
. Smi t h c a me t o Wa s h i n g t o n a s t h e p r o t e g e o f Ma r y Va n
K l e e c k , f o u n d e r o f t h e c o mmu n i s t - s p o n s o r e d In t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l As s o -
c i a t i o n a n d p a s s i o n a t e c h a mp i o n o f t h e p a r t y l i n e
. H e t o o k a p r o mi -
n e n t p l a c e i n t h e St a l i n i s t s o c i a l l o b b y a n d b e c a me a n e x e c u t i v e me m-
b e r o f t h e Wa s h i n g t o n Le a g u e f o r P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y
. H i s n a me
h a s b e e n a t t a c h e d t o a t l e a s t f i f t e e n t r a n s mi s s i o n b e l t s
. In 1 9 3 8 h e
a c c o mp a n i e d Mi s s Va n K l e e c k t o Me x i c o C i t y f o r t h e c o n f e r e n c e o f
t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l In d u s t r i a l Re l a t i o n s In s t i t u t e - t o t a s t e i t s p u b l i s h e d
p r o c e e d i n g s i s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e a c r i d Mu s c o v i t e f l a v o r
. Mr . Smi t h w a s
a c t i v e i n t h e Wa s h i n g t o n Fr i e n d s o f Sp a n i s h D e mo c r a c y a n d l a t e r
i n t h e Na t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Li b e r t i e s , b o t h t r a n s -
mi s s i o n b e l t s
. If h e i s n o t a p a r t y - l i n e r , t h e n t h e r e i s n o s u c h a n i ma l
.
Su p p o r t e d b y a n a s s o r t me n t o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s , l a w y e r s a n d mi n o r
j o b h o l d e r s w h o f o r r e a s o n s o f f a i t h o r r e a s o n s o f c a r e e r f o l l o w e d t h e
p a r t y l i n e , t h e t r i u mv i r a t e h a d t h e r u n o f t h e b o a r d , d e s p i t e t h e
s p i r i t e d o p p o s i t i o n o f me n l i k e D r . Sa p o s s a n d D r
. Wi l l i a mM. Le i s e r -
s o n
. Ap p l i c a n t s f o r j o b s c a me t o k n o w - a s s u c h t h i n g s a r e a l w a y s
k n o w n i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e - t h a t t h e b e s t w a y t o g e t i n t o t h e N
. L. R. B
.
w a s t o p l a y t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t g a me
. Ev e n c a s u a l i n s p e c t i o n r e v e a l s
t h a t t h e b o a r d ' s d e c i s i o n s w e r e c r u d e l y w e i g h t e d i n f a v o r o f t h e C
. I. O.
i n g e n e r a l a n d t h e B r i d g e s - C u r r a n - P r e s s ma n w i n g o f t h e C
. I. O. i n
p a r t i c u l a r .
Wh e n Mr . B e r l e r e s i g n e d f r o mt h e Na t i o n a l La w y e r s Gu i l d o n
Ju n e 5 , 1 9 4 0 , h e e x p l a i n e d t h a t " i t i s n o w o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t
ma n a g e me n t o f t h e g u i l d i s n o t p r e p a r e d t o t a k e a n y s t a n d w h i c h
c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y Li n e
. " It w a s a k i n d o f c o n -
f e s s i o n s i n c e a ma n o f h i s p e r s p i c a c i t y mi g h t h a v e d i s c o v e r e d t h e
c o n s p i c u o u s l y o b v i o u s b e f o r e t h a t . Li k e To mC o r c o r a n , At t o r n e y
Ge n e r a l Ja c k s o n , Na t h a n Ma n g o l d a n d o t h e r Ne w D e a l e r s , h e w a i t e d
u n t i l t h e H i t l e r - St a l i n a l l i a n c e h i t t h e mb e f o r e d i s o w n i n g t h i s f e l l o w -
* B o t h Wi t t a n d Eme r s o n r e s i g n e d , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s o n t h e
B o a r d , w h e n Ma d d e n w a s r e p l a c e d b y H a r r y Mi l l i s . Al t h o u g h t h e F. B . I . w a s
a t t h e t i me i n v e s t i g a t i n g Eme r s o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , h e w a s a p p o i n t e d t o a n i mp o r t a n t
p o s t i n t h e D e p a r t me n t o f j u s t i c e .
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3 0 5
t r a v e l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . Th e g u i l d i s a n o f f s h o o t o f t h e In t e r n a t i o n a l
La b o r D e f e n s e , Ame r i c a n s e c t i o n o f MOP Rw i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s i n
Mo s c o w - t h e s e c t i o n h e a d e d b y C o n g r e s s ma n Vi t o Ma r c a n t o n i o
. Al l
t h e p r o - c o mmu n i s t a n d p r o mi n e n t l y f e l l o w - t r a v e l i n g g e n t r y i n t h e
l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n h a d b e e n i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e g u i l d . Th o s e f a mi l i a r
w i t h t h e St a l i n i s t a p p a r a t u s h a d l o n g i d e n t i f i e d t h e l a w y e r s ' f r o n t a s
p a r t o f t h e ma c h i n e r y . B u t e v e n t h e b e l a t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b y Mr .
B e r l e d i d n o t b u d g e Me r l e D . Vi n c e n t , w h o r e ma i n e d a t t h e h e a d
o f t h e Wa s h i n g t o n c h a p t e r , a n d d o z e n s o f o t h e r g o v e r n me n t o f f i c i a l s .
Se c r e t a r y Ic k e s , s t u b b o r n l y r e f u s i n g t o a s c e r t a i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f h i s
h o s t s w h e n a c c e p t i n g i n v i t a t i o n s , ma d e t h e o p e n i n g a d d r e s s a t o n e
o f t h e Gu i l d me e t i n g s !
Mr . Ic k e s h a s f o r y e a r s b e e n w h e e l e d i n t o p o s i t i o n , l i k e a b u l k y
s t a g e p r o p , o n a l l s o r t s o f i d e o l o g i c a l o c c a s i o n s . Ve r b a l l y o r i n p e r s o n
h e p r o v i d e d t h e o p e n i n g i n v o c a t i o n s f o r s e s s i o n s o f t h e Le a g u e f o r
P e a c e a n d D e mo c r a c y , t h e Na t i o n a l Ne g r o C o n g r e s s , t h e Ne g r o Y o u t h
C o n g r e s s , t o n a me a f e w
. Th e Ame r i c a n St u d e n t Un i o n , a s w e h a v e
a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , f o r y e a r s ma d e c a p i t a l o u t o f P r e s i d e n t Ro o s e v e l t ' s
g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t . H i s w i f e k e y n o t e d a t t h e Wo r l d Y o u t h C o n -
g r e s s . Th e p r e s t i g e o f t h e Wh i t e H o u s e , i n d e e d , w a s u n t i l r e c e n t l y
t h e mo s t v a l u a b l e a s s e t o f t h e c o mmu n i s t l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e Ame r i c a n
Y o u t h C o n g r e s s
; t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h a t In n o c e n t s ' C l u b i n t o a n i n s t r u -
me n t f o r b l a c k j a c k i n g t h e Ne w D e a l f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s a d d e d a d i me n s i o n
o f i r o n y t o t h a t t r a g i - c o me d y o f t h e Fi r s t La d y ' s n o b l e b l u n d e r i n g . Tw o
Ne w D e a l o f f i c i a l s , Au b r e y Wi l l i a ms a n d Ro b e r t B u l k l e y , o p e n e d a
c o n g r e s s o f t h e Wo r k e r s Al l i a n c e , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o me o f w h o s e
f o r me r l e a d e r s ( n o w t h a t t h e y h a v e b r o k e n w i t h t h e p a r t y ) h a v e
d e n o u n c e d i t a s Mo s c o w - d o mi n a t e d . Th e So u t h e r n C o n f e r e n c e f o r
H u ma n We l f a r e s t a r t e d p r o c e e d i n g s w i t h P r e s i d e n t i a l b l e s s i n g s . Se c -
r e t a r y ( n o w Vi c e - P r e s i d e n t ) H e n r y A. Wa l l a c e ma d e t h e o p e n i n g
a d d r e s s f o r t h e C o n s u me r s Na t i o n a l Fe d e r a t i o n . Th e l i s t c o u l d b e
e x t e n d e d f o r p a g e s . Th e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e a l l c o mmu n i s t t r a n s -
mi s s i o n b e l t s .
Th e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n ' s u n b r i d l e d a t t a c k s o n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f
t h e Sp e c i a l C o mmi t t e e o n Un - Ame r i c a n Ac t i v i t i e s , h e a d e d b y C o n -
g r e s s ma n Ma r t i n D i e s o f Te x a s , w a s a c l e a r - c u t f u n c t i o n o f t h e P o p u -
l a r Fr o n t . Ev e r y o u n c e o f a v a i l a b l e f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r p r e s s u r e t h r o u g h -
o u t t h e c o u n t r y w a s mo b i l i z e d t o b l a s t t h e c o mmi t t e e a n d i t s c h a i r -
ma n . Me n a n d w o me n i n a l l w a l k s o f l i f e , w r i t e r s , o f f i c i a l s , mo v i e
3
0 6
TH ERED D EC AD E
s t a r s , p l a y b o y s p u r c h a s e d r e p u t a t i o n s a s " l i b e r a l s " a n d a b s o l u t i o n f o r
p a s t a n t i - l i b e r a l s i n s a t b a r g a i n p r i c e s - b y me r e l y t h r o w i n g a n o t h e r
b u c k e t o f mu d d y w a t e r a t t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e
. Ti me h a s mo r e t h a n
j u s t i f i e d t h e c o mmi t t e e ' s w o r k
. Su p p o r t e d b y a t i n y ma r g i n i n t h e
H o u s e a t t h e o u t s e t , t h e c o mmi t t e e ' s mo s t r e c e n t a p p r o p r i a t i o n w a s
ma d e b y a n a l mo s t u n a n i mo u s v o t e
. Th e v e r y ma n p u t i n t o t h e c o m-
mi t t e e a s a l i b e r a l c o u n t e r w e i g h t t o t h e Te x a s c h a i r ma n , C o n g r e s s ma n
Je r r y Vo o r h i s o f C a l i f o r n i a , b e c a me mo r e a n d mo r e c o n v i n c e d o f
t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e me n a c e u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d b e c a me i n c r e a s i n g l y
e n e r g e t i c i n h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n .
Th i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e h a s a p e r f e c t r e c o r d
.
It s f i r s t mo n t h s o f a c t i v i t y w e r e d e c i d e d l y b l u n d e r i n g
. Th e c h a i r ma n ' s
b l a s t s c o n t i n u e o c c a s i o n a l l y o n t h e f l a mb o y a n t s i d e
. Th e c o mmi t t e e
me mb e r s w e r e b e w i l d e r e d b y t h e o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f e v i d e n c e a n d i t s
t e e mi n g i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s
. Th e f a c t i s t h a t t h e y h a d b a r g e d w i t h -
o u t p r e p a r a t i o n i n t o a f i e l d t h a t c a l l e d f o r i mme n s e k n o w l e d g e a n d
f i n e d i s c r i mi n a t i o n i n j u d g me n t
. It s h a n d i c a p s w e r e mu l t i p l i e d a
h u n d r e d f o l d b y n a t i o n w i d e a t t a c k s a g a i n s t t h e u n d e r t a k i n g a n d t h e
r e a d i n e s s o f t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n , t h e p r e s s , t h e p u l p i t s , n e a r l y e v e r y -
b o d y t o e x p l o i t t h e c o mmi t t e e ' s e v e r y mi s t a k e o r p o l i t i c a l g a u c h e r i e
.
B u t t h e c o mmi t t e e l e a r n e d a s i t w e n t a l o n g
. Fo r a l l i t s e r r o r s o f
j u d g me n t a n d o c c a s i o n a l b o n e r s , t h e D i e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a s d o n e a n
o u t s t a n d i n g j o b t h a t n e e d e d d o i n g
. Th e s a me p e o p l e w h o d a mn e d
D i e s w h e n t h e ma c h i n a t i o n s o f Mo s c o w a g e n t s w e r e e x p o s e d p r a i s e d
h i mw h e n t h e e x p o s u r e w a s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t Na z i a n d Fa s c i s t , Si l v e r
Sh i r t a n d o t h e r n a t i v e k n o w - n o t h i n g a g e n t s
. In t h e e n d , b y s h e e r
i n d u s t r y i n p i l i n g u p v o l u me u p o n v o l u me o f d e t a i l e d e v i d e n c e , t h e
D i e s C o mmi t t e e s u c c e e d e d i n d e mo n s t r a t i n g t h a t a l l t h e s e mo v e me n t s
a n d p h o b i a s w e r e , a t b o t t o m, p a r t o f a s i n g l e t o t a l i t a r i a n , a n t i -
d e mo c r a t i c p a t t e r n . H a d t h e Ad mi n i s t r a t i o n b e e n mo r e c o - o p e r a t i v e
w i t h t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e , i t w o u l d h a v e h a d l e s s o f a h e a d a c h e i n
l a t e r y e a r s f r o mc o mmu n i s t - l e d s t r i k e s a g a i n s t t h e d e f e n s e p r o g r a m
a n d l e s s t o f e a r f r o mc o mmu n i s t Fi f t h C o l u mn i s t s d e e p w i t h i n t h e
g o v e r n me n t d e p a r t me n t s .
An e n t e r p r i s i n g r e s e a r c h ma n w i l l o n e d a y ma k e a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f
t h e n a t i o n w i d e d r i v e s t o k i l l t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e
. It ma y r e v e a l w h a t
i s p e r h a p s t h e mo s t i n t e n s i v e c a mp a i g n o f t h i s k i n d i n Ame r i c a n
h i s t o r y - a c a mp a i g n s u p p o r t e d b y e v e r y b r a n d o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m, b y
a mi s g u i d e d l i b e r a l i s ma n d b y t h e g o v e r n me n t , a n d r a n g i n g f r o m
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o r d i n a r y c a l u mn y t o a t t e mp t s a t f r a me - u p
. Wh i l e t h e r e w e r e s t r o n g
Na z i a n d Fa s c i s t i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h e a n t i - D i e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i t w a s
o v e r w h e l mi n g l y a P o p u l a r Fr o n t e x p l o i t , u n r e s t r a i n e d a n d d e s p e r a t e
.
4
Th i s mu s t s u f f i c e t o i n d i c a t e t h e b o l d n e s s o f t h e p a r t y - l i n e b r i g a d e s
a n d t h e i r s u c c e s s i n i n v o l v i n g p o p e y e d n e o - l i b e r a l s a n d o v e r n i g h t s o -
c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i s t s i n t h e i r w o r k
. It i s p e r f e c t l y o b v i o u s t h a t mo s t o f
t h e s e Ne w D e a l l e a d e r s e i t h e r h a d n o u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s u p e r -
l o b b y , o r r e a s o n e d t h a t i t s a c t i v i t i e s w e r e n o t h a r mf u l
. Th e c u mu -
l a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h i s c o mp l a c e n c y w a s t o g i v e St a l i n ' s c o h o r t s t h e i n s i d e
t r a c k i n o u r c a p i t a l
. H e r e , a s i n H o l l y w o o d , t h e p i g La t i n o f t h e c a u s e
c a u g h t o n
. It w a s o p e n k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e s h o r t e s t r o u t e t o a g o v e r n -
me n t j o b w a s t h r o u g h Th i r t e e n t h St r e e t o r i t s Wa s h i n g t o n r e p r e s e n t a -
t i v e s .
Th e s o c i a l l o b b y , i n w h i c h t h e w o me n p l a y e d t h e l e a d i n g r o l e s ,
w a s i n ma n y r e s p e c t s t h e mo s t e f f e c t i v e me c h a n i s mi n t h e P o p u l a r
Fr o n t
. Th e l i s t s o f t h e Wa s h i n g t o n c o l l a b o r a t o r s o f t h e Le a g u e o f
Wo me n Sh o p p e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , s o u n d s l i k e a w h o ' s w h o o f Ne w
D e a l s o c i e t y
: Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t , Mr s . Mo r g e n t h a u , Mr s
. P r e s s ma n , Mr s .
Ez e k i e l , Mr s . Wi t t , Mr s
. Gi f f o r d P i n c h o t , e t c
. Y e t t h e f i l e s o f t h e
P h i l a d e l p h i a C o mmu n i s t P a r t y l i s t e d t h i s l e a g u e a s a " p a r t y o r g a n -
i z a t i o n
. " No o n e f a mi l i a r w i t h t h e In n o c e n t s ' Fr o n t p e r s o n n e l c a n
p o s s i b l y d o u b t t h i s
. In n e a r l y e v e r y c i t y i t s ma i n a d mi n i s t r a t i v e j o b s
w e r e i n t h e h a n d s o f p a r t y me mb e r s
. H e l e n K a y , a p a r t y a c t i v i s t , w a s
i t s f i r s t e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y
. Th e D a i l y Wo r k e r a n d o t h e r p a r t y p a p e r s
r e p o r t e d t h i s Le a g u e ' s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h a t i n t i ma t e s o l i c i t u d e r e s e r v e d
f o r p a r t y f r o n t s
. Mr s . Al i n e D a v i s H a y s w a s t h e Ne w Y o r k c h a i r -
ma n o f b o t h t h e Le a g u e f o r Wo me n Sh o p p e r s a n d t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t p r o -
St a l i n Ame r i c a n P e a c e Mo b i l i z a t i o n .
In t h e
Ne w s Le t t e r o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a s l a t e a s Ma y , 1 9 4 0 , " a g a y
c a r n i v a l " t o r a i s e f u n d s i s d e s c r i b e d . We l e a r n f r o mi t t h a t Su p r e me
C o u r t Ju s t i c e D o u g l a s a w a r d e d t h e p r i z e s a n d t h a t h i g h c r e d i t f o r t h e
g a i e t y mu s t g o t o " t h e p s y c h i c Ab e Fo r t a s
; t o Le o n H e n d e r s o n w h o s e
l o v e p o t i o n o f s u f f r a g e t r a n s f o r me d B e t t y Vi n t o n
; t o Me t c a l f e Wa l l i n g
a n d h i s P o s t b o y , Ga r d n e r Ja c k s o n
. " Un d e r t h e t i t l e " It i s C r i c k e t t o
P i c k e t , " t h e Le t t e r r e p o r t s a " s p i r i t e d t a l k " b y Mr s
. P i n c h o t , a f t e r
w h i c h " 2 5 v o l u n t e e r e d t o p i c k e t t h e n e x t We d n e s d a y a t t h e P r e s s
3 0 8

