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SECONDWIND

129
s o u r i , T e n n e s s e e , V i r g i n i a , De l a w a r e , M i s s i s s i p p i ,
T e x a s , F l o r i d a , A r k a n s a s , L o u i s i a n a , Ca l i f o r n i a ,
Or e g o n
.
M a y, 1855
: M i n n e s o t a , Ne w M e x i c o , K a n s a s ,
Ne br a s k a .
T hu s , w i t hi n t hr e e ye a r s a f t e r Ju d s o n
a n d
B a r k e r a n d A l l e n l a u n c he d t he v e n t u r e , o n e a n d
o n e - ha l f m i l l i o n l e g a l a n d q u a l i f i e d v o t e r s w e r e
r o p e d i n a n d m a r k e d w i t ht he u n s e e n K n o w -
No t hi n g br a n d . T he s w e e p o f t he p a r t y' s o r g a n i -
z a t i o n m a r c hf o l l o w e d t he r o u t e o f a n yn e w i d e a
t ha t c o m e s t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s
; t ha t i s , i t w a s
s n a p p e d u p e a g e r l ybyt he n o r t he a s t e r n s t a t e s , i t
m a r c he d t he n c e i n t o Ne w En g l a n d a n d o u t t o t he
m i d d l e w e s t , a n d f i n a l l yi t p e n e t r a t e d t he s o u t h
.
Who w e r e s o m e o f t he c o n v e r t s t o t he w a r
a g a i n s t p o p e r ya n d t he i m m i g r a n t ? F e w o f t he m
a d m i t t e d e v e r ha v i n g j o i n e d u p w he n o n c e t he t o r -
n a d o ha d bl o w n a r o u n d o n i t s o w n t a i l , bu t t he
s t o r yd i d g e t o u t o n a ha n d f u l o f t he m
.
Ea s i l yt he m o s t f a m o u s K n o w - No t hi n g w a s
U l ys s e s S . G r a n t
. H e w a s a t o ba c c o - c he w i n g s t o r e -
k e e p e r n e a r St
. L o u i s i n t he f i f t i e s , a n d d i d n o t
d r e a m t ha t he w a s o n e d a yt o c o m m a n d t he a r m i e s
i n t he f i e l d o f t he U n i t e d St a t e s a n d a n o t he r d a y
t o s i t
i n t he Whi t e H o u s e
. H e t e l l s t he K n o w -
No t hi n g s t o r yo n hi m s e l f i n hi s
M e m o i r s ( V o l . I,
p .
16 9) ,
w hi c hi s m o r e t ha n m a n ya n o t he r s u s p e c t
s a w f i t t o d o
. G r a n t r e l a t e s t ha t he w e n t t o o n e
130

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
m e e t i n g o f t he n e a r e s t K n o w - No t hi n g l o d g e i n hi s
g r e e n - g r o c e r d a ys , w a s i n i t i a t e d , he a r d p r e a c he d
t he w o r d o f Ju d s o n a n d B a r k e r , a n d n e v e r w e n t
ba c k .
Sa m H o u s t o n , o f A l a m o f a m e , w a s a n o t he r
Ca t ho l i c - ha t e r w ho f o u n d a ha v e n i n t he K n o w -
No t hi n g p a r t y . H o u s t o n s e r v e d i t s i n t e r e s t s g a l -
l a n t l yi n t he U n i t e d St a t e s Se n a t e , p u t t i n g u p a s
br a v e a f i g ht a g a i n s t Ro m e a s i s c u r r e n t l yw a g e d
byt he H o n . J . T ho m a s H e f l i n ( De m . ) , o f A l a -
ba m a .
Ot he r K n o w - No t hi n g s w ho s e n a m e s i n t he i r
br i e f d a yc o u l d m a k e t he n a t i o n p a u s e a t t he he a r -
i n g o f t he m w e r e H u m p hr e yM a r s ha l l , o f L o u i s -
v i l l e ( Co n g r e s s , 1855) ; H e n r yWi n t e r Da v i s ,
o f B a l t i m o r e ( Co n g r e s s 1856 - 58) ; Dr . Je r o m e
Cr o w n s hi e l d Sm i t h( m a yo r o f B o s t o n , 1854)
;
N
. P
. B a n k s ( Sp e a k e r o f t he H o u s e , 1855, a n d
U n i o n g e n e r a l i n t he Ci v i l Wa r ) ; U n i t e d St a t e s
Se n a t o r s Jo hn J . Cr i t t e n d e n o f K e n t u c k y, Jo hn
B e l l o f T e n n e s s e e , A n t ho n yK e n n e d yo f M a r yl a n d ,
H e n r yWi l s o n o f M a s s a c hu s e t t s . T he l a s t n a m e d
be c a m e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t u n d e r Ru t he r f o r d B . H a ye s .
CH A P T ERXV II
F IRST F RU IT S
I T w a s i n t he s p r i n g o f 1854t ha t t he K n o w -
No t hi n g p a r t yha r v e s t e d i t s f i r s t c r o p o f w a t e r -
m e l o n s .
T he m o s t n o t a bl e v i c t o r i e s w e r e i n t he m u n i c i p a l
e l e c t i o n s i n B a l t i m o r e , Wa s hi n g t o n a n d P hi l a d e l -
p hi a . P hi l a d e l p hi a s a w t he bo r i n g - f r o m - w i t hi n
s t r a t e g yp r o d u c e i t s m o s t ho r r i f yi n g r e s u l t w he n
Co n r a d , e l e c t e d m a yo r a s a De m o c r a t , c o n f e s s e d
t o be i n g a K n o w - No t hi n g o n t he m o r n i n g a f t e r hi s
e l e c t i o n w a s c e r t i f i e d . Co n r a d w e n t f u r t he r t ha n
t ha t . T o p r o v e hi m s e l f a s t e r l i n g n a t i v i s t , he s a w
f i t t o i n s u l t e v e r yIr i s hm a n s i n c e B r i a n B o r u by
a s s e r t i n g t ha t a l l p o l i c e m e n o u g ht t o be A m e r i c a n s
bo r n .
Se v e r a l M a s s a c hu s e t t s t o w n s r o l l e d i n t o t he
K n o w - No t hi n g ba s k e t - t he l a r g e s t be i n g Wo r c e s -
t e r a n d Sa l e m - a n d a t l e a s t f o r t yCo n g r e s s m e n
f r o m ha l f a d o z e n s t a t e s w o r e Sa m ' s ba d g e o n t he i r
s o u l s , t ho u g hn o t o n t he i r w a i s t c o a t s . In t he Co n -
g r e s s i o n a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1854t he K n o w - No t hi n g s , i n
a l l s t a t e s w he r e t he yw e r e o r g a n i z e d , s u p p o r t e d
a n yc a n d i d a t e w ho m t he yc o u l d bu l l - d o z e , a l a
A n t i - Sa l o o n L e a g u e , i n t o s e c r e t p l e d g e s o f e t e r n a l
131
132

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
e n m i t yt o w a r d t he P o p e a n d f o r e i g n e r s
. Whi g s ,
Re p u bl i c a n s , A n t i - Ne br a s k a m e n , a l l l o o k e d a l i k e
t o t he n a t i v i s t c r u s a d e r s , s o l o n g a s t he ye n t e r -
t a i n e d " A m e r i c a n i d e a s . "
" T he m a j o r i t yo f t he B a n k s m e n [ Re p u bl i c a n
s u p p o r t e r s o f N. P . B a n k s f o r Sp e a k e r i n t he Co n -
g r e s s o f 1855] , " w r o t e H o r a c e G r e e l e yt o Cha r l e s
A . Da n a w he n Co n g r e s s c o n v e n e d a ye a r l a t e r ,
" a r e n o w m e m be r s o f K n o w - No t hi n g c o u n c i l s , a n d
s o m e t w e n t yo r t hi r t yo f t he m a c t u a l l ybe l i e v e i n
t ha t s w i n d l e . H a l f t he M a s s a c hu s e t t s d e l e g a t i o n ,
t w o - t hi r d s t ha t o f Ohi o , a n d n e a r l ya l l t ha t o f
P e n n s yl v a n i a , a r e K n o w - No t hi n g s t hi s d a y . We
s ha l l g e t t he m g r a d u a l l yd e t a c he d . "
F r o m t he m e r e c a r r yi n g o f m e t r o p o l i t a n e l e c -
t i o n s i n t he s p r i n g , t he n e w p a r t yl e a p e d t o t he
e m i n e n c e o f s w i n g i n g t he s t a t e o f M a s s a c hu s e t t s
i n t he f a l l o f 1854 . H e n r yJ . G a r d n e r - w ho m a l l
a c c o u n t s p o r t r a ya s a br o k e n - d o w n p o l i t i c i a n o f
t he m o s t r e v o l t i n g t yp e - w a s c ho s e n g o v e r n o r o f
t he p r o u d o l d c o m m o n w e a l t hbya p l u r a l i t yo f s o ;
00o v o t e s , w hi l e bo t hho u s e s o f t he l e g i s l a t u r e
t u r n e d u p a l m o s t o n e hu n d r e d p e r c e n t K n o w -
No t hi n g i n c o m p o s i t i o n w he n t he ba l l o t s ha d a l l
be e n c o u n t e d .
De l a w a r e e l e c t e d v a r i o u s K n o w - No t hi n g c a n d i -
d a t e s t o s t a t e o f f i c e s , t ho u g ht he g u be r n a t o r i a l
n o m i n e e w a s l o s t i n t he s hu f f l e .
P r o t e s t a n t u p s t a t e Ne w Yo r k r o s e u p a g a i n s t t he
F IRST F RU IT S

133
- e v e n t he n - B a byl o n o f M a n ha t t a n i s l a n d , a n d
p r e s e n t e d a n a bs o l u t e l yu n k n o w n K n o w - No t hi n g
c a n d i d a t e w i t h 122, 000 v o t e s o u t o f a t o t a l o f 435
o o o p o l l e d .
T he a s t o n i s hm e n t t ha t r o c k e d t he n a t i o n w a s
t e r r i f i c . A n u n s e e n f o r c e , a n u n d e r t o w i n p o l i t i c s ,
ha d w r o u g ht t hi s a m a z i n g c ha i n o f v i c t o r i e s , ha d
t hr o w n p o l i t i c a l ha c k s a n d c l o w n s i n t o t he s e a t s
w he r e t he m i g ht yha d r e s t e d a n d t ho u g ht t he m -
s e l v e s s e c u r e
. No r t he r n Whi g s a n d a n t i - s l a v e r y
De m o c r a t s a l i k e w e r e s c r a m bl i n g i n t o t he n e w
Re p u bl i c a n p a r t y, f o r m a l l yo r g a n i z e d a n d c hr i s -
t e n e d a t Ja c k s o n , M i c hi g a n , i n t he p r e v i o u s Ju l y ;
a n d i t ha d be e n p r a ye r f u l l ys u p p o s e d byt he p o l i t i -
c i a n s t ha t f r o m n o o t he r q u a r t e r w a s a s e r i o u s
s t o r m t o be l o o k e d f o r . T he n a l o n g ha d c o m e t hi s
i n t e r l o p e r , t hi s s e c r e t c a ba l o f w ho s e e x t e n t a n d
s t r e n g t hn o n e c o u l d n o w f o r m a n e s t i m a t e , a n d ha d
g i v e n t he r u l i n g p o w e r s i n t hr e e i m p o r t a n t s t a t e s
a s t a g g e r i n g bl o w .
P a t he t i c i s n o f i t w o r d t o d e s c r i be t he e p i l e p t i c
s e i z u r e s w hi c hl a i d ho l d o n t he p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i t i -
c i a n s . No r i s m o b- l i k e a d e q u a t e t o p o i n t u p t he
e n s u i n g r u s ho n t he p a r t o f o f f i c e - ho l d e r s p a s t ,
p r e s e n t a n d ho p i n g - t o - be t o j o i n t he A m e r i c a n
p a r t y . T he m e m be r s hi p r o l l s w e n t k i t i n g . F o u r
m o n t hs a f t e r t he M a s s a c hu s e t t s , De l a w a r e a n d
Ne w Yo r k l a n d s l i d e s Ja m e s W . B a r k e r r e p o r t e d
t ha t 96 o K n o w - No t hi n g c o u n c i l s w e r e n o w m e e t -
i n g a n d p l o t t i n g i n t he s t a t e o f Ne w Yo r k a l o n e .
134

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
T he Wo r c e s t e r ( M a s s . ) Ev e n i n g Jo u r n a l
d i s -
p l a ye d a bi t o f t ha t u n c a n n yk n a c k f o r g u e s s i n g
w r o n g o n p o l i t i c s w hi c hs o m a n yn e w s p a p e r s ha v e
p r e s e r v e d i n t o t hi s p r e s e n t
: i t p r e d i c t e d a n a t i o n a l
v i c t o r yf o r K n o w - No t hi n g i s m i n t he e l e c t i o n s t w o
ye a r s a he a d
. T ha t t he n e w p a r t yw o u l d s w e e p t he
No r t h, s a i d t he r e s p e c t e d s he e t , w a s a f o r e g o n e
c o n c l u s i o n , w hi l e i t s c ha n c e s w e r e d e c l a r e d g o l d e n
f o r m o p p i n g u p e n o u g he l e c t o r a l v o t e s i n t he So u t h
t o p u t w ha t e v e r l o d g e br o t he r i t m i g ht n o m i n a t e
i n t o t he Whi t e H o u s e .
Ja m e s G o r d o n B e n n e t t ' s Ne w Yo r k
H e r a l d m a d e
a s i m i l a r p r o p he c y -
t a c k i n g t he r e t o , ho w e v e r , t he
s a v i n g "
o u t " w hi c hn o e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r
w ho bo a s t s
,
o f m o r e t ha n a bo w i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t ht he t r i c k s
o f hi s t r a d e e v e r o m i t s f r o m a d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l
p r o ba bi l i t i e s . T he H e r a l d ' s
" o u t " c o n s i s t e d o f a
p r o v i s o t ha t t he K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t yc o u l d s ha k e
o f f t he a n t i - s l a v e r ya r o m a w hi c hw a s a l r e a d yc l i n g -
i n g a bo u t i t s g a r m e n t s
. H a p p i l yf o r t he H e r a l d ,
t hi s t u r n e d o u t t o be t he c a s e , t ho u g hn o t i n t he
m a n n e r a n t i c i p a t e d byi t o r a n yo t he r p o l i t i c a l
s n a k e d o c t o r f u n c t i o n i n g i n 1854
.
H o r a c e G r e e l e y, i n t he m a t t e r o f t he K n o w -
No t hi n g f u r o r e a s i n m o s t o t he r m a t t e r s p o l i t i c a l ,
w a s t he be s t p r o p he t o f t he m a l l . H e w r o t e
:
"
It [ K n o w - No t hi n g i s m ] w o u l d s e e m a s d e v o i d
o f t he e l e m e n t s o f p e r s i s t e n c e a s a n a n t i - c ho l e r a
o r a n t i - p o t a t o r o t p a r t y
. "
A NA NT I- CA T H OL ICCA RT OONOF T H ESEV ENT IES
CH A P T ERXV III
ST ICK S, ST ONES, T A RA NDF EA T H ERS
REL IG IOU S
m a n i a m a k e s m e n s e e a d e e p e r
s ha d e o f r e d t ha n d o e s a n yo t he r f o r m o f hys t e r i a
.
P r o ba bl yt hi s i s be c a u s e w i t hm o s t o f u s t he e m o -
t i o n t r a c e s ba c k t o t he l e s s o n s t a u g ht u s e a r l i e s t by
o u r m o t he r s a n d he n c e m o s t d e e p l yc u t o n t he
t a bl e t s o f o u r m i n d s
. It w a s n o m o r e t ha n n a t u r a l ,
t he n , t ha t c l u bs a n d t a r bu c k e t s s ho u l d r i d e t he
s u r g e o f r e l i g i o u s m a n i a bl o w n u p byK n o w -
No t hi n g i s m , o r t ha t t he s e i m p l e m e n t s s ho u l d c o m e
e v e r m o r e w i d e l yi n t o p l a ya s t he m o v e m e n t s w e l l e d
t o w a r d i t s p e a k .
A l i s t o f t he m a j o r t o - d o ' s w hi c hp u n c t u a t e d t he
ye a r s 1853t o 1856 i s a p p e n d e d a t t he e n d o f t hi s
c ha p t e r
. T he yw e r e a l l o f a k i n d , d i f f e r i n g o n l yi n
n u m be r s o f p e o p l e w o u n d e d o r k i l l e d a n d v a l u e o f
p r o p e r t yd e s t r o ye d
.
Of t he c o m m o n , o r d i n a r yr i o t s , B l o o d yM o n d a y
i n L o u i s v i l l e , K e n t u c k y, w a s e a s i l yt he p r e m i e r .
T hi s c e l e br a t i o n w a s he l d i n o bs e r v a n c e o f e l e c t i o n
d a y, i t s d a t e be i n g A u g u s t 5, 1855 . F e s t i v i t i e s
c o m m e n c e d e a r l yi n t he m o r n i n g a n d l a s t e d w e l l
i n t o t he n i g ht . Whe n t he s m o k e c l e a r e d o f f , t he
1135
136

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
L o u i s v i l l e c a t he d r a l w a s f o u n d t o ha v e be e n e n -
t e r e d ( t ho u g hn o t d a m a g e d ) bya r o a r i n g K n o w -
No t hi n g m o b, w hi l e a bo u t t w e n t y- f i v e Ir i s hm e n
ha d g o n e t o g l o r yi n o n e o f t he g r a n d e s t r u n n i n g
s t r e e t w a r s e v e r f o u g ht i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s
.
B i s ho p Sp a l d i n g , o f t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c d i o c e s e
o f B a r d s t o w n , w r o t e t o B i s ho p K e n r i c k , w ho ha d
p i l o t e d t he P hi l a d e l p hi a Ca t ho l i c s t hr o u g ht he
r i o t s o f 1844, t ha t " t he c i t ya u t ho r i t i e s , a l l K n o w -
No t hi n g s , l o o k e d c a l m l yo n , a n d t he ya r e n o w
e n d e a v o r i n g t o l a yt he bl a m e o n t he Ca t ho l i c s . "
Wha t t he P r o t e s t a n t s ha d t o s a yha s n o t be e n
e x hu m e d byt he p r e s e n t c hr o n i c l e r . It i s a s a f e
g u e s s t ha t a n yP r o t e s t a n t r e m a r k s t o r e a c hp a p e r
w e r e c o u c he d byw a yo f w hi t e w a s hf o r t he P r o t e s -
t a n t f a c t i o n
. It w o u l d be e v e n s a f e r t o v e n t u r e t he
s t a t e m e n t t ha t , a s m a t t e r o f f a c t , bo t hp a r t i e s w e l -
c o m e d e l e c t i o n m o r n w i t hhu z z a s o f j o ya t t he
br e w i n g u p o f a f i n e f i g ht
.
T he t r u l yp i c t u r e s q u e a n d t ho u g ht - p r o v o k i n g
e v e n t i n t he s t r i n g o f r e l i g i o u s r i o t s w hi c hbe d e c k e d
t he f i f t i e s w a s s o m e t hi n g e l s e .
In 1853t he U n i t e d St a t e s w a s a g i t a t e d byt he
p r e s e n c e w i t hi n i t s bo r d e r s , f o r s e v e n e x hi l a r a t i n g
m o n t hs , o f t he M o s t Re v e r e n d Ca j e t a n B e d i n i ,
A r c hbi s ho p o f T he be s a n d P a p a l Nu n c i o t o t he
Co u r t o f B r a z i l . B e d i n i ' s t o u r o f t he n a t i o n w a s a
c o n t i n u o u s r i o t . Whe r e v e r he w e n t , n a t i v i s m bo i l e d
o v e r t he r i m o f o n e c a l d r o n o f ha t e , Ca t ho l i c i t y
ST ICK S, ST ONES, T A RA NDF EA T H ERS137
o v e r t he o t he r , a n d be t w e e n t he m t he ha r m l e s s p r e l -
a t e w a s a l l bu t s c a l d e d i n ha l f a d o z e n c i t i e s
.
B e d i n i c a m e t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s be c a u s e s e v -
e r a l G e r m a n Ca t ho l i c p a r i s he s i n P hi l a d e l p hi a a n d
B u f f a l o ha d g o t t he m s e l v e s i n t o a s t a t e bo r d e r i n g
o n o p e n s c hi s m o v e r t he q u e s t i o n o f l e g a l t i t l e t o
c hu r c hp r o p e r t y
. It w a s a p ha s e o f t he "
t r u s t e e -
i s m
" d i s p u t e w hi c he x c i t e d t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h
d u r i n g m u c ho f t he l a s t c e n t u r y
. T he H o l yF a t he r
a t Ro m e , ha v i n g n a m e d B e d i n i n u n c i o t o B r a z i l ,
i n s t r u c t e d hi m t o s t o p o f f i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s a n d
d o w ha t he c o u l d t o c o o l t he G e r m a n i c p a s s i o n s
. T o
s m o o t hB e d i n i ' s p a t h, t he P o p e g a v e hi m a p e r -
s o n a l l e t t e r , c o u c he d i n t e r m s o f t he m o s t c e r e m o n i -
o u s f r i e n d l i n e s s , t o P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n P i e r c e o f
t he A m e r i c a n Re p u bl i c .
T hi s , i f t he hi s t o r i a n s d o n o t l i e
- a n d n o
r e a s o n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f w hyt he ys ho u l d
- w a s t he
s o l e a n d e n t i r e s c e n e r yo f f a c t be f o r e w hi c hw a s
s t a g e d A r c hbi s ho p B e d i n i ' s A m e r i c a n v i s i t i n t he
s e c o n d ye a r o f t he K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t y' s e x i s t -
e n c e . T he U n i t e d St a t e s ha d a m i n i s t e r t o t he V a t i -
c a n , byt he w a y, a n d t hi s g e n t l e m a n l i k e w i s e
f u r n i s he d t he a r c hbi s ho p w i t ha l e t t e r t o t he P r e s i -
d e n t , i n w hi c hi t w a s e x p l a i n e d t ha t B e d i n i w a s
n o t t o be r e g a r d e d a s a n a d v a n c e p o s t o f t he P a p a l
G u a r d n o r ye t a s a Je s u i t s c o u t .
Ye t w ha t a f l u r r yB e d i n i ' s c o m i n g c a u s e d i n t hi s
c o u n t r y ; w ha t s w e a t i n g s o f d i p l o m a t s
; w ha t f l e s h-
138

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
c r a w l i n g s o f p o l i t i c i a n s
r f e a r f u l o f a n t i - Ca t ho l i c
v o t e s ; w ha t w r i t hi n g s a n d t w i s t i n g s i n s i d e t he
f l a n n e l s o f a l l o f f i c i a l Wa s hi n g t o n , c o n f r o n t e d a s
i t w a s w i t ht he n e c e s s i t yo f p l e a s i n g t he p o w e r f u l
Ca t ho l i c m i n o r i t ybya p p e a r i n g t o w e l c o m e B e d i n i
w hi l e p l a c a t i n g t he P r o t e s t a n t m a j o r i t ybys e e m i n g
t o g i v e hi m t he c o l d s ho u l d e r .
T o K n o w - No t hi n g m i n d s l e g a l i s t i c a l l yi n c l i n e d ,
i t w a s p l a i n t ha t f o r t he P r e s i d e n t f o r m a l l yt o r e -
c e i v e B e d i n i , t o s ha k e hi m byt he ha n d , a n d m a y-
ha p t o ha v e hi m i n t o d i n n e r a t t he Whi t e H o u s e ,
w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e o f f i c i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t he
hi g he s t k i n d f o r Ro m e . Se c r e t a r yo f St a t e M a r c y
g e t s t he c r e d i t f o r ha v i n g r e a s o n e d t hu s br i l l i a n t l y
i n f a c e o f t he f a c t t ha t w e a l r e a d yha d a d u l y
p o r t f o l i o e d d i p l o m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t t he V a t i -
c a n . M a r c yi s l i k w i s e c r e d i t e d byCa t ho l i c w r i t e r s
w i t hha v i n g s o c a r e f u l l ym i s l a i d t he l e t t e r f r o m
m i n i s t e r a t Ro m e t o t he P r e s i d e n t t ha t i t w a s
n e v e r s e e n a g a i n .
Whi l e t he t r e m o r s w e r e d a n c i n g a l o n g Wa s hi n g -
t o n ' s e v e r s e n s i t i v e n e r v e s , a g r o u p i n t he hi n t e r -
l a n d w a s w hi t t l i n g a n o t he r s t i c k t o t hr u s t i n t o t he
a r c hi e p i s c o p a l c ha r i o t w he e l s . T he ba n d w a s c o m -
p o s e d o f s u n d r yG e r m a n a n d It a l i a n r e v o l u t i o n i s t s
a n d a n t i - c l e r i c a l s w ho m t he Eu r o p e a n u p r o a r s o f
1848 ha d bl o w n a c r o s s t he A t l a n t i c , a n d i t w a s l e d
bya n a p o s t a t e p r i e s t n a m e d G a v a z z i . B e d i n i ha d
o n c e be e n c o m m i s s a r yo f t he p a p a l l e g a t i o n a t
ST ICK S, ST ONES, T A RA NDF EA T H ERS139
B o l o g n a
. T r o u bl o u s t i m e s ha d s e t i n , a n d i n t r u e
Ro m a n i s t s t yl e B e d i n i ha d n o t he s i t a t e d t o c l a p a
f e w u p s t a r t s i n t o j a i l a n d d e c r e e a s ho o t i n g o r t w o .
Ou t o f t he s e f a c t s , G a v a z z i a n d hi s p a l s c o o k e d u p
t he a p p e t i z i n g t a l e t ha t B e d i n i , w hi l e a n o f f i c e r a t
B o l o g n a , ha d p u t t o d e a t ha r e be l p r i e s t n a m e d U g o
B a s s i , ha v i n g f i r s t s e e n t o i t t ha t B a s s i w a s s k i n n e d
a l i v e .
Se v e r a l En g l i s ha n d Co n t i n e n t a l n e w s p a p e r s
( t he L o n d o n Q u a r t e r l y Re v i e w , f o r o n e ) l a t e r
i n v e s t i g a t e d t he ya r n a t t he i r l e i s u r e , a n d c l e a r e d
B e d i n i . Ca t ho l i c s i n A m e r i c a , ho w e v e r , w e r e
c a u g ht w i t ho u t p r o o f s p r o o r c o n . B e d i n i p a i d n o
a t t e n t i o n t o t he s t o r y, w hi c hw a s m e a t f o r t he
ha t e r s o f Ca t ho l i c i t yi n t he U n i t e d St a t e s . K n o w -
No t hi n g k n i v e s f l a s he d o u t a l l o v e r t he c o u n t r yt he
m o m e n t t he v i s i t o r l e f t Wa s hi n g t o n f o r t he i n -
t e r i o r .
H i s p r o g r e s s w a s a m i x t u r e o f t r i u m p ha l t o u r
a n d m a r t yr ' s p a r a d e , w i t ht he s t a k e ba r e l ye v a d e d
s e v e r a l t i m e s . B e d i n i w a s t he hi g he s t Ca t ho l i c
d i g n i t a r ye x hi bi t e d i n p e r s o n i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s
u p t o t ha t t i m e , a n d he n c e t he Ca t ho l i c s s t r u t t e d
t he i r g a u d i e s t p a r a p he r n a l i a f o r hi m w he r e v e r he
w e n t . B yt he s a m e t o k e n t he a n t i - Ca t ho l i c s f o r -
g o t t he i r l o c a l ha t r e d s a n d f i x e d t he i r m o s t e a r n e s t
a t t e n t i o n o n t hi s s k y- f i l l i n g m e n a c e f r o m be yo n d
s e a .
A c o n s p i r a c yt o a s s a s s i n a t e t he n u n c i o w a s
140

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
u n c o v e r e d a n d c ho k e d byt he p o l i c e i n Ne w Yo r k
Ci t y .
H e
w a s f e t e d byhi s f r i e n d s , c a l l e d e v e r y
k n o w n v a r i e t yo f d o g a n d d o g ' s p r o g e n ybyhi s
e n e m i e s , i n P i t t s bu r g h . Ci n c i n n a t i ' s w e l c o m e c o n -
s i s t e d o f ( a ) a hu g e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e i n s i d e t he l o c a l
c a t he d r a l i n t he a r c hbi s ho p ' s ho n o r , a n d ( b) t he
s w i f t c o l l e c t i n g o u t s i d e t he c a t he d r a l o f a K n o w -
No t hi n g m o bho w l f u l l yd e s i r o u s o f m a k i n g hi m
g u e s t o f ho n o r a t a l yn c hi n g p a r t y
. T he p o l i c e
w o u n d e d s e v e r a l o f t he w o u l d - be l yn c he r s .
F o r s e v e n t u r bu l e n t m o n t hs B e d i n i r e m a i n e d i n
t he U n i t e d St a t e s . H i s ha t e d p r e s e n c e ha d n o l i t t l e
t o d o w i t hi n f l a m i n g t he p a s s i o n s o f p o t e n t i a l
K n o w - No t hi n g s a n d s o m a k i n g c o n v e r t s t o t ha t
m u s hr o o m i n g p a r t y . Co n v e r s e l y, t hi s p r e s e n c e i n
t he U n i t e d St a t e s o f o n e w ho ha d s e e n a n d t a l k e d
w i t ht he P o p e hi m s e l f he a t e d m a n ya Ca t ho l i c ' s
f a i t ht o t he f i g ht i n g p o i n t , n o t t o m e n t i o n t he n u m -
be r o f he s i t a t i n g he r e t i c s i t i n d u c e d t o c l i m bi n t o
t he Ro m a n f o l d .
B e d i n i a t l e n g t hc o m p l e t e d hi s l a bo r s a m o n g t he
G e r m a n ha g g l e r s . H e l e f t t he U n i t e d St a t e s by
w a yo f Ne w Yo r k - i n s e c r e t , t o e s c a p e a K n o w -
No t hi n g m o ba t hi r s t f o r hi s bl o o d . Su bs e q u e n t l y
he a d v i s e d t he P o p e t ha t he ha d f o u n d t he Ca t ho l i c
c hu r c hi n t he U n i t e d St a t e s f l o u r i s hi n g , a n d " c o n -
f r o n t i n g a d e c a yi n g a n d d i s i n t e g r a t i n g P r o t e s t a n t -
i s m , s t r o n g o n l yi n p r e j u d i c e . " Whi c h, o f c o u r s e ,
i s a c o m m e n t a r yo n j u s t ho w f o r g i v i n g a n d j u s t
ST ICK S, ST ONES, T A RA NDF EA T H ERS141
ho w Chr i s t l i k e a n yChr i s t i a n o f f i c i a l o f a n ys e c t i s
o r c a n r e a s o n a bl ybe e x p e c t e d t o be .
A s p r o m i s e d , w e g i v e he r e a l i s t o f t he m o r e
i m p o r t a n t K n o w - No t hi n g - Ca t ho l i c f i g ht s o f t he
p e r i o d
.
1853 -
T he B e d i n i r i o t s - B o s t o n , B a l t i m o r e , Whe e l -
i n g , St
. L o u i s , Ci n c i n n a t i .
1854 -
G a n g o f K n o w - No t hi n g s a n d U l s t e r m e n f r o m
Ne w Yo r k Ci t yr a i d e d St . M a r y' s Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h,
Ne w a r k ; o n e Ir i s hm a n s ho t a n d k i l l e d ; s o m e s t a t u -
a r yd e s t r o ye d .
St . A n n e ' s c hu r c h, M a n c he s t e r , N
. H . , r a i d e d
i n F o u r t ho f Ju l yo u t bu r s t o f p a t r i o t i s m .
F a t he r Jo hn B a p s t , S . J . , t a r r e d , f e a t he r e d , r i d -
d e n a r o u n d El l s w o r t h, M e
. , o n a r a i l .
Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hbu r n e d a t B a t h, M e
.
Chu r c he s a t Do r c he s t e r , M a s s . , a n d Si d n e y,
Ohi o , bl o w n u p w i t hg u n p o w d e r byp e r s o n s u n -
k n o w n .
Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hbu r n e d a t M a s s i l l o n , Ohi o .
A t t e m p t m a d e t o bu r n U r s u l i n e c o n v e n t , G a l -
v e s t o n , T e x a s
.
F i r e s t a r t e d i n Chu r c ho f St s
. P e t e r a n d P a u l ,
B r o o k l yn , N
. Y. Nu m e r o u s f i g ht s i n Ne w Yo r k
Ci t ybe t w e e n yo u n g Ir i s hg a n g s a n d t he " Wi d e -
142

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
a w a k e s , " yo u n g n a t i v i s t s w e a r i n g w i d e - br i m m e d
f e l t ha t s a s i n s i g n i a .
Co n v e n t o f Si s t e r s o f M e r c y, P r o v i d e n c e , R. I . ,
t hr e a t e n e d byK n o w - No t hi n g m o b, bu t s a v e d by
Ca t ho l i c s r a l l yi n g u n d e r B i s ho p O' Re i l l y, w ho
w a r n e d t ha t a n yK n o w - No t hi n g s e t t i n g f o o t o n
c o n v e n t g r o u n d w o u l d be s ho t .
Ri o t a t St . L o u i s , t e n k i l l e d .
Du c k i n g p a r t ya t Wa s hi n g t o n , K n o w - No t hi n g
m o bo f f i c i a t i n g ; g u e s t o f ho n o r , a m a r bl e s l a bs e n t
byt he P o p e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t he t he n bu i l d i n g
Wa s hi n g t o n m o n u m e n t ; s c e n e o f f e s t i v i t i e s , t he
ba n k s o f t he P o t o m a c r i v e r .
1
855 -
B l o o d yM o n d a y, L o u i s v i l l e , K y . , a s d e s c r i be d i n
t he t e x t .
1856 -
El e c t i o n r i o t s be t w e e n K n o w - No t hi n g s a n d
Ir i s hDe m o c r a t s i n B a l t i m o r e . F o r B a l t i m o r e ' s
K n o w - No t hi n g e x p e r i e n c e s , s e e a l a t e r c ha p t e r .
CH A P T ERXIX
SL A U G H T ERINV IRG INIA
I T ha s be e n r e l a t e d ho w t he K n o w - No t hi n g s
e l e c t e d o n e g o v e r n o r a n d a s a c k f u l o f Co n g r e s s m e n
a n d l e g i s l a t o r s i n 1854, a n d ho w t he i r p r o s p e c t s f o r
a n a t i o n a l s w e e p i n 1856 w e r e p r o n o u n c e d m o r e
t ha n br i g ht byf u l l m a n ya d i a g n o s t i c i a n o f p o l i t i -
c a l s ym p t o m s .
No w c o m e s t he g r e a t ba t t l e be t w e e n De m o c r a t s
a n d K n o w - No t hi n g s w hi c hf i l l e d w i t hs m o k e a n d
s c r e a m s o f a g o n yt he V i r g i n i a s p r i n g o f 1855, a n d
i n c i d e n t a l l ys n a p p e d t he l u m ba r v e r t e br a e o f K n o w -
No t hi n g i s m a s a n a t i o n a l p o w e r
. It i s i n d e e d V i r -
g i n i a , bo a s t i n g i t s r e l i g i o u s l i be r t ys t a t u t e a s
he r i t a g e f r o m T ho m a s Je f f e r s o n , w hi c hha s t he
d i s t i n c t i o n o f ha v i n g s e r v e d a s r e l i g i o u s f a n a t -
i c i s m ' s f i e r c e s t ba t t l e g r o u n d d u r i n g t he K n o w -
No t hi n g p e r i o d .
T he f i r s t K n o w - No t hi n g c o u n c i l i n V i r g i n i a w a s
o r g a n i z e d i n Je f f e r s o n ' s o w n ho m e t o w n o f Cha r -
l o t t e s v i l l e . T he ha p p ye v e n t t o o k p l a c e i n t he s u m -
m e r o f 1854 . T he r e w e r e f e w Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c s i n
V i r g i n i a , bu t i t w a s n o t e d t hr o u g ho u t t he So u t h
t ha t Ca t ho l i c i m m i g r a n t s w e r e r a p i d l yf i l l i n g u p
143
144

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
t he n o r t he r n f r e e s t a t e s a n d p u s hi n g t he d o c t r i n e s
o f n e g r o f r e e d o m i n t o t he w e s t e r n t e r r i t o r i e s , a l l o f
w hi c hm e a n t a n e v e r he a v i e r ba l a n c e i n Co n g r e s s
a g a i n s t t he So u t h .
A t a n yr a t e , t he o r d e r s p r e a d t hr o u g ho u t V i r -
g i n i a w i t ht he s a m e p r a i r i e - f i r e s p e e d i t ha d
e x hi bi t e d a t t he n o r t h . T he Whi g p a r t yw a s m o r i -
bu n d , t he Re p u bl i c a n p a r t yw a s f o r m i n g s t a t e
o r g a n i z a t i o n s bu t ha d ye t t o ho l d i t s f i r s t n a t i o n a l
c o n v e n t i o n . T he Whi g s ha t e d t he p r i n c i p l e s o f
Je f f e r s o n , a n d he n c e w o u l d n o t j o i n t he De m o c r a t i c
p a r t y ; bu t e v e n t ha t , t o s o u t he r n Whi g s , w a s p r e f -
e r a bl e t o t he Re p u bl i c a n p a r t y, w hi c hw a s a g a i n s t
s l a v e r y . H e n c e , t he s u c c e s s o f t he K n o w - No t hi n g
o r g a n i z e r s i n t he So u t h . T he yg a t he r e d i n g r a t e f u l
Whi g s byt he s ho a l
.
Wi n c he s t e r w a s t he s c e n e o f t he f i r s t V i r g i n i a
K n o w - No t hi n g c o n v e n t i o n , c a l l e d t o o r d e r i n
M a r c ho f 1855
. T he d e l e g a t e s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d a t
t he ho t e l s u n d e r f a l s e n a m e s , a n d n o r e c o r d r e m a i n s
t o s ho w w ho t he yw e r e . T he yn o m i n a t e d f o r g o v e r -
n o r a f i n e o l d e x - Whi g a n d a bl e p o l i t i c i a n - l a w ye r ,
o n e T ho m a s St a n ho p e F l o u r n o yo f H a l i f a x c o u n t y .
Ja m e s M . H . B e a l e o f M a s o n w a s p u t u p f o r
l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r , Jo hn M . P a t t o n o f Ri c hm o n d
f o r a t t o r n e y- g e n e r a l . T he f i r s t f a m i l i e s o f V i r g i n i a ,
o l d s t yl e , w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d o n t ha t t i c k e t , be c a u s e
t he c o u n t ys q u i r e s ha d a l l be e n Whi g s a n d w e r e l e a p -
i n g i n t o t he K n o w - No t hi n g bo a t a s t he i r o w n s a n k
SL A U G H T ERINV IRG INIA

1
45
u n d e r t he i r f e e t
. Jo hn Sym e , o n e o f t hi s a l i e n a t e d
o l d g u a r d , u s e d , w he n a s k e d i f a De m o c r a t w a s a
g e n t l e m a n , t o r e p l y : " H e i s a p t n o t t o be ; bu t i f he
i s , he i s i n d a m n e d ba d c o m p a n y . "
F o u r m o n t hs p r i o r t o t he K n o w - No t hi n g c o n v e n -
t i o n , t he V i r g i n i a De m o c r a t s ha d he l d t he i r s , m e e t -
i n g d e c o r o u s l yi n t he M e t ho d i s t c hu r c ha t St a u n -
t o n
. On t he s e c o n d ba l l o t , t he yn o m i n a t e d H e n r y
A
. Wi s e f o r g o v e r n o r .
Wi s e w a s a l s o a l a w ye r , a n d a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d o f
F l o u r n o y, t he K n o w - No t hi n g c a n d i d a t e . H e w a s a
s p e a k e r t o w ho m Wi l l i a m Je n n i n g s B r ya n o r B i l l y
Su n d a ym i g ht w e l l ha v e g o n e f o r p o i n t e r s o n ho w
t o l a s hm o bp a s s i o n s , a n d a p o l i t i c i a n w ho w o u l d
ha v e d e l i g ht e d t he he a r t o f A l f r e d E . Sm i t h . A d d e d
t o t ha t , t he m a n ha d i d e a s a n d w a s a f i g ht e r
. H e be -
l i e v e d i n t he De m o c r a t i c p a r t ya s s i r e d byJe f f e r -
s o n , he f e l t t ha t s l a v e r y' s e l i m i n a t i o n w a s a t hi n g
f o r t i m e , n o t f i r e - br e a t hi n g a bo l i t i o n i s t s p r o p he s y-
i n g w a r , t o a c c o m p l i s h, a n d he d e c i d e d t ha t i f he
w a s t o w i n t hi s e l e c t i o n he m u s t f i g ht l i k e t he v e r y
d e v i l .
Wi s e f o u g ht
. Ex p e c t i n g t he n o m i n a t i o n , he t o o k
o c c a s i o n t o s l a p d o w n hi s c a r d s o n t he t a bl e l o n g
be f o r e t he De m o c r a t i c c o n v e n t i o n m e t . T he No r -
f o l k c o u n c i l o f K n o w - No t hi n g s s e n t hi m a q u e s t i o n
a bo u t hi s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d Ca t ho l i c s a n d a l i e n s , i n
t o n e r a t he r l i k e t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t hw hi c ht he
m o d e r n A n t i - Sa l o o n L e a g u e ha bi t u a l l yt o r m e n t s
146

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
a l l c a n d i d a t e s f o r o f f i c e s hi g he r t ha n d o g - c a t c he r -
s hi p s . Wi s e m a d e r e p l yi n t hi s f a s hi o n
:
" Ibe l o n g t o a s e c r e t s o c i e t y, bu t f o r n o p o l i t i c a l
p u r p o s e . Ia m a n a t i v e V i r g i n i a n ; i n t u s e t i n c u t e ,
a V i r g i n i a n ; m ya n c e s t o r s o n bo t hs i d e s f o r t w o
hu n d r e d ye a r s w e r e c i t i z e n s o f t hi s c o u n t r ya n d
t hi s St a t e - ha l f En g l i s h, ha l f Sc o t c h . Ia m a
P r o t e s t a n t bybi r t h, byba p t i s m , byi n t e l l e c t u a l
be l i e f , bye d u c a t i o n , bya d o p t i o n . Ia m a n A m e r i -
c a n i n e v e r yf i br e , a n d i n e v e r yf e e l i n g a n A m e r i -
c a n ; ye t i n e v e r yc ha r a c t e r , i n e v e r yr e l a t i o n , i n
e v e r ys e n s e , w i t ha l l m yhe a d a n d w i t ha l l m yhe a r t
a n d w i t ha l l m ym i g ht , Ip r o t e s t a g a i n s t t hi s s e c r e t
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e A m e r i c a n s , a n d o f P r o t e s -
t a n t s t o p r o s c r i be Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c s a n d n a t u r a l i z e d
c i t i z e n s ! "
On c e i n t he f i g ht , Wi s e f o u g ht a s i f he ha d m e a n t
e v e r yw o r d o f t ha t c r a s hi n g s a l v o o f En g l i s h . H e
c ha r g e d u p a n d d o w n V i r g i n i a , f r o m A l e x a n d r i a t o
Da n v i l l e . H e f i l l e d t he t o w n c hu r c he s , t he c r o s s -
r o a d s c o u r t - ho u s e s a n d m e e t i n g - ho u s e s , w i t hhi s
v o i c e o f br a s s a n d t hu n d e r .
T he r e w a s c u n n i n g i n hi s r o a r i n g . T hu s c r a f t i l y
he p l a ye d o n t he So u t he r n ha t r e d o f e v e r yt hi n g
Ya n k e e , a s s u m m e d u p i n t he p r e v a i l i n g Ya n k e e
r e l i g i o n
"
G e n t l e m e n , bu t a s ho r t t i m e ba c k , Ne w En g -
l a n d
-
M a s s a c hu s e t t s e s p e c i a l l y - ha d bu t o n e
SL A U G H T ERINV IRG INIA

14
.
7
i s m w i t hi n he r l i m i t s , a n d t ha t w a s P u r i t a n i s m , t he
r e l i g i o n o f t he o l d Co v e n a n t e r s a n d Co n g r e g a t i o n -
a l i s t s -
P u r i t a n i s m , f u l l o f v i t a l i t y, f u l l o f s p i r i t u -
a l i t y - P u r i t a n i s m t ha t m a d e e v e n t he ba r r e n
r o c k o f P l ym o u t ht o f r u c t i f y, t ha t m a d e t he Ne w
En g l a n d e r s a s t r o n g p e o p l e , t ha t m a d e t he m a r i c h
p e o p l e , t ha t m a d e t he m a l e a r n e d p e o p l e
.
" B u t s i n c e t he yha v e w a x e d f a t , s i n c e t he yha v e
be g u n t o bu i l d c hu r c he s byl o t t e r y, be g u n t o m o r a l -
i z e m a n k i n d byl e g i s l a t i o n , be g u n t o p l a yp e t t y
P r o v i d e n c e s f o r t he p e o p l e , be g u n t o be P r o t e s t a n t
P o p e s o v e r t he c o n s c i e n c e s o f m e n , be g u n t o p r e a c h
` Chr i s t i a n P o l i t i c s , ' s u c ha s yo u ha v e he a r d
-
P u r i t a n i s m ha s d i s a p p e a r e d
. A n d w e ha v e i n p l a c e
o f i t U n i t a r i a n i s m , U n i v e r s a l i s m , F o u r i e r i s m , M i l -
l e r i s m , M o r m o n i s m - a l l t he o t he r o d d s a n d e n d s
o f i s m s -
u n t i l a t l a s t yo u ha v e a g r a n d f u s i o n o f
a l l t ho s e o d d s a n d e n d s o f i s m s i n t he
o m n i u m
g a t he r u m o f i s m s c a l l e d K n o w - No t hi n g i s m ! "
A n d t hu s c u n n i n g l yhe hi t c he d Ol d G l o r ya n d t he
B i l l o f Ri g ht s t o t he P o p e , c a u s i n g t he t w o t o p a i n t
t he t hi r d i n c o l o r s ba r e l yd i s t i n g u i s ha bl e f r o m t he
Re d , Whi t e a n d B l u e :
" Yo u t e l l t he p e o p l e t ha t Ca t ho l i c s n e v e r g a v e
a i d t o c i v i l l i be r t y ; t ha t t he yn e v e r ye t s t r u c k a
bl o w f o r t he f r e e d o m o f m a n k i n d .
" Who g a v e yo u a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t t he K i n g o f
En g l a n d ? Who bu t t ha t Ca t ho l i c K i n g , L o u i s XV I?
148

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
H e s e n t yo u f r o m t he c o u r t o f V e r s a i l l e s t he bo y
o f Wa s hi n g t o n ' s c a m p , a f o r e i g n e r w ho n e v e r
w a s n a t u r a l i z e d , bu t bl e d a t t he r e d o u bt o f Yo r k -
t o w n . . . .
"
A n d n o t o n l yt ha t
. In t ha t i n t e n s e m o m e n t
w he n t he De c l a r a t i o n o f o u r In d e p e n d e n c e w a s
br o u g ht i n t o Ca r p e n t e r ' s ha l l byRu t l e d g e a n d
F r a n k l i n a n d Je f f e r s o n , a n d l a i d u p o n t he t a bl e -
t ha t ho l yp a p e r , w hi c hn o t o n l yp l e d g e d l i f e a n d
ho n o r bu t f o r t u n e t o o . .
. a t l e n g t ho n e s p a r e ,
p a l e f a c e d m a n a r o s e a n d w e n t a n d d i p p e d t he p e n
i n t o i n k a n d s i g n e d
' Cha r l e s Ca r r o l l ' . . . a
Ca t ho l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m a Ca t ho l i c c o l o n y
. "
L e s t t he r e be m u r m u r s t ha t a l l t he s e a r e m o d -
e r n i n s t a n c e s a n d t he In q u i s i t i o n a n d St
. B a r t ho l o -
m e w ' s r e m a i n w i t ho u t a n a l i bi , l e t ' s p o u r a l i t t l e
a g e d - i n - t he - w o o d hi s t o r yi n t o m o u t hs t ha t byn o w
a r e g a p i n g w i d e :
"
A n d s i r , s i x hu n d r e d a n d f o r t yye a r s a g o , o n
t he 16 t ho f Ju n e ,
1214, t he r e w a s a n o t he r s c e n e
e n a c t e d o n t he f a c e o f t he g l o be , w he n t he g e n e r a l
c ha r a c t e r o f a l l c ha r t e r s o f f r e e d o m w a s g a i n e d
-
w he n o n e m a n
- a m a n c a l l e d St e p he n L a n g t o n
-
s w o r e t he ba r o n s o f En g l a n d , f o r t he p e o p l e ,
a g a i n s t t he o r d e r s o f t he P o p e a n d a g a i n s t t he
p o w e r o f t he K i n g - s w o r e t he ba r o n s o n t he hi g h
a l t a r o f t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c ha t St
. Ed m o n d s bu r y,
t ha t t he yw o u l d ha v e M a g n a Ca r t a o r d i e f o r i t
SL A U G H T ERINV IRG INIA

149
. . .
a n d i f yo u K n o w - No t hi n g s d o n ' t k n o w w ho
St e p he n L a n g t o n w a s , yo u k n o w n o t hi n g s u r e
e n o u g h
. H e w a s a Ca t ho l i c A r c hbi s ho p o f Ca n t e r -
bu r y . "
T he f a m i l i a r B r ya n t r i c k o f l e a d i n g t he a c t u a l
a g g r e s s o r s t o a w e e p i n g bo u t f o r t ha t t he yw e r e
be i n g t he m s e l v e s t r o d d e n u p o n , Wi s e p l a ye d w i t h
hi s e n d l e s s l yr e p e a t e d a n d ha m m e r e d ho m e s l o g a n ,
"
Sa v e t he P r o t e s t a n t c hu r c he s f r o m t he p o l l u t i o n
o f p a r t yp o l i t i c s ! "
H e w a s a m a s t e r p o l i t i c i a n , t hi s V i r g i n i a n , a
bo l d l yp i r a t i c a l f i g ht e r , a t a c t i c i a n o f t he f i r s t
c a l i be r , a n d a s g e n e r a l l ya d m i r a bl e a m a n a s a
p o l i t i c i a n c a n be .
H i s r o a r i n g s f i l l e d t he l a n d
. Ne w s p a p e r s a s f a r
a w a y
a s St . L o u i s c a r r i e d c o l u m n s a bo u t hi s c a m -
p a i g n
. K n o w - No t hi n g i s m ha d m e t s o m e o n e w ho
m i r a c u l o u s l yw a s n o t a f r a i d o f i t
; a p o l i t i c i a n ha d
a r i s e n w ho c o u l d s u m m o n t he c o u r a g e t o t a k e r e -
l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e bybo t hho r n s a n d t r yt o t w i s t i t s
n e c k . Ex c i t e m e n t r o s e l i k e a n u n s e e n w a v e a s
Wi s e bo i l e d u p a n d d o w n t he Do m i n i o n
. St a c k s o f
bi l l s , n o t e s a n d c he q u e s w a g e r e d o n t he o u t c o m e
s w e l l e d t he s a f e s o f s t a k e ho l d e r s .
F l o u r n o y, byt he w a y, d i d p r a c t i c a l l yn o c a m -
p a i g n i n g
. H e s e e m s t o ha v e be e n s w e p t o f f hi s f e e t
byt he f u r yo f Wi s e ' s a t t a c k ; o r p e r ha p s hi s he a r t
w a s n o t w i t ht he p a r t yw hi c hha d c ho s e n hi m . H e
150

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
l e t t he e s c a p e d n u n s a n d t he e x - p r i e s t s , t he w hi s -
p e r e r s a n d t he bl a c k m a i l e r s , d o hi s e l e c t i o n e e r i n g
.
On M a y
24,
1855, Wi s e , ha v i n g t r a v e l e d m o r e
t ha n t hr e e t ho u s a n d m i l e s i n t he p r i m i t i v e c o n v e y-
a n c e s o f t he d a ya n d ha v i n g m a d e i n n u m e r a bl e
s p e e c he s , g a l l o p e d d o w n t he t r a c k t o a v i c t o r yo f
83, 424
v o t e s a g a i n s t F l o u r n o y' s 73, 244
.
"
Iha v e m e t t he B l a c k K n i g ht w i t hhi s v i s o r
d o w n , " he t r u m p e t e d t o hi s c o n s t i t u e n t s , " a n d hi s
s hi e l d a n d l a n c e a r e br o k e n . "
T he yw e r e , a n d m o r e t ho r o u g hl yt ha n Wi s e s u p -
p o s e d . T hi s j o u s t ha d ha d a n a t i o n f o r a n a u d i e n c e ,
a n d t ha t a u d i e n c e c o u l d n e v e r a g a i n l o o k u p o n
t he B l a c k K n i g ht w i t hi t s e r s t w hi l e a w e . Wo r s e , t he
K n i g ht , w i t hi n t he m o n t h, w a s f a t e d t o f a l l o f f t he
ho r s e he ha d r i d d e n t o s o m a n yc o n q u e s t s w i t hs u c h
n o t a bl e r e s u l t s
. Wi s e c o u l d n o t k n o w i t , bu t t he
d a ys o f K n o w - No t hi n g i s m w e r e n u m be r e d f r o m t he
n i g ht i n w hi c hhi s p l u r a l i t yw a s t o t t e d u p o n V i r -
g i n i a ' s e l e c t i o n r e c o r d s .
CH A P T ERXX
SA M F ORG ET ST H EP OP E
T
H E s e c o n d bo d ybl o w t o Sa m ' s n a t i o n a l p r e s -
t i g e a s a p o l i t i c a l p a r t yc a m e l e s s t ha n o n e m o n t h
a f t e r t he V i r g i n i a e l e c t i o n o f M a y, 1855, i n w hi c h
Wi s e ha d s c o r e d hi s t r i u m p h . T hi s t hr u s t , Sa m
d e l i v e r e d t o hi m s e l f . T he o c c a s i o n w a s t he n a t i o n a l
c o u n c i l o f t he p a r t yhe l d a t P hi l a d e l p hi a i n Ju n e o f
t ha t ye a r , a n d t he e x a c t n a t u r e o f t he d i g w a s t ha t
t he p a r t y, w i t hr a s hn e s s u n s u r p a s s e d , d e t e r m i n e d
t o t a k e p o l i t i c s s e r i o u s l y . T ha t i s t o s a y, i t p e r -
m i t t e d i t s e l f t o r o l l a n e ye i n t he d i r e c t i o n o f t he
o n e t r u l yi m p o r t a n t n a t i o n a l i s s u e o f t ha t d a y
:
n e g r o s l a v e r y .
No j e s t i s i n t e n d e d he r e
.
K n o w - No t hi n g i s m ' s s u c c e s s u p t o t hi s t i m e w a s
f o u n d e d o n t he f a c t t ha t yo u c a n i n t e r e s t m o r e p e o -
p l e m o r e q u i c k l yw i t ha f a l s e i s s u e t ha n yo u c a n
w i t ha r e a l o n e . T he a v e r a g e p e r s o n ha t e s t o t hi n k
.
Sl a v e r yw a s t he i n s t i t u t i o n w ho s e e c o n o m i c a n d
hu m a n i t a r i a n i m p l i c a t i o n s r e a l l yha r r i e d t he n a -
t i o n . P o p e r yw a s t he i s s u e t o w hi c hbr a i n s t ha t
s hr a n k f r o m t ho u g ht c o u l d f l e e a n d , f l e e i n g , e x ha l e
t he l o n g s i g ho f c o n t e n t t ha t c o m e s f r o m r a t i o n a l -
i z a t i o n a c hi e v e d .
151
152

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
H a d t he K n o w - No t hi n g s , t he n , l e t t he f r i g ht f u l
a n d f u n d a m e n t a l a n d bi t t e r l yd e p r e s s i n g q u e s t i o n
o f s l a v e r ys e v e r e l ya l o n e , ha d t he yk e p t w a v i n g
t he i r o w n o r i g i n a l g o r g e o u s l yc o l o r e d a n d w i n d -
bl o a t e d Chi n e s e p a p e r f i s ho f a n i s s u e i n t he e ye s
o f t he s u c k e r s a n d t he l a m e - br a i n s , t he i r p o w e r
s ho u l d ha v e p e r s i s t e d a n d g r o w n
. A l l t he f l o c k
w i s he d t o d o w a s t o k e e p u p t he p l e a s a n t p a s t i m e
o f c u t t i n g Ca t ho l i c s a n d f o r e i g n e r s o u t o f bu s i n e s s ;
a l l i t w i s he d t o g r a z e u p o n w a s t he e v e r w i d e n i n g
a c r e a g e o f a n t i - Ca t ho l i c l i t e r a t u r e w i t hw hi c ht he
K n o w - No t hi n g p r e s s e s w e r e s o w i n g t he c o u n t r y.
B u t n o
. Ja m e s B a r k e r , Er a s t u s B r o o k s , Sa m H o u s -
t o n a n d t he o t he r l e a d e r s m u s t n e e d s c a l l a c o u n c i l
o f a l l t he s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e g i m e n t t he f a i t h-
f u l i n t o s o m e d e f i n i t e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t he t hi n g
t ha t m a t t e r e d .
A f t e r s o m e ha g g l i n g , a c o m m i t t e e o n r e s o l u t i o n s
w a s n a m e d a n d t hi s g r o u p w e n t i n t o s e c r e t s e s s i o n .
T he yr e m a i n e d s e c l u d e d f o r t hr e e w ho l e d a ys ,
w hi l e t he d e l e g a t e s j a bbe r e d a n d s w a p p e d c he w -
i n g t o ba c c o i n t he t a v e r n s o f o l d P hi l a d e l p hi a . T he
n a t i o n ' s e ye s w e r e u p o n t ha t c o u n c i l , a n d w e l l
t he s o l e m n , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s bi g w i g s o f K n o w - No t h-
i n g i s m k n e w i t
.
Whe n a t l a s t t he r e s o l u t i o n s c o m m i t t e e e m e r g e d
f r o m t he s e c r e t c ha m be r s , i t c a r r i e d a m o n s t e r i n i t s
a r m s -
t he m o n s t e r t ha t i n d u e t i m e w a s t o r i s e
a n d s l a yt he p a r t yt ha t bo r e i t
. T he s l a v e r yr e s o l u -
SA M F ORG ET ST H EP OP E

1
53
t i o n s , a s p r e s e n t e d t o t he n a t i o n a l c o u n c i l f o r r a t i -
f i c a t i o n , ( i ) u r g e d Co n g r e s s n o t t o p r o hi bi t s l a v e r y
i n a n yt e r r i t o r ybe l o n g i n g t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s , a n d
( 2) t o l d Co n g r e s s t ha t i n i t r e s i d e d n o p o w e r t o
k e e p a n yt e r r i t o r yf r o m e n t e r i n g t he U n i o n a s a
s t a t e o n t he g r o u n d t ha t t ha t t e r r i t o r y' s c o n s t i t u -
t i o n r e c o g n i z e d s l a v e r ya s l a w f u l .
T hi s , a s e v e r yo n e k n o w s , w a s t he p o s i t i o n he l d
byt he So u t he r n St a t e s , a n d byt he m f o u g ht f o r
f r o m Su m t e r t o A p p o m a t t o x . Sho u l d t he r e s o l u t i o n
be a d o p t e d a s t he s e n s e o f t he P hi l a d e l p hi a g a t he r -
i n g , t he K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t yw o u l d s t a n d c o m -
m i t t e d t o t he v i e w s o f t he s l a v e ho l d e r s o f t he So u t h,
a n d o p p o s e d t o t he s hr i e k i n g a bo l i t i o n i s t s a n d t he
m u l t i t u d e o f c a l m f o e s o f s l a v e r yi n t he No r t h
.
T he f i g ht r a g e d f o r t hr e e d a ys i n t he o p e n
c o u n c i l . T he n o r t he r n K n o w - No t hi n g s s a w t he i r
c ha n c e s s l i p p i n g , t he So u t he r n e r s f o r g o t n a t i o n a l
p o s s i bi l i t i e s a n d ba t t l e d t o l i n e u p t he p a r t yf o r
s l a v e r y, w hi c ht he yr e g a r d e d a s t he i r s e c t i o n ' s
e c o n o m i c l i f e bl o o d .
In
t he s c r i m m a g e , t he o f f i c i a l he a d o f t he n a -
t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t hi m s e l f , Ja m e s W . B a r k e r o f Ne w
Yo r k Ci t y, w a s c ho p p e d o f f , a n d E
. B . B a r t l e t t
o f K e n t u c k yr e i g n e d i n B a r k e r ' s s t e a d . B a r k e r ' s
d o w n f a l l p r e s a g e d t he o u t c o m e o f t he s t r u g g l e . On
t he t hi r d d a ya f t e r t he c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t e d , t he
So u t he r n v i e w p r e v a i l e d , a n d t he K n o w - No t hi n g
p a r t yd e c l a r e d f o r s l a v e r ybya v o t e o f 8o t o 59
.
154

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
So t e r r i bl e w a s t he e f f e c t o f ha v i n g t a c k l e d t he
r e a l i s s u e t ha t , i m m e d i a t e l yt he
ba l l o t s w e r e
c o u n t e d , a f r i g ht f u l s c hi s m r e n t t he p a r t yi n t w a i n .
T w e l v e s t a t e s bo l t e d t he c o u n c i l - M a i n e , Ne w
H a m p s hi r e , V e r m o n t , M a s s a c hu s e t t s , Co n n e c t i c u t ,
Rho d e Is l a n d , Ohi o , In d i a n a , M i c hi g a n , Il l i n o i s ,
Io w a , Wi s c o n s i n . T he s e d e l e g a t i o n s r e p u d i a t e d t he
s l a v e r yp l a n k , w hi l e t he s o u t he r n K n o w - No t hi n g s
w e n t ho m e i n g l e e t o m a k e r e a d yf o r t he f a l l c a m -
p a i g n s i n t he i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s w i t ht he p r o -
s l a v e r yp l a n k n a i l e d i n t o t he p l a t f o r m
.
T he K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t yw a s f a t e d he n c e f o r t h
t o be n o t hi n g m o r e t ha n a c o n g e r i e s o f s t a t e w i d e
a n d s e c t i o n - w i d e f a c t i o n s , k n i t o n l ybyt he t e n u o u s
t hr e a d s o f a c o m m o n n a m e a n d a c o m m o n r i t u a l .
On l ya m i r a c l e c o u l d ha v e r e w e l d e d i t i n t o a n a -
t i o n a l p a r t y . T he m i r a c l e n e v e r ha p p e n e d .
CH A P T ERXXI
P o p !
T
H Ep o l i t i c o s o f r i v a l p a r t i e s r e a d t he s i g n s o f
br e a k u p w hi c ht he V i r g i n i a e l e c t i o n a n d t he P hi l a -
d e l p hi a c o u n c i l ha d u n r o l l e d , a n d l a yl o w . St a t e
e l e c t i o n s w e r e c o m i n g u p i n t he f a l l o f t ha t f a t e f u l
ye a r o f 1855, a n d n o c a u t i o u s p o l i t i c i a n w o u l d c o m -
m i t hi m s e l f u n t i l t he yw e r e o v e r
.
We ha v e be e n a bl e t o d r e d g e f r o m t he r e c o r d s
t he n a m e s a n d s p e c i f i c u t t e r a n c e s o f o n l yt hr e e
n a t i o n a l l yk n o w n p o l i t i c i a n s w ho , p r i o r t o K n o w -
No t hi n g i s m ' s Wa t e r l o o ye a r , ha d t he c o u r a g e
o p e n l yt o d e f yt he o r d e r . T he s e w e r e H e n r yA .
Wi s e , w ho ha d be e n e l e c t e d g o v e r n o r o f V i r g i n i a ;
St e p he n A
. Do u g l a s , o f t he L i n c o l n - Do u g l a s d e -
ba t e s , n o l e s s , w ho p u t a s o l e m n c u r s e u p o n K n o w -
No t hi n g i s m d u r i n g a F o u r t ho f Ju l yo r a t i o n a t
In d e p e n d e n c e H a l l , P hi l a d e l p hi a , i n 1854
; a n d
Cha r l e s A l l e n o f M a s s a c hu s e t t s . A l l e n i n f o r m e d t he
w o r l d , i n a p o l i t i c a l s p e e c hj u s t be f o r e t he e l e c t i o n
o f 1854i n Wo r c e s t e r , M a s s a c hu s e t t s
:
" P e r ha p s Ia m s p e a k i n g t o o bo l d l y, bu t Il e a r n e d
t o s p e a k bo l d l ya l o n g t i m e a g o
. Iw i l l s p e a k m y
s e n t i m e n t s i n t he f a c e o f a n yo r g a n i z a t i o n
; o r , i f
' 55
156

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
i t d o e s n o t s ho w i t s f a c e , t ho u g hi t s s e c r e t m i n e s
a r e be n e a t hm yf e e t , a n d u n s e e n ha n d s r e a d yt o
a p p l yt he m a t c h, Iw i l l d e c l a r e t ho s e s e n t i m e n t s
t ha t a f r e e m a n i s bo u n d t o u t t e r . "
A n d t he f a l l e l e c t i o n s o f 1855p r o v e d t ha t t he
d i s c r e e t p o l i t i c i a n s w e r e w i s e i n t he i r g e n e r a t i o n .
T he K n o w - No t hi n g s e l e c t e d g o v e r n o r s a n d l e g i s -
l a t i v e m a j o r i t i e s t ha t ye a r i n M a s s a c hu s e t t s , Ne w
H a m p s hi r e , Rho d e Is l a n d , a n d Co n n e c t i c u t . Ne w
Yo r k v o t e d f o r m i n o r o f f i c i a l s o n l y, bu t t he K n o w -
No t hi n g s ha r v e s t e d m o s t o f t he s e . K n o w - No t hi n g
g o v e r n o r s w e r e e l e c t e d i n K e n t u c k ya n d i n f a r - o f f
Ca l i f o r n i a . T e x a s p u t a f e w K n o w - No t hi n g s i n t o
l e s s e r s t a t e j o bs , w hi l e t he De m o c r a t s w e r e ba r e l y
a bl e t o be a t t he m e t e o r p a r t yi n t he i r s o u t he r n
c i t a d e l s o f A l a ba m a , L o u i s i a n a , G e o r g i a a n d M i s -
s i s s i p p i .
F o l l o w i n g t he s e e l e c t i o n s , s i n g l ya n d i n g r o u p s ,
t he p o l i t i c i a n s be g a n t o c r a w l o u t o f t he i r hu r r i c a n e
c e l l a r s . T he l a n d p r e s e n t l yf i l l e d w i t ha m i g ht y
s ho u t i n g . K n o w - No t hi n g i s m a n d a l l i t s w o r k s w e r e
be i n g d e n o u n c e d . It be c a m e t he f a s hi o n t o t hu n d e r
a n a t he m a a g a i n s t t he p a r t y .
T he n e w Re p u bl i c a n p a r t y, i n i t s Ne w Yo r k
s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n o f De c e m be r , 1855, a l l o w e d H o r -
a c e G r e e l e yt o w r i t e t he p l a t f o r m a n d t o s w i n g hi s
r i g ht a r m e l bo w - f r e e o n t he t o p i c o f K n o w -
No t hi n g i s m . T he De m o c r a t s i n t he c o n g r e s s w hi c h
P o p !

157
c o n v e n e d t ha t s a m e m o n t hp a s s e d s o l e m n r e s o l u -
t i o n s d a m n i n g p o o r Sa m . B o t hp a r t i e s , byt he t i m e
t he i r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s a s s e m bl e d i n t he f o l l o w -
i n g ye a r , w e r e p e r f e c t l ys u r e o f t he i r g r o u n d o n
t hi s s u bj e c t , a n d bo t hn a i l e d a n t i - K n o w - No t hi n g
p l a n k s i n t o t he i r n a t i o n a l p l a t f o r m s
. T he n e w p a r t y
ha d s p l i t o n t he r o c k o f s l a v e r y, a n d r a p i d w a s i t s
s i n k i n g .
F r o m t he f i r s t f a u l t i n g a l o n g t he M a s o n - Di x o n
l i n e , t he s t e p w a s bu t n a t u r a l t o a m u l t i t u d e o f
i n t r a s t a t e c l e a v a g e s i n t o r i v a l bo d i e s , e a c ho f w hi c h
c l a i m e d t o ha v e a m o n o p o l yo f t he o n e t r u e a n t i -
p a p a l a n d a n t i - f o r e i g n e r f a i t h . In Il l i n o i s , f o r e x -
a m p l e , t he o n c e t o u g ha n d ho m o g e n e o u s A m e r i -
c a n p a r t yd i v i d e d t o be c o m e t he Sa m s a n d t he
Jo n a t ha n s . In Ne w Yo r k Ci t y, Cha r l e s B . A l l e n ,
w ho ha d br o u g ht hi s l o d g e , t he So n s o f t he Si r e s ,
i n t o t he o r i g i n a l p a r t yi n 1852, p u l l e d t he m o u t
a g a i n i n 1855 . B e f o r e l o n g , a t l e a s t t hr e e n a t i v i s t ,
a n t i - Ca t ho l i c o r d e r s w e r e bl o o m i n g w a n l yi n Ne w
Yo r k Ci t yw he r e o n c e t he g i a n t o r c hi d o f K n o w -
No t hi n g i s m ha d s m e l l e d s u p r e m e . T he s e w e r e t he
K n o w - So m e t hi n g s , t he No r t hA m e r i c a n s a n d t he
M o u n t a i n Sw e e t s , n o t t o m e n t i o n A l l e n ' s c r o w d o f
d i s a f f e c t e d m e m be r s .
In s u c ha s t a t e o f a c t i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t he p a r t y
c o n v e n e d a t P hi l a d e l p hi a o n Wa s hi n g t o n ' s bi r t h-
d a y, 1856 , t o p u t a P r e s i d e n t i a l t i c k e t i n t he f i e l d .
A n a m a t e u r p o l i t i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t c o u l d ha v e
158

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
f o r e t o l d t he o u t c o m e . T he r e w a s a n o r g yo f be l l o w -
i n g , a n d e v e n t u a l l y, n o o n e q u i t e k n e w ho w , M i l l -
a r d F i l l m o r e w a s n o m i n a t e d f o r P r e s i d e n t .
F i l l m o r e ha d be e n P r e s i d e n t o n c e , s u c c e e d i n g
Z a c ha r yT a yl o r f r o m t he V i c e - P r e s i d e n c yw he n
T a yl o r d i e d i n o f f i c e . H e ha d be g u n hi s p o l i t i c a l l i f e
a s a n a n t i - A n d r e w Ja c k s o n De m o c r a t ; l a t e r he ha d
be c o m e a Whi g . A n o p p o r t u n i s t a n d a m i d d l e - o f -
t he - r o a d e r i n a l l r e s p e c t s , F i l l m o r e w a s s e i z e d u p o n
byt he K n o w - No t hi n g s a s a m a n l i k e l yt o t a k e a n y
r o a d t ha t s e e m e d t o l e a d ba c k t o t he Whi t e H o u s e ,
a n d t he K n o w - No t hi n g j u d g m e n t p r o v e d c o r r e c t
.
F i l l m o r e ' s n o m i n a t i o n w a s l a t e r e n d o r s e d byw ha t
r e m a i n e d o f t he Whi g p a r t y
.
T he Re p u bl i c a n s p u t u p Jo hn Cha r l e s F r e m o n t ,
o f Ca l i f o r n i a a n d In d i a n f i g ht i n g f a m e , a s t he i r
n o m i n e e f o r P r e s i d e n t . T he s t o r yw a s c i r c u l a t e d
a bo u t F r e m o n t t ha t he w a s a Ca t ho l i c . A s a m a t t e r
o f f a c t , he w a s bybi r t ha n d ba p t i s m a P r o t e s t a n t
Ep i s c o p a l i a n , t ho u g hhe a n d hi s w i f e ha d be e n
m a r r i e d , a f t e r a n e l o p e m e n t , bya Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c
p r i e s t .
T o a bl o c o f e x t r e m e p o p e - ha t e r s i n t he K n o w -
No t hi n g p a r t yt he n o m i n a t i o n o f M i l l a r d F i l l -
m o r e w a s n o t a g r e e a bl e . T he s e bo l t e d t he c o n v e n -
t i o n , a n d o f f e r e d a P r e s i d e n t i a l n o m i n a t i o n o f t he i r
o w n t o N . P . B a n k s , w ho m i n br i g ht e r d a ys t he
K n o w - No t hi n g d e l e g a t i o n i n Co n g r e s s ha d e l e c t e d
Sp e a k e r o f t he H o u s e a f t e r a t w o - m o n t hf i g ht .
B a n k s r e f u s e d t o r u n ; w he r e u p o n , a m a j o r i t yo f
P o p !

159
t he s c hi s m a t i c s f l o p p e d t o - o f a l l c a n d i d a t e s -
t he Re p u bl i c a n s ' a l l e g e d l yCa t ho l i c n o m i n e e , F r e -
m o n t . T he ba l a n c e o f t he m n o m i n a t e d R . F . St o c k -
t o n o f Ne w Je r s e y, d o u bt l e s s m o r e w i t ha v i e w t o
l e t t i n g t he w o r l d k n o w t he yw o u l d n e v e r s t o m a c h
F r e m o n t t ha n w i t ha n yho p e o f e l e c t i n g t he i r m a n .
T he c a m p a i g n o f 1856 w a s t he w i l d e s t j a m bo r e e
s i n c e t he T i p p e c a n o e - a n d - T yl e r - t o o c i r c u s o f s i x -
t e e n ye a r s be f o r e , a n d t he n s o m e . F r e m o n t w a s t he
v e r yc a p t a i n - g e n e r a l o f t he P o p e t o t ho s e n a t i v i s t s
w ho be l i e v e d hi m a Ca t ho l i c ; t he s t a r o f n e g r o f r e e -
d o m a n d ba n n e r be a r e r o f a g r e a t n e w p a r t yt o hi s
w o r s hi p e r s i n t he No r t h ; a n u n s p e a k a bl e n i g g e r
l o v e r d o w n So u t h . F i l l m o r e w a s t o s o m e t he m a n
w ho w o u l d k e e p t he P o p e w he r e he be l o n g e d a n d
t he Ca t ho l i c a n d a l i e n o u t o f t he g o o d p o l i t i c a l
j o bs , w hi l e o t he r s s a w hi m a s a m e r e s t r a w m a n
k i c k e d a l o n g a t t he he a d o f a p r o c e s s i o n o f t r i m -
m e r s a n d r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c s . Ja m e s B u c ha n a n , w ho
l e d t he De m o c r a t i c p a r a d e , s ym bo l i z e d t he s l a v e -
ho l d i n g So u t ha n d i t s o bn o x i o u s a r i s t o c r a t s t o t he
No r t he r n e r s ; he w a s t he s a v i o r o f a l l t ha t
w a s
r i g ht a n d p r o d u c t i v e o f p r o f i t s t o t he v o t e r s d o w n
So u t h
.
B u c ha n a n w a s e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t . F r e m o n t r a n
a g o o d s e c o n d , e v i d e n c i n g a l a s t i n g v i g o r i n t he
n e w Re p u bl i c a n p a r t y . P o o r F i l l m o r e w a s l o s t i n
t he s hu f f l e , bu t w a s d u g u p s o m e d a ys l a t e r a n d
f o u n d t o ho l d , t i g ht l yc l u t c he d i n hi s f i s t , t he e l e c -
t o r a l v o t e o f t he s t a t e o f M a r yl a n d .
CH A P T ERXXII
DEA T H RA T T L ES
K NOW
NOT H ING ISM n e v e r s e r i o u s l yt hr e a t -
e n e d t o c a r r ya n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n a f t e r 1856
. F o l -
l o w i n g t ha t e l e c t i o n , t he r e w a s bu t o n e c i t yo f t he
f i r s t c l a s s w hi c hd i d n o t p r o m p t l yf o r g e t t he P o p e
a n d r e s u m e w i t hi n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t yt he c ha t t e r i n g
a n d f r e t t i n g a bo u t t he n e g r o a n d w ha t c o u l d be
d o n e f o r hi m t ha t f i n a l l ybr o u g ht o n t he Ci v i l Wa r .
T hi s c i t yw a s B a l t i m o r e
. T he c o w a n d c o r n a n d c o t -
t o n s t a t e s o f K e n t u c k y, V i r g i n i a , No r t hCa r o l i n a ,
G e o r g i a , L o u i s i a n a , M a r yl a n d a n d T e n n e s s e e c o n -
t i n u e d s u f f i c i e n t l ya g i t a t e d o v e r t he Ro m i s hm e n -
a c e t o s e n d a s c a t t e r i n g o f K n o w - No t hi n g c o n g r e s s -
m e n t o Wa s hi n g t o n u n t i l t he ye a r 1
859 .
B a l t i m o r e ' s K n o w - No t hi n g a d v e n t u r e f u r n i s he s
a s p l e n d i d p i c t u r e o f w ha t i s t o be e x p e c t e d w he n -
e v e r s e c t a r i a n i s m l a ys ha n d s o n t he p o l i t i c a l s t e e r -
i n g w he e l .
T he K n o w - No t hi n g s c a p t u r e d t he c i t yi n 1854,
a n d he l d o n u n t i l 186 o . On c e i n p o w e r , t he y
p r o m p t l yf o r g o t t he i r p r e - e l e c t i o n p r o m i s e s o f f a i r
p l a yf o r a l l a n d bu s i e d t he m s e l v e s w i t hc o n s t r u c t -
i n g a p o l i t i c a l m a c hi n e d e s i g n e d t o k e e p B a l t i m o r e
i 6 o
DEA T H RA T T L ES

16 1
f o r e v e r i n t he ha n d s o f P r o t e s t a n t s . T he K n o w -
No t hi n g d i s t r i c t c l u bs be c a m e g a n g s o r g a n i z e d f o r
t he s o l e p u r p o s e o f p a t r o l l i n g t he e l e c t i o n bo o t hs
a n d k e e p i n g Ca t ho l i c v o t e r s a t ho m e .
So m e o f t he s e g a n g s w e r e n a m e d t he T i g e r s , t he
B l a c k Sn a k e s , t he Ri p Ra p s , t he B l o o d T u bs , t he
P l u g U g l i e s . T he B l o o d T u bs , w ho w e r e bu t c he r s
byt r a d e , c o n c e i v e d t he p l a n o f c a r r yi n g ho g s he a d s
o f be e f bl o o d t o t he p o l l s a n d s p l a s hi n g i t m e r r i l y
o n a n yCa t ho l i c w ho t u r n e d u p w i t ha v i e w t o e x -
e r c i s i n g hi s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g ht t o t he ba l l o t . K i d -
n a p p i n g w ho l e ba t t a l i o n s o f Ca t ho l i c v o t e r s a n d
s e q u e s t e r i n g t he m i n c e l l a r s a n d w a r e ho u s e s u n t i l
t he p o l l s c l o s e d w a s a n o t he r d e v i c e o f t he B a l t i -
m o r e K n o w - No t hi n g g a n g s .
F o r a t i m e t he Ca t ho l i c s f o u g ht , bu t t he g o i n g
be c a m e t o o r o u g hf o r t he m . T he ym a i n t a i n e d a f e w
g a n g s o f t he i r o w n i n t he f i r s t ye a r o r t w o a f t e r t he
K n o w - No t hi n g s w e e p , s o m e o f t he s e be a r i n g t he
a p p e l l a t i o n s o f B l o o d yEi g ht s , B l o a t s , B u t t e n d e r s
.
T he Ca t ho l i c s , o r De m o c r a t s , w e r e a t l e n g t h
a bl e t o r e c a p t u r e B a l t i m o r e o n l yt hr o u g ht he g o o d
o f f i c e s o f t he s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e . T he K n o w - No t hi n g s
o w n e d t he m e t r o p o l i t a n p o l i c e bo d ya n d s o u l . H a v -
i n g bu i l t u p a m a j o r i t yi n t he l e g i s l a t u r e f r o m d i s -
t r i c t s o u t s i d e B a l t i m o r e , t he De m o c r a t s i n 186 o
p r o c u r e d p a s s a g e o f a l a w w hi c hs n a t c he d t he B a l -
t i m o r e p o l i c e f r o m l o c a l c o n t r o l a n d p l a c e d t he
f o r c e u n d e r a l e g i s l a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n .
16 2

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
T he r e u p o n , a n a l l e g e d l yf a i r e l e c t i o n w a s he l d
.
T he De m o c r a t s c l e a n e d t he K n o w - No t hi n g s o u t o f
t he p o l i t i c a l m a c hi n e - g u n n e s t s , a n d p r o c e e d e d t o
g i v e B a l t i m o r e a br a c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s w hi c h
e q u a l e d a n yt hi n g t he K n o w - No t hi n g s ha d a c hi e v e d
i n t he l i n e o f c r o o k e d n e s s a n d c o r r u p t i o n
.
T he M a s s a c hu s e t t s " s m e l l i n g c o m m i t t e e " f u r -
n i s he s m a t e r i a l f o r a p a r a g r a p ho r t w o . M a s s a c hu -
s e t t s ' K n o w - No t hi n g l e g i s l a t u r e ( 1855) g a v e e a r
a n d a c t i o n t o a f a v o r i t e c r yo f a n t i - Ca t ho l i c a g i t a -
t o r s e v e r yw he r e : t he d e m a n d f o r s t a t e i n s p e c t i o n
o f c o n v e n t s . A c o m m i t t e e w a s n a m e d t o p e r f o r m
t hi s t a s k w hi c hw o u l d ha v e t i c k l e d t he s o u l o f
El m e r G a n t r y, a n d u n d e r t he l e a d e r s hi p o f a ba w d y
r a s c a l n a m e d H i s s i t s e t f o r t ho n i t s s n o o p i n g t o u r
o f t he M a s s a c hu s e t t s n u n n e r i e s . T he s t o r yo f t he
c o m m i t t e e ' s t r i p i s f u l l o f f e t i d d e t a i l s ha v i n g t o d o
w i t ht he p l u n d e r i n g o f n u n s ' w a r d r o be s , a n d s o
f o r t h . T he l e g i s l a t u r e w a s f i n a l l yc o m p e l l e d t o a p -
p o i n t a c o m m i t t e e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t he s m e l l i n g c o m -
m i t t e e , t he n a c o m m i t t e e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t he i n v e s t i -
g a t i n g c o m m i t t e e , n e x t a c o m m i t t e e t o i n v e s t i g a t e
- bu t w hyg o o n w i t ht hi s ?
T w o p a p e r ba t t l e s o f u n u s u a l f e r o c i t yo c -
c u r r e d d u r i n g t he K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t y' s p e r i o d o f
g l o r yf o l l o w e d byd e ba c l e . On e w a s t he A r c h-
bi s ho p H u g he s - Se n a t o r B r o o k s c o n t r o v e r s y, t he
o t he r a n a s t o n i s hi n g t i l t be t w e e n t he Ep i s c o p a l
bi s ho p o f V e r m o n t a n d t he Ca t ho l i c a r c hbi s ho p o f
B a l t i m o r e .
DEA T H RA T T L ES

16 3
A r c hbi s ho p H u g he s ( Ne w Yo r k ) w a s s t u n g i n t o
a r e s u m p t i o n o f hi s a n c i e n t ha bi t o f w r i t i n g t o t he
n e w s p a p e r s bya r e m a r k m a d e i n t he l e g i s l a t u r e by
Er a s t u s B r o o k s , a K n o w - No t hi n g s t a t e Se n a t o r a n d
p a r t ym o g u l . T he Chu r c hP r o p e r t yB i l l , a p e t
K n o w - No t hi n g m e a s u r e , w a s be f o r e t he Se n a t e f o r
d i s c u s s i o n . T hi s bi l l c a l l e d f o r t he t a k i n g o f l e g a l
t i t l e t o c hu r c hp r o p e r t ya w a yf r o m c l e r i c s a n d
g i v i n g i t t o t r u s t e e s o f e a c hc o n g r e g a t i o n . Sa i d
B r o o k s :
"
Is u p p o s e i t s [ t he p r o p e r t ys t a n d i n g i n t he
n a m e o f Jo hn H u g he s a s a r c hbi s ho p ] v a l u e t o be ,
i n Ne w Yo r k a l o n e , n o t m u c hs ho r t o f $5, 000, 000 . "
T he f i g ht i n g a r c hbi s ho p i n s t a n t l yw r o t e o n e o f
hi s m o s t bi t i n g l e t t e r s t o t he Ne w Yo r k Co u r i e r a n d
En q u i r e r . H e e x p r e s s e d p l e a s e d s u r p r i s e a t t he d i s -
c o v e r yo f hi s hi t he r t o u n s u s p e c t e d w e a l t h, a n d w e n t
o n t o s a yt ha t , w hi l e m u c hha d be e n d o n e o f r e c e n t
ye a r s t o w a r d s p r e a d i n g k n o w l e d g e t hr o u g ht he
w o r l d , B r o o k s ' s s p e e c hs ho w e d t ha t m u c hr e m a i n e d
t o be d o n e . H e n c e , p r o m i s e d H u g he s , he w o u l d p u t
a w a ya p o r t i o n o f hi s r i c he s f o r hi s o l d a g e , a n d
w i t ht he r e s t he w o u l d e r e c t a hu g e p u bl i c l i br a r yi n
Ne w Yo r k Ci t y, a n d n a m e i t a f t e r Er a s t u s B r o o k s ,
i f B r o o k s w o u l d bu t p o i n t o u t a t r a c t o f l a n d a c -
q u i r e d byt he a r c hbi s ho p f r o m a n yc hu r c ht r u s t e e s
w ha t s o e v e r , w he r e o n t o p l a c e t he l i br a r y .
B r o o k s d u g u p a m u l t i t u d e o f c o n v e ya n c e s f r o m
t he c i t yr e c o r d s , p u bl i s he d t e n o f t he m v e r ba t i m i n
16 4

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
t he l o n g - s u f f e r i n g Co u r i e r a n d En q u i r e r ,
a n d s o l -
e m n l yd e m a n d e d t ha t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t he l i br a r y
c o m m e n c e f o r t hw i t h . H u g he s d e m o n s t r a t e d t ha t
m a n yo f B r o o k s ' s f i n d s w e r e l e a s e s ( a l be i t o n e w a s
a 999 -
ye a r l e a s e a t o n e c e n t a ye a r ) , t ha t o t he r s
w e r e d u p l i c a t i o n s , a n d s o o n . T he d i s c u s s i o n g r e w
e x c e e d i n g w i n d ya n d a bu s i v e . Of c o u r s e t he w ho l e
q u i bbl e w a s o n H u g he s ' s p o w e r s a s ho l d e r o f n a k e d
l e g a l t i t l e s
.
A t l e n g t h, B r o o k s ha v i n g n a m e d c e r t a i n p r o p e r -
t i e s a s be l o n g i n g t o t he a r c hbi s ho p , t o w hi c h
H u g he s i n f a c t ha d n o t l e g a l t i t l e , H u g he s s a t u p
l a t e o n e n i g ht t o c u t t he f o l l o w i n g g e m w i t ht he
a c i d t ha t f l o w e d f r o m hi s p e n :
" Whe n M r . B r o o k s w r o t e t hi s , he k n e w a s w e l l
a s Id o , t ha t Ia m n o t t he o w n e r o f a s o l i t a r ys q u a r e
i n c ho f g r o u n d o n 5o t ho r 51s t s t r e e t ; a n d , w i t h
t hi s k n o w l e d g e i n hi s m i n d , M r . Er a s t u s B r o o k s
ha s e x hi bi t e d hi m s e l f i n t he l i g ht o f a m a n w ho ha s
n o r e g a r d f o r v e r a c i t y, a n d w ho i s , t he r e f o r e , u t -
t e r l yu n w o r t hyo f n o t i c e
. It a k e hi m , c o n s e q u e n t l y,
w i t hc o v e r e d ha n d s , t o t he n e a r e s t o p e n s a s ho f a
w i n d o w , a n d s e n d hi m f o r t h, w i t ht he s i n g l e m e n -
t a l o bs e r v a t i o n - ` G o he n c e , w r e t c he d a n d v i l e i n -
s e c t : t he w o r l d ha s s p a c e f o r yo u a s w e l l a s f o r
m e . ' "
B r o o k s g o t t he d e c i s i o n f r o m a m a j o r i t yo f t he
p r e s s , bu t t he a r c hbi s ho p d i d n o t bu i l d t he l i br a r y .
DEA T H RA T T L ES

16 5
T he l e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d t he Chu r c hP r o p e r t yB i l l ,
w hi c hr e m a i n e d l a w t o t he g r e a t ha r a s s m e n t o f t he
Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hi n Ne w Yo r k u n t i l 186 3 - w he n ,
a s a Ca t ho l i c hi s t o r i a n r e m a r k s , t he Ne w Yo r k r e g i -
m e n t s n e e d e d Ca t ho l i c s o l d i e r s .
T he V e r m o n t v s . M a r yl a n d c o n f l i c t a r o s e f r o m a
c l a s s i c e x hi bi t i o n o f g a l l byt he M o s t Re v e r e n d
F r a n c i s P a t r i c k K e n r i c k , a r c hbi s ho p o f B a l t i m o r e
.
K e n r i c k ha d be e n g r e a t l yi m p r e s s e d bya r e a d i n g
o f T he En d o f Co n t r o v e r s y, by t he V i c a r A p o s t o l i c
t o G r e a t B r i t a i n , M i l n e r . L a yi n g d o w n t hi s w o r k ,
K e n r i c k p r o c e e d e d t o c i r c u l a r i z e a l l t he P r o t e s t a n t
Ep i s c o p a l bi s ho p s i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s w i t ha l e t -
t e r w he r e i n t he yw e r e a d v i s e d t o r e t u r n i m m e d i -
a t e l yt o t he Chu r c ho f Ro m e l e s t a l l t he i r f l o c k s
s ho u l d l e a v e t he m o v e r n i g ht
.
B i s ho p Jo hn H
. H o p k i n s ( Ep i s c o p a l ) o f V e r -
m o n t t o o k p e n i n ha n d . H e w a s a l r e a d ya n a n t i -
Ca t ho l i c c r u s a d e r o f s o m e r e p u t e , ha v i n g w r i t t e n
s e v e r a l bo o k s w i t hs u c hw o r k a d a yt i t l e s a s
T he
Chu r c ho f Ro m e i n he r P r i m i t i v e P u r i t yCo m p a r e d
w i t ht he Chu r c ho f Ro m e a t t he P r e s e n t Da y a n d
A n H u m bl e A d d r e s s t o t he B i s ho p s , Cl e r g ya n d
L a i t yo f t he P r o t e s t a n t Ep i s c o p a l Chu r c hi n t he
U n i t e d St a t e s , o n t he T o l e r a t i n g A m o n g Ou r M i n -
i s t r yo f t he Do c t r i n e s o f t he Chu r c ho f Ro m e . B u t
he r e w a s a n o p p o r t u n i t yt o d o s o m e r e a l ba t t l i n g
f o r t he f a i t ho f t he e x t r e m e a n t i - p a p a l L o w Chu r c h-
m a n .
16 6

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
H o p k i n s p r o d u c e d a t w o - v o l u m e r e bu k e t o K e n -
r i c k , u n d e r t he t i t l e "
T he En d o f Co n t r o v e r s y "
Co n t r o v e r t e d
.
In t hi s m a s t e r p i e c e , he w e n t ba c k t o
t he m o m e n t w he n t he f i r s t s p e c u l a t i v e l e e r i n t he
d i r e c t i o n o f A n n e B o l e yn be g a n t o f o r m o n t he f a c e
o f H e n r yV III, a n d s c o u r e d c hu r c hhi s t o r yt he n c e -
f o r w a r d t o t he d a ybe f o r e hi s bo o k w e n t t o p r e s s ,
w i t ht he s i n g l e a i m o f p r o v i n g M i l n e r a l i a r a n d
K e n r i c k a n i n t r i g u i n g s c o u n d r e l
.
On e q u o t a t i o n f r o m H o p k i n s m u s t s u f f i c e . T he
bo o k w a s w he e z yw i t hp u r p l e w r i t i n g , o f w hi c ht hi s
i s a s a m p l e
:
" . . . s i n c e t he n o d o f t he r e i g n i n g p o n t i f f c a n
p l a c e t he Ca r d i n a l o f Ro m e a m o n g s t t he p r i n c e s
o f t he e a r t h, a n d o p e n t o hi m t he r o a d t o t he l o f t y
t hr o n e o f P a p a l s u p r e m a c y, w he r e he m a ybe r e v -
e r e n c e d a s a k i n g o f k i n g s , a n d ha v e hi s f e e t k i s s e d
byt he n o bl e s t l i p s o f Eu r o p e , a n d f a n c yhi m s e l f
a u t ho r i z e d t o w i e l d t he v i c a r i a l s c e p t r e o f t he o m -
n i p o t e n t So n o f G o d ! "
T he K n o w - No t hi n g m o v e m e n t i n t he c i t i e s g e n -
e r a l l yd e v o l u t e d t o i t s f i r s t s t a t u s , s p l i t t i n g u p i n t o
a ha l f - d o z e n f e e bl e a n d u n i n t e r e s t i n g l o d g e s w ho s e
m e m be r s p a s s e d m a n ya r e s o l u t i o n i n t he t e n o r o f
t ho s e p r o m u l g a t e d byB i g B i l l T ho m p s o n ' s A m e r -
i c a F i r s t F o u n d a t i o n , a n d a c c o m p l i s he d a s l i t t l e
t o w a r d r e a l i z i n g t he i r c l o u d ya i m s a s B i g B i l l ' s
l o d g e p r o m i s e s t o a c c o m p l i s ha t t hi s w r i t i n g
. B a r -
DEA T H RA T T L ES

16 7
k e r a n d Ju d s o n a n d B r o o k s , f r o m t he m i g ht ym e n
t he yha d be e n , d r o p p e d t o t he e s t a t e s f o r w hi c hn a -
t u r e ha d d e s i g n e d t he m f r o m bi r t h .
L i k e r a t s s w a r m i n g o v e r t he s i d e o f a s i n k i n g
s hi p , t he p o l i t i c i a n s w ho ha d be a m e d o n t he A m e r i -
c a n p a r t yi n i t s l u s t yyo u t h, w ho ha d e v e n p a t -
r o n i z i n g l yj o i n e d t he p a r t yw he n t ha t ha d s e e m e d
t he s e n s i bl e t hi n g t o - d o , n o w d e s e r t e d i t byt he
ba k e r ' s d o z e n , byt he c a r l o a d . T he f a v o r i t e a l i bi
r a n a s f o l l o w s : ( a ) t ha t t he s e f e a r l e s s f e l l o w s ha d
n e v e r m e a n t t he i r K n o w - No t hi n g p l e d g e s a t a l l ;
( b) t ha t t he yha d s u bs c r i be d t o Sa m ' s f l a t u l e n t
o a t hs w i t ht he i r f i n g e r s c r o s s e d ; ( c ) t ha t w ha t t he y
ha d a c t u a l l ybe e n a bo u t a l l a l o n g w a s t he c l u bbi n g
t o d e a t ho f t he Whi g p a r t y, w hi c hha d be t r a ye d
bo t hNo r t ha n d So u t hbyi t s m i s e r a bl e e q u i v o c a t -
i n g o n s l a v e r y ; a n d ( d ) t ha t , Whi g g e r ybe i n g n o w
d i s p a t c he d , t he s e p a r a g o n s w e r e r e t u r n i n g t o t he
p a r t i e s w hi c hba c k e d w o r t hyc a n d i d a t e s a n d e m -
br a c e d e s s e n t i a l d o c t r i n e s .
T he s w e e t s t o r yw a s t o l d w i t he s p e c i a l e f f e c t a n d
p a t ho s i n M a s s a c hu s e t t s . Se n a t o r G . F . H o a r o f
t ha t s t a t e r e l a t e d t he i n c i d e n t t hu s a m i a bl yi n hi s
A u t o bi o g r a p hyo f Se v e n t yYe a r s :
" B u t a g o o d m a n ya n t i - s l a v e r ym e n w ho
t ho u g ht t he p a r t yf e e l i n g o f t he Whi g s a n d De m o -
c r a t s w a s a g r e a t o bs t a c l e t o t he i r c a u s e , j o i n e d t he
m o v e m e n t s i m p l yi n o r d e r t ha t t he ym i g ht g e t r i d
I6 8

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
o f t he o l d p a r t i e s , a n d p r e p a r e t he s t a t e a s w i t ha
s u bs o i l p l o w f o r a n e w o n e
. T he yha d n o be l i e f i n
t he p r o s c r i p t i v e d o c t r i n e s , a n d w e r e w i l l i n g t ha t
m e n o f f o r e i g n bi r t hs a n d Ca t ho l i c s s ho u l d ha v e
t he i r j u s t r i g ht s , a n d e x p e c t e d t o d e s t r o yt he
K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t yi n i t s t u r n w he n i t ha d d e -
s t r o ye d Whi g g e r ya n d De m o c r a c y .
" Of t he s e w a s H e n r yWi l s o n , w ho o w e d hi s f i r s t
e l e c t i o n t o t he Se n a t e t o t he K n o w - No t hi n g l e g i s -
l a t u r e ; a n d El i T ha ye r , w ho ha d be e n t he o r g a n -
i z e r o f t he Em i g r a n t A i d s o c i e t ya n d t he m o v e m e n t
f o r t he d e l i v e r a n c e o f K a n s a s a n d Ne br a s k a . "
Ca t ho l i c i t yl i f t e d i t s bl o o d yhe a d a g a i n , t o g o
a bo u t t he bu s i n e s s o f bu i l d i n g c hu r c he s a n d m a k -
i n g p r o s e l yt e s a n d s o l i d i f yi n g a g a i n s t t he i n f i d e l
a n d he r e t i c t he ba t t l e m e n t s o f w ha t Ca t ho l i c s a r e
p l e a s e d t o c a l l t he On e T r u e F a i t h .
T he Ci v i l Wa r w a s i m m i n e n t . G o d w a s i n H i s
he a v e n , a n d p r a c t i c a l l ye v e r yt hi n g w a s w r o n g w i t h
t he U n i t e d St a t e s a n d g r o w i n g w o r s e
. B u t t he P o p e
r e m a i n e d i n Ro m e , p r a i s e be , a n d t he P r e s i d e n t s a t
s e c u r e i n t he Whi t e H o u s e . T he n a t i o n ha d be e n
s a v e d f r o m p a p a l o v e r l o r d s hi p , a t l e a s t
. Ju d s o n ,
B a r k e r , A l l e n e t a l . - a m i l l i o n a n d a ha l f a l i o s -
ha d n o t s w e a t e d i n v a i n .
CH A P T ERXXIII
SK IRM ISH ES
SEV ERA L i t e m s i n t he s t o r yo f c hu r c hc o n f l i c t
f r o m t he Ci v i l Wa r ' s be g i n n i n g t o t he A . P . A . j o i n
o n t o n o m o v e m e n t bu t d e s e r v e s k e t c hyn a r r a t i o n .
So m e o f t he s e a r e m e r e l ye x c i t i n g a n d n o t a l i t t l e
r o m a n t i c
. On e o f t he m , a t l e a s t , e c ho e s i n t o t hi s
p r e s e n t l i k e a f a i r y- t a l e o f o l d t i m e w hi c hm a n ya
c hi l d m i n d i n a n a d u l t bo d ys t i l l be l i e v e s .
T he r e i s t he q u e s t i o n o f t he d r e a d r o l e p l a ye d by
t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h, a n d p a r t i c u l a r l ybyt he Je s u i t s ,
i n t he Wa r B e t w e e n t he St a t e s . M a n ya n e v a n g e l i -
c a l c ha i r s m a s he r i n t he j u n g l e s o f In d i a n a o r A r -
k a n s a s ha s e l e c t r i f i e d hi s a u d i e n c e s w i t ht he a s s e r -
t i o n t ha t t he U n i o n w a s t hr e a t e n e d , n o t byt he
Co n f e d e r a t e s a l o n e , bu t a l s o , i n f a c t c hi e f l yw he n
yo u c o m e r i g ht d o w n t o i t , bye m i s s a r i e s o f a m bi -
t i o u s Ro m e a t w o r k o n t he w a x e n w i l l s o f Je f f e r s o n
Da v i s a n d hi s c o t e r i e . A n t i - p a p a l bo o k s c a n be p r o -
c u r e d t o d a yi n w hi c ht hi s c l a i m i s p r o v e d s o c o m -
p l e t e l yt ha t n o t a d o u bt o f i t s t r u t hr e m a i n s i n t he
m i n d s o f t he bo o k s ' a u t ho r s .
So m e r e s e a r c ha n d e v e n a l i t t l e t ho u g ht l e d t he
p r e s e n t w r i t e r t o c o n c l u d e t ha t t he s t o r yi s g r o u n d -
16 g
170

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
l e s s , a n d t ha t i t i s k e p t a l i v e byt w o i n f l u e n c e s o n l y
.
On e o f t he s e i s t he e v e r - f l a m i n g ha t r e d o f t he m o r e
f o r t hr i g ht a m o n g t he e v a n g e l i c a l c l e r g yf o r t he
Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h . T he o t he r i s t he s a m e d e -
g r e e o f ha t r e d , e m ba l m e d i n a bo o k , o f a p r i e s t o f
t he l a s t c e n t u r yw ho w a s k i c k e d o u t o f t he Ca t h-
o l i c c hu r c ha n d w ho r o u n d e d o u t t he f r i g ht f u l s p a n
o f n i n e t yye a r s u p o n t hi s e a r t h .
T he Ci v i l Wa r s p l i t s e v e r a l e v a n g e l i c a l c hu r c he s
i n t w a i n . T he B a p t i s t s d i v i d e d f o r m i s s i o n a r yw o r k
bo t hho m e a n d f o r e i g n . T he No r t he r n a n d So u t h-
e r n M e t ho d i s t c hu r c he s f r o w n l i k e a t w o - he a d e d
m o n s t e r o n l i q u o r , t o ba c c o a n d p e t t i n g p a r t i e s t o -
d a y. P r e s byt e r i a n i s m w a s bl a s t e d i n t o t e n o r m o r e
f i g ht i n g f r a g m e n t s . Ev e n t he s u a v e , g e n t e e l a n d
e l a s t i c P r o t e s t a n t Ep i s c o p a l c hu r c hs p l i t i n t o
n o r t he r n a n d s o u t he r n f a c t i o n s , t ho u g hi t s n a p p e d
ba c k t o u n i t yi m m e d i a t e l ya f t e r t he w a r .
T he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hi n t he U n i t e d
St a t e s , o f c o u r s e , d i d n o t d i v i d e o n t he r o c k o f w a r .
A n a t i o n i s bu t a s e c u l a r , w o r l d l yd i v i s i o n i n t he
w o r l d w i d e s p i r i t u a l d o m a i n o f t he P o p e a s a l l e g e d
v i c a r o f G o d
. Ca t ho l i c c ha p l a i n s c o u l d w i t hp e r f e c t
a n e s t he s i a o f c o n s c i e n c e m a r c ha n d s t a r v e a n d p r a y
w i t ht he a r m i e s o f bo t hU n i o n a n d Co n f e d e r a c y,
e v e n a s Ca t ho l i c c o m m u n i c a n t s c o u l d a n d d i d ba t -
t l e i n l a r g e n u m be r s o n e i t he r s i d e . A p r i e s t o r a
p a r s o n w ho c a n n o t d i s c e r n t he p r e s e n c e o f G o d o n
hi s o w n s i d e o f t he f i r i n g l i n e i s c o m m o n l yhe l d s u b-
SK IRM ISH ES

171
n o r m a l a n d m u s t s u f f e r t he c o n s e q u e n c e s . B u t t he s e
p he n o m e n a d o n o t a f f e c t t he u n i v e r s a l i t yo f t he
Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h .
Wha t m o r e n a t u r a l t ha n t ha t t he d o c t o r s o f
t ho s e c hu r c he s w hi c hd i d d i v i d e , a n d s o v i t a l l y
w e a k e n t he m s e l v e s , s ho u l d ha v e be e n a bl e w i t he x -
t r e m e e a s e t o d r a w i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t r e a s o n f r o m t he
u n br o k e n u n i t yo f t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h? It w a s
e a s i e r t o c ha r g e t he Je s u i t s , t ho s e m ys t e r i o u s s o l -
d i e r s o f Ro m e , w i t ht r e a s o n o u s i n t e n t i o n s t ha n i t
w a s t o c ha r g e a n yo t he r bo d yo f Ca t ho l i c s .
T he K n i g ht s o f t he G o l d e n Ci r c l e , a s e c r e t s o -
c i e t yf o r m e d byt he a n t i - w a r De m o c r a t s o f t he
No r t hi n t he ho p e o f f o r c i n g a n e n d t o t he w a r ,
w a s t ho u g ht bym a n yt o be o f f i c e r e d byJe s u i t s . It
w a s , a s a m a t t e r o f a l m o s t bu t n o t q u i t e e s t a bl i s he d
f a c t , c hi e f t a i n e d byF e r n a n d o Wo o d , w a r m a yo r o f
Ne w Yo r k . It s m e m be r s hi p c o m p r i s e d f r o m 200, -
000 t o 300, 000 p a c i f i s t i c No r t he r n De m o c r a t s .
T he s e w e r e i n t e n t o n ha m s t r i n g i n g a w a r - ha r r i e d
Re p u bl i c a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t he be n e f i t o f t he
De m o c r a t s , n o t t ha t o f t he Chu r c ho f Ro m e . T he
f a c t t ha t m a n yCa t ho l i c s ha p p e n e d t he n , a s n o w , t o
be De m o c r a t s , a d d e d r i c hn e s s t o t he Je s u i t o d o r
w i s he d u p o n t he K n i g ht s o f t he G o l d e n Ci r c l e .
T he V a t i c a n ' s d i p l o m a c yd o w n t he a g e s ha s be e n
c o n s i s t e n t l yn o t o f a s t u p i d v a r i e t y . Wha t c o u l d
ha v e be e n m o r e s t u p i d t ha n f o r t he Ca t ho l i c hi e r -
a r c hyt o ha v e i n t r i g u e d f o r e i t he r s i d e i n t he A m e r -
172

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
i c a n Ci v i l Wa r ? T he P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s
w e r e r e n t a n d c o n f o u n d e d byt he s t r u g g l e . T he w a r
c o u l d n o t l a s t f o r e v e r . T he o bv i o u s p o l i c yf o r Ca t h-
o l i c i t y, p l a i n e n o u g ht o ha v e p e n e t r a t e d e v e n t he
t hi c k i s hs k u l l o f P i u s IX, w a s t o s t e p l i g ht l ya n d be
p o l i t e t o e v e r ybo d ys o l o n g a s t he w a r s ho u l d l a s t ,
i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a c l e a n - u p i n s o u l s f o l l o w i n g t he
c o n c l u s i o n o f a t r e a t yo f p e a c e .
T he r e i s t he l o g i c u n d e r l yi n g t he a n s w e r t o t he
q u e s t i o n w he t he r Ca t ho l i c i t yw a s i n a n yw a yd i s -
l o ya l i n t he Ci v i l Wa r . T he e v i d e n c e o f d i s l o ya l t y
a d d u c e d byt he Ca t ho l i c - ha t e r s i s d e t a i l e d a n d i n -
t e r e s t i n g , bu t t o o v o l u m i n o u s t o i n t r o d u c e he r e . If
yo u c a n be l i e v e i n t he t r u t ho f e i t he r t he e v i d e n c e
o r t he f a c t s i t i s c l a i m e d t o p r o v e , yo u c a n be l i e v e
i n a s t r o l o g yOr t he s i n c e r i t yo f t he a v e r a g e c o w -
t o w n e v a n g e l i s t .
Re f e r e n c e ha s be e n m a d e t o t he bo o k s o f Re -
be c c a Re e d a n d M a r i a M o n k , w hi c hs ha r e t he
ho n o r o f be i n g k n o w n t o Ca t ho l i c hi s t o r i a n s a s t he
U n c l e T o m ' s Ca bi n o f a n t i - Ro m a n i s m i n t he U n i -
t e d St a t e s . T he t hi r d m a s t e r w o r k i n t he n i n e t e e n t h
c e n t u r y' s t r i l o g yo f ha t e , a n d t he l a s t r e a l l ye p i c
v o l u m e a g a i n s t Ca t ho l i c i s m t o ha v e be e n p r o d u c e d
t hu s f a r i n A m e r i c a , i s n o w be f o r e u s f o r br i e f c o n -
s i d e r a t i o n
.
T he t i t l e o f t hi s 832- p a g e c ha m p i o n a m o n g bo o k s
i s F i f t yYe a r s i n t he Chu r c ho f Ro m e , a n d t he
SK IRM ISH ES

1' 73
g e n i u s w ho w r o t e i t -
f o r he w a s a g e n i u s
-
w a s
a g e n t l e m a n bl e s s e d w i t ht he t i n k l i n g n a m e o f
Cha r l e s P a s c a l T e l e s p ho r e Chi n i q u y .
Chi n i q u yw a s bo r n i n 18o 9a n d d i d n o t d e p a r t
t hi s l i f e u n t i l 1899 . H e be g a n hi s c l e r i c a l c a r e e r i n
1833, a s a Ca t ho l i c p r i e s t i n a F r e n c h- Ca n a d i a n
p a r i s h . H e w a s a t u r bu l e n t s o u l , a n d w a s s e v e r a l
t i m e s c a l l e d o n t he c a r p e t byhi s o r d i n a r y . A t l e n g t h
he r e m o v e d t o Il l i n o i s , t o t a k e c ha r g e o f a c o n g r e -
g a t i o n o f F r e n c h- Ca n a d i a n c o l o n i s t s a t St . A n n e ,
i n K a n k a k e e c o u n t y, w he r e i t w a s ho p e d he w o u l d
be a g o o d bo y . H e w a s f o r m a l l yw e l c o m e d i n t o t he
d i o c e s e o f Chi c a g o .
B u t p r e s e n t l yChi n i q u yw a s o n t he l o o s e a g a i n ,
a n d B i s ho p A n t ho n yO' Re g a n w i t hd r e w hi s f a c u l -
t i e s . Chi n i q u yq u i t t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c ha n d f o r m e d
a s e c t o f hi s o w n , w hi c hhe n a m e d t he Chr i s t i a n
Ca t ho l i c . It ha d n o c o n n e c t i o n w i t ht he Chr i s t i a n
Ca t ho l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a bl i s he d a g e n e r a t i o n
l a t e r a t Z i o n Ci t y, Il l i n o i s , byJo hn A l e x a n d e r
Do w i e .
Chi n i q u yg o t hi m s e l f e n t a n g l e d w i t ht he l a w -
t hr o u g ht he v i l l a i n i e s o f Ro m e , o f c o u r s e - a n d i t
w a s i n t hi s p e r i o d o f a n g u i s ht ha t hi s a c q u a i n t a n c e -
s hi p a m o n g t he g r e a t o f o u r n a t i o n w a s f o r m e d .
H a u l e d u p f o r t r i a l a t U r ba n a , Il l i n o i s , i n M a yo f
1856 , he r e l a t e s t ha t hi s d e f e n s e w a s c o n d u c t e d by
A br a ha m L i n c o l n a n d t w o o t he r l a w ye r s . T he t w o
u n n a m e d c o u n s e l c ha r g e d hi m a t ho u s a n d d o l l a r s
174

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
f o r t he i r s e r v i c e s , w hi l e L i n c o l n r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t
m o r e t ha n a p i t t a n c e a s f e e , t ho u g hi t w a s hi s " a w -
f u l a n d s u p e r hu m a n e l o q u e n t d e n u n c i a t i o n " o f t he
Ca t ho l i c s ' "
i n f a m y, d i a bo l i c a l m a l i c e a n d t o t a l
w a n t o f Chr i s t i a n a n d hu m a n p r i n c i p l e " w hi c h
ha d w o n t he c a s e f o r Chi n i q u y .
A s L i n c o l n w a s s i g n i n g t he d u e - bi l l , Chi n i q u y
bu r s t i n t o t e a r s .
Whe n L i n c o l n i n q u i r e d t he r e a s o n , Chi n i q u y
c l a i m s t o ha v e s o bbe d : " M r . L i n c o l n , t he r e w e r e
i n t he [ c o u r t r o o m ] c r o w d n o t l e s s t ha n t e n o r
t w e l v e Je s u i t s f r o m Chi c a g o a n d St . L o u i s , w ho
c a m e t o he a r m ys e n t e n c e o f c o n d e m n a t i o n t o t he
p e n i t e n t i a r y . . . .
No t hi n g c a n be c o m p a r e d t o
t he e x p r e s s i o n o f t he i r r a g e a g a i n s t yo u , w he n yo u
w r e n c he d m e f r o m t he i r c r u e l ha n d s . . . . Wha t
t r o u bl e s m ys o u l j u s t n o w a n d d r a w s m yt e a r s i s
t ha t i t s e e m s t o m e t ha t Iha v e r e a d yo u r s e n t e n c e
o f d e a t hi n t he i r bl o o d ye ye s . "
No w w e k n o w w ho k i l l e d L i n c o l n , a n d w hy . Or ,
i f w e d o n o t , w e c a n f i n d o u t i n t he r e m a i n i n g s i x
o r s e v e n hu n d r e d p a g e s o f
F i f t yYe a r s i n t he
Chu r c ho f Ro m e
.
T he a n t i - Ca t ho l i c s i n r u r a l A m e r -
i c a ha v e k n o w n f o r ye a r s . T he yg o t t he i r i n f o r m a -
t i o n f r o m t hi s s a m e bo o k , e i t he r d i r e c t l yo r byg a r -
bl e d q u o t a t i o n s a n d e x t r a c t s . Of t e n e n o u g ht he y
d i d n o t k n o w w he r e t he q u o t a t i o n s c a m e f r o m , bu t
t he yk n e w t he t hi n g m u s t be t r u e be c a u s e t he p a r -
s o n o r t he a n t i - Ca t ho l i c w e e k l i e s t o l d t he m i t w a s .
SK IRM ISH ES

I75
Chi n i q u yc l a i m e d t o ha v e c a l l e d o n L i n c o l n t hr e e
t i m e s w hi l e t he l a t t e r w a s P r e s i d e n t o f t he U n i t e d
St a t e s
. On o n e o f t he s e o c c a s i o n s L i n c o l n w a s t o o
bu s yt o d o m o r e t ha n s ha k e ha n d s , bu t o n t he
o t he r s Chi n i q u y' s " n o bl e f r i e n d "
u s he r e d hi m i n t o
hi s p r i v a t e o f f i c e t o he a r t he l a t e s t i n s i d e s t u f f o n
t he Je s u i t s .
" Ia m s o g l a d t o m e e t yo u a g a i n , " L i n c o l n ba b-
bl e d ha p p i l ya t t he i r f i r s t r e u n i o n i n
1186 I
. " . . . I
w i l l n o t l e t yo u g o be f o r e t e l l i n g yo u t ha t a f e w
d a ys a g o Is a w M r . M o r s e , t he l e a r n e d i n v e n t o r o f
e l e c t r i c t e l e g r a p hy ; he t o l d m e t ha t w he n he w a s i n
Ro m e , n o t l o n g a g o [ o n l y
30
ye a r s - R. M . ] , he
f o u n d o u t t he p r o o f s o f a m o s t f o r m i d a bl e c o n s p i r -
a c ya g a i n s t t hi s c o u n t r ya n d a l l i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s
. It i s
e v i d e n t t ha t i t i s t o t he i n t r i g u e s a n d e m i s s a r i e s o f
t he P o p e t ha t w e o w e , i n g r e a t p a r t , t he ho r r i bl e
Ci v i l Wa r w hi c hi s t hr e a t e n i n g t o c o v e r t he c o u n t r y
w i t hbl o o d a n d r u i n s . "
Chi n i q u yc a l l e d o n t he P r e s i d e n t a g a i n t he n e x t
d a y
. H e r e p e a t e d hi s w a r n i n g t ha t t he Je s u i t s w e r e
e v e n t he n hu n t i n g f o r s o m e o n e p o s s e s s e d o f t he
d e v i l ' s c o u r a g e t o a s s a s s i n a t e L i n c o l n . T he P r e s i -
d e n t c o u n t e r e d w i t ht he s e w o r d s , a m o n g n u m e r o u s
o t he r s :
" Im a ya d d , t o d a y, t ha t Iha v e a p r e s e n t i m e n t
t ha t G o d w i l l c a l l m e t o H i m t hr o u g ht he ha n d o f
a n a s s a s s i n . L e t H i s w i l l , a n d n o t m i n e , be d o n e
!
176

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
. . .
Iw i l l be f o r e v e r g r a t e f u l f o r t he w a r n i n g
w o r d s yo u ha v e a d d r e s s e d t o m e a bo u t t he
d a n g e r s . . . .
" If e e l m o r e a n d m o r e e v e r yd a y, t ha t i t i s n o t
a g a i n s t t he A m e r i c a n s o f t he So u t ha l o n e t ha t Ia m
f i g ht i n g ; i t i s m o r e a g a i n s t t he P o p e o f Ro m e , hi s
p e r f i d i o u s Je s u i t s , a n d t he i r bl i n d a n d bl o o d t hi r s t y
s l a v e s , t ha n a g a i n s t t he r e a l A m e r i c a n P r o t e s t a n t s ,
t ha t w e ha v e t o d e f e n d o u r s e l v e s . "
T he d e l v e r i n t o t he l i t e r a t u r e o f A m e r i c a n a n t i -
Ca t ho l i c i s m w i l l f i n d t he l a s t p a r a g r a p hq u o t e d i n
n u m be r l e s s bo o k s o f A
. P
. A . a n d K u K l u x d a ys a n d
t he ye a r s be t w e e n . It i s f r e q u e n t l yg a r bl e d a n d
d e c o r a t e d t o s u i t t he e d i t o r ' s f a n c y . No o n e e l s e
he a r d t he c o n v e r s a t i o n , f o r t he m a t t e r s w hi c h
Chi n i q u yha d t o i m p a r t t o P r e s i d e n t L i n c o l n w e r e
t o o i m p o r t a n t f o r o t he r e a r s . T hi s e x - p r i e s t w a s a s
s e c r e t i v e a bo u t hi s r e v e l a t i o n s a s w a s t he a n g e l
M o r o n i i n m a k i n g Jo s e p hSm i t hp r i v yt o t he e x -
i s t e n c e o f t he g o l d e n B o o k o f M o r m o n i n t he
bo w e l s o f t he hi l l Cu m o r a h
.
Whe n Chi n i q u yc a l l e d f o r t he l a s t t i m e o n t he
P r e s i d e n t , " o n t he m o r n i n g o f Ju n e 8t h, 186 4, " o r
t e n m o n t hs be f o r e L i n c o l n w a s s ho t , " t he P r e s i -
d e n t l i s t e n e d t o m yw o r d s w i t hbr e a t hl e s s a t t e n -
t i o n . "
T he w o r d s w e r e a s be f o r e , bu t m u l t i p l i e d . L i n -
c o l n ' s c hi e f c o n t r i bu t i o n s t o t he c hi t c ha t w e r e a
SK IRM ISH ES

1 77
t i p , g i v e n Chi n i q u yi n s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e , t ha t
G e n e r a l M e a d e ha d be e n t r i c k e d bya Je s u i t o u t o f
a r e m o r s e l e s s p u r s u i t o f hi s v i c t o r ya t G e t t ys bu r g ,
a n d t he f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k , w hi c hc a n l i k e w i s e be
f o u n d i n v o l u m e s u n n u m be r e d o f a n t i - Ca t ho l i c l i t -
e r a t u r e a s a v e r i f i e d u t t e r a n c e o f A br a ha m L i n c o l n :
" Id o n o t p r e t e n d t o be a p r o p he t . B u t t ho u g h
n o t a p r o p he t , Is e e a v e r yd a r k c l o u d o n o u r ho r i -
z o n . A n d t ha t d a r k c l o u d i s c o m i n g f r o m Ro m e .
It i s f i l l e d w i t ht e a r s o f bl o o d
. It w i l l r i s e a n d i n -
c r e a s e t i l l i t s f l a n k s w i l l be t o r n bya f l a s ho f l i g ht -
n i n g f o l l o w e d bya f e a r f u l p e a l o f t hu n d e r . T he n a
c yc l o n e s u c ha s t he w o r l d ha s n e v e r s e e n w i l l p a s s
o v e r t he c o u n t r y, s p r e a d i n g r u i n a n d d e s o l a t i o n
f r o m n o r t ht o s o u t h . A f t e r i t i s o v e r t he r e w i l l be
l o n g d a ys o f p e a c e a n d p r o s p e r i t y, f o r p o p e r yw i t h
i t s m e r c i l e s s i n q u i s i t i o n w i l l ha v e be e n f o r e v e r
s w e p t a w a yf r o m o u r c o u n t r y
. Ne i t he r In o r yo u ,
bu t o u r c hi l d r e n , w i l l s e e t ho s e t hi n g s . "
T he m a n w ho t hu s , a c c o r d i n g t o Chi n i q u y,
s ho v e l e d hi s a d j e c t i v e s i n t o p a l p i t a t i n g he a p s a n d
g r o s s l yo v e r w o r k e d hi s c o n j u n c t i o n s a n d d e p e n d -
e n t c l a u s e s , w a s t he m a n w ho a l s o w a s a bl e t o p r o -
d u c e t ha t m o d e l o f c l i p p e d En g l i s hr he t o r i c , t he
G e t t ys bu r g a d d r e s s .
Chi n i q u yp r o c e e d s i n t he l a t t e r p a r t o f hi s bo o k
t o bu i l d u p a hu g e e d i f i c e o f p r o o f t ha t L i n c o l n ' s
a s s a s s i n a t i o n w a s t he r e s u l t o f a Je s u i t p l o t ha t c he d
178

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
i n t he ho m e o f Jo hn Su r r a t t , a Ca t ho l i c
. Su r r a t t
w a s i n d e e d a Ca t ho l i c , a n d hi s w i f e w a s u n d e n i a bl y
a m o n g t ho s e ha n g e d f o r t he m u r d e r . A n d Su r r a t t ,
t he j u r yi n hi s t r i a l f o r m u r d e r ha v i n g d i s a g r e e d ,
d i d i n d e e d w a n d e r o f f a n d e v e n t u a l l ye n l i s t i n t he
P a p a l Z o u a v e s . B u t t he s t o r yt ha t t he Ca t ho l i c
c hu r c h, w o r k i n g t hr o u g ht he Je s u i t s , p l o t t e d a n d
c a r r i e d t hr o u g ht he a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f L i n c o l n w a s
l o n g s i n c e bl o w n i n t o a c o c k e d ha t - e x c e p t i n t he
m i n d s o f n o o n e k n o w s ho w m a n yp e o p l e r e s i d e n t
o n f a r m s a n d i n s m a l l t o w n s o f t he m i d w e s t a n d
s o u t he r n s t a t e s .
A g a i n s t Chi n i q u y' s f e a r f u l r o t , t he Ca t ho l i c s
ha v e l i t t l e f r o m L i n c o l n ' s v e r i f i e d u t t e r a n c e s t o
q u o t e
. H e w a s a bo u t a s r e l i g i o u s a m a n a s w a s t he
l a t e Wa r r e n G . H a r d i n g , a n d he m a d e f a r l e s s p r e -
t e n s e t o r e l i g i o s i t y, w hi l e he ha d a l l t he p o l i t i c i a n ' s
ho r r o r o f be i n g t r i c k e d i n t o a n a r g u m e n t e v e n r e -
m o t e l yc o n n e c t e d w i t hr e l i g i o n .
L i n c o l n o n c e d i d , ho w e v e r , d e l i v e r hi m s e l f o n t he
s u bj e c t o f t he K n o w - No t hi n g p a r t y . T hi s i s o l a t e d
u t t e r a n c e i s o n e o f t he m o s t be l o v e d i n t he a r s e n a l
o f A m e r i c a n Ca t ho l i c p r o p a g a n d i s t s
. Co n t a i n e d i n
a l e t t e r f r o m L i n c o l n t o Jo s hu a Sp e e d , d a t e d
A u g u s t
24,
1855,
i t r e a d s a s f o l l o w s
:
" Ia m n o t a K n o w - No t hi n g , t ha t i s c e r t a i n . H o w
c o u l d Ibe ? H o w c a n a n ym a n w ho a bho r s t he o p -
p r e s s i o n o f n e g r o e s be i n f a v o r o f d e g r a d i n g c l a s s e s
SK IRM ISH ES

1
79
o f w hi t e p e o p l e ? Ou r p r o g r e s s i n d e g e n e r a c ya p -
p e a r s t o m e p r e t t yr a p i d
. A s a n a t i o n w e be g a n by
d e c l a r i n g t ha t ' a l l m e n a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l
. ' We n o w
p r a c t i c a l l yr e a d i t , ` a l l m e n a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l , e x -
c e p t n e g r o e s
. ' Whe n t he K n o w - No t hi n g s g e t c o n -
t r o l i t w i l l r e a d ,
' a l l m e n a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l , e x c e p t
n e g r o e s a n d f o r e i g n e r s a n d Ca t ho l i c s . '
"
Whe n i t c o m e s t o t hi s , Is ha l l p r e f e r e m i g r a t i n g
t o s o m e c o u n t r yw he r e t he ym a k e n o p r e t e n s e o f
l o v i n g l i be r t y
- t o Ru s s i a , f o r i n s t a n c e , w he r e
d e s p o t i s m c a n be t a k e n p u r e , a n d w i t ho u t t he ba s e
a l l o yo f hyp o c r i s y . "
T he F e n i a n m o v e m e n t , o f w hi c hSi n n F e i n i s
s a i d t o be t he l e g i t i m a t e he i r , c a n be d i s p o s e d o f i n
a f e w br i e f s e n t e n c e s s o f a r a s c o n c e r n s t he Ca t h-
o l i c - P r o t e s t a n t f i g ht i n A m e r i c a . St a r t i n g o f f i n
1858u n d e r Jo hn O' M a ho n ya s H e a d Ce n t r e , F e n i -
a n i s m w a s a n Ir i s hr e v o l u t i o n a r ys u r g e o f t he
g r e a t e s t i m a g i n a bl e g a u d i n e s s a n d p o m p o s i t y, bu t
o f n o r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e w ha t e v e r .
O' M a ho n ys e t u p hi s c o m i c o p e r a g o v e r n m e n t i n
t he Ci t yo f Ne w Yo r k - hi s g o v e r n m e n t o f Ir e -
l a n d , be i t u n d e r s t o o d
. Ni n e hu n d r e d s ha n t yIr i s h
i n v a d e d Ca n a d a v i a B u f f a l o i n Ju n e , 186 7
. T he
T o r o n t o v o l u n t e e r s , f o u r t e e n hu n d r e d i n n u m be r ,
s p e e d i l yk i c k e d t he m ba c k a c r o s s t he Ni a g a r a r i v e r ,
a n d t he yw e r e a s s w i f t l ya r r e s t e d
e n m a s s e bya
U n i t e d St a t e s m a r s ha l o n t he B u f f a l o s ho r e .
180