TH ERED D EC AD E
C a f e t e r i a . " Th a t c e l e b r a t e d a u t h o r i t y o n c i v i l l a w , Mi s s D o r o t h y
P a r k e r o f H o l l y w o o d a n d a l l In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s , p r e s i d e d a t t h e l e a g u e ' s
p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n o n " La b o r a n d C i v i l Ri g h t s . "
On e o f t h e g o o f i e r e p i s o d e s w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t -
s t a g e d a s s e mb l y o f w h a t w a s c a l l e d t h e " D a u g h t e r s o f t h e Ame r i c a n
D e p r e s s i o n . " Wi t h o u t i n q u i r i n g w h o w a s b e h i n d t h e g a t h e r i n g , w h o
s t a k e d t h e u n e mp l o y e d w o me n w h o c a me t o Wa s h i n g t o n , w h o s t a g e -
ma n a g e d t h e w h o l e s h o w , d r o v e s o f Ne w D e a l l a d i e s g a v e t h e i r n a me s
a s s p o n s o r s , a mo n g t h e mMr s . Ro o s e v e l t , Mr s . H e n r y F. Gr a d y , Mr s .
Ic k e s , Mr s . Th u r ma n Ar n o l d , Mi s s Jo s e p h i n e Ro c h e , Mr s . Ro b e r t H .
Ja c k s o n , Mr s . Ed w i n S
. Smi t h , a n d Mr s . Au b r e y Wi l l i a ms
.
In Wa s h i n g t o n , n o l e s s t h a n i n H o l l y w o o d , t h e Sp a n i s h Lo y a l i s t
c a u s e w a s mi s u s e d w i t h a ma z i n g s u c c e s s t o c h a n n e l o f f e mo t i o n a n d
d o l l a r s . Le o n H e n d e r s o n w a s e s p e c i a l l y p r o mi n e n t o n t h i s f r o n t , r e -
ma i n i n g i n a c c e s s i b l e t o c o u n s e l s o f c a u t i o n . H e h e a d e d t w o o f t h e
Sp a n i s h Ai d o u t f i t s w h o s e a c t i v i t i e s h a v e b e e n d e n o u n c e d b y d i s -
i l l u s i o n e d v e t e r a n s o f t h e Lo y a l i s t f i g h t i n g l i n e s a s w e l l a s b y r a d i c a l s
a n d l i b e r a l s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e Mu s c o v i t e t e c h n i q u e s . H e a c t e d a s
c h a i r ma n o f a St a l i n i s t me e t i n g i n Ne w Y o r k o n t h e Lo y a l i s t t h e me
a f t e r t h e w h o l e b u s i n e s s h a d b e c o me a s t e n c h i n t h e p u b l i c n o s t r i l s .
Th e Wa s h i n g t o n Fr i e n d s o f Sp a n i s h D e mo c r a c y , h e a v i l y c o l o n i z e d
b y t h e c o mr a d e s , c o u n t e d a mo n g i t s s p o n s o r s : D r . Lo u i s B l o c h , Jo h n
C a r mo d y , Mu r r a y W. La t i me r , Ro b e r t Ma r s h a l l , Ed w i n S . Smi t h .
It w a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n h i g h l y r e g a r d e d a n d c o n t i n u a l l y p r a i s e d b y t h e
c o mmu n i s t p r e s s .
Th e w o me n i n p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i d e d t h e h e a v y s o c i a l a r t i l l e r y f o r
t h e Lo y a l i s t f u n d - r a i s i n g c a mp a i g n s . B r i d g e p a r t i e s , g a r d e n s h i n d i g s ,
c o c k t a i l p a r t i e s f o r t h e Lo y a l i s t s - a l l mo n e y g o i n g i n t o c o f f e r s p r e s i d e d
o v e r b y c o mmu n i s t s a n d t h e i r a g e n t s - w e r e l e g i o n . Th e P o p u l a r
Fr o n t ma d e i t s e l f a t h o me a n d p l o t t e d i t s mo v e s a n d c e me n t e d i t s
" c o n t a c t s " i n s o me o f " t h e b e s t h o me s " i n t h e c a p i t a l .
Th u s i n a t h o u s a n d d e v i o u s w a y s t h e St a l i n i s t i n f l u e n c e s e e p e d i n t o
t h e Ne w D e a l a n d i t s i n t r i c a t e b u r e a u c r a t i c e x t e n s i o n s . Th e f e a r o f
b e i n g c a l l e d " r e d - b a i t e r " p r e v e n t e d s o me o f t h o s e w h o u n d e r s t o o d
w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g f r o ms p e a k i n g o u t . Th e p e r v a s i v e f e e l i n g t h a t
t h e c o mr a d e s h a d p o w e r f u l s u p p o r t i n e x a l t e d p l a c e s c u r b e d t h e d i s -
s i d e n t s a n d h e l p e d r e g i me n t t h e me e k o n e s a n d t h e g r e e d y o n e s f o r t h e
s u p e r - l o b b y . It i s i mp o s s i b l e t o t r a c e t h e e x a c t c h a n n e l s o f i n f l u e n c e ,
b u t s o me h o w f o r e i g n c o mmu n i s t s o b t a i n e d v i s a s f o r t h e U . S. A. mo r e
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3 0 9
r e a d i l y t h a n n o n - c o mmu n i s t s ; s o me h o w p a r t y me mb e r s h a d a n e a s i e r
t i me o b t a i n i n g a p l a c e a t t h e p u b l i c f e e d t r o u g h
; e v e r y w h e r e t h o s e
k n o w n a s a n t i - St a l i n i s t s f e l t t h e ms e l v e s i n t r u d e r s
.
C o mmu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d o r i n f l u e n c e d u n i o n s , l i k e t h e Wo r k e r s Al -
l i a n c e a n d t h e Un i t e d Fe d e r a l Wo r k e r s , g a v e a d d i t i o n a l l e v e r a g e t o t h e
f a i t h f u l a n d h e l p e d t r i p u p t h e i n f i d e l s . Tr u e , t h e P r e s i d e n t mi g h t
s o me t i me s t a k e a c r a c k a t t h e c o mr a d e s , b u t " i t w a s n ' t d o n e " t o a t t a c k
t h e m ; t h e r e w a s t h e r i s k o f " r e d - b a i t i n g " a n d " f a s c i s t " t a g s . Th o u g h
t h e Ame r i c a n Y o u t h C o n g r e s s i n i t s r o w d y d e mo n s t r a t i o n f o r t h e
n e w e s t p a r t y l i n e b o o e d t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d j e e r e d a t C o n g r e s s , Mr
.
Ja c k s o n s t i l l t o o k t h e t r o u b l e t o k o w t o w t o t h e m . " My e mb a r r a s s me n t
i n s p e a k i n g t o y o u t o n i g h t , " h e s a i d o n Fe b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 4 0 , " i s n o t f r o m
a s e n s e o f b e i n g h o l i e r t h a n t h o u b u t f r o ma s e n s e o f i n f e r i o r i t y
. " Li k e
t h e Fi r s t La d y b e f o r e h i m, Mr
. Ja c k s o n p r e f e r r e d t o h u mb l e h i ms e l f
b e f o r e t h a t r e g i me n t e d k n o w - n o t h i n g me e t i n g i n s t e a d o f e x e r c i s i n g
h i s p r e r o g a t i v e a s a ma t u r e h u ma n b e i n g t o t a l k t u r k e y t o t h e g a t h e r -
i n g
. It n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o h i mt o i n q u i r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h y t h e C o n -
g r e s s h a d s u d d e n l y r e v e r s e d i t s v i e w s o n n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g
t h e Ne w D e a l o f w h i c h h e w a s s u c h a n i mp o r t a n t p a r t .
Mr
. Ja c k s o n a t t h e Y o u t h g a t h e r i n g w a s d e mo n s t r a t i n g t h a t " h a n g -
o v e r " o f t h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v e r n me n t w h i c h i s s t i l l d i s c e r n i b l e n e a r l y
e v e r y w h e r e i n Wa s h i n g t o n
. Me n a n d w o me n w h o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n
w i t h t h e Mu s c o v i t e l o b b y c o n t i n u e s a s b e f o r e a r e s t i l l h o l d i n g a p -
p o i n t i v e g o v e r n me n t j o b s
. Ev e r y n e w St a l i n i s t f r o n t - t h e " p e a c e
mo b i l i z a t i o n s , " t h e " Re s c u e Sh i p Mi s s i o n , " t h e p h o n y n e w " c i v i l
l i b e r t i e s " o u t f i t s - c a n s t i l l c o u n t o n Ne w D e a l o f f i c i a l s a n d Ne w D e a l
l a d i e s
. An u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s e n s e o f g u i l t a n d h u mi l i a t i o n s t i l l o b l i g e s
ma n y f o r me r s t o o g e s , n o w t h a t t h e y h a v e u n d e r s t o o d a n d e n d e d t h e i r
s t o o g e d o m, t o d e n o u n c e a n y o n e w h o a l l u d e s ( a s t h i s b o o k d o e s ) t o
t h e i r g u l l i b i l i t y
. Wa s h i n g t o n o f f i c i a l a n d s o c i a l l i f e r e ma i n s d e e p l y
i n f e c t e d w i t h t h e Mu s c o v i t e v i r u s
. Th e t o t a l i t a r i a n l i b e r a l i s mo f s o me ,
t h e c o mp l a c e n c y o f o t h e r s , t h e p o w e r o f t h e C
. I. O. u n i o n s o f Fe d e r a l
e mp l o y e e s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f o u t r i g h t c o mmu n i s t a g e n t s i n a l l g o v e r n -
me n t d e p a r t me n t s - a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e s t i l l a t p l a y
. Th e y d i s -
t o r t t h i n k i n g o n a l l ma t t e r s a f f e c t i n g Ru s s i a a n d o t h e r c o mmu n i s t
i n t e r e s t s .
H a l f a c e n t u r y a g o o n e o f t h e p r o p h e t s o f Ru s s i a n B o l s h e v i s m,
Ne c h a y e v , i n h i s c e l e b r a t e d C a t e c h i s mo f t h e Re v o l u t i o n i s t g a v e t h i s
f o r mu l a f o r u s i n g " l i b e r a l s o f e v e r y s h a d e "
:
3 1 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
On e ma y c o n s p i r e w i t h t h e mi n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r p r o g r a m,
ma k i n g t h e mb e l i e v e t h a t o n e f o l l o w s b l i n d l y a n d a t t h e s a me t i me o n e
s h o u l d t a k e h o l d o f t h e m, g e t p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e i r s e c r e t s , c o mp r o mi s e
t h e mt o t h e u t mo s t , s o t h a t n o a v e n u e o f e s c a p e ma y b e l e f t t o t h e m,
a n d u s e t h e ma s i n s t r u me n t s f o r s t i r r i n g u p d i s t u r b a n c e s
.
Ne c h a y e v ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n ma y w e l l b e i n s c r i b e d o n t h e mo n u me n t
t o t h e u n o f f i c i a l P o p u l a r Fr o n t g o v e r n me n t i n Wa s h i n g t o n , n o w
o f f i c i a l l y o u t l a w e d b u t u n o f f i c i a l l y s t i l l u b i q u i t o u s , v i g o r o u s a n d e f -
f e c t i v e .
C H AP TERXXVI
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT
1
A
P ARD ONAB LEg l o w o f b o a s t f u l n e s s l i t u p Ea r l Ru s s e l l B r o w -
d e r ' s v o i c e w h e n h e e x p l a i n e d t o t h e D i e s C o mmi t t e e i n Wa s h -
i n g t o n h o w h i s b e l o v e d p a r t y h a d p u t i t s s t a mp o n t h e " c u l t u r a l
l i f e " o f t h e s e Un i t e d St a t e s
.
" We l l , " h e s a i d , " w e c o mmu n i s t s p r i d e o u r s e l v e s o n t h e i n f l u e n c e
w e h a v e h a d i n t h e c u l t u r a l l i f e o f Ame r i c a . It h a s b e e n o n e o f t h e
i n f l u e n c e s o f c o mmu n i s m, t h e c o mmu n i s t i n f l u e n c e , t h a t s t i mu l a t e d
t h e a r t s ; r a t h e r t h e r e h a s b e e n a r e n a i s s a n c e o f Ame r i c a n d r a ma a n d
l i t e r a t u r e . "
St a l i n ' s b r a n c h - o f f i c e d i r e c t o r c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e r e f e r r e d t o a n y
P e r i c l e a n f l o w e r i n g o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v e n e s s , b e c a u s e t h e r e h a d b e e n n o
s u c h t h i n g i n t h e Re d D e c a d e . Fi r s t - r a t e b o o k s a n d s t i r r i n g p l a y s w e r e
w r i t t e n
. So me e x c i t i n g t h i n g s w e r e s p r e a d o n w a l l s a n d c a n v a s . B u t
t h e r e w a s n o o p u l e n t e r u p t i o n o f t a l e n t , n o g r e a t b u r s t o f g e n i u s o r
e v e n o r i g i n a l i t y t o s e t t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s o f f f r o mo t h e r d e c a d e s . It s l i t e r a r y
a n d a r t mo v e me n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e mu c h - t o u t e d P r o l e t c u l t a n d i t s
t o o t h l e s s s u c c e s s o r i n " p e o p l e ' s c u l t u r e , " w e r e r a u c o u s b u t s t e r i l e
. Th e
e n d u r i n g t h i n g s p r o d u c e d i n t h e d e c a d e w e r e w i t h mi n o r e x c e p t i o n s
o u t s i d e t h e p o l l u t e d w a t e r s o f s t o r my p o l e mi c s
.
Wh a t C o mr a d e B r o w d e r a l l u d e d t o , w e h a p p e n t o k n o w , w a s t h e
n o i s e , t h e ma s s me e t i n g s , t h e s l o g a n e e r i n g t h a t f i l l e d t h e w o r l d o f
a r t s o f u l l t h e r e w a s n o r o o ml e f t f o r c r e a t i o n a n d a r t i s t r y
. H e h a d i n
mi n d t h e h u g e s t a n d a r d i z e d s t o c k a d e s i n t o w h i c h h i s l i e u t e n a n t s h a d
s u c c e e d e d i n h e r d i n g me n a n d w o me n i n t h e c u l t u r a l c r a f t s , h i s l e a g u e s
a n d c o n g r e s s e s f o r w r i t e r s , p a i n t e r s , a c t o r s , mo v i e p e o p l e , d a n c e r s
. H i s
a ma z i n g " r e n a i s s a n c e " e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e s o l u t i o n s
r a t h e r t h a n a r t . w o r k s . Th e p r a c t i t i o n e r s a n d h a n g e r s - o n o f c u l t u r e ,
e s p e c i a l l y i t s s e c o n d - r a t e r s a n d B o h e mi a n s , w e n t p o l i t i c a l w i t h a v e n -
g e a n c e . Ar t i s t s a n d w r i t e r s a r e n o r ma l l y t e mp e r a me n t a l a n d i n d i -
v i d u a l i s t i c . B u t s u d d e n l y , f r i g h t e n e d b y g a t h e r i n g s o c i a l s t o r ms t h e
3 1 1
3 1 2