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
T he F e n i a n s ' s e c o n d i n v a s i o n o f Ca n a d a , i n
1870, w a s r e p u l s e d , a n d s e v e r a l o f t he i r l e a d e r s
w e r e a r r e s t e d byCa n a d i a n a u t ho r i t i e s .
A n ya n t i - Ca t ho l i c w r i t e r w ho t r i e s t o a d d F e n -
i a n i s m t o hi s l i s t o f Ca t ho l i c i t y' s c r i m e s i n t he
U n i t e d St a t e s p u t s t he c a r t be f o r e t he ho r s e , a n d
t he w r o n g c a r t a t t ha t . T he F e n i a n s w e r e Ca t ho l i c s
be c a u s e t he yw e r e s o u t h- Ir e l a n d e r s ; a n d t he ye x -
p r e s s l yba n n e d f r o m t he i r m e e t i n g s a l l d i s c u s s i o n
o f r e l i g i o n o r o f A m e r i c a n p o l i t i c s .
It i s i n t e r e s t i n g , t ho u g hn o t p e r t i n e n t t o t hi s v o l -
u m e , t o n o t e t ha t t he U n i t e d St a t e s g o v e r n m e n t
l o o k e d w i t ha m i l d e ye o n t he F e n i a n s ' g e s t u r e s o f
ho s t i l i t yt o w a r d Ca n a d a , a n d e v e n hi r e d c o u n s e l
t o d e f e n d s u n d r ya r r e s t e d F e n i a n s - be c a u s e i t
w a s t r yi n g t o f o r c e G r e a t B r i t a i n t o s e t t l e t he A l a -
ba m a c l a i m s t ha t g r e w o u t o f t he Ci v i l Wa r .
A n u m be r o f p hys i c a l ba t t l e s be t w e e n Ca t ho l i c s
a n d P r o t e s t a n t s e n l i v e n e d t he o t he r w i s e d u l l p e r i o d
-
r e l i g i o u s l ys p e a k i n g - f r o m t he Ci v i l w a r t o
t he bl o o m i n g o f t he A
. P
. A .
T he bl o o d i e s t o f t he s e w a s a m a s s a c r e o f Ir i s h
Ca t ho l i c s byNe w Yo r k m i l i t i a m e n i n Ne w Yo r k
Ci t yo n Ju l y 12,
1871 . Ju l y
12
i s , byv i r t u e o f a c o n -
f u s i o n o f o l d a n d n e w c a l e n d a r s , he l d t o be t he a n -
n i v e r s a r yo f t he B a t t l e o f t he B o yn e , t he g r e a t d a y
i n P r o t e s t a n t Ir i s hhi s t o r y . It w a s t he r e f o r e t he d a y
o n w hi c h, i n ye a r s p a s t a n d w i l d , a n yt hi n g c o u l d
SK IRM ISH ES

181
ha p p e n i n a c o m m u n i t yw hi c hha r bo r e d d e l e g a t i o n s
o f bo t hOr a n g e m e n a n d H i be r n i a n s . G e n e r a l l y
w ha t e v e r d i d ha p p e n w a s byw a yo f r e v e n g e f o r
w ha t ha d o c c u r r e d o n t he p r e v i o u s St . P a t r i c k ' s
Da y .
On t hi s p a r t i c u l a r B o yn e d a y, o n e hu n d r e d
Or a n g e m e n d e t e r m i n e d t o c o n d u c t a p a r a d e i n
Ne w Yo r k Ci t y . Se v e r a l t ho u s a n d Ca t ho l i c Ir i s h-
m e n d e t e r m i n e d t ha t n o s u c hd i r t yt hi n g s ho u l d
t a k e p l a c e
. T he Or a n g e m e n p a r a d e d . T he yw e r e
c ha p e r o n e d byf i v e c o m p a n i e s o f m i l i t i a . In d u e
c o u r s e - a t T w e n t y- f o u r t hSt r e e t a n d Ei g ht h
A v e n u e - t he p a r a d e w a s r u s he d byt he Ca t ho l i c s .
T he m i l i t i a f i r e d o n e v o l l e y . F i f t y- o n e o f t he
a t t a c k e r s a n d t hr e e o f t he m i l i t i a m e n w e r e s hi p p e d
t o t he bu r yi n g g r o u n d s . Wha t t he g o o d L o r d , Who
w a s n o t c o n s u l t e d be f o r e ha n d , t ho u g ht o f t hi s
a f f a i r i s n o t o f hu m a n r e c o r d .
T hi s m a s s a c r e t o o k p l a c e o n e ye a r t o t he d a y
a f t e r t he El m P a r k r i o t i n Ne w Yo r k Ci t y . T w o
t ho u s a n d f i v e hu n d r e d Or a n g e m e n , t he i r w i v e s
a n d f a m i l i e s , p i c n i c k e d i n El m P a r k o n B o yn e d a y,
1870 . So m e w e e k s p r i o r t o t he ha p p ye v e n t , o n e
F l o r e n c e Sc a n n e l ha d d i e d . Sc a n n e l w a s a t w e n t y-
t hr e e - ye a r - o l d De m o c r a t i c a l d e r m a n , a n d he ha d
be e n s ho t i n a d r u n k e n br a w l . H e d i e d s o m e m o n t hs
l a t e r , a n d hi s f u n e r a l w a s br i l l i a n t e n o u g ht o s a t -
i s f yt he he a r t o f a m o d e r n Chi c a g o g a n g s t e r
. A l d e r -
m e n , c i t yo f f i c i a l s , e v e n a j u d g e o r t w o , f o l l o w e d
182

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
F l o r e n c e t o hi s f i n a l r e s t i n g - p l a c e , a n d a g l o r i o u s
t i m e w a s e n j o ye d bya l l . T he Ca t ho l i c s , o f w ho m
he w a s o n e , s w o r e r e v e n g e u p o n t he Or a n g e m e n ,
w ho w e r e t ho u g ht t o ha v e c a u s e d hi s d e a t h .
On B o yn e d a y, t he n , s i x hu n d r e d Ca t ho l i c Ir i s h-
m e n r u s he d t he t w o t ho u s a n d f i v e hu n d r e d Or a n g e -
m e n a t p i c n i c i n El m P a r k
. Se v e r a l o n bo t hs i d e s
w e r e k i l l e d a n d m a n yo t he r s w o u n d e d . F l o r e n c e
Sc a n n e l w a s a v e n g e d
.
H a r p e r ' s We e k l y
c o m m e n t e d
e d i t o r i a l l y :
" T he De m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l m a n a g e r s g o v e r n t he
Ci t yo f Ne w Yo r k bym e a n s o f s u c hr i o t e r s w ho
v o t e f o r s u c hm a g i s t r a t e s a s F l o r e n c e Sc a n n e l . "
T he s e f i g ht s w e r e n o t r e l i g i o u s i n c ha r a c t e r o r
m o t i v e
; t he yw e r e e c ho e s o f Ir e l a n d ' s u n e n d i n g
i n t e r n a l s t r i f e
. B u t t he yw e r e m e a t f o r t he ha t e r s o f
Ca t ho l i c i t y, a s ha v e be e n a hu n d r e d s u c hc l a s he s
be f o r e a n d s i n c e .
Wi l l i a m H a l e ( " B i g B i l l " ) T ho m p s o n , a t t hi s
w r i t i n g m a yo r o f Chi c a g o , ha s a t l e a s t o n e p r e c e -
d e n t i n A m e r i c a n hi s t o r yf o r hi s c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t
t he t e a c hi n g t o s c ho o l - c hi l d r e n o f a n yhi s t o r i c a l
f a c t t ha t t e n d s t o d i m t he l u s t e r o f A m e r i c a ' s p u i s -
s a n c e .
T he Ca t ho l i c s o f B o s t o n d i s c o v e r e d ,
A . D . 1886 ,
t ha t a f o o t n o t e i n Sw i n t o n ' s
G e n e r a l H i s t o r y, t he n
u s e d i n t he B o s t o n p u bl i c s c ho o l s , m e n t i o n e d t he
Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h' s m e d i e v a l p r a c t i c e o f s e l l i n g
SK IRM ISH ES

183
i n d u l g e n c e s a s o n e c a u s e o f t he P r o t e s t a n t Re f -
o r m a t i o n .
Ev e r ybo d yk n o w s t ha t i s t r u e ; bu t a d e l e g a t i o n
o f p i o u s Ca t ho l i c s v i s i t e d t he p u bl i s he r s o f t he
bo o k a n d " p e r s u a d e d " t he m t o d e l e t e t he f o o t -
n o t e . A bi t t e r p o l i t i c a l ba t t l e e n s u e d , r e s u l t i n g i n
t he e l e c t i o n o f a P r o t e s t a n t s c ho o l - bo a r d a n d t he
t r i u m p ha n t r e s t o r a t i o n o f t he f o o t n o t e - w hi c h
d o u bt l e s s t he p u bl i s he r s ha d c yn i c a l l yk e p t i n t yp e
a g a i n s t j u s t s u c ha n e v e n t u a l i t y .
A r e a s o n a bl yw a t e r t i g ht a n a l o g yc a n be d r a w n
be t w e e n t he t w e n t i e t h- c e n t u r yK u K l u x K l a n o f
hi g hl yP r o t e s t a n t c o m p l e x i o n a n d t he M o l l yM a -
g u i r e s ,
l w ho f l o u r i s he d i n t he P e n n s yl v a n i a a n t hr a -
c i t e r e g i o n s f r o m 1854t o 1877, a n d a l l o f w ho m
w e r e Ir i s hCa t ho l i c s .
T he m o d e r n K l a n i s i n t e n s e l yn a t i v i s t - " A m e r -
i c a f o r A m e r i c a n s ! " T he M o l l i e s ' m o t t o m i g ht a s
w e l l ha v e be e n
"
Co a l m i n e j o bs f o r t he Ir i s h! "
K l a n t a c t i c s he r e a n d t he r e ha v e i n c l u d e d t he u s e
o f i n t i m i d a t i o n , bl a c k m a i l , t hu g g e r y, bo yc o t t , a n d
o t he r w e l l - k n o w n m e a n s o f e x t r a l e g a l s u a s i o n . T he
M o l l i e s c a r r i e d t he s ys t e m t o i t s l o g i c a l d e v e l o p -
'
F o r m o s t o f t he r e s e a r c ho n w hi c ht hi s t r e a t m e n t o f t he M o l l y
M a g u i r e s i s ba s e d , Ia m i n d e bt e d t o M r . H a r c o u r t P a r r i s h, o f Ne w
Yo r k Ci t y . M r
. P a r r i s hw a s t o ha v e c o l l a bo r a t e d i n t he p r o d u c t i o n
o f t hi s bo o k , bu t w a s f o r c e d byp r e s s u r e o f o t he r bu s i n e s s t o a ba n -
d o n t he p r o j e c t a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g hi s i n q u i r i e s i n t o t he hi s t o r yo f t he
M o l l yM a g u i r e s . - A u t ho r .
184

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
m e n t bys i m p l ym u r d e r i n g a n yo n e a g a i n s t w ho m
a m e m be r f i l e d a c o m p l a i n t w i t ht he bo d y- m a s t e r
o f hi s l o d g e
. T he K l a n ha s f r o m t i m e t o t i m e be e n
d a m n e d r o u n d l ybyhi g hp r e l a t e s o f t he M e t ho d i s t
a n d B a p t i s t c hu r c he s - f r o m w hi c hi t d r a w s t he
bu l k o f i t s m e m be r s hi p - bu t m a n ya r u r a l a n d
s m a l l - t o w n m i n i s t e r o f t he s e d e n o m i n a t i o n s ha s
be e n t r a c k e d t o t he l o c a l k l a v e r n . T he M o l l y
M a g u i r e s w e r e u n d e r t he o f f i c i a l ba n o f t he Ro m a n
Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h
. Whi l e i t i s n o t c e r t a i n t ha t a n y
p a r i s hp r i e s t s be l o n g e d , m a n yo f t he m a p p r o v e d
t he o r d e r
. B o t ho r d e r s w e r e o a t h- bo u n d , s e c r e t -
m e m be r s hi p s o c i e t i e s d e v o t e d t o t he a i m o f g e t t i n g
e v e r yt hi n g p o s s i bl e i n t he w a yo f j o bs a n d p r e f e r -
m e n t s f o r t he m s e l v e s
.
En g l i s h, G e r m a n a n d We l s hm i n e r s , m i n e bo s s e s
a n d f o r e m e n w e r e t he o bj e c t s o f t he M o l l yM a -
g u i r e s ' p a r t i c u l a r ha t r e d
. A l l t he s e g r o u p s ha p -
p e n e d t o be c hi e f l yP r o t e s t a n t i n c r e e d , w hi c hm a d e
t he m d o u bl yha t e f u l t o t he f i r e - e a t i n g Ir i s hCa t ho -
l i c s w ho c o m p o s e d t he M o l l i e s ; bu t t he p r i m a r y
c a u s e o f M o l l yv e n g e f u l n e s s a n d t he s c o r e s o f m u r -
d e r s i t p r o d u c e d w a s t ha t t he En g l i s h, We l s ha n d
G e r m a n s w e r e m a k i n g o f f w i t ht he j o bs w hi c ht he
Ir i s hc o n s i d e r e d t he i r o w n byG o d ' s d e c r e e . On e
a c hi e v e m e n t o f t he M o l l i e s w a s t he f u r t he r e x a c e r -
ba t i o n o f a n t i - Ca t ho l i c p r e j u d i c e t hr o u g ho u t t he
c o u n t r y .
T he o r d e r w a s o r g a n i z e d i n 1854, a s a n i n n e r
SK IRM ISH ES

185
l o d g e o f t he A n c i e n t Or d e r o f H i be r n i a n s . It s t o l e
i t s n a m e f r o m a s e c r e t s o c i e t yt ha t g r e w u p i n
Co u n t yM o n a g ha n , Ir e l a n d , be g i n n i n g i n 1843, a n d
ha v i n g a s i t s o bj e c t t he be a t i n g u p o f p r o c e s s -
s e r v e r s a n d t he t o r m e n t i n g o f l a n d l o r d s . No c o n -
n e c t i o n be t w e e n t he ba n d s i n Ir e l a n d a n d A m e r i c a
w a s e v e r d i s c o v e r e d .
On e o f t he M o l l yM a g u i r e s ' e a r l ya c t i v i t i e s w a s
t o w a g e a f i g ht o n e n l i s t m e n t s a n d d r a f t s i n t he
Ci v i l Wa r . T hi s f a c t c o n t r i bu t e d i t s bi t t o t he l e g -
e n d t ha t t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hi n t r i g u e d a g a i n s t t he
U n i o n d u r i n g t ha t c o n f l i c t . T he r e a s o n f o r i t w a s
t ha t t he d r a f t l a w s i n c l u d e d t he d yn a m i t e - l a d e n
p r o v i s i o n f o r p u r c ha s e o f a s u bs t i t u t e bya n y
d r a f t e e w ho ha d $300, a n d t ha t f e w M o l l y
M a g u i r e s ha d e v e r s e e n $300 . T he i r m e m be r s hi p
i n t he Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hha d n o t hi n g t o d o w i t ht he i r
e a r n e s t o bj e c t i o n t o be i n g s ho t a t w hi l e t he Ro t t e n
Ri c hs t a ye d a t ho m e . T he s a m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
a m o n g o t he r s , t hr e w f r e n z i e d Ir i s hm e n i n t o t he
bl o o d yd r a f t r i o t s o f 186 3i n Ne w Yo r k Ci t y, a n d
he l p e d t o w i n f o r t ha t p l a c e i t s p r e s e n t r e p u t a t i o n
a m o n g Ca t ho l i c ha t e r s a s a ho p e l e s s p a p a l c i t a d e l
p l a n t e d o n A m e r i c a n s o i l .
T he c a m p a i g n o f s e c r e t m u r d e r i n t he c o a l f i e l d s
w e n t o n u n c he c k e d f o r ye a r s . A t l e n g t h, i n 1873,
F r a n k l i n B . G o w e n s e n t Ja m e s M c P a r l a n i n t o t he
d i s t r i c t n e x t d o o r t o t ho s e bi t u m i n o u s f i e l d s w hi c h,
i n t he ye a r o f g r a c e
192 7, t he Ne w Yo r k Da i l y
186

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
Ne w s c a l l e d "
he l l i n P e n n s yl v a n i a " byr e a s o n o f
t he a p p a l l i n g s t r i k e g o i n g o n t he r e a t t he t i m e
.
M c P a r l a n w a s a n Ir i s hCa t ho l i c hi m s e l f
. H e w a s
a l s o a P i n k e r t o n d e t e c t i v e . G o w e n w a s p r e s i d e n t
o f t he P hi l a d e l p hi a a n d Re a d i n g Co a l a n d Ir o n
Co m p a n y . M c P a r l a n ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e t o " g e t "
t he M o l l yM a g u i r e s i f he c o u l d .
T hi s m a n ha d be e n t e a m s t e r , d e c k s w a b, c o a c h-
m a n , p o l i c e m a n , a n d p r o p r i e t o r o f a l i q u o r s t o r e .
H e k n e w t he w a ys o f s u c hm e n a s c o m p o s e d t he
M o l l yM a g u i r e s .
T he s t o r yo f M c P a r l a n ' s w o r m i n g i n t o t he i n n e r
c o u n c i l s o f t he She n a n d o a hd i v i s i o n o f t he M o l l y
M a g u i r e s , a n d hi s e v e n t u a l br i n g i n g o f n i n e t e e n
m u r d e r e r s t o t he g a l l o w s , w o u l d m a k e g l o r i o u s
r e a d i n g i f t he r e w e r e s p a c e f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n he r e . So
w o u l d t he d o i n g s o f Ja c k K e ho e , M a j o r B r o t he r s ,
F a t he r O' Co n n o r , B o d y- m a s t e r Ja m e s K e r r i g a n o f
t he T a m a q u a d i v i s i o n
; t he k i l l i n g o f P o l i c e m a n
Yo s t byM c G e ha n , w ho s a i d a f t e r w a r d
: " Id i s l i k e
t o d r a w Ir i s hbl o o d , bu t Iw a n t n o be t t e r s p o r t t ha n
t o s ho o t s u c hm e n a s Yo s t
. Whe n he w a s s ho t he
ho l l e r e d l i k e a p a n t he r " ; t he s t o r i e s c i r c u l a t e d
a bo u t M c P a r l a n t ha t he w a s a d e t e c t i v e w ho c o u l d
" ha n g ha l f t he p e o p l e i n Sc hu yl k i l l c o u n t y, " a n d
M c P a r l a n ' s d a u n t l e s s d e m a n d t o be t r i e d o n t he
c ha r g e bya c o u n c i l o f bo d y- m a s t e r s o f t he M o l l y
M a g u i r e s
. . . .
T he o r d e r d i e d i n 1877u n d e r t he bl u d g e o n i n g s
SK IRM ISH ES

1 87
o f M c P a r l a n a n d t he r o p e s w i n g i n g o f t he c o u r t s
.
M c P a r l a n hi m s e l f l i v e d l o n g e n o u g ht o p l a ya l e a d -
i n g p a r t i n t he Id a ho l a bo r - a n d - c a p i t a l d r a m a o f
G o v e r n o r St e u n e n be r g , M o ye r ,
H a yw o o d a n d
P e t t i bo n e .
M o s t o f u s ha v e he a r d t he c a t c h- p hr a s e "
Ru m ,
Ro m a n i s m a n d Re be l l i o n . " It w a s t he l a s t c e n t u r y' s
s yn o n ym o f t he " Je w , Ju g a n d Je s u i t
" t a g w hi c h
K l a n s m e n s t r o v e t o ha n g u p o n Os c a r W . U n d e r -
w o o d o f A l a ba m a i n 1924 . A n d " Ru m , Ro m a n i s m
a n d Re be l l i o n
" l i k e w i s e p l a ye d a p a r t i n i n t e r r i n g
a m a n be n e a t ht he p o l i t i c a l s o d , t ho u g hi n d i f f e r e n t
f a s hi o n .
T he o c c a s i o n o f i t s c o i n a g e w a s t he P r e s i d e n t i a l
c a m p a i g n o f 1884, w he n G r o v e r Cl e v e l a n d , De m o -
c r a t , w o n o v e r Ja m e s G . B l a i n e , Re p u bl i c a n .
B l a i n e o n a s p e a k i n g t o u r r e c e i v e d a be v yo f P r o t -
e s t a n t c l e r g ym e n a t t he F i f t hA v e n u e H o t e l , Ne w
Yo r k Ci t y . T he r e w a s m u c hbi l l i n g a n d c o o i n g a n d
s ha k i n g o f ha n d s , a n d t he Re v . Dr . Sa m u e l D . B u r -
c ha r d d e l i v e r e d a w e l c o m i n g a d d r e s s t o t he Re p u b-
l i c a n c a n d i d a t e .
It w a s d u r i n g t he c o u r s e o f hi s r e m a r k s t ha t
B u r c ha r d t o l d w ha t he t ho u g ht o f t he De m o c r a t i c
p a r t y, i n t o t o .
T ha t p a r t y, i n t he e s t i m a t i o n o f
B u r c ha r d , ha d a l w a ys be e n a n d w a s s t i l l t he " p a r t y
o f Ru m , Ro m a n i s m a n d Re be l l i o n
. "
B l a i n e d i d n o t he a r t he p hr a s e w he n i t w a s
188

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
u t t e r e d , o r i f he d i d he f a i l e d t o m a k e a n yr e p u d i -
a t i o n o f i t
. B u c ha r d ' s m a s t e r p i e c e e c ho e d i n t he
Ne w Yo r k n e w s p a p e r o f f i c e s i n l e s s t i m e t ha n i t
t a k e s t o t e l l i t , a n d s a n g o v e r t he w i r e s e v e n f a s t e r
t ha n t ha t
. B e f o r e n i g ht f a l l o f t he n e x t d a yB l a i n e
w a s be i n g c r e d i t e d t he c o u n t r yo v e r w i t hha v i n g
hi m s e l f m a d e t he q u i p , a n d De m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c i a n s
w e r e w e l c o m i n g o u t r a g e d Ca t ho l i c s i n t o t he f o l d
w i t ht he p l e a s e d o bs e q u i o u s n e s s o f s o m a n yhe a d -
w a i t e r s .
Ne w Yo r k s t a t e w a s n o r m a l l yRe p u bl i c a n
. Ne w
Yo r k ' s p e r c e n t a g e o f Ca t ho l i c v o t e r s w a s t he n ,
a s
n o w , v e r yhi g h
. B l a i n e l o s t Ne w Yo r k t o Cl e v e l a n d
by1047v o t e s - a n d Ne w Yo r k ' s d e f e c t i o n l o s t
B l a i n e t he P r e s i d e n c y .
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SCH OOL WA RS
IN a n a c u t e c ha p t e r o f hi s Ou r T i m e s : A m e r i c a
F i n d i n g H e r s e l f , M a r k Su l l i v a n r e s u r r e c t s t he f o r -
g o t t e n f a c t t ha t t he P r o t e s t a n t c hu r c he s a r e t he
p a r e n t s o f t he A m e r i c a n p u bl i c s c ho o l s ys t e m a s i t
e x i s t s , f u n c t i o n s a n d bl o t s u p bi l l i o n s i n t a x e s t o -
d a y.
Wha t e v e r s e c t w a s m o s t p o w e r f u l i n a n yg i v e n
p a r t o f t he B r i t i s hc o l o n i e s e d u c a t e d m o s t o f t he
c hi l d r e n o f t ha t s e c t i o n
. T he Chu r c ho f En g l a n d
t a u g ht t he bu l k o f t he l i t t l e So u t he r n e r s t o r e a d ,
t hr o u g hi t s So c i e t yf o r t he P r o p a g a t i o n o f t he
F a i t h . T he P u r i t a n d e n o m i n a t i o n c o n f e r r e d t he
s a m e bo o n o n t he c hi l d r e n w ho w e r e u n l u c k y
e n o u g ht o ha v e be e n bo r n i n Ne w En g l a n d w hi l e
Ca l v i n i s m he l d ha p p i n e s s u n d e r t o t a l e c l i p s e .
It w a s o n l yi n t he l a s t d a ys o f t he c o l o n i e s a n d
t he e a r l yye a r s o f t he Re p u bl i c t ha t t he s t a t e be g a n
t o t a k e o v e r t he bu s i n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i n g t he yo u t h .
Whe r e a s , n o w a d a ys , Ca t ho l i c s a n d P r o t e s t a n t s
a l i k e e d u c a t e t he i r c hi l d r e n i n t he ho p e t ha t t he y
w i l l a l l o w n P i e r c e - A r r o w s a n d d i e w e a l t hy, o r t ha t
t he yw i l l e n j o yt he s p l e n d o r s o f t hi s w o r l d w i t ht he
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T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
m a x i m u m o f r e l i s h, t he P r o t e s t a n t s u s e d t o e d u c a t e
t he m w i t ha n e ye s o l e l yt o t he i r s a l v a t i o n i n t he
w o r l d t o c o m e
. T he B i bl e w a s t he Wo r d o f G o d
d e l i v e r e d u n t o m a n
; a n yo n e u n a bl e t o r e a d t he
B i bl e s t o o d i n g r a v e d a n g e r o f he l l f i r e . H e n c e , a l l
t he p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n t he r e w a s , f o r g e n e r a t i o n
a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n , i n t he P r o t e s t a n t B r i t i s hc o l o n i e s .
Whe n t he s t a t e be g a n t he t a k i n g o v e r o f p u bl i c
m a s s e d u c a t i o n , t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hw a s
j u s t c o m m e n c i n g i t s l o n g m a r c ht o i m m e n s i t ya n d
p o w e r i n t hi s c o u n t r y . T he c l e r g yo f t ha t s e c t d i d
n o t w e l c o m e t he s t a t e ' s i n v a s i o n . T he yha v e n e v e r
s i n c e t he n be e n a bl e t o s t o m a c ht he s t a t e a s a n
e d u c a t o r w i t ho u t g a g g i n g .
" T he o p e r a t i o n o f t he c o m m o n s c ho o l s ys t e m , "
s a i d B i s ho p ( l a t e r A r c hbi s ho p ) H u g he s o f Ne w
Yo r k i n 1840, " a s t he s a m e i s n o w a d m i n i s t e r e d , i s
a v i o l a t i o n o f o u r c i v i l a n d r e l i g i o u s r i g ht s . "
" T he Chu r c hi n o u r c o u n t r yi s o bl i g e d , f o r t he
s a k e o f p r i n c i p l e , " d e c l a r e d t he p a s t o r a l l e t t e r o f
t he a r c hbi s ho p s a n d bi s ho p s o f t he U n i t e d St a t e s ,
a s s e m bl e d a t Wa s hi n g t o n i n Se p t e m be r , 1919, u n -
d e r t he c ha i r m a n s hi p o f Ca r d i n a l G i bbo n s , " t o
m a i n t a i n a s ys t e m o f e d u c a t i o n d i s t i n c t a n d s e p a r -
a t e f r o m o t he r s ys t e m s . It i s s u p p o r t e d byt he v o l -
u n t a r yc o n t r i bu t i o n s o f Ca t ho l i c s w ho , a t t he
s a m e t i m e , c o n t r i bu t e a s r e q u i r e d byl a w t o t he
m a i n t e n a n c e o f t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s . "
Ed u c a t i o n , t o t he hi e r a r c hyye s t e r d a y, t o d a y
SCH OOL WA RS

191
a n d p r e s u m a bl yf o r e v e r , i s a s a c r e d p r e r o g a t i v e o f
t he c hu r c h, a s i t w a s t o t he P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g ym e n
w ho r e a l l yr u l e d t hi s c o u n t r yo f o l d t i m e
. T he
f a t he r s r e a s o n t ha t c ha r a c t e r i s a c o m p o s i t e o f
p hys i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d m o r a l q u a l i t i e s , a n d t ha t
i t i s t he bu s i n e s s o f e d u c a t i o n t o d e v e l o p a l l t he s e
f a c u l t i e s s ym m e t r i c a l l y
. T o ha n d l e t he p hys i c a l a n d
i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he c hi l d r e n , t he s t a t e
i s a d e q u a t e l ye q u i p p e d , bu t o n l yt he ho m e a n d t he
c hu r c hc a n n u r t u r e t he f r a i l f l o w e r o f m o r a l i t yt o
s t u r d ym a t u r i t y
- t hu s r e a s o n s t he p r i e s t ho o d .
On e l o o k s a bo u t , be ho l d s t he g o o d l yn u m be r o f
o n e ' s Ca t ho l i c f r i e n d s a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s w ho a r e
n o t s e n d i n g t he i r c hi l d r e n t o t he p a r o c hi a l s c ho o l s ,
a n d c o n c e i v e s a d o u bt t ha t t he Ca t ho l i c l a i t yi s a s
ho t f o r c hu r c hl ye d u c a t i o n o f i t s o f f s p r i n g a s i t s
c l e r i c s w i s hi t w e r e .
T w o s u bj e c t s f o r r e d - ho t d e ba t e n a t u r a l l yf l o w
f r o m t he t w o t he o r i e s o f Chu r c he d u c a t i o n a n d
St a t e e d u c a t i o n .
On e i s w he t he r o r n o t Ca t ho l i c s s ho u l d be t a x e d
f o r t he s u p p o r t o f t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s
; a n d , i f t he y
a r e t o be s o t a x e d , w he t he r o r n o t t he p a r o c hi a l
s c ho o l s o u g ht t o c o m e i n f o r a s ha r e o f t ha t m o n e y
.
T he o r t ho d o x , t ho u g hbyn o m e a n s u n a n i m o u s
Ca t ho l i c a n s w e r t o t he q u e s t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , i s t ha t
Ca t ho l i c s s ho u l d n o t be t a x e d f o r p u bl i c s c ho o l s u p -
p o r t i n t he f i r s t p l a c e , bu t t ha t s i n c e t he ya r e s o
t a x e d t he i r s c ho o l s s ho u l d s ha r e i n t he l e v i e s
. T he
192

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
P r o t e s t a n t a n s w e r , a s e m bo d i e d i n t he c o n s t i t u t i o n s
o f f o r t ys t a t e s , ' i s t ha t e v e r yt a x p a ye r , r e g a r d l e s s
o f c r e e d , s ha l l c hi p i n t o s u p p o r t t he c o m m o n
s c ho o l s a n d t ha t s t a t e f u n d s s ha l l n o t g o t o a n y
s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s w ha t e v e r .
T he o t he r l i n e o f c l e a v a g e be t w e e n t he t w o e d u -
c a t i o n a l t he o r i e s r u n s a l o n g t he c ha r a c t e r o f
r e l i g i o u s o r m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n w hi c hm a yl e g i t i -
m a t e l ybe g i v e n i n a n e l e m e n t a r ys c ho o l
. T he Ca t h-
o l i c s o bj e c t t o t he r e a d i n g o f t he K i n g Ja m e s v e r -
s i o n o f t he B i bl e , o r a n yo t he r P r o t e s t a n t v e r s i o n ,
w i t hi n e a r s ho t o f Ca t ho l i c s c ho o l - c hi l d r e n
. P r o t -
e s t a n t s a s v i g o r o u s l yo p p o s e t he Ca t ho l i c v e r s i o n
.
De ba t e s ha v e be e n m a n ya n d he a t e d .
Ca t ho l i c i s m ' s p o s i t i o n w a s c a r r i e d o u t t o t he u l t i -
m a t e l i m i t o f be a u t e o u s a bs u r d i t yi n 187o byt he
Re v . F a t he r T ho m a s P r e s t o n , o f St . A n n ' s Ro m a n
Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h, Ne w Yo r k Ci t y . F a t he r P r e s t o n
bl a n d l yt o l d a P r o t e s t a n t a u d i e n c e t ha t ( a ) a p u b-
l i c s c ho o l w he r e t he B i bl e i s r e a d , e v e n w i t ho u t
c o m m e n t , m u s t n e c e s s a r i l yi n c u l c a t e s o m e f o r m o f
r e l i g i o u s be l i e f i n t he c hi l d r e n , w hi l e ( b) " i f t he y
t a u g ht n o r e l i g i o n w ha t e v e r , a n d w e r e s t u d i o u s l y
t o a v o i d t he n a m e o f G o d o r o f Je s u s Chr i s t o u r
Re d e e m e r , t he yw o u l d i n o u r s e n s e be s e c t a r i a n ,
1 Ex c e p t i o n s
: A r k a n s a s , Io w a , M a i n e , M a r yl a n d , No r t hCa r o l i n a ,
Rho d e Is l a n d , V e r m o n t , a n d We s t V i r g i n i a
; a l s o t he Di s t r i c t o f
Co l u m bi a . ( Co u r t e s yo f U n i t e d St a t e s B u r e a u o f Ed u c a t i o n , Wa s h-
i n g t o n , D . C . )
SCH OOL WA RS

193
f o r t he yw o u l d t e a c hi m m o r a l i t y, a n d s o s a p t he
f o u n d a t i o n s o f o u r c r e e d . "
T hu s t he t w o g r e a t s c ho o l i s s u e s w hi c hha v e
a g i t a t e d Chr i s t i a n s i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s . H o n o r s i n
t he c o n f l i c t w e r e e v e n a t t he t i m e o f g o i n g t o p r e s s ,
w i t ht he f i n a n c i a l v i c t o r yp e r c he d o n t he ba n n e r s
o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m .
Ye t , e a g e r a s Ca t ho l i c c l e r g ym e n ha v e c hr o n i -
c a l l ybe e n t o l a yha n d s o n t he p u bl i c s c ho o l f u n d s ,
t he q u e s t i o n o f a n yr e l i g i o u s s e c t ' s r i g ht s o t o d o
w a s f i r s t d e c i d e d bya s t a t e , s o f a r a s w e ha v e be e n
a bl e t o l e a r n , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f a n o v e r t a c t bya
P r o t e s t a n t c hu r c h .
In 1805, t he l e g i s l a t u r e o f Ne w Yo r k i n c o r p o -
r a t e d t he P u bl i c Sc ho o l So c i e t yo f t he St a t e o f Ne w
Yo r k . It s d u t yw a s " t o e d u c a t e p o o r c hi l d r e n i n a
f r e e s c ho o l , w ho d o n o t be l o n g t o , o r w ho a r e n o t
p r o v i d e d f o r , bya n yr e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y . " B yt hi s a c t ,
a l l s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s w e r e e x p r e s s l yc u t o f f f r o m t he
c ha r i t y- s c ho o l f u n d s .
T he s o c i e t y' s n a m e w a s c ha n g e d i n 18o 8 t o t ha t
o f t he F r e e Sc ho o l So c i e t yo f Ne w Yo r k , w hi l e i t s
p o w e r s w e r e e n l a r g e d t o a l l o w i t " t o e x t e n d a f r e e
e d u c a t i o n t o a l l c hi l d r e n w ho a r e t he s u bj e c t s o f
g r a t u i t o u s e d u c a t i o n
. "
In 1813,
p e r m i s s i o n w a s g r a n t e d f o r f u n d s t o be
p a i d t o
" i n c o r p o r a t e d r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t i e s " w hi c h
t he n o r t he r e a f t e r s u p p o r t e d c ha r i t ys c ho o l s i n Ne w
194

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
Yo r k . A n yr e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y, i t i s t o be n o t e d , c o u l d
o bt a i n m o n e yo n a p p l i c a t i o n t o t he F r e e Sc ho o l
So c i e t ybys ho w i n g t ha t i t d i d m a i n t a i n o r ha d o r -
g a n i z e d a c ha r i t ys c ho o l
.
F o r f u l l yn i n e ye a r s a f t e r t he p a s s a g e o f t hi s l a w ,
a l l t he s e c t s c o n f i n e d t he m s e l v e s t o s t r i c t o bs e r v -
a n c e o f t he s a m e . T ha t t he yf o r bo r e t o o v e r s t e p i t s
l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t ha t l e n g t ho f t i m e i s a t e s t i m o n i a l
t o t he s e l f - c o n t r o l o f t he g o d l yi n t ho s e d a ys - i f i t
i s n o t a w i t n e s s t o t he i r t i m i d i t y
.
B u t i n 1822t he i n e v i t a bl e ha p p e n e d
. A t o o a m i -
a bl e l e g i s l a t u r e ha n d e d B e t he l B a p t i s t c hu r c ho f
Ne w Yo r k Ci t ya d i p p i n g f r o m t he F r e e Sc ho o l So -
c i e t y' s s u r p l u s f u n d s f o r t he bu i l d i n g o f a s c ho o l f o r
p o o r c hi l d r e n , s a i d s c ho o l t o be o p e r a t e d byt he
c hu r c h, n o t f o r t he m a i n t e n a n c e o r e n l a r g e m e n t o f
a s c ho o l a l r e a d ybu i l t . It w a s a p l a i n c a s e o f s t a t e
s u bs i d yo f a c hu r c he n t e r p r i s e , a n d he a v e n a l o n e
k n e w t o w ha t i t m i g ht l e a d
. T he c o n s e q u e n t u p -
r o a r w a s d o u bl yt r e m e n d o u s , s i n c e i t w a s p u m p e d
u p n o t o n l ybyp u bl i c l e a d e r s bu t byd o m i n i e s o f
o t he r c hu r c he s w hi c hha d n o t be e n s o f o r e ha n d e d
i n t he l e g i s l a t i v e ha l l s a s ha d B e t he l B a p t i s t .
T he Ne w Yo r k l e g i s l a t u r e p r e s e n t l yr e p e a l e d t he
l a w o f 1813w hi c hg a v e c hu r c he s a c a l l o n f r e e -
s c ho o l f u n d s .
Co n t r o l o f t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s o f Ne w Yo r k Ci t y
t he n p a s s e d i n t o t he ha n d s o f a n e w bo d yk n o w n a s
t he P u bl i c Sc ho o l So c i e t y . T he o r e t i c a l l yt hi s g r o u p
SCH OOL WA RS

1 95
a d m i n i s t e r e d t he s c ho o l s a n d t he s c ho o l f u n d s i n
t he i n t e r e s t o f t he w ho l e p u bl i c
. A c t u a l l yi t s m e m -
be r s w e r e a l l P r o t e s t a n t f o r m a n yye a r s
. P r o t e s t a n t
d o c t r i n e s w e r e d r i l l e d i n t o t he p u bl i c - s c ho o l p u p i l s '
he a d s , P r o t e s t a n t hi s t o r yw a s t a u g ht t he m , a n d
e v e r yp o s s i bl e m e a s u r e w a s t a k e n f o r t he i r p r o t e c -
t i o n a g a i n s t t he e v e r m u l t i p l yi n g p a p i s t s o f Ne w
Yo r k Ci t y .
A l l t hi s l e d t o B i s ho p H u g he s ' s a t t a c k o n t he
P u bl i c Sc ho o l So c i e t yi n 1840, t he f i r s t o r g a n i z e d
A m e r i c a n Ca t ho l i c d r i v e t o w a r d t he s e q u e s t r a t i o n
o f a s ha r e o f p u bl i c t a x m o n i e s f o r Ca t ho l i c s c ho o l s
.
T he s t o r yo f t ha t f i g ht i s t o l d i n m o r e d e t a i l i n a n
e a r l i e r c ha p t e r
( " A Ca t ho l i c P o l i t i c a l P a r t y
" ) ,
bu t br i e f m e n t i o n o f o n e o r t w o o f i t s i n c i d e n t s w i l l
n o t be a m i s s he r e .
Sa i d t he bi s ho p , i n a d d i t i o n t o hi s d i c t u m q u o t e d
e a r l i e r i n t he p r e s e n t c ha p t e r , "
If t he y[ t he p u bl i c
s c ho o l s ] d o n o t e x c l u d e s e c t a r i a n i s m , t he ya r e n o
m o r e e n t i t l e d t o t he s c ho o l f u n d s t ha n yo u r p e -
t i t i o n e r s o r a n yo t he r d e n o m i n a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i n g
Chr i s t i a n s
; i f t he yd o e x c l u d e s e c t a r i a n i s m , t he n
yo u r p e t i t i o n e r s c o n t e n d t ha t t he ye x c l u d e Chr i s t i -
a n i t y . "
T he P u bl i c Sc ho o l So c i e t yo f f e r e d t o e x p u n g e
f r o m t he s c ho o l a n d l i br a r ybo o k s a l l m a t t e r o f -
f e n s i v e t o Ca t ho l i c s , a n d t o t r yt o p e r s u a d e t he
t e a c he r s t o s a yn o w o r d w hi c hm i g ht w o u n d Ca t h-
o l i c s e n s i bi l i t i e s
. T ha t w a s n o t e n o u g hf o r H u g he s .
196

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
In e x c ha n g e
f o r p l a c i n g t he p a r o c hi a l s c ho o l s
u n d e r t he P u bl i c Sc ho o l So c i e t y' s c o n t r o l ,
he d e -
m a n d e d a v e t o p o w e r f o r t he Ca t ho l i c s i n t he s e l e c -
t i o n o f t e x t bo o k s a n d t he a p p o i n t m e n t o f t e a c he r s
-
w hi c ho bv i o u s l ym e a n t t ha t H u g he s w a n t e d t o
g i v e n o t hi n g f o r t he m o n e y
.
Sa i d t he c o m m i t t e e o f t he Ci t yCo u n c i l , t hr o w i n g
u p i t s ha n d s a t t he e n d o f t he bi t t e r f i g ht ,
" T he u n -
w i l l i n g n e s s o f t he p e t i t i o n e r s [ Ca t ho l i c s ] t o a g r e e
t o a n yt e r m s w hi c hd i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t he d i s t i n c -
t i v e c ha r a c t e r o f t he i r s c ho o l s , o r w hi c hw o u l d e x -
c l u d e s e c t a r i a n s u p e r v i s i o n f r o m t he m e n t i r e l y, w a s
t he o bs t a c l e t o c o m p r o m i s e w hi c hc o u l d n o t be
o v e r c o m e . "
Ne w Yo r k Ci t y' s s c ho o l s r e m a i n e d n o n - s e c t a r i a n
i n t he o r ya n d P r o t e s t a n t i n f a c t
. A t t he p r e s e n t
t i m e ( 1928)
c o m p l a i n t s a r e a l m o s t n e v e r he a r d o f
i m p r o p e r s e c t a r i a n i n f l u e n c e s a t w o r k i n t he Ne w
Yo r k s c ho o l s
. Whe n a t e a c he r i s o u s t e d n o w a d a ys ,
i t i s u s u a l l yo n g r o u n d s o f u n d u e f l i r t a t i o n w i t hB o l -
s he v i s m o r t he d o c t r i n e s o f j u d g e B e n B
. L i n d s e y .
No t hi n g f u r t he r o f s e r i o u s m o m e n t o c c u r r e d i n
t he Ne w Yo r k s c ho o l f i g ht u n t i l t he ye a r 186 9
. A t
t ha t t i m e , " B o s s "
T w e e d a n d hi s Ri n g , o f d e a t h-
l e s s f a m e , w e r e r u l i n g t he c i t ya n d g u t t i n g t he p u b-
l i c m o n e yc he s t s .
A s c a n t i l yw r i t t e n a bo u t , p r a c t i c a l l yf o r g o t t e n
p i e c e o f T w e e d s c a n d a l w hi c ha w a i t s t he p a t i e n t
s e a r c he r o f r e c o r d s i s T w e e d ' s bi d f o r c l e r i c a l s u p -
SCH OOL WA RS
197
p o r t , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l yCa t ho l i c c l e r i c a l s u p p o r t ,
w i t hp u bl i c s c ho o l f u n d s .
T he Ri n g f i r s t t r i e d t o bu yu p t he c l e r g ybyi n -
t r o d u c i n g i n t he l e g i s l a t u r e o f 186 9a bi l l w ho s e
f i r s t s e c t i o n r e a d a s f o l l o w s
:
" Whe n e v e r t he r e s ha l l be , o r ha s be e n e s t a b-
l i s he d o r m a i n t a i n e d , i n a n yc i t yo f t hi s St a t e , a n y
f r e e s c ho o l o r s c ho o l s , i n w hi c hn o t l e s s t ha n
200
c hi l d r e n ha v e be e n o r a r e t a u g ht a n d e d u c a t e d
g r a t u i t o u s l y, i t s ha l l be t he d u t yo f s u c hc i t y, o r o f
t he B o a r d o f Su p e r v i s o r s o f t he c o u n t yo f w hi c h
s u c hc i t yi s a w ho l e o r a p a r t , t o m a k e p r o v i s i o n
f r o m ye a r t o ye a r f o r t he e x p e n s e s o f s u c hs c ho o l o r
s c ho o l s
. "
H a d t hi s l a w p a s s e d t he l e g i s l a t u r e , e v e r yd e -
n o m i n a t i o n a l f r e e s c ho o l o f a n ys i z e i n Ne w Yo r k
w o u l d i n s t a n t l yha v e l a n d e d o n a l l f o u r s i n t he p u b-
l i c t r e a s u r yw i t hm o u t hu n m u z z l e d . No o n e w a s
d e c e i v e d a s t o T w e e d ' s i n t e n t i o n s i n p r o p o s i n g t he
l a w , a n d a f t e r a v i c i o u s f i g ht t he bi l l w a s d e f e a t e d .
B u t a l e g i s l a t i v e s e t ba c k n e v e r ye t d a u n t e d a
Ne w Yo r k Ci t yp o l i t i c i a n be n t o n he l p i n g hi s o l d
f r i e n d s o r bu yi n g n e w o n e s . T w e e d p r o c e e d e d t o d i p
i n t o t he c i t yr e v e n u e s f o r t he s a l v i n g o f t he d e -
n o m i n a t i o n a l s c ho o l s . H e t u r n e d t he t r i c k by
m e a n s o f a s p e c i a l c l a u s e i n s e r t e d i n t he c i t yt a x
l e v yo f 186 9 .
198

T H EWA Rs OF T H EG ODL Y
" T he r e s u l t i s , " ba w l e d a H a r p e r ' s We e k l y e d i -
t o r i a l i n t he f o l l o w i n g ye a r , " t ha t $2114, 987 ha v e
be e n t a k e n f r o m t he c i t ym o n e ya n d g i v e n t o 53
s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s . Of t hi s s u m 2 5Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c
s c ho o l s r e c e i v e $1153, 880, a n d 28 P r o t e s t a n t s c ho o l s
r e c e i v e $6 11, 1107 . "
T he
We e k l y
w a s a s bi t t e r l ya n t i - Ca t ho l i c i n
t ho s e t i m e s a s i t w a s a n t i - T a m m a n ya n d a n t i -
T w e e d . It w e n t o n t o s a yo f t he T w e e d c l e r i c a l
s u bs i d y :
" T he w o r d s o f t he c l a u s e a u t ho r i z i n g t he s e c -
t a r i a n d i s t r i bu t i o n i m p l yt ha t t he p r o v i s i o n i s m a d e
f o r c hi l d r e n w ho m t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s c a n n o t r e -
c e i v e . B u t c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ho w s t ha t p r o p e r
c a r e w o u l d e v e n n o w m a k e r o o m f o r a l l c hi l d r e n ,
w hi l e i t i s n o t o r i o u s t ha t t hi s g r a n t o f m o n e yf o r
s p e c i a l s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s i s p a r t o f t he p l a n o f t he
Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c e c c l e s i a s t i c s t o br e a k d o w n t he
s ys t e m o f p u bl i c s c ho o l s i n t he St a t e . "
Di s c o u n t t he We e k l y' s a n t i - p a p a l bi a s . G r a n t
t ha t i t i s n o t o f r e c o r d t ha t a n yP r o t e s t a n t m i n i s -
t e r r o a r e d f o r T w e e d ' s bl o o d o n a c c o u n t o f t hi s s e c -
t a r i a n s t e a l , o r r e f u s e d t he m o n e yf o r a n ys c ho o l s
u n d e r hi s w i n g . T he f a c t s t a n d s t ha t t he r e w a s
m u c hm o r e t ha n a s c i n t i l l a o f t r u t hi n t he l a s t s t a t e -
m e n t q u o t e d a bo v e f r o m t he H a r p e r ' s We e k l y
e d i t o r i a l .
B yp e r

o f H a r p e r

$
F OU RL EA DERS OF T H E A . P . A .
( T o p ,
l e f t t o r i g ht ) H ENRY F . B OWERS, F o u n d e r a n d F i r s t Su p r e m e
P r e s i d e n t ; OCEOL A B . JA CK M A N, Su p r e m e Se c r e t a r yo f St a t e
( B o t t o m , l e f t t o r i g ht ) E. H . DU NB A R, Su p r e m e Se r g e a n t a t A r m s ; DR.
J . F . F RYA R, Su p e r i o r P r e s i d e n t
SCH OOL WA RS

199
Wha t e v i d e n c e r e m a i n s p r i n t e d
o n d r ya n d
c r a c k l i n g p a g e s o u t o f t ho s e ye a r s g o e s t o s ho w t ha t
t he Ca t ho l i c p r i e s t ho o d ho p e d m o r e bo l d l ya n d
s c he m e d m o r e a m bi t i o u s l yt o w i n s t a t e s u p p o r t f o r
p a r o c hi a l s c ho o l s d u r i n g t he s e v e n t i e s t ha n i n a n y
o t he r p e r i o d o f o u r hi s t o r y .
F a t he r T ho m a s P r e s t o n u s e d hi s r a r e l o g i c a l
g i f t s i n a c a m p a i g n f o r s t a t e a i d f r o m t he p u l p i t
a n d r e c t o r yo f St
. A n n ' s c hu r c h, Ne w Yo r k . F a t he r
I
. T . H e c k e r ba w l e d f o r i t i n hi s
Ca t ho l i c Wo r l d
( Ne w Yo r k ) . Ot he r p r i e s t l yr o a r s r e s o u n d e d f r o m
Cl e v e l a n d , M i c hi g a n , St . L o u i s .
Do u bt l e s s t he c hi e f f o r c e be hi n d t hi s a g g r e s s i v e -
n e s s o n t he p a r t o f t he c l e r g yw a s t he Ec u m e n i c a l
Co u n c i l o f t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hw hi c hw a s
he l d a t Ro m e i n 1870 . T he r e t he U l t r a m o n t a n e f a c -
t i o n o f t he c hu r c hha d r a i l r o a d e d t he d o c t r i n e o f
p a p a l i n f a l l i bi l i t yi n t o t he bo d yo f Ca t ho l i c d o g m a ,
o v e r t he w r i t hi n g c a d a v e r o f a l a s t - d i t c ho p p o s i -
t i o n . Ca t ho l i c i s m , t ho u g hi t s k n e e s s ho o k , a t l e a s t
k n e w w he r e i t w a s s u p p o s e d t o s t a n d ; i . e . , o n t he
r o c k o f t he P o p e ' s i n f a l l i bi l i t yw he n s p e a k i n g e x
c a t he d r a o n a n yd o c t r i n e t o u c hi n g f a i t ho r m o r a l -
i t y . T he n , a s n o w , t he hi e r a r c hyt o o k t he a n -
n o u n c e d d o g m a s o f t he c hu r c hf a r m o r e l i t e r a l l y
t ha n d i d t he l a i t y, a n d n o t a f e w br i g ht - e ye d bi s h-
o p s a n d m o n s i g n o r i t a l k e d a n d w r o t e a s i f t he yi n -
t e n d e d _ t o c o n q u e r P r o t e s t a n t i s m a n d t he A m e r i c a n
St a t e .
2
00

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
T he n e t r e s u l t w a s o n e t o m a k e t he P u r i t a n a n d
Ep i s c o p a l c z a r s o f a n c i e n t d a ys t u r n o v e r i n t he i r
g r a v e s . Ja m e s G . B l a i n e p r o p o s e d t o a m e n d t he
f i r s t c l a u s e o f t he F e d e r a l Co n s t i t u t i o n ' s f i r s t
a m e n d m e n t t o r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
" No s t a t e s ha l l m a k e a n yl a w r e s p e c t i n g t he
e s t a bl i s hm e n t o f r e l i g i o n , o r p r o hi bi t i n g t he f r e e
e x e r c i s e t he r e o f ; a n d n o m o n e yr a i s e d bys c ho o l
t a x a t i o n i n a n ys t a t e , f o r t he s u p p o r t o f p u bl i c
s c ho o l s , o r d e r i v e d f r o m a n yp u bl i c l a n d t he r e f o r ,
n o r a n yp u bl i c l a n d s d e v o t e d t he r e t o , s ha l l e v e r be
u n d e r t he c o n t r o l o f a n yr e l i g i o u s s e c t ; n o r s ha l l
a n ym o n e ys o r a i s e d , o r l a n d s o d e v o t e d , be d i v i d e d
a m o n g r e l i g i o u s s e c t s o r d e n o m i n a t i o n s . "
B l a i n e i n t r o d u c e d t he a m e n d m e n t byw a yo f
e c ho t o a r e m a r k o f P r e s i d e n t U l ys s e s S . G r a n t i n
hi s m e s s a g e t o Co n g r e s s i n 1875 . G r a n t c a u t i o u s l y
a c k n o w l e d g e d t ha t s u c ha n a m e n d m e n t m i g ht be
d e s i r a bl e , w i t ho u t g o i n g i n t o e n t a n g l i n g d e t a i l s a s
t o w hyhe t ho u g ht s o . .
T o G r a n t t he Ca t ho l i c Re v i e w m a d e t hi s s t a r -
t l i n g a n s w e r :
" We s e e k n o c o n t e s t , bu t o n e w i l l be f o r c e d u p o n
u s ; w e w a r n o u r f e l l o w Ca t ho l i c s t ha t t hi s i s c e r -
t a i n t o c o m e , a n d w e r e t o r t u p o n t he i n s t i g a t o r o f
t hi s n e w i n t e r n e c i n e w a r , t ha t t he Ca t ho l i c s o f t he
U n i t e d St a t e s w i l l ` f i g ht i t o u t o n t ha t l i n e i f i t
SCH OOL WA RS

2 0 1
t a k e s , ' n o t o n e s e a s o n , bu t a n o t he r c e n t u r yo f o u r
be l o v e d c o u n t r y' s e x i s t e n c e . " ( Q u o t e d f r o m a n
a p p a r e n t l ya c c u r a t e , a s t o f a c t s , a n t i - Ca t ho l i c a r t i -
c l e i n H a r p e r ' s We e k l y f o r Ja n u a r y
1, 1876 . )
Ye t t he s i t u a t i o n w a s p o s s i bl yn o t s o a l a r m i n g
f r o m a p a t r i o t ' s p o i n t o f v i e w a s t he P o p e ' s ha t e r s
s u p p o s e d . A Ca t ho l i c l a ym a n , a n n o ye d byt he a c -
c u s a t i o n s o f p o p i s hp l o t s , d r o p p e d a l i n e t o
H a r -
p e r ' s We e k l y i n t he ye a r o f B l a i n e ' s a g i t a t i o n f o r
t he a m e n d m e n t a bo v e q u o t e d . T hi s g e n t l e m a n s a i d
t ha t n i n e o u t o f t e n Ca t ho l i c s ha d n o r e s p e c t w ha t -
e v e r f o r t he c l e r g y' s j u d g m e n t i n r e g a r d t o t he
s c ho o l s a n d d i d n o t w a n t t he s t a t e t o c o n t r i bu t e t o
t he s u p p o r t o f t he p a r o c hi a l s c ho o l s .
Wha t P r o t e s t a n t s t ho u g ht o f t he c l e r i c a l d r i v e
o n t he s c ho o l f u n d s w a s be s t s u m m a r i z e d i n a c a r -
t o o n byT ho m a s Na s t w hi c ha p p e a r e d e a r l yi n t he
s e v e n t i e s . T he p i c t u r e w a s a t hr e e - d e c k a f f a i r . It s
t o p m o s t l e v e l e x hi bi t e d a r i n g o f l i t t l e A m e r i c a n s ,
Chi n e s e , Je w s , Sc o t s a n d n e g r o e s d a n c i n g i n f r o n t
o f a p u bl i c s c ho o l . T he i r ha p p yc hi l d i s hv o i c e s w e r e
c a r o l i n g - a s w ho ha s n o t he a r d t he m d o a t r e -
c e s s ? - " No Se c t ! No Ca s t e ! F r e e t o A l l ! "
De c k n u m be r t w o d e p i c t e d s e v e r a l v i l l a i n o u s -
l o o k i n g p r i e s t s o f Ro m e r u n n i n g a w a yw i t hs a c k -
f u l s o f t a x m o n e y, w hi l e a s t a r v e d p u bl i c s c ho o l
p r i n c i p a l p e e r e d w i s t f u l l yi n t o hi s w i l t e d m o n e y-
ba g s .
202

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
T he bo t t o m t i e r o f Na s t ' s c a r t o o n s ho w e d w ha t
m i g ht be e x p e c t e d s ho u l d t he s t a t e g o i n f o r s u p -
p o r t i n g s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s . Sc ho o l s be a r i n g t he s i g n s
M e t ho d i s t , Ep i s c o p a l , L o w Chu r c h, H i g hChu r c h,
Je w i s h, Ca t ho l i c , A f r i c a n a n d Chi n e s e w e r e m a r -
s ha l e d s i d e bys i d e a l o n g a c i t ys t r e e t . In t he f o r e -
g r o u n d a l i t t l e c o l o r e d bo yw a s p u l l i n g a Chi n e s e
l a d ' s p i g t a i l , w hi l e a Cr o - M a g n o n c hi l d w i t ha
r o s a r ys l u n g f r o m o n e a r m a n d a Do u a i B i bl e
s q u e e z e d u n d e r t he o t he r w a s br a n d i s hi n g a s hi l l a -
l a hi n t he f a c e o f a l i t t l e Je w .
B l a i n e ' s p r o p o s e d a m e n d m e n t k i c k e d a r o u n d
Co n g r e s s f o r ye a r s . In i 888, i t w a s s t a t e d bySe n a -
t o r B l a i r t ha t t he a m e n d m e n t ha d be e n k i l l e d by
t he m a c hi n a t i o n s o f t he Je s u i t s , d e t a i l s o f t he
s l a u g ht e r n o t g i v e n . Ou r f a t he r s w e r e w i s e r i n t he
ha n d l i n g o f t hi s q u e s t i o n t ha n w e r e w e i n a n s w e r -
i n g t he l i q u o r q u e s t i o n : t he yl e f t t he m a t t e r t o t he
s t a t e s t o d e c i d e . T he r e s u l t i s t ha t f o r t ys t a t e s n o w
ba r s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s byc o n s t i t u t i o n a l e n a c t m e n t
f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u bl i c f u n d s .
Co m p r o m i s e s w e r e a r r a n g e d he r e a n d t he r e , a s
a t P o u g hk e e p s i e , Ne w Yo r k , i n 1873, a n d a t F a r i -
ba u l t , M i n n e s o t a , i n 1891 . T he F a r i ba u l t p l a n ,
w o r k e d o u t c hi e f l ybyt he l a t e A r c hbi s ho p Ir e l a n d ,
a c hi e v e d c o n s i d e r a bl e f a m e a n d w a s a d o p t e d i n a
n u m be r o f c i t i e s o f t he We s t a n d M i d d l e We s t .
In a l l t he s e i n s t a n c e s , t he f i n a n c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s
c o n s i s t e n t l yc a m e f r o m t he P r o t e s t a n t s i d e . T he
s c ho o l - bo a r d s o f t he t o w n s r e n t e d t he Ca t ho l i c
SCH OOL WA RS

203
s c ho o l bu i l d i n g s a t a n o m i n a l s u m , a n d d u bbe d
t he m p u bl i c s c ho o l s
. Ca t ho l i c r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n
w e n t r i g ht o n , i m p a r t e d byt he s a m e t e a c he r s ,
w hi l e t he s c ho o l - bo a r d s p a i d t he t e a c he r s a n d k e p t
t he bu i l d i n g s i n o r d e r
. A t F a r i ba u l t , t he P r o t e s -
t a n t s s c o r e d a v i c t o r yi n t ha t r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n
w a s s c he d u l e d o u t s i d e s c ho o l ho u r s .
Whe n t he A . P . A
. w a s a t t he he i g ht o f i t s p o w e r ,
i n 1893, t he In d e p e n d e n t
q u e r i e d t w e n t y- n i n e
Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c D. D
. ' s o f t he g r e a t e s t e m i n e n c e ,
be g i n n i n g w i t hA r c hbi s ho p Ir e l a n d , o n t he s u bj e c t
o f t he s c ho o l s
. T he q u e s t i o n p u t t o e a c hw a s
w he t he r he w o u l d a t t ha t t i m e s a n c t i o n a m o v e m e n t
f o r a d i v i s i o n o f s c ho o l f u n d s
.
T w e n t y- f i v e o f t he p r e l a t e s a n s w e r e d
"
No , "
w i t hv a r yi n g w o r d s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n w hi c hi n d i c a t e
t o a l a ym i n d t ha t t he g o o d d o c t o r s w i s he d t o p r e -
s e r v e f o r t he m s e l v e s t he w e l l - k n o w n "
o u t " i n
c a s e o f a s u d d e n s hi f t i n t he p o l i t i c a l o r e d u c a t i o n a l
w i n d . F o u r a n s w e r e d "
Ye s , " w i t ha n a l o g o u s n e g a -
t i v e s p r e g n a n t s u bj o i n e d
.
T he f o u r d i e - ha r d s w e r e B i s ho p s Du r i e r , H a i d ,
L u d d e n a n d V e r d a q u e r
. So m e o f t he m o s t p r o m -
i n e n t r e c a n t e r s w e r e A r c hbi s ho p s Ir e l a n d , K a t z e r ,
J. J
. K e a n e , B o u r g a d e a n d Ja n s s e n , a n d B i s ho p s
M c Q u a i d a n d H o r s t m a n n
.
P o s s i bl yt he m o s t a c u t e p i e c e o f p o l i t i c a l r he t o r i c
e v e r u t t e r e d o n t he p u bl i c s c ho o l f u n d i s s u e w a s
g i v e n v o i c e byT he o d o r e Ro o s e v e l t i n a s p e e c ha t
B o s t o n i n 1893
. We r e p r o d u c e t he g e m be l o w , a n d
204