TH ERED D EC AD E
w o r l d o v e r , t h e y h u d d l e d t o g e t h e r l i k e s c a r e d s h e e p a n d b l e a t e d s l o -
g a n s . Sh e e p - c r i t i c s h a i l e d t h e b a h - i n g a s a r e n a i s s a n c e . If i t w a s " a n t i -
f a s c i s t , " i f i t w a s p a r t y l i n e , t h e n i t w a s a r t b y f i a t
. It w a s a s t h o u g h
a l l o f t h e mh a d g i v e n u p t h e e f f o r t t o t h i n k a n d t o f e e l f o r t h e ms e l v e s ,
s i n k i n g t h e ms e l v e s i n a p a n i c o f mo r a l s u r r e n d e r i n c o n g r e s s e s a n d
r e s o l u t i o n s .
Un q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e c o mmu n i s t mo v e me n t l e f t i t s i mp r i n t o n
Ame r i c a n c u l t u r e . Th e b o o k s t a l l s a r e h e a v y w i t h " s o c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s "
t r i p e . Ac r e s o f g o v e r n me n t - o w n e d w a l l s p a c e a r e s mu d g e d w i t h r e s o -
l u t i o n s i n c o l o r e d s y mb o l s
. Un d i g e s t e d p o l i t i c a l n o t i o n s r u mb l e d
t h r o u g h t h e v i s c e r a o f p l a y s a n d mo v i e s . Ed u c a t i o n w a s s a t u r a t e d w i t h
f o r mu l a s t h a t s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d t h i n k i n g . Th e r e h a d b e e n o t h e r " i n t e l -
l e c t u a l " f a d s . B u t t h i s o n e w a s b a c k e d b y a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y a n d a n i n t e r -
n a t i o n a l p o w e r ma c h i n e , e n g i n e e r e d c o n s c i o u s l y i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e So v i e t d i c t a t o r s h i p . It s p o p u l a r i t y c o n s e q u e n t l y w a s o n a l a r g e r
s c a l e .
Amo n g w r i t e r s t h e s u d d e n b u t v i r u l e n t a f f i n i t y f o r t h e r e v i s e d a n d
p e r f u me d " d e mo c r a t i c " Fo u r t h P e r i o d b e c a me e p i d e mi c . Th o u s a n d s
i n a n d n e a r t h e w r i t i n g c r a f t p l u mp e d f o r t h e r e v e l a t i o n t h o u g h t h e y
h a d r e ma i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t - o r e v e n h o s t i l e - t o t h e St a l i n i s t c a t e c h i s m
i n t h e y e a r s o f f i g h t i n g p h r a s e s
. An d t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " l i t e r a t u r e " w a s
e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e h a l f - l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y l a d i e s , H o l l y w o o d s c r i p t g i r l s ,
p r e s s a g e n t s , a d v e r t i s i n g c o p y w r i t e r s , n e a r l y a n y o n e w i l l i n g t o b l e a t i n
u n i s o n .
Th e s p r e a d o f t h e d i s e a s e ma d e a f a s c i n a t i n g s p e c t a c l e . Y o u k n e w
w r i t i n g me n a n d w o me n a s s o b e r - mi n d e d , r e a l i s t i c , t o l e r a n t h u ma n
b e i n g s . Af e w mo n t h s l a t e r y o u me t t h e ma c c i d e n t a l l y a n d r e c o g -
n i z e d a t o n c e t h a t t h e c o n t a g i o n h a d c a u g h t u p w i t h t h e m
; t h e y h a d
b r o k e n o u t i n a r a s h o f St a l i n i s t c l i c h e s a n d i n t h e i r d e l i r i u mt a l k e d
f e v e r e d g i b b e r i s h u n d e r t h e s i c k i mp r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y w e r e ma k i n g
s e n s e . Ov e r n i g h t t h e y h a d mo v e d f r o mt h e p r i v a t e c y n i c i s mo f l a v a -
t o r y h u mo r t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e c y n i c i s mo f d e f e n d i n g e x e c u t i o n s q u a d s
.
Th e y w e r e r e a d y , n a y e a g e r , t o l i q u i d a t e t h e l a s t l i t e r a r y k u l a k i n t h e i r
v i c i n i t y . An d ma g i c a l l y , t h e i r o w n w r i t i n g , w h i c h u n t i l t h e n h a d b e e n
i g n o r e d o r b r u s h e d a s i d e a s " p e t t y b o u r g e o i s , " s u d d e n l y b e g a n t o
e v o k e r a v e n o t i c e s i n t h e p r e s s , f r o mB r o w d e r ' s D a i l y Wo r k e r t o Og d e n
Re i d ' s H e r a l d Tr i b u n e . Fr o mt h a t p o i n t f o r w a r d y o u l o o k e d f o r t h e i r
n a me s o n a l l t h e mu s h r o o mi n g u n i t e d - f r o n t i d i o c i e s a n d , s u r e e n o u g h ,
t h e r e t h e y w e r e !
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT

3 1 3
2
Ta k e t h e c a s e o f Ge o r g e Se l d e s , c e l e b r a t e d i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y
o f t h e p e r i o d . As a r e p o r t e r f o r t h e C h i c a g o Tr i b u n e , h e h a d b e e n t o
Ru s s i a i n i t s e a r l i e r , mi l d e r a n d mo r e i d e a l i s t i c y e a r s a n d h a d b e e n
d u l y e x p e l l e d . Fo r t w e l v e o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r h e d e v o t e d h i m-
s e l f t o e x p l o d i n g t h e my t h o f So v i e t s o c i a l i s m, b e f o r e St a l i n a n d
a f t e r . In a s e r i e s o f b o o k s , i n e n d l e s s l e c t u r e s a n d a r t i c l e s , h e c o n -
s i s t e n t l y b r a c k e t e d B o l s h e v i s mw i t h f a s c i s ma n d n e v e r t i r e d o f w a r n -
i n g h i s c o u n t r y me n a g a i n s t t h e t h r e a t o f B o l s h e v i k i n t r u s i o n i n Ame r i -
c a n l i f e . H e w a s a mo n g t h e f o r e mo s t a n t i - c o mmu n i s t s i n t h e f i r s t h a l f
o f t h e Re d D e c a d e .
B u t s u d d e n l y , a r o u n d 1 9 3 7 , Ge o r g e p o p p e d u p f a r i n s i d e t h e c o m-
mu n i s t o r b i t , a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r t o St a l i n ' s Ame r i c a n p r e s s , g u n n i n g
f o r t h e h i d e s o f c o l l e a g u e s w h o w e r e q u o t i n g h i s o w n s t u f f o n Ru s s i a .
Wh a t h a d h a p p e n e d t o e x p l a i n t h e my s t e r i o u s c o n v e r s i o n ? C e r t a i n l y
t h e Ru s s i a n t e r r o r h a d n o t s u b s i d e d a n d St a l i n ' s r e g i me h a d n o t b e -
c o me a n y l e s s d i c t a t o r i a l . Ev e r y i mp a s s i o n e d i n d i c t me n t o f B o l s h e v i k
h o r r o r s s e t d o w n i n C a n Th e s e Th i n g s B e ! a n d h i s o t h e r b o o k s s t i l l
a p p l i e d - o n l y a h u n d r e d t i me s mo r e s o . H e h a d n o t r e v i s i t e d t h e
s c e n e s o f h i s f o r me r d i s i l l u s i o n me n t n o r e v e n , a s f a r a s Ia ma w a r e ,
p u b l i c l y r e p u d i a t e d h i s o w n r e p o r t s o n t h e me s s . Un l i k e p o l i t i c a l
n e o p h y t e s s u c h a s D o r o t h y P a r k e r o r Gy p s y Ro s e Le e , h e c o u l d
s c a r c e l y h a v e b e c o me s o b e l a t e d l y a w a r e o f f a s c i s ma n d t h e D e p r e s s i o n ,
ma t t e r s h e h a d b e e n r e p o r t i n g i n d e t a i l f o r a g r e a t ma n y y e a r s .
No , t h e r e i s n o c l u e i n l o g i c t o t h e c h a n g e . Th e t r a n s f o r ma t i o n h a d
c l e a r l y o c c u r r e d o n a l e v e l b e y o n d l o g i c , b e y o n d c o mmo n s e n s e .
Ge o r g e , p o o r b o y , h a d c a u g h t c o mmu n i s ma s o n e c a t c h e s t h e f l u i n a n
e p i d e mi c . At t h i s w r i t i n g h e h a s n o t y e t c o n v a l e s c e d , a n d e v e n i f h e
s u r v i v e s t h e l o n g s i e g e t h e r e w i l l b e p e r ma n e n t s c a r s o n h i s mi n d a n d
s o u l . C u r r e n t l y h e i s e d i t i n g a p r o - So v i e t , p a r t y - l i n e s h e e t c a l l e d In
Fa c t ; u n t i l t h e b r e a c h b e t w e e n Ru s s i a a n d Ge r ma n y , i t w a s l o u d l y
a n t i - B r i t i s h a n d o p p o s e d t o o u r d e f e n s e e f f o r t s .
Or t a k e t h e i n t e r e s t i n g c l i n i c a l c a s e h i s t o r y o f Fr e d e r i c k L. Sc h u -
ma n , n o w p r o f e s s o r o f g o v e r n me n t a t Wi l l i a ms C o l l e g e
. Th e p r o f e s -
s o r w e n t t o Mo s c o w
. If h e h a d b e e n o v e r w h e l me d b y t h e g l o r i e s o f
So v i e t l i f e a n d t h o u g h t , h e c o n c e a l e d t h a t f a c t v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y . Y e t
b y 1 9 3 2 h e h a d a s s o c i a t e d h i ms e l f w i t h t h e Le a g u e o f P r o f e s s i o n a l
Gr o u p s f o r Fo s t e r a n d Fo r d . La t e r , t e s t i f y i n g a t a n o f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a -
3 1 4 TH ERED D EC AD E
t i o n o f t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e Un i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , h e " f l a t l y d e n i e d t h a t
h e h a d a n y i d e a s w h i c h w e r e i n a n y w a y r a d i c a l . " Wi t h s o me t h i n g l e s s
t h a n ma g n i f i c e n t c o u r a g e h e e v e n d e n i e d s i g n i n g t h a t Op e n Le t t e r f o r
Fo s t e r a n d Fo r d .
" In my p u b l i c a d d r e s s a n d p u b l i c a t i o n s , " h e s w o r e , " Ih a v e r e -
p e a t e d l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e l i b e r a l a n d r a d i c a l c r i t i c s o f o u r p r e s e n t
e c o n o mi c a n d s o c i a l o r d e r h a v e b e e n s h o r t - s i g h t e d o r d i s h o n e s t i n
f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t e x t e n s i v e g o v e r n me n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h
p r o f i t s a n d p r o p e r t y r i g h t s c a n o n l y l e a d t o c h a o s o r t o s o c i a l i s m . "
D e s p i t e t h i s p u b l i c r e p u d i a t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m, h e w a s s o o n s h o w i n g
u p , a s i n e v i t a b l y a s f a t e , i n St a l i n i s t g r o u p i n g s f o r t h e l i t e r a t i a n d t h e
c a mp u s c o mr a d e s
. " Un d e r n e a t h t h e i r s k i n s , " h e n o w c o n f i d e d t o t h e
Ne w Re p u b l i c , " c o mmu n i s ma n d l i b e r a l i s ma r e b l o o d b r o t h e r s . " Th e
s a me p r o f o u n d d i s c o v e r y h e s h a r e d w i t h c l i e n t s o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d
So u t h e r n Re v i e w . " B o l s h e v i s ma t t h e e n d o f i t s s e c o n d d e c a d e , " h e
p r o c l a i me d , " i s b u i l d i n g a g r e a t c o mmu n i t y n o t l e s s d e mo c r a t i c i n i t s
v a l u e s t h a n t h o s e o f We s t e r n Eu r o p e a n d Ame r i c a a n d n o t l e s s d e -
v o t e d t o t h o s e v a l u e s w h i c h l i b e r a l We s t e r n c u l t u r e h a s l o n g c h e r -
i s h e d . " Th e s e w o r d s mu s t b e p l a c e d a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e
b l o o d p u r g e s t h e n a t f u l l t i d e t o s a v o r t h e i r q u i n t e s s e n t i a l a b s u r d i t y .
Ni n e d a y s b e f o r e H i t l e r a n d St a l i n g o t t o g e t h e r , D r . Sc h u ma n
j o i n e d Ma x Le r n e r , C o r l i s s La mo n t , Vi n c e n t Sh e e a n a n d t h e r e s t i n
t a r r i n g Jo h n D e w e y a n d Fe r d i n a n d Lu n d b e r g a n d Jo h n D o s P a s s o s
a s " f a s c i s t s a n d a l l i e s o f f a s c i s t s " f o r d a r i n g t o c a l l Ru s s i a n c u l t u r e
" t o t a l i t a r i a n . " So o n t h e r e a f t e r t h e p r o f e s s o r w a s l u s t i l y a s s a i l i n g
St a l i n . An e x c h a n g e o f l e t t e r s b e t w e e n D r . Sc h u ma n a n d La w r e n c e
D e n n i s r e c e n t l y p u t t h e f i n i s h i n g t o u c h o n t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s me n t a l p o r -
t r a i t . D e n n i s , w h o i s a b r i l l i a n t e x p o n e n t o f t h e f a s c i s t v i e w p o i n t ,
w r o t e t o D r . Sc h u ma n : " It t a k e s c l e a r t h i n k i n g a n d w r i t i n g t o f o r mu -
l a t e d e b a t a b l e i s s u e s b e t w e e n u s w h e n w e h a v e s o mu c h i n c o mmo n i n
me t h o d , a t t i t u d e , a n d c o n c l u s i o n s . " Th e i t a l i c s a r e mi n e .
Th e r e i s a w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p o l i t i c a l s o me r s a u l t o f a
Se l d e s - g o - t o - h e l l c y n i c a l i n i t s o f f h a n d i r r a t i o n a l i t y - a n d t h e e l a b o r a t e
me n t a l a c r o b a t i c s o f D r . Sc h u ma n . B u t b o t h c a s e s a r e e x p r e s s i o n s
o f t h e s a me e l e p h a n t i n e c o n f u s i o n . Th e i n f e c t i o n s p r e a d t o t h e r e -
mo t e s t c o r n e r s o f t h e Ame r i c a n c u l t u r a l w o r l d . B u k h a r i n , Ry k o v ,
Ra k o v s k y , Smi l g a , Ra d e k , To ms k y , Se r e b r i a k o v w e r e b e i n g l i q u i d a t e d
a s " f a s c i s t s p i e s , " b u t n o ma t t e r - n e w p r o l e t a r i a n l e a d e r s l i k e D o r o t h y
P a r k e r , D a s h i e l l H a mme t t , Va n Wy c k B r o o k s , Li o n e l St a n d e r , Ro c k -
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT

3 1 5
w e l l K e n t , P a u l d e K r u i f , C o r l i s s La mo n t , Mu r i e l D r a p e r , e t a l . , s t e p p e d
f o r w a r d t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e s i n t h e t r e n c h e s o f a mu s i c a l - c o me d y c l a s s
w a r .
An y o n e w h o d o u b t s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s h a d i n i t a n e l e me n t o f r e a l
r e l i g i o u s h y s t e r i a - t u r n i n g i t i n t o a k i n d o f p o l i t i c a l c h i l d r e n ' s c r u -
s a d e - n e e d o n l y r e a d D o r o t h y P a r k e r ' s c o n f e s s i o n s o f f a i t h . B e a t i n g
h e r b o s o m, s h e r e n o u n c e d " t h e g a l l a n t a n d h a r d - r i d i n g a n d c a r e l e s s o f
l i f e " i n f a v o r o f St a l i n ' s Ut o p i a . Th e r e i s n o t t h e r e mo t e s t i n d i c a t i o n
t h a t s h e k n e w w h a t s h e w a s a c c e p t i n g a s s h e e x c l a i me d , " Th e r e i s n o
l o n g e r ` I' , t h e r e i s ` WE' ! Th e d a y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s d e a d . " So me h o w
i t ma d e i t a l l r i g h t , a f t e r t h a t , f o r a n y n u mb e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o b e p u t
l i t e r a l l y t o d e a t h b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e K r e ml i n i n t h e n a me o f
" We . " On l y t h i s i s mo r e l u c i d i t y t h a n t h e h i g h - p i t c h e d c o n v e r t s n o r -
ma l l y a t t a i n e d . Af t e r t h a t t h e s p e c t a c l e o f Fa t h e r D i v i n e ' s a n g e l s
ma r c h i n g s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r w i t h t h e n o v e l i s t s a n d j o k e s mi t h s o f t h e
Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s i n a Ma y D a y p a r a d e w a s me r e l y i n t h e
c h a r a c t e r o f t h e d e l i r i o u s mi s h ma s h . It w a s t h e s t u f f n i g h t ma r e s a r e
ma d e o f .
Ih a v e b e f o r e me s o me p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s o f a g i f t e d l i t e r a r y h i s -
t o r i a n . It i s h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s a me mi n d c o n c e i v e d t h e s e a n d ,
l e t u s s a y , Th e Or d e a l o f Ma r k Tw a i n . D r . Va n Wy c k B r o o k s d i s -
c o v e r e d , a l l i n a f r e n z y , t h a t t h e Fo u n d i n g Fa t h e r s o f o u r Re p u b l i c
w e r e r e a l l y c o l l e c t i v i s t s a t h e a r t . " Th e D e c l a r a t i o n o f In d e p e n d e n c e , "
h e p r o p o u n d e d t o a w r i t e r s ' c o n f e r e n c e i n C o n n e c t i c u t , " s p e a k s i n t h e
n a me o f ` a l l me n
: Is t h e r e n o t s o me t h i n g c o l l e c t i v e i n t h i s c o n c e p -
t i o n ? " K a r l Ma r x a n d Le n i n t u r n e d i n t h e i r g r a v e a n d s h o w c a s e , r e -
s p e c t i v e l y , a s D r . B r o o k s p r o c e e d e d t o d e f i n e c o l l e c t i v i s ma s " g o v e r n -
me n t o f t h e p e o p l e b y t h e p e o p l e . "
Th e n a i v e t e o f t h i s n e o - c o l l e c t i v i s mma y b e s u r mi s e d f r o mt h e
f a c t t h a t h e p l a c e d b e f o r e h i s " c o mmu n i s t f e l l o w - me mb e r s " i n t h e
Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n Wr i t e r s t h i s p r o f o u n d r i d d l e : D i d t h e y t h i n k
t h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e f r e e d o mi f w e Ame r i c a n s h a d a St a l i n ? H e
d e s c r i b e d t h e l e a g u e - s o c a r e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d a n d ma n i p u l a t e d b y t h e
C o mmu n i s t P a r t y - a s " a p r o d u c t o f s p o n t a n e o u s c o mb u s t i o n . " H e
e v e n h a d i t f i g u r e d o u t t h a t t h e Y a n k e e s " a l s o p r o d u c e d mo d e r n
Ru s s i a " - a l i b e l f o r w h i c h t h e Y a n k e e s s h o u l d h a v e s u e d h i m . La t e r
h e a d d r e s s e d a " p e r s o n a l s t a t e me n t " t o t h e l e a g u e w h e r e i n , i n h i s
p o l i t i c a l i n n o c e n c e , h e l i s t e d Tr o t s k y a l o n g w i t h Le n i n a n d St a l i n a s
t h e " Jo h n B r o w n s a n d Ga r r i s o n s f o r o u r y o u n g e r p e o p l e , w h o h a d
3 1 6

TH ERED D EC AD E
n o B r o w n s a n d Ga r r i s o n s t o c o n t e mp l a t e a t h o me . " Th e c o mr a d e s
mu s t h a v e s u f f e r e d a t h o u s a n d d e a t h s a t s u c h b l a s p h e my
.
Ic i t e D r . B r o o k s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e h e i s a ma n o f h o n e s t i n s t i n c t s
a n d a g r e a t w r i t e r . H e c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y h a v e b e e n s u b v e r t e d b y
t h e c r u d e f l a t t e r y a n d c r u d e r l o g r o l l i n g w h i c h h e l p e d d r a w i n l i t e r a r y
f a i l u r e s o r H o l l y w o o d w i s e c r a c k e r s p l a g u e d b y i n f e r i o r i t y c o mp l e x e s .
Th e i d e o l o g i c a l p u e r i l i t i e s o f s u c h a ma n a r e i mp r e s s i v e s y mp t o ms o f
t h e f e v e r e d a t mo s p h e r e . It a t l e a s t e x o n e r a t e s t h e n o b o d i e s w h o
e n t e r e d t h e s h e e p - p e n s p a r t l y t o b e i n h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o mp a n y .
3
B u t Id o n o t h a v e t o r e s t my d i a g n o s i s o n my o w n r e s e a r c h e s . We
h a v e r e a d y t o h a n d a n e x p e r t j u d g me n t b y a s p e c i a l i s t a n d a l e a d e r o n
t h e t y p e w r i t e r f r o n t o f t h e Re d D e c a d e . Th e c o mmi s s a r f o r t h e
h e r d e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a w a s o n e V . J . Je r o me . It w a s h e , a l o n g w i t h C o m-
r a d e s Tr a c h t e n b e r g , Go l d , Sc h n e i d e r , H a t h a w a y , w h o h a d a c h i e v e d
t h e " s p o n t a n e o u s c o mb u s t i o n " a n d k e p t i t c o mb u s t i n g t h r o u g h t h e
P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t y e a r s . Wh a t d i d t h e s e c o mr a d e s r e a l l y t h i n k o f t h e i r
l i t e r a r y f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s ? Wh e n t h e w i l d r i d e w a s o v e r - w h e n t h e
" d e mo c r a t i c " h o k u mh a d b e e n d u mp e d o v e r b o a r d - C o mr a d e Je r o me
f i n a l l y t o l d . H e p r o c e e d e d t o r e v e a l t h e l i mi t l e s s c o n t e mp t i n w h i c h
h i s c r o w d o f i n s i d e r s h e l d t h e i r " c u l t u r a l " d u p e s .
At t h e e n d o f 1 9 4 0 Je r o me p u b l i s h e d a p a mp h l e t l a mb a s t i n g t h e
i n t e l l e c t u a l s w h o h a d f o r me r l y p l a y e d i n h i s y a r d , e x e mp t i n g , o f c o u r s e ,
t h e " g o o d " i n t e l l e c t u a l s w h o w e r e s t i l l p l a y i n g t h e r e - t h e i r t u r n w i l l
c o me l a t e r . * It w a s c a l c u l a t e d t o ma k e e v e r y l a s t me mb e r o f t h e
Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n . Wr i t e r s , e v e r y l a s t l i t e r a r y e n t h u s i a s t f o r t h e
K r e ml i n ' s b l o o d p u r g e s s q u i r mi n h u mi l i a t i o n .
Th o s e p e o p l e , Je r o me s a y s c a n d i d l y , n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d " t h e d e mo -
c r a t i c t a c t i c . " In o t h e r w o r d s t h e y t h o u g h t i t w a s r e a l l y d e mo c r a t i c
r a t h e r t h a n a t e mp o r a r y t a c t i c
. Th e y " j o i n e d t h e p a r t y b e c a u s e o f
t h e i r s o c i a l mi l i e u , " h e c h a r g e s , " f i n d i n g t h a t t h i s ma d e t h e ms o c i a l l y
a c c e p t a b l e a mo n g p e o p l e o f l i v i n g c u l t u r e . " In p l a i n En g l i s h , t h e y
w e r e d o i n g s o me s o c i a l c l i mb i n g a mo n g t h e i d e o l o g i c a l e l i t e a n d ,
Je r o me s n e e r s , h a d t h e g a l l t o l o o k o n t h e ms e l v e s " a s g u e s t s o f
h o n o r . . . .
Th e s e p s e u d o - Ma r x i s t s d i d n o t s e e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e
* In t e l l e c t u a l s a n d t h e Wa r , b y V. J . Je r o me , 1 9 4 0 , Wo r k e r s Li b r a r y P u b l i s h e r s .
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT

3 1 7
w o r k i n g c l a s s [ r e a d B r o w d e r a n d Je r o me ] a s a p r i v i l e g e ; t h e y c a me l i k e
a r r o g a n t s l u mme r s . Th e y l o o k e d u p o n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s a s a p e d e s t a l
o n w h i c h t o r i s e . Th e y s a w a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o ` c a s h i n ' o n t h e p u b l i c i t y
t h a t t h e mo v e me n t a c c o r d s t o t h o s e w h o j o i n w i t h t h e f o r c e s o f p r o g -
r e s s . "
Th e d o u b l e - t a l k a b o u t f o r c e s o f p r o g r e s s d o e s n o t o b s c u r e t h e
c h a r g e s o f s o c i a l c l i mb i n g a n d p u b l i c i t y s e e k i n g
. Th a t i s w h a t t h e
c o mr a d e s r e a l l y t h o u g h t a b o u t Va n Wy c k B r o o k s ' s v a r i e t y o f c o l l e c -
t i v i s m, D o r o t h y P a r k e r ' s o r g i a s t i c
" We , " t h e r e s t o f t h e l i t e r a r y s t o o g -
i n g f o r St a l i n ' s c a u s e s - d e s p i t e t h e c o mr a d e l y e mb r a c e s i n t h e p a g e s
o f t h e c o mmu n i s t p r e s s . Amo n g t h o s e h e c o n s i d e r s b e n e f i c i a r i e s
Je r o me s p e c i f i c a l l y me n t i o n s Ar c h i b a l d Ma c Le i s h , Vi n c e n t Sh e e a n ,
Le w i s Mu mf o r d , Ma l c o l mC o w l e y , Gr a n v i l l e H i c k s , Jo h n St r a c h e y ,
H a r o l d La s k i , An d r e Ma l r a u x
. ( H e d o e s n o t me n t i o n " r e n e g a d e s "
l i k e Lo u i s Fi s c h e r a n d Ma u r i c e H i n d u s , a p p a r e n t l y d i s d a i n i n g t o c l a s s
t h e ma mo n g t h e " i n t e l l e c t u a l s . " )
Th e s e w r i t e r s , a s Je r o me p u t s i t , " d i d n o t p e r c e i v e t h e t a c t i c a l l i n e
o f t h e P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t i n r e a l r e l a t i o n t o t h e b a s i c s t r a t e g y o f t h e r e v o l u -
t i o n a r y w o r k i n g c l a s s f o r t h e a t t a i n me n t o f p o w e r
. " An d t h a t , i t ma y
r e a d i l y b e c o n c e d e d , i s n ' t o n e - h a l f o f o n e p e r c e n t o f w h a t t h e y d i d
n o t p e r c e i v e
. Un f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e i r h u ma n i n t e g r i t y , C o mr a d e
Je r o me w a i t e d u n t i l t h e " t a c t i c " h a d b e e n a b a n d o n e d t o h e l p t h e m
p e r c e i v e t h e s e t h i n g s . Un t i l t h e n h e a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s w e r e d e d i c a t e d
t o t h e j o b o f p r e v e n t i n g t h e l i t e r a r y f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s f r o mp e r c e i v i n g
a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e " d e mo c r a t i c t a c t i c
. "
C o mr a d e Je r o me i s n o t t o o g e n t l e w i t h h i s c u l t u r a l d u p e s , b u t n o
o n e c a n o b j e c t t h a t t h e y d o n o t me r i t t h e s p a n k i n g . In C o mr a d e
Je r o me ' s " s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r l a n d " t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e g o t a w a y w i t h
a me r e s p a n k i n g . Th e y w o u l d h a v e f a c e d t h e i r b e l o v e d f i r i n g s q u a d s .
4
It mi g h t a l l h a v e b e e n h a r ml e s s i n s a n i t y , e x c e p t t h a t i t p r o v i d e d
t h e i n s t r u me n t s f o r a n i n t e l l e c t u a l t e r r o r a g a i n s t t h o s e w h o r e t a i n e d
s o me s a n i t y
. Ma n y a w r i t e r j o i n e d u p a n d w e n t t h r o u g h t h e mo t i o n s
o f i d e o l o g i c a l s c h i z o p h r e n i a t o a v o i d o s t r a c i s m . An y o n e w h o d a r e d
p o i n t o u t i n t h a t p e r i o d w h a t e v e n t h e e mb a t t l e d Ma l c o l mC o w l e y
w o u l d u l t i ma t e l y a d mi t - t h a t t h e c o mmu n i s t s r a n t h e s h o w - w a s
t r e a t e d l i k e a l e p e r g u i l t y o f ma t r i c i d e
.
3 1 8
TH ERED D EC AD E
Th e c e n t r a l me c h a n i s mo f t h a t t e r r o r w a s t h e Le a g u e o f Ame r i c a n
Wr i t e r s c o mp r i s i n g t h e n a t i o n a l b o d y a n d a n a r r a y o f r e g i o n a l s e t u p s
.
Li l l i a n Sy me s t e l l s h o w s h e w a s i n v i t e d t o j o i n t h e Sp o n s o r i n g C o m-
mi t t e e o f o n e o f t h e Wr i t e r s C o n g r e s s e s , o n t h e We s t C o a s t
: " It w a s
a f t e r b o t h Le o n B l u ma n d H e r b e r t H o o v e r h a d b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s
h o n o r a r y me mb e r s t h a t my n e r v e s g a v e w a y a n d In o mi n a t e d C o l e t t e
a n d Le o n Tr o t s k y
. Th e f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s h a v e n e v e r r e c o v e r e d f r o mt h e
s h o c k
. " P r o s p e c t i v e me mb e r s a t t h a t t i me h a d t o s i g n a s t a t e me n t
a g r e e i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s
a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d
. No t a l l o f t h e mr e a l i z e d , o f c o u r s e , t h a t
t h e y w e r e s i g n i n g a b l a n k e t e n d o r s e me n t o f t h e c u r r e n t K r e ml i n e s q u e
" t a c t i c
. " Li k e mo s t St a l i n o i d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e l e a g u e n e v e r p u b l i s h e d
a r o s t e r o f me mb e r s
; t h e v a g u e n e s s a d d e d v a s t l y t o t h e i mp r e s s i v e n e s s .
B u t i t i s s a f e t o s a y t h a t a g o o d ma j o r i t y o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g Ame r i c a n
w r i t e r s a t o n e t i me o r a n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l e a g u e a c t i v i t i e s e v e n i f
t h e y d i d n o t s i g n o n t h e d o t t e d l i n e
.
J
Th e i n i t i a l c o n g r e s s w h i c h l a u n c h e d t h e l e a g u e , a s w e h a v e a l r e a d y
r e c o r d e d , w a s f r a n k l y c o mmu n i s t i n i t s t e mp e r
. Amo n g t h e s i g n e r s o f
i t s c a l l w e r e C o mr a d e s B r o w d e r , Al e x a n d e r Tr a c h t e n b e r g , Go l d ,
Mo i s s a y e Ol g i n , Jo s e p h No r t h , Jo s e p h Fr e e ma n a n d o t h e r u n d i s g u i s e d
c o mmu n i s t s
. Th e c a l l f o r t h e Se c o n d C o n g r e s s , h e l d i n Ne w Y o r k o n
u n e 4 - 6 , 1 9 3 7 , o mi t t e d s u c h n a me s
. It w a s g a r n i s h e d mo r e d i s c r e e t l y
w i t h n o n - p o l i t i c a l n a me s , i n l i n e w i t h t h e n e w p e r i o d
. Th e s i g n e r s
n o w w e r e Ne w t o n Ar v i n , Va n Wy c k B r o o k s , Er s k i n e C a l d w e l l , Ma l -
c o l mC o w l e y , P a u l d e K r u i f , Wa l d o Fr a n k , La n g s t o n H u g h e s , Ja me s
We l d o n Jo h n s o n , Jo h n H o w a r d La w s o n , Ro b e r t Mo r s s Lo v e t t , Ar c h i -
b a l d Ma c Le i s h , C l a u d e Mc K a y , Vi n c e n t Sh e e a n , Up t o n Si n c l a i r ,
Ge o r g e So u l e , D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t , Ge n e v i e v e Ta g g a r d , Je a n St a r r
Un t e r me y e r , C a r l Va n D o r e n , El l a Wi n t e r a n d Le w i s Mu mf o r d
. *
C e r t a i n l y D r
. B r o o k s w a s n o t t h e o n l y o n e a mo n g t h e mw h o
t h o u g h t i t w a s a l l " s p o n t a n e o u s c o mb u s t i o n
. " It w a s a t y p i c a l Fo u r t h
P e r i o d ma n i f e s t o , d e v o t e d t o " a r e b i r t h o f t h e Ame r i c a n l a b o r mo v e -
me n t , " r e l a t e d t o " t h e n e w s t i r r i n g s i n l i t e r a t u r e " a n d d e d i c a t e d ,
a mo n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t o " f r e e d o mo f t h o u g h t a n d e x p r e s s i o n
. " Th o s e
w h o t r i e d t o e x e r c i s e s u c h f r e e d o ma t t h e Se c o n d C o n g r e s s w e r e g i v e n
t h e w o r k s
. D w i g h t Ma c D o n a l d , i n t e l l i n g o f h i s o w n e x p e r i e n c e i n
t r y i n g t o s p e a k o u t o f i d e o l o g i c a l t u r n , s u b s e q u e n t l y w r o t e :
* As p u b l i s h e d
i n t h e Na t i o n , Ma y 8 , 1 9 3 7 .
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT

3 1 9
My p o l i t i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d f r i e n d s w a r n e d me t h a t t h e c o n g r e s s
w a s me r e l y a ma n e u v e r o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , a n d t h a t Iw a s n a i v e
t o e x p e c t a n y s u c h d i s c u s s i o n s - s i n c e d i s c u s s i o n i mp l i e s t h e p o s s i -
b i l i t y o f d i s a g r e e me n t . . . . Th e c o n g r e s s a s s u me d a p r i o r i a g r e e me n t
o n St a l i n i s t p o l i c i e s , d e s p i t e t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e c a l l t o me n t i o n a n y s u c h
t h i n g a n d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i g n e r s o f t h e c a l l w e r e p r a c t i c a l l y
a l l n o n - c o mmu n i s t l i b e r a l s . . . . Th e c o n g r e s s w a s o n e l o n g " p e p t a l k "
r e mi n i s c e n t o f t h e r a l l i e s Iu s e d t o a t t e n d a t P h i l l i p s Ex e t e r Ac a d e my
o n t h e e v e o f t h e a n n u a l f o o t b a l l g a me w i t h An d o v e r . . . . Ag r e a t
ma n y i n t e n s e l y e a r n e s t p e o p l e t o l d u s o v e r a n d o v e r t h a t w e mu s t l i c k
f a s c i s m, b u t a s t o t h e s t r a t e g y - t h a t w a s e n t i r e l y u p t o Q u a r t e r b a c k
St a l i n . An y o n e w h o c r i t i c i z e d h i s t a c t i c s w a s a Tr o t s k y i t e w r e c k e r
a n d a s s a s s i n ( r e a d : " l a c k i n g i n s c h o o l s p i r i t " ) . *
Fi i h r e r B r o w d e r a p p e a r e d a s t h e l e a d i n g s p e a k e r a t t h e o p e n i n g
s e s s i o n - a s w a s o n l y f i t t i n g a t a n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e o f Ame r i c a n
l i t e r a t i - a n d a p p l i e d h i ms e l f t o Ame r i c a ' s p r i n c i p a l l i t e r a r y p r o b l e m
o f t h e mo me n t : t h e Tr o t s k y i s t t h r e a t t o Ame r i c a n c u l t u r e . Al t h o u g h
Wa l d o Fr a n k , p r e v i o u s p r e s i d e n t , h a d b e e n a mo n g t h e c a l l s i g n e r s , h e
l o s t t h e p r e s i d e n c y - p u n i s h me n t f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s
n e e d e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Th a t d i s t i n c t i o n f e l l - a n d Iu s e t h e w o r d a d -
v i s e d l y - t o D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t . Th e b r e a d t h o f t h e u n i t e d f r o n t
ma y b e s u r mi s e d f r o mt h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f me n l i k e Th o r n t o n Wi l d e r ,
Er n e s t H e mi n g w a y , Ma r c C o n n e l l y a n d o t h e r s w h o h a d b e e n f a v o r i t e
e x a mp l e s o f " p e t t y b o u r g e o i s me n t a l i t y " i n t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d
. t
St r a n g e l y e n o u g h , n o t a s i n g l e n o v e l i s t , p l a y w r i g h t , j o u r n a l i s t o r H o l l y -
w o o d i a n w h o w a s p u b l i c l y c r i t i c a l o f t h e Ru s s i a n p a r a d i s e h a p p e n e d
t o h a v e b e e n i n v i t e d
. Th e w o n d e r s o f c o i n c i d e n c e !
Ar c h i b a l d Ma c Le i s h p r e s i d e d a t a me e t i n g d e d i c a t e d l a r g e l y t o g l o r i -
f i c a t i o n o f Ru s s i a ' s r o l e i n Sp a i n - G . P . U. me t h o d s a n d a l l . H o s a n n a s
t o t h e K r e ml i n w e r e s u n g a t v a r i o u s s e s s i o n s a n d i n v a r i o u s k e y s b y
Wa l t e r D u r a n t y , Al b e r t Rh y s Wi l l i a ms , Jo s e p h Fr e e ma n , C o w l e y ,
H i c k s a n d a g r e a t ma n y o t h e r s . Th e s t a n d a r d p a r t y - l i n e r e s o l u t i o n s
o n Sp a i n , C h i n a , a n t i - f a s c i s m, t h e W. P . A. , d e f e n s e o f t h e So v i e t
" p e a c e p o l i c y " a n d a l l o t h e r s u b j e c t s w e r e d u l y p a s s e d . Ab o o k s u m-
mi n g u p t h e p r o c e e d i n g s w a s l a t e r p u b l i s h e d . Wh a t e v e r 1 9 3 7 ma y
me a n t o o t h e r s , i t w a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s b o o k a s
* Th e Na t i o n , Ju n e 1 9 , 1 9 3 7 .
t Th e s e , a n d ma n y o t h e r s , h a v e s i n c e t h e n ma d e c l e a r t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l o f K r e m-
l i n e s q u e c o mmu n i s m .
3 2 0
TH ERED D EC AD E
" t w e n t y y e a r s s i n c e t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r So v i e t r e -
p u b l i c . ". Amo r e c u r i o u s c h r o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e mf o r a " n o n - p a r t i s a n , "
s p o n t a n e o u s l y c o mb u s t e d me e t i n g o f Ame r i c a n w r i t e r s w o u l d b e h a r d
t o i n v e n t .
Th e l e a g u e ' s Th i r d C o n g r e s s w a s h e l d t w o y e a r s l a t e r , o n Ju n e
2 - 4 , 1 9 3 9
. Th e c l o s e n e s s t o t h e a p p r o a c h i n g c a t a s t r o p h e o f t h e n e x t
Au g u s t , w h e n v o n Ri b b e n t r o p w o u l d b e t h e g u e s t o f t h e K r e ml i n ,
ma k e s t h e c o n g r e s s , i n r e t r o s p e c t , a n Al i c e i n Wo n d e r l a n d p e r -
f o r ma n c e . It s c a l l l i s t e d p r o mi n e n t l y a mo n g t h e l e a g u e a i ms : " C o -
o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s c o u n t r y w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s a n d p e o p l e s o p p o s e d t o
f a s c i s m- i n c l u d i n g t h e So v i e t Un i o n , w h i c h h a s b e e n t h e mo s t c o n -
s i s t e n t d e f e n d e r o f p e a c e . " Th e s e c r e t n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n Mo s c o w
a n d B e r l i n w e r e c o mi n g t o a h e a d a s t h e s e w o r d s w e r e p e n n e d
.
Of t h e s e v e n t y - t w o s i g n e r s o f t h i s c a l l , a t l e a s t f o u r t e e n w e r e g e n -
e r a l l y k n o w n t o b e me mb e r s o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y . Th e o t h e r s
w e r e n a me s t h a t h a d b e c o me f i x t u r e s o n St a l i n i s t ma n i f e s t o e s a n d
w h i t e w a s h d o c u me n t s . Th e w h o l e l i s t * me r i t s e n s h r i n e me n t i n t h e s e
p a g e s , b e i n g o n e o f t h e l a s t o f t h e P e o p l e ' s Fr o n t d e mo n s t r a t i o n s b e -
f o r e St a l i n p u l l e d t h e p r o p s f r o mu n d e r i t :
B e n j a mi n Ap p e l
Ne w t o n Ar v i n
Al b e r t B e i n
Al i n e B e r n s t e i n
Mi l l e n B r a n d
B e s s i e B r e u e r
D o r o t h y B r e w s t e r
Va n Wy c k B r o o k s
Si d n e y B u c h ma n
K e n n e t h B u r k e
Er s k i n e C a l d w e l l
K a t h e r i n e Ga r r i s o n C h a p i n
H u mp h r e y C o b b
Le s t e r C o h e n
Ma l c o l mC o w l e y
Ge o r g e D i l l o n
Mu r i e l D r a p e r
P h i l i p D u n n e
* D i r e c t i o n ,
o f f i c i a l o r g a n o f t h e Le a g u e , Ma y - Ju n e , 1 9 3 9 .
Gu y En d o r e
H e n r y P r a t t Fa i r c h i l d
Fr a n c i s Ed w a r d s Fa r a g o h
K e n n e t h Fe a r i n g
Ar t h u r D a v i s o n Fi c k e
Ma r j o r i e Fi s c h e r
Jo s e p h Fr e e ma n
D a v i d Fu c h s
Ma u r i t z H a l i g r e n
H e n r y H a r t
Li l l i a n H e l l ma n
D u B o s e H e y w a r d
Eu g e n e H o l me s
Ar t h u r K o b e r
Je s s K i mb r o u g h
Al f r e d K e y mb o r g
Jo s h u a K u n i t z
D a v i d La ms o n
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT
Je s s e La s k y , Jr .
Jo h n H o w a r d La w s o n
Me y e r Le v i n
H e l e n Me r r e l l Ly n d
Al b e r t Ma l t z
B r u c e Mi n t o n
Ru t h Mc K e n n e y
C a r e y Mc Wi l l i a ms
H a r v e y O' C o n n o r
D o r o t h y P a r k e r
S. J . P e r e l ma n
Fr e d e r i c k P r o k o s c h
Lo r i n e P r u e t t e
Sa mu e l P u t n a m
W. L. Ri v e r
Ra l p h Ro e d e r
H a r o l d J . Ro me
Mu r i e l Ru k e y s e r
B u d d Wi l s o n Sc h u l b e r g
Vi d a Sc u d d e r
Ed w i n Se a v e r
Ir w i n Sh a w
Vi n c e n t Sh c e a n
Vi o l a B r o t h e r s Sh o r e
Up t o n Si n c l a i r
P h i l i p St e v e n s o n
Le l a n d St o w e
Te s s Sl e s i n g e r
D o n a l d Og d e n St e w a r t
Ir v i n g St o n e
Ge n e v i e v e Ta g g a r d
j e a n St a r r Un t e r me y e r
Lo u i s Un t e r me y e r
C a r l Va n D o r e n
Jo h n We x l e y
Wi l l i a mC a r l o s Wi l l i a ms
El l a Wi n t e r
Ri c h a r d Wr i g h t
St a n l e y Y o u n g
Le a n e Z u g s mi t h
3
2 1
Th e c o n g r e s s w a s l a r g e l y a n o t h e r c o mmu n i s t ma s s me e t i n g , w i t h
t h e u s u a l g r e e t i n g s f r o mt h e w r i t e r s o f Ru s s i a ( t h o s e n o t y e t l i q u i d a t e d ,
t h a t i s ) , p r a i s e o f Mo s c o w ' s " a n t i - f a s c i s t " l e a d e r s h i p , r e s o l u t i o n s e m-
b o d y i n g e v e r y i n c h o f t h e p a r t y l i n e . Th e So v i e t me s s a g e , w e ma y
n o t e f o r p o s t e r i t y a n d t h e c u r r e n t p a r t y - l i n e r s , s a i d : " Th e a t t e mp t t o
h i d e
b e h i n d n e u t r a l i t y , n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n o r i s o l a t i o n i s mh a s b e c o me a
mo c k e r y . " Th e r e h a d b e e n a b a t c h o f d e f e c t i o n s b e f o r e t h e o p e n i n g .
B a b e t t e D e u t s c h a n d Fr a n c e s Wi n w a r , a mo n g o t h e r s , h a d r e s i g n e d ,
p r o t e s t i n g c o mmu n i s t d o mi n a t i o n . B u t n e w i n n o c e n t s b y t h e d o z e n
a n d t h e s c o r e t o o k t h e p l a c e o f t h e " r e n e g a d e s . " Th o ma s Ma n n w a s
i n v e i g l e d i n t o a f r o n t p l a c e i n t h e s h o w w i n d o w , a n d e v e n Lo u i s
B r o mf i e l d , w h o i s n o r ma l l y l e s s g u l l i b l e . B e h i n d s u c h n a me s , t h e
o l d c r o w d p u l l e d t h e s t r i n g s a s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e s s i o n .
Sy l v i a To w n s e n d Wa r n e r s p o k e u p f o r t h e B r i t i s h e q u i v a l e n t o f
t h e Le a g u e
; Ra l p h B a t e s h e l d f o r t h f o r s o me t h i n g c a l l e d t h e In t e r -
n a t i o n a l As s o c i a t i o n o f Wr i t e r s f o r t h e D e f e n s e o f C u l t u r e
; Fr e d e r i c o
Ma n g a b a s b r o u g h t t h e b l e s s i n g s o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e Wr i t e r s Le a g u e . It
w a s a h i g h - s p i r i t e d a n d w a r mh e a r t e d a n d o p t i mi s t i c g a t h e r i n g . - It
3 2 2 TH ERED D EC AD E
w a s t h e In d i a n s u mme r o f t h e Re d D e c a d e , h a d t h e y o n l y k n o w n i t ,
b u t St a l i n h a d n o t t a k e n B r o w d e r i n t o h i s c o n f i d e n c e , l e t a l o n e
Th o ma s Ma n n o r H e y w o o d B r o u n
. Th e St a l i n - H i t l e r n u p t i a l s s o o n
u n v e i l e d t h e r e a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s , a s o f mo s t o t h e r , c o mmu n i s t
In n o c e n t s ' C l u b s .
No l e s s a n a u t h o r i t y t h a n C o w l e y r e p o r t e d s a d l y b y 1 9 4 0 : " H a l f
a d o z e n me mb e r s w i t h d r e w f r o mt h e e x e c u t i v e b o a r d o f t h e l e a g u e . In
a s e n s e t h e s e r e s i g n a t i o n s w e r e o n l y t h e l a t e s t i n a l o n g s e r i e s t h a t i n -
c l u d e d t h e h o n o r a r y p r e s i d e n t , Th o ma s Ma n n , a n d f o u r o f t h e t e n
v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s . Th e y me a n t . . .
t h a t t h e r e w a s n o l o n g e r a n y h o p e o f
c h a n g i n g t h e l e a g u e ' s p o l i c y . " Wh a t w a s t h a t p o l i c y t h a t C o w l e y
w a n t e d t o c h a n g e ? An d w h y w a s t h e r e n o h o p e ? In t e n d e r i n g h i s o w n
r e s i g n a t i o n , h e a n s w e r e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s - a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y a d mi t t e d
i n s u b s t a n c e w h a t h a d f o r s o ma n y y e a r s b e e n s o v e h e me n t l y d e n i e d
:
t h a t t h e c o mmu n i s t s d o mi n a t e d t h e l e a g u e l *
Na t u r a l l y , b e i n g s o d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e l o n g - d r a w n d e c e p t i o n , h e
c o u l d n o t ma k e t h e a d mi s s i o n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y b u t o n l y b y u n mi s -
t a k a b l e i mp l i c a t i o n
. H e d e s c r i b e d a n a t t i t u d e o n t h e Eu r o p e a n w a r
" w h i c h i s n o w t h e g e n e r a l l i n e o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , " a d d i n g : " Th e
l e a g u e i s n o t a c o mmu n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t t h i s i s t h e l i n e i t h a s
c h o s e n t o f o l l o w . " Th e n h e c o n t i n u e d b l a n d l y o n t h e a s s u mp t i o n t h a t
t h e l e a g u e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n e w c o mmu n i s t l i n e a n d c h a r g e d i t w i t h
f o l l o w i n g t h e n e w C o mi n t e r n t h e o r y " t h a t f a s c i s mi s r e a l l y a mo v e -
me n t f o r w a r d , t h e n e x t s t e p a l o n g t h e r o a d t o u n i v e r s a l s o c i a l i s m
: '
" Th e i r p r e s e n t t h e o r y , " h e w r o t e t o t h e l e a g u e , " a b o u t t h e ' i mp e r i a l -
i s t w a r ' i s p l a u s i b l e e n o u g h t o p e r s u a d e w o me n ' s p e a c e s o c i e t i e s a n d
k i d d i e - b o o k w r i t e r s , b u t i t h a s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o w h a t i s a c t u a l l y h a p -
p e n i n g i n Eu r o p e . An d i n a n y c a s e , t h e l e a g u e i s n o t s u p p o s e d t o b e
a n o r g a n i z a t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e w o r l d p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n : ' Th e
u p s h o t o f t h e ma t t e r w a s t h a t C o w l e y - n o t t h e c o mmu n i s t p a r t y -
l i n e r s - h a d t o r e s i g n . It w a s h i s a d mi s s i o n t h a t t h e St a l i n i s t s h a d a
d e a t h g r i p o n t h e ma c h i n e r y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .
On l y t h e f e a r o f e x p a n d i n g t h i s b o o k t o e n c y c l o p e d i c p r o p o r t i o n s
p r e v e n t s me f r o mt r a c i n g t h e s a me p a t t e r n o f Mu s c o v i t e d o mi n a t i o n
i n t h e o t h e r " c u l t u r a l " p l a n e t s i n K u u s i n e n ' s u n i v e r s e o f d u p e s a n d
d o p e s , i n n o c e n t s a n d n o t - s o - i n n o c e n t s . Th e r e w e r e s p e c i a l f r o n t s f o r
p a i n t e r s a n d s c u l p t o r s , w i t h t h e i r o w n c o n g r e s s e s . Th e r e w e r e n o t a b l e
* Ne w Re p u b l i c , Au g u s t 1 2 ,
1
9 4 0 .
TH ETY P EWRITERFRONT

3 2 3
mu s c l i n g - i n p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e f i e l d o f d o c u me n t a r y f i l ms - w i t h
Ne l s o n Ro c k e f e l l e r a n d Jo c k Wh i t n e y p a y i n g t h e b i l l ! Ev e n t h e
mu s i c i a n s w e r e mo b i l i z e d u n d e r t h e p r e s c r i b e d Fo u r t h P e r i o d s l o g a n s .
C o mr a d e B r o w d e r , i n s h o r t , h a d a mp l e c a u s e f o r p r i d e i n h i s " i n -
f l u e n c e
. . . i n t h e c u l t u r a l l i f e o f Ame r i c a . " Th a t c a n k e r o u s i n -
f l u e n c e i s s t i l l g n a w i n g a t t h e h e a r t o f Ame r i c a n a r t a n d l e t t e r s .
C H AP TERXXVII
INTELLEC TUALRED TERROR
1
IN
NINTELLEC TUALa n d mo r a l " r e d t e r r o r " s p r e a d t h r o u g h t h e
a r e a s u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i n c r e d i b l e r e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h
me a n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Ne w Y o r k , H o l l y w o o d , Wa s h i n g t o n ,
ma n y c o l l e g e c a mp u s e s a n d t h e mo r e i n f e c t e d s o c i a l s e c t o r s i n a l l
l a r g e c i t i e s . Ia mc o n s c i o u s t h a t t h i s c h a r g e w i l l s o u n d e x t r e me t o
p e o p l e w i t h o u t d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e r e a c h a n d f i r e - p o w e r o f t h e
t e r r o r , a n d Id o n o t k n o w h o w t o ma k e i t c r e d i b l e t o s k e p t i c s . On l y
t h o s e w h o h a v e b e e n t a r g e t s o f t h e c o n c e r t e d a n d s t u b b o r n a t t a c k s ,
mo n t h a f t e r mo n t h , y e a r a f t e r y e a r , w i l l k n o w w h a t Ime a n . B u t t h e
t e r r o r w a s n o l e s s r e a l b e c a u s e i t w a s u n d e r g r o u n d , u n d e r h a n d e d a n d
i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t h i n g n o t r e a d i l y s u b j e c t t o p r o o f .
It w a s a t e r r o r d i r e c t e d i n g e n e r a l a g a i n s t c r i t i c s o f Ru s s i a a n d o f
i t s f o r e i g n a c t i v i t i e s
. B u t t h e f u l l e s t f o r c e o f i t s mu d g u n n e r s , c h a r -
a c t e r a s s a s s i n s a n d p o i s o n - g a s b r i g a d e s w a s r e s e r v e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r
" r e n e g a d e s , " me a n i n g p e o p l e w h o w e r e a t o n e t i me i n t h e p o l i t i c a l
e n v i r o n s o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y b u t h a d s h a k e n o f f i t s a u t h o r i t y .
Ih a v e k n o w n me n a n d w o me n s o f r i g h t e n e d b y t h e c e r t a i n t y o f p e r s e -
c u t i o n f r o mt h e Le f t t h a t t h e y h i d t h e i r d o u b t s a n d d i s i l l u s i o n me n t s
l i k e c r i mi n a l s e c r e t s . Th e p r o s p e c t o f b e i n g b r a n d e d , a t h o u s a n d
t i me s , o v e r a f a s c i s t , Tr o t s k y i t e , Fr a n c o s p y , a g e n t o f H i t l e r a n d Ja p a n ,
t o o l o f H e a r s t , l a c k e y o f Wa l l St r e e t a n d t h e Li b e r t y Le a g u e h a s k e p t
h u n d r e d s o f c o mr a d e s t o e i n g t h e p a r t y l i n e l o n g a f t e r t h e i r f a i t h h a d
t u r n e d t o a s h e s .
Th e y k n e w t h a t t h e v i l i f i c a t i o n w o u l d n o t b e l i mi t e d t o p o l i t i c a l
n a me - c a l l i n g b u t w o u l d s p r e a d i n t o f a n t a s t i c p e r s o n a l s me a r i n g
w i t h w h i s p e r e d a c c u s a t i o n s f r o ms i mp l e e mb e z z l e me n t a n d p i mp i n g
t o s u b t l e c o r r u p t i o n s e v e n u n t o mu r d e r . Th e y k n e w - a n d t h a t w a s t h e
mo s t e f f i c a c i o u s p a r t o f t h e b u s i n e s s - t h a t t h e r e a f t e r t h e y w o u l d a u t o -
ma t i c a l l y b e o s t r a c i z e d n o t a l o n e b y f o r me r f r i e n d s a n d c o mr a d e s b u t
b y t h a t w h o l e b r o a d s o c i a l , l i t e r a r y a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r i p h e r y . Th e y
3 2 4
INTELLEC TUALRED TERROR

3 2 5
w o u l d b e c o me a w a r e o f my s t e r i o u s p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t t h e me v e n o n t h e
mo s t c o n s e r v a t i v e n e w s p a p e r s , i n s e e mi n g l y u n i n f e c t e d g o v e r n me n t
b u r e a u s , i n s o l i d p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e s , w h e r e v e r t h e p a r t y h a d f e l l o w -
t r a v e l e r s o r o u t r i g h t a g e n t s i n k e y p o s i t i o n s - w h i c h i n t h e s e h e c t i c
y e a r s me a n t a p p r o x i ma t e l y e v e r y w h e r e
.
Ab r e a k w i t h t h e p a r t y me a n t s u b j e c t i o n t o v a s t a n d i n g e n i o u s
s t r a t e g i e s o f s l a n d e r . If t h e r e s p o n s i b l e l e a d e r s s u s p e c t e d a c o o l i n g o f
a f f e c t i o n s a n d a n i n c i p i e n t c a s e o f " r e n e g a c y , " t h e y mi g h t b e g i n t h e
b a r r a g e e v e n b e f o r e t h e b r e a k , o n t h e t h e o r y t h a t a v i g o r o u s o f f e n s i v e
i s t h e b e s t d e f e n s e
. Th e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y , i n f a c t , d o e s n o t r e c o g -
n i z e o r a c c e p t r e s i g n a t i o n s . It e x p e l s t h e d i s s i d e n t w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e
n o t i c e t o h i s e r s t w h i l e c o l l e a g u e s o f t r u mp e d - u p r e a s o n s r a n g i n g f r o m
" p e t t y b o u r g e o i s " me n t a l i t y t o h i g h c r i me s o f Tr o t s k y i s m .
B u t t h e p r o c e d u r e i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o b a c k s l i d i n g p a r t y me mb e r s .
It i s a p p l i e d w i t h n o l e s s e n e r g y t o p e o p l e w h o w e r e me r e l y s y mp a -
t h e t i c a n d c o - o p e r a t i v e . Th e i r d e s e r t i o n c a n n o t , o b v i o u s l y , b e l e f t u n -
p u n i s h e d . Th e y mu s t b e t u r n e d a s r a p i d l y a s p o s s i b l e i n t o h i d e o u s
mo r a l l e p e r s , i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r v e r t s a n d t h e g e r mc a r r i e r s o f f a s c i s m,
Tr o t s k y i s m, e t c
. In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , i t e n d e d t h e n e e d f o r r e p l y i n g
t o a n y t h i n g t h e c u l p r i t ma y s a y i n p r i v a t e o r i n p u b l i c b y d e mo n s t r a t -
i n g t h a t h e h a d " s o l d o u t " o r b e e n " e x p o s e d " o r e v e n b e e n " c a u g h t
w i t h t h e g o o d s . " Se c o n d l y , i t s e r v e d a s a w h o l e s o me w a r n i n g t o o t h e r s
o f w a n i n g f a i t h o r c r u mb l i n g e n t h u s i a s m
. Fo r e v e r y d i s i l l u s i o n e d c o m-
r a d e w h o d a r e d s p e a k o u t a n d t a k e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s i n t h e c o i n o f
p e r s o n a l a b u s e , t h e r e w e r e d o z e n s c r u s h e d i n t o s i l e n c e b y t h e p r o s p e c t
.
Me n a n d w o me n w h o r e t u r n e d f r o mRu s s i a o r Sp a i n h e a v y h e a r t e d
w i t h d i s e n c h a n t me n t o f t e n c o u l d n o t mu s t e r t h e c o u r a g e t o ma k e
t h e i r f e e l i n g s p u b l i c .
Le t n o o n e s u p p o s e t h a t t h e c a l u mn y w a s c a s u a l , a me r e f l a r e -
u p o f r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t w a s a s t r a t e g y d e -
v e l o p e d a n d s y s t e ma t i z e d b y t h e p a r t y c h i e f t a i n s a n d a p p l i e d w i t h
s c i e n t i f i c c a r e . Un a b l e a s y e t t o d e s t r o y c h o s e n e n e mi e s p h y s i c a l l y , a s
i n i t s Ru s s i a n h o me l a n d , t h e y a i me d t o d e s t r o y t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s a n d
i n f l u e n c e
. Ik n o w o f s p e c i a l s e c r e t c o n f e r e n c e s o f p a r t y w r i t e r s a n d
a g i t a t o r s c a l l e d t o d e c i d e h o w mo s t e x p e d i t i o u s l y t o " d e s t r o y " s o me
c r i t i c ; t h e d e t a i l s o f s u c h a c o n f e r e n c e a b o u t my s e l f , h e l d i n t h e So v i e t
C o n s u l a t e i n Ne w Y o r k , w e r e c o n f i d e d t o me b y a p a r t i c i p a n t
.
P l a n n e d d e f a ma t i o n b r o u g h t t h e p a r t y s o me f a mo u s v i c t o r i e s
.
H a v i n g d e mo l i s h e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a c r i t i c , h i s o p i n i o n s c o u l d b e d i s -
3 2 6

TH ERED D EC AD E
mi s s e d b y a l l t h e f a i t h f u l - a n d e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e Na t i o n - Ne w
Re p u b l i c -
Wr i t e r s - C o n g r e s s - c o c k t a i l - h o u r c r o w d o f l i b e r a l s - w i t h a s n e e r a n d a
s h r u g . Se l f - r i g h t e o u s l y t h e p a r t - t i me r e v o l u t i o n i s t s c o u l d s h u t t h e i r
mi n d s a g a i n s t t h e w r i t i n g s o f mo r a l mo n s t e r s a n d t u r n c o a t s l i k e Jo h n
D e w e y , Ma x Ea s t ma n , B e n j a mi n St o l b e r g , Li s t o n Oa k , Jo h n D o s
P a s s o s , Ed mu n d Wi l s o n , An d r e Gi d e , Ja me s Ro r t y , B o r i s So u v a r i n e ,
Wa l t e r K r i v i t s k y , Si d n e y H o o k , Ja me s T
. Fa r r e l l , Si n c l a i r Le w i s ,
Su z a n n e La Fo l l e t t e , Wi l l i a mH e n r y C h a mb e r l i n , C h a r l e s Ru mf o r d
Wa l k e r , C h a r l e s Y a l e H a r r i s o n , V. F. C a l v e r t o n , Li l l i a n Sy me s , B e n -
j a mi n Gi t l o w , Ev e l y n Sc o t t , Is a a c D o n Le v i n e , Fe r d i n a n d Lu n d b e r g ,
Eu g e n e Ly o n s , Le o n D e n n e n , H a r r y D . Gi d e o n s e , Jo h n H a y n e s
H o l me s , Lu d w i g Lo r e , C l a u d e Mc K a y , Mo r r i e Ry s k i n d , t o me n t i o n a
f e w w h o a t v a r i o u s p e r i o d s i n c u r r e d c o mmu n i s t d i s f a v o r .
Th e p a r t t h a t Ic a n n o t i n d u c e t h e u n i n i t i a t e d t o b e l i e v e i s h o w
e f f e c t i v e t h e t e r r o r c o u l d b e
. Wh e n y o u f i r s t me t a p a r t i c u l a r l y f a r -
f e t c h e d l i b e l o n y o u r c h a r a c t e r , i t me r e l y s e e me d f u n n y i n i t s a b s u r d i t y .
Th e n i t b e c a me a h a u n t i n g r e f r a i n , i t s t o t a l e f f e c t d e p e n d i n g o n y o u r
n e r v e s a n d y o u r r e s e r v o i r o f s e l f - e s t e e m
. Th e s a me f a n t a s t i c i n v e n t i o n s
i n a p p r o x i ma t e l y t h e s a me w o r d s b o b b e d u p i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y
a mo n g t h e mo s t d i v e r s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e . Th e y w e r e s h o u t e d a t y o u
f r o mt h e f l o o r o f l e c t u r e h a l l s a n d e c h o e d i n b o o k r e v i e w a n d g o s s i p
c o l u mn s . Y o u r f r i e n d s a s s u r e d y o u t h a t o f c o u r s e t h e y d i d n ' t b e l i e v e
s u c h n o n s e n s e , b u t w h a t w a s t h e l o w - d o w n ? D i d y o u r e a l l y o p e r a t e a
b r o t h e l i n Mo s c o w ? D i d y o u r e a l l y c o n d u c t a l u c r a t i v e B l a c k B o u r s e ?
An d w h a t a b o u t y o u r c a r e e r a s a c o n t r a b a n d i s t ? Te n t h o u s a n d w e l l -
me a n i n g p e o p l e c o - o p e r a t e d i n n o c e n t l y w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l p o i s o n - g a s
b r i g a d e s .
An d y o u w e r e l u c k y i f y o u h a d t h e t a l e n t o r t h e p e r s o n a l p r e s t i g e
t o w e a t h e r t h e o n s l a u g h t . Wh e n t h e v i c t i mw a s a me e k a n d f r i e n d -
l e s s c r e a t u r e h e mi g h t f i n d h i ms e l f s t r i p p e d o f a l i v e l i h o o d a l o n g w i t h
h i s g o o d n a me . Fo r a k n o w n " r e n e g a d e " t o c r a s h o n e o f t h e c u l t u r a l
Fe d e r a l p r o j e c t s - l i t e r a r y , t h e a t r e , a r t - w a s a f e a t mo r e d i f f i c u l t t h a n
p a s s i n g t h a t c a me l t h r o u g h t h e e y e o f t h e n e e d l e . Wh e r e v e r h e
mo v e d t h e r e w e r e ma n u s c r i p t r e a d e r s , c a s t i n g d i r e c t o r s , b o o k r e v i e w e r s
w h o - c o n s c i o u s l y o r b y a s o r t o f p a c k i n s t i n c t - t o o k t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s
r e a d y - ma d e f r o mt h e P o p u l a r Fr o n t c o mr a d e s .
If y o u t h i n k Ie x a g g e r a t e , s e e k o u t s o me me mb e r o f t h e Ab r a h a m
Li n c o l n B r i g a d e w h o d a r e d t o t e l l t h e t r u t h a b o u t G. P . U. c o r r u p t i o n
a n d b r u t a l i t y i n Sp a i n . C o me r s o me c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r w h o b r o k e r e -
INTELLEC TUALRED TERROR