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
c o m m e n d i t t o t he e a r n e s t s t u d yo f a n yp o l i t i c i a n
w ho w i s he s t o be c o m e p r o f i c i e n t i n t he a r t o f f e i g n -
i n g a f i g ht w i t he v e r ybo d ybu t i n r e a l i t yt i c k l i n g
e v e r ybo d y' s m o s t p r e c i o u s p r e j u d i c e
.
" B e c a u s e [ s a i d Ro o s e v e l t ] w e a r e u n q u a l i f i e d l y
a n d w i t ho u t r e s e r v a t i o n a g a i n s t a n ys ys t e m o f d e -
n o m i n a t i o n a l s c ho o l s , m a i n t a i n e d byt he a d he r e n t s
o f a n yc r e e d w i t ht he he l p o f s t a t e a i d , t he r e f o r e
w e a s s t r e n u o u s l yi n s i s t t ha t t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s
s ha l l be f r e e f r o m s e c t a r i a n i n f l u e n c e s , a n d , a bo v e
a l l , f r e e f r o m a n ya t t i t u d e o f ho s t i l i t yt o t he a d -
he r e n t s o f a n yp a r t i c u l a r c r e e d ; a n d w e d e n o u n c e
a s t he w o r s t f o e s o f t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s t ho s e w ho ,
u n d e r t he p r e t e n s e o f f r i e n d s hi p f o r t he m , s t i r u p
ho s t i l i t yt o w a r d t he m bys e e k i n g t o d i s c r i m i n a t e
i n t he i r n a m e a g a i n s t t ho s e p e o p l e w ho ho l d a g i v e n
r e l i g i o u s be l i e f .
" Ex a c t l ya s w e w e l c o m e t o t he m a l i k e t he c hi l -
d r e n o f Je w a n d G e n t i l e , o f Ca t ho l i c a n d P r o t e s -
t a n t , s o w e i n s i s t t ha t i n t he i r m a n a g e m e n t n o o n e
c r e e d s ha l l ha v e a n ys p e c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , bu t t he
p r o f e s s o r s o f a l l c r e e d s be t r e a t e d a l i k e , i n o r d e r
t ha t e v e r yA m e r i c a n c i t i z e n , w i t ho u t r e g a r d t o
w ha t hi s o w n p r i v a t e r e l i g i o u s be l i e f m a ybe , s ha l l
f e e l t ha t he ha s a n e q u a l v o i c e t he r e i n . "
Ne w Yo r k ' s s u p r e m e c o u r t d e c l a r e d t he P o u g h-
k e e p s i e s c he m e u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n 19o r . A f e w
t o w n s he r e a n d t he r e o p e r a t e u n d e r t he F a r i ba u l t
SCH OOL WA RS

205
s ys t e m , bu t t he s c ho o l f i g ht i s a bo u t a t a n e n d t o
a l l a p p e a r a n c e s a t t he t i m e t hi s i s w r i t t e n .
T he P r o t e s t a n t s ha v e w o n t he f i g ht o v e r t he
m o n e y ; t he Ca t ho l i c s ha v e s e e n a p r i n c i p l e c a r r i e d
t o v i c t o r y . " A s t he r e s u l t o f t he j o i n t c a m p a i g n ,
w a g e d byp a p i s t s a n d Je w s a g a i n s t t he Wo r d o f
G o d , " t o u s e t he f o r c e f u l l a n g u a g e o f o n e a n t i -
Ca t ho l i c w r i t e r , B i bl e - r e a d i n g i n t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s
ha s be e n f o r bi d d e n o r m a d e o p t i o n a l i n t hi r t y-
s e v e n s t a t e s . It i s r e q u i r e d o n l yi n A l a ba m a , G e o r -
g i a , De l a w a r e , In d i a n a , K e n t u c k y, M a i n e , Ne w
Je r s e y, No r t hCa r o l i n a , Or e g o n , P e n n s yl v a n i a , a n d
T e n n e s s e e .
T he r e t he m a t t e r bi d s f a i r t o s t a n d - t ho u g hi n
r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t n o t hi n g i s c e r t a i n - f o r d e c a d e s
t o c o m e , l e t t he K l a n r a v e a s i t m a ya bo u t t he a p -
p a l l i n g n u m be r o f p u bl i c s c ho o l t e a c he r s w ho p r o -
f e s s t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c r e l i g i o n , l e t t he Ca t ho l i c
c l e r i c s r a i s e a s m a yp l e a s e t he m t he a n c i e n t s hr i e k
o f "
T a x a t i o n w i t ho u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ! "
T he U n i t e d St a t e s Su p r e m e Co u r t p u t t he Or e -
g o n s c ho o l l a w t o t he s w o r d a c o u p l e o f ye a r s a f t e r
i t s p a s s a g e . F r o m t ha t t i m e t o t hi s t he a n t i - Ca t h-
o l i c s ha v e d o n e l i t t l e o f a s p e c i f i c n a t u r e t o w a r d
r e m o v i n g t he a l l e g e d c a n c e r o f p a r o c hi a l i s m f r o m
t he bo d yp o l i t i c , t ho u g ht he i r ho w l e r s ha v e d e -
l i v e r e d t he c u s t o m a r yya r d a g e o f m a g n i l o q u e n c e
a n e n t t he L i t t l e Re d Sc ho o l ho u s e a n d t he m e n a c e d
m i n d s o f o u r p r e c i o u s c hi l d r e n .
CH A P T ERXXV
T H EB RA V EDA YSOF OL D
T H Ew r i t e r ' s f a t he r , M r
. H . L o w n d e s M a u r yo f
B u t t e , M o n t a n a , ha s be e n g o o d e n o u g ht o c o m m i t
t o p a p e r t he e ye w i t n e s s s t o r yw hi c hc o n s t i t u t e s t hi s
v o l u m e ' s o p e n i n g c ha p t e r o n w ha t w a s u n q u e s t i o n -
a bl yt he g a u d i e s t , br a s s i e s t a n d m o s t p i c t u r e s q u e
a n t i - Ca t ho l i c m o v e m e n t i n t he n a t i o n ' s hi s t o r y
.
M r . M a u r y' s n a r r a t i v e c o n c e r n s a s e r i e s o f g l o r i -
o u s f r e e - f o r - a i l s s t a g e d byP r o t e s t a n t s a n d Ca t h-
o l i c s a t B u t t e o n t he 119t hbi r t hd a yo f t he i n d e -
p e n d e n c e o f t he U n i t e d St a t e s a s a l a n d o f f r e e d o m
f o r a l l , r e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m be i n g i n c l u d e d bye x p r e s s
s t i p u l a t i o n o f t he F e d e r a l Co n s t i t u t i o n .
T he s t o r yf o l l o w s
:
On t he m o r n i n g o f Ju l y4, 1894, Iw a s s i t t i n g a t
t he w i n d o w o f t he o f f i c e w he r e Iw o r k e d a s a l a w
c l e r k , a t 17
We s t B r o a d w a y, B u t t e . Iha d c o m e t o
B u t t e s o m e t hr e e w e e k s be f o r e f r o m Cha r l o t t e s -
v i l l e , V i r g i n i a
; ha d n e v e r he a r d o f t he A m e r i c a n
P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n
. A c r o s s t he s t r e e t w e r e t he
Co l u m bi a s a l o o n , a n d a s a l o o n k n o w n a s T o m m y
& T e d d y' s P l a c e .
206
T H EB RA V EDA YSOF OL D

207
A c r o w d o f t w e n t y- f i v e o r t hi r t yyo u n g Ir i s h-
m e n c a m e u p t he s t r e e t . So m e o f t he m w e r e u n d e r
t he i n f l u e n c e o f l i q u o r a n d s o m e w e r e n o t . On e
p o i n t e d a t s o m e A m e r i c a n f l a g s d r a p e d t o f o r m t he
l e t t e r s A . P . A . o v e r t he s a l o o n s a bo v e - m e n t i o n e d .
T he ys t o o d m u t t e r i n g f o r s o m e m o m e n t s
.
Su d d e n l ya n o t he r c r o w d o f m e n r u s he d f r o m t he
Co l u m bi a s a l o o n a n d a g e n e r a l f i g ht c o m m e n c e d ,
a l l k i n d s o f w e a p o n s be i n g br o u g ht i n t o p l a y . On e
m a n f r o m t he s a l o o n ha d w ha t It he n c a l l e d , i n
V i r g i n i a n p a r l a n c e , a " ho r s e p i s t o l , " t ho u g hIs o o n
l e a r n e d t o c a l l i t a g u n . It w a s a l o n g - ba r r e l e d
p i s t o l .
T hi s m a n p i c k e d o u t a l a r g e Ir i s hm a n , w ho ha d
a r o c k i n a s o c k
a s
hi s w e a p o n
. H e s ho t t he Ir i s h-
m a n f r o m a d i s t a n c e o f f o u r o r f i v e f e e t , s t r i k i n g
hi m o n t he f o r e he a d . Whe n t he Ir i s hm a n f e l l I
t ho u g ht he w a s d e a d
. It d e v e l o p e d l a t e r t ha t t he
bu l l e t ha d g l a n c e d a n d s t r u c k a n o t he r m a n i n t he
g r o i n . T he m a n w ho s e f o r e he a d ha d be e n hi t w a s
u p a n d f i g ht i n g a g a i n i n t w o o r t hr e e m i n u t e s , w hi l e
t he m a n w i t ht he g r o i n w o u n d d i e d s o m e t e n d a ys
l a t e r .
T he c r o w d i n c r e a s e d f o r a bo u t a n ho u r . Id o n o t
r e c a l l a n yp o l i c e i n t e r f e r e n c e . T he p o l i c e f o r c e o f
t he c i t yw e r e c hi e f l yIr i s hm e n , a s w a s M a yo r E . O .
Du g g a n . T he c o u n t ys he r i f f , S . J . Re yn o l d s , s ym p a -
t hi z e d w i t ht he o t he r f a c t i o n , t ho u g hId o n o t be -
l i e v e he w a s e v e r a m e m be r o f t he A . P . A .
208

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
A n e n o r m o u s c r o w d o f Ca t ho l i c s ha d g a t he r e d
byn o o n i n f r o n t o f t he Co l u m bi a s a l o o n , a n d t he r e
w e r e c r i e s f r o m t he m t ha t t he yw o u l d t e a r d o w n
t he f l a g s
. T he s e m e n w e r e p e r f e c t l yf e a r l e s s , a n d
w e r e o r g a n i z e d f o r a t t a c k o n t he bu i l d i n g . B u t a s
t he ym o v e d t o s t o r m t he Co l u m bi a , t w o d e p u t y
s he r i f f s a p p e a r e d f r o m w i t hi n a n d s ho w e d t he i r
ba d g e s
. Se v e r a l o f t he c r o w d a t t e m p t e d t o e n t e r t he
s a l o o n , bu t t he d e p u t i e s r e p u l s e d t he m w i t ho u t f i r -
i n g a n ys ho t s . T he c r o w d s ho w e d , i n s p i t e o f i t s
a n g e r , a w i l l i n g n e s s t o o be yc o n s t i t u t e d a u t ho r i t y .
T he s t r e e t i n t hi s bl o c k w a s c r o w d e d w i t hm e n u n t i l
a bo u t t hr e e i n t he a f t e r n o o n .
A n o t he r s a l o o n i n t he s a m e bl o c k , c a l l e d t he
Sa z e r a c , a l s o d i s p l a ye d t he A m e r i c a n f l a g d r a p e d
t o f o r m t he l e t t e r s A . P . A . Iw a s s t a n d i n g i n t he
c r o w d i n f r o n t o f t hi s s a l o o n a bo u t t hr e e P . M . t ha t
d a yw he n o n e
"
Ca p " L yo n s , a l o c a l c ha r a c t e r - I
t hi n k he w a s n e i t he r A . P . A
. n o r Ca t ho l i c , bu t
s i m p l yc r a z e d byt he g e n e r a l e x c i t e m e n t - r a n u p
t o t he Sa z e r a c a n d f i r e d s i x r e v o l v e r s ho t s t hr o u g h
t he f r o n t w i n d o w .
T he m e n i n s i d e r e t u r n e d L yo n s ' s f i r e , w i t hr i f l e s
a s Il e a r n e d a f t e r w a r d
. T he bu l l e t - ho l e s i n t he
bu i l d i n g a c r o s s t he s t r e e t w e r e n u m e r o u s e n o u g h,
a n d r e m a i n e d v i s i bl e f o r m a n yye a r s , bu t , s t r a n g e
t o s a y, n o o n e i n s i d e t hi s bu i l d i n g w a s hi t . L yo n s
w a s k n o w n t o be ha l f c r a z y, s o t ha t w he n he c o m -
m e n c e d f i r i n g t he c r o w d s c a t t e r e d a s f a s t a s i t
T H EB RA v EDA YSOF OL D

209
c o u l d . H a v i n g e m p t i e d hi s p i s t o l , L yo n s hi m s e l f
t o o k t o hi s he e l s .
A n o t he r ha l f - ho u r , a n d t he c r o w d ha d m a s s e d
o n c e m o r e be f o r e t he Sa z e r a c s a l o o n . On e Da l y,
e v i d e n t l ya Ca t ho l i c , d r e w a r e v o l v e r a n d s t a r t e d
f o r t he f l a g - d r a p e d s a l o o n , s a yi n g i n d r a m a t i c f a s h-
i o n , " Iw i l l t e a r t he m d o w n o r bi t e t he d u s t . " A s
t he w o r d s l e f t hi s m o u t h, a m a n i n f r o n t o f t he
s a l o o n s a i d ,
" B i t e t he d u s t " - a n d s ho t hi m t w i c e
i n t he r e g i o n o f t he he a r t . Da l yd i e d a l m o s t
i n s t a n t l y .
Jo hn J
. M c H a t t o n , a d e v o u t Ca t ho l i c a n d d i s -
t r i c t j u d g e , n o w e n t e r e d t he Sa z e r a c byt he ba c k
d o o r . Wi t ht he o w n e r s ' p e r m i s s i o n , he s t o o d u p i n a
s e c o n d - s t o r yw i n d o w a n d a d d r e s s e d t he c r o w d . A s
t he hi g he s t o f f i c e r o f t he l a w i n t he c o u n t y, he
e a r n e s t l ya s k e d t he m t o d i s p e r s e , o u t o f r e s p e c t f o r
p r o p e r t yr i g ht s a n d r e g a r d f o r t he i r o w n p e r s o n a l
s a f e t y, w he t he r t he yw e r e A . P . A . ' s o r Ca t ho l i c s
.
T hi s s p e e c hha d n o e f f e c t o n a n yo f u s
. So m e
s t a ye d f r o m c u r i o s i t y, a s Id i d , a n d s o m e s t a ye d
t o f i g ht a n d a r g u e .
A bo u t f o u r o ' c l o c k i n t he a f t e r n o o n t he m a yo r
o r d e r e d o u t t he f i r e d e p a r t m e n t , w hi c hp l a ye d ho s e s
o n t he c r o w d a n d s o o n s c a t t e r e d i t
.
F i s t f i g ht s w e r e g o i n g o n t hr o u g ho u t t he c i t yo f
B u t t e t ha t d a yf r o m t e n i n t he m o r n i n g t o t hr e e -
t hi r t y P . M . T he r e w a s f i g ht i n g o f e v e r yv a r i e t yt ha t
n i g ht i n t he B u t t e s a l o o n s
. M e n a t t ha t t i m e
210

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
o u t n u m be r e d w o m e n i n B u t t e bya t l e a s t t w o t o
o n e .
In t he P i n e T r e e s a l o o n a Co r n i s hm a n w a s
t r a m p l e d t o d e a t h . In a n o t he r s a l o o n a m a n i n n o
w a yc o n n e c t e d , s o f a r a s c o u l d be l e a r n e d , w i t h
e i t he r f a c t i o n w a s s ho t . T he bu l l e t l o d g e d i n t he
he a r t
; Iw a s i n f o r m e d , i n t he a o r t a . T o t he a s t o n -
i s hm e n t o f m e d i c a l m e n , he l i v e d s e v e n a n d o n e -
ha l f d a ys ; o r a t l e a s t s o t he p r e s s r e p o r t e d .
No p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e e v e r i n s t i t u t e d a g a i n s t a n y
o f t he r i o t e r s .
M a n yp e o p l e w ho w e r e n o t Ca t ho l i c s w e r e s u p -
p o s e d byt he Ca t ho l i c s t o be m e m be r s o f t he A . P . A .
T he o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s m e m be r s hi p w a s t ho u g ht t o be
m u c hl a r g e r t ha n i t a c t u a l l yw a s . It w a s s a i d o n
r e l i a bl e a u t ho r i t y, a f t e r t he s o c i e t ybe c a m e m o r i -
bu n d , t ha t i n B u t t e , a t o w n t he n o f 35, 000 p e o p l e ,
t he r e w e r e n e v e r m o r e t ha n 300 A . P . A . ' s .
In t he We s t o f t ho s e d a ys f r a t e r n a l l i n e s w e r e
n o t d r a w n s o t i g ht l ya s t he ya r e n o w . T he he a d o f
t he f i r m f o r w hi c hIw o r k e d , t he n M o n t a n a ' s l e a d -
i n g l a w f i r m , w a s a d e v o t e d F r e e m a s o n a n d l i k e -
w i s e a d e v o u t Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c .
T he A . P . A . c ha p t e r i n B u t t e w a s c o m p o s e d
c hi e f l yo f m e n bo r n o u t s i d e t he U n i t e d St a t e s .
So m e w e r e f r o m Ca n a d a , s o m e f r o m Co r n w a l l , s o m e
f r o m Wa l e s . T he bi t t e r n e s s be t w e e n t he o r g a n -
i z a t i o n k n o w n a s t he So n s o f St . G e o r g e ' a n d t he
1 A n a t i o n a l f r a t e r n a l o r d e r c o m p o s e d o f m e n o f En g l i s h bi r t h
o r d e s c e n t . M e m be r s hi p ( 1928) 50, 000.
T H EB RA V EDA YSOF OL D

211
Ir i s hCa t ho l i c s w a s a l m o s t a s i n t e n s e a s w a s t ha t
be t w e e n t he A . P . A . a n d t he Ir i s hCa t ho l i c s
. T hi s
f a c t w a s a l w a ys a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n t o m e o f w ha t
n a t i o n a l i t yp r o ba bl ym a d e u p t he bu l k o f t he
l o c a l A . P . A .
" Iw a s n e v e r i n a n yw a yi d e n t i f i e d o r a l l i e d w i t h
e i t he r f a c t i o n , " M r . M a u r yw r o t e l a t e r ; a n d , by
w a yo f r e f l e c t i v e p o s t s c r i p t : " T he ha t r e d e n g e n -
d e r e d byt ha t d a y' s w o r k w a s f r o m t e n t o t w e n t y
ye a r s i n d yi n g o u t . "
CH A P T ERXXV I
H o W
T H E
A . P . A . B EG A N
T
H U Sd i d A m e r i c a n s bu f f e t o n e a n o t he r i n t he
n a m e o f r e l i g i o n w he n B r ya n i s m w a s f l o w e r i n g i n
Ne br a s k a a n d Cl e v e l a n d s a t i n t he Whi t e H o u s e
s t r i v i n g t o m a s s a g e a w a yt he bl a c k e ye w hi c ht he
p a n i c o f 1893ha d g i v e n hi s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
T he B u t t e i n c i d e n t i s n o l o n e a n d i s o l a t e d c a s e
p i c k e d o u t o f t ho s e t i m e s t o p o i n t a m o r a l . Su c h
t hi n g s w e r e g o i n g o n a l l o v e r t he n o r t he r n a n d
w e s t e r n s t a t e s - f o r be i t n o t e d t ha t A . P . A ' i s m
g a i n e d s c a r c e a f o o t ho l d i n t he So u t h .
St o r e s a n d o f f i c e s w e r e c l o s i n g i n Sa g i n a w ,
M i c hi g a n , be c a u s e Ca t ho l i c s a n d P r o t e s t a n t s w e r e
bo yc o t t i n g o n e a n o t he r . J . K
. G o s p e r t o l d t he
U n i t yc l u bo f L o s A n g e l e s , a t a ba n q u e t i n t ha t
ye a r , t ha t he k n e w f i v e hu n d r e d s t a n d o f a r m s w e r e
a t t ha t m o m e n t s t a c k e d u n d e r t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c
c a t he d r a l ; w he r e u p o n u p r o s e D . F . Do n e g a n , c o n -
t r a c t o r , a n d e x hi bi t e d a $i , o o o - bi l l w hi c hhe a s -
s e r t e d c o u l d be he a r d c a l l i n g G o s p e r a l i a r .
Ex - p r i e s t Sl a t t e r yp r e c i p i t a t e d a bl o o d yr i o t a t
K e o k u k , Io w a . B i s ho p M c Na m a r a , o f a p o c k e t
c u l t o w n e d byhi m s e l f a n d A n n O' De l i a Di s De ba r ,
br o u g ht o n a s i m i l a r u p r o a r a t K a n s a s Ci t y .
212
H o W T H EA . P . A . B EG A N

213
B u t a l l t he s e e v e n t s t o o k p l a c e w he n t he o r d e r
w a s s i x ye a r s o l d . Wha t o f i t s bi r t ha n d i n f a n c y?
H e n r yF
. B o w e r s f o u n d e d t he A m e r i c a n P r o t e c -
t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o n M a r c h 13, 1887, a t Cl i n t o n ,
Io w a
. B o w e r s a t t he t i m e w a s s i x t yye a r s o f a g e
a n d a r e s p e c t e d m e m be r o f t he Cl i n t o n ba r
. H e
s e e m s t o ha v e be e n a w o r t hys o r t p e r s o n a l l y, o b-
s e s s e d w i t ha s t r o n g bu t n o t v i o l e n t d i s l i k e o f t he
Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h
. Ce r t a i n l yi f l e n g t ho f d a ys
i s a n yi n d e x t o c ha r a c t e r , B o w e r s q u a l i f i e d a s
a m o n g e a r t h' s n o bl e s t : bo r n i n
1827, he l i v e d i n t o
t he ye a r 1911 .
H e w a s , o f c o u r s e , t he A s s o c i a t i o n ' s f i r s t s u p r e m e
p r e s i d e n t
. T hi s o f f i c e he he l d u n t i l t he A
. P . A . ' s
bl o s s o m - t i m e i n 1894- 96 ,
w he n he w a s s u c c e e d e d
byW. J . H
. T r a yn o r o f De t r o i t . In 1898,
w he n t he
A . P . A .
w a s w e l l o n t he w a yt o w a r d be c o m i n g
bu t a m e m o r y, B o w e r s w a s r e - e l e c t e d t o hi s o l d
p o s t byhi s c r u m bl i n g l e g i o n s , a n d he l d i t u n t i l
he d i e d .
A l m o s t n o t hi n g i n t he w a yo f a c t i v e p r o s e l yt i n g
w a s d o n e byt he B o w e r s f r a t e r n i t yd u r i n g i t s f i r s t
s i x ye a r s
. Ye t by 1893 i t ha d
70, 000 m e m be r s .
M o s t o f i t s c ha p t e r s - o r c o u n c i l s , a s t he yw e r e
t e c hn i c a l l yc a l l e d -
w e r e i n t o w n s o f t he n o r t he r n
M i s s i s s i p p i v a l l e y
. It w a s o r g a n i z e d i n t w e n t y
s t a t e s byt he e a r l yp a r t o f
1893, a n d t he Ca t ho l i c s
w e r e be g i n n i n g t o g r u m bl e a bo u t t he " n e w K n o w -
No t hi n g i s m , " w hi l e t he p r e s s c u s t o m a r i l yr e f e r r e d
214

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
t o t he n o r t he r n t e r r i t o r yf r o m Ohi o t o Ne br a s k a a s
t he " A . P . A . be l t . "
T he s e f a c t s c o n s t i t u t e a s p l e n d i d bu s i n e s s i n d e x
f o r a n ys a l e s m a n o f ha t e w ho w i s he s t o k n o w ho w
l a r g e a p o t e n t i a l m a r k e t e x i s t s f o r hi m i n t he M i d -
d l e We s t , a n d t o g a u g e t he p r o ba bl e a m o u n t o f a d -
v e r t i s i n g he w i l l ha v e t o d o i n o r d e r t o w i n a
m o d e s t d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s . B o w e r s r o u n d e d u p hi s
f i r s t 70, 000 byl i t t l e m o r e t ha n a w o r d - o f - m o u t h
c a m p a i g n .
On e p r i n c i p l e , a n d n o m o r e , m a r k e d o f f t he
A . P . A
. f r o m t he Na t i v e A m e r i c a n s , t he K n o w -
No t hi n g s a n d t he t w e n t i e t h- c e n t u r yK u K l u x K l a n
.
T hi s w a s t ha t n a t i v e - bo r n A m e r i c a n s w e r e n o t t he
o n l yp e o p l e w ho c o u l d q u a l i f yf o r m e m be r s hi p i n
t he o r d e r .
F o r e i g n e r s w e r e a d m i t t e d w i t ho u t q u e s t i o n , s o
l o n g a s t he yp o s s e s s e d t he q u a l i t i e s o f " g o o d
A m e r i c a n s , " w hi c hbyt he A
. P . A . w e r e he l d t o c o n -
s i s t c hi e f l yo f ha t e f o r a n yt hi n g Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c ,
p l u s s o u n d s e n t i m e n t s o n i m m i g r a t i o n
. T hu s -
f a c t s t o m a k e t he p r e s e n t - d a yK u K l u x e r s w e a t
w i t hs ha m e f o r hi s i m m e d i a t e s p i r i t u a l f o r e be a r s -
t he G e r m a n s a n d No r w e g i a n s r a n t he A . P . A . c o u n -
c i l i n M i l w a u k e e , t he Sw e d e s i n M i n n e a p o l i s , t he
A n g l o - Ca n a d i a n s i n s o u t he a s t M i c hi g a n .
B o w e r s , o r w ho e v e r w r o t e t he A . P . A . o a t h, w a s
n o t t he m a s t e r o f En g l i s ht ha t w a s Ju d s o n , o r w ho -
e v e r w r o t e t he o a t ho f t he K n o w - No t hi n g s
. No r
H OWT H EA . P . A . B EG A N

215
d i d he p o s s e s s t he r he t o r i c o f hi m w ho w o v e t he
v o c a l t i e s t ha t bi n d t he K l a n s m e n o f t o d a y . B u t t o
t he c o n n o i s s e u r o f ha t r e d s e x p r e s s e d i n n e o - f o r m a l
l a n g u a g e , t he A . P . A . o a t hi s o f i n t e r e s t .
F o l l o w s Oa t hNu m be r 4o f t he
A
. P . A
. ,
a s p u b-
l i s he d byt he St . P a u l G l o be i n i t s e x p o s u r e o f t he
o r d e r , a n d a l s o a s r e a d i n t o t he Co n g r e s s i o n a l Re c -
o r d o f Oc t o be r 31, 1893, w he n H . M . Yo u m a n s w a s
ba t t l i n g t o u n s e a t Wi l l i a m S. L i n t o n , A . P . A . Co n -
g r e s s m a n f r o m M i c hi g a n .
" Id o m o s t s o l e m n l yp r o m i s e a n d s w e a r t ha t I
w i l l a l w a ys , t o t he u t m o s t o f m ya bi l i t y, l a bo r ,
p l e a d a n d w a g e a c o n t i n u o u s w a r f a r e a g a i n s t i g n o r -
a n c e a n d f a n a t i c i s m ; t ha t Iw i l l u s e m yu t m o s t
p o w e r t o s t r i k e t he s ha c k l e s a n d c ha i n s o f bl i n d
o be d i e n c e t o t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c hf r o m t he
ha m p e r e d a n d bo u n d c o n s c i e n c e s o f a p r i e s t - r i d d e n
a n d c hu r c h- o p p r e s s e d p e o p l e ; t ha t Iw i l l n e v e r
a l l o w a n yo n e , a m e m be r o f t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c
c hu r c h, t o be c o m e a m e m be r o f t hi s o r d e r , Ik n o w -
i n g hi m t o be s u c h ; t ha t Iw i l l u s e m yi n f l u e n c e t o
p r o m o t e t he i n t e r e s t o f a l l P r o t e s t a n t s e v e r yw he r e
i n t he w o r l d t ha t Im a ybe ; t ha t Iw i l l n o t e m p l o y
a Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c i n a n yc a p a c i t yi f Ic a n p r o c u r e
t he s e r v i c e s o f a P r o t e s t a n t .
" If u r t he r m o r e p r o m i s e a n d s w e a r t ha t Iw i l l n o t
a i d i n bu i l d i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g , bym yr e s o u r c e s , a n y
Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c ho r i n s t i t u t i o n o f t he i r s e c t
216

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
o r c r e e d w ha t s o e v e r , bu t w i l l d o a l l i n m yp o w e r t o
r e t a r d a n d br e a k d o w n t he p o w e r o f t he P o p e , i n
t hi s c o u n t r yo r a n yo t he r ; t ha t Iw i l l n o t e n t e r i n t o
a n yc o n t r o v e r s yw i t ha Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c u p o n t he
s u bj e c t o f t hi s o r d e r , n o r w i l l Ie n t e r i n t o a n ya g r e e -
m e n t w i t ha Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c t o s t r i k e o r c r e a t e a
d i s t u r ba n c e w he r e byt he Ca t ho l i c e m p l o ye s m a y
u n d e r m i n e a n d s u bs t i t u t e t he i r P r o t e s t a n t c o -
w o r k e r s ; t ha t i n a l l g r i e v a n c e s Iw i l l s e e k o n l y
P r o t e s t a n t s a n d c o u n s e l w i t ht he m t o t he e x c l u s i o n
o f a l l Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c s , a n d w i l l n o t m a k e k n o w n
t o t he m a n yt hi n g o f a n yn a t u r e m a t u r e d a t s u c h
c o n f e r e n c e s .
" If u r t he r m o r e p r o m i s e a n d s w e a r t ha t Iw i l l
n o t c o u n t e n a n c e t he n o m i n a t i o n , i n a n yc a u c u s o r
c o n v e n t i o n , o f a Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c f o r a n yo f f i c e i n
t he g i f t o f t he A m e r i c a n p e o p l e , a n d t ha t Iw i l l n o t
v o t e f o r , o r c o u n s e l o t he r s t o v o t e f o r , a n yRo m a n
Ca t ho l i c , bu t w i l l v o t e o n l yf o r a P r o t e s t a n t , s o f a r
a s m a yl i e i n m yp o w e r . Sho u l d t he r e be t w o Ro m a n
Ca t ho l i c s o n o p p o s i t e t i c k e t s , Iw i l l e r a s e t he n a m e
o f t he t i c k e t Iv o t e ; t ha t Iw i l l a t a l l t i m e s ,
e n d e a v o r t o p l a c e t he p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s o f t hi s
g o v e r n m e n t i n t he ha n d s o f P r o t e s t a n t s , t o t he
e n t i r e e x c l u s i o n o f t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c c hu r c h,
o f t he m e m be r s t he r e o f , a n d t he m a n d a t e o f t he
P o p e
.
" T o a l l o f w hi c hId o m o s t s o l e m n l yp r o m i s e a n d
s w e a r , s o he l p m e G o d . A m e n , a m e n , a m e n . "
H OWT H E A . P . A .
B EG A N

217
T he p r i n c i p l e s w hi c hg u i d e d t he s e p a t r i o t s w e r e
t he u s u a l n a t i v i s t d o g m a s
. A s p r o m u l g a t e d byt he
Su p r e m e Co u n c i l o f t he A m e r i c a n P r o t e c t i v e A s s o -
c i a t i o n o f t he Wo r l d , he l d a t De s M o i n e s i n 1894,
t he yw e r e t w e l v e i n n u m be r
. T hi s c o d i f i c a t i o n w a s
s i m p l ya n o r d e r e d a r r a n g e m e n t o f t he be l i e f s a n d
a i m s w hi c hha d g u i d e d t he f r a t e r n i t yf r o m i t s bi r t h
.
L o ya l t yt o
" t r u e A m e r i c a n i s m " l e d a l l t he r e s t ,
f o l l o w e d i n l o c k s t e p bya d e n i a l t ha t t he A . P . A
. w a s
p o l i t i c a l l yp a r t i s a n i n a n yr e s p e c t
. Ne x t c a m e a
d e n u n c i a t i o n o f a n ye c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o w e r t ha t a c -
k n o w l e d g e d a n o v e r l o r d hi g he r t ha n t he U n i t e d
St a t e s g o v e r n m e n t
. T he c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t he U n i t e d
St a t e s w a s t he n c o n c e d e d t o g u a r a n t e e r e l i g i o u s
l i be r t y, bu t s u c hl i be r t yw a s c o n s t r u e d a s n o t i n -
c l u d i n g t he r i g ht i n a n ye c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o w e r o f
"
a bs o l u t e c o n t r o l o v e r t he e d u c a t i o n o f c hi l d r e n
g r o w i n g u p u n d e r t he St a r s a n d St r i p e s . "
Ca t ho l i c t e a c he r s i n t he p u bl i c s c ho o l s w e r e p u t
u n d e r t he o r d e r ' s o f f i c i a l ba n byP r i n c i p l e 5, a n d
s o w e r e Ca t ho l i c s a s m e m be r s o f s c ho o l - bo a r d s .
T he c u s t o m a r ybl a s t a g a i n s t u s e o f p u bl i c m o n i e s
f o r s e c t a r i a n s c ho o l s f o l l o w e d
. Chu r c hp r o p e r t y
w a s t o be t a x e d l i k e a n yo t he r r e a l t yo r p e r s o n a l t y
i f t he A . P . A . s ho u l d ha v e i t s w a y
.
No o n e n o t a c i t i z e n w a s t o be a l l o w e d t o e n l i s t
i n a r m y, n a v yo r m i l i t i a -
a p r o p o s a l , s a ys t he
hi s t o r i a n H u m p hr e yJ
. De s m o n d , w hi c h " w a s
c he e r f u l l yw a i v e d w he n , i n 1898, w a r w a s d e c l a r e d
218

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
a g a i n s t Sp a i n
. " Im m i g r a t i o n w a s t o be r e s t r i c t e d
a n d t he n a t u r a l i z a t i o n p e r i o d l e n g t he n e d t o s e v e n
ye a r s
. T he c o u r t s w e r e t o be t o l d t ha t t he ym u s t be
l e s s f r e e a n d e a s ya bo u t a d m i t t i n g a p p l i c a n t s t o
c i t i z e n s hi p
. L a s t l y, a l l ho s p i t a l s , c ha r i t a bl e i n s t i t u -
t i o n s a n d c o n v e n t s w e r e t o be t hr o w n o p e n t o s t a t e
i n s p e c t i o n .
T hu s t he p r o f e s s i o n s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s o f t he o r -
d e r w hi c ht he Re v . F a t he r J . J . T i g he t a s t e f u l l y
c a l l e d , i n hi s bo o k o n t he A . P . A . , " t ha t hyd r a -
he a d e d m o n s t e r , t hi s s e c r e t , f r a c t i o u s , l i c e n t i o u s
a n d he l l - f o u n d e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w hi c hs e e k s t o s t r i k e
t he ba n e f u l r o o t s o f i t s c o n f e d e r a c yi n t o t he he a r t
o f t hi s Re p u bl i c . " '
A m o n g t he t hi r t e e n m i n o r a n t i - Ca t ho l i c a n d n a -
t i v i s t o r d e r s f o r m e d be t w e e n 1872a n d
1
895 -
w hi c ht he A . P . A . a bs o r be d - w e r e t he Or d e r o f
t he A m e r i c a n U n i o n , t he T e m p l a r s o f L i be r t y, t he
Na t i o n a l Or d e r o f V i d e t t e s , a n d t he Cr e s c e n t s .
1 F a t he r T i g he ' s bo o k w a s p u bl i s he d i n Ne w Yo r k Ci t y, 1894, by
D. P . M u r p hy, Jr . We o f f e r i t s f u l l t i t l e he r e , a s a f a i r s a m p l e o f t he
bl a t he r i n w hi c hbo t hs i d e s i n d u l g e d d u r i n g t he A . P . A . e x c i t e m e n t .
T he bo o k w a s c a l l e d :
T he A
. P . A . - It s Or i g i n a n d G r o w t h - It s P r i n c i p l e s - It s M e t h-
o d s - Ca u s e s o f i t s Ex t e n s i o n - T o Wha t Ex t e n t Ca t ho l i c s H a v e
Co n t r i bu t e d t o t he A . P . A . U p r i s i n g . T he A . P . A . a n d t he Sc ho o l A g i -
t a t i o n - t he A . P . A . a n d t he L i be r a l Ca t ho l i c P a r t y - t he A . P . A .
a n d t he Ca t ho l i c Cl a i m t o Re l i g i o u s L i be r t yi n t he U n i t e d St a t e s .
T he A . P . A . St o n e Ca t ho l i c P r o c e s s i o n - t he A . P . A . Cha r g e Ca t ho l i c s
Wi t hM u r d e r ! T he yEx t i n g u i s hEl e c t r i c L i g ht i n P u bl i c H a l l , t o
In c i t e Ri o t a n d Cr e a t e P a n i c
. Na r r a t i v e F o u n d e d o n P e r s o n a l Ex -
p e r i e n c e a n d Obs e r v a t i o n Ea s t a n d We s t .
H OWT H E A . P . A . B EG A N

219
T he A . P . A . i t s e l f , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t he Ea s t
B o s t o n r i o t i n 1895, g a v e bi r t ht o a c hi l d , w hi c h
t o o k t he hi g hl yn a t i v i s t a n d a n t i - p a p a l n a m e o f
t he Or d e r o f t he L i t t l e Re d Sc ho o l H o u s e .
Wha t g a v e t he A . P . A . s o ho r r i bl e a m i e n i n t he
e ye s o f g o o d Ca t ho l i c s ? It s p r i n c i p l e s a n d p r e t e n -
s i o n s , a t t he be g i n n i n g , w e r e i d e n t i c a l w i t ht ho s e o f
t he Na t i o n a l L e a g u e f o r t he P r o t e c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n
In s t i t u t i o n s
. Ye t t he l a t t e r o r d e r , f o u n d e d a t Sa r a -
t o g a , Ne w Yo r k , i n 1889 byJa m e s M . K i n g , Jo hn
Ja yIIIa n d o t he r s , n e v e r d r e w f r o m t he Ca t ho l i c s
a n ybl a s t m o r e w i t he r i n g t ha n a n o c c a s i o n a l s n e e r
o f " B i g o t r y! " o r s n a r l o f
" M i s g u i d e d he r e t i c s ! "
t o s s e d o u t o f t he c o r n e r o f t he m o u t h .
CH A P T ERXXV II
SA T OL L I ; CORE ; P A NIC ; P A G EA NT ; F ORG ERY
CREDIT f o r t he A . P . A . ' s s u d d e n bu r s t i n t o n a -
t i o n a l e m i n e n c e a n d m i l l i o n - he a d e d m e m be r s hi p
a f t e r s i x ye a r s o f i n s i g n i f i c a n c e g o e s i n a bo u t e q u a l
m e a s u r e t o t he i t e m s l i s t e d i n t he t i t l e . A s i x t hf a c -
t o r w a s o f c o n s i d e r a bl e i m p o r t a n c e - a n o t he r
f l a r e u p i n t he l o n g f i g ht o v e r t he s c ho o l s
.
Sa t o l l i ' s f u l l n a m e a n d t i t l e w e r e H i s Ex c e l l e n c y,
F r a n c i s A r c hbi s ho p Sa t o l l i , t i t u l a r o f L e p a n t o ,
s o m e t i m e p a p a l c o m m i s s i o n e r t o t he Chi c a g o
Wo r l d ' s F a i r o f 1893, a n d f i r s t a p o s t o l i c d e l e g a t e
t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s . H e l a t e r be c a m e a c a r d i n a l
.
T hi s p r e l a t e ' s f i r s t v i s i t t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s o c -
c u r r e d i n 1892
. T he Ca t ho l i c s ha d l a t e l yw o n s o m e
l o c a l v i c t o r i e s i n t he i r d r i v e t o p u t p a r o c hi a l s c ho o l s
o n a f i s c a l p a r w i t hp u bl i c s c ho o l s , n o t a bl ya t F a r i -
ba u l t , M i n n e s o t a , a n d P o u g hk e e p s i e , Ne w Yo r k .
B u t t he Re v . F a t he r T ho m a s B o u q u i l l o n , a p r o -
f e s s o r a t t he Ca t ho l i c U n i v e r s i t y, Wa s hi n g t o n , ha d
s t i r r e d u p a f i g ht i n t he hi e r a r c hybyhi s p a m p hl e t
Ed u c a t i o n
: T o Who m Do e s It B e l o n g ? B o u q u i l l o n
ha d f l o w n i n t he f a c e o f m o s t Ca t ho l i c p r i e s t l ye d u -
c a t i o n a l p hi l o s o p hybyd e c l a r i n g :
220
P . & . 4 . P ho t o .
WIL L IA M , CA RDINA L O' CONNEL L , A RCH B ISH OP OF B OST ON
SA T OL L I; CORE
; P A NIS ; P A G EA NT ; F ORG ERY
221
" Ed u c a t i o n be l o n g s t o m e n t a k e n i n d i v i d u a l l y
a n d c o l l e c t i v e l yi n l e g i t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n , t o t he
f a m i l y, t o t he s t a t e , t o t he c hu r c h, t o a l l f o u r t o -
g e t he r , a n d n o t t o a n yo n e o f t he s e f o u r f a c t o r s
s e p a r a t e l y . "
A f u r i o u s d e ba t e e n s u e d , o f s u c hi m p o r t a s t o
n e c e s s i t a t e a c o u n c i l o f a r c hbi s ho p s a t Ne w Yo r k
Ci t yi n t he f o l l o w i n g ye a r , 1892 . M o n s i g n o r Sa t o l l i
( he w a s bu t a m o n s i g n o r a t t ha t t i m e ) w a s a s k e d t o
a d v i s e t he a g i t a t e d c l e r i c s .
Sa t o l l i c a s t i n t o f o u r t e e n f o r m a l p r o p o s i t i o n s
w ha t he c o n s i d e r e d t he p r o p e r a t t i t u d e f o r hi s
c hu r c ht o t a k e i n m a t t e r s e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d s u b-
m i t t e d t he d o c u m e n t t o t he a r c hbi s ho p s
. No t hi n g
c a m e o f t ha t
. T he ba t t l e w a s n o t r e s o l v e d u n t i l
P o p e L e o XIII, u s i n g Ca r d i n a l G i bbo n s a s m o u t h-
p i e c e , i n 1893
p e r e m p t o r i l yo r d e r e d t he c hu r c hi n
A m e r i c a t o l o o k t o t he d e c r e e s o f i t s t hi r d p l e n a r y
B a l t i m o r e c o u n c i l f o r g u i d a n c e o n t he s u bj e c t a n d
n o w he r e e l s e .
B u t Sa t o l l i r e t u r n e d t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s a s
a p o s t o l i c d e l e g a t e i n
1893, a n d s e t u p o f f i c e s a t
Wa s hi n g t o n l i k e a n ya m ba s s a d o r
. H e p r o c e e d e d t o
d e l i v e r n u m e r o u s l e c t u r e s i n
a l l t he p r i n c i p a l
A m e r i c a n c i t i e s
; n o r d i d t he w e l l - m e a n i n g p r e l a t e ,
f r e s hf r o m It a l y, f a i l t o t e l l A m e r i c a n s p r e c i s e l y
ho w t he yo u g ht t o c o n d u c t t he m s e l v e s u n d e r n u -
m e r o u s a n d v a r i e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
222

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
No w i l d a p p l a u s e c he e r e d t o t he e c ho t he s e a d -
d r e s s e s byt he d e l e g a t e . A m e r i c a n s ha v e n e v e r
c r a v e d a d v i c e f r o m o u t s i d e r s . T hi s t i m e t he o u t -
s i d e r ha p p e n e d a l s o t o be a Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c p r e l -
a t e , a n d t he r e a c t i o n w a s s t r o n g . Ye t Sa t o l l i w a s
n o t m o bbe d , n o r w a s hi s l i f e c o n s p i r e d a g a i n s t a s
ha d be e n B e d i n i ' s f o r t yye a r s be f o r e hi m . H e s i m -
p l ym a d e hi m s e l f u n p o p u l a r a n d i n c r e a s e d t he
n a t i v i s t d i s t r u s t o f hi s d e n o m i n a t i o n .
T he r a n k i n g p l u m e d k n i g ht i n t he p a p e r f i g ht
o n Sa t o l l i w a s t he Rt . Re v . A . Cl e v e l a n d Co x e ,
P r o t e s t a n t Ep i s c o p a l bi s ho p o f w e s t e r n Ne w Yo r k .
Dr . Co x e w a s a t t hi s t i m e a n a g e d m a n , a n d , i f hi s
p ho t o g r a p hs p r o v e a n yt hi n g , a v e r yp o m p o u s a n d
o p i n i o n a t e d o n e . P r o ba bl yhe d r e a m e d o f d u p l i -
c a t i n g t he r he t o r i c a l t r i u m p hs o f B i s ho p H o p k i n s
o f V e r m o n t , w ho s e c o n t r o v e r s i a l g e n i u s w a s i n
f l o w e r w he n Co x e w a s a yo u n g c l e r g ym a n . A t a n y
r a t e , t he bi s ho p a d d r e s s e d a s e r i e s o f o p e n l e t t e r s t o
Sa t o l l i , i n w hi c hhe i n s u l t e d t he a p o s t o l i c d e l e g a t e
a s t ho r o u g hl ya s p o s s i bl e a n d s a i d a s l i t t l e o f a c o n -
c r e t e n a t u r e a s c o u l d w e l l ha v e be e n d r a w n o u t t o
35, 000
w o r d s o f a bu s e . T he A . P . A . s e i z e d o n Co x e ' s
o u t p o u r i n g s w i t hg r e a t g l e e , a n d t he A m e r i c a n Ci t i -
z e n P u bl i s hi n g Co m p a n yo f B o s t o n i s s u e d t he m i n
a bo o k w hi c hr a n t hr o u g hs e v e r a l e d i t i o n s
.
A n o t he r i n f l u e n c e t ha t d r o v e i t s t e n s o f t ho u -
s a n d s i n t o t he A
. P . A
. w a s t he p a n i c o f 1893 . G r o v e r
Cl e v e l a n d ha d be a t e n B e n j a m i n H a r r i s o n t o t he
SA T OL L I
; CORE ; P A NT S ; P A G EA NT
; F ORG ERY223
P r e s i d e n c yi n 1892, a n d i m m e d i a t e l yt he r e a f t e r
t i m e s ha d g o n e t o t he ba d
. St r i k e s c r i p p l e d i n d u s -
t r i e s a n d r a i l r o a d s , m o n e yf r o z e i n t he ba n k s ,
br e a d l i n e s f e s t o o n e d t he c i t i e s l i k e d r a bn e c k l a c e s
o f w o e , t he r e w e r e n o j o bs f o r t he u n d e r d o g
.
T he n a t i o n bl a m e d Cl e v e l a n d , a s i t w o u l d ha v e
bl a m e d a n yP r e s i d e n t e n s c o n c e d i n t he Whi t e
H o u s e a t t he t i m e t ho u g hhi s v i r t u e s o u t s ho n e t ho s e
o f Wa s hi n g t o n , L i n c o l n a n d Je f f e r s o n c o m bi n e d
.
M a n ya Re p u bl i c a n w ho ha d v o t e d t he De m o -
c r a t i c t i c k e t s a w r e d , m i s t o o k t he A . P . A . ' s n u m e r -
o u s m u n i c i p a l v i c t o r i e s f o r s i g n s o f a p p r o a c hi n g
n a t i o n a l p o w e r , a n d r u s he d i n t o t he A
. P . A . So d i d
m a n ya De m o c r a t . A l l o f t he m w a n t e d t o ha v e a
f i n g e r - ho l d o n t he bi g g e s t a v a i l a bl e c l u bw he r e w i t h
t o br a i n t he Cl e v e l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w he n n e x t
t he c ha n c e s ho u l d o f f e r .
Ca t ho l i c i t yi t s e l f ha d n o l i t t l e t o d o w i t ht he s u d -
d e n bl o o m i n g o f t he A . P
. A . o u t o f w e e d ho o d i n t o
r e d a n d p u r p l e i n f l o r e s c e n c e .
T he ye a r 1892w a s t he f o u r hu n d r e d t ha n n i -
v e r s a r yo f A m e r i c a ' s d i s c o v e r ybyChr i s t o p he r Co -
l u m bu s . Wha t m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t ha n t ha t Ca t ho l -
i c i t ya l l o v e r t he l a n d s ho u l d c e l e br a t e -
e v e n
t ho u g hba s e l i be l s w e r e a l r e a d yi n c i r c u l a t i o n t o
t he e f f e c t t ha t Co l u m bu s w a s n o Ca t ho l i c bu t a
G e n o e s e Je w ? Ca t ho l i c i t yd i d c e l e br a t e . P a r o c hi a l
s c ho o l s a n d Ca t ho l i c s o c i e t i e s p a r a d e d a n d c o r n e r -
s t o n e d a n d d e d i c a t e d w i t ha n i n d u s t r ys c a r c e p a r -
224

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
a l l e l e d i n A m e r i c a n hi s t o r y . Ca t ho l i c l a ym e n w r o t e
l o n g a n d bo r e s o m e p a n e g yr i c s o f Co l u m bu s t o t he
n e w s p a p e r s
. A r c hbi s ho p s a n d bi s ho p s v e r ba l l yv o l -
l e ye d a n d t hu n d e r e d .
Su c ha ye a r - l o n g j u bi l e e , r e a c hi n g i t s a p e x o f r a p -
t u r e o n Oc t o be r 12, w a s m o r e t ha n e n o u g ht o t e r -
r i f yt ha t e x c i t a bl e p o r t i o n o f t he A m e r i c a n p u bl i c
w hi c hs e e s s i n i s t e r i n t e n t i o n s be n e a t ha n yd i s p l a y
o f Ca t ho l i c f e r v o r . F r o m t hi s s o u r c e , t o o , t he A . P . A .
d r u m m e d u p i t s s ha r e o f l e g i o n a r i e s
.
A n d , l a s t l y, s o m e e n t e r p r i s i n g p e r s o n w i t hi n t he
o r d e r i t s e l f d e c i d e d t ha t t he t i m e w a s g o n e byf o r
m e r e p a s s i v e r e c r u i t i n g . So m e t hi n g bi g m u s t be
d o n e , s o m e t hi n g t ha t w o u l d i m p r e s s a n d a f f r i g ht .
Ea r l yi n
1893,
t w o a l l e g e d o f f i c i a l d o c u m e n t s o f
t he Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c hi e r a r c hyi n t he U n i t e d St a t e s
be g a n t o c i r c u l a t e t hr o u g hm i d w e s t e r n A m e r i c a .
T he f i r s t o f t he s e w a s e n t i t l e d " In s t r u c t i o n s t o
Ca t ho l i c s
. " T he s e c o n d p u r p o r t e d t o be a bu l l o f
P o p e L e o XIII, ho t f r o m t he V a t i c a n . T o t he " In -
s t r u c t i o n s " w e r e a p p e n d e d t he n a m e s o f e i g ht
A m e r i c a n a r c hbi s ho p s , w i t ht he n a m e o f Ja m e s ,
Ca r d i n a l G i bbo n s hi m s e l f , p r i m a t e o f hi s c hu r c hi n
t he U n i t e d St a t e s , br i n g i n g u p t he r e a r byw a yo f
c o u n t e r s i g n a t u r e .
" We v i e w w i t ha l a r m [ t he p r e l a t e s w e r e q u o t e d
a s s a yi n g i n t he bo d yo f t hi s v i c i o u s l a m p o o n ] , t he
r a p i d s p r e a d o f e d u c a t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , k n o w i n g w e l l
SA T OL L I
; CORE ; P A NT S ; P A G EA NT ; F ORG ERY 225
t ha t w he r e v e r t he p e o p l e a r e i n t e l l i g e n t , t he p r i e s t
a n d p r i n c e c a n n o t ho p e t o l i v e o n t he l a bo r o f t he
m a s s e s w ho s e br a i n s ha v e be e n f e r t i l i z e d w i t ho u r
ho l yc a t e c hi s m
. T ha t i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e t he o r d e r
o f t hi n g s t ha t m a d e t he r e i g n o f G r e g o r yV II, o f
ho l ym e m o r y, s o g l o r i o u s , t he p e o p l e m u s t n o t
t hi n k
; t ha t i s a p r i v i l e g e t ha t be l o n g s o n l yt o t he
p o p e , w ho byd i v i n e r i g ht i s t he o n l yp e r s o n a p -
p o i n t e d byG o d t o d o t he p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s
t hi n k i n g o f t hi s w o r l d
. "
A n o t he r e v i l be s e t t hi s p r o v i n c e o f t he c hu r c h
m i l i t a n t
:
" We v i e w w i t ha l a r m t he r a p i d d i f f u s i o n o f t he
En g l i s hl a n g u a g e . It s t a n d s be f o r e t he w o r l d a s t he
t o n g u e w hi c hha s f o r 300
ye a r s e v e r be e n o p p o s e d
t o o u r ho l yc hu r c h, a n d t ho s e w ho s p e a k i t ha v e
be e n f o r e m o s t i n a s s a i l i n g t he ho l ys e e
. "
A s t o s c ho o l s
:
"
We a r e o p p o s e d t o a n ys ys t e m o f s c ho o l s t ha t
t e a c he s t he yo u t hm o r e t ha n t he Ro m a n c a t e c hi s m ,
o r t ha t t e a c he s t he yo u t ht o t hi n k - i t i s u n n e c e s -
s a r y, a w a s t e o f t i m e a n d m o n e y, w he n t he ho l y
f a t he r ha s be e n a p p o i n t e d byG o d , e s p e c i a l l ya t t he
V a t i c a n c o u n c i l i n 1870, t o d o t he t hi n k i n g o f t hi s
w o r l d . T he r e f o r e w e c a l l u p o n o u r s u bj e c t s t o d o
a l l t he yc a n t o br e a k d o w n a n d d e s t r o yt he f r e e
p u bl i c s c ho o l s o f t hi s p r o t e s t a n t n a t i o n , w hi c hha s
226

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
c o m p e l l e d u s t o s e t u p a n d m a i n t a i n a t g r e a t e x -
p e n s e p a r o c hi a l s c ho o l s t o d e f e n d o u r f a i t h, t hu s
l e s s e n i n g t he i n c o m e s o f t he c l e r g y
. "
T he r e m e d yp r e s c r i be d f o r t he s e m a n i f o l d e v i l s
:
"
In o r d e r t o f i n d e m p l o ym e n t f o r t he m a n yt ho u -
s a n d s o f t he f a i t hf u l w ho a r e c o m i n g d a i l yt o s w e l l
t he r a n k s o f o u r Ca t ho l i c a r m y, w hi c hw i l l i n d u e
t i m e p o s s e s s t hi s l a n d , w e m u s t s e c u r e c o n t r o l o f a l l
t he c i t i e s , r a i l w a ys , m a n u f a c t o r i e s , m i n e s , s t e a m
a n d s a i l i n g v e s s e l s
- a bo v e a l l t he p r e s s -
i n f a c t ,
e v e r ye n t e r p r i s e r e q u i r i n g l a bo r , i n o r d e r t o f u r n i s h
o u r n e w c o m e r s e m p l o ym e n t
; t hi s w i l l r e n d e r i t
n e c e s s a r yt o r e m o v e o r c r o w d o u t t he A m e r i c a n
he r e t i c s w ho a r e n o w e m p l o ye d
.
" Yo u n e e d n o t he s i t a t e
; i t i s yo u r d u t yt o d o s o .
Yo u m u s t n o t s t o p a t a n yt hi n g t o a c c o m p l i s ht hi s
e n d
. T he r e a r e m a n yw a ys t o c o n s u l t yo u r f a t he r
c o n f e s s o r , bu t
` be c a r e f u l t o d o n o t hi n g t ha t w i l l
c r e a t e s c a n d a l . ' "
T he " In s t r u c t i o n s "
w e r e , o f c o u r s e , f o r g e d , a
m a l e v o l e n t f a k e f r o m be g i n n i n g t o e n d , a s t he
m e r e s t hi g hs c ho o l s t u d e n t o f g r a m m a r a n d En g -
l i s hc o m p o s i t i o n c o u l d ha v e d i v i n e d
. In w ha t A . P . A .
n e w s p a p e r t he yw e r e f i r s t p u bl i s he d i s n o t k n o w n
.
Wi t hi n a m o n t ha f t e r t he i r f i r s t p u bl i c a t i o n e v e r y
o n e o f t he s i x t y- o d d A . P . A . p a p e r s i n t he U n i t e d
St a t e s w a s p r i n t i n g t he m o v e r a n d o v e r
. So m e he l d
SA T OL L I; CORE ; P A NT S ; P A G EA NT ; F ORG ERY227
t he
"
In s t r u c t i o n s " i n t yp e f o r u s e a s e m e r g e n c y
s p a c e f i l l e r w he n e v e r t he s u p p l yo f f r e s hs c a n d a l
r a n s ho r t . A f e w o f t he s e s he e t s q u a l i f i e d t he l i be l ' s
ba l d n e s s w i t ha f o o t n o t e t o t he e f f e c t t ha t "
t he
e s s e n c e o f t hi s p r o n o u n c e m e n t i s t o be f o u n d i n t he
w r i t i n g s o f s o - c a l l e d A m e r i c a n Ro m i s hbi s ho p s a n d
l e t t e r s o f t he P o p e , " bu t t he g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e w a s
t o p r e s e n t t he f o r g e r ya s a g e n u i n e u t t e r a n c e f r o m
t he hi e r a r c hy' s u p p e r c i r c l e .
A bo u t t he s a m e t i m e - A p r i l 8, 1893, t o be e x -
a c t - t he De t r o i t P a t r i o t i c A m e r i c a n , a n A . P . A .
j o u r n a l , p u bl i s hd t he f a l s e e n c yc l i c a l o f P o p e L e o
XIII
. T hi s s c r e e d w a s n o t s o l e n g t hya s t he " In -
s t r u c t i o n s , " bu t i t c a r r i e d a f a r he a v i e r c ha r g e o f
d yn a m i t e . Whe r e a s t he " In s t r u c t i o n s " m e r e l yd e -
p l o r e d a n d s u g g e s t e d , t he f a l s e bu l l i s s u e d a c o m -
m a n d o f m o s t ho r r i f i c i m p o r t . T he m e a t o f t he
e n c yc l i c a l w a s c o n t a i n e d i n t hi s p a r a g r a p h :
"
We p r o c l a i m t he p e o p l e o f t he U n i t e d St a t e s
t o ha v e f o r f e i t e d a l l r i g ht t o r u l e s a i d r e p u bl i c , a n d
a l s o a l l d o m i n i o n , d i g n i t ya n d p r i v i l e g e s a p p e r t a i n -
i n g t o i t
. We l i k e w i s e d e c l a r e t ha t a l l s u bj e c t s o f
e v e r yr a n k a n d c o n d i t i o n i n t he U n i t e d St a t e s , a n d
e v e r yi n d i v i d u a l w ho ha s t a k e n a n yo a t ho f l o ya l t y
t o t he U n i t e d St a t e s i n a n yw a yw ha t e v e r , m a ybe
a bs o l v e d f r o m s a i d o a t h, a s f r o m a l l o t he r d u t y,
f i d e l i t y, o r o be d i e n c e o n o r a bo u t t he f i f t ho f Se p -
t e m be r , 1893, w he n t he Ca t ho l i c c o n g r e s s s ha l l
228

T H EWA RSOF T H EG ODL Y
c o n v e n e a t Chi c a g o , Il l i n o i s , a s w e s ha l l e x o n e r a t e
t he m f r o m a l l e n g a g e m e n t s , a n d o n o r a bo u t t he
f e a s t o f St . Ig n a t i u s L o yo l a , i n t he ye a r o f o u r L o r d
- 1893, i t w i l l be t he d u t yo f t he f a i t hf u l t o e x t e r -
m i n a t e a l l he r e t i c s f o u n d w i t hi n t he j u r i s d i c t i o n o f
t he U n i t e d St a t e s o f A m e r i c a . "
Whe n t hi s s e c o n d bl a s t o f bu n c o m be g o t a bo u t
t he c o u n t r y, a s i t d i d w i t ha l m o s t t he s p e e d o f
l i g ht n i n g , p a n i c c l o s e d i t s i c yf i n g e r s a r o u n d m a n y
a P r o t e s t a n t he a r t . T he f a r m e r s i n t he M i d d l e We s t
w e r e t he w o r s t a f f e c t e d byt he e n c yc l i c a l .
El be r t H u bba r d w r o t e f o r t he A r e n a m a g a z i n e
a n a c c o u n t o f a t r i p he m a d e t hr o u g ht he j u n g l e s o f
r u r a l Il l i n o i s i n t he s p r i n g o f 1893 . M a n yo f t he
f a r m e r s ha d m a d e t he i r w i l l s a n d t he i r p e a c e w i t h
G o d , ha d s t o c k e d Wi n c he s t e r s a n d a m m u n i t i o n ,
a n d w e r e p r e p a r e d t o s e l l t he i r l i v e s f o r a s m a n y
Ca t ho l i c l i v e s a s t he L o r d m i g ht v o u c hs a f e t he m
w he n t he f e a s t d a yo f St . Ig n a t i u s L o yo l a ( Ju l y31)
s ho u l d r o l l a r o u n d .
Of a P r e s byt e r i a n a n d a M e t ho d i s t m i n i s t e r
w ho m he v i s i t e d i n a n Il l i n o i s v i l l a g e a t t hi s t i m e ,
H u bba r d r e p o r t e d t ha t " bo t hw e r e f u l l o f f e a r a n d
ha t e t o w a r d t he Ca t ho l i c s , w i t ha l i t t l e l e f t o v e r f o r
e a c ho t he r . " T he e x c i t e m e n t w a s o f t e n p a r t i c u l a r l y
hi g hi n c o u n t i e s w he r e n o t a Ro m a n Ca t ho l i c
r e s i d e d .
A g r o u p o f P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s i n Co l u m bu s ,
SATOLLI ;CORE ;PANIS ;PAGEANT
;FORGERY 229
Oh i o , b e i n g a p p e a l e d t o f o r h e l p i n c a l m i n g t h e r u s -
t i c f e a r s , a p p l i e d t h i s d e c e n t a n d m a n l y f e b r i f u g e :
" We a r e n o t i n s y m p a t h y wi t h Ro m a n Ca t h o l i -
c i s m , a s a s y s t e m
. D o c t r i n a l l y a n d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l y ,
we a r e Pr o t e s t a n t s i n o u r d e e p e s t c o n v i c t i o n s ;i t i s
b e c a u s e we a r e Pr o t e s t a n t s t h a t we a r e a s h a m e d
a n d h u m i l i a t e d b y t h e k i n d o f wa r f a r e d e s c r i b e d i n
t h i s l e t t e r . "
Th e p r o c l a m a t i o n , wh i c h wa s p r i n t e d t h r o u g h -
o u t Oh i o , we n t o n t o d e c l a r e b o t h t h e " In s t r u c t i o n s
t o Ca t h o l i c s
"
a n d t h e e n c y c l i c a l t o b e f o r g e r i e s ,
a n d s t u p i d f o r g e r i e s a t t h a t .
B u t t h e y we r e n o t s o s t u p i d
. Th e y we r e a d j u s t e d
wi t h b e a u t i f u l a c c u r a c y t o t h e n o r m o f i n t e l l i g e n c e
o f t h e c l i e n t e l e t h e y we r e p l a n n e d t o r e a c h , a n d
t h e y d r o v e p a n i c - r i d d e n p e o p l e b l e a t i n g i n t o t h e
A. P . A
. i n h e r d s . In
Ju n e o f 1893, t h e o r d e r i s
t h o u g h t t o h a v e h a d a b o u t 10 0 , 0 0 0
m e m b e r s . Th e r e
we r e t h o s e wh o b e l i e v e d t h a t b y t h a t y e a r ' s e n d i t
c o u l d c o u n t o n e a n d o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n s o f m e m b e r s
.
Th r e e y e a r s l a t e r , Su p r e m e Pr e s i d e n t W
. J . H .
Tr a y n o r b o a s t e d i n t h e
No r t h Am e r i c a n Re v i e w
t h a t 2, 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
Am e r i c a n c i t i ze n s a n d r e s i d e n t s
we r e A . P . A . ' s
.
D e s m o n d g r a n t s t h e o r d e r
1, 0 0 0 , o o o
m e m b e r s
a t t h e p e a k
. B u t i n t h i s c a s e , a s i n t h o s e o f t h e
Kn o w- No t h i n g s a n d t h e t we n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Ku
Kl u xKl a n , o n e g u e s s i s a s g o o d a s a n o t h e r
. Ce r -
230