3 2 7
l a t i o n s o p e n l y w i t h h i s c o mmu n i s t u n i t o n t h e c a mp u s . Fi n d a l mo s t
a n y o n e w h o h a s w r i t t e n a n a r t i c l e o r a b o o k a t t a c k i n g t h e So v i e t
Ut o p i a . H a v e h i mc o n v e y t o y o u w h a t i t me a n s t o h a v e y o u r p r i v a t e
l i f e ma l i g n e d , y o u r e v e r y w o r d a n d a c t t w i s t e d o u t o f s h a p e , y o u r
e v e r y p i e c e o f w o r k a u t o ma t i c a l l y c o n d e mn e d b y p a r t y - l i n e j u d g e s i n
t h e mo s t u n e x p e c t e d p l a c e s
.
H e ma y g i v e y o u s o me i n k l i n g o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d mo r a l r e d
t e r r o r . It c o u l d b a r y o u f r o mh o u s e p a r t i e s o n P a r k Av e n u e , j o b s i n
H o l l y w o o d , p l a c e s o n t h e r e l i e f r o l l s o f y o u r c i t y , f a i r t r e a t me n t i n t h e
c o l u mn s o f g r e a t c o n s e r v a t i v e p a p e r s , a h e a r i n g b e f o r e s u p p o s e d l y
b r o a d - mi n d e d p u b l i c l e c t u r e f o r u ms , a c c e s s t o Fe d e r a l p r o j e c t s . It
c o u l d h o l d t h e t h r e a t o f t h i s p o w e r o v e r t h e h e a d s o f d o u b t e r s a n d
b a c k s l i d e r s
. To t h e c o n f o r mi s t s , b y t h e s a me t o k e n , i t o f f e r e d t h e j o y s
o f l o g r o l l i n g , t h e p u b l i c i t y o f e n d l e s s c o mmi t t e e s a n d c a u s e s , t h e
b e n e f i t o f e v e r y d o u b t i n a n y n u mb e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l u mn s o f c r i t -
i c i s ma n d r e v i e w , a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o a s o c i a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e
t h a t c o mb i n e d t h e f a s h i o n a b l e w i t h t h e s e l f - r i g h t e o u s l y v i r t u o u s
.
2
As r e c e n t l y a s 1 9 3 6 o u r mo s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h i l o s o p h e r , P r o f e s s o r
Jo h n D e w e y , s t i l l r a t e d h i g h i n t h e Ame r i c a n c o mmu n i s t p r e s s
. H e
h a d w r i t t e n w a r ml y a b o u t So v i e t e d u c a t i o n a n d l o a n e d h i s n a me t o
c o mmu n i s t - c o n t r o l l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . So o n , h o w e v e r , f e w n a me s w e r e
mo r e a b o mi n a t e d i n r e s p e c t a b l e c o mmu n i s t - l i b e r a l c i r c l e s t h a n P r o -
f e s s o r D e w e y ' s
. H e d r e w t h e l i g h t n i n g o f Mu s c o v i t e d a mn a t i o n b y
h e a d i n g t h e i n q u i r y i n t o St a l i n ' s c h a r g e s a g a i n s t Le o n Tr o t s k y . Th e
D a i l y
Wo r k e r i n s t a n t l y e x c o mmu n i c a t e d h i ma n d n u l l i f i e d a l l h i s g o o d
w o r k s f o r t h e c o mmu n i s t c a u s e . It d e s c r i b e d h i ma s " a C h a r l i e
Mc C a r t h y f o r t h e Tr o t s k y i t e s " w a l l o w i n g i n " a s w a mp o f f i l t h , " w h o
" h a s b e c o me t h e p u p p e t o f d i s r u p t i o n i n Ame r i c a ' s l i b e r a l a n d p r o -
g r e s s i v e mo v e me n t s . . . h a s w i p e d o u t h i s s t a n d i n g a s a l i b e r a l " a n d b e -
c o me " a t o o l o f r e a c t i o n
. " Th i s e s t i ma t e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s c h a r -
a c t e r a p p e a r e d u n d e r t h e c a p t i o n " Ame r i c a n La b o r H a s a Ne w
En e my " - c l e a r l y t h e ma i n c o n c e r n o f Ame r i c a n l a b o r w a s t o p r o t e c t
t h e G. P . U. a g a i n s t P r o f e s s o r D e w e y
.
Th e d i u r n a l o n s l a u g h t s w e r e r e i n f o r c e d b y s n i p i n g i n t h e w e e k l y
Ne w Ma s s e s , w i t h c o l u mn i s t Ro b e r t Fo r s y t h e ma n n i n g t h e mu d g u n s
.
Al o n g w i t h Mi c h a e l Go l d , Ma l c o l mC o w l e y a n d t h e H e y w o o d B r o u n
3 2 8

TH ERED D EC AD E
o f t h a t p e r i o d , Fo r s y t h e h e l d t h e f i r s t l i n e o f o f f e n s e i n t h e c a mp a i g n s
o n i n d i v i d u a l n o n c o n f o r mi s t s . H e d e s e r v e s a p a r a g r a p h o f c l o s e - u p :
H i s p r o s a i c w o r k a d a y i d e n t i t y i s K y l e C r i c h t o n , l o n g t h e t h e a t r e
a n d mo v i e w r i t e r f o r C o l l i e r ' s . H e i s a t a l l , s t o o p e d , s p e c t a c l e d , r a t h e r
p r o f e s s o r i a l o r c l e r i c a l l o o k i n g g e n t l e ma n . Th e l a s t t h i n g y o u w o u l d
g u e s s h i mt o b e f r o mh i s l o o k s a n d t a l k i s t h e a u t h o r o f a w e e k l y c h u n k
o f c r e a mp u f f e r y f o r t h e ma s s e s - p r e s s - a g e n t g u r g l i n g s a b o u t H o l l y w o o d
s t a r l e t s , v a u d e v i l l e c o mi c s , t h e a t r e h o p e f u l s , s k a t i n g q u e e n s a n d t h e
l i k e
. Th e ma n a n d h i s w o r k a r e s o l u d i c r o u s l y a t o d d s t h a t i t i s a s a f e
g u e s s h e d e s p i s e s h i s h a c k i n g a n d h a t e s h i ms e l f f o r i t . Th e f i r s t t i me
Il o o k e d a t t h i s d i g n i f i e d p e r s o n If e l t Ic o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e b i t t e r
a n d u n i n h i b i t e d n a me - c a l l i n g i n h i s r o ma n t i c c o mmu n i s t i n c a r n a t i o n
a s Ro b e r t Fo r s y t h e . Th e Ne w Ma s s e s Fo r s y t h e , If e l t , w a s t r y i n g t o
p r o v e i n i s s u e a f t e r i s s u e t h a t u n d e r t h e s u r f a c e o f C o l l i e r ' s K y l e C r i c h -
t o n t h e r e w a s r e a l l y a n a u d a c i o u s f e l l o w w i t h a mi n d a n d a s o u l a n d ,
a b o v e a l l , l i t e r a r y g u t s
. P r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e h i s C o l l i e r ' s s t u f f w a s s o
s i c k l y s a c c h a r i n e , h i s d e f e n s e o f t h e K r e ml i n ' s t o r t u o u s l i n e h a d t o b e
w r i t t e n i n g a l l a n d b i l e . Th e s a r d o n i c B u r t o n Ra s c o e h i t t h e n a i l o n
t h e h e a d w h e n h e d i s p o s e d o f C r i c h t o n - Fo r s y t h e w i t h t h e p h r a s e , " So
r e d t h e p o s e . "
An d s o , i n h u r l i n g a l o t o f b o l d e p i t h e t s a t a r e a l t h i n k e r l i k e Jo h n
D e w e y , p o o r Mr . C r i c h t o n , w e c a n a s s u me , w a s me r e l y a v e n g i n g t h e
f a t e t h a t f o r c e d h i mt o c o mp o s e d r o o l i n g - s w e e t a r t i c l e s a b o u t g l a mo u r
g i r l s
. In a n y c a s e , w h i l e p l u n g e d i n h i s b r a v e Fo r s y t h e s a g a , h e p o s e d
t h e q u e s t i o n i n t h e Ne w Ma s s e s , " Is Jo h n D e w e y H o n e s t ? " a n d
w o r k e d h i s w a y g l e e f u l l y t h r o u g h a p a g e f u l o f a b u s e t o a n e g a t i v e
a n s w e r . P r o f e s s o r D e w e y , h e f o u n d , " i s a mo s t d i s a r mi n g o l d g e n t l e -
ma n w h o i s c a p a b l e o f g r e a t v i c i o u s n e s s
. " Th e " v i c i o u s n e s s " o f t h e
` o l d c u s s " - Fo r s y t h e ' s e l e g a n t p h r a s e - l a y , o f c o u r s e , i n h i s a t t e mp t
t o g e t a t t h e t r u t h b e h i n d t h e Mo s c o w p u r g e t r i a l s . " Mr . D e w e y h a s
c e a s e d b e i n g d i s a r mi n g a n d p a t h e t i c , " Mr . C r i c h t o n d e c i d e d , " a n d
i s n o w g r a d u a t e d i n t o d i s h o n e s t y . . .
. * Th i s b y t h e ma n w h o , a s
C r i c h t o n , r e v i e w e d a b o o k b y " Fo r s y t h e " f o r t h e o l d Li f e a n d f o u n d i t
e x c e e d i n g l y g o o d !
Th e a b u s e o f P r o f e s s o r D e w e y w a s e c h o e d i n a l l o t h e r c o mmu n i s t
a n d n e a r - c o mmu n i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s . H e y w o o d B r o u n t o o k s o me h e f t y
w a l l o p s a t h i mo n h i s Ne w Re p u b l i c p a g e . Th e n e w s t h a t t h e p h i l o s -
* Ne w Ma s s e s , Ja n u a r y 4 , 1 9 3 8 .
INTELLEC TUALRED TERROR

3 2 9
o p h e r h a d g o n e " f a s c i s t " a n d " Tr o t s k y i t e " w a s s p r e a d d i l i g e n t l y
t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e w o r l d o f " s y mp a t h i z e r s , " mi d d l e - c l a s s s e n s a t i o n -
s e e k e r s , p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d o t h e r i n n o c e n t s a r o u n d t h e C o m-
mu n i s t P a r t y . Th e p r o p a g a n d a t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t P r o f e s s o r D e w e y w a s
" d o d d e r i n g " w a s r a t h e r b a d l y c o n f o u n d e d b y t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s
b o o k o n Lo g i c , o n e o f t h e mo s t i mp r e s s i v e j o b s i n h i s c a r e e r
. On e o f
t h e d a mn i n g c r i me s c h a r g e d a g a i n s t a c o mr a d e b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d o n
s u s p i c i o n o f h e r e s y - Ih a p p e n e d t o s e e a p a r t o f t h e r e c o r d e d p r o -
c e e d i n g s - w a s h i s r e p o r t e d r e ma r k t h a t " Jo h n D e w e y i s a n h o n e s t
ma n . " Th e p r o f e s s o r ' s n a me c o u l d n o l o n g e r b e me n t i o n e d i n g o o d
f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s o c i e t y w i t h o u t s o me s c u r r i l o u s a d j e c t i v e . C o n s o r t i n g
w i t h h i mc a me t o r a n k a mo n g t h e u n p a r d o n a b l e s i n s f o r a " f r i e n d o f
t h e So v i e t Un i o n
. " Ev e n t h e p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c w r i t e r s i n o u t r i g h t
c o mmu n i s t ma g a z i n e s a n d i n c o mmu n i s t - d o mi n a t e d p u b l i c a t i o n s l i k e
Sc i e n c e a n d So c i e t y s u d d e n l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t P r o f e s s o r D e w e y ' s p h i l o s -
o p h y w a s w o r t h l e s s . D r . V. J . Mc Gi l l w r o t e u n d e r h i s o w n n a me i n
Sc i e n c e a n d So c i e t y a n d u n d e r t h e n a me o f P h i l i p C a r t e r i n Th e C o m-
mu n i s t , t h u s g e t t i n g i n a d o u b l e - h e a d e r a s s a u l t o n P r o f e s s o r D e w e y .
P e n t h o u s e p a r t i e s t h e r e a f t e r s h u d d e r e d a t t h e me n t i o n o f t h e " r e n e -
g a d e . "
Or t a k e t h e g r e a t g a n g i n g u p o n Ma x Ea s t ma n . H i s c h a r a c t e r h a s
n o w b e e n u n d e r s i e g e f o r mo r e t h a n a d e c a d e , s o t h a t h e i s b y t h i s t i me
a l i v i n g c o mp e n d i u mo f a l l k n o w n i n i q u i t i e s a n d i n f a mi e s a n d a f e w
r a r e o n e s t o b o o t . In 1 9 2 7 , a l t h o u g h h e w a s a l r e a d y l o u d a g a i n s t
St a l i n , t h e Ne w Ma s s e s s t i l l a n n o u n c e d p r o u d l y , t h a t h e w o u l d c o n -
t r i b u t e t o i t s p a g e s . " Wh a t t h e Ne w Ma s s e s n e e d s i s a Ma x Ea s t ma n ! "
t h e e d i t o r s q u o t e d r e a d e r s a s s a y i n g a n d p r o mi s e d t o me e t t h i s d e ma n d
.
Th e Ame r i c a n c o mr a d e s w e r e s t i l l h e s i t a t i n g a s b e t w e e n St a l i n a n d
Tr o t s k y . Th e n t h e d i e w a s c a s t , a n d i mme d i a t e l y t h e t h e s a u r u s w a s
s a c k e d f o r a d j e c t i v e s o f a b u s e a g a i n s t Ea s t ma n .
Th e p o l i t e d e s i g n a t i o n " b a n d i t o f t h e p e n " o r " g a n g s t e r o f t h e
p e n , " l a t e r a g e n e r i c t e r mf o r a l l w r i t e r s d i s a v o w i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f
t h e K r e ml i n , w a s t a i l o r e d i n Mo s c o w e s p e c i a l l y t o Ea s t ma n ' s me a s u r e .
Ad i s p a t c h f r o mt h e So v i e t c a p i t a l t o t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r o n Ap r i l 4 ,
1 9 3 7 , r e c o r d e d St a l i n ' s r e f e r e n c e t o h o s t i l e j o u r n a l i s t s i n Ame r i c a a s
" a n o t o r i o u s g a n g o f w r i t e r s
. . . h e a d e d b y t h e n o t o r i o u s c r o o k Ma x
Ea s t ma n . " Fi v e d a y s l a t e r , i n Mo s c o w a g a i n , Ea r l B r o w d e r e c h o e d
:
" Th e Tr o t s k y i t e w r e c k e r s h a v e t h e i r r e s e r v e s . Amo n g t h e i r r e s e r v e s
o u t s i d e t h e U. S. S. R. n o s ma l l p l a c e i s t a k e n b y t h e Ame r i c a n b a n d i t s
3 3 0