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
t a i n i t i s t h a t t h i s o r d e r f r i g h t e n e d t h e p o l i t i c i a n s
e v e n a s t h e Kn o w- No t h i n g s h a d d o n e i n t h e t i m e
o f t h e i r g l o r y a n d a s t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n wa s t o d o
i n t h e t h i r d d e c a d e o f t h e t we n t i e t h c e n t u r y .
St . Ig n a t i u s Lo y o l a ' s d a y c a m e a n d we n t . So d i d
Se p t e m b e r 5 , 11893, a n d t h e Ca t h o l i c c o n g r e s s s e t
f o r t h a t d a t e a t Ch i c a g o . Ha v i n g b e e n f o o l e d o n c e ,
t h e g u l l i b l e y e a r n e d t o b e f o o l e d a g a i n ;t h e y k e p t
t h e i r p o wd e r d r y a n d t h e i r g u n b a r r e l s o i l e d
t h r o u g h o u t t h a t s u m m e r .
Wh e n t h e s e c o n d d a y o f d o o m f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e
a n a t i o n a l c o n f l a g r a t i o n , a n e xp l a n a t i o n s e e m e d t o
b e i n o r d e r f r o m t h e c o u n c i l s o f t h e A . P . A . To t h e
Am e r i c a n Ci t i ze n , B o s t o n A . P . A. p a p e r , we n t t h e
h o n o r o f e v o l v i n g t h e m o s t c l a s s i c a l o f t h e s e v e r a l
a l i b i s a d v a n c e d .
Th i s p a p e r , t h e Ci t i ze n a d v i s e d i t s r e a d e r s , h a d
s t e a d f a s t l y b e l i e v e d t h e f a l s e p a p a l b u l l t o b e a
f o r g e r y , e v e n i n t h e t i m e s wh e n e v e r y r u s t i c e v a n -
g e l i c a l Pr o t e s t a n t n o r t h a n d we s t h a d n i g h t l y e x-
p e c t e d t o b e d o n e t o d e a t h b y p a p i s t s wh i l e h e
s l e p t
. B u t " a f a v o r i t e s c h e m e o f t h e Je s u i t i s t o c r y
` wo l f ' wh e n t h e r e i s n o wo l f ; a n d t h e n , wh e n o f f
t h e i r g u a r d
[ s i c ] , t h e wo l f c o m e s
. " He n c e i t wa s
p l a i n , t o t h e Ci t i ze n ' s d i v i n i n g e y e , t h a t t h e Je s u i t s
t h e m s e l v e s m u s t h a v e f o r g e d t h e b u l l a n d p u t i t i n
c i r c u l a t i o n ;a n d i t wa s e q u a l l y p l a i n t h a t Pr o t e s -
t a n t s m u s t b e m o r e t h a n e v e r o n g u a r d .
CHAPTERXXVIII
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION
A LM OSTo v e r n i g h t t h e n , t h e s i x- y e a r - o l d m o u s e
b e c a m e a l i o n ;a l i o n o f t h e d a r k - b r o we d , b l o o d -
t h i r s t y Lo r d wo r s h i p e d b y m a n y r u r a l Pr o t e s t a n t
c l e r g y m e n a n d t h e i r d i s c i p l e s i n Am e r i c a . Fu s i n g
wi t h Re p u b l i c a n l o c a l o r g a n i za t i o n s i t wr e s t e d
a wa y i n 1892a n d / o r 1893 t h e D e m o c r a t i c s t r o n g -
h o l d s o f To l e d o , Ke o k u k , Pe o r i a , Sa g i n a wa n d
b u t h Om a h a . It g a i n e d t h e b a l a n c e o f p o we r i n
m a n y a s t a t e .
D e n v e r a n d D e t r o i t we n t u n d e r i t s s p a t u l a t e
t h u m b , a s d i d D u l u t h , Ka n s a s Ci t y , Lo u i s v i l l e ,
Om a h a p r o p e r , Ro c k f o r d ( Il l i n o i s ) a n d St . Lo u i s .
It wa s a v e i l e d t e r r o r i n B u f f a l o a n d Ro c h e s t e r ,
Ne wYo r k ;i t o wn e d t h e s t a t e s o f Co n n e c t i c u t a n d
Rh o d e Is l a n d . Th e r e we r e n e a r l y t wo h u n d r e d
A
. P
. A
. c o u n c i l s i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , c o m p r i s i n g
1
7 5 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s .
On e Co n g r e s s m a n - Wi l l i a m S . Li n t o n o f
M i c h i g a n - a d m i t t e d t h a t h e b e l o n g e d t o t h e
A . P . A . , a s d i d Go v e r n o r Wi l l i a m O . B r a d l e y o f Ke n -
t u c k y . Su p r e m e Pr e s i d e n t Tr a y n o r a s s e r t e d i n 1896
t h a t t h e o r d e r h a d t we n t y m e m b e r s i n c o n g r e s s , i n
231
232

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
a d d i t i o n t o o n e h u n d r e d o t h e r s
wh o m i t h a d
" e l e c t e d , b u t wh o h a d g o n e b a c k o n i t
. "
Th e " In s t r u c t i o n s t o Ca t h o l i c s
" a n d t h e f o r g e d
e n c y c l i c a l o f Le o XIIIwe r e n o t t h e o n l y p u m p s o f
t e r r o r u s e d b y t h e A . P . A
. t o b l o a t i t s m e m b e r s h i p
r o l l s . Th e y we r e t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e
;b u t a g o o d s e c -
o n d wa s t h e b e l o v e d o l d s t o r y a b o u t a r m s s t o r e d
i n Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h e s
. Th i s l e g e n d wa s c i r c u l a t e d
wi t h t e l l i n g e f f e c t b y t h e Kn o w- No t h i n g s . Th e
A. P . A . g a v e i t n e wl i f e . Go s p e r ' s c l a s h wi t h D o n e g a n
i n Lo s An g e l e s h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d
. Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h e s
we r e s e a r c h e d f o r a r m s i n We s t To l e d o , Sa g i n a w,
Gr a n d Ra p i d s a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r c i t i e s . No n e we r e
e v e r f o u n d , b u t i t wa s f e l t b y t h e b e s t m i n d s o f t h e
A . P . A . t h a t t h e p a p i s t s a l wa y s m a n a g e d t o g e t a d -
v a n c e n o t i c e o f t h e s e a r c h e s , a n d t h u s t h e s t o r y
g a i n e d i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s r a t h e r t h a n l o s t .
Ne v e r b e f o r e o r s i n c e t h e A . P . A . h a v e t h e
e x- p r i e s t s f a l l e n o n t i m e s s o p r o s p e r o u s a s t h e
y e a r s 1893t o 1896 i n c l u s i v e , n o r t h e e s c a p e d n u n s
.
An d r i g h t n o b l y d i d t h e s e t wo b a t t a l i o n s o f a n t i -
Ca t h o l i c i s m r e a c t t o t h e s u n o f p l e n t y .
Ch a r l e s Pa s c a l Te l e s p h o r e Ch i n i q u y , f o r i n -
s t a n c e , n o we i g h t y - f o u r y e a r s o l d a n d p r e s u m a b l y
e n t i t l e d t o a r e l e a s e f r o m h i s l a b o r s , s u f f e r e d a r e -
s u r g e n c e o f h i s a n c i e n t f i r e a n d we n t f o r t h t o b a t t l e
l i k e a wa r h o r s e p r i m e d wi t h t u r p e n t i n e .
" . . . Ch i n i q u y , " s a y s t h e Re v . J . J . Ti g h e i n
o n e o f h i s b l a s t s a g a i n s t t h e A. P . A . , " wh o s t o o d
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION233
u p o n a b a r r e l h e a d i n t h e p u b l i c s t r e e t , a n d b l a s -
p h e m o u s l y p e r f o r m i n g t h e c o n s e c r a t o r y a c t , s c a t -
t e r e d t h e p a r t i c l e s t o t h e wi n d s o f h e a v e n , c r y i n g
o u t wi t h f i e n d i s h g l e e , ` B e h o l d t h e Go d wh o m
Ca t h o l i c s a d o r e ! " '
Fa t h e r Ti g h e ' s s p i r i t o f Ch r i s t i a n f o r b e a r a n c e
f o r t h i s a c t o f a s e n i l e f o o l wa s e xp r e s s e d i n t h e s e
c h o i c e wo r d s :
" Wh e n t h e m u l t i t u d i n o u s s p i r i t s o f t h e d a m n e d
a r e m a r c h i n g o n t o t h e v a l l e y o f e t e r n a l wo e , t h a t
t h e d e s p a i r i n g c r y o f Ch i n i q u y ' s l o s t s o u l m a y n o t
s o u n d l o u d a n d s h r i l l a b o v e t h a t m i l l i o n - v o i c e d
s h r i e k o f t h e h o p e l e s s r e p r o b a t e , i s t h e p r a y e r we
p u t f o r t h f r o m a s h o c k e d a n d l a c e r a t e d s p i r i t
. B u t
t h e Al m i g h t y b l a s t e t h o f t e n t h e v i n e i n i t s f l o we r
. "
An o t h e r e x- p r i e s t o f n a t i o n a l f a m e d u r i n g t h e
A . P . A
. f u r o r e wa s D . Ge o r g e P . Ru d o l p h . Ru d o l p h
i m p r u d e n t l y m a r r i e d h i s h o u s e k e e p e r i n 1881, a n d
wa s s u m m a r i l y s u s p e n d e d f r o m t h e p r i e s t l y f u n c -
t i o n s b y B i s h o p Gi l m o r e o f Oh i o . Th e p i c k i n g s we r e
s l i m f o r h i m a n d h i s b r i d e i n t h e t we l v e y e a r s t h a t
;p a s s e d b e f o r e t h e A . P . A
. t o o k h i m u p a n d h u r l e d
. h i m t o a b r i e f f a m e .
Th e o u t s t a n d i n g e s c a p e d n u n o f t h e t i m e wa s
M a r g a r e t L . Sh e p h e r d . Sh e wr o t e
M y Li f e i n a
Co n v e n t , a n e c h o o f M a r i a M o n k wh i c h m a y b e
h a d a t t h i s wr i t i n g f r o m a t l e a s t t wo a n t i - Ca t h o l i c
p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e s , p r i c e f i f t y c e n t s t h e c o p y .
234
.

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
"
B u y t h i s b o o k a b o v e a l l o t h e r s , " r e a d s t h e
b l u r b o f o n e o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s . " On e o f t h e s a d -
d e s t n a r r a t i v e s e v e r wr i t t e n . Wr o n g e d b y a p r i e s t
t h r o u g h t h e c o n f e s s i o n a l wh e n b u t a y o u n g g i r l ,
m a r r i e d t o a p r i e s t , t h r u s t i n t o a c o n v e n t wi t h h e r
b a b y a n d a b a n d o n e d b y t h e p r i e s t l y b r u t e wh o h a d
p r o m i s e d t o s t a n d b y h e r
. It wi l l h o l d y o u i n i t s
g r i p u n t i l t h r o u g h t e a r s a n d h e a r t t h r o b s y o u h a v e
r e a d t h e l a s t l i n e . "
So m e p e r v e r s e Ca t h o l i c s c r u e l l y d u g u p e v i d e n c e
g o i n g t o s h o wn o t o n l y t h a t M i s s Sh e p h e r d h a d
n e v e r b e l o n g e d t o a n y Ca t h o l i c o r d e r o f n u n s b u t
t h a t s h e h a d a p o l i c e r e c o r d i n t o t h e b a r g a i n . Ye t
h e r b o o k g o e s m a r c h i n g o n .
Th e e x- p r i e s t s a f t e r a t i m e b e c a m e s o i m p o r t u -
n a t e a n d o f f e n s i v e t h a t e v e n t h e A . P . A . i n s o m e
q u a r t e r s c o u l d s t o m a c h t h e m n o l o n g e r .
Sa i d Pr e s i d e n t Ja c k m a n o f t h e Io wa c o u n c i l :
" Th e a v e r a g e e x- p r i e s t i s s i m p l y a l e e c h s u c k -
i n g t h e l i f e b l o o d o f t h e c o u n c i l s f o r h i s o wn
e n r i c h m e n t . "
Th e Io wa a n d Wi s c o n s i n s t a t e c o u n c i l s o f t h e
A . P . A . d e t e r m i n e d t o h i r e n o m o r e e x- p r i e s t s a s
l e c t u r e r s ;wh e r e a t t h e l a t t e r s e t u p a l o u d c a c k l i n g
o f " Tr a i t o r s ! Co wa r d s ! Po p e l o v e r s !
"
Ag a i n s t t h e A . P . A . t h e Ca t h o l i c s t u r n e d a g o o d l y
q u a n t i t y o f i t s o wn b r a n d s o f f i r e . Ca t h o l i c p a p e r s
p o u n d e d t h e o r d e r wi t h a n e v e r - p a u s i n g b a r r a g e o f
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION 2
35
d e n u n c i a t i o n . An t i - A . P . A . b o o k l e t s we r e d i s t r i b u t e d
b y t h e c a r l o a d , a n t i - A . P . A . l e c t u r e s h e l d t h r o u g h -
o u t t h e r e g i o n s wh e r e t h e o r d e r ' s s t r e n g t h l a y
.
Ca t h o l i c s e v e n we n t s o f a r a s t o s p y u p o n A . P . A .
m e e t i n g s , o r t o i n s i n u a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n t o c o u n c i l s
o f t h e o r d e r , o r t o c o l l e c t a n d p u b l i c l y c i r c u l a t e
l i s t s o f m e m b e r s ' n a m e s .
" Th e l e s s d e f e n s i b l e m e t h o d s , " s a y s t h e h i s -
t o r i a n Hu m p h r e y J . D e s m o n d , f r o m wh o s e b o o k
o n t h e A . P . A . wa s g l e a n e d m a n y a f a c t h e r e i n d i s -
p l a y e d , " , o f b r e a k i n g i n t o A . P . A
. c o u n c i l s a n d o b -
t a i n i n g t h e r e c o r d s , a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o m o b o r i n -
t e r f e r e wi t h e x- p r i e s t a n d a n t i - Ca t h o l i c l e c t u r e r s ,
we r e a l s o e p i s o d e s o f t h e c o u n t e r - m o v e m e n t i n a
f e wl o c a l i t i e s . "
Se v e r a l Ca t h o l i c s f o r m e d , a t Ne wYo r k Ci t y i n
Ja n u a r y , 1896 , t h e Am e r i c a n Or d e r o f Un i t e d
Ca t h o l i c s , f o r t h e e xp r e s s p u r p o s e o f f i g h t i n g t h e
A . P . A . Th i s s o c i e t y ' s s u p r e m e c o u n c i l i s s u e d a c o n -
f i d e n t i a l c i r c u l a r i n wh i c h i t s p u r p o s e s we r e s e t
f o r t h
. Th e c i r c u l a r a m o u n t e d t o a r e wr i t i n g a n d
c o n d e n s a t i o n o f t h e A
. P . A . o a t h s , wi t h t h e t e r m s
Pr o t e s t a n t a n d Ca t h o l i c u s e d i n r e v e r s e o r d e r
. A
p a r t o f t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t r a n a s f o l l o ws :
" To u n i t e f r a t e r n a l l y a l l p r a c t i c a l Ca t h o l i c s o f
e v e r y p r o f e s s i o n , b u s i n e s s , a n d o c c u p a t i o n
;t o g i v e
a l l p o s s i b l e a i d i n i t s p o we r t o m e m b e r s o f t h e o r -
g a n i za t i o n b y e n c o u r a g i n g e a c h o t h e r i n b u s i n e s s ,
236

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
a n d b y a s s i s t i n g e a c h o t h e r t o o b t a i n e m p l o y m e n t
;
t o u p h o l d a n d d e f e n d t h e Ca t h o l i c f a i t h , c l e r g y ,
a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s , a g a i n s t n a t u r a l i ze d f o r e i g n e r s ,
wh o , a i d e d a n d a b e t t e d b y s a i d c l a s s o f n a t i v e
Am e r i c a n s , h a v e g a i n e d g r e a t s t r e n g t h a n d p o we r
i n o u r l e g i s l a t u r e s . "
Li t t l e wa s e v e r d o n e b y , o r h e a r d o f , t h e Un i t e d
Ca t h o l i c s . Th e we l l - e s t a b l i s h e d An c i e n t Or d e r o f
Hi b e r n i a n s a n d t h e g r o wi n g Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s
we r e d e l i v e r i n g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e b l a t h e r a n d v i l i f i -
c a t i o n t h a t we r e n e e d e d o n t h e Ca t h o l i c s i d e .
B u t a d o o m wa s p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e A . P . A . i n a
q u a r t e r h a v i n g l i t t l e t o d o wi t h Ca t h o l i c i t y a n d l e s s
t o d o wi t h r e l i g i o n . Th e n o b l e o r d e r wa s , t h o u g h i t
d i d n o t k n o wi t , a b o u t t o b e d o n e t o d e a t h b y i t s
o wn p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s .
Re p u b l i c a n p o l i t i c o s i n t h e c i t i e s h a d e a r l y a s c e r -
t a i n e d t h a t m a n y a n A . P . A . c o u n c i l c h i e f c o u l d b e
t e m p t e d s o r e l y wi t h t h e b a i t o f p u b l i c o f f i c e . Ho w
d e a r t h e A . P . A . h e l d t h i s p e r q u i s i t e o f g o o d l o d g e
b r o t h e r s a n d p a r t y wo r k e r s i s p e r h a p s b e s t i l l u s -
t r a t e d b y t h e t r e a t m e n t t h e D e n v e r c o u n c i l m e t e d
o u t t o M a y o r Va n Ho r n o f t h a t c i t y , wh o m i t
e l e c t e d t o o f f i c e .
Va n Ho r n t o o k t h e A . P . A . o a t h b e f o r e h i s e l e c -
t i o n , t h o u g h h e a s s e r t e d a f t e r wa r d t h a t h e m i s u n -
d e r s t o o d t h e n a t u r e o f h i s a c t wh e n h e d i d s o . To
s h o wt h a t h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n o f A . P . A . t e n d e n c i e s
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION 237
wa s c o m p l e t e , o n h i s f i r s t d a y i n o f f i c e Va n Ho r n
n a m e d a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c a s c h i e f o f D e n v e r p o l i c e .
Th e A. P . A
. d e m a n d e d t h a t t h e a p p o i n t e e b e d i s -
m i s s e d
. Va n Ho r n r e f u s e d . Hi s e x- c o m r a d e s t h e n
o r d e r e d h u n g i n t h e i r c o u n c i l c h a m b e r a p h o t o -
g r a p h o f t h e m a y o r , d r a p e d wi t h b l a c k a n d c a p -
t i o n e d " Pe r j u r o r a n d Tr a i t o r
. " As e t o f r e s o l u t i o n s
wa s p a s s e d , s o l e m n l y d e c r e e i n g
:
"
t h a t a l l c o m m u n i c a t i o n wi t h s a i d t r a i t o r a n d
p e r j u r o r d o n o wf o r e v e r c e a s e , "
a n d t h a t
"
wh e r e v e r h i s c a r c a s s r e p o s e i n t h e a r m s o f
M o t h e r Ea r t h , i n wh a t s o e v e r l a n d , a n u n k n o wn
c o m m i t t e e , d u l y a p p o i n t e d , s h a l l p e r f o r m i t s l a s t
r i t e i n t h e n a m e o f t h i s c o u n c i l , b y m a r k i n g t h e
p l a c e , t h a t a l l m a y k n o w, ' He r e l i e s a t r a i t o r . " '
Ha v i n g t a k e n n o t e o f t h i s t h i r s t f o r p o l i t i c a l
p o we r , l o c a l Re p u b l i c a n o r g a n i za t i o n s i n m a n y
c i t i e s f i l t e r e d i n t o t h e A
. P . A . c o u n c i l s , a t f i r s t s i n -
g l y , t h e n i n p a i r s , t h e n b y d o ze n s a n d h u n d r e d s
.
Th e s e m i - p u b l i c n u p t i a l s o f Re p u b l i c a n i s m a n d
A . P
. A' i s m b e c a m e s o n o t o r i o u s t h a t t h e Ch e y e n n e
( Wy o . ) Le a d e r
wa s m o v e d t o r e m a r k , " Th e k i t e
i s l a b e l l e d A . P
. A . - t h e t a i l , G
. O . P
. "
Th e D e m o c r a t i c p a r t y e a r l y s h o o k i t s e l f f r e e o f
a n y s u s p i c i o n o f A . P . A . a f f i l i a t i o n s
. Lo c a l D e m o -
c r a t i c p l a t f o r m s d a m n e d t h e o r d e r f r o m t h e m o -
238

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
m e n t o f i t s r i s e t o n a t i o n a l p r o m i n e n c e
i n
m i d -
1893 .
St a t e c o n v e n t i o n s d i d l i k e wi s e , a n d s o d i d
i n d i v i d u a l D e m o c r a t i c l e a d e r s
. Go v e r n o r Al t g e l d
o f Il l i n o i s t h u n d e r e d a g a i n s t t h e o r d e r , a s d i d Go v -
e r n o r Pe c k o f Wi s c o n s i n a n d Se n a t o r s Vi l a s , Hi l l
a n d Ve s t .
Th e A . P
. A
. wa s n o t t h e s c h i s m b r e e d e r f o r t h e
D e m o c r a c y t h a t f e d e r a l p r o h i b i t i o n a n d Al f r e d E
.
Sm i t h ' s r e l i g i o n a r e a t t h i s wr i t i n g , f o r t h e r e a s o n
t h a t t h e A . P . A
. h a d n o f o o t h o l d i n t h e So u t h s a v e
i n p a r t s o f Ge o r g i a , Te xa s , Te n n e s s e e a n d Ke n -
t u c k y
. He n c e , t h e D e m o c r a t s o f t h e No r t h c o u l d
r e p u d i a t e t h e o r d e r wi t h o u t t r e a d i n g o v e r - h e a v i l y
o n s o u t h e r n a n t i - Ca t h o l i c p r e j u d i c e s , a n d s o m a k e
t h e m s e l v e s p o p u l a r wi t h Ca t h o l i c s a n d
"
we a k -
k n e e d , l i l y - l i v e r e d , Po p e - l o v i n g " Pr o t e s t a n t s e v e r y -
wh e r e .
Ch i c a g o g a v e t h e A
. P . A . i t s f i r s t s e r i o u s d e f e a t i n
a n y e l e c t i o n
. Ca l l i n g i t s e l f t h e In d e p e n d e n t Am e r i -
c a n Ci t i ze n s ' p a r t y , , t h e As s o c i a t i o n t h r e wa t i c k e t
i n t o t h e Ch i c a g o m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n o f No v e m b e r ,
1894 .
It s b o s s e s p r e d i c t e d a b a l l o t o f n o t l e s s t h a n
40 , 0 0 0
f o r t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s , a n d a p r o b a b l e v i c t o r y .
Ou t o f
233, 5 7 9
v o t e s c a s t , t h e a n t i - Ca t h o l i c t i c k e t
d r e w917 ;
a n d Ch i c a g o wa s s a v e d f o r i t s l a t t e r - d a y
i n h e r i t a n c e b y t h e g u n m e n a n d B i g B i l l Th o m p s o n .
In t h e f o l l o wi n g Ap r i l t h e o r d e r l o s t t wo o f i t s
s t r o n g h o l d s
: B r i d g e p o r t , Co n n e c t i c u t , a n d B r a d -
f o r d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . Th e Pr e s i d e n t i a l y e a r o f ' 96
n ~r i n wv t r s
I
I
TUM IATY
Q ,
Nr r e s OF
r i =m

9

' ~: '
Ii
B y Co u r t e s y o f Ne wM e n a c e , Pr o t e s t a n t We e k l y Ne ws p a p e r , Au r o r a , M i s s o u r i
ANTI- CATHOLICCARTOONFROM
Th e M e n a c e , c i r c a I9II
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION
239
r o l l e d i n , a n d t h e M i c h i g a n A
. P . A . wa s u n a b l e t o r e -
t u r n i t s m e m b e r Wi l l i a m S
. Li n t o n t o Co n g r e s s .
B r y a n ' s g o l d e n v o i c e wo o e d t h e v o t e s f r o m u n d e r
t h e Ne b r a s k a c o u n c i l s i n t h e s a m e y e a r . Th e l a s t
l a r g e A . P . A
. c i t y t o f a l l wa s To l e d o , Oh i o , wh i c h
" Go l d e n Ru l e "
Jo n e s s n a t c h e d f r o m t h e p r o f e s -
s i o n a l Pr o t e s t a n t s i n 1897
.
B u t t h e m a n d e s t i n e d t o g i v e t h e A
. P . A . i t s
d e a t h - b l o wa s a n a t i o n a l p o we r wa s Wi l l i a m M c -
Ki n l e y . Wh a t t h o u g h M c Ki n l e y d i d p e r f o r m t h a t
o b v i o u s s t r a d d l e a t a Ka n s a s Ci t y p o l i t i c a l r a l l y
i n 1894? Ah e c k l e r i n q u i r e d : " Wh a t i s t h e m a t t e r
wi t h t h e A . P
. A
. ? "
M c Ki n l e y c o u n t e r e d wi t h ,
"
Th e q u e s t i o n wi t h u s i s , Wh a t i s t h e m a t t e r wi t h
t h e c o u n t r y ? " Th e t i m e h a d n o t c o m e f o r t h e Re -
p u b l i c a n s t o s wa l l o wt h i s l i o n o f t h e l e f t - wi n g Pr o t -
e s t a n t s ' Lo r d , n o r h a d M a r k Ha n n a m a d e u p h i s
m i n d t o p u s h M c Ki n l e y i n t o t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e
.
Ha n n a c a m e t o t h a t d e c i s i o n e a r l y i n 1895 . B e -
s i d e s Go v e r n o r M c Ki n l e y o f Oh i o t h e r e we r e m a n y
a s p i r a n t s f o r t h e Re p u b l i c a n Pr e s i d e n t i a l n o m i n a -
t i o n
. M o s t p r o m i n e n t o f t h e s e we r e Al l i s o n o f Io wa ,
Q u a y o f Pe n n s y l v a n i a , Cu l l o m o f Il l i n o i s , Ke n -
t u c k y ' s A . P . A . g o v e r n o r B r a d l e y , e x- Pr e s i d e n t
B e n j a m i n Ha r r i s o n .
On e J . B
. Cl a r k s o n , Re p u b l i c a n n a t i o n a l c o m -
m i t t e e m a n f r o m Io wa , c o n c e i v e d o n e o f t wo i d e a s ;
wh i c h o f t h e t wo , wa s n e v e r d e f i n i t e l y m a d e k n o wn
.
B o t h , h o we v e r , i n v o l v e d t h e s we e t e n i n g o f s u n d r y
240

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
A . P . A . l e a d e r s wi t h Re p u b l i c a n c a m p a i g n f u n d s
wh i c h Cl a r k s o n p r o c u r e d
. On e s t o r y h a s i t t h a t
Cl a r k s o n wa n t e d t o s wi n g t h e A . P . A . a g a i n s t M c -
Ki n l e y a n d f o r Q u a y o f Pe n n s y l v a n i a . Th e o t h e r i s
t h a t t h e A
. P . A
. l e a d e r s m e r e l y a c c e p t e d t h e Cl a r k -
s o n m o n e y a s s o m u c h u n l o o k e d - f o r m a n n a f r o m o n
h i g h , t h e y h a v i n g a l r e a d y d e t e r m i n e d i f p o s s i b l e
t o p l e d g e a l a r g e d e l e g a t i o n t o B r a d l e y a n d Li n t o n
f o r u s e a s a c l u b t o b l u d g e o n p r o m i s e s o f p a t r o n -
a g e o u t o f wh o m e v e r t h e Re p u b l i c a n c o n v e n t i o n
m i g h t n o m i n a t e f o r Pr e s i d e n t i n Ju n e . At a l l e v e n t s ,
t h e A . P . A . o p e n e d f i r e o n M c Ki n l e y i n Ap r i l , 1896 .
Th e m a s t e r e f f o r t o f t h e e xe c u t i v e b o a r d , o r
Z o d i a c , o f t h e A . P . A . i n t h i s b a t t l e wa s a c i r c u l a r
c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s :
" Th e Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y , s e e i n g n o
p r o b a b i l i t y o f e l e c t i n g o n e o f i t s c o wa r d l y t o o l s t o
t h e p r e s i d e n c y o n a n y t i c k e t o t h e r t h a n t h e Re p u b -
l i c a n , h a s t h r o u g h i t s l e a d e r s a n d f o l l o we r s m a s s e d
i t s s t r e n g t h a n d r e s o u r c e s t o t h e s u p p o r t o f M a j o r
M c Ki n l e y .
" As a n u n a n s we r a b l e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t
i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s a y t h a t Ar c h b i s h o p Ir e l a n d o f St
.
Pa u l , t h e m o s t Je s u i t i c a l a n d d a n g e r o u s Pa p a l
l e a d e r i n t h i s c o u n t r y ;B i s h o p Wa t t e r s o n o f Oh i o ,
f o r y e a r s t h e i n t i m a t e a n d c o n f i d e n t i a l f r i e n d a n d
a d v i s o r o f M a j o r M c Ki n l e y , a n d t h e m o s t i n f l u e n -
t i a l f a c t o r i n M c Ki n l e y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s g o v -
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION 241
e r n o r o f Oh i o ;To m Ca r t e r o f M o n t a n a , St e v e
El k i n s o f We s t Vi r g i n i a , wh o s e d a u g h t e r wa s m a r -
r i e d t o a Pa p i s t b y Ar c h b i s h o p Co r r i g a n , a n d wh o s e
s y m p a t h i e s we r e p u b l i c l y a n n o u n c e d i n t h e Un i t e d
St a t e s Se n a t e wh e n h e f o u g h t t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e
In d i a n Ap p r o p r i a t i o n b i l l a s a m e n d e d o n m o t i o n
o f Co n g r e s s m a n Li n t o n i n t h e h o u s e , a n d p a s s e d b y
t h a t b o d y ;a n d e v e r y o t h e r p r o m i n e n t a s we l l a s
o b s c u r e Pa p i s t c l a i m i n g t o b e a Re p u b l i c a n ;l a s t ,
b u t n o t l e a s t o f o n e , Ri c h a r d Ke r e n s o f M i s s o u r i ,
wh o i n h i s p r i v a t e c a r a f e wm o n t h s a g o e n t e r -
t a i n e d a s h i s g u e s t s Ar c h b i s h o p s Sa t o l l i a n d Co r r i -
g a n a n d o t h e r c e l e b r i t i e s o f t h e Ro m a n Hi e r a r c h y ,
i n a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l t r i p t o Ar i zo n a a n d r e t u r n ,
h i s c a r d e c o r a t e d wi t h t h e Am e r i c a n c o l o r s , a n d t h e
Pa p a l c o l o r s a b o v e t h e m , a r e e a c h a n d a l l a r d e n t l y
a d v o c a t i n g t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f M c Ki n l e y a n d u s i n g
e v e r y m e a n s t o a c c o m p l i s h t h a t e n d . " ( Co p i e d
f r o m q u o t a t i o n i n Th e A . P . A . M o v e m e n t , b y H. J .
D e s m o n d . )
Awh i s p e r i n g c a m p a i g n e c h o e d t h e p a p e r d r i v e
u p o n M c Ki n l e y , i t s m o s t e xq u i s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t
o c c u r r i n g wh e n M a r k Ha n n a wa s f o r c e d t o m a k e
p u b l i c d e n i a l t h a t h i s p r o t e g e , a l i f e l o n g M e t h o d i s t ,
b e l o n g e d t o t h e An c i e n t Or d e r o f Hi b e r n i a n s .
Ha n n a h i m s e l f d i d n o t e s c a p e t h e a l l - s e e i n g e y e o f
t h e As s o c i a t i o n .
" Ha n n a i s a Ro m a n i s t , " p r o c l a i m e d Pr e s i d e n t
242

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
A
. D . Hu b b a r d o f t h e Ka n s a s A . P . A . , " a n d Ik n o w
i t , a n d s o d o e s e v e r y o t h e r A. P . A . "
B u t M c Ki n l e y ' s s t r e n g t h g r e w . Wh e n t h e A . P . A .
m e t i n n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n t h a t s p r i n g , i t f e l t
i t s e l f o b l i g e d t o c a l l o f f i t s wa r o n M a r k Ha n n a ' s
wh i t e k n i g h t a n d r e s t o r e h i s n a m e t o i t s l i s t o f e l i -
g i b l e s f o r t h e Re p u b l i c a n n o m i n a t i o n , a l b e i t a t t h e
b o t t o m o f t h e l i s t
. Wh a t i f M c Ki n l e y s h o u l d b e
n o m i n a t e d a n d e l e c t e d ? Wh e r e wo u l d t h e A
. P
. A
.
h o p e s o f p a t r o n a g e b e t h e n ?
Th e As s o c i a t i o n ' s c o n v e n t i o n m e t a t Wa s h i n g -
t o n o n M a y 12, 1896 . Two d a y s l a t e r a b a n d o f
e m i s s a r i e s t h e r e f r o m wa i t e d u p o n M c Ki n l e y a t
Ca n t o n , Oh i o , t o q u e s t i o n h i m a s t o h i s o p i n i o n o f
t h e o r d e r . Th e e m i s s a r i e s r e p o r t e d t h a t h e e x-
p r e s s e d h i m s e l f a s h e a r t i l y i n a c c o r d wi t h A . P . A .
d o c t r i n e . To t h e p r e s s , M c Ki n l e y d e n i e d t h a t h e
e v e r s a wt h e c o m m i t t e e f r o m Wa s h i n g t o n .
Th i s c o n f l i c t o f c l a i m s b r o u g h t o n t h e g r e a t
s c h i s m wh i c h t o o k m o s t o f t h e a we s o m e n e s s o u t o f
t h e Am e r i c a n Pr o t e c t i v e As s o c i a t i o n a n d g r e a s e d
t h e wa y s f o r i t s r a p i d s l i d e i n t o o b l i v i o n . D i e - h a r d s
f r o m s o m e t we n t y s t a t e s wa i t e d u n t i l t h e c o n v e n -
t i o n h a d a d j o u r n e d , t h e n c a l l e d a r u m p c o n v e n t i o n
o f t h e i r o wn . Th e s u p r e m e c o u n c i l m e a n wh i l e h a d
n o t b e e n i d l e . Wh a t o c c u r r e d wa s t o l d a s c l e a r l y a s
i t wa s e v e r t o b e - a n d n o t v e r y c l e a r l y a t t h a t
- b y a Wh e r e a s i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n s wh i c h t h e d i e -
h a r d s p a s s e d ;t o - wi t :
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION243
" Wh e r e a s , t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e s u p r e m e c o u n c i l
h a v e , d u r i n g i t s s e s s i o n , b e e n h a n d l e d a n d b a d g e r e d
b y a l a r g e M c Ki n l e y l o b b y c o m p o s e d o f m e m b e r s
a n d n o n - m e m b e r s o f t h e o r d e r t h a t h a s u s e d t h e
m o s t d i s r e p u t a b l e b l a c k m a i l i n g m e t h o d s t o d i s -
c r e d i t t h e a d v i s o r y b o a r d a n d t o t u r n t h e s u p r e m e
c o u n c i l i n t o a M c Ki n l e y r a t i f i c a t i o n m e e t i n g , a n d
h a v i n g s i g n a l l y f a i l e d t o c l e a r M c Ki n l e y o f t h e
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i s p r o - p a p a l p o l i t i c a l r e c o r d , t o -
( l a y , a f t e r t wo - t h i r d s o f t h e d e l e g a t e s h a d s t a r t e d
f o r h o m e , a t t e m p t e d t o t a k e r e v e n g e b y a b o l i s h i n g
t h e Na t i o n a l Ad v i s o r y b o a r d a n d a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e
s a m e b y a v o t e o f
30
t o 29 . "
Wh a t e v e r o c c u l t p r o c e e d i n g s t h e s e wo r d s r e p o r t ,
t h e u p s h o t o f t h e a f t e r - c o n v e n t i o n c o n v e n t i o n wa s
t h e e l e c t i o n o f a n e ws e t o f o f f i c e r s o f t h e A . P . A . :
p r e s i d e n t , J . W
. Ec h o l s , o f At l a n t a ;v i c e - p r e s i d e n t ,
He n r y S . Wi l l i a m s , o f B o s t o n ;s e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e ,
H . P . J . Swa i n e , o f Ca l i f o r n i a ;c h a p l a i n , W
. H
.
Go t wo l d , o f Wa s h i n g t o n ;s e c r e t a r y , W . J . Pa l m e r ,
o f B u t t e ;t r e a s u r e r , C . C . Ca m p b e l l , o f M i n n e -
a p o l i s .
Co u l d t h e A . P . A . , wi t h i t s m o g u l s a t o n e a n -
o t h e r ' s t h r o a t s , wi e l d m u c h p o we r i n t h e c o m i n g
Re p u b l i c a n n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n ? Th a t q u e s t i o n ,
a m o n g m a n y o t h e r s r o a r i n g f o r a n s we r i n t h e
q u e s t i o n - s h o t y e a r o f ' 96 , a g i t a t e d t h e n a t i o n f o r a
m o n t h . Co u l d t h e o r d e r - wo u l d i t t r y t o - b l o c k
244

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
M c Ki n l e y ' s n o m i n a t i o n ? Wo u l d i t wr e c k
t h e Re -
p u b l i c a n p a r t y i f M c Ki n l e y o r a n y o n e e l s e i t d i s -
l i k e d we r e c h o s e n ? Wo u l d i t h a v e a h a n d i n n a i l i n g
t o g e t h e r t h e p l a n k s o f t h e Re p u b l i c a n p l a t f o r m ?
Wa s t h e A . P . A
. g i a n t o r b o g e y m a n , l i o n i n t h e
f l e s h o r we r e wo l f o f l e g e n d ?
Th e Re p u b l i c a n c o n v e n t i o n d u l y a s s e m b l e d a t
St . Lo u i s i n Ju n e . At o n c e i t b e c a m e k n o wn t h a t
t h e A . P . A. wo u l d n o t o p p o s e M c Ki n l e y .
B u t
s u r e l y i t wo u l d s i t i n a t t h e p l a t f o r m c o m m i t t e e
m e e t i n g s ? An o l d g e n t l e m a n b y n a m e a n d t i t l e
Co l o n e l Se l l e r s -
Ch r i s t i a n n a m e u n d i s c o v e r e d b y
t h i s wr i t e r -
wa s p u t t e r i n g a b o u t t h e c o n v e n t i o n
h a l l a n d t h e h o t e l r o o m s . He wa n t e d t h e p l a t f o r m t o
c a r r y a d e c l a r a t i o n a g a i n s t u s e o f p u b l i c f u n d s f o r
s e c t a r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s . So m e b o d y l e a r n e d t h a t h e
r e p r e s e n t e d , o f f i c i a l l y , t h e A . P . A . Na y , m o r e :
Co l o n e l Se l l e r s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p l a n k ' s a d o p t i o n
h a d b e e n p r o m i s e d h i m b y Se n a t o r Ge a r o f Io wa
.
B u t t h e p r o m i s e , i f i t wa s e v e r m a d e , h a d s l i p p e d
Ge a r ' s m i n d .
M a s t i c a t i o n a n d d i g e s t i o n o f t h e A
. P . A . wa s ,
i n f a c t , p r a c t i c a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e Re p u b l i c a n
p a r t y . Co l o n e l Se l l e r s r e c e i v e d t h e b l a n d l y s i l e n t
t r e a t m e n t i n m a k i n g h i s r o u n d s o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n s ,
a n d wh e n t h e p l a t f o r m wa s a t l a s t d r a wn u p t h e
A . P . A . ' s p e t p l a n k wa s n o t t h e r e .
Ar c h b i s h o p Ir e l a n d o f St . Pa u l t o o k t h i s o c c a s i o n
t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t Am e r i c a n s n e e d n o t f e a r Ca t h -
ANELEPHANTSWALLOWSALION 24
. 5
o l i c c l e r i c a l m e d d l i n g wi t h p o l i t i c s b y s e n d i n g t h e
f o l l o wi n g t e l e g r a m t o St . Lo u i s :
" St . Pa u l , M i n n . , Ju n e 17 , 1896 . - To Ho n .
Th o m a s H
. Ca r t e r , n a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e m a n , St .
Lo u i s , M o . : Th e c l a u s e i n t h e p r o p o s e d p l a t f o r m
o p p o s i n g t h e u s e o f p u b l i c m o n e y f o r s e c t a r i a n p u r -
p o s e s a n d u n i o n o f c h u r c h a n d s t a t e i s u n n e c e s s a r y
a n d u n c a l l e d f o r . It i s u r g e d b y t h e A . P . A . It s
a d o p t i o n wi l l b e t a k e n a s a c o n c e s s i o n t o t h e m ;
wi l l a wa k e n r e l i g i o u s a n i m o s i t i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y a n d
d o m u c h h a r m . Th e Re p u b l i c a n p a r t y s h o u l d n o t
l o we r i t s e l f t o r e c o g n i ze , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y ,
t h e A. P . A . Ih o p e t h e c l a u s e , o r a n y t h i n g l i k e i t ,
wi l l n o t b e a d o p t e d . JOHNIRELAND . "
If a n y d o c u m e n t c o u l d h a v e b e e n m o r e n i c e l y
c a l c u l a t e d t h a n t h a t o n e t o b r e a t h e b a c k l i f e i n t o
t h e c o r p s e o f t h e A. P . A . ,
i t h a s n o t p a s s e d b e n e a t h
t h e s e e y e s .
B u t t h e t e l e g r a m h a d n o s u c h r e v i v i f y i n g e f f e c t .
Co l o n e l Se l l e r s l u g g e d h i s s c h o o l p l a n k t o t h e D e m -
o c r a t i c c o n v e n t i o n a t Ch i c a g o , wh e r e h e wa s r e -
f u s e d a h e a r i n g . He r e t u r n e d t o St
. Lo u i s f o r t h e
Po p u l i s t c o n v e n t i o n , o n l y t o r e c e i v e t h e s a m e t r e a t -
m e n t
. Th e n h e we n t h o m e , a n d n i n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t
o f t h e A . P . A . m e m b e r s h i p we n t b a c k t o i t s o l d
p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s .
M c Ki n l e y d e f e a t e d B r y a n i n t h e f o l l o wi n g No -
v e m b e r . He s i g n a l i ze d h i s c o n t e m p t f o r t h e A . P
. A .
246

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
- n o wt h a t h e wa s s a f e l y o v e r t h e h u r d l e - b y
a p p o i n t i n g a Ca t h o l i c t o h i s f i r s t c a b i n e t , m a k i n g
t h e Ca t h o l i c Te r r e n c e V . Po wd e r l y c o m m i s s i o n e r o f
i m m i g r a t i o n , a n d g i v i n g t h e Ca t h o l i c B e l l a m y
St o r e r a r e s p o n s i b l e d i p l o m a t i c p o s t .
CHAPTERXXIX
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN
T HEA . P . A . s a n k b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e
p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n i 9o o . It s l a s t e l e c t i o n o f
n a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s wa s h e l d i n t h a t y e a r . Th e o r d e r
r e - e l e c t e d He n r y F . B o we r s s u p r e m e p r e s i d e n t , a s
' wa s n o wi t s a n n u a l h a b i t , b u t i t n e v e r c o n v e n e d t o
c o n s i d e r t h e s t a t e o f t h e Re p u b l i c a g a i n . B o we r s
l i v e d u n t i l 19
11, r e t a i n i n g h i s o f f i c e a n d t h e s l e n d e r
p e r q u i s i t e s t h e r e o f u n t i l h i s d e a t h .
Fo r s o m e y e a r s t h e l a n d h a d s u r c e a s e f r o m
s t r u g g l e s b e t we e n Ca t h o l i c a n d Pr o t e s t a n t . Th e
f l o o d o f a n t i - Ca t h o l i c i s m s a n k b a c k i n t o t h e s t o r a g e
r e s e r v o i r s wh e r e i t c u s t o m a r i l y r e p o s e s b e t we e n
p e r i o d s o f o v e r f l o w ;n a m e l y , t h e j u n i o r Or d e r ,
Un i t e d Am e r i c a n M e c h a n i c s , t h e l o we r i n t e l l e c t u a l
l e v e l s o f M a s o n r y , a n d n u m e r o u s m i n o r f r a t e r n a l
o r d e r s .
Lo c a l f l u r r i e s b l e wu p h e r e a n d t h e r e , g e n e r a l l y
o v e r s c h o o l s , b u t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e t h e b u s i -
n e s s o f b a i t i n g t h e Ca t h o l i c s wa s f a l l e n o n e v i l
d a y s
.
" Is t a r t e d i n t h e e a r l y d a y s o f t h e o l d A . P . A .
m o v e m e n t o f t h i r t y y e a r s a g o , " s a y s t h a t d a u n t l e s s
247
248

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
s c o u r g e o f t h e Po p e , Wi l l i a m Ll o y d Cl a r k o f M i l a n ,
Il l i n o i s , i n t h e s e c t i o n o f h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y wh i c h
d e a l s wi t h t h i s m e l a n c h o l y i n t e r l u d e .
" Th a t o r d e r wa s wr e c k e d a n d a s s a s s i n a t e d b y
c o r r u p t p o l i t i c i a n s wh o t r i e d t o u s e i t f o r t h e i r o wn
s e l f i s h e n d s .
" Th e n m i d n i g h t c a m e
. No Pr o t e s t a n t o r p a t r i -
o t i c o r g a n i za t i o n wi t h wh i c h t o wo r k . Th e Pr o t e s -
t a n t p r e a c h e r s a n d c h u r c h e s we r e a s d e a d a s t h e
m u m m i e s o f Eg y p t . No p u l p i t o p e n . No m o n e y
wi t h wh i c h t o r e n t h a l l s . No t a f r i e n d l y h a n d e x-
t e n d e d a n y wh e r e . No o n e i n t e r e s t e d e v e n t o t h e
e xt e n t o f b u y i n g a b o o k wh e n It r i e d t o p e d d l e
l i t e r a t u r e . Ra i l r o a d f a r e a n d h o t e l b i l l s t o m e e t
a n d a wi f e a n d c h i l d r e n d e p e n d i n g o n m e f o r t h e
n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e . Twe n t y y e a r s o f t h a t k i n d o f
t h i n g . "
Li t t l e i n c i d e n t s i n t h e e v e r y d a y l i f e o f a M i d -
we s t c r u s a d e r m a y p r o v e o f i n t e r e s t a t t h i s p o i n t .
Un d e r t h e h e a d i n g " On t h e Sk i r m i s h Li n e , " t h e
a b o v e - n a m e d M r . Cl a r k h a s g a t h e r e d s o m e t h i r t y
o r m o r e b r i e f r e p o r t s o f b a t t l e s i n wh i c h h e p l a y e d
a n o t i n c o n s p i c u o u s o r e v e n u n h e r o i c p a r t . Th e y
g i v e a s p l e n d i d p i c t u r e o f t h e t r i a l s a n d t r i u m p h s
t h a t m a k e a n a n t i - p a p a l wa r r i o r ' s l i f e wo r t h t h e
l i v i n g . Fo r e xa m p l e :
"
Up p e r Al t o n , Il l . - Il e c t u r e d f o r t wo we e k s
i n t h e a u d i t o r i u m o f Sh u r t l e f f Co l l e g e . Ro m a n i s t
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

249
c u t t h e e l e c t r i c wi r e s l e a d i n g t o t h e b u i l d i n g a n d
l e f t t h e s p e a k e r a n d a u d i e n c e i n t o t a l d a r k n e s s .
An o t h e r n i g h t t h e r o wd i e s f i l l e d t h e r a d i a t o r s wi t h
c a y e n n e p e p p e r wh i c h c r e a t e d a p a n i c b y c a u s i n g
t h e p e o p l e t o s n e e ze t h e i r h e a d s a l m o s t o f f . "
B u t wo r s e wa s t o c o m e :
" An n a , Il l . - Iwa s a s s a u l t e d b y a p a p a l t h u g
wh o k n o c k e d m e d o wn a n d p o u n d e d m e a l m o s t t o
d e a t h , f r a c t u r i n g m y j a wb o n e . Th e h o t e l i n t h i s
c i t y wa s b u r n e d t o p u n i s h t h e l a n d l o r d f o r e n t e r -
t a i n i n g a p a t r i o t i c s p e a k e r . "
So m e t i m e s , h o we v e r , t h e Lo r d r e m e m b e r e t h Hi s
h a n d m a i d e n :
" Sh e l b y v i l l e , Il l . - Ju s t b e f o r e t i m e t o l e c t u r e
m o b d e s t r o y s m y p l a t f o r m a n d l a m p s . In b r e a k i n g
u p a t o r c h a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c Ir i s h m a n s p l a s h e s
g a s o l i n e o v e r h i s c l o t h e s , wh i c h i g n i t e , g i v i n g h i m
a l i t t l e f o r e c a s t o f p u r g a t o r y . "
No r a r e q u i t e a l l t h e p e o p l e i n t h e g r e a t s t a t e o f
Il l i n o i s c o m p l e t e l y a n e s t h e t i ze d b y p o p i s h p r o p a -
g a n d a :
"
Fa r m i n g t o n , Il l . - Th e s p e a k e r ' $ l i f e i s t h r e a t -
e n e d a n d s p e c i a l p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o
g u a r d h i m t o a n d f r o m h i s h o t e l . Th e c i t i ze n s p u r -
c h a s e c o s t l y Co l t ' s r e v o l v e r b y p o p u l a r s u b s c r i p -
25 0

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
t i o n a n d p r e s e n t i t t o t h e s p e a k e r i n p u b l i c m a s s
m e e t i n g . "
Su r e l y t h e h a n d o f t h e Lo r d wa s v i s i b l e h e r e
:
"
Wi n o n a , M i n n . - Pe l t e d wi t h r o t t e n f r u i t a n d
s t a l e e g g s wh i l e o n wa y t o h o t e l a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g a
l e c t u r e i n t h e o p e n a i r
. Th e e n e m y e n d e a v o r s t o
b r e a k i n t o m y r o o m i n t h e h o t e l a n d If i r e o n t h e
l e a d e r o f t h e m o b wi t h a 45 c a l i b e r Co l t ' s r e v o l v e r ,
m i s s i n g , b u t s e n d i n g t h e m o b p a n i c s t r i c k e n i n t o t h e
s t r e e t s . "
Ha v i n g r e l a t e d wh i c h i n c i d e n t s a n d m a n y m o r e
o f t h e s a m e c o m p l e xi o n , M r
. Cl a r k i n q u i r e s :
" Wh a t t h i n k y e o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t c l a i m s t o
b e t h e o n l y t r u e c h u r c h o u t o f wh i c h t h e r e i s n o
s a l v a t i o n a n d y e t s e e k s t o r e d d e n i t s h a n d s b y
s h e d d i n g t h e b l o o d o f e v e r y m a n b r a v e e n o u g h t o
t e l l t h e t r u t h a b o u t h e r d e e d s o f d a r k n e s s ? "
B u t s u c h s u f f e r i n g s c o u l d n o t g o o n f o r e v e r . Th e
c l i m a xc a m e wh e n , p e n n i l e s s a n d d i s h e a r t e n e d i n
" a l i t t l e Pr o t e s t a n t t o wn " t we l v e m i l e s o u t o f
D i xo n , Il l i n o i s , t h i s c r u s a d e r wa s t a k e n t o t h e h o m e
o f "
a g o o d m a n
"
wh o f e d h i m a n d s p o k e k i n d l y
t o h i m , " t h e f i r s t r e a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t Ih a d r e -
c e i v e d f o r m a n y m o n t h s
. "
" It s e e m e d t o b e t h e t u r n i n g o f t h e t i d e . Th e n
c a m e i n a f e wy e a r s t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y , t h e
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

2
5 1
Kn i g h t s o f Lu t h e r a n d t h e Pa t h f i n d e r s , a l l o f wh i c h
g a v e c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d o p e n e d a f i e l d f o r n e w
l a b o r . "
Th e Wo r l d Wa r a n d Am e r i c a ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n
t h e r e i n we r e t o i n t e r v e n e b e t we e n t h i s d a wn a n d
t h e d a y o f g l o r y ' s h i g h n o o n t i d e , b u t f a i t h wa s t o
b e a t l a s t t r i u m p h a n t l y v i n d i c a t e d :
" Th e o t h e r n i g h t Is t o o d u n d e r t h e l i g h t o f t h e
Fi e r y Cr o s s a n d l o o k e d i n t o t h e f a c e s o f 5 0 , 0 0 0
l o y a l m e n a n d m y h e a r t wa s g l a d a n d m y e y e s f i l l e d
wi t h t e a r s . "
Re f e r e n c e i s h a d h e r e t o a Ku Kl u xk l o n v o c a t i o n
s o m e t i m e i n 1924 o r e a r l i e r . Sa i d M r . Cl a r k i n a
l e t t e r t o t h e wr i t e r d a t e d Ja n u a r y 10 , 1928 :
" Ic a m p a i g n e d f o r t h e Kl a n i n M i s s o u r i , Ok l a .
In d , Il l . a n d o t h e r s t a t e s . M a n y t h o u s a n d s o f m e n
s i g n e d t h e i r p e t i t i o n s f o r t h e o r d e r d u r i n g m y
l e c t u r e s . Iwi t h d r e wf r o m t h e o r d e r t h r e e y e a r s a g o
b e c a u s e o f i t s c r i m i n a l m e t h o d s , t h e u n - Am e r i c a n
n a t u r e o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n , a n d t h e i m m o r a l i t y a n d
c r i m i n a l n a t u r e o f m a n y o f i t s p r o m i n e n t l e a d e r s . "
M r . Cl a r k m e n t i o n s t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y ,
t h e Kn i g h t s o f Lu t h e r a n d t h e Pa t h f i n d e r s . Th e s e
o r d e r s , wi t h a f o u r t h n a m e d t h e Co v e n a n t e r s , we r e
t h e m o s t p o we r f u l o r g a n i za t i o n s wh i c h k e p t a l i g h t
t h e f i r e s o f a n t i - Ca t h o l i c p r e j u d i c e f r o m 1911 u n t i l
Am e r i c a ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e wa r .
25 2

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
B u t t h e c a l d r o n o f h a t e wa s f i r s t s e t b o i l i n g a n e w
i n a r e a l l y b i g wa y b y o n e m a n
. He wa s Th o m a s E .
Wa t s o n , s o m e t i m e Un i t e d St a t e s Se n a t o r f r o m
Ge o r g i a , e d i t o r a n d o wn e r o f
Th e Je f f e r s o n i a n ,
p r o h i b i t i o n i s t , r e f o r m e r , s t u d e n t o f a n c i e n t h i s t o r y ,
f o e o f f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s ,
" s a g e o f Hi c k o r y Hi l l . "
Wa t s o n b u r s t u p o n t h e wo r l d a s a c r u s a d e r
a g a i n s t p o p e r y i n t h e e d i t o r i a l c o l u m n o f h i s m a g -
a zi n e f o r Au g u s t ,
1910 . He c a p t i o n e d t h e a n n o u n c e -
m e n t o f h i s r e s o l v e t o d r i v e Ca t h o l i c i t y f r o m t h e s e
s h o r e s wi t h t h e wo r d s
" THEROM ANCATHOLIC
HIERARCHY
: THED EAD LIESTM ENACETo
OUR
LIB ERTIESAND OURCIVILIZ ATION . " Th e e d i t o r i a l
c o n t a i n e d t h e u s u a l d i s a v o wa l o f h o s t i l i t y t o wa r d
i n d i v i d u a l Ca t h o l i c s a n d t h e u s u a l p h i l i p p i c s
a g a i n s t t h e Ca t h o l i c p r i e s t h o o d
. Wh e n t h e t i m e
c a m e f o r Wa t s o n t o e xp l a i n wh y h e , m o r e t h a n a n y
o t h e r m a n , s h o u l d f e e l c a l l e d u p o n t o g o f o r t h t o
t h i s b a t t l e , h e b l u s h e d a m o d e s t b l u s h a n d wr u n g
t h i s p a r a g r a p h f r o m t h e e d i t o r i a l t y p e wr i t e r :
" Em e r s o n p r e d i c t e d t h a t a Th i n k e r wo u l d a r i s e
a m o n g u s , s o m e d a y , a n d t h a t wh e n h e d i d , t h e r e
wo u l d b e a c o n v u l s i o n a n d r e a d j u s t m e n t . Th e r e
a r e t h o s e wh o r a t e Em e r s o n h i m s e l f a s a Th i n k e r ,
b u t t h e r e v o l u t i o n h a s n o t m a t e r i a l i ze d . Pe r h a p s h e
wa s t o o m u c h o f a g e n e r a l i ze r , wi t h o u t t h e n e r v e
o r t h e f a c u l t y t o l a y h i s d y n a m i t e u n d e r n e a t h
a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . He wa s o f t h e Er a s m u s
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

25 3
t y p e , wi l l i n g t o l a y e g g s , b u t n o t t o r a i s e c h i c k e n s
:
wi l l i n g t o d r e a m a n d wr i t e , b u t n o t t o m a r c h a n d
f i g h t . "
Wa t s o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s c a r r i e d o n a c a m p a i g n
a g a i n s t Ro m a n i s m wi t h v a r y i n g f e r o c i t y f r o m t h e
o p e n i n g g u n u n t i l t h e d e a t h o f Ge o r g i a ' s c h a m p i o n
h e l l r a i s e r i n Se p t e m b e r ,
1922 .
Th e Un i t e d St a t e s g o v e r n m e n t , d o u b t l e s s a t t h e
b e h e s t o f t h e Va t i c a n , l e a p t u p o n Wa t s o n i n 1913
wi t h a c h a r g e t h a t h e h a d s e n t o b s c e n e m a t t e r
t h r o u g h t h e m a i l s
. Ad e f e c t i n t h e i n d i c t m e n t f o r c e d
d i s m i s s a l o f t h e f i r s t p r o s e c u t i o n , b u t wi t h u n -
Ch r i s t i a n m a l e v o l e n c e t h e f e d e r a l d i s t r i c t a t t o r -
n e y a t Au g u s t a , Ge o r g i a , o b t a i n e d a s e c o n d b i l l a n d
b r o u g h t Wa t s o n t o h i s t r i a l
. Th e j u r y d i s a g r e e d .
St i l l t h e h o u n d s o f g o v e r n m e n t b a y e d u p o n h i s
t r a i l
. Hi s l o n g p e r s e c u t i o n c e a s e d wh e n , i n No -
v e m b e r , 1916 ,
a j u r y a c q u i t t e d h i m a n d l e f t h i m
f r e e t o b e a r d t h e Po p e u n h a m p e r e d b y t h e p e t t y
wh i m s o f f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s
.
D y i n g , Wa t s o n r e q u e s t e d t h a t u p o n h i s h e a d -
s t o n e b e g r a v e d t h e s i m p l e e p i t a p h , " He r e l i e s t h e
e n e m y o f t h e B o u r b o n s , t h e Je s u i t s a n d t h e In a s -
m u c h e s . "
Th e o r g a n i za t i o n k n o wn a s t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f
Li b e r t y wa s t h e p e t o f t h e o l d a g e o f t h a t f a m o u s
Ci v i l Wa r a n d In d i a n f i g h t e r , Li e u t . - Ge n . Ne l s o n
Ap p l e t o n M i l e s , U . S . A. Ca p t o r o f t h e Ne zPe r c e
25 4

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
c h i e f Jo s e p h , c o n q u e r o r o f Ge r o n i m o ' s Ap a c h e s ,
t e r r o r o f t h e we s t e r n p l a i n s i n t h e s e v e n t i e s a n d
o f t h e Ch i c a g o r a i l wa y s t r i k e r s i n 1894, Ge n e r a l
M i l e s wa s o n e o f f o u r m e n wh o o r g a n i ze d t h e
Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y a t Wa s h i n g t o n i n Ju n e , 1911 .
Th e o t h e r s we r e Ex- Co n g r e s s m a n Ch a r l e s D .
Ha i n e s o f Ne wYo r k ;Ch a r l e s B . Sk i n n e r , e x-
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f p u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n o f Ne wYo r k
s t a t e ;a n d Th o m a s E . Wa t s o n h i m s e l f .
Pr i n c i p l e s a n n o u n c e d a s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e o r d e r
we r e t h o s e wi t h wh i c h a t t e n t i v e r e a d e r s o f t h e p r e s -
e n t v o l u m e a r e b y t h i s t i m e we a r i l y f a m i l i a r
-
i m m i g r a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n , n o d o m i n a t i o n b y f o r -
e i g n e c c l e s i a s t i c i s m , Am e r i c a Fi r s t , Am e r i c a Fo r -
e v e r . Th e Ch u r c h o f Ro m e wa s n o t n a m e d i n t h e
c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d b y - l a ws a d o p t e d b y t h e o r d e r .
In f a c t , a s t r o n g a n t i - Ca t h o l i c c o m p l e xi o n wa s
n o t g i v e n t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y u n t i l Wa t s o n
m a d e u p h i s m i n d t o p u b l i c i ze i t a s a n a n t i -
Ca t h o l i c s o c i e t y . Th i s h e d i d e a r l y i n 1912 . Ge n e r a l
M i l e s a t f i r s t o p p o s e d Wa t s o n ' s wi s h e s .
" It i s , " h e a v e r r e d , " p u r e l y a p a t r i o t i c o r d e r . "
Th e Ca t h o l i c s p r e f e r r e d t o b e l i e v e Wa t s o n ' s
f o r t h r i g h t e xp o s i t i o n o f wh a t t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b -
e r t y s t o o d f o r . On M a r c h 1o , 1912, Ca r d i n a l Gi b -
b o n s l o o s e d t h i s t h u n d e r b o l t f r o m h i s p a l a c e a t
B a l t i m o r e
" Th i s o r d e r i s p l a i n l y n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a n
a t t e m p t t o r e v i v e t h e b i g o t r y o f t h e A . P . A . , wh i c h
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

25 5
wa s p r e s u m e d t o h a v e d i e d o f i n a n i t i o n . Su r e l y n o
s e n s i b l e m a n wi l l b e m i s l e d b y t h e t h i n a n d t h r e a d -
b a r e a r g u m e n t s o f s u c h p e o p l e . "
As k e d wh e t h e r t h e B a l t i m o r e u k a s e wa s a p -
p r o v e d a t Ro m e , Ca r d i n a l M e r r y D e l Va l , Se c r e -
t a r y o f t h e Co n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e Ho l y Of f i c e a n d
Ar c h p r i e s t o f t h e Va t i c a n B a s i l i c a , a d m i t t e d t o
Am e r i c a n p r e s s c o r r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t h e h a d p a s s e d
u p o n a n d a u t h o r i ze d t h e d o c u m e n t i n b e h a l f o f t h e
Po p e h i m s e l f .
Ge n e r a l Ho r a t i o C . Ki n g , wh o m M i l e s h a d p e r -
s u a d e d t o j o i n t h e n e wl o d g e , r e s i g n e d a d a y o r
t wo a f t e r Gi b b o n s t h u n d e r e d ;a n d s o d i d M a j o r -
Ge n . D . E . Si c k l e s . Ch a r l e s B . Sk i n n e r d e n i e d h a v -
i n g a u t h o r i ze d t h e u s e o f h i s n a m e o n t h e Gu a r -
d i a n s ' s t a t i o n a r y . M i l e s wa s l e f t wi t h Wa t s o n t o
c a r r y o n t h e n e wc r u s a d e . He wa s s wi f t l y wo n o v e r
t o t h e Wa t s o n v i e wt h a t t h e Gu a r d i a n s s h o u l d f u n c -
t i o n a s wa t c h m e n o n t h e wa l l s o f Po p e - t h r e a t e n e d
Z i o n .
Wh y M i l e s b e c a m e a l a r m e d a t t h i s t i m e i t wo u l d
b e d i f f i c u l t t o s a y wi t h a s s u r a n c e . Ap p a r e n t l y h e
h i m s e l f d i d n o t k n o wt h e r e a s o n .
" Th e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y s i m p l y b e l i e v e , " h e
t o l d t h e p r e s s b y wa y o f r e t o r t t o Ca r d i n a l Gi b b o n s ,
" i n t h e a d a g e : ` In t i m e o f p e a c e p r e p a r e f o r wa r . '
We a r e a s k e d wh a t s p e c i f i c t h i n g t h e Ca t h o l i c
c h u r c h h a s d o n e t o c a l l f o r a c t i o n . Ia n s we r b y s a y -
25 6

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
i n g t h a t t h e Un i t e d St a t e s i s b u i l d i n g b a t t l e s h i p s ,
a l t h o u g h n o f o r e i g n n a t i o n i s h o s t i l e t o wa r d u s
. "
An d , i n v e r y t r u t h , o n e n e v e r k n o ws wh e r e o r
h o wt h e h i e r a r c h y m a y s t r i k e n e xt
. It wa s n o t e d ,
a n d d u l y c o m m e n t e d u p o n b y t h e Gu a r d i a n s i n
j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a l a r m , t h a t i n No v e m b e r ,
1911,
Pr e s i d e n t Wi l l i a m Ho wa r d Ta f t a n d f a m i l y
a t t e n d e d Th a n k s g i v i n g s e r v i c e s a t St
. Pa t r i c k ' s
Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h i n Wa s h i n g t o n
. Ap a t r i o t
c o u l d n o t t e l l b u t t h a t M r
. Ta f i s t r u e n a t u r e wa s
c o m i n g o u t a t l a s t , a f t e r a l l t h e s e y e a r s i n wh i c h
t h e n a t i o n h a d s u p p o s e d h i m t o b e a s t a u n c h Un i -
t a r i a n -
wh i c h wa s b a d e n o u g h .
In Au g u s t , z9z2,
t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y ,
c l a i m i n g 126 , o o o
m e m b e r s , a b s o r b e d t h e Im m i g r a -
t i o n Re s t r i c t i o n Le a g u e , m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e l a t t e r
n o t s t a t e d i n t h e a r t i c l e s o f c a p i t u l a t i o n
.
M i l e s wa s n o wa f u l l - f l e d g e d b a t t l e r a g a i n s t t h e
Po p e , a n d h a d a d d e d s c a r s f r o m t h i s wa r f a r e t o
t h e c o l l e c t i o n h e h a d g l e a n e d i n t h e Ci v i l a n d
In d i a n wa r s . He wa s d e n i e d t h e u s e o f t h e Od e o n
l e c t u r e h a l l i n St . Lo u i s o n M a y 24, 1912, wh e r e h e
wa s s c h e d u l e d t o d e l i v e r h i s l e c t u r e o n
" Am e r i c a ' s
D a n g e r
. " Re s c i s s i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t f o r t h e h a l l
wa s e xe c u t e d o n d e m a n d o f s e v e r a l p r o m i n e n t
St . Lo u i s Ca t h o l i c s .
Th e g e n e r a l t o u r e d t h e c o u n t r y , h a p p y i n r e -
p e a t i n g h i s s p e e c h , s h a k i n g h a n d s wi t h h i s m u l t i -
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

25 7
t u d e s o f a d m i r e r s , p a s s i n g o u t
c o p i e s o f Th e
M e n a c e a n d s i m i l a r
a n t i - Ca t h o l i c p a p e r s . No
d o u b t , t h o u g h h i s t o n g u e n a m e d Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c s
a s t h e q u a r r y o f h i s t we n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Exc a l i b u r ,
t h e o l d g e n t l e m a n wa s s l a u g h t e r i n g In d i a n s a n d
Jo h n n y Re b s i n h i s m i n d .
So f a r a s d i s c l o s e d b y a v a i l a b l e n e ws p a p e r
c l i p p i n g s o f t h e t i m e , t h e Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y
m a d e o n l y t wo n o t i c e a b l e d e n t s i n t h e n a t i o n a l
c o n s c i o u s n e s s . M o s t o f
t h e i r a b o u n d i n g e n e r g y
we n t i n t o s u c h m e l a n c h o l y t a s k s a s t h a t o f p r o t e s t -
i n g t o t h e Ne wYo r k Ci t y b o a r d o f e s t i m a t e a g a i n s t
e xp e n d i t u r e o f c i t y f u n d s f o r f i e l d m a s s e s i n t h e
B r o o k l y n n a v y y a r d , o r t r a c k i n g d o wn t h e Ro m a n
Ca t h o l i c a f f i l i a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s
h e r e a n d t h e r e .
B u t wh e n Wi l l i a m Su l ze r wa s i m p e a c h e d a n d
o u s t e d a s g o v e r n o r o f Ne wYo r k i n 1913, t h e
Gu a r d i a n s b a d e f a i r t o p r o v e a u s e f u l we a p o n f o r
h i s d r i v e t o r e g a i n p o we r a t t h e n e xt e l e c t i o n
. Th e
B u f f a l o a n d Ro c h e s t e r Co u r t s -
a s t h e Gu a r d i a n s '
c h a p t e r s we r e c a l l e d
- g a v e p r o m i s e o f s wi n g i n g
m a n y a v o t e t o Su l ze r i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1914
.
Su l ze r , Wh i t m a n a n d M a r t i n H
. Gl y n n we r e
wa g i n g t h r e e - c o r n e r e d wa r f o r t h e g o v e r n o r s h i p
t h a t f a l l , wi t h Su l ze r b e l l o wi n g t h a t Ta m m a n y h a d
m e r g e d f o r c e s wi t h t h e Po p e t o g e t h i s o f f i c i a l
s c a l p
. Al t o n B . Pa r k e r , wh o r a n a g a i n s t Th e o d o r e
Ro o s e v e l t f o r p r e s i d e n t i n 190 4, wa s m o v e d o n t h i s
25 8

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
o c c a s i o n t o j o i n wi t h Ro o s e v e l t i n d e n o u n c i n g t h e
Gu a r d i a n s a s " p i n h e a d s
. "
Ye t Su l ze r d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e Gu a r d i a n s ' s u p -
p o r t a f t e r a l l . Th e y , a n d a m y s t e r i o u s o f f s h o o t o f
t h e i r s k n o wn i n Ne wYo r k o n l y a s t h e P' s 1 a n d
e xt r e m e l y s e c r e t i v e a s t o m e m b e r s h i p , q u i t t h e
Su l ze r c a m p s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e e l e c t i o n .
Th e e xp l a n a t i o n u n e a r t h e d b y t h e n e ws p a p e r s
wa s t h a t a l l h a d g o n e we l l u n t i l t h e s t a t e o r g a n i ze r
o f t h e P' s , a n e x- u n d e r t a k e r f r o m Al b a n y , d e -
m a n d e d $ i o , o o o f r o m Su l ze r f o r t h e t wo o r g a n i -
za t i o n s ' s u p p o r t o f h i s c a n d i d a c y , wh i c h Su i ze r
i n d i g n a n t l y r e f u s e d t o p a y . Fo r t h i s c a u s e a m o n g
s e v e r a l , h e wa s n o t e l e c t e d .
Fo u r t e e n m o n t h s p a s s e d b e f o r e t h e Gu a r d i a n s
wo n t o t h e c o l u m n s o f t h e Ne wYo r k d a i l i e s a g a i n .
Th e y a p p e a r e d i n 1916 a s t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e Ga r y
s y s t e m wh i c h t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n o f Ne wYo r k
Ci t y y e a r n e d t o i n t r o d u c e i n t o t h e Ne wYo r k
s c h o o l s .
Ge n e r a l M i l e s a n d h i s c o m r a d e s d i v i n e d t h a t t h e
Po p e h a d a h a n d i n t h i s a g i t a t i o n . An e ws s t o r y o f
Ja n u a r y 2 r , 19
16 , r e l a t e s h o wM i l e s a n d t h e Re v .
D r s
. Wi l l i a m M i l t o n He s s , Pa u l B u f f a a n d Am a d e o
M . D . Ri g g i o f i l l e d Co o p e r Un i o n wi t h a n a n t i -
Ga r y s y s t e m m a s s m e e t i n g . Th e s t o r y g o e s o n t o
s a y t h a t e v e r y s p e a k e r , i n h i s a n xi e t y t o l e a v e n o
1 Th e Ne wYo r k Wo r l d e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t Ps t o o d f o r
Pa t h f i n d e r s .
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

2
5 9
Ca t h o l i c h a i r u n s i n g e d , f o r g o t c o m p l e t e l y t o e x-
p l a i n wh a t t h e Ga r y s y s t e m wa s .
Wh e n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s d e c l a r e d wa r o n t h e
Im p e r i a l Ge r m a n g o v e r n m e n t i n Ap r i l , 1917 , t h e
Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y we r e p r o m p t l y f o r g o t t e n
.
Th e Ka i s e r u s u r p e d t h e p l a c e o f t h e Po p e a s An t i -
c h r i s t i n t h e Am e r i c a n d e m o n o l o g y , a n d r e i g n e d i n
h i s s t e a d f o r n i g h f o u r y e a r s , o r u n t i l Ed wa r d
Yo u n g Cl a r k e p u l m o t o r e d t h e Kl a n o u t o f b a n k -
r u p t c y
. Wi t h t h e Gu a r d i a n s s a n k o u t o f s i g h t t h e
Kn i g h t s o f Lu t h e r , t h e Co v e n a n t e r s a n d t h e Am e r i -
c a n Pa t h f i n d e r s .
Th e a n t i - p a p a l g a d f l y wh i c h s t u n g t h e Ca t h o l i c s
d e e p e s t i n t h o s e d a y s , h o we v e r , wa s n o n e o f t h e s e
l o d g e s
. It wa s a n e ws p a p e r t h a t we n t b y t h e n a m e
o f Th e M e n a c e .
Ha r d l y a n y o n e wh o a t t a i n e d h i s o r h e r m a j o r i t y
p r i o r t o 1925 b u t wi l l r e m e m b e r t h e s m u d g y l i t t l e
f o u r - p a g e f i r e b r a n d t h a t i s s u e d we e k l y o u t o f
Au r o r a , M i s s o u r i , h i s s i n g wi t h e v e r y s p e c i e s o f a c -
c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t Ca t h o l i c i t y . Fr e i g h t c a r s p a r a d e d
t h e h o b o - c h a l k e d l e g e n d " Re a d Th e M e n a c e " u p
a n d d o wn t h e n a t i o n . B a p t i s t a n d M e t h o d i s t p a s -
t o r s i n m a n y a r u r a l k i r k we r e wo n t t o r e a d t h e
p a p e r f r o m t h e i r p u l p i t s i n l i e u o f s e r m o n s
. It wa s
f r o wn e d u p o n p u b l i c l y b y c o n s e r v a t i v e Pr o t e s -
t a n t s , b u t s o m e o f t h e s e t o l d o n e a n o t h e r i n p r i v a t e
t h a t i t wa s d o i n g a wo r t h y wo r k .
Ca t h o l i c s b e l l o we d a g a i n s t t h e l i t t l e s h e e t i n p u l -
26 o

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
p i t a n d m a r k e t - p l a c e . Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s we n t
t h r o u g h i t s e v e r y i s s u e wi t h m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s e s
i n s e a r c h o f g r o u n d s f o r l i b e l a c t i o n s . Th e Ca t h -
o l i c p r e s s s c r e a m e d a n a t h e m a . Th e M e n a c e g y r a t e d
a n d b a wl e d u n c h e c k e d .
Th e p a p e r h u r t l e d t h u s f r e e l y t h r o u g h i t s c a r e e r
b y v i r t u e o f wh a t m a n y a r d e n t c h u r c h m e n c o n s i d e r
a f l a wi n t h e l a wo f l i b e l , b u t f o r wh o s e e xi s t e n c e
t h o u g h t f u l c i t i ze n s t h a n k wh a t e v e r g o d s m a y b e .
Th e a l l e g e d we a k n e s s c o n s i s t s i n t h e f a c t - h e r e
s t a t e d g e n e r a l l y , a n d s u b j e c t t o e xc e p t i o n s - t h a t
a n i n d i v i d u a l o r c o r p o r a t i o n m a y wi t h i m p u n i t y
p u b l i s h a n y s o r t o f d e f a m a t i o n o f a p a r t o f a
c l a s s , s u c h a s Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c s , Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m -
b u s , n u n s , p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s o r Two - Se e d - i n - t h e - Sp i r i t
B a p t i s t s , s o l o n g a s n o s p e c i a l d a m a g e c a n b e
p r o v e d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p a r t o f
t h e c l a s s s o l i b e l e d .
Ca t h o l i c s m a d e m a n y a n e f f o r t t o h a v e t h e l i b e l
l a ws r e m o l d e d n e a r e r t o t h e i r h e a r t s ' d e s i r e t o k i l l
o f f Th e M e n a c e , b u t wi t h o u t s u c c e s s . Fa t h e r Ro s s -
m a n , a We s t Vi r g i n i a d i v i n e , r e c o v e r e d a j u d g m e n t
o f $ r , 5 o o a g a i n s t
Th e M e n a c e f o r l i b e l , b u t i t i s
b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s wa s t h e l o n e d r o p o f b l o o d d r a wn
f r o m t h e p a p e r d u r i n g i t s l u s t y l i f e . On e o f t h e a t -
t o r n e y s f o r t h e d e f e n s e i n Fa t h e r Ro s s m a n ' s c a s e
a r g u e d t h a t Th e M e n a c e ' s
r e p u t a t i o n wa s s o n o t o -
r i o u s a s t o r e n d e r h a r m l e s s a n y t h i n g i t m i g h t s a y
a b o u t a n y b o d y .
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

26 1
Th e p a p e r wa s e s t a b l i s h e d a t Au r o r a , M i s s o u r i ,
i n 1911 . It s s e n i o r e d i t o r , f i r s t a n d l a s t , wa s t h e
Re v . D r
. Th e o d o r e Wa l k e r , a Co n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t
m i n i s t e r . D u r i n g m o s t o f i t s l i f e i t s m a n a g i n g e d i -
t o r wa s M a r v i n B r o wn , i t s b u s i n e s s m a n a g e r Wi l -
b u r F . Ph e l p s , i t s p l a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t B r u c e M a l -
c o l m Ph e l p s
. Th i s q u a d r u m v i r a t e b u i l t u p t h e
p a p e r f r o m n o t h i n g t o a n o c t o p u s o f t h e p r e s s
b o a s t i n g - a n d c o n c e d e d b y i t s b i t t e r e s t e n e m i e s
- a c i r c u l a t i o n o f o v e r
1, 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
c o p i e s p e r we e k .
It s a i m s a n d a m b i t i o n s , f r o m wh i c h i t i m m e d i -
a t e l y d e p a r t e d a n d r e m a i n e d a wa y d u r i n g i t s e n t i r e
c a r e e r , we r e t h u s s e t f o r t h i n D r
. Wa l k e r ' s m a i d e n
e d i t o r i a l :
" Th e M e n a c e
wa s n o t b e g u n i n a c a p t i o u s s p i r i t ,
f a r f r o m i t , b u t wi t h a p r o f o u n d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a
' v e r y g r a v e a n d p o r t e n t o u s m e n a c e c o n f r o n t s t h e
Am e r i c a n p e o p l e , t h a t n e e d s t o b e g i v e n p u b l i c i t y
.
" Th e M e n a c e
h a s n o f i g h t wi t h t h e Ro m a n r e -
l i g i o n f o r t h o s e wh o l i k e i t , a s i t r e l a t e s t o s a l v a t i o n
a n d t h e f u t u r e l i f e .
"
Th e t h r e a t e n i n g d a n g e r t o Am e r i c a n i n s t i t u -
t i o n s , a f r e e c h u r c h , a f r e e p r e s s , a f r e e s c h o o l , t h e
r i g h t o f p r i v a t e j u d g m e n t i n t h e m a t t e r o f c o n -
s c i e n c e -
t h e s e t h e Ro m a n c h u r c h s u b o r d i n a t e s
t o t h e a u t h o r i t y o f i t s h i e r a r c h y
.
"
Th e p r i v a t e , h u m b l e c o m m u n i c a n t i n t h e Ca t h -
o l i c c h u r c h h a s n o c h o i c e wh a t h e i s t o b e l i e v e
- i t
i s f o r h i m t o o b e y t h e v o i c e o f t h e c h u r c h
.
26 2

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
" Th e M e n a c e t a k e s i s s u e wi t h t h i s v o i c e a n d n o t
wi t h t h e c o m m u n i c a n t
;wi t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t
d i r e c t , a n d n o t t h e m a n o r wo m a n wh o f e e l s c o m -
p e l l e d t o o b e y .
" Th e M e n a c e , t h e r e f o r e , e n t e r s a l e g i t i m a t e
f i e l d o f c r i t i c i s m o p e n t o a l l wh e t h e r h e b e Ca t h o l i c ,
Pr o t e s t a n t , Gr e e k o r Je w, M o h a m m e d a n o r Fr e e -
t h i n k e r .
" If t h e Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h i s a m e n a c e t o Am e r i c a n
l i b e r t y a n d f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e p e o p l e o u g h t t o
k n o wi t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e Ca t h o l i c m e m b e r s .
"
Th e o n l y f r e e d o m t h a t i s wo r t h h a v i n g a t a l l
i s t h a t wh i c h t h e Ch r i s t a n n o u n c e d wh e n h e s a i d ,
` a n d t h e t r u t h s h a l l m a k e y o u f r e e . '
" It i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f wh o u t t e r s c o n d e m n a -
t i o n a g a i n s t p r i e s t c r a f t a n d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n t e r f e r -
e n c e i n t h i n g s b e l o n g i n g e xc l u s i v e l y t o t h e s t a t e ;
b u t , i s t h e c h a r g e t r u e ?
" To a s s a i l t h e e d i t o r o f
Th e M e n a c e
o r i t s p u b -
l i s h e r s wi l l a v a i l n o t h i n g
. Th e h i e r a r c h y m u s t m e e t
t h e i m p e n d i n g c r i s i s wh i c h Th e M e n a c e b e l i e v e s i s
a t h a n d o r b e d r i v e n f r o m t h e f i e l d a s i n Fr a n c e ,
Ge r m a n y , Sp a i n a n d e v e r y g r e a t n a t i o n o f m o d e r n
t i m e s . "
Fr o m i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t h a l f
o f 1915 , t h e p a p e r t o o k i n a t o t a l i n e xc e s s o f
$ 3, 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . It s c i r c u l a t i o n t o p p e d 1, 40 0 , 0 0 0 c o p i e s
p e r we e k wi t h i n t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e f i r s t i s s u e
a p p e a r e d . Up t o n Si n c l a i r m i g h t h a v e c o n c o c t e d a
P. UA . Po o .
JAM ESJ . FLAHERTY
EX- SUPREM EKNIGHTOFTHEKNIGHTSOFCOLUM B US
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

26 3
s o u r f o o t n o t e f o r h i s " Th e Pr o f i t s o f Re l i g i o n "
f r o m t h e f a c t , u n e a r t h e d b y t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m -
b u s a n d b y t h e m d u l y l a m e n t e d , t h a t i n t h e f i r s t
s i xm o n t h s o f 1914 Th e M e n a c e e a r n e d $ 5 0 0 o n
e a c h $ i o o s h a r e o f s t o c k
.
Ca n a d a ' s p o s t m a s t e r - g e n e r a l b a r r e d t h e p a p e r
f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n m a i l s i n Ap r i l , 194- wh i c h
a c t i o n p u m p e d s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d n e ws u b s c r i p t i o n s
i n t o t h e Au r o r a b u s i n e s s o f f i c e ' s m a w .
As i m i l a r e f f e c t wa s p r o d u c e d b y t h e p r o s e c u t i o n
Of t h e p a p e r ' s f o u r s p o n s o r s o n a c h a r g e o f u s i n g
t h e m a i l s f o r t h e s h i p m e n t o f p r i n t e d o b s c e n i t i e s .
Th e M e n a c e t r i a l wa s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a c t i v i t i e s o f
t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s . On e Si r Kn i g h t Pa u l
B a k e we l l , o f M i s s o u r i , wr o t e a f i e r y l e t t e r t o
Un i t e d St a t e s Po s t m a s t e r - Ge n e r a l Al b e r t S . B u r l e -
s o n , d e m a n d i n g a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p a p e r . La n d r y
Ha r wo o d , h e a d o f t h e Ca t h o l i c o r d e r i n M i s s o u r i ,
c a u s e d t h e l e t t e r t o b e p r i n t e d a n d wi d e l y c i r c u -
l a t e d . Pr e s s u r e o n t h e f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s a t Jo p l i n b e -
c a m e u n e n d u r a b l e , a n d a f e d e r a l g r a n d j u r y i n t h a t
c i t y p r e s e n t l y i n d i c t e d M e s s r s . Wa l k e r , B r o wn ,
Ph e l p s a n d Ph e l p s .
Th e p r o s e c u t i o n wa s b a s e d o n t wo i t e m s : ( i ) a
s t o r y p u b l i s h e d i n Th e M e n a c e o f t h e a l l e g e d s e -
d u c t i o n
o f a y o u n g g i r l b y a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c p r i e s t ,
a n d ( 2)
a b o o k o f e x- p r i e s t Je r e m i a h J . Cr o wl e y ' s ,
p u b l i s h e d b y t h e M e n a c e b o o k c o n c e r n a n d c o n -
t a i n i n g o b s c e n e q u e s t i o n s a l l e g e d t o h a v e b e e n p r e -
26 4

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
s c r i b e d b y St . Ai p h o n s u s Li g u o r i i n h i s M o r a l Th e -
o l o g y a s p r o p e r t o b e a s k e d o f y o u n g g i r l s i n t h e
c o n f e s s i o n a l -
a n o l d f a v o r i t e o f t h e a n t i - Ca t h o l i c
p a m p h l e t e e r s ' .
It d e v e l o p e d a t t h e t r i a l t h a t Ha r wo o d , f o r t h e
Kn i g h t s , a n d E . V . Sc h n e i d e r h a h n f o r t h e Am e r i c a n
Fe d e r a t i o n o f Ca t h o l i c So c i e t i e s , h a d b e e n c o l l e c t -
i n g f i l e s o f
Th e M e n a c e f o r t h e t wo y e a r s l a s t p a s t ,
p r e p a r a t o r y t o t h i s l e a p a t t h e p u b l i c a t i o n ' s b r a s s -
l i n e d t h r o a t . Th e t i d e o f b a t t l e r a g e d u p a n d d o wn
Ju d g e Ar b a S . Va n Va l k e n b u r g h ' s c o u r t r o o m f o r
f o u r l o n g a n d b l o o d y d a y s . B u r n i n g s p e e c h e s we r e
m a d e t o a b e f u d d l e d j u r y b y D i s t r i c t At t o r n e y
Fr a n c i s M . Wi l s o n f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d M e s s r s .
J. L . M c Na t t a n d J . I. Sh e p p a r d f o r t h e d e f e n s e .
La t e r o n , B . 0 . Fl o we r wr o t e a b o o k a b o u t t h e
t r i a l , wh e r e i n h e c o m p a r e d t h e t o wn o f Jo p l i n
f a v o r a b l y wi t h Ha r p e r ' s Fe r r y , M a r a t h o n , Sa l a m i s ,
Ru n n y m e d e , In d e p e n d e n c e Ha l l a n d t h e Al a m o .
Th r o u g h a l l t h e s m o k e a n d f l a m e a n d c u s s wo r d s
Th e M e n a c e
s t a f f wo n t o a n a c q u i t t a l ;a n d we a r e
t o l d t h a t g r e a t wa s t h e r e j o i c i n g t h e r e a t i n Jo p l i n .
Fo r t h e s u b s e q u e n t h i s t o r y o f Th e M e n a c e , we
m u s t t u r n t o t h e m a s t h e a d o f
Th e Ne wM e n a c e ,
wh i c h , a t l e a s t u n t i l Ja n u a r y 25 , 1928, wa s i s s u i n g
f r o m Au r o r a , M i s s o u r i , a s a we e k l y a n t i - Ca t h o l i c
p a p e r wh o s e c h i e f p e t s we r e Se n a t o r J . Th o m a s
He f l i n o f Al a b a m a a n d Wi l l i a m H . An d e r s o n , l a t e
o f Si n g Si n g a n d a t t h i s wr i t i n g c h i e f t a i n o f t h e
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

26 5
Am e r i c a n Pr o t e s t a n t Al l i a n c e
. Th e s h e r i f f wa s o n
t h e t r a i l o f
Th e Ne wM e n a c e wi t h p a p e r s f r o m t h e
b a n k , " b e c a u s e s o - c a l l e d p a t r i o t s f o o l e d u s wi t h
b a d a c c o u n t s , " a n d a f o r c e d s a l e wa s t h r e a t e n e d i f
$ 2, 5 0 0
we r e n o t p a i d b y t h e d a t e a b o v e n a m e d .
"
Un t i l t h e d i s a s t r o u s i n c e n d i a r y f i r e i n D e c e m -
b e r o f i
9i 9, " s a y s t h e m a s t h e a d , " wh e n i t s p l a n t
wa s d e s t r o y e d ( l a y i n g t h e g r o u n d wo r k f o r a l o n g -
d r a wn - o u t c o u r t b a t t l e ) , i t
( Th e M e n a c e ) c a r r i e d
On v a l i a n t l y a g a i n s t p o l i t i c a l Ro m a n i s m
. In Ap r i l o f
192o Th e Ne wM e n a c e
r o s e f r o m t h e a s h e s . . . . "
Wh a t d i d t h e Ca t h o l i c s d o i n t h e s e y e a r s b y wa y
o f r e t u r n i n g t h e Pr o t e s t a n t h o t s h o t ? Th e Ca t h o -
l i c s we r e n o t l o n g i d l e . Th e y wr u n g h a n d s a n d
s h r i e k e d p e r s e c u t i o n f o r a s p a c e , t h e n d e t e r m i n e d
t o g i r d o n t h e s wo r d o f t h e Lo r d a n d o f Gi d e o n .
On Fe b r u a r y i o , 1915 , t h e s u p r e m e g o v e r n i n g
b o d y o f t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s a p p r o p r i a t e d
$ 5 0 , 0 0 0
t o f i n a n c e a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e a s o n s
f o r a n d s o u r c e s o f t h e v a r i o u s l a t t e r - d a y a n t i -
Ca t h o l i c m o v e m e n t s
. Th e c o m m i t t e e a p p o i n t e d t o
c o n d u c t t h e p r o b e c o m p r i s e d f i v e e m i n e n t Kn i g h t s :
Co l . P
. H . Ca l l a h a n , o f Lo u i s v i l l e , c h a i r m a n
;Jo -
s e p h C
. Pe l l e t i e r , o f B o s t o n
;Jo s e p h Sc o t t , o f Lo s
An g e l e s ;Th o m a s A
. La wl e r , o f La n s i n g , M i c h i -
g a n
;a n d A . G
. B a g l e y , o f Va n c o u v e r , B . C .
Th i s f i l e o f s a p p e r s a n d m i n e r s d i d a h u g e
a m o u n t o f i n t e r v i e wi n g a n d l e t t e r wr i t i n g a n d
26 6

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
s i f t i n g o f e v i d e n c e . In Au g u s t i t t u r n e d i n i t s f i r s t
r e p o r t .
" An a n t i - Ca t h o l i c f e e l i n g , m o r e o r l e s s e xc i t e d , "
t h e c o m m i t t e e h a d l e a r n e d ,
"
e xi s t e d i n e v e r y s e c -
t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d p r a c t i c a l l y i n e v e r y c o m -
m u n i t y . "
Wh i c h wa s n o n e ws a t a l l t o a n y b o d y . No r wa s i t
e xa c t l y a d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h e a n t i - Ca t h o l i c f e e l i n g
wa s " m o s t c o n s p i c u o u s i n p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s , " t h o u g h
i t wa s b y n o m e a n s a b s e n t f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s a n d
s o c i a l d o m a i n s . Th e c o m m i t t e e d i d p r o d u c e a n
a c u t e b i t o f a n a l y s i s , h o we v e r , i n i t s p a r a g r a p h s
d e v o t e d t o t h e c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e f r o m wh i c h m o s t
o f t h e a t t a c k s o n Am e r i c a n Ca t h o l i c i t y c a m e :
" Fi r s t : t h o s e wh o f a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o n s t i -
t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n r e g a r d i n g f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o u s
wo r s h i p o r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e b e l i e f o f t h o s e p r o -
f e s s i n g a r e l i g i o n o t h e r t h a n t h e i r o wn .
"
Se c o n d l y : t h o s e wh o s e p u r p o s e i s t o d e s t r o y
n o t o n l y t h e Ca t h o l i c r e l i g i o n , b u t a l l r e l i g i o n a n d
a l l d u l y c o n s t i t u t e d g o v e r n m e n t .
" Th i r d l y : p e r h a p s t h e wo r s t c l a s s c o m p r i s e s
t h o s e wh o , d e s p i t e t h e i r e xp r e s s e d m o t i v e s o f h i g h
p u r p o s e , a r e a c t u a t e d s o l e l y b y s o r d i d m e r c e n a r y
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . "
Th e c h i e f o b j e c t i o n s e n t e r t a i n e d b y Pr o t e s t a n t s
t o Ca t h o l i c s , t h e c o m m i t t e e f o u n d , we r e t wo i n
n u m b e r : f i r s t , t h a t t h e Ca t h o l i c s we r e s u p p o s e d t o
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

26 7
b e r e s o l v e d t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s ,
a n d , s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e y we r e t h o u g h t t o o we c i v i l
a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e Po p e . B o t h o f t h e s e c h a r g e s t h e
c o m m i t t e e n o i s i l y d e n i e d .
It wa s wh e n t h e c o m m i t t e e wo r k e d a r o u n d t o
a n a r r a t i o n o f i t s o wn a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t a n t i -
Ca t h o l i c i s m t h a t i t s r e p o r t g r e wi n t e r e s t i n g . Se v e r a l
Ca l i f o r n i a M a s o n s , f o r e xa m p l e , h a d b e e n i n d u c e d
t o r e a d t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s r i t u a l f r o m b e -
g i n n i n g t o e n d , a n d h a d p r o c l a i m e d i t a n o b l e d o c -
u m e n t
. Th e o n c e b i t t e r l y a n t i - p a p a l Ha r p e r ' s
We e k l y
h a d b e e n p r e v a i l e d u p o n t o p u b l i s h a d e -
b a t e o n Ca t h o l i c i s m , Fa t h e r Fr a n c i s Ke l l y o f t h e
Ca t h o l i c Ext e n s i o n h a n d l i n g t h e p e n f o r t h e Ca t h -
o l i c s a g a i n s t W
. W. Pr e s c o t t o f t h e Pr o t e s t a n t
M a g a zi n e .
Th e s e we r e t h e m a j o r l o v e f e a s t s a n d
m a n l y f a c i n g s o f t h e i s s u e wh i c h t h e c o m m i t t e e
h a d b r o u g h t a b o u t a n d n o wr e p o r t e d wi t h j u s t
p r i d e .
Th e h i g h e r b l a t h e r h a d b e e n c a l l e d t o t h e c o m -
m i t t e e ' s a i d o n s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , a n d t h e m o r e e x-
q u i s i t e s a m p l e s we r e s e t d o wn a t l e n g t h i n t h e
r e p o r t . Fo r i n s t a n c e , a B a p t i s t j o u r n a l h a v i n g r e -
m a r k e d e d i t o r i a l l y t h a t " i t i s t h e b e l i e f o f Ca t h o l i c s
t h a t we a r e a n a t i o n o f a d u l t e r e r s , " Co l o n e l Ca l l a -
h a n ' s t r u s t y a p o l o g i s t s f o r t h e f a i t h a c i d l y r e p l i e d :
"
It i s t h e b e l i e f o f Ca t h o l i c s t h a t m a r r i a g e s o f
Pr o t e s t a n t s a r e v a l i d r e g a r d l e s s o f wh o o f f i c i a t e s
;
26 8

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
i n d e e d , we f e e l t h a t we h a v e a g r e a t e r r e g a r d f o r
t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e m a r r i a g e s t h a n m a n y Pr o t e s -
t a n t s , s i n c e we c o n s i d e r t h e m b i n d i n g u n t i l d e a t h . "
In q u i r e d t h e s a m e B a p t i s t p a p e r s o m e t i m e
a f t e r wa r d : " Wh y d o e s Pr e s i d e n t Wi l s o n h a v e a
Ca t h o l i c s e c r e t a r y ? " t o wh i c h Co l o n e l Ca l l a h a n
r e t o r t e d :
" As i m i l a r q u e s t i o n c o u l d b e a s k e d o f m e
: ` Wh y
d o e s M r . Ca l l a h a n h a v e a B a p t i s t s e c r e t a r y ? ' a n d
t h e s a m e a n s we r wo u l d a p p l y , n a m e l y , s e c r e t a r i e s
a n d o t h e r a s s i s t a n t s a r e s e l e c t e d n o t o n a c c o u n t
o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n , b u t o n t h e i r m e r i t s , a s t h e y
s h o u l d b e . "
Th e Ca l l a h a n c o m m i t t e e n e v e r f a i l e d t o s e n d a
g r a t e f u l l e t t e r t o a n y n o n - Ca t h o l i c c l e r g y m a n o r
e d i t o r i a l wr i t e r wh e n e v e r s u c h a n i n d i v i d u a l g a v e
u t t e r a n c e t o a s e n t i m e n t f r i e n d l y t o t h e Ca t h o l i c
c h u r c h . Th e c o m m i t t e e ' s r e p o r t h a n d e d f o r m a l a c -
c o l a d e s t o D r . Wa s h i n g t o n Gl a d d e n , Co n g r e g a -
t i o n a l i s t ;M e t h o d i s t B i s h o p Wi l l i a m s ;t h e Re v
. J .
Fa v i l l e , Co n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t ;D r . W . M . Wa l k e r ,
B a p t i s t ;D r . D . M . M i l n e r , Pr e s b y t e r i a n ;a n d t h e
Re v . Ge o r g e A . Ca r s t e n s o n , Pr o t e s t a n t Ep i s c o -
p a l i a n ;a l s o t o t h e Ha r t f o r d
Co u r a n t ,
Lo u i s v i l l e
Ev e n i n g Po s t , St . Lo u i s Re p u b l i c , D a l l a s Ne ws ,
Ne wYo r k Am e r i c a n , a n d Ch i c a g o Exa m i n e r .
M a n y Ca t h o l i c s f e l t t h a t t h e As s o c i a t e d Pr e s s
B EGETTERSOFTHEKLAN

26 9
wa s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t t h e m i n i t s t r e a t m e n t o f
n e ws d i s p a t c h e s . Co l o n e l Ca l l a h a n t o l d i n t h e c o m -
m i t t e e r e p o r t o f a n i n t e r v i e wh e h a d wi t h Ed g a r
T. Cu t t e r , a s s i s t a n t m a n a g e r o f t h e A . P . , wh o h a d
' v e r y k i n d l y a g r e e d t o s e e t h a t n o c a u s e f o r c o m -
p l a i n t o n t h i s s c o r e s h o u l d a r i s e i n f u t u r e . M r . Cu t -
t e r s e e m s t o h a v e t o l d t h e c o l o n e l t h a t t h e t r o u b l e
: l a y wi t h t h e c h u r c h m e n t h e m s e l v e s , wh o a p p e a r e d ,
l i k e m a n y o t h e r p e o p l e , t o b e l i e v e t h e p r e s s s e r v -
i c e s a n d n e ws p a p e r s g o t t h e i r t i p s f r o m t h e Ou i j a
' b o a r d a n d g a t h e r e d t h e i r f a c t s b y t e l e p a t h y . Co l o -
n e l Ca l l a h a n wa r n e d a l l h i s c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s t o b e
d i l i g e n t i n r e p o r t i n g t o t h e p r e s s e v e r y c h u r c h
f u n c t i o n f r o m a s o d a l i t y m e e t i n g t o a e u c h a r i s t i c
c o n g r e s s .
Th e c o m m i t t e e ' s s e c o n d r e p o r t , s u b m i t t e d a y e a r
a f t e r t h e f i r s t , c o n t a i n e d m o r e o f t h e s a m e , c o u p l e d
wi t h a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s l i f e b e
p r o l o n g e d a n d i t s f u n d s i n c r e a s e d
. Un f o r t u n a t e l y
f o r t h i s h o p e , h o we v e r , t h e c o m p i l e r s o f t h e r e p o r t
i n c l u d e d t h e r e i n t h e n e ws t h a t
Th e M e n a c e ' s c i r -
c u l a t i o n h a d d r o p p e d f r o m 1, 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
t o 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
c o p i e s p e r we e k i n t h e y e a r j u s t p a s t . Th e l a t e s t
Ar m a g e d d o n wa s p a t e n t l y e n t e r i n g i t s l a s t s t a g e
.
Th e Ca l l a h a n c o m m i t t e e wa s t h a n k e d b y t h e
Kn i g h t s a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e r a n k s
. Th i s o c c u r r e d
i n Au g u s t o f
1916 .
An d , i n d e e d , t h e m i l d s t o r m wa s a b o u t o v e r
.
Th e Wo r l d Wa r wa s r a g i n g i n Eu r o p e
;t h e Lu s i t a -
27 0

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
n i a h a d b e e n s u n k b y a Ge r m a n U- b o a t h a v i n g n o
d i s c o v e r a b l e c o n n e c t i o n wi t h t h e Po p e ;t h e n a t i o n
wa s f i l l e d wi t h t h e b e l l o wi n g s o f p r o - a l l y a n d p r o -
Ge r m a n s y m p a t h i ze r s ;o u r f e e t we r e t a p p i n g i n
r h y t h m wi t h t h e wa r d r u m s a n d wo u l d s o o n g o
m a r c h i n g t o t h o s e d r u m s
;t h e t i m e h a d c o m e a g a i n
t o f o r g e t r e l i g i o u s h a t r e d s f o r h a t r e d s t h a t h a d
s o m e b a s i s i n r e a s o n .
B u t t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n o f t h e t we n t i e t h c e n t u r y
h a d b e e n b e g o t t e n , n e v e r t h e l e s s . It wa s t h e f r u i t
o f t h e c r o s s i n g o f Gu a r d i a n s o f Li b e r t y , M e n a c e ,
Kn i g h t s o f Lu t h e r , wi t h Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s a n d
Ca t h o l i c c l e r i c s
. It s p a r t u r i t i o n c o u l d a f f o r d t o
a wa i t t h e wa r ' s e n d i n g ;f o r e l e p h a n t i n e wa s t o b e
t h a t b i r t h .
CHAPTERXXX
THEERAOFTHEKLAN
T HEs t o r y o f r e l i g i o u s h a t e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y h e r e
e n t e r s i t s l a t e s t c h a p t e r ;n o t i t s l a s t c h a p t e r , f o r
t h e r e wi l l b e wa r s o f t h e s e c t s i n t h e f u t u r e a s i n t h e
p a s t - a n d a g o o d t h i n g , t o o - b u t i t s l a t e s t .
La r g e s t a n d l o u d e s t o f t h e a g e n c i e s f o r t h e
p r o p a g a t i o n o f e n v y , h a t r e d a n d m a l i c e a m o n g s t
Ch r i s t i a n s i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s a f t e r o u r a r m i e s '
t r i u m p h a n t r e t u r n f r o m t h e Wo r l d Wa r wa s t h e
o r d e r k n o wn a s t h e In v i s i b l e Em p i r e , Kn i g h t s o f
t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n . Fo r t h i s r e a s o n t h e h i s t o r y o f
t h e wa r s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d g o d l y i n Am e r i c a f r o m
1919i n t o 1928i s f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s t h e h i s -
t o r y o f t h e Kl a n .
Th e r e wo u l d h a v e b e e n a Pr o t e s t a n t - Ca t h o l i c
c o n f l i c t f o l l o wi n g t h e wa r i n a n y e v e n t . Th e Kl a n
s i m p l y wa s f i r s t i n t h e f i e l d wi t h a s a l e s t a l k a p p e a l -
i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f h a t r e d t h a t s t i r r e d i n
b o s o m s o n t h e Ti b e r ' s f a r t h e r s i d e .
We we r e d e m o b i l i zi n g i n 1919 . M i l l i o n s o f u s
h a d a c q u i r e d t h e m i l i t a r y s t a t e o f m i n d , wh i c h p r e -
f e r s d i r e c t a n d h a r d - b o i l e d a c t i o n t o o r d e r l y a n d
l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s . We h a d l o s t b u t l i t t l e b l o o d i n t h e
27 1
27 2

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
wa r , c o m p a r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g . M a n y o f u s wo u l d
h a v e b e e n o v e r j o y e d t o g o o n f i g h t i n g
.
Th e Pr o t e s t a n t
- m e a n i n g t h e e v a n g e l i c a l -
c h u r c h e s h a d l a t e l y wo n t h e i r g r e a t e s t p o l i t i c a l v i c -
t o r y : t h e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h a m e n d m e n t
t o t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Co n s t i t u t i o n b y a Co n g r e s s
c o we r i n g u n d e r t h e b l u d g e o n s o f t h e An t i - Sa l o o n
Le a g u e . Wa r t i m e p r o h i b i t i o n h a d b e e n i n f o r c e f o r
a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e p r e v i o u s t o t h e a m e n d m e n t ' s
t a k i n g e f f e c t .
Am e r i c a n e v a n g e l i c a l i s m ' s i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e t o
c o m p e l p e o p l e t o b e g o o d wa s b e a r i n g i t s i n e v i t a b l e
f r u i t
: m o r e a n d m o r e Am e r i c a n s we r e k i c k i n g o v e r
t h e s o c i a l a n d s e xu a l c o n v e n t i o n s , g o i n g i n f o r a
g o o d t i m e o n t h i s e a r t h a n d d e v i l t a k e t h e h e r e a f t e r ,
a n d t u r n i n g u p a t c h u r c h o n l y f o r c h r i s t e n i n g s ,
we d d i n g s a n d f u n e r a l s . Th e Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h , o n t h e
o t h e r h a n d , wa s h a u l i n g i n c o n v e r t s b y t h e n e t f u l
e v e r y d a y , g a t h e r i n g t o i t s e l f m o r e a n d m o r e l a n d s
a n d b u i l d i n g s a n d s c h o o l s a n d p r i n t i n g p r e s s e s , a n d ,
m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , f i l l i n g e v e r y o n e o f i t s
c h u r c h e s a t e v e r y m a s s , h i g h o r l o w . Ha d Pr o t e s -
t a n t s n o t g o n e f o r t h t o b a t t l e , t h e n j u s t l y c o u l d i t
h a v e b e e n s a i d t h a t t h e b l o o d o f t h e Co v e n a n t e r s
a n d Or a n g e m e n wa s r u n t h i n i n t o d e g e n e r a t e d a y s
.
In t o t h i s c r a c k l i n g f i e l d o f s o c i a l f o r c e s p r o j e c t e d
h i m s e l f Wi l l i a m Jo s e p h Si m m o n s .
As e v e r y o n e n o wk n o ws , Si m m o n s g a t h e r e d a
f e wc h o i c e c o m r a d e s t o g e t h e r a t o p St o n e M o u n -
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

27 3
t a i n , n e a r At l a n t a , Ge o r g i a , o n Th a n k s g i v i n g n i g h t
i n
1915 , a n d i n t h e e e r y l i g h t o f t h e Fi e r y Cr o s s ,
s y m b o l o f t h e o r d e r , a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e m t h e o a t h
o f t h e In v i s i b l e Em p i r e , Kn i g h t s o f t h e Ku Kl u x
Kl a n .
Si m m o n s d r e a m e d o f a m i g h t y a n d m i l i t a n t
l o d g e wh i c h s h o u l d i n s o m e m a n n e r r e p e a t a n d
o u t d o t h e n o b l e d e e d s o f t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n o f 186 6 ,
o r g a n i ze d b y s o u t h e r n wh i t e m e n t o b l a c k j a c k t h e
c a r p e t - b a g g e r i n t o d e c e n c y a n d f r i g h t e n f o o l Ya n -
k e e n o t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y o u t o f t h e h e a d o f t h e n e g r o .
Si m m o n s h i m s e l f h a d b e e n a M e t h o d i s t c a m p -
m e e t i n g s h o u t e r , a l o d g e o r g a n i ze r , a l o d g e j o i n e r ,
t r a v e l i n g s a l e s m a n , a n d wh a t n o t b e s i d e s
. Hi s p e r -
s o n a l h a b i t s we r e u n i m p e a c h a b l e , wh i c h wa s m o r e
t h a n c o u l d b e s a i d o f s o m e o f t h e q u e e r f i s h wh o
e v e n t u a l l y wo r m e d t h e i r wa y i n t o t h e Im p e r i a l
Ki o n c i l i u m a n d d e p o s e d h i m . Hi s i d e a l i s m wa s s o
p r o f o u n d a s t o i n s u r e t h e n e wl o d g e ' s c o m p l e t e i m -
p o t e n c y f o r s o l o n g a t i m e a s h e s h o u l d r e m a i n
i n s u p r e m e c o n t r o l o f t h e a u l i c o f t h e Im p e r i a l Wi z-
a r d a t t h e Im p e r i a l Ci t y o f At l a n t a .
Th e Kl a n ' s f i r s t f i v e y e a r s e q u a l e d t h o s e o f
t h e A . P . A . f o r i n n o c u o u s n e s s a n d o b s c u r i t y . Th e
d r e a m y e x- d i v i n e , a r m e d wi t h a l l t h e p u l l i n g
p o we r i n h e r e n t i n h i s o r d e r ' s we i r d - t i t l e d h i e r -
a r c h y o f Go b l i n s a n d Gi a n t s , Kl o k a r d s a n d Cy c l o p s
a n d Kl i g r a p p s , wa s a b l e t o e n r o l l n o t m o r e t h a n
f i v e t h o u s a n d m e m b e r s b e t we e n 1915 a n d 1920 ,
2
7 4

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
wh i l e h i s f o l l o we r s d i d n o t h i n g m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r i n
t h a t p e r i o d t h a n t o b u r n f i v e n e g r o c h u r c h e s i n t h e
s t a t e o f Ge o r g i a .
Gr o wt h b e g a n wh e n Wi l l i a m Jo s e p h Si m m o n s
m e t Ed wa r d Yo u n g Cl a r k e . Cl a r k e wa s a n e xp e r i -
e n c e d l o d g e o r g a n i ze r ;h e k n e wt h e d e e p l o v e wh i c h
t h e a v e r a g e Am e r i c a n b e a r s f o r a u n i f o r m ;h e p e r -
c e i v e d t h a t , p r o p e r l y wo r k e d , Si m m o n s ' s f r a t e r -
n i t y o f t h e wh i t e s h e e t s a n d t h e p e a k e d m a s k s
c o u l d b e m a d e a g o l d m i n e . B e t t e r s t i l l , Si m m o n s a s
i f b y i n s p i r a t i o n h a d m a d e p r o v i s i o n f o r p r a c t i c a l l y
e v e r y h a t e a n Am e r i c a n wh i t e Pr o t e s t a n t Ge n t i l e
c a n f e e l a n d h a d n a i l e d t h e m a l l i n t o t h e f o l l o wi n g
s i n g l e p a r a g r a p h o f t h e Kl a n o a t h :
" Is we a r t h a t Iwi l l m o s t ze a l o u s l y a n d v a l -
i a n t l y s h i e l d a n d p r e s e r v e , b y a n y a n d a l l j u s t i f i a b l e
m e a n s a n d m e t h o d s , t h e s a c r e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s
a n d p r i v i l e g e s o f f r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , f r e e s p e e c h ,
f r e e p r e s s , s e p a r a t i o n o f c h u r c h a n d s t a t e , l i b e r t y ,
wh i t e s u p r e m a c y , j u s t l a ws , a n d t h e p u r s u i t o f
h a p p i n e s s , a g a i n s t a n y e n c r o a c h m e n t , o f a n y n a -
t u r e , b y a n y p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r
p a r t i e s , r e l i g i o u s s e c t o r p e o p l e , n a t i v e , n a t u r a l i ze d ,
o r f o r e i g n o f a n y r a c e , c o l o r , c r e e d , l i n e a g e , o r
t o n g u e wh a t s o e v e r . "
B o u n d b y t h i s o a t h a Kl a n s m a n c o u l d h a t e t h e
n e g r o e s i f h e l i v e d d o wn s o u t h , t h e Ca t h o l i c s i n a l l
t h e c i t i e s , t h e f o r e i g n e r s i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l t o wn s ,
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

2
7 5
t h e I . W . W . i n t h e We s t , t h e Je ws i n Ne wYo r k ,
a n d t h e b o o t l e g g e r s a n d h a r l o t s o f wh o m h e wa s
n o t a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d a n y wh e r e .
Cl a r k e s p e e d i l y e n t e r e d i n t o a wr i t t e n c o n t r a c t
- wi t h Si m m o n s . Th e i n s t r u m e n t wa s d a t e d Ju n e 7 ,
1920 . It m a d e Cl a r k e Im p e r i a l Kl e a g l e , s u b j e c t t o
- t h e o r d e r s o f Im p e r i a l Wi za r d Si m m o n s
;b u t o u t o f
e v e r y $ 1o i n i t i a t i o n f e e g a r n e r e d f r o m t h e p a t r i o t s
a b o u t t o b e h e r d e d i n t o t h e k l a v e r n s Cl a r k e wa s t o
r e c e i v e $ 8, wh i l e Si m m o n s wa s t o d r a wa f l a t s a l a r y
o f $ 7 5 a we e k . Th e p a n t h e r , i n a wo r d , t o o k p i e c r u s t
a n d g r a v y a n d m e a t , wh i l e t h e o wl g o t t h e s p o o n
a s h i s s h a r e o f t h e t r e a t
. Cl a r k e d i d a g r e e t o s t a n d
t h e h o m e o f f i c e s ' r u n n i n g e xp e n s e s
.
Im m e d i a t e l y Cl a r k e f i r e d u p h i s e n g i n e s o f l o d g e
o r g a n i za t i o n a n d g r a p e v i n e p u b l i c i t y , t h e Kl a n
s p r a n g t o l i f e
. Si l e n t , m e n a c i n g p a r a d e s o f h o o d e d
a n d r o b e d m e n b e c a m e t h e o r d e r o f t h e n i g h t i n
s o u t h e r n t o wn s
. Th e n e g r o e s o f Ja c k s o n v i l l e , Fl o r -
i d a , we r e wa r n e d a g a i n s t l a wl e s s n e s s a t t h e p o l l s
b y o n e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s i o n s o n Oc t o b e r 30 , 1920 ,
t h e Cl a r k e - Si m m o n s c o n t r a c t b e i n g t h e n b u t f o u r
a n d o n e - h a l f m o n t h s o l d
. An o n y m o u s a n d d r e a d -
f u l l y wo r d e d wa r n i n g s o f a n i m p e n d i n g c r u s a d e
a g a i n s t b o o t l e g g e r s a n d r o a d s i d e p e t t e r s a p p e a r e d
i n An n i s t o n , Al a b a m a , i n D e c e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r
.
AKu Kl u xp a r a d e a d m o n i s h e d t h e l o a f e r s o f Co -
l u m b u s , Ge o r g i a , o n -
o f a l l o c c a s i o n s
- Ch r i s t -
m a s d a y , 1920 .
27 6

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
Th e Kl a n wa s n o t p r e - e m i n e n t l y a n t i - Ca t h o l i c
i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f i t s r i s e t o p o we r
. Fo r t h i s t h e
o b v i o u s r e a s o n wa s t h a t i t s p r e a d f i r s t t h r o u g h t h e
So u t h , wh e r e t h e r e we r e f e wCa t h o l i c s t o h a t e
.
Ev e n s o , i t d i d wh a t i t c o u l d i n i t s h u m b l e wa y wi t h
t h e m a t e r i a l s a t h a n d b y c i r c u l a t i n g a s t o r y t h a t t h e
Ca t h o l i c s we r e s e c r e t l y a r m i n g t h e n e g r o e s f o r a n
e v e n t u a l r e v o l t a g a i n s t s o u t h e r n wh i t e s u p r e m a c y
.
Wh e n t h e Kl a n c a m e t o Ne wYo r k i n 1921,
M a y o r Jo h n F
. Hy l a n we n t f o r t h t o g i v e i t b a t t l e
.
Hy l a n ' s f i r s t c r u s a d e a g a i n s t t h e Kl a n wa s n o t
wa g e d o n a n y i s s u e o f r e l i g i o u s c o m p l e xi o n , b u t
b e c a u s e Hy l a n s a i d Ne wYo r k h a d n o r o o m f o r
a n o r g a n i za t i o n wh i c h f o s t e r e d r a c i a l a n t a g o n i s m s
.
In c i d e n t a l l y , n e g r o e s a r e n o t o r i o u s l y Re p u b l i c a n i n
p o l i t i c s - t h e r e we r e a t t h a t t i m e a b o u t 90 , 0 0 0
n e g r o e s i n Ne wYo r k Ci t y - a n d Hy l a n wa s a
D e m o c r a t i c m a y o r .
Th e Kl a n wa s b y t h i s t i m e a t t a i n i n g t o t h e d i g -
n i t y o f a Na t i o n a l M e n a c e i n t h e e y e s o f m a n y
e xc e l l e n t p e o p l e . Th e Ne wYo r k Wo r l d p u b l i s h e d
i t s f a m o u s e xp o s u r e o f t h e o r d e r i n t h e s p r i n g o f
192r . On e He n r y P . Fr y , wh o h a d j o i n e d t h e Kl a n
i n Te n n e s s e e , h a d r e s i g n e d a n d t u r n e d o v e r h i s
k n o wl e d g e o f t h e i n n e r c i r c l e s t o t h e Wo r l d
. Th e
Kl a n o a t h s we r e p u b l i s h e d , i t s h a t r e d s f o r n e g r o ,
Je w, Ca t h o l i c a n d f o r e i g n e r b r o a d c a s t i n s c r e a m -
i n g f r o n t - p a g e s p r e a d s , s e v e r a l o f i t s o f f i c i a l s
c h a r g e d wi t h l e wd n e s s o r l i g h t n e s s o f f i n g e r
. Ev e r y
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

27 7
s e a r c h l i g h t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Wo r l d wa s t u r n e d o n
t h e s m o k e s c r e e n s h u r r i e d l y t h r o wn u p b y Si m -
m o n s , Cl a r k e , a n d Cl a r k e ' s l a d y f r i e n d , t h e Em p r e s s
El i za b e t h Ty l e r . Ne t r e s u l t s o f t h e e xp o s u r e we r e
a c i r c u l a t i o n j u m p o f i o o , o o o c o p i e s a d a y f o r t h e
Wo r l d a n d a h u g e i n c r e a s e i n m e m b e r s h i p f o r t h e
Kl a n , wh i c h m a d e s o m u c h m o n e y t h a t i t wa s a b l e
t o t a k e o v e r La n i e r Un i v e r s i t y i n At l a n t a a n d t o
b u i l d wh a t i t c a l l e d a n Im p e r i a l Pa l a c e f o r t h e
Wi za r d a n d h i s g o - g e t t i n g Ki n g Kl e a g l e .
Wh e n e v e r t h e Kl a n p e n e t r a t e d a c o m m u n i t y
wh e r e Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c s we r e n u m e r o u s , i t s h a t r e d
t u r n e d u p o n t h e m . An d a s Ca t h o l i c s we r e b y n o w
n u m e r o u s i n e v e r y s t a t e e xc e p t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y
s o u t h e r n o n e s , n i n e - t e n t h s o f t h e Kl a n ' s p o l i t i c a l
f i g h t s a n d r i o t s i n t h e No r t h a n d We s t we r e o v e r
t h e r e l i g i o u s i s s u e . Th e a r g u m e n t s we r e o f t h e g o o d
o l d o r t h o d o xa n t i - p a p a l v a r i e t y , wi t h o u t a n e w
o n e t o b r e a k t h e m o n o t o n y o r m a k e a h i s t o r i a n ' s
t a s k i n t e r e s t i n g .
Th e Ca t h o l i c s we r e n o t s l o wt o r e t u r n t h e Kl a n s -
m e n ' s f i r e . To Pa t r i c k , Ca r d i n a l ( t h e n Ar c h b i s h o p )
Ha y e s o f Ne wYo r k a p p e a r s t o h a v e f a l l e n t h e
h o n o r o f h u r l i n g t h e f i r s t f o r m a l Ca t h o l i c d e n u n -
c i a t i o n a t t h e n e wd r a g o n ' s h e a d . Th i s h e d i d o n
Oc t o b e r i 6 , 1921, a t a m e e t i n g h e l d b y t h e Ca t h o l i c
La y m e n ' s Le a g u e f o r Re t r e a t s a n d So c i a l Se r v i c e s .
Ac h b i s h o p Se b a s t i a n G
. M e s s m e r o f M i l wa u k e e ,
h o we v e r , wa s a l r e a d y a g o g , h a v i n g b e g u n a n i n -
27 8

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
q u i r y i n t o t h e Kl a n ' s p r o g r e s s i n h i s d o m a i n l a t e i n
t h e p r e v i o u s m o n t h
.
Co n g r e s s wa s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e Kl a n b y t h e t i m e
Ar c h b i s h o p Ha y e s t h u n d e r e d . At t o r n e y - Ge n e r a l
Ha r r y M . D a u g h e r t y h a d c a u s e d D e t e c t i v e Wi l l i a m
J. B u r n s t o g a t h e r e v i d e n c e i n r e g a r d t o t h e Kl a n ,
wh i c h D a u g h e r t y l a i d b e f o r e Pr e s i d e n t Ha r d i n g i n
Se p t e m b e r , 1921 . Th e Ho u s e Co m m i t t e e o n Re s o -
l u t i o n s c o n d u c t e d h e a r i n g s d u r i n g Oc t o b e r , Si m -
m o n s b e i n g t h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t o f t h e n u m e r o u s
wi t n e s s e s wh o t e s t i f i e d . It wa s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e
h e a r i n g s s h o u l d b e d i s c o n t i n u e d wh e n t h e i n f o r m a -
t i o n wa s g l e a n e d t h a t t h e Kl a n h a d
12
6 , o o o p a i d - u p
m e m b e r s , m o r e t h a n $ 1, o o o , o o o , a n d a g o o d c h a n c e
o f s we e p i n g t h e c o u n t r y a s Kn o w- No t h i n g i s m a n d
t h e A . P . A . h a d d o n e a f o r e t i m e .
Re v o l t a g a i n s t Cl a r k e a n d Si m m o n s b e g a n i n t h e
f a l l o f t h a t y e a r . Gr a n d Go b l i n H . B . Te r r e l l
y e a r n e d f o r t h e o f f i c i a l h e a d o f Cl a r k e . Cl a r k e c a p -
t u r e d Te r r e l l ' s h e a d i n s t e a d ;t h e r e we r e s u i t s a n d
c o u n t e r s u i t s ;t h e u p s h o t wa s a m e e t i n g a t Ph i l a -
d e l p h i a i n D e c e m b e r f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n i n -
d e p e n d e n t Kl a n , wh i c h wa s s e l d o m h e a r d f r o m
a f t e r wa r d .
In Au g u s t , 1922, t h e n a t i o n a l b o a r d o f t h e An -
c i e n t Or d e r o f Hi b e r n i a n s d e c i d e d t h a t a l l g o o d
l o d g e b r o t h e r s m u s t f i g h t t h e Kl a n - a s i f t h e y
we r e n o t a l r e a d y d o i n g s o b y p r e s s a n d b a l l o t a n d
b o y c o t t . Th e s a m e s u m m e r s a wt h e Kn i g h t s o f Co -
P &A. Ph o t o .
D R . HIRAM WESLEYEVANS
IM PERIALWIZ ARD , KNIGHTSOFTHEKUKLUXKLAN
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

27 9
l u m b u s b e g i n a n o r g a n i ze d a n t i - Kl a n c a m p a i g n o f
p u b l i c i t y a n d p r o p a g a n d a .
An d s o m e t i m e i n t h e l a t e f a l l o f 1922, Hi r a m
We s l e y Ev a n s o f D a l l a s , Te xa s , b e c a m e Im p e r i a l
Wi za r d . Si m m o n s wa s r e t i r e d wi t h t h e t i t l e o f
Em p e r o r Fo r Li f e .
Un d e r Ev a n s ' s l e a d e r s h i p t h e Kl a n e n t e r e d i n t o
t h e t h i r d , a n d a t t h i s wr i t i n g a p p a r e n t l y t h e l a s t ,
p h a s e o f i t s e a r t h l y c a r e e r . Si m m o n s d r e a m e d o f
l e a d i n g a b a n d o f t we n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Am e r i c a n
k n i g h t s , wi t h o u t f e a r a n d wi t h o u t r e p r o a c h . Cl a r k e
r o u n d e d u p a c r e wo f n e g r o h a t e r s , h a r l o t f l o g g e r s ,
M e t h o d i s t a n d B a p t i s t p a s t o r s , a n t i - Ca t h o l i c
m o n o m a n i a c s , b o o t l e g g e r s , p e a n u t p o l i t i c i a n s , d r y
a g e n t s a n d a n i n d e t e r m i n a t e n u m b e r o f h o n e s t p e o -
p l e . Ev a n s , d e n t i s t , t h i r t y - s e c o n d d e g r e e M a s o n ,
h e - m a n , g o - g e t t e r , d e a l e r i n p o l y s y l l a b i c En g l i s h ,
l e d t h e o r d e r i n t o s t a t e a n d n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s .
Th a t t h e Kl a n wa s i n p o l i t i c s , Ev a n s f o r l o n g
s o m e wh a t v e h e m e n t l y d e n i e d . He d r e wt h i s f i n e
d i s t i n c t i o n i n a n a r t i c l e wh i c h t h e Wo r l d ' s Wo r k
p u b l i s h e d i n Ja n u a r y , 1928 :
"
We d o n o t m a i n t a i n a n y s h a d o wo f a p o l i t i c a l
o r g a n i za t i o n s u c h a s i s a b l e t o g e t o u t t h e v o t e ;
we d o n o t a t t e m p t t o e l e c t o u r m e m b e r s t o o f f i c e ;
we n e v e r a s k o u r m e m b e r s t o v o t e i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r
wa y o r f o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r m e n , a n d m u c h l e s s d o we
a t t e m p t t o ` d e l i v e r ' a v o t e . If t h e Kl a n v o t e i s c a s t
28o