TH ERED D EC AD E
o f t h e p e n
. . . . At t h e h e a d o f t h i s g a n g o f b a n d i t s i s t h e n o t o r i o u s
s w i n d l e r Ma x Ea s t ma n . " Th e g a n g l e a d e r ' s a c h i e v e me n t s a s " c r o o k "
a n d " s w i n d l e r " w o u l d n o t q u i t e p l a c e h i mi n a c l a s s w i t h Al C a p o n e ,
b e i n g o n t h e p o l i t i c o - i d e o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e c o mme r c i a l l e v e l .
Fo r i n s t a n c e , h e w a s t h e f i r s t t o ma k e p u b l i c i n Ame r i c a t h e f u l l t e x t
o f Le n i n ' s f a mo u s La s t Wi l l , i n w h i c h t h e d y i n g Fa t h e r o f B o l s h e v i s m
c a l l e d f o r t h e r e mo v a l o f St a l i n .
Th e w e l l - k n o w n l a b o r j o u r n a l i s t B e n j a mi n St o l b e r g w o n h i s t i t l e s
a s e n e my o f t h e p e o p l e a n d b a n d i t o f t h e p e n b y t h e f a c t a l o n e t h a t h e
p a r t i c i p a t e d i n P r o f e s s o r D e w e y ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Mo s c o w t r i a l s .
Ev e n t h a t f a d e d b y c o n t r a s t w h e n h e d a r e d , i n a r t i c l e s a n d a b o o k ,
t o e x p o s e t h e t a c t i c s o f t h e St a l i n i s t s i n t h e C . I. O. Th o u g h h e
d e f e n d e d t h e C . I. O. a g a i n s t t h e Ma c h i a v e l l i a n c o n n i v e r s i n s i d e a n d
o u t s i d e - a w a r n i n g w h i c h , h a d i t b e e n h e e d e d , mi g h t h a v e s a v e d t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o mi t s l a t e r t r o u b l e s - t h e l i b e r a l a n d c o mmu n i s t p r e s s
t r e a t e d h i s w r i t i n g s a s a n " a t t a c k " o n t h e C . I. O.
" Th a t s t o o l - p i g e o n o f t h e p e n , B e n j a mi n St o l b e r g , h a s h i t t h e
f r o n t - p a g e a g a i n , " t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r a p p r i s e d i t s r e a d e r s . Th e e d i t o r s
o f t h e p a p e r , w h o e x h i b i t a p e c u l i a r l y i n t i ma t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e
mo s t a n c i e n t t r a d e a n d i t s l i n g o , c a l l e d h i ma n " o r d i n a r y l o w - p r i c e d
s t r e e t - w a l k e r r e a d y t o p e d d l e h i ms e l f i n p a r k s , a l l e y s o r h a l l w a y s t o a n y
c h a n c e c u s t o me r . " B r o u n j o i n e d t h e a t t a c k , a n d t h e a d mi r a b l e C r i c h -
t o n - Fo r s y t h e , o f c o u r s e , c o n t r i b u t e d h i s h a n d f u l o f e p i t h e t s .
Th a t s o r t o f t h i n g c o u l d b e s h r u g g e d o f f b y me n l i k e St o l b e r g ,
D e w e y , Ea s t ma n , b u t i t p u t t h e f e a r o f Go d i n t o me e k e r me n . Th e
d i s c r e d i t i n g o f t h e i mme d i a t e v i c t i ms w a s o n l y a p a r t o f t h e o b j e c -
t i v e - i n t i mi d a t i o n o f f e l l o w - t r a v e l e r s g e n e r a l l y w a s t h e ma i n p u r p o s e .
3
Fi r s t p l a c e a mo n g t h e o b j e c t s o f p l a n n e d c a l u mn y b e l o n g e d t o a
c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h Ie n j o y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p l a c e : t h e a u t h o r s o f b o o k s
t e l l i n g t o o mu c h a b o u t Ru s s i a . In Ap r i l , 1 9 3 3 , t h e Ne w Ma s s e s s a i d o f
t h e g r e a t Fr e n c h w r i t e r , An d r e Gi d e : " No t h i n g i s s o o d i o u s t o h i ma s
t h e l i e . H e w o u l d n o t r e s o r t t o me n d a c i t y e v e n i f i t c o u l d ` p r o v e '
w h a t w a s mo s t d e a r t o h i m . " Fo u r y e a r s l a t e r t h e s a me ma g a z i n e
f l a y e d M. Gi d e a s a l i a r a n d a d d e d i n n u e n d o e s a b o u t h i s p r i v a t e l i f e
;
t h e s a me w h i s p e r i n g s w e r e s o o n t o b e h e a r d a t e v e r y " c a u s e " c o c k t a i l
p a r t y
. Th e Fr e n c h ma n , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e me a n t i me h a d p u b l i s h e d a
INTELLEC TUALRED TERROR

3 3 1
b r o c h u r e a c c u s i n g t h e So v i e t r e g i me o f " o p p r e s s i o n o f t h e h u ma n
s p i r i t
. " Al l o v e r t h e w o r l d , a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s o w n c o u n t r y , t h e
n o v e l i s t w a s s u b j e c t e d t o u n p r i n c i p l e d p e r s e c u t i o n .
Th e c o mr a d e s p i c k e d o n a Ge r ma n n o v e l i s t o f g r e a t t a l e n t b u t
t r a g i c a l l y l i mi t e d p o l i t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , Li o n Fe u c h t w a n g e r , t o
ma k e t h e o f f i c i a l r e p l y t o M. Gi d e . Th e y t o o k h i mt o Ru s s i a , e n t e r -
t a i n e d h i mt o t h e p o i n t o f e g o - i n f l a t i o n a n d l e t h i mf l o a t l o o s e
. Fo r
y e a r s a f t e r - e v e n a f t e r t h e St a l i n i s t s h a d ma d e c o mmo n c a u s e w i t h t h e
H i t l e r w h o d r o v e h i mt o Ame r i c a ( n o t t o Ru s s i a , b e i t n o t e d ) a s a
r e f u g e e - H e r r Fe u c h t w a n g e r w a s s t i l l p l a y i n g t h e Mu s c o v i t e g a me ,
k n o w i n g l y o r i n c h i l d i s h i n n o c e n c e .
An Ame r i c a n w o r k e r , An d r e w Smi t h , w e n t t o Ru s s i a i n 1 9 3 2 w i t h
t h e i n t e n t i o n o f s e t t l i n g t h e r e
. An o f f i c i a l r e c o mme n d a t i o n b y a n
Ame r i c a n C o mmu n i s t P a r t y a g e n t p r a i s e d h i ma s a l o y a l c o mr a d e a n d
a n " e x p e r t ma c h i n i s t . " Af e w y e a r s l a t e r Smi t h r e t u r n e d t o t e l l w h a t
h e h a d e x p e r i e n c e d i n St a l i n ' s r e a l m, i n a b o o k h e c a l l e d IWa s a So -
v i e t Wo r k e r
. It w a s a s r e a l i s t i c a n d h o r r i f y i n g a n a c c o u n t a s h a d c o me
o u t o f St a l i n l a n d . Th e c a p i t a l i s t p r e s s w a s a l mo s t u n a n i mo u s i n i g n o r -
i n g t h a t b o o k , t h o u g h i t g a v e a t t e n t i o n a s a ma t t e r o f c o u r s e t o a n y
v o l u me o f p r a i s e o f Ru s s i a - b u t t h a t ' s a n o t h e r s t o r y . Mr . Smi t h w a s
i mme d i a t e l y s me a r e d i n t h e c o mr a d e l y p r e s s a s a " H e a r s t t o o l , a t r a i t o r
t o t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s " w h o " a f t e r a l o n g c a r e e r o f t r i c k e r y h a s f o u n d h i s
p r o p e r p l a c e w i t h t h e f a s c i s t s
. " Ev e n h i s s t a n d i n g a s a w o r k ma n w a s
i mp u g n e d : h e w a s n o w " a p o o r l y s k i l l e d w o r k e r . "
Amo s t s t r i k i n g e x a mp l e o f " c h a r a c t e r mu r d e r " o n t h e Le f t i s p r o -
v i d e d b y c o mmu n i s t t r e a t me n t o f Fr e d E . B e a l , l e a d e r o f t h e c e l e -
b r a t e d t e x t i l e s t r i k e i n Ga s t o n i a , No r t h C a r o l i n a , i n 1 9 2 9 , n o w s e r v i n g
a t e n y e a r s ' t e r mo n c h a r g e s g r o w i n g o u t o f t h a t s t r i k e . It w a s i n t h e
d i r e c t s e r v i c e o f t h e C o mmu n i s t P a r t y t h a t h e l e d t h e s t r i k e a n d d r e w
t h e s e n t e n c e
. H e h a d b e e n a d v e r t i s e d f o r y e a r s a s i t s g r e a t l a b o r ma r t y r
.
Y e t t h e c o mmu n i s t s n o t o n l y d o n o t h i n g t o h e l p h i mb u t d e n o u n c e
t h e t r a d e - u n i o n i s t s w h o s e e k h i s r e l e a s e ! Th o u g h h e i s t h e mo s t
p r o mi n e n t a n d mo s t c l e a r l y v i c t i mi z e d l a b o r p r i s o n e r i n Ame r i c a - n o w
t h a t Mo o n e y a n d B i l l i n g s a r e f r e e - t h e mi s n a me d In t e r n a t i o n a l La b o r
D e f e n s e , h e a d e d b y Vi t o Ma r c a n t o n i o , d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e h i s ma r t y r -
d o m!
Wh y ? B e c a u s e w h i l e s t i l l a c o mmu n i s t h e r o h e s k i p p e d b a i l ( w i t h
t h e b l e s s i n g a n d v e r y l i k e l y , a s h e c l a i ms , o n t h e o r d e r o f t h e p a r t y )
a n d f l e d t o Ru s s i a
. Th e r e h e w a s r e v o l t e d b y t h e mi s e r y , i n j u s t i c e
3 3 2

TH ERED D EC AD E
a n d t e r r o r . Ri s k i n g i mp r i s o n me n t , h e l e f t Ru s s i a f o r t h e l i f e o f a
f u g i t i v e f r o mj u s t i c e a t h o me , d e t e r mi n e d t o t e l l w h a t h e h a d s e e n
.
H e s u c c e e d e d i n p u b l i s h i n g a r t i c l e s a n d a b o o k , AP r o l e t a r i a n j o u r n e y ,
b e f o r e h e w a s a p p r e h e n d e d . H i s ma r t y r d o mq u i t e f o r g o t t e n , t h e ma -
c h i n e r y o f c o mmu n i s t a b u s e w a s s e t t o w o r k o n h i s r e p u t a t i o n
. Th o u g h
c o mmu n i s t p a mp h l e t s h a d o n c e d e s c r i b e d h i ma s " o n e o f t h e mo s t
c o u r a g e o u s l e a d e r s , " a n a r t i c l e i n t h e D a i l y Wo r k e r b y H a r r i s o n
Ge o r g e n o w a c c u s e d h i mo f c o w a r d i c e a n d d e ma n d e d i n e f f e c t t h a t h e
b e a l l o w e d t o r o t i n p r i s o n d e s p i t e h i s i n n o c e n c e .
It i s e a s y t o i ma g i n e w h a t a g r e a t n a t i o n a l n o i s e w o u l d b e u n d e r
w a y i n B e a l ' s b e h a l f n o w , h o w ma n y t h o u s a n d s o f l i b e r a l s w o u l d b e
c o n v e r g i n g t h e i r e n e r g i e s o n No r t h C a r o l i n a i f h e h a d n o t ma d e t h e
f a t a l b l u n d e r o f a t t a c k i n g c o mmu n i s m . C o l l e c t i o n b o x e s w o u l d b e
r a t t l i n g o n s t r e e t c o r n e r s , c o c k t a i l p a r t i e s w o u l d b e u n d e r w a y , ma s s
me e t i n g s a n d p a r a d e s w o u l d b e s t a g e d
. B u t h e o f f e n d e d t h e St a l i n i s t s ,
s o n o t e v e n Mr s . Ro o s e v e l t s e e ms t o h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
a n d e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g c a s e o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . Ic a n t h i n k o f f e w
g r e a t e r p r o o f s o f t h e p o w e r o f St a l i n i n Ame r i c a t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t h e
h o l d s B e a l - w h o s e i n n o c e n c e f e w d o u b t - i n a n Ame r i c a n p r i s o n !
Wi l l i a mH e n r y C h a mb e r l i n , a n e w s p a p e r ma n o f a c a d e mi c t e mp e r ,
c o v e r e d Mo s c o w f o r o v e r t w e l v e y e a r s f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n Sc i e n c e
Mo n i t o r . In h i s e a r l y y e a r s h e w a s w i d e l y q u o t e d b y t h e c o mmu n i s t s .
B u t a f t e r t h e a d v e n t o f St a l i n h e b e c a me mo r e c r i t i c a l , h i s d i s ma y
f i n a l l y f i n d i n g e x p r e s s i o n i n Ru s s i a ' s Ir o n Ag e
. Wh e r e u p o n h e w a s
b r a n d e d i n Ame r i c a n f e l l o w t r a v e l i n g c i r c l e s a s a n a g e n t o f H i t l e r a n d
t h e Mi k a d o . Th e s t o r y w a s s p r e a d d i l i g e n t l y a n d i s s t i l l c i r c u l a t i n g
t h a t C h a mb e r l i n b e g a n a t t a c k i n g Ru s s i a a f t e r h e ma r r i e d " a Ru s s i a n
p r i n c e s s . " H i s w i f e , w h o mh e ma r r i e d b e f o r e t h e y e v e r w e n t t o
Ru s s i a , i s a Ne w Y o r k h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r o f Ru s s i a n d e s c e n t .
D u r i n g t h e f i r s t Fi v e Y e a r P l a n , h u n d r e d s o f Ame r i c a n e n g i n e e r s
h a d b e e n d r a w n t o Ru s s i a . Wi t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s t h e y r e t u r n e d h o me
w i t h a d e e p c o n t e mp t f o r t h e B o l s h e v i k p r e t e n s i o n s o f g l o r y . Th e
p r o c e s s o f d i s c r e d i t i n g t h e s e e n g i n e e r s , i f t h e y h a p p e n e d t o t a l k t o o
mu c h i n p u b l i c , b e c a me a l u d i c r o u s r o u t i n e . Wh e n w e w h o w e r e
l i v i n g i n Mo s c o w s a w a " j o b " b e i n g d o n e o n s o me r e p a t r i a t e d Ame r i -
c a n , w e k n e w t h a t h e w a s w r i t i n g a b o o k o r ma k i n g s p e e c h e s u n f a v o r -
a b l e t o t h e St a l i n r e g i me . Th e Mo s c o w D a i l y Ne w s w a s t h e n o r ma l
i n s t r u me n t o f o f f e n s e . An a r t i c l e w o u l d s u d d e n l y a p p e a r a t t a c k i n g a
g i v e n Ame r i c a n e n g i n e e r a s a d r u n k a r d , a r a p i s t , a n e mb e z z l e r a n d a
INTELLEC TUALRED TERROR

3 3 3
p h o n y i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n . Th e c h a r g e s w o u l d b e s u p p o r t e d b y a f f i -
d a v i t s b y h i s f o r me r s e c r e t a r i e s , i n t e r p r e t e r s a n d a s s i s t a n t s - a s t h o u g h
Ru s s i a n s c o u l d r e f u s e t o ma k e s u c h a f f i d a v i t s w h e n o r d e r e d . Th e
Ame r i c a n c o mr a d e s w o u l d b e d u l y n o t i f i e d o f t h e c u l p r i t ' s e v i l w a y s -
a n d h i s r e p o r t s o n Ru s s i a c o u l d t h u s b e b r u s h e d a s i d e .
On e r e a s o