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
s o l i d l y , a s o f t e n h a p p e n s , i t i s b e c a u s e we h a v e
p r o v e d c e r t a i n t h i n g s t o o u r m e m b e r s . We d o n o t
e v e n a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n , e xc e p t o n
p o i n t s t h a t i n d i s p u t a b l y f a l l u n d e r t h e p r i n c i p l e s
o u t l i n e d .
" In o t h e r wo r d s , we a r e n o t ' i n p o l i t i c s . ' Ou r
o n l y p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s t o i n f o r m a n d e d u c a t e o u r
m e m b e r s a b o u t m e a s u r e s o r t h e c h a r a c t e r o f c a n d i -
d a t e s , a n d t o s h o wt h e m i n wh a t wa y t h e f u n d a -
m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f Am e r i c a n i s m b e a r o n a n y p a r -
t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . "
Of a m a n wh o c a n t h u s p i t h i l y d e s c r i b e t h e Ca -
t h o l i c i zi n g o f t h e Pr o t e s t a n t m i n d i n m a t t e r s
s e c u l a r , a p p a r e n t l y wi t h o u t k n o wi n g wh a t h e i s
d e s c r i b i n g , o n e n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e s t o k n o wm o r e .
Pe r h a p s t h e m o s t l u m i n o u s c h a r a c t e r s k e t c h o f D r .
Ev a n s i n p r i n t i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e Kl a n ' s o f f i c i a l
m a g a zi n e , t h e Ko u r i e r , f o r Se p t e m b e r , 1926 , u n d e r
t h e t i t l e " Th e M a n Ev e r y Am e r i c a n Sh o u l d Kn o w
An Ap p r e c i a t i o n b y t h e Ed i t o r . " In t h i s s h o r t b u t
m a s t e r l y a r t i c l e , D r . Ev a n s i s c o m p a r e d , i n b r e a t h -
t a k i n g s u c c e s s i o n a n d q u i t e f a v o r a b l y , wi t h Je s u s
t h e Ch r i s t , t h e p r o p h e t s M o s e s a n d Je r e m i a h ,
Sa v o n a r o l a , Ab r a h a m Li n c o l n a n d t h e a p o s t l e Pa u l ,
a n d i s i n a d d i t i o n t e r m e d " t h e m o s t a v e r a g e m a n
i n Am e r i c a . "
" Hi s f a i t h , " t h e r e a d e r i s a d v i s e d , " i s v o c a l , b e -
i n g a l i v e . Hi s f a i t h i s v i r i l e . It i s i d e a l i s t i c ;t h e r e -
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281
f o r e , u n s e l f i s h
. He we a r s h i m s e l f o u t i n b o d y , a n d
d e p r i v e s h i m s e l f o f t h a t i n t e n s e d e s i r e o f a l l a c t i v e
m i n d s - t h e c h a n c e t o s t u d y -
f o r t h e p u r p o s e
o f b e i n g a v o i c e c r y i n g i n t h e wi l d e r n e s s . "
As i f t h i s we r e n o t e n o u g h t o f i l l o n e m a n ' s e v e r y
e a r t h l y d a y ,
" He i s v i t a l i t y p e r s o n i f i e d , s u b j e c t i n g h i s b o d y
t o o r d e a l s t h a t wo u l d k i l l a m a n n o t m a d e o f i r o n ,
a n d s u b j e c t i n g h i s b r a i n t o f e a t s t h a t wo u l d c a u s e
m e n t a l f a t i g u e i n m a n y a n o t h e r . He c a n we a r o u t
a d o ze n m e n i n a d a y . . . . "
Al l o f wh i c h i s n o m o r e f u l s o m e o r i n e p t t h a n t h e
t h i n g s a p a r i s h p r i e s t wi t h a c o u p l e o f g l a s s e s o f
wi n e u n d e r h i s b e l t wi l l t e l l y o u a b o u t h i s o r d i n a r y ,
o r t h e p r i n t e d e n c o m i u m s a Ca t h o l i c d i o c e s a n p a p e r
wi l l h e a p u p o n a n a r c h b i s h o p o r a v i s i t i n g c a r d i n a l
.
Ev a n s b e g a n h i s m u c h t o u t e d c l e a n u p o f t h e
g r a f t - r i d d e n
Im p e r i a l Kl o n c i l i u m i m m e d i a t e l y
u p o n h i s a c c e s s i o n t o p o we r
. Ag o o d d e a l o f m o n e y
wa s d i v e r t e d f r o m t h e p o c k e t s o f Gi a n t s a n d Go b -
l i n s t o p u b l i c i t y a n d p r o s e l y t i n g a c t i v i t i e s
. Ev a n s
b e g a n t o wr i t e l o n g a r t i c l e s a n d m a k e l o n g s p e e c h e s .
Th e s e u t t e r a n c e s we r e p u b l i s h e d b y t h e Kl a n u n d e r
s u c h t i t l e s a s "
Th e Kl a n Sp i r i t u a l , " " Th e Pu b -
l i c Sc h o o l Pr o b l e m i n Am e r i c a , " " Th e M e n a c e
o f M o d e r n Im m i g r a t i o n , " " Th e At t i t u d e o f t h e
Kn i g h t s o f t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n To wa r d t h e Ro m a n
282

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
Ca t h o l i c Hi e r a r c h y , " a n d s o o n
. On e a n d a l l p r e s e n t
t h e s p e c t a c l e o f wh a t h a p p e n s wh e n t h e h i g h -
p o we r e d r a t i o n a l i za t i o n s o f M a d i s o n Gr a n t , Lo -
t h r o p St o d d a r d , e t a l
. ,
a r e p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e l o w-
p o we r e d b u t a c q u i s i t i v e m i n d o f a D a l l a s h u n d r e d
p e r c e n t Am e r i c a n . We f o r b e a r t o q u o t e f r o m t h e m
h e r e . No n e c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t t h a t
wa s n o t e xp r e s s e d i n t h e Na t i v e Am e r i c a n p a r t y ' s
Ph i l a d e l p h i a Ad d r e s s o f 1[ 845 , d i g e s t e d i n a p r e v i -
o u s c h a p t e r . M o d e r n i n s t a n c e s a r e i n j e c t e d , a n d t h e
a n c i e n t n a t i v i s t i d e a s a r e r e t o l d i n t h e h i g h - f l o wn
a n d s l o p p y s t y l e b e l o v e d o f p e o p l e wh o e n j o y t h e
s o u n d o f wo r d s wh i c h t h e y c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d a n d
h e n c e d o n o t f e e l t h e m s e l v e s o b l i g a t e d t o p o n d e r
u p o n .
Th e s e e n d e a v o r s o f t h e Kl a n t o b e c o m e a s r e -
s p e c t a b l e a s Ro t a r y In t e r n a t i o n a l o r t h e Kn i g h t s
o f Co l u m b u s we r e h a n d i c a p p e d s o m e wh a t b y t h e
M e r Ro u g e , Lo u i s i a n a , m u r d e r s wh i c h s h o c k e d
t h e n a t i o n i n t h e l a t e f a l l o f 1[ 922 . Th e s t o r y o f t h e
k i d n a p i n g , t o r t u r i n g t o d e a t h a n d s i n k i n g i n La k e
La Fo u r c h e o f t wo v i l l a g e c u t - u p s , b y p e r s o n s a l -
l e g e d t o h a v e b e l o n g e d t o t h e M o r e h o u s e Kl a n , h a s
b e e n t o l d wi t h i n f i n i t e d e t a i l b y a we l l - n i g h i n f i n i t e
n u m b e r o f o t h e r wr i t e r s
. Re l i g i o n d i d n o t e n t e r
p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t o t h i s d o u b l e m u r d e r . No o n e wa s
h a n g e d , a n d a Je we v e n t u a l l y b e c a m e s h e r i f f o f
M o r e h o u s e .
In t h e s a m e p e r i o d t h e Re v
. D r . Jo h n Ro a c h
St r a t o n o f Ca l v a r y B a p t i s t c h u r c h , t h e f u n d a m e n -
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283
t a l i s t Va t i c a n a t Ne wYo r k Ci t y , wa s a c c u s e d o f
m a k i n g h i s c h u r c h a Kl a n r e c r u i t i n g s t a t i o n . St r a t o n
h a d p e r m i t t e d t h e Re v . Os c a r Ha y wo o d , a s t r o l l -
i n g e v a n g e l i s t , t o u s e Ca l v a r y B a p t i s t a s h i s h e a d -
q u a r t e r s
. Ha y wo o d wa s l a t e r f o u n d t o b e Na t i o n a l
Kl o k a r d ( l e c t u r e r ) o f t h e Kl a n . M a y o r Hy l a n
a g a i n o r d e r e d wa r o n t h e o r g a n i za t i o n , wh e r e u p o n
St r a t o n o r d e r e d Ha y wo o d e l s e wh e r e
. An n o u n c e -
m e n t t h a t a n y c i t y e m p l o y e e f o u n d t o b e a Kl a n s -
m a n wo u l d l o s e h i s j o b wa s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s
c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n , a s i d e f r o m s k y - s p l i t t i n g v o l u m e s
o f wi n d , t o t h i s b a t t l e . Ac o r r e s p o n d e n t s i g n i n g
h i m s e l f Fa i r Pl a y wr o t e t o t h e Ne wYo r k Ti m e s
t o d e m a n d a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co -
l u m b u s - wh i c h wa s n o t h e l d .
Th e Ca t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y a g a i n b e c a m e v o c a l
a g a i n s t t h e Kl a n i n t h a t wi n t e r o f 1922- 23 .
Ar c h -
b i s h o p Cu r l e y d e n o u n c e d i t f r o m B a l t i m o r e , M o n -
s i g n o r F . H . Wa l l b e s o u g h t t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m -
b u s a n e wt o f i g h t t h e r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e A . P . A .
Ot h e r p r e l a t e s a n d p r i e s t s t r u n d l e d t h e b i g g u n s o f
o r a t o r y i n t o t h e f i e l d , a n d we r e s t i l l f i r i n g a t i n t e r -
v a l s wh e n t h i s v o l u m e we n t t o p r e s s .
He r r i n , Il l i n o i s , m a y
a s we l l b e m e n t i o n e d h e r e
a s a t a n y o t h e r p o i n t i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Th e l i t t l e
c o a l t o wn , p e o p l e d b y d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e p i o n e e r s
wh o s e t t l e d Il l i n o i s a n d r o t t e n wi t h t r a d i t i o n s o u t
o f f e u d i s t t i m e s i n Am e r i c a , wa s a d a m n - y o u r -
e n e m y , k i l l - h i m - f i r s t h a m l e t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g .
Pr o h i b i t i o n m a d e i t a b o o t l e g g i n g c e n t e r i n a d d i -
284

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
t i o n t o t h e s e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f u n s a v o r y p l a c e i t a l -
r e a d y wa s . M a n y Ch r i s t i a n s i n He r r i n , b o t h Ca t h o -
l i c a n d Pr o t e s t a n t , we r e o f t h e m o s t m i l i t a n t t y p e
a n d q u i c k o n t h e d r a w
. Sh o o t i n g s we r e p e r i o d i c a l
a n d a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y f a t a l i n He r r i n
. Th e m o s t
n o t e wo r t h y d e a t h wa s t h e v i o l e n t o n e s u f f e r e d b y
S . Gl e n n Yo u n g , a d r y c r u s a d e r a n d g u n m a n h i r e d
b y t h e Kl a n t o r e f o r m He r r i n
. Th i s wi d e l y a c -
c l a i m e d e v e n t t o o k p l a c e o n Ja n u a r y 24, 1925 .
In t h e s p r i n g o f 1923St a t e Se n a t o r Ja m e s J .
Wa l k e r , l a t e r m a y o r o f Ne wYo r k Ci t y , p r e s e n t e d
h i s a n t i - Kl a n b i l l t o t h e Ne wYo r k l e g i s l a t u r e ,
wh i c h p a s s e d i t a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e . Th e b i l l ,
wh i c h Go v e r n o r Sm i t h p r o m p t l y s i g n e d , c a l l e d f o r
t h e y e a r l y f i l i n g b y u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s o f
t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p l i s t s , b y - l a ws a n d o a t h s . As t h e
Kl a n s t i l l t e c h n i c a l l y k e p t i t s m e m b e r s h i p r o l l s a
d a r k s e c r e t , t h o u g h e v e r y p o l i t i c i a n i n t h e l a n d
c o u l d n a m e a l m o s t e v e r y Kl u xe r i n h i s d i s t r i c t , t h e
o r d e r wa s g r e a t l y e xc i t e d a n d i n s u l t e d b y t h e p a s -
s a g e o f t h e Wa l k e r l a w . It e v a d e d t h e e n a c t m e n t
wi t h a n a g i l i t y wo r t h y o f a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c a r c h -
b i s h o p a t t e m p t i n g t o e xp l a i n t o a Pr o t e s t a n t j u s t
h o wi t i s t h a t h i s s e c t d o e s a n d y e t d o e s n o t r e g a r d
t h e m a r r i a g e o f a Ca t h o l i c t o a Pr o t e s t a n t a s v a l i d .
In t h e c o u r s e o f i t s t wi s t i n g s a n d d o d g i n g s t h e Kl a n
b e c a m e k n o wn i n Ne wYo r k a s Al p h a Pi Si g m a , a n
i n c o r p o r a t e d f r a t e r n i t y a n d h e n c e n o t a m e n a b l e t o
t h e Wa l k e r l a w .
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

285
He a r s t ' s
In t e r n a t i o n a l
m a g a zi n e e xp o s e d
t h e
Kl a n i n t h e s p r i n g a n d s u m m e r o f 1923, p u b l i s h i n g
d o c u m e n t s s t o l e n b y a Kl a n e m p l o y e e f r o m t h e
At l a n t a o f f i c e s . Th e c h i e f b i t o f s h a m e f l u n g o u t t o
t h e b r e e ze i n t h i s s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s wa s e v i d e n c e o f
a v a s t a n d n o n s e n s i c a l Ku Kl u xp l a n t o t a k e o v e r
t h e Un i t e d St a t e s g o v e r n m e n t b a g a n d b a g g a g e
a n d o p e r a t e t h e s a m e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f wh i t e Pr o t -
e s t a n t n a t i v e Am e r i c a n Ge n t i l e s . Th e Kl a n t r i e d
b y i n j u n c t i o n t o s t o p p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e e xp o s u r e s ,
b u t l o s t t h e s u i t .
No v e m b e r , 1923, s a wt h e r e m o v a l o f Kl a n n a -
t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s f r o m At l a n t a t o In d i a n a p o l i s ,
wh e r e " Ol d M a n " D . C . St e p h e n s o n r u l e d s u -
p r e m e a s m a s t e r o f t h e Kl a n i n t h e s t a t e o f In d i -
a n a . Th e o r d e r r e t u r n e d t o t h e o l d h o m e s o m e
y e a r s l a t e r
. On Fe b r u a r y 13, 1928, i t wa s r e p o r t e d
t h a t t h e Kl a n h a d l e a s e d a h o u s e , t o b e u s e d a s i t s
n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s , a t
17 23 Rh o d e Is l a n d Av e -
n u e , W . , Wa s h i n g t o n , D . C . , a s c l o s e a s m i g h t b e t o
t h e l o r d l y D u p o n t Ci r c l e .
At a b o u t t h e s a m e t i m e ( No v e m b e r , 1923) Se n a -
t o r Os c a r W. Un d e r wo o d o f Al a b a m a i m p r u d e n t l y
d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f o p p o s e d t o t h e Kl a n a n d e v e r y -
t h i n g i t s t o o d f o r , wi t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e o u t r a g e d
M e t h o d i s t s a n d B a p t i s t s o f Al a b a m a r e t i r e d h i m
t o p r i v a t e l i f e a f t e r h i s Pr e s i d e n t i a l b o o m we n t t o
s m a s h a t t h e D e m o c r a t i c c o n v e n t i o n o f 1924
.
Th e D . C . St e p h e n s o n m e n t i o n e d a b o v e wa s p e r -
286

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
h a p s t h e m o s t p i c t u r e s q u e c h a r a c t e r t h a t e v e r
s p a t
t o b a c c o j u i c e o n a k l a v e r n f l o o r
. Hi s d u m m y t e l e -
p h o n e i n t o wh i c h , f o r t h e e d i f i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e c a l l -
e r s , h e u s e d t o b e l l o wo r d e r s t o Pr e s i d e n t Ha r d i n g
;
t h e c r e a m - c o l o r e d a i r p l a n e t h a t b o r e h i m f r o m t h e
s k i e s i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f m a n y a p o p - e y e d Kl a n
f i e l d m e e t i n g i n r u r a l In d i a n a
;h i s p r o j e c t e d c a r d
i n d e xs y s t e m o f e s p i o n a g e u p o n e v e r y s o u l i n t h a t
s t a t e
;h i s a m b i t i o n s , h i s Kl a n - g o t r i c h e s , t h e d a m n -
i n g s e c r e t s h e h e l d o v e r t h e h e a d o f n u m b e r l e s s In -
d i a n a b o o d l e m e n -
a l l t h i s p o m p a n d v a n i t y c a v e d
wh e n h e wa s p l a c e d o n t r i a l f o r t h e m u r d e r o f
M a d g e Ob e r h o l t ze r a n d wa s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p e n i -
t e n t i a r y f o r l i f e . St e p h e n s o n ' s s t o r y i n f u l l b e l o n g s
i n a h i s t o r y o f In d i a n a p o l i t i c s r a t h e r t h a n i n t h i s
v o l u m e .
An e s t i m a t e o f t h e Kl a n ' s s t r e n g t h a t t h e o p e n -
i n g o f 1924
wa s m a d e b y St a n l e y Fr o s t , a n a u t h o r -
i t y o n t h e o r d e r , f o r t h e Ou t l o o k .
M r . Fr o s t c a l -
c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e we r e t h e n a l i t t l e l e s s t h a n
4, 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
Ku Kl u xKl a n s m e n i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s ,
a n d t h a t t h e m e m b e r s h i p wa s d i v i d e d a p p r o xi -
m a t e l y a s f o l l o ws :
In d i a n a , Oh i o ( e a c h )
5 0 0 , 0 0 0
Te xa s 40 0 , 0 0 0
Ok l a h o m a , Or e g o n , Ca l i f o r n i a , Ne w
Yo r k ( e a c h ) 20 0 , 0 0 0
Ar k a n s a s , Wa s h i n g t o n , Ka n s a s , M i s -
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

287
s o u r i , M i c h i g a n , Il l i n o i s , Ke n -
t u c k y , We s t Vi r g i n i a , M a r y l a n d ,
Ne wJe r s e y , Lo u i s i a n a , M i s s i s -
s i p p i , Al a b a m a , Ge o r g i a , Fl o r i d a ,
Te n n e s s e e ( e a c h ) . . . . 5 0 , 0 0 0
t o 20 0 , 0 0 0
Th e m o s t s e n s a t i o n a l v i c t o r y e v e r wo n b y e i t h e r
p a r t y t o t h e r e l i g i o u s f i g h t i n Am e r i c a wa s t h e
p l a c i n g u p o n t h e s t a t u t e b o o k s o f Or e g o n o f t h e
f a m o u s Or e g o n s c h o o l l a w . Th i s t h e Or e g o n v o t e r s
d i d i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f No v e m b e r , 1922 . Th e l a w
p r o v i d e d f i n e s a n d / o r j a i l s e n t e n c e s f o r a n y p a r e n t
o r g u a r d i a n o f a c h i l d b e t we e n t h e a g e s o f e i g h t a n d
s i xt e e n y e a r s wh o d i d n o t s e n d s u c h c h i l d t o a
s c h o o l m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e s t a t e . Ob v i o u s l y t h i s l a w,
i f s u s t a i n e d , wo u l d k i l l a l l t h e p a r o c h i a l a n d p r i v a t e
e l e m e n t a r y a n d h i g h s c h o o l s i n Or e g o n . Fo r t h i r t y
m o n t h s Ca t h o l i c i t y t h e n a t i o n o v e r s a wn i g h t l y
a - s t a l k i n Am e r i c a t h e g h o s t s o f He n r y VIII, Vi c -
t o r Em m a n u e l a n d Pr i n c e Ot t o v o n B i s m a r c k . Th e n
t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Su p r e m e Co u r t d e c l a r e d t h e Or e -
g o n s c h o o l l a wu n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . Sa i d t h e c o u r t i n
p a r t :
" Th e f u n d a m e n t a l t h e o r y o f l i b e r t y u p o n wh i c h
a l l g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h i s Un i o n r e p o s e e xc l u d e s a n y
g e n e r a l p o we r o f t h e s t a t e t o s t a n d a r d i ze i t s c h i l -
d r e n b y f o r c i n g t h e m t o a c c e p t i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m
p u b l i c t e a c h e r s o n l y . Th e c h i l d i s n o t t h e m e r e c r e a -
t u r e o f t h e s t a t e ;t h o s e wh o n u r t u r e h i m a n d d i r e c t
288

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
h i s d e s t i n y h a v e t h e r i g h t , c o u p l e d wi t h t h e h i g h
d u t y , t o r e c o g n i ze a n d p r e p a r e h i m f o r a d d i t i o n a l
o b l i g a t i o n s
. "
Two Or e g o n i n s t i t u t i o n s b r o u g h t t h e t e s t s u i t
wh i c h e v e n t u a l l y k i l l e d t h i s l a w : t h e Si s t e r s o f t h e
Ho l y Na m e s o f Je s u s a n d M a r y , a n d t h e n o n -
s e c t a r i a n Hi l l M i l i t a r y Ac a d e m y . B r i e f s a m i c i
c u r i o
we r e f i l e d b y t h e No r t h Pa c i f i c Un i o n Co n -
f e r e n c e , Se v e n t h D a y Ad v e n t i s t s , D o m e s t i c a n d
Fo r e i g n M i s s i o n a r y So c i e t y o f t h e Pr o t e s t a n t Ep i s -
c o p a l Ch u r c h , a n d t h e Am e r i c a n Je wi s h Co m -
m i t t e e . Co m m e n t e d Ne l s o n Co l l i n s , a Pr o t e s t a n t
o p p o n e n t o f t h e Or e g o n s c h o o l l a wwr i t i n g i n t h e
Ca t h o l i c Co m m o n we a l :
" As a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n h a d n e xt
t o n o t h i n g t o d o wi t h t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e Or e g o n
s c h o o l l a w . " It wa s " t h e p r o u d p r o d u c t o f t h e Sc o t -
t i s h Ri t e M a s o n s o f t h e So u t h e r n Ju r i s d i c t i o n . "
Si m i l a r l a ws we r e p r o p o s e d t wi c e i n M i c h i g a n
a n d o n c e i n t h e s t a t e o f Wa s h i n g t o n , b u t f a i l e d o f
e n a c t m e n t .
Th e s t a t e s wh e r e i n t h e Kl a n r e a c h e d t h e p e a k o f
i t s p o l i t i c a l p o we r t h r o u g h o u t i t s c a r e e r t o 1928
we r e Or e g o n , Ok l a h o m a , Te xa s , Ar k a n s a s , Al a -
b a m a , Ge o r g i a , In d i a n a , M a i n e , Oh i o , Co l o r a d o
a n d Ca l i f o r n i a . It s b a t t l e s wi t h " M a " a n d " Pa "
Fe r g u s o n i n Te xa s , J . C . Wa l t o n i n Ok l a h o m a , a n d
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

289
B e n B . Li n d s e y i n D e n v e r , wo u l d d e m a n d f o r t h e i r
a d e q u a t e n a r r a t i o n m o r e s p a c e t h a n i s h e r e a v a i l -
a b l e
. Th e r e l i g i o u s i s s u e wa s o n l y i n c i d e n t a l t o
t h e s e Kl a n c r u s a d e s .
Ju n e ,
1924,
s a wt h e b l o o d i e s t Kl a n r i o t i n t h e
o r d e r ' s h i s t o r y f r o m
1915 t o 1928 . Th e f i g h t wa s
o c c a s i o n e d b y a Kl a n d e m o n s t r a t i o n h e l d a t Li l l y ,
Pe n n s y l v a n i a . At e r r i f i c f i g h t wa s h a d b y t h e m i n -
i o n s o f t h e Po p e a n d t h e s t a n d a r d b e a r e r s o f m i l i -
t a n t Pr o t e s t a n t i s m , a n d f o u r p e r s o n s we r e k i l l e d .
Twe n t y - f i v e Kl a n s m e n a n d f o u r o f t h e i r o p p o n e n t s
we r e l a t e r c h a r g e d wi t h m u r d e r
. Al l b u t o n e we r e
c o n v i c t e d , a t Ev a n s b u r g , o f u n l a wf u l a s s e m b l a g e
a n d a f f r a y , a n d s e n t e n c e d t o t wo y e a r s ' i m p r i s o n -
m e n t a p i e c e .
Th e s a m e m o n t h s a wa l s o t h e D e m o c r a t i c n a -
t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n a t Ne wYo r k Ci t y , o f wh i c h
m o r e l a t e r .
M o s t p r o m i n e n t a m o n g s e v e r a l o r d e r s o r g a n i ze d
b y Ca t h o l i c s t o f i g h t t h e Kl a n wi t h i t s o wn f i r e wa s
t h e Kn i g h t s o f t h e Fl a m i n g Ci r c l e , o r Re d Kn i g h t s .
An y o n e n o t a Pr o t e s t a n t , s o t h e l o d g e ' s p r o s p e c t u s
s t a t e d , wa s e l i g i b l e f o r m e m b e r s h i p
. Th e Fl a m i n g
Ci r c l e wa s n e v e r s t r o n g o u t s i d e Pe n n s y l v a n i a , Oh i o
a n d We s t Vi r g i n i a
. It s n o b l e s t a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e
i n t e r e s t o f p e a c e o n e a r t h a n d g o o d - wi l l a m o n g m e n
wa s p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f t h e r i o t a t Ni l e s , Oh i o , a we e k
b e f o r e t h e 1924 n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n
. Th e Kl a n , d e s i r -
i n g t o p a r a d e i n Ni l e s , s o u g h t a p e r m i t f r o m M a y o r
290

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
H . L . Ki s t l e r
. Pr o t e s t wa s r e g i s t e r e d b y t h e Kn i g h t s
o f t h e Fl a m i n g Ci r c l e , s h o r t l y f o l l o wi n g wh i c h a
m y s t e r i o u s b o m b wr e c k e d Ki s t l e r ' s h o m e . Th e
Kl a n d u l y p a r a d e d , a n d t h e Fl a m i n g Ci r c l e i t e s
r u s h e d t h e p r o c e s s i o n . Twe l v e we r e wo u n d e d . Go v -
e r n o r D o n a h e y o r d e r e d s t a t e t r o o p s t o Ni l e s , a n d
h i m s e l f t o o k c o m m a n d . In v e s t i g a t i o n f o l l o we d ;
10 4 we r e i n d i c t e d ;t e n o f t h e s e p l e a d e d g u i l t y a n d
p a i d f i n e s . Al l t e n we r e a n t i - Kl a n s y m p a t h i ze r s
.
As e r i e s o f Kl a n a n d a n t i - Kl a n r i o t s d i s t u r b e d
t h e p e a c e o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1923 .
Th e Kl a n i n s i s t e d o n p a r a d i n g o r m e e t i n g p u b l i c l y
i n No r t h b r i d g e , B e r l i n , Ga r d n e r , Cl i n t o n a n d e l s e -
wh e r e . It i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y wh o o p e n s t h e f e s t i v i -
t i e s i n a l m o s t a n y r i o t t h a t o c c u r s a n y wh e r e . B u t a
c r o wd o f Kl a n s m e n i n wh i t e r o b e s a n d h o o d s c o n -
s t i t u t e s a s p l e n d i d t a r g e t f o r b r i c k s a n d t o m a t o e s ,
wh i l e t h e a v e r a g e l o d g e b r o t h e r i n a u n i f o r m i s t o o
s e l f - c o n s c i o u s t o b e c a p a b l e o f s t a r t i n g a f i g h t . Th e
i n f e r e n c e t o t h i s wr i t e r s e e m s i n e s c a p a b l e t h a t , i n
a l m o s t e v e r y Kl a n r i o t , a c t u a l f i g h t i n g i s b e g u n b y
e n e m i e s o f t h e Kl a n .
In d e e d , t h i s t h e o r y i s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y a b r i e f
c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f wh a t we n t o n p r i o r t o t h e f i n a l
r e l u c t a n t g r a n t o f a p e r m i t b y t h e Wa s h i n g t o n ,
D
. C
. , a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e f a m o u s Kl a n p a r a d e o f
Au g u s t 8, 192 5 , t h r o u g h Pe n n s y l v a n i a Av e n u e
. Th e
t h r e e g r o u p s o f Am e r i c a n s m o s t b i t t e r l y h a t e d b y
t h e Kl a n we r e u n a b l e t o s h o wt h e m s e l v e s s u p e r i o r
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

291
t o h a t r e d . Fa r f r o m i t
. Ca t h o l i c s , Je ws a n d n e g r o e s
m u s t n e e d s s h o we r Pr e s i d e n t Co o l i d g e , f o r we e k s i n
a d v a n c e o f t h e c e r e m o n y , wi t h p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t a n y
c o u n t e n a n c i n g o f t h e p a r a d e , wi t h m a s k s o r wi t h -
o u t . Th e c o l o r e d b l o c h e l d o n l o n g e s t o f a l l
: o n t h e
v e r y d a y o f t h e p a r a d e , t h e h a r r i e d c h i e f e xe c u t i v e
r e c e i v e d a l a s t t e l e g r a p h i c s c r e a m o f a n g u i s h f r o m
t h e No r t h e a s t e r n Fe d e r a t i o n o f Co l o r e d Wo m e n ' s
Cl u b s .
To t h e m i n d n o t m o l d e d f o r r e v e r e n c e , t h e r e i s
s o m e t h i n g f u n n y a b o u t e v e r y r e l i g i o u s s q u a b b l e .
Pr o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e m o s t f a n a t i c Pr o t e s t a n t i s
a s h a d e l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n t h e m o s t f a n a t i c
Ca t h o l i c , t h e t r u l y s u p e r b f e a t s o f b u r l e s q u e r i e
g e n e r a l l y c o m e f r o m t h e Pr o t e s t a n t s i d e o f t h e s e
b a t t l e s .
Of h i s t o r i c , p e r c h a n c e n e v e r - t o - b e - f o r g o t t e n ,
f a m e wa s t h e Re v . D r . C
. Le wi s Fo wl e r ' s d i s c o v e r y
o f t h e t r u e c a u s e o f t h e d e a t h , a t Sa n Fr a n c i s c o o n
Au g u s t 2, 1923, o f Pr e s i d e n t Wa r r e n Ga m a l i e l
Ha r d i n g . D r
. Fo wl e r wa s e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f o f t h e Kl a n
we e k l y k n o wn a s Th e Am e r i c a n St a n d a r d ,
wh i c h
wa s p u b l i s h e d a t Ne wYo r k Ci t y d u r i n g t h e Kl a n ' s
t h r e e b e s t y e a r s
. Fo wl e r i t wa s wh o m a d e t h e
a s t o u n d i n g d i s c l o s u r e t h a t t h e Pr e s i d e n t h a d n o t
d i e d o f p n e u m o n i a , a s e v e r y o n e i n c l u d i n g s o r e -
s p e c t a b l e a n a u t h o r i t y a s t h e En c y c l o p a e d i a B r i -
t a n n i c a s u p p o s e d , b u t h a d b e e n j o l l i e d i n t o t h e
h e r e a f t e r b y h y p n o t i c , t e l e p a t h i c t h o u g h t wa v e s
292

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
g e n e r a t e d i n t h e b r a i n s o f Je s u i t a d e p t s . Th e wr i t e r
a t t e m p t e d t o o b t a i n f r o m D r . Fo wl e r t h e s t o r y b e -
h i n d t h i s t r e m e n d o u s n e ws b e a t ;b u t a l e t t e r a d -
d r e s s e d t o h i m a t To r o n t o , On t a r i o , wh e r e t h e Pr o t -
e s t a n t j o u r n a l , t h e Fe l l o ws h i p Fo r u m , s u p p o s e d
h i m t o b e l i v i n g , wa s r e t u r n e d a s u n d e l i v e r a b l e
.
Al m o s t t h e e q u a l o f t h e Fo wl e r s c o o p wa s t h e
No r t h M a n c h e s t e r , In d i a n a , i n c i d e n t
. In t h e f a l l
o f 1923, s o m e j o k e s m i t h c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h i s
t o wn a r e p o r t t h a t t h e Po p e wa s t o d we l l i n c o g n i t o
a t No r t h M a n c h e s t e r u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s h i s r e s i -
d e n c e a t Wa s h i n g t o n s h o u l d b e r e a d y f o r o c c u -
p a n c y a n d a l l a r r a n g e m e n t s c o m p l e t e d f o r h i s t a k -
i n g o v e r o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s g o v e r n m e n t . Fu r t h e r ,
i t wa s s a i d , Hi s Ho l i n e s s wo u l d a r r i v e a t No r t h
M a n c h e s t e r o n t h e e v e n i n g t r a i n . Th e n a t i o n ' s
n e e d o f a f e wm o r e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , a t l e a s t i n
In d i a n a , wa s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e g a t h e r i n g a t t h e
r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n t h a t e v e n i n g o f f i f t e e n h u n d r e d
p e r s o n s t o a wa i t t h e p o n t i f f ' s a r r i v a l .
Ch r i s t m a s t i d e i n Sa l t La k e Ci t y , Ut a h , 11925 ,
b r o u g h t wi t h i t a n o r d e r f r o m t h e c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s
t h a t Sa l v a t i o n Ar m y a n d d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e Sa n t a
Cl a u s e s m u s t o p e r a t e wi t h o u t b e a r d s . Th e Kl a n
h a d l a t e l y b e e n h i t b y a n a n t i - m a s k o r d i n a n c e , a n d
t h i s wa s t h e m e t h o d i t c h o s e f o r h i t t i n g b a c k .
Nu m e r o u s M e t h o d i s t a n d B a p t i s t p a s t o r s h e r e
a n d t h e r e h a v i n g b e e n d i s c o v e r e d f u n c t i o n i n g a s
Cy c l o p s ' s a n d Kl e a g l e s , B i s h o p Ed wi n H
. Hu g h e s
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

293
o f t h e Il l i n o i s a r e a , M e t h o d i s t Ep i s c o p a l c h u r c h ,
d e n o u n c e d t h e Kl a n i n M a r c h , 1926 . D r . Hu g h e s ' s
d i c t u m wa s n o t f o l l o we d b y a n y wh o l e s a l e p u b l i c
wi t h d r a wa l o f M e t h o d i s t s f r o m t h e Kl a n , n o r d i d
t h a t o r g a n i za t i o n r e t r a c t i t s p u b l i s h e d s t a t e m e n t
t h a t :
" It i s n o t c l a i m e d o r i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e Kl a n b e
a c h u r c h , o r t h a t i t t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e c h u r c h ,
b u t i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e Kl a n b e a p o we r f u l a d -
j u n c t t o t h e Pr o t e s t a n t c h u r c h . "
On Ju l y 17 , 1926 , t h e Re v . J. Fr a n k No r r i s , p a s -
t o r o f t h e Fi r s t B a p t i s t c h u r c h o f Fo r t Wo r t h ,
Te xa s , s h o t a n d k i l l e d D . E . Ch i p p s . Ch i p p s wa s a
M a s o n a n d a Sh r i n e r , b u t , No r r i s c h a r g e d , a r e g u -
l a r a t t e n d a n t a t a Fo r t Wo r t h Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h .
No r r i s wa s a v e t e r a n e v a n g e l i s t a n d a n t i - Ca t h o l i c
c r u s a d e r . No r r i s c l a i m e d t h a t h e s h o t i n s e l f - d e -
f e n s e , b u t a s k e d t h a t h e b e i n d i c t e d f o r m u r d e r - -
wh i c h u n u s u a l r e q u e s t t h e g r a n d j u r y p r o m p t l y
g r a n t e d
. Hi s c h u r c h s t o o d s o l i d l y b e h i n d No r r i s ,
a n d Fo r t Wo r t h wa s s p l i t f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m a l o n g
Ca t h o l i c - Pr o t e s t a n t l i n e s o f c l e a v a g e
. Ac h a n g e o f
v e n u e wa s h a d , t o Au s t i n ;No r r i s t o l d h i s s t o r y o n
t h e wi t n e s s s t a n d
;t h e j u r y a c q u i t t e d h i m a m i d t h e
h o s a n n a s o f t h e Pr o t e s t a n t s a n d t h e wa i l i n g s o f t h e
Ca t h o l i c s .
On M e m o r i a l d a y ,
192
7 , v a r i o u s p a t r i o t i c a n d
v e t e r a n s ' o r g a n i za t i o n s p a r a d e d a t Ja m a i c a , i n t h e
294

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
b o r o u g h o f Q u e e n s , Gr e a t e r Ne wYo r k . Th e Ja -
m a i c a Kl a n h a d a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o b e
a m o n g t h o s e p r e s e n t , a n d a p l a c e h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d
t o i t i n t h e p a r a d e , wh e r e u p o n t h e Kn i g h t s o f Co -
l u m b u s h a d c h a r i t a b l y a n d p a t r i o t i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t
t h e y m i g h t s e e f i t t o wi t h d r a wf r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n .
Wh e n t h e l i n e o f m a r c h f o r m e d , t h e Kl a n wa s t h e r e ,
b o t h Kn i g h t s a n d La d i e s , i n f u l l u n i f o r m b u t wi t h
f a c e s u n m a s k e d .
Th e Q u e e n s p o l i c e f o r b a d e t h e Pr o t e s t a n t o r d e r
t o m a r c h . Wh e n t h e Kl a n s m e n a n d Kl a n s wo m e n
i n s i s t e d o n m a r c h i n g , s o m e o f t h e p o l i c e s o u g h t t o
h e a d o f f t h e l e a d e r s . Ar u n n i n g f i g h t wa s t h e r e s u l t .
No o n e wa s s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d , wi t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x-
c e p t i o n o f t h e Am e r i c a n Ea g l e .
Ag r a n d j u r y c a l l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e r i o t f a i l e d t o
i n d i c t a n y o n e , b u t i t d i d i s s u e a s t a t e m e n t b l a m i n g
t h e p o l i c e , a n d s e n t t h e m i n u t e s o f i t s p r o c e e d i n g s
t o M a y o r Ja m e s J . Wa l k e r . Two Kl a n s m e n we r e
l a t e r s e n t e n c e d t o t h e wo r k h o u s e f o r t h i r t y d a y s
e a c h a s f o r d i s o r d e r l y c o n d u c t , j u d g e He a l y o f
Sp e c i a l Se s s i o n s t e l l i n g o n e o f t h e m
:
" Yo u a r e a t h u g a n d a l o a f e r . Yo u d o n ' t b e l o n g
i n Q u e e n s c o u n t y a n d we r e b r o u g h t h e r e a s a
s t r o n g a r m
. "
No n e o f t h e p o l i c e l o s t t h e i r j o b s . Th e Ne wYo r k
Ci t y p o l i c e f o r c e , a s e v e r y b o d y k n o ws , h a s f o r m a n y
y e a r s b e e n c o m p o s e d l a r g e l y o f Ir i s h m e n . Th e o n l y
P . 1A. Ph o t o
.
ANINCID ENTINPOLICE- KLANRIOT, JAM AICA, L
. I . , N . Y . , M EM ORIALD AY, 1927
THEERAOFTHEKLAN

295
c o n c l u s i o n t o b e d r a wn f r o m t h e No r r i s m u r d e r
t r i a l a s c o n t r a s t e d wi t h t h e Ja m a i c a r i o t i s c o n -
t a i n e d i n t h e a c i d e p i g r a m o f Pr o f
. Le o n Wh i p p l e ,
t o b e f o u n d i n
Th e St o r y o f Ci v i l Li b e r t y i n
t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s , t h a t " wh o h a s p o we r h a s l i b e r t y . "
Fa n a t i c i s m we n t o n t h e a i r e a r l y i n 1926 , wi t h
t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Ra d i o St a t i o n WHAPi n Ne w
Yo r k . Th i s s t a t i o n wa s s u p p o r t e d b y M r s . Au g u s t a
St e t s o n ' s s c h i s m a t i c Ch r i s t i a n Sc i e n c e c h u r c h , a n d
i t s s t a r b r o a d c a s t e r wa s a Ca t h o l i c - b a i t e r n a m e d
Fr a n k l i n Fo r d . Hi s wa r e s we r e t h e u s u a l : a l l e g e d
Je s u i t a n d p r i e s t l y o a t h s , l o r e o f e x- n u n a n d e x-
p r i e s t , t h e f e l l d e s i g n s o f Ro m e u p o n Wa s h i n g t o n .
Aze a l o u s Ne wYo r k Ci t y j u d g e b a r r e d Fo r d f r o m
j u r y d u t y o n t h e g r o u n d o f h i s r e l i g i o u s b i a s . Th e
a p p e l l a t e c o u r t r e s t o r e d h i s r i g h t s , r e m a r k i n g t h a t
t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Co n s t i t u t i o n e xt e n d e d i t s p r o t e c -
t i o n e v e n t o t h o s e wh o we r e u n wo r t h y o f i t .
WHAP' s n i g h t l y s t r e a m o f a n t i - Ca t h o l i c v i b r a -
t i o n s wa s c o m b a t e d b y t h e Pa u l i s t Fa t h e r s ' s t a -
t i o n , WLWL . Th e Pa u l i s t s d i d n o t e n t e r i n t o d i r e c t
c o n t r o v e r s i e s wi t h Fo r d , b u t c o n t e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s
c h i e f l y wi t h t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g o f b e t t e r m u s i c a n d
m o r e v a r i e d s p e e c h e s t h a n r o l l e d f r o m t h e t o we r s
o f WHAP
.
CHAPTERXXXI
JUST B EFORETHEB ATTLE
T HE m a n wh o i n 1928
s e e m e d d e s t i n e d t o p u t
r e l i g i o u s wa r f a r e i n t o t h e Am e r i c a n b a c k g r o u n d
f o r a n o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n b e g a n h i s g r o wt h t o t h e p r o -
p o r t i o n s o f a n a t i o n a l f i g u r e a b o u t t h e y e a r
1920 .
Tr u e e n o u g h , i n No v e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r Al f r e d E
.
Sm i t h f a i l e d o f r e - e l e c t i o n a s g o v e r n o r o f Ne w
Yo r k . B u t h e c a m e b a c k i n
1922 t o r o l l u p a r e c o r d -
s m a s h i n g m a j o r i t y o v e r Na t h a n I . M i l l e r . Th e p e o -
p l e o f Ne wYo r k k i l l e d a n y a n t i - t h i r d - t e r m t r a d i -
t i o n t h e y m a y o n c e h a v e r e v e r e d b y s we e p i n g h i m
b a c k i n t o o f f i c e i n 1924,
a n d g a v e t h e t h i n g a l l t h e
a p p e a r a n c e o f a n e s t a b l i s h e d f o l k wa y b y m a k i n g
h i m g o v e r n o r a f o u r t h t i m e i n 1926
.
M e a n wh i l e , Sm i t h h a d g r o wn t o b e t h e o u t s t a n d -
i n g Pr e s i d e n t i a l p o s s i b i l i t y a m o n g t h e p i t i f u l l y f e w
o f t h o s e d e s i r a b l e s wh o m t h e D e m o c r a t i c p a r t y
c o u l d b o a s t o f p o s s e s s i n g . Th e Re p u b l i c a n p a r t y
wa s i n p o we r a t Wa s h i n g t o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d , a n d
r i g h t e xp e r t l y d i d i t s i d e s t e p a l l s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t i t
c o m m i t i t s e l f n a t i o n a l l y o n t h e i s s u e wh i c h o c c u -
p i e d m o s t p e o p l e ' s t h o u g h t s a n d f i l l e d t h e b u l k o f
t h e s p a c e a l l o t t e d b y t h e n e ws p a p e r s t o m a t t e r s
p o l i t i c a l .
20
JUST
B EFORETHEB ATTLE

297
Th i s i s s u e wa s f e d e r a l p r o h i b i t i o n , a l l e g e d t o
h a v e b e e n e f f e c t u a t e d o n Ja n u a r y 16 ,
1920 , b y
t h e e i g h t e e n t h a m e n d m e n t t o t h e Co n s t i t u t i o n
.
Th a t a m e n d m e n t ' s e n a c t m e n t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n
a l l u d e d t o .
Pr o h i b i t i o n wa s a Pr o t e s t a n t p o l i t i c a l a c h i e v e -
m e n t , a n d e v e r y a d u l t i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s k n e wi t
t o h a v e b e e n s u c h
. It wa s k i c k e d a n d b u l l i e d
t h r o u g h Co n g r e s s a n d t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s b y t h e
m o s t p o we r f u l e xt r a - p a r t y p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i za t i o n i n
Am e r i c a n h i s t o r y , t h e An t i - Sa l o o n Le a g u e
. Th i s
g r o u p c a l l e d i t s e l f " t h e c h u r c h i n a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e
s a l o o n " - a n d "
c h u r c h " t h u s u s e d m e a n t Pr o t -
e s t a n t c h u r c h
. Th e Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h , b y v i r t u e o f i t s
c l a i m t o d o m i n i o n o v e r m o r a l q u e s t i o n s , i s n e c e s s a -
r i l y o p p o s e d t o a n y m o r a l i t y s t a t u t e p r o m u l g a t e d
b y t h e s e c u l a r a r m
- e xc e p t wh e n i t i s p r i v i l e g e d
t o m o v e t h e m u s c l e s o f t h e s e c u l a r a r m
. It s c l e r g y ,
wi t h i s o l a t e d e xc e p t i o n s , n e v e r h a d t r a f f i c wi t h t h e
An t i - Sa l o o n Le a g u e , wh i l e i t s p r e s s wa s i n f u l l c r y
a g a i n s t p r o h i b i t i o n t h e m o m e n t t h e n e wl a w' s f a i l -
u r e wa s p e r c e i v e d t o b e a f a c t .
Sm i t h wa s i n c r e e d a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c
. He wa s
a l s o a n a n t i - p r o h i b i t i o n i s t
. Ne wYo r k r e p e a l e d i t s
s t a t e d r y e n f o r c e m e n t l a wa m i d p u b l i c r e j o i c i n g i n
1923, a n d Sm i t h s i g n e d t h e r e p e a l e r b i l l
. Hi s p o -
l i t i c a l g r o o m s a t t e m p t e d t o b e d i ze n h i m a s a s e m i -
d r y l a t e i n 192 7 , b u t n o o n e wa s f o o l e d
. He h i m s e l f
d e c l a r e d i n a g r a n i t i c s t a t e m e n t t h a t h e b e l i e v e d i n
298

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
e n f o r c e m e n t o f a l l l a ws , b u t r e s e r v e d t h e r i g h t t o
wo r k f o r t h e r e p e a l o f a n y l a wh e d i d n o t l i k e , l e t -
t i n g i t b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t h e d i d n o t l i k e t h e p r o -
h i b i t i o n l a w .
Pr o h i b i t i o n , f u r t h e r , wa s a n i d e a b o r n a n d b r e d
i n t h e c o u n t r y d i s t r i c t s a n d s m a l l t o wn s o f t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s . We s t e r v i l l e , Oh i o , wa s t h e b i r t h -
p l a c e a n d h o m e t o wn o f t h e An t i - Sa l o o n Le a g u e .
Ru r a l M e t h o d i s t a n d B a p t i s t p a s t o r s we r e t h e
wo r t h i e s wh o , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e
Le a g u e ' s h o l d o n t h e n a t i o n . Pr o h i b i t i o n ' s e v e n t u a l
c o n q u e s t o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s wa s t h u s n o t o n l y a
Pr o t e s t a n t v i c t o r y b u t a l s o a v i c t o r y o f f a r m o v e r
t o wn , v i l l a g e o v e r m e t r o p o l i s .
An d Al f r e d E . Sm i t h wa s a n a t i v e s o n o f t h e
wo r l d ' s l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i s a n d , i n t h e e y e s o f t h e
r u s t i c s , i t s wi c k e d e s t . He s m o k e d g o o d c i g a r s a n d
p l a y e d g o l f a n d b e l o n g e d t o c l u b s a n d , p r e s u m a b l y ,
d r a n k c o c k t a i l s . He m i g h t b e , a s h e wa s , o n e o f t h e
f e ws t a t e s m e n a l i v e i n Am e r i c a , a n d a s d e m o c r a t i c
p e r s o n a l l y a s Wo o d r o wWi l s o n wa s r e s e r v e d
;b u t
n o m a t t e r . He wa s a c i t y s l i c k e r , a n d s o t h e v i l l a g e
Pu r i t a n s wo u l d h a v e n o n e o f h i m , c a l l i n g h i m Al c o -
h o l Al a n d d a m n i n g h i m f r o m t h e i r p u l p i t s f o r a
p a p i s t a n d a g r a d u a t e o f p e r f i d i o u s Ta m m a n y .
Ye t , s o v i o l e n t wa s t h e n a u s e a wh i c h p r o h i b i t i o n
b r o u g h t u p o n t h e n a t i o n , s o d e s t i t u t e o f l e a d e r s
wa s Sm i t h ' s p a r t y , a n d s o e n o r m o u s wa s Sm i t h ' s
p e r s o n a l p o p u l a r i t y , t h a t o n e f a c t b e c a m e p l a i n e r
JUST
B EFORETHEB ATTLE

299
a n d p l a i n e r a s t i m e r o l l e d o u t f r o m
1920 .
Th a t f a c t
wa s t h a t , wh i l e t h e Re p u b l i c a n s wo u l d p r o b a b l y
r e m a i n i n p o we r u n t i l
1932
a n y wa y , t h e D e m o -
c r a t s c o u l d h o p e t o e l e c t a p r e s i d e n t b e f o r e
1932
o n l y i f t h e y wo u l d r u n Sm i t h
.
Th e r u b c a m e i n t h e " s o l i d "
So u t h . No t o n l y
wa s t h e So u t h s o l i d l y D e m o c r a t i c
: i t wa s s o l i d l y
d r y s o f a r a s v o t i n g we n t , t h o u g h i t s p e r c a p i t a c o n -
s u m p t i o n o f c o r n l i q u o r wa s n o t k n o wn t o h a v e d e -
c r e a s e d s i n c e
1920 ; a n d i n h u g e p a t c h e s i t wa s a n t i -
Ca t h o l i c .
Sm i t h a s a Pr e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e c o u l d h o p e t o
c a r r y m o r e o f t h e u r b a n a n d i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s t h a n
c o u l d a n y o t h e r D e m o c r a t
. B u t wh a t wo u l d h a p -
p e n i n t h e So u t h s h o u l d h i s p a r t y n o m i n a t e Sm i t h ?
Th e D e m o c r a t s s h r a n k f r o m t h e g a m b l e a t t h e i r
n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n Ne wYo r k Ci t y i n Ju n e ,
1924 . M o r e t h a n o n e h u n d r e d b a l l o t s f a i l e d t o
s q u e e ze a c a n d i d a t e o u t o f t h e d e a d l o c k b e t we e n
Sm i t h a n d Wi l l i a m G
. M c Ad o o , p r i d e o f t h e f a r m e r s
a n d t h e d r y s a n d t h e Ku Kl u xe r s . Co m p r o m i s e wa s
f i n a l l y m a d e u p o n Jo h n W . D a v i s .
D a v i s u p s e t t h e l a s t D e m o c r a t i c a p p l e c a r t wh e n ,
s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s n o m i n a t i o n , h e d e n o u n c e d t h e
Kl a n b y n a m e . Hi s p a r t y , b y a m a j o r i t y o f o n e
v o t e , h a d d e c i d e d n o t t o d o t h i s i n i t s c a m p a i g n
p l a t f o r m
. M o s t o f D a v i s ' s Ca t h o l i c s a n d we t s h a d
l o n g s i n c e d e s e r t e d h i m f o r Ca l v i n Co o l i d g e ( Re -
p u b l i c a n ) , wh o c o u l d p o i n t t o a p e r i o d o f p r o s p e r -
30 0

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
i t y a s a r e a s o n wh y h e s h o u l d b e r e - e l e c t e d , o r f o r
La Fo l l e t t e a n d Wh e e l e r ( Fa r m e r - La b o r ) , wh o we r e
p r o m i s i n g t h e Ye a r o f Ju b i l o t o t h e f a r m e r s a n d
t h e p a r l o r B o l s h e v i k s . Co o l i d g e r e t u r n e d i n t r i -
u m p h t o t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e . Th e Kl a n b o a s t e d wi t h -
o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n f r o m 1924 t o 1928 t h a t i t h a d
b e a t e n Sm i t h a n d s a v e d Am e r i c a f r o m r u m , Ro -
m a n i s m a n d t h e c i t y f e l l o ws .
" Ou r e n e m i e s , a n d s o m e o f o u r f r i e n d s , " e x-
p l a i n e d Im p e r i a l Wi za r d Ev a n s i n t h e Wo r l d ' s
Wo r k f o r Ja n u a r y , 1928, " c h a r g e o r c r e d i t u s wi t h
t h e d e b a c l e o f t h e l a s t D e m o c r a t i c Na t i o n a l Co n -
v e n t i o n , a n d wi t h t h e d e f e a t o f M r
. D a v i s t h a t f o l -
l o we d . Th e r e i s s o m e t r u t h i n t h e c h a r g e
;t o b e
s u r e , t h e Kl a n wa s n o t p r e s e n t a s a n o r g a n i za t i o n
o r wi t h a n o r g a n i ze d f o r c e o f d e l e g a t e s o n t h e
f l o o r o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n , b u t i t wa s p r e s e n t a s a n i n -
t a n g i b l e f o r c e . D e l e g a t e s we r e a f r a i d o f wh a t we
m i g h t d o ! "
Wi t h t h e a p p r o a c h o f t h e 1928 Pr e s i d e n t i a l c a m -
p a i g n , t h e s a m e o l d p r o b l e m p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f t o t h e
D e m o c r a t i c p a r t y
. Sm i t h h a d r e g a i n e d h i s o n c e
m e n a c e d h e a l t h t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s b e t we e n , a n d
h a d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d h i s n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l s t a t u r e
b y a t t e n d i n g s t r i c t l y t o h i s g u b e r n a t o r i a l b u s i n e s s
i n Ne wYo r k . M c Ad o o f o r m a l l y a n n o u n c e d i n 1927
t h a t h e wo u l d n o t t r y a g a i n , l a t e r p i p i n g u p i n m i d -
we s t e r n a n d s o u t h e r n t o wn s wi t h s e v e r a l v i o l e n t l y
JUST B EFORETHEB ATTLE

30 1
d r y s p e e c h e s wh i c h g a v e r i s e t o t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t
h e m i g h t h a v e t h o u g h t b e t t e r o f h i s wi t h d r a wa l
.
Ot h e r p o s s i b l e D e m o c r a t i c c a n d i d a t e s we r e Se n a -
t o r Ja m e s A . Re e d o f M i s s o u r i , a we t ;Se n a t o r
Th o m a s J
. Wa l s h o f M o n t a n a , a d r y Ca t h o l i c ;
Go v e r n o r Al b e r t C . Ri t c h i e o f M a r y l a n d , we t
;Se n -
a t o r Ca r t e r Gl a s s o f Vi r g i n i a , d r y
;a n d Se n a t o r
J
. Th o m a s He f l i n o f Al a b a m a , a n t i - Ca t h o l i c a n d
p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g e l s e .
M o s t r e a d e r s o f t h e s e p a r a g r a p h s wi l l p r o b a b l y
g u f f a wa t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f He f l i n ' s n a m e i n t h i s l i s t
.
B u t h e wa s t h e d a r l i n g o f t h e Kl a n , b y r e a s o n o f
h i s d o u g h t y a t t a c k s o n t h e Po p e f r o m t h e f l o o r o f
t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Se n a t e
. An d r e g a r d l e s s o f n u -
m e r o u s p u b l i s h e d e s t i m a t e s o f t h e Kl a n ' s wa n -
i n g s t r e n g t h , t h e f a c t r e m a i n e d t h a t n o b o d y k n e w
wh e t h e r t h e Kl a n wa s wa n i n g i n 1928o r n o t . If t h e
c a s e h i s t o r i e s o f t h e Na t i v e Am e r i c a n s , Kn o w-
No t h i n g s a n d A . P . A
. c o u l d f u r n i s h a n y g u i d e , t h e
Kl a n wa s a b o u t r e a d y t o e n t e r i t s l a s t i l l n e s s ;b u t
t h e o n l y g e n e r a l i za t i o n wh i c h i n v a r i a b l y h o l d s t r u e
i n p o l i t i c s i s t h a t y o u n e v e r c a n t e l l .
He f l i n ' s i n t r e p i d a s s a u l t s o n t h e Ro m a n m e n a c e
f o r m e d o n e o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e Se n a t o r i a l c i r c u s
f o r m a n y a l o n g a n d we a r y d a y
. Wh e n e v e r a n o p -
p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f , t h e o v e r f l e s h e d , p i n k -
c h e e k e d , c a n a r y - wa i s t c o a t e d Ad o n i s f r o m Al a b a m a
wo u l d h e a v e t o h i s f e e t a n d b e l l o wd e n u n c i a t i o n o f
Ca t h o l i c i s m i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a i r
- wh i c h a i r
30 2

THE WARs OF THEGOD LY
q u i c k l y c l e a r e d o f a l m o s t a l l h u m a n o c c u p a n c y
s a v e t h e s o u n d o f t h a t v o i c e . An t i - Ca t h o l i c s e v e r y -
wh e r e s wa l l o we d wh o l e c u b i c f e e t o f t h e He f l i n e l o -
q u e n c e , p a t t e d t h e i r s h i r t f r o n t s a n d c r i e d f o r m o r e ,
Al a b a m a k l a v e r n s a n d a Pr o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r h e r e
a n d t h e r e f e e ' d t h e Se n a t o r f o r d e l i v e r i n g h i s m e s -
s a g e i n p e r s o n t o h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y . Th e o n l y l o u d
a n d j o v i a l r e t o r t h e d r e wf o r t h i n m a n y m o o n s wa s
a s e t o f r e s o l u t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e Al a b a m a
Ho u s e o f Re p r e s e n t a t i v e s b y o n e Le e Ed m u n d s o n
o f Je f f e r s o n c o u n t y i n Au g u s t , 192 7 . Th e Ed m u n d -
s o n l a m p o o n j e e r e d a s f o l l o ws :
" Wh e r e a s , t h e Un i t e d St a t e s o f Am e r i c a i s i n
g r a v e d a n g e r o f a n a t t a c k b y t h e Po p e o f Ro m e
;
" Wh e r e a s , e xc e p t f o r t h e v a l o r , b r a v e r y a n d
f o r e s i g h t o f t h a t g r e a t a n d e m i n e n t l e a d e r a n d
s t a t e s m a n , t h e Ho n . J . Th o m a s He f l i n , s e n i o r
Un i t e d St a t e s Se n a t o r f r o m Al a b a m a , t h i s c o u n t r y
wo u l d b e d e f e n s e l e s s a g a i n s t s u c h a n a t t a c k ;
"
Wh e r e a s , t h e Ho n . J . Th o m a s He f l i n s h o u l d
b e p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n wh e r e h e c a n d e f e n d t h i s
c o u n t r y i n p e r s o n a g a i n s t t h e i m p e n d i n g a t t a c k o f
t h e Po p e ;
" No w, t h e r e f o r e , b e i t Re s o l v e d , b y t h e Ho u s e o f
Re p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h a t t h e Pr e s i d e n t o f t h e Un i t e d
St a t e s b e r e q u e s t e d t o a p p o i n t t h e Ho n . J . Th o m a s
He f l i n a n a d m i r a l i n t h e n a v y , a n d t o p l a c e h i m i n
c o m m a n d o f t h e b a t t l e s h i p We s t Vi r g i n i a , t h e p r i d e
JUST B EFORETHEB ATTLE

30 3
o f t h e n a v y , wi t h o r d e r s t o a n c h o r a t Ne wYo r k
h a r b o r ;
" Re s o l v e d , f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e n e wa d m i r a l b e i n -
s t r u c t e d , u p o n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e
Po p e o n t h e
wa t e r , i n t h e a i r , u n d e r t h e s e a o r i n f a n c y , wi t h i n
t we l v e m i l e s o f t h e St a t u e o f Li b e r t y , t o f i r e u n -
c e a s i n g l y f o r a p e r i o d o f t we l v e h o u r s wi t h i 6 - i n c h
s h e l l s l o a d e d wi t h t h e m o s t d e a d l y v e r b o s i t y a t t h e
c o m m a n d o f t h e n e wa d m i r a l ;
" Re s o l v e d , f u r t h e r , t h a t a c o p y o f t h i s r e s o l u t i o n
b e f o r wa r d e d t o t h e Pr e s i d e n t o f t h e Se n a t e o f t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s , t h e Se c r e t a r y o f t h e Na v y , a n d t o
o u r m o s t v a l i a n t a n d c o u r a g e o u s p r o t e c t o r a n d
s t a t e s m a n , t h e Ho n . J . Th o m a s He f l i n . "
Ad a y c a m e wh e n t h e D e m o c r a t s i n t h e Se n a t e
d e t e r m i n e d t o m o v e e n m a s s e a g a i n s t He f l i n . Th e
i n c i d e n t f u r n i s h e d s o m e h i n t a s t o wh a t m i g h t h a p -
p e n t o t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n a t t h e D e m o c r a t i c n a -
t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s c h e d u l e d t o m e e t a t Ho u s t o n ,
Te xa s , i n t h e f o l l o wi n g Ju n e
.
He f l i n r o s e i n t h e Se n a t e Ja n u a r y 18, 1928, a n d
c u t h i m s e l f a d r i f t o n c e m o r e o n t h e r o a r i n g s e a
o f a n t i - p a p a l e l o q u e n c e . On t h i s o c c a s i o n t h e Se n a -
t o r s d i d n o t f l e e a s h a d b e e n t h e i r wo n t
. Th e y s a t ,
s t o n y f a c e d a n d m o t i o n l e s s i n t h e Se n a t e c h a m b e r .
He f l i n ' s s p e e c h l a s t e d t wo h o u r s . Hi s c o m p l a i n t t h i s
t i m e wa s t h a t t h e Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h h a d i n -
s p i r e d p u b l i c a t i o n o f a s e t o f d o c u m e n t s , a l r e a d y
30 4

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
p r o v e d f o r g e r i e s , wh i c h h a d a p p e a r e d i n Wi l l i a m
Ra n d o l p h He a r s t ' s c h a i n o f n e ws p a p e r s , a n d i n
wh i c h Pr e s i d e n t Pl u t a r c o E
. Ca l l e s o f M e xi c o h a d
b e e n a l l e g e d t o h a v e o r d e r e d p a i d t o He f l i n t h e s u m
o f $ 35 0 , 0 0 0 o u t o f M e xi c a n t r e a s u r y f u n d s f o r
a l l e g e d p r o - M e xi c a n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s
.
Th e m o r s e l o f e v i d e n c e wh i c h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Ca t h -
o l i c c h u r c h ' s g u i l t i n He f l i n ' s m i n d wa s t h e f a c t t h a t
M r s . He a r s t wa s a Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c .
Wh e n t h e Se n a t o r f r o m Al a b a m a a t l a s t s a t
d o wn , t h e s e n i o r Se n a t o r f r o m Ar k a n s a s a r o s e . Th i s
g e n t l e m a n wa s Jo s e p h T
. Ro b i n s o n , D e m o c r a t i c
p a r t y l e a d e r i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Se n a t e . Sp e a k i n g
i n t h a t c a p a c i t y , Ro b i n s o n d a m n e d He f l i n f o r a
p u r v e y o r o f r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y a n d r e p u d i a t e d t h e
He f l i n a n t i - Ca t h o l i c o p i n i o n s a n d u t t e r a n c e s a s u n -
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f D e m o c r a t i c f e e l i n g . He f l i n l e a p e d
t o h i s f e e t wi t h a r o a r l i k e t h a t o f t h e b u l l o f
B a s h a n .
"
We a r e , " h e b e l l o we d , " g o i n g t o d r a wt h e l i n e I
Iwi l l i n s i s t o n i t . Th e Se n a t o r f r o m Ar k a n s a s c a n -
n o t r e m a i n l e a d e r o f t h e D e m o c r a t s a n d f i g h t t h e
b a t t l e o f t h e Ro m a n Ca t h o l i c s e v e r y t i m e i t i s
r a i s e d i n t h i s b o d y wi t h o u t s o m e e xp r e s s i o n f r o m
a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l D e m o c r a t . "
Th e l i n e wa s f o r t h wi t h d r a wn . He f l i n f o r m a l l y
d e m a n d e d Ro b i n s o n ' s r e s i g n a t i o n a s p a r t y l e a d e r .
Ac a u c u s o f D e m o c r a t i c Se n a t o r s t h e n e xt m o r n i n g
JUST B EFORETHEB ATTLE

30 5
p a s s e d , wi t h o n e d i s s e n t i n g v o t e , t h e f o l l o wi n g
r e s o l u t i o n :
" Re s o l v e d , t h a t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e o f D e m o c r a t i c
m e m b e r s o f t h e Se n a t e e xp r e s s e s i t s c o n f i d e n c e i n
t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Se n a t o r Ro b i n s o n a n d i n h i s s e r v -
i c e o n t h e s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e n a m e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e
t h e a l l e g e d M e xi c a n s e c r e t d o c u m e n t s . "
No wo r d , b e i t n o t e d , a b o u t r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y ;
n o t a p h r a s e wh i c h c o u l d b e f a i r l y c o n s t r u e d a s
f r i e n d l y o r h o s t i l e t o e i t h e r Kl a n o r Ca t h o l i c . Ab o v e
a l l , n o r e b u k e t o He f l i n , wh o m a d e a n o t h e r a n t i -
p a p a l s p e e c h t h a t a f t e r n o o n . Po l i t i c i a n s o n c e m o r e
h a d b l o wn h o t a n d b l o wn c o l d wh i l e s t r i v i n g t o
l o o k a s i f b l o wi n g n o t a t a l l .
B u t t h e p r o - Sm i t h p r e s s t h e n a t i o n o v e r j u m p e d
u p o n He f l i n l i k e a p a c k o f s t a r v i n g wo l v e s u n -
l e a s h e d . B e y o n d q u e s t i o n t h e c h o i c e s t o f a l l t h e
m u l l i g a n s o f a b u s e c o o k e d u p f o r h i m wa s t h e f o l -
l o wi n g s i g n e d e d i t o r i a l i n t h e Ne wa r k ( N . J . ) St a r -
Ea g l e :
" He f l i n o f Al a b a m a a g a i n s t o p p e d a l l s e r i o u s
wo r k o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Se n a t e f o r t wo h o u r s o n
M o n d a y t o g i v e v e n t t o f u r t h e r a t t a c k o n Se n a t o r
B r u c e o f M a r y l a n d , M a y o r Gu n t e r o f M o n t g o m -
e r y , Al a b a m a , a n d o n t h e n e ws p a p e r p u b l i s h e r s ,
i n c l u d i n g t h e wr i t e r , wh o h a v e d e n o u n c e d h i s u n -
Am e r i c a n u t t e r a n c e s o f r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y .
30 6

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
" Th i s s e l f - s e e k e r f o r p u b l i c i t y , wh o k n o ws n o
d e p t h t o h i s m a d p a s s i o n t o g e t h i s n a m e i n p r i n t ,
i s wi l l i n g t o e m b a r r a s s h i s o wn St a t e o f Al a b a m a ,
a s we l l a s t h e wh o l e Co u n t r y - t h i s 212- p o u n d
m e n t a l m i d g e t , t h e o n l y t h i n g s m a l l e r t h a n h i s
m i n d b e i n g h i s h e a r t , h a s n o t f o u n d o u t y e t t h a t t h e
Un i t e d St a t e s Se n a t e i s a d i g n i f i e d , d e l i b e r a t i v e
b o d y , p r e s e r v i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d ` t r a d i t i o n s o f
o u r Co u n t r y , b u t e v i d e n t l y t h i n k s i t i s a c i r c u s i n
wh i c h t h e r e m u s t b e a t l e a s t ONECLOWN .
" He p r o v e s b y h i s r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y t h a t h e d o e s
n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f In d e p e n d e n c e ,
wh i c h g i v e s a l l c i t i ze n s t h e g u a r a n t e e
( s i c )
o f l i f e ,
l i b e r t y a n d t h e p u r s u i t o f h a p p i n e s s .
" B u t e n o u g h o f t h i s He f l i n - f o r i t wi l l b e t h e
s a m e t h i n g t o m o r r o wa n d t h e d a y a f t e r - a n
e m p t y c a b wi l l d r i v e u p t o t h e Se n a t e a n d He f l i n
wi l l s t e p o u t o f i t .
" Pa u l B l o c k
" Pu b l i s h e r "
Fr o m a l l o f wh i c h , t h e b e s t g u e s s c o n c e r n i n g t h e
D e m o c r a t i c c o n v e n t i o n s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e c o m i n g
Ju n e a p p e a r e d i n Fe b r u a r y , 1928, t o b e t h a t t h e
Kl a n wo u l d t h e r e r e c e i v e s o m e wh a t m o r e o f c o u r -
t e s y t h a n wa s a c c o r d e d t h e A . P . A . a t t h e Re p u b l i -
c a n c o n v e n t i o n o f 1896 , b u t t h a t Sm i t h wo u l d g e t
t h e n o m i n a t i o n .
An d y e t . . . a n d y e t t h e t o r r e n t s o f a b u s e
JUST
B EFORETHEB ATTLE

30 7
wh i c h we r e s wa s h i n g o v e r He f l i n we r e b o u n d t o
p r o d u c e s o m e r e a c t i o n
. M a n y a n Am e r i c a n t h e r e i s
wh o "
d o e s n ' t t a k e m u c h s t o c k i n n e ws p a p e r t a l k
a n y h o w
. " Th e r e l i g i o u s f i g h t wa s g r o wi n g s o b i t t e r
t h a t a n o t h e r c o m p r o m i s e c a n d i d a t e s e e m e d h i g h l y
u n l i k e l y
. M i g h t i t b e i n Fa t e ' s c r a zy c a r d s t h a t
He f l i n - b u t n a y
;t h e n o t i o n we r e t o o a b s u r d f o r
a n i n s t a n t ' s h a r b o r i n g , h a d i t t a k e n r i s e f r o m a n y
g a m e o t h e r t h a n p o l i t i c s .
M e a n wh i l e , t h e Re p u b l i c a n s we r e p r i v i l y c o n -
g r a t u l a t i n g o n e a n o t h e r t h a t t h e Kl a n h a d l i v e d
t h u s l o n g , a s t h e y h a m m e r e d h a p p i l y a wa y a t t h e i r
f e n c e s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a r e n e wa l o f t h e i r l e a s e
o f t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e .
Sm i t h d e c l a r e d h i s s e n t i m e n t s r e g a r d i n g r e l i g i o n
a n d p o l i t i c s t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m o f t h e
At l a n t i c
M o n t h l y . Ch a r l e s C
. M a r s h a l l , M a n h a t t a n l a wy e r ,
Ep i s c o p a l i a n , a n d e xp e r t o n c h u r c h h i s t o r y a n d
c a n o n l a w, p r o p o u n d e d a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o
Go v e r n o r Sm i t h i n a s o l e m n a r t i c l e wh i c h g r a c e d
t h e
At l a n t i c f o r Ap r i l , 1927 .
M a r s h a l l c i t e d t h e Ap o s t o l i c Le t t e r o f Po p e Le o
XIIIi n wh i c h t h e o r d e r s o f t h e Ch u r c h o f En g l a n d
we r e d e c l a r e d v o i d ;t h e Sy l l a b u s o f Pi u s IX
( 186 4) , wh i c h c l a i m e d p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y k n o wn
p o we r f o r t h e Ch u r c h o f Ro m e a n d wh i c h Am e r i c a n
Ca t h o l i c s h a v e b e e n e xp l a i n i n g a wa y e v e r s i n c e i t s
p u b l i c a t i o n
;t h e a c t i o n o f Sa c r a Ro t a i n a n n u l l i n g
t h e Ep i s c o p a l m a r r i a g e o f M r s
. Ja c q u e s B a l s a n ,
30 8

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
We Co n s u e l o Va n d e r b i l t , t o t h e D u k e o f M a r l -
b o r o u g h ;a n d t h e d e m a n d o f c e r t a i n Am e r i c a n
Ca t h o l i c s t h a t t h e Un i t e d St a t e s g o v e r n m e n t
s h o u l d i n t e r v e n e i n t h e wa r wh i c h t h e Ca l l e s g o v -
e r n m e n t h a d d e c l a r e d o n t h e Ca t h o l i c c h u r c h i n
M e xi c o .
M a r s h a l l t h e n , i n i , o o o o r m o r e o f t h e m o s t p o n -
d e r o u s An g l i c a n wo r d s t h e d i c t i o n a r y c o n t a i n s , p u t
t o Go v e r n o r Sm i t h a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s wh i c h a n y
h a c k m a n c o u l d h a v e a s k e d i n t h e t h r e e wo r d s ,
" Wh a t t h e h e l l ? "
To h i s a i d i n a n s we r i n g M a r s h a l l , Go v e r n o r
Sm i t h c a l l e d t h e Re v . Fa t h e r Fr a n c i s P . D u f f y ,
c h a p l a i n o f a f a m o u s Ne wYo r k r e g i m e n t i n t h e
Wo r l d Wa r , M a n h a t t a n p r i e s t o f e m i n e n t r e p u t e .
Th e f o u r - t i m e g o v e r n o r o f Ne wYo r k wi t h t h i s a s -
s i s t a n c e a d d u c e d f u r t h e r q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e Ap o s -
t o l i c Le t t e r t o s h o wt h a t Le o XIIIh a d a c t u a l l y
p r e a c h e d Ch r i s t i a n t o l e r a n c e t h e r e i n
;c a l l e d o n s i x
Am e r i c a n Ca t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t s i n t u r n t o wi t n e s s t h a t
t h e f a m e d Sy l l a b u s o f 186 4h a d n o d o g m a t i c f o r c e ;
e n l a r g e d u p o n t h e f a c t t h a t h e h a d a p p o i n t e d t o
t h e g o v e r n o r ' s c a b i n e t t h i r t e e n Pr o t e s t a n t s a s
a g a i n s t t wo Ca t h o l i c s a n d o n e Je w ;a n d r e a f f i r m e d
h i s l o y a l t y t o t h e Co n s t i t u t i o n , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f
c h u r c h a n d s t a t e , t h e c i v i l c o u r t s a s a g a i n s t t h e
e c c l e s i a s t i c , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , t h e p r i n c i p l e o f n o n -
i n t e r f e r e n c e i n o t h e r n a t i o n s ' i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s , t h e
b r o t h e r h o o d o f m a n a n d t h e f a t h e r h o o d o f Go d .
JUST
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30 9
M a r s h a l l c a m e b a c k wi t h a l i v e l y r e j o i n d e r , b u t t h e
At l a n t i c
d e c l i n e d t o p u b l i s h i t , p e r h a p s f e a r i n g t h a t
t h e p a p e r - h o g g i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s o f s u c h o l d t i m e
r e l i g i o u s d i s p u t a n t s a s Ho p k i n s a n d En g l a n d a n d
Hu g h e s we r e o n t h e v e r g e o f b e i n g r e p e a t e d .
As D e c e m b e r , 1927 ,
n e a r e d i t s c l o s e , t h e Na -
t i o n a l Co u n c i l o f Ca t h o l i c Wo m e n p r o t e s t e d b y
o f f i c i a l l e t t e r t o Pr e s i d e n t Co o l i d g e t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e
a r m s e m b a r g o a g a i n s t M e xi c o
. Th e t r a n s a t l a n t i c
f l y e r a n d r e i g n i n g Am e r i c a n h e r o , Ch a r l e s A . Li n d -
b e r g h , wa s i n M e xi c o a t t h e t i m e o n t h e f i r s t l e g o f
a " g o o d - wi l l "
t o u r , wh a t e v e r t h a t m i g h t m e a n , o f
t h e Ca r i b b e a n n a t i o n s . Th i s , a n d o t h e r f r i e n d l y
g e s t u r e s o f Wa s h i n g t o n t o wa r d M e xi c o Ci t y , d i s -
t u r b e d t h e Ca t h o l i c l a d i e s n o l i t t l e .
"
We e a r n e s t l y r e q u e s t , " t h e y wr o t e t h e Pr e s i -
d e n t , "
t h a t o u r o wn g o v e r n m e n t t a k e e f f e c t i v e
s t e p s t o s h o wb e f o r e t h e wo r l d i t s d i s a p p r o v a l o f
s u c h t y r a n n i e s [ a s Pr e s i d e n t Ca l l e s ' g o v e r n m e n t
wa s wr e a k i n g o n Ca t h o l i c s i n i t s t we n t i e t h c e n t u r y
Ku l t u r k a m p f ] . . . .
Th e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s e s t a b -
l i s h e d b y o u r a m b a s s a d o r wi t h Pr e s i d e n t Ca l l e s , t h e
v i s i t o f t h e i d o l o f t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e , Co l o n e l
Li n d b e r g h , a r e wi d e l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s c o n d o n i n g ,
i f n o t a p p r o v i n g , t h e m e t h o d b y wh i c h t h e Ca l l e s
g o v e r n m e n t s e e k s t o d e s t r o y l i b e r t y o f r e l i g i o n , l i b -
e r t y o f t h e p r e s s a n d l i b e r t y o f e d u c a t i o n
. "
Wh e r e u p o n , t h e s t o c k o f t h o s e wh o b e l i e v e d ,
310

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
h o we v e r u n j u s t l y , t h a t s o m e Ca t h o l i c s we r e c a p a b l e
o n o c c a s i o n o f d a b b l i n g i n p o l i t i c s a s Ca t h o l i c s ,
t o o k a d e c i d e d r i s e .
Th i s l e t t e r wa s a t h i n e c h o o f t h e Kn i g h t s o f
Co l u m b u s ' r e s o l u t i o n , p a s s e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a t Ph i l -
a d e l p h i a i n Au g u s t ,
1926 , d u r i n g t h e r e g i m e o f
Su p r e m e Kn i g h t Ja m e s J . Fl a h e r t y , wh e r e i n Ca l l e s
wa s s t a t e d t o h a v e " i n s u l t e d , d e g r a d e d a n d e x-
p e l l e d Am e r i c a n c i t i ze n s " - wh i c h wa s p e r f e c t l y
t r u e , b u t wh e r e i n a l s o Pr e s i d e n t Co o l i d g e a n d t h e
St a t e D e p a r t m e n t we r e c a l l e d o n t o " p u t a n e n d
t o t h i s i g n o m i n i o u s c o n t e m p t t h a t h a s b e e n s h o wn
b y Pr e s i d e n t Ca l l e s f o r Am e r i c a n a p p e a l s . " Th e
Kn i g h t s o f Co l u m b u s l a t e r d i s c l a i m e d a n y d e s i r e
f o r a r m e d i n t e r v e n t i o n i n M e xi c o .
Sh o r t l y b e f o r e t h i s b o o k we n t t o p r e s s , s o m e o n e
d i s c o v e r e d t h a t He r b e r t C
. Ho o v e r a n d h i s wi f e
we r e m a r r i e d b y a Ca t h o l i c p r i e s t i n
1889, t h o u g h
b o t h c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s we r e a n d r e m a i n e d Pr o t -
e s t a n t s . Ho o v e r wa s a l e a d i n g Re p u b l i c a n a s p i r a n t
f o r t h e Pr e s i d e n t i a l n o m i n a t i o n . Th e s a m e s t o r y
wa s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b e a t i n g Ge n . Jo h n Ch a r l e s
Fr e m o n t o u t o f t h e e l e c t i o n a s Re p u b l i c a n Pr e s i d e n -
t i a l c a n d i d a t e i n 185 6 . Sh o u l d t h e Re p u b l i c a n s b e
d r a g g e d i n t o a r e l i g i o u s f i g h t s i m i l a r t o t h a t wh i c h
wa s m a r s h a l i n g D e m o c r a t a g a i n s t D e m o c r a t , t h e
1928
p o l i t i c a l s h o wwo u l d b e t wi c e a s e n t e r t a i n i n g
a s h a s b e e n e xp e c t e d b y t h e m o s t o p t i m i s t i c .
Awe e k o r s o f o l l o wi n g t h e Ho o v e r r o o r b a c h , t h e
So u t h e r n M e t h o d i s t Ed u c a t i o n As s o c i a t i o n we n t
JUST B EFORETHEB ATTLE

311
o n r e c o r d a s o p p o s e d t o t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f Sm i t h
b y t h e D e m o c r a t s .
On Fe b r u a r y 14, 1928, c i r c u l a r s we r e d i s t r i b u t e d
i n Wa s h i n g t o n , D . C . , b e a r i n g t h e n a m e o f t h e Na -
t i o n a l Fu n d a m e n t a l Pr o t e s t a n t Ch r i s t i a n As s o c i a -
t i o n , a n d t h e m e s s a g e :
" Vo t e t h e ` Ch r i s t i a n p a r t y '
t i c k e t . Fo r Pr e s i -
d e n t , Ja m e s Th o m a s He f l i n o f Al a b a m a . Fo r v i c e -
p r e s i d e n t , t h e Ho n . M a b e l Wa l k e r Wi l l e b r a n d t o f
Ca l i f o r n i a . Th e y d o n o t c h o o s e t o r u n f o r p r e s i d e n t
a n d v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , b u t we a r e g o i n g t o d r a f t t h e m . "
An d o n Wa s h i n g t o n ' s b i r t h d a y , 1928, b y o r d e r
o f Im p e r i a l Wi za r d Ev a n s , t h e Ku Kl u xKl a n
t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n r e n o u n c e d t h e m a s k , wh i c h ,
m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r s i n g l e a f f e c t a t i o n , h a d e n r a g e d
i t s e n e m i e s . Th e m o v e p l a i n l y h a d t wo o b j e c t s
:
f i r s t , t o s q u e e ze a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s i n t o t h e o r d e r ' s
n a t i o n a l t r e a s u r y , s i n c e t o d i s c a r d h i s m a s k a u t o -
m a t i c a l l y m a d e a Kl a n s m a n a m e m b e r o f t h e
Kn i g h t s o f t h e Gr e a t Fo r e s t , a n e wKl a n d e g r e e ,
a n d t o b e c o m e a Fo r e s t Kn i g h t a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o s t
$ 1 ; a n d , s e c o n d l y , t o a r m - t h e Kl a n wi t h a s m u c h
r e s p e c t a b i l i t y a s p o s s i b l e f o r i t s wa r o n t h e Pr e s i -
d e n t i a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f Al f r e d E . Sm i t h .
Th e Pr e s i d e n t i a l c a m p a i g n , i n s h o r t , wa s i n e a r l y
1928s l i d i n g r a p i d l y d o wn t h e c h u t e s i n t o t h e a r e n a
o f u n a d u l t e r a t e d " r e l i g i o u s "
c o n f l i c t - s i n c e t h e
p r o h i b i t i o n i s s u e wa s a n e s s e n t i a l l y
" r e l i g i o u s "
o n e .
312

THEWARSOFTHEGOD LY
Sh o u l d Al f r e d E . Sm i t h wi n t h e D e m o c r a t i c n o m -
i n a t i o n a n d b e e l e c t e d Pr e s i d e n t , " r e l i g i o u s " wa r -
f a r e i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s wo u l d p r o b a b l y b e g i v e n a
q u i e t u s wh i c h wo u l d l a s t u n t i l Ca t h o l i c s s h o u l d b e -
g i n t o s wa g g e r a s h a d t h e An t i - Sa l o o n Le a g u e i n t h e
y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o wi n g i t s c o n q u e s t o f t h e
n a t i o n .
Co n n o i s s e u r s o f " r e l i g i o u s " c o n f l i c t we r e l i c k -
i n g t h e i r c h o p s i n t h e g l a d k n o wl e d g e t h a t a n y t h i n g
m i g h t h a p p e n a n d p r o b a b l y wo u l d .
Th e t h o u g h t f u l , m e d i t a t i n g u p o n , a m o n g n u m e r -
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Ro m e b e f o r e Lu t h e r , o f t h e Ch u r c h o f En g l a n d i n
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m u n i s m i n So v i e t Ru s s i a , we r e t h a n k i n g h e a v e n
t h a t t h e s e c t s we r e f r e e t o f i g h t o n e a n o t h e r i n t h i s
c o u n t r y . Th e y we r e h o p i n g , a l s o , t o b e s a f e l y d e a d
a n d g o n e , a l b e i t t o h e l l , e r e t h e p r a y e r s o f B i s h o p
Wi l l i a m T . M a n n i n g , D r . S . Pa r k e s Ca d m a n a n d
o t h e r s f o r a r e u n i o n o f a l l Ch r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s
s h o u l d b e a n s we r e d .
Wh a t Go d t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e m e s s , n o o n e k n e w .
B u t t h a t q u e s t i o n wa s , a f t e r a l l , i m m a t e r i a l
. Wh e n
Ca t h o l i c f i g h t s Pr o t e s t a n t , o r v i c e v e r s a , Go d i s i n
n o wa y i n v o l v e d .
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I

By permirsiorz of Harper U $rothers

IRISH PROTESTANTS VS . IRISH CATHOLICS ELM PARK, NEW YORK CITY, JULY 12, 18 70

21ae Wars OF THE GODLY
BY

REUBEN MAURY

ILLUSTRATED

NEW YORK

ROBERT M . McBRIDE & COMPANY
1928

COPYRIGHT • 1928 • BY ROBERT M . McBAIDE & COMPANY

First Publi.rbed April, z W8

THE MARS O! THE GODLY PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

To
MY PARENTS

CONTENTS
CHAPTER INTRODUCTORY " MAC " AND " KAP » I AMERICA : CATHOLIC FOR 115 YEARS II THE CREEDS OPEN FIRE III PURITAN VS. PAPIST IV THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE V CATHOLIC INVENTORY ; PROTESTANT ALARM VI THE FIRST NUN ESCAPES : THE FIRST CONVENT BURNS VII PAPER BOMBSHELLS VIII A CATHOLIC POLITICAL PARTY IX BLOOD AND FIRE IN PHILADELPHIA X A FIGHTING BISHOP - AND NO FIGHT XI THE FIRST SONG OF THE NATIVE-BORN XII TEN YEARS' Mal de Mer XIII A KNOW-NOTHING WIZARD XIV AMATEUR SALESMEN OF HATE XV FOR PRESIDENT : DANIEL WEBSTER XVI SECOND WIND XVII FIRST FRUITS XVIII STICKS, STONES, TAR AND FEATHERS XIX SLAUGHTER IN VIRGINIA XX SAM FORGETS THE POPE PAGE 3 13 18 24 31 46 53 58 75 83

go
96 105 110 11 7 122 126 131 1 35 1 43 151 155 160

XXI Pop!
XXII DEATH RATTLES

Vill CHAPTER XXIII SKIRMISHES XXIV SCHOOL WARS CONTENTS PAGE 16q 189 206 212 220 231 247 271 296 313 XXV THE BRAVE DAYS OF OLD XXVI HOW THE A . CORE . FORGERY XXVIII AN ELEPHANT SWALLOWS A LION XXIX BEGETTERS OF THE KLAN XXX THE ERA OF THE KLAN XXXI JUST BEFORE THE BATTLE BIBLIOGRAPHY .A. PAGEANT . PANIC .P . BEGAN XXVII SATOLLI .

P . Y . ELM PARK. ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE IRISH PROTESTANTS VS . IRISH CATHOLICS. JAMAICA. MEMORIAL DAY.) 310 . THOMAS HEFLIN (DEM . A . WILLIAM. 1870 Frontispiece ARCHBISHOP JOHN CARROLL JOHN JAY (From a bust by Frazee) SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE AN ANTI-CATHOLIC CARTOON OF KNOW-NOTHING TIMES -"THE KING OF ENGLAND KISSING THE POPE'S TOE " ARCHBISHOP JOHN HUGHES OF NEW YORK (1797-1864) PAGE FROM "KNOW-NOTHING ALMANAC " OF 1856. NEW YORK CITY. I .. A NEW YORK KNOW-NOTHING LEADER AN ANTI-CATHOLIC CARTOON OF THE SEVENTIES FOUR LEADERS OF THE A. FLAHERTY. SMITH OF NEW YORK SENATOR 70 94 22 38 54 118 134 198 220 238 262 278 2 94 302 J. L . ARCHBISHOP OF BOSTON ANTI-CATHOLIC CARTOON FROM THE MENACE. 1911 JAMES J . WITH PEN PORTRAIT OF ERASTUS BROOKS. IMPERIAL WIZARD. EX-SUPREME KNIGHT OF THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS DR. KNIGHTS OF THE Ku KLUX KLAN AN INCIDENT IN POLICE-KLAN RIOT. JULY 12.. N .. CARDINAL O'CONNELL. HIRAM WESLEY EVANS. 1927 GOVERNOR ALFRED E . ALA .

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The Wars of the Godly .

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see? Funny some o' you guys never get wise t' that .wot '11 it be. Better ask a guard. Mac . 3 . wot y' readin'. when y' see that red light go on it means stop. Mac? Tr'boon? Noose? Sure. synonym to Chief and Boss and Cap'n . here y' are. wot y' readin' . Mac : who among us all." " Say listen. of male gender. has not been called Mac at least a thousand times in his adult life? And Mac : in addition to being one of the commonest coins in the lip currency of the street." " I do' know where this train goes to in Brooklyn.the Wars OF THE GODLY INTRODUCTORY u MAC " AND " KAP " RED HOT papers. Mac. the peg whereon is hung one of the most edifying legends ever to circulate through the lodgerooms and the cigar stores of the North American Republic ." Mac : substitute for Sir in the brogue of democratic America .

Mac . you may hear the tale for the asking wherever two or three are gathered together in the name of NoPopery to chant a hymn of hate . and dignify each with capital letter and period. 4 THE WARS OF THE GODLY For there is a legend concerning Mac . black as night. that it is tossed from Catholic to Catholic this broad land over. Wouldst know the answer to the rebus that is Mac? Then split asunder the letters composing the word.has but one sinister meaning . When you know the syllables proper to be added to each letter. That simple monosyllable has a dread cabalistic meaning.A. in the same fashion as was the Junkers' toast to Der Tag in the years before Der Tag came up in smoke and thunder . The story goes that Mac is a password .C. did you but know where to seek it and whom to ask. the solution unwinds its mummy wrappings before your popping eyes. or. provided you can conceal your allegiance to that faith. and that meaning is MAKE AMERICA CATHOLIC . and that this password stems from a conspiracy. thus : M . to gnaw loose the foundation stones of the nation and establish the Roman Catholic church as the religion of America with the Pope set above the President in power temporal and power spiritual alike .so runs the legend . Provided you are not a communicant of the Roman Catholic church. if you are.

Thus the status of the Mac legend late in the year 1927. he charged the Knights of Columbus with possession of certain banners embroidered with the letters M..A . Shortly before this volume went to press.C. ~~ MAC " AND `c KAP " 5 When or by whom the story was first told. It is one of the most far-fetched pieces of gossip ever evolved about the Church of Rome . which they habitually flaunted before true and horrified American eyes in public processions of the order. because . The story whispered along the channels of lodgeroom and political district club until Ku Klux Klan was given an alleged rebirth in 1915. Smith should not be elected President of the United States.000 copies a week. in all probability. The noble knights countered with a verbose resolution whose general tenor would have done credit to an old-fashioned Methodist invoker of fire and brimstone . no one knows. Missouri. an antiCatholic weekly paper published at Aurora. and at one time claiming a circulation of over 1. by The Menace (now The New Menace). The Klan had been telling the story for eight years or better when these lines were written.500. in an open letter to the newspapers. Chapman submitted the allegation as one reason why Alfred E . It was first printed. John Jay Chapman of New York City gave the legend a novel twist when. It is one of the most effective of those tales. Mr.

Protestants who are Protestants . 6 THE WARS OF THE GODLY any one can grasp its connotations in ten seconds . Some giant brain in one or another of these groups has worked out a counter-signal.not the " weak-kneed. But stay." Any reader who has followed with care the unscrambling of Mac should be able to dissect Kap .are now greeting all that portion of the population unknown to them by name. Pope-loving. so-called Protestants " so detested of the purists who edit the anti-Catholic and Klan papers . a charm of the tongue equal unto Mac in occult potency and beauteous simplicity. skidoo! " and " 0 you kid! " in the junk shop of the American argot . and are signing vitriolic letters for newspaper publication in which every one from the Rev . Parkes Cadman to Calvin Coolidge is accused of taking orders direct from the Vatican. lilylivered. Shall Catholics be the only ones to own a mystic password wherewith to hearten one another till the great day comes? Shall no backfire be set up against the sputter of this alleged papal fuse beneath the keystones of state and nation? Not if your Ku Kluxers and left-wing Freemasons and assorted minor haters of Catholicity know it . S . Dr . and for the same reason it will remain alive as a jewel of American folklore until the word Mac shall go to join " Twenty-three. with the monosyllable " Kap . a talisman for embattled Protestants on the walls of Zion.

Another section. " MAC " AND " KAP " 7 without much assistance . governor of New York.A. has at this writing the backing of a large section of the Democratic party for the Presidential nomination . it is disclosed that Kap. thus the watchwords. Not to prolong the suspense. if any. real and fanciful. not because it is the proper adjective to use. will be its end? When this was written. or as urging their governments to step on other governments because the latter had stepped on their religious partisans . or as meddling in Massachusetts politics..P. and what. Alfred E . gibber around the night . of equal if not greater strength but equipped with a less powerful press battery. Smith hav- . means KEEP AMERICA PROTESTANT Thus the battle lines are drawn . opposes him . It is hard to imagine Jesus Christ or Gautama Buddha or St . the United States of America was driving hell-bent into a national political fight on a religious question. Smith. The word " religious " in this volume is applied to the Catholic-Protestant fight. so-called . The fight is practically co-extensive with the fight over national prohibition. but because it is the word most people do use to denote what goes forward when Christians make war on one another. K. Francis of Assisi damning professors of creeds different from their own as idolators and traitors. What does it all mean? Where did it all begin.

Callahan. Kate Sargent has reported in vivid detail. McAdoo of California. as are Okla- . has made the startling charge that Smith's backers in 1924 brought on the " religious " battle over the Ku Klux Klan in order to halt Smith's strongest opponent. though Col . It is generally conceded at this writing that Smith's religious beliefs lost him the Democratic nomination in 1924. Smith's wetness is mentioned by many of Smith's opponents as their reason for fighting him when they do not wish to say that they are against any Roman Catholic's occupying the White House . but a Roman Catholic has never been President of the United States. for the Forum. Roman Catholics. Texas is one continuous battleground of Klan and anti-Klan. It is only the largest single engagement in a war of the creeds which for years has gone on in the United States . Smith. believe in the God of the Christians. But of the fight that rages around Alfred E . P. prominent Catholic dry of Louisville. of whom Smith is one. William G . 8 THE WARS OF THE GODLY ing consistently disapproved that law. H. and the courts have declared this a Christian nation . the political conquest of Massachusetts by Irish Catholics under the guidance of what amounts to a political-clerical machine . Some there are who suppose the Constitution expressly forbids election of a Roman Catholic to the Presidency . more in its proper place .

was sent to the mortician's from the United States Supreme Court's abattoir of freak legislation so short a time ago as mid-1925 . True. Alabama. which would have killed parochial schools in that state. these antique goings-on. "MAC" AND cc KAP " 9 homa. if one heard of them at all. What does it all signify? The British colonies. seemed accidents. Senator J . of non-discrimination among sects. or to the agitation of John Jay and others for express laws against papists in many a revolutionary constitutional convention of 1776 . the Confederation. However. our schoolbooks discreetly applied the soft pedal to such sour notes in the historical cantata as Roger Williams' flight from Puritan Massachusetts because he could not worship there as he pleased with safety to himself. Indiana .all three . were planted on the rock of religious liberty.we learned in grade school. out of tune with the rhythm of the New World. But is the present " religious " conflict in the . Thomas Heflin of Alabama keeps himself in the public eye by the simple device of charging papal windmills every time a reluctant presiding officer permits him to climb aboard the Rosinante of his eloquence . or to the oppressions wrought upon Virginia and Maryland dissenters by Church of England parsons in the early eighteenth century. The Oregon school law. the United States .

P. Desmond's The Know-Nothing Party and The A . Movement. it . which could be compiled only after years of research . We in 1928 merely ride the latest floodcrest of that river . and with great ferocity.as most people know after listening for ten years to the epithets of " KnowNothings! A.A. 10 THE WARS OF THE GODLY United States a new thing? Has some bitterness entered into our twentieth-century souls which was not in the souls of our ancestors? The answer . long story . So far as the writer knows. A river of religious antagonism has flowed down through our history since Protestants first penetrated the American continent and took root therein . Concededly there are omissions herein . An exhaustive history on the subject would fill several volumes.A. The flood will subside presently. This volume is an attempt to trace the course the stream has followed . to both of which this book is heavily indebted.P. This is not an exhaustive history. There are monographs on single episodes in the long. there exists no connected history of " religious " conflicts in America since the beginning. Two of these are Humphrey J . the river will growl below ground for perhaps a generation . and often.'s! " hurled at the Ku Klux Klan by its enemies -is that such fights have been fought in this country before now.

" MAC " AND " KAP " ii is entirely possible that there are mistakes . so long as human beings shall continue human beings . that " religious " controversies ought to be encouraged rather than discouraged among us. No cure for religious prejudice is offered . so long as it shall continue axiomatic that orthodoxy is my doxy and heterodoxy is your doxy which is to say. inducted into University Klavern. The probabilities are that no cure will ever be found. Realm of Virginia. in the bloom of his youth. But it is his latter-day notion that neither side in a " religious " controversy deserves any sympathy from anybody . so that we may all be saved from the horrors that . Invisible Empire. The writer happens to have been born and reared a Protestant . Nor does the book seek to make a case for either the Protestant or the Catholic side . Letters calling attention to any of the last named will be thankfully received and made use of in future editions if. was even. there shall be any future editions . Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. as we fervently hope. from which he hastily deducted himself after having been urged to believe in the genuineness of the famous alleged Fourth Degree oath of the Knights of Columbus and to buy some cheap gents' haberdashery from a traveling lodge brother who wore a celluloid collar . also.

Inc . .) . Ill . Francis M . Kenneth Littauer. and Mrs . of Collier's Weekly . Ga. of New York City . Mr. editor of the Rail Splitter (Milan. For various kinds of assistance rendered in the preparation of this book. Michael Williams. Hamlett.) . footnote) . Pacific & Atlantic Photos. to the sweet story of what has happened in America every time the Cross has been drafted either to help keep the Outs out and the Ins in or to put the Outs in and the Ins out . Crowley. 12 THE WARS OF THE GODLY customarily ensue whenever one Christian body acquires a disproportionate amount of power in any nation under God's sun . McGinley of the Knights of Columbus . Mr. Mr. D . A . William Lloyd Clark. thanks are hereby extended to Mr . editor of the Commonweal (New York City) . New York City . . That is really all that a " religious " conflict ever has amounted to in the history of the American commonwealth . Supreme Secretary W . A. Mencken . W. the writer's father (see page 2o6) . Mr. and Mr.. Mr. Harcourt Parrish (see page 183. And so. of The New Menace (Aurora. Mo. H. Alfred Percy. L. J .) . editor of the Kourier magazine (Atlanta. Washington. of the National Catholic Welfare Conference. Mr. C. Messrs . Parker and Charles Murphy. J .

then that would be but a back-swing of the ages' pendulum . was on his way to Greenland as a missionary of the Christian church. Leif Ericsson. that church was regnant over the souls of the Europeans who inhabited Vinland in the dim days of Leif Ericsson . wrote Hauk. having been lately converted to Christianity by King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway . And if the assertions of the Catholics be true. was thrown by the winds on the shores of the country he christened Vinland in the year 1000 A . it is none the less a fact that the only Christian denomination to function on the North American continent for one hundred fifteen years after Columbus sailed west was the Roman Catholic. America was made Catholic at the beginning .D. Leif at this time. if political power in the hands of Protestants is the test . Leif did not settle in Vinr3 . according to the Vinland saga of the Icelander Hauk Erlendsson.CHAPTER I AMERICA : CATHOLIC FOR 115 YEARS SICKENING as the fact may be to all of us Protestants. and if it should become once more politically Catholic. Later it was made Protestant.

if he ever existed at all. and a single bishopric embraced the kingdom during all of the eleventh century. with the discovery of Vinland. That was done three years after his accidental discovery of the new shore. credits one Biarni Heriulfsson. Biarni Heriulfsson's name is mentioned here chiefly for the convenience of any professional Catholic who may see a chance to work it over by some necromancy of pseudo-linguistics into. 14 THE WARS OF THE GODLY land . and places his achievement fifteen years earlier in time than Leif Ericsson's . The Flatey saga does not say whether Biarni Heriulfsson was a Christian or not . naming it the see of . who led one hundred sixty people in a four-ship colonizing venture . Norway had become Christian by order of that same King Olaf who converted Lief Ericsson. an Icelander. Karlsefni appears to have been a Christian. for example. several Scandinavian clergymen in later times claimed to be descendants of Thorfinn and Gudrid. at any rate. In 1112 Rome created a second see for the western Viking realms. News of Vinland's having been discovered by somebody eventually reached Rome . from the Hauk book . Barney Harrington . by Thorfinn Karlsefni and his wife Gudrid. The other version of the Norse discovery of America. The Ericsson story is the one universally credited today . It is presumable that he was not. found in the so-called Flatey saga of Iceland.

then. it was necessarily Catholic. Geographically this see included Greenland only . made haste to take possession of the island in the names of their Catholic majesties Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain . By that year. 15117 . " in search of Vinland . until the year of Christopher Columbus' first voyage westward . Little is known about the size or the activities of Eric's flock. Within fifteen years after Luther's initial punch at ecclesiastical corruption. Rome had staked out in the New World the bishoprics of Santiago de Cuba. Mexico and Florida . says Catholic history. Its first bishop was named Eric. All of America that Europe had knowledge of was Catholic in name.AMERICA : CATHOLIC FOR 115 YEARS 15 Gardar . If Norse America was Christian at all. the Roman see of Santo Domingo had been five years laid out and equipped with bishop and clergy. roughly speaking. by the time the Protestant Reformation became conscious of a de- . and he himself wanders off into the mists of the sagas and the northern seas in I 12 I." The see of Gardar was not discontinued. October 12. Carolensis of Yucatan. because Vinland was discovered five hundred years before the Reformation . 1492. landing on San Salvador. November ii. Columbus. Thus. began the Reformation . Martin Luther nailed his ninety-five theses against the sale of indulgences on the church door at Wittenberg. and Catholic missionaries were sweating to make it Catholic in fact.

which score equaled one-half the number of Protestants burned as heretics in five years under Mary Tudor. Damnation deepest of all. John Cabot. in 1607. the first Britisher to touch American shores. The first Protestant church in America was founded at Jamestown. and ninety years before the Pilgrim fathers landed at Plymouth . was but an emigrant to England from Venice. During that period good Queen Bess had caused to be hanged. Every Protestant coming from England to America in those years was necessarily a blood foe of Catholicity. drawn and quartered one hundred eighty Catholics as traitors to the nation . and so fired the opening gun in that war of the sects for control of the American soul which is still being waged . or one hundred fifteen years after Columbus' first voyage . 0 THE WARS OF THE GODLY sire to get out of the ancient church rather than renovate it from within. The Pilgrims brought their non-conformist religion to Massachusetts thirteen years later . Elizabeth's Catholic sister and predecessor . It was a life imprisonment offense in England to possess an Agnus Dei or a rosary. from the modern Anglo-Saxon popehater's viewpoint. Virginia. and professed the Roman Catholic faith . Elizabeth's forty-five-year reign was lately over . " Representatives of our ancient Church of England " did the deed. a cross or a re- .

the Church of England had the papists in England flat upon their backs . . which the Pope or any Catholic missionary had blessed . In short. That was but one of Elizabeth's laws against popery .AMERICA : CATHOLIC FOR I15 YEARS 17 ligious picture. and its delegates to America grimly purposed to secure in the same position such Catholics as should show face in the British New World .

where he complained against Calvert for allowing mass to be said in Newfoundland . but was summarily put off the premises when he declined to take the oath of Protestant supremacy at Governor Pott's demand .CHAPTER II THE CREEDS OPEN Fn CATHOLICS in England. George allowed his Protestants a minister and his Catholics a priest . The Protestant cleric shortly went home to England. Religious equality was guaranteed all Maryland 1s . and the founding of that colony under him and his brother Leonard . Not every one knows that George Calvert. Lord Baltimore. Every schoolboy knows of the royal grant of Maryland to Cecilius Calvert. the father of Leonard and Cecilius. He attempted to settle in Virginia. were fully as anxious to flee to America for religious liberty as were the dissenters whom the Church of England was oppressing well-nigh as heartily as it oppressed the Catholics . in 1633. Calvert started south with his followers . in the early 16oo's. had led a body of both Catholic and Protestant colonists to Newfoundland four years before the Maryland grant .

he used his veto power too freely. The hated papists' nearness to his preserves galled him . Anabaptists. Within thirty-five years thereafter. Jews and unbelievers thus became the only classes of white people whom Maryland refused to protect from the ferocities of whatever Christian sect was strongest in number . he had to content himself with having a . So sweeping a renunciation by a state of the right to persecute for the glory of the authorized God had not been witnessed in the Christian world prior to that time. The Act irked especially William Claiborne. he gave the good political jobs to Roman Catholics and his own kinspeople . and the papists bade fair to make a rich plantation state out of the land the king had given their proprietor . however . guaranteeing religious freedom to all Christians who believed in the Trinity . The first Calverts meant well. The famous Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in Leonard's regime (1649). Claiborne was a staunch Church of Englander . Claiborne could find no pretext for violence for some time . screams that even now have a familiar ring were going up in Maryland : that the lord proprietor meddled with elections. new governor of the colony of Virginia to the south of Maryland . and the scandalized excitement stirred up by the Act of Toleration was immense . THE CREEDS OPEN FIRE 19 colonists in the charter issued to young Cecilius Calvert .

and held it against an indignant attack by Calvert . For two years Ingle carried on a reign of terror in the best Mary Tudor or Francisco Pizarro style. and returned to Maryland to kick Ingle out . This was in 1652. drove out the governor. The chance to smite the Pope came when Puritanism hurled Oliver Cromwell into the governmental saddle in England . In charge of his government he placed his man Friday. He captured the island. and took over the colony in the name of the Puritan party . off Maryland's eastern shore . whence he had fled on Claiborne's invasion. and forthwith sailed the ship Reformation to Kent's Island. an expirate named Thomas Ingle . From the island Claiborne leapt into Maryland itself. 20 THE WARS OF THE GODLY law passed levying a fine of one thousand pounds of tobacco upon any " popish recusant " who should attempt to hold public office in Virginia . Claiborne jumped at the chance to turn Puritan himself. Some poor devils of Puritans had wandered down to Virginia from Massachusetts. Leonard Calvert then gathered a battalion of Catholics in Virginia. The next move on Claiborne's part was to get himself an appointment from England as commissioner for Maryland . wrecking Catholic plantations and deporting two priests to England after letting them season suitably in a Maryland jail. Leonard . and Claiborne was able to vent some of his religious sadism on them .

of forty pounds of tobacco per year to finance the building of Anglican churches and the support of Anglican ministers . THE CREEDS OPEN FIRE 21 Calvert having died meanwhile. snatched control from both Puritan and Catholic and declared his church the state religion of Maryland . that " the Anglican clergy became tobacco dealers . Coode. . with the result. Claiborne's Puritan warriors won out. Coode levied a tax upon every one in Maryland. . ." . celebrating the victory by shooting to death four prisoners. called an assembly from which Catholics were barred. can be protected in this province by the laws of England . Claiborne overthrew the Maryland Catholic government. Mr . as a Catholic historian acidly puts it. This tobacco tax remained in force in both Virginia and Maryland for nearly a century. Maryland was a football of battling sects from this time off and on until the American Revolution one hundred twenty-four years later . regardless of religious affiliation. a distinctly militant churchman of the Anglican communion. Mr . and passed a new law which began by saying : " It is hereby enacted and declared that none who profess and exercise the Popish (commonly called the Roman Catholic) religion. The Puritans had first seized the government from the Catholics . in I6go. " A fierce battle on the Severn river followed Claiborne's second triumph. the Rev . of whom three were Catholics . Then.

(3) to purchase land. (2) to proselyte. we enjoyed peace and quiet . . " From the year 1717 or 1718. . the object . tobacco or jail duty. 22 THE WARS OF THE GODLY What probably stands champion of anti-Catholic laws for all time in America was enacted in Maryland in 1704. we were undisturbed. laxity of Anglican clergy and laity) . and though deprived of our rights and privileges. many of them had been put into offices of honor and profit which they still retained . written in 1734 "The papists did not fail to take advantage of the trouble in the church of which we have spoken (i . as under the administration of Governor Calvert. (4) to inherit land.. Catholics were forbidden by this statute (i) to baptize any child into their church. The law quickly became a dead letter . A sort of footnote to the law provided for collection of a twenty-pound fine from any one importing an Irish farmhand . or (5) to send a child abroad for education in the Catholic faith . under Governor Seymour . Most diligent were the priests in distributing pamphlets among the people." the Catholics reported later. They flattered themselves that they were about to acquire the ascendancy. .e. On pain of penalties payable in sterling." That conditions were even better than that for the Catholics at one time during this period is indicated by a paragraph of the Anglican historian Hawks. " to the year 1751.

Courtesy The U iversal K owledge o datso ARCHBISHOP JOHN CARROLL .

France was a Catholic nation . THE CREEDS OPEN FmE 23 of which was to maintain the Church of Rome . and in all cases when a female of the Romish communion intermarried with a Protestant. by both sides. it was customary to make a previous contract that all the daughters of the marriage should be educated as papists . The usual fantastics were gone through again. . anti-papal feeling flamed once more in Britain's colonies . to be quashed only when the American Revolution threw colonial Protestants and Catholics into the same boat of danger ." The war between England and France for control of eastern America lasted from 1755 until 1763 . Hence.

Eleven years after the Plymouth Rock episode. put forth by a clergyman of the accepted faith. Massachusetts enacted a law which forbade any Jesuit to enter the 24 . PAPIST PLYMOUTH and Massachusetts Bay colonies were founded by Separatists who had broken with the Church of England and wanted freedom to worship God in their own way . that the Roman Catholic church might reasonably be considered a true church of Christ . then Baptist Roger Williams into Rhode Island is the best-known example of the Puritans' attitude toward what we call religious freedom today . Massachusetts Bay colony expelled from its territory one Sir Christopher Gardner. They were no more solicitous that dissenters from Puritan beliefs should be free to worship in their way than is the generality of Christian sects anywhere on the same issue . Sixteen years after these incidents. in fact . on suspicion of being a Catholic . Their hounding of the first independent. In the same year (163 i) the General Court of the colony formally denounced the opinion.CHAPTER III PURITAN VS . They were rather less so.

Rale returned to his labors and rebuilt the church . Thomas Dongan. This ancient forerunner of Alfred E . The Massachusetts people left him in peace for seventeen years following their first sortie . James was brother to King Charles II of England. Then they burned his church again. in firing St . Early in the eighteenth century (1704) a Father Rale set up a Catholic mission for the Indians in Maine and built a church at Norridgewock. . PURITAN VS . New York saw its first Protestant-Catholic clash about twenty years after the deputies of James. In due course he appointed a Catholic to govern New York . terminating in a No-Popery explosion . PAPIST 25 colony on pain of banishment and decreed the foul fellow's instant death should he return after having been banished . on the Kennebec river . Smith was Col . the holy father being secreted in a hollow log nearby while this Protestant auto da fe went forward . Duke of York and Albany. and a Catholic convert. persuaded Peter Stuyvesant to turn over the Dutch province of New Netherland to British rule . The example set by Sir Francis Drake. Augustine one hundred nineteen years before. was followed by an expedition from Massachusetts which burned Father Rale's church and ordered the priest to keep his contaminating fingers off the simple Indians . His tenure of office lasted from 1683 to 1688.

had its repercussion in the colonies . Charles II himself. He saw to it that the first legislative assembly of his administration should pass a bill of rights guaranteeing absolute religious liberty to all sects (October 30. Much talk was made in England about the desirability of booting out Charles's successor James II and calling the Protestant King William of Holland to the British throne . and no sooner did news of his landing reach New York than one Jacob Leisler loosed a No-Popery war-whoop and . for the same sordid reasons. 1683) . since the restoration of the CovenanterCatholic-Anglican-or-what-will-you Charles II. Dongan ruled New York in peace for more than four years . if he wished to preserve life and property. England. professed allegiance to every Christian division active in Britain at one time or another during his reign. and occasionally to two or three of them at once . A man might go to sleep a confirmed Church of Englander. as always. The English movement. Charles died in that period . 26 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The highest crime Dongan appears to have committed against Protestantism was to put two Catholic priests on the public payroll at f 6o a year to minister to his spiritual needs . William sailed for England when the conspiracy ripened . wake up to find it necessary. to hie him to the nearest Catholic priest for recantation. and be forced to turn non-conformist ere nightfall . had been a roaring battleground of the sects .

PURITAN VS . Upon William's successful leap to the throne of England. if he were a Roman Catholic was everywhere . In the following year the vote was taken away from "Papists and Popish recusants . p . the Church of England was established in the colony and Catholics were barred from public office . however. execution of any imprisoned priest who should escape jail and be recaptured. to quote C . Bartholomew . . 375) : " Throughout the colonies at the beginning of the eighteenth century the man who did not conform to the established religion of the colony . . hunted like any Huguenot at St . In fact. and bore out the saying that you can't beat the Irish by bobbing up some time later to succeed to the earldom of Limerick . He made his escape. . PAPIST 27 captained a mob attack on the Dongan government . Dongan passed out of the picture. . Vol . New York's bill of rights was promptly abolished. and a fine of £2 50 with three days in the pillory for any one harboring such a reverend fugitive . J . The Earl of Bellemont's governorship ( 1698-1701 ) saw the enactment of "An Act Against Jesuits and Popish Priests " which decreed life imprisonment for any priest who should stay in New York or come in thereafter. henceforth and forever. IX." in both New York and Massachusetts . Stille (Pennsylvania Magazine of History.

" The Romish priests prospered greatly among the Indians in Florida . . By an act of 1730." chiefly territorial. The fight was partly " religious. schools and hospitals . no public officer in the colony could hold his job without first solemnly denying the Real Presence and declaring the Roman mass idolatrous . though. so greatly that in 1684 the English in the Carolinas won over the Yamassee Indians and induced them to sack the Santa Catalina mission. wrote a flaming No-Popery book in his younger years. Quaker founder of Pennsylvania. Nevertheless. When he set up his Quaker Commonwealth in America. For him there was not even the legal right of public worship . none but Protestants were permitted to be naturalized or to hold lands whereon to build churches. he did his best to establish religious freedom for all . by 1693. William Penn. and that officialdom in Pennsylvania itself swiftly let them become dead letters so far as it dared . The expedition brought back several Catholic Indians to be sold into slavery in the Carolinas . Georgia. 28 THE WARS OF THE GODLY wholly disfranchised . that these enactments were by order of the British crown. however. In the southernmost British colony. Be it recorded. or eleven years after the issuance of Penn's final charter. Governor Oglethorpe opened war about the middle of the eighteenth century on the Florida Spaniards .

Augustine. PAPIST 29 Its feature number was a siege of St . PURITAN VS . 1741 . and four or five persons executed as guilty of arson . An Anglican chapel in New York City had lately been burned. Boston saw ghosts about the same time . which the Spaniards successfully fought off . but you never could be sure ." And what was the net result of this century and . the town meeting named a committee " to take care and prevent any Danger the Town may be in from Roman Catholics residing here . Possibly the harsh treatment accorded the Pope's minions in this city had reduced them to a state in which they feared to speak above a whisper . He sent a letter north. and forthwith clearly perceived that the fire had been the work of dastardly papist plotters . But there was a nonjuring Church of England dominie by the name of John Ury . No Catholic priest was available for sacrifice within the city . in 1740. in which he warned the other British colonies to be on the lookout for Spanish spies . Most of these rascals. he promised. On September 9. This poor devil was seized. New York read Oglethorpe's letter with breathless interest. 1746. would prove to be Roman Catholic priests . charged with the twin crimes of being a Roman Catholic and having led the conspiracy for which the other people already had been executed. and was hanged by the neck until dead on August 15. Oglethorpe's war had a curious echo in New York .

prove to a demonstration that it does . Moreover. manors and other tenements. etc. as well as the great number of their youth sent this year to foreign popish seminaries for education. 30 THE WARS OF THE GODLY a quarter of Catholic-hating and Catholic-baiting in the colonies of Britain? An editorial in the Maryland Gazette of September 1 7. many popish priests and Jesuits hold sundry large tracts of land. 1754.. . with the greatest industry and without controul . . where they exercise their religious functions. and the crowds that resort to them. " . having public Mass-Houses. and in several of them have dwelling houses where they live in a collegiate manner. reported progress in these words : " Does Popery increase in this Province? The great number of Popish chapels. .

3T . Immense decisions clamored to be made . This document cleared most of Louisiana . she wrung the Treaty of Paris of that year . In 1763 Great Britain finished her war on France and the Indians in North America . Yet there were nightmares of a sort throughout the period .CHAPTER IV THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE F ROM a decade prior to the American Revolution until some fifteen years after our second war with Great Britain. men were jerked out of their selfishnesses and vanities and forced to be men or sink . slumbered almost dreamlessly from 1763 to 1830 . France had quit Canada three years before.of French and Spanish influence. when the Marquis de Vaudreuil capitulated at Montreal to General Lord Jeffrey Amherst Amherst of wide-sung fame . real crises convulsed a childnation which had to fight for its life among adult nations . Americans had something important to think about and sweat about almost every minute of every day . riding high on the toe of the British boot. France and Spain. Out of the two great Catholic powers. naturally.a much larger territory than the present state . The ghostly differences.

32 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The end of the colonial wars was a conclusive victory for the English . A papist might hate a heretic for denying the Real Presence. as they did . Further than that. though neither could read the other's sacred literature and feel safe from hellfire . with her swollen population. Britain. had suffered one hundred fifty years of persecution in the colonies at the hands of Britishers . In colonial minds. considered herself forced to sweat her American possessions by every conceivable species of taxation . Pressure on the colonial papists accordingly eased off immediately after the 1 763 treaty . It would have been astounding if Catholics had not proved to be among the hottest of the American Revolutionists. but the two saw equally red when the Stamp Act was saddled on them by Parliament and an army of officials poured into the country to enforce the Act . Britain and Protestantism were safe in North America . Catholic rum makers were stung in pocket no less sharply than were Protestant by the suddenly stiffened Molasses Act. The Catholics. Both could feel the injustice of taxation without representation. wherefore her American posssessions meditated more seriously with each new dawn the proposal to give Britain as hearty a pop in the jaw as lay within their power to deliver . For the sake of revenge and for economic reasons. moreover. . The Protestants could afford to be generous .

a young New York lawyer whose public career was to end only with the Chief Justiceship of the United States Supreme Court ." a part of which was a red-eyed protest against the mother country's action in " establishing the Roman Catholic religion in the province of Quebec. This they did in spite of the Quebec Act. the colonies that were to become the States envisaged a British-Roman plot to enslave the American continent . Instantly. In New York John Jay fought Gouverneur Morris and Robert Livingston for a constitutional provision against naturalizing Catholics -and won. John Jay . This Act granted full civil and religious liberty to the Roman Catholic church and its communicants throughout Canada . New Jersey's first constitution ruled Catholics . of course. To disarm Catholics who had already slipped under the bar of citizenship. which Parliament craftily passed the year before the battle of Lexington . THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE 33 they had to take arms for independence. with a pressing need for constitutions wherewith to govern themselves. at least in name. the oath prescribed for public officers was so worded that Catholics could not take it without renouncing their faith ." After the Declaration of Independence.wrote for the Continental Congress its famous "Address to the People of Great Britain. the colonies found themselves States.

New Jersey did not rub its last religious law off the books until 1844 . could boast of one state where creed controlled eligibility to office as late as the year of our Lord 1877 . Delaware and Maryland . and the plot having been concededly Catholic in complexion. This state was New Hampshire . The United States. while South Carolina's constitution declared that " the Protestant religion is the religion of this state " and promised religious equality to all Protestant sects . No one who " denied the truth of the Protestant religion " could hold office in North Carolina. Fawkes having headed the renowned Gunpowder Plot in 1605 against the life of King James I. Massachusetts taxed Catholics for the support of Protestant churches up to 1833 . One of General Washington's early official acts as commander-in-chief of the Revolutionary armies was to forbid a " Pope Day " celebration planned by some of his jolly Continentals for November 5. Pope Day was the New England incarnation of the British Guy Fawkes Day . 1776. governed under a constitution in which religious tests for Federal office were prohibited and national laws respecting the establishment of any religion tabu. 34 THE WARS OF THE GODLY bluntly out of all public offices . the anniversary of his arrest was celebrated by pious . Catholics were made the equals of Protestants by the revolutionary constitutions of Virginia. Pennsylvania.

THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE

35

British Protestants for many a year, and indeed to this day remains a holiday . New England's quaint custom, on November 5 of each year, was to parade effigies of the Pope through all the principal villages and towns, finally giving them to the flames in the public squares, while all present rejoiced and gave thanks . Washington, advised that his New England contingents were making ready to solemnize Pope Day in their usual fashion, announced with engaging naivete that " we are soliciting . . . friendship and alliance of the people of Canada," and must on no account insult those people's religion . In 1778, when the French became allies of the Revolutionists, the Tories smelled a papal plot once more . Benedict Arnold tossed the only pinch of red fire into this flareup of religious excitement ; for the rest, it was a pale and feeble flicker . Arnold's contribution was a printed broadside to the Continental Army, promulgated October 20, 178o, from within the British lines where he was dodging the consequences of his treason . "Do you know," Arnold asked the soldiers of Washington, " that the eye which guides this pen, lately saw your mean and profligate Congress at Mass for the soul of a Roman Catholic in purgatory, and participating in the rites of a Church against whose anti-Christian corruptions your

36

THE WARS OF THE GODLY

pious ancestors would have witnessed with their blood? " But the Continentals, Catholic and Protestant and freethinker, were witnessing with their own blood against the corruptions of Great Britain, so that Arnold's fulminations drifted down the wind with the rest of the Tory propaganda . The British attempted to raise a regiment of Roman Catholics in Philadelphia in the third year of the war . Of this, the unaffiliated historian Bancroft says, " In Philadelphia, Howe had been able to form a regiment of Catholics," while the official Catholic historian Shea says, "The very reverse is true . It never existed except on paper ." Shea would seem to have the better of the argument, since the Catholics had nothing to gain from the British . Then came Yorktown, and the surrender of Cornwallis ; the Articles of Confederation, and four years wherein thirteen bled-white states tried to function as thirteen allied Great Powers . The attempt nearly killed the new nation, but it was saved in the nick of time by the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and the results of the proceedings there had . Certain Catholic historians make no little outcry anent the intolerance of some of the Founding Fathers and the terrific fight which they assert the

THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE

37

Catholics had to put up for their rights while the Constitution was going the rounds of the state legislatures for ratification . Unless the scriveners who reported the legislative debates were seduced by Protestants into striking religious discussions from their transcripts, the Catholic historians exaggerate the facts . Nor do these gentlemen throw open all stops and tread heavily on the loud pedal when - and if discussing another Treaty of Paris : that of 1783 . Under this treaty, Florida went back to Spanish rule, not to become definitely a part of the United States for thirty-five years . The Spanish government refused to guarantee religious freedom to British Protestants in Florida, and the bulk of these took wing for the north, where their own gang was in power. The religious issue came up at the Philadelphia convention when Charles Pinckney inserted into the original draft of the Constitution the clause " . . . but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States ." Almost nobody questioned this clause at the Philadelphia convention . Luther Martin, bellowing enemy of the proposed constitution, reported later to the Maryland legislature that " there were some members so unfashionable as

38

THE WARS OF THE GODLY

to think that a belief in the existence of a Deity, and of a state of future rewards and punishments would be some security for the good conduct of the rulers, and that in a Christian country it would be at least decent to hold out some distinction between the professors of christianity, and downright infidelity or paganism ." Of all the states, Massachusetts suffered the severest gagging when requested to swallow the religious-test clause . Several Congregationalist clergymen sat in the Massachusetts convention . These gentlemen proved more tolerant toward the clause than did some of their lay brethren . Congregationalism was the next thing to an established church in Massachusetts at that time - which fact makes one wonder how broad-minded the dominies would have been could they have foreseen the Catholic ascendancy in the Massachusetts of today. At any rate, a Major Lusk " shuddered " at the thought " that Roman Catholics, Papists, and Pagans might be introduced into office, and that Popery and the Inquisition may be established in America ." To this the Rev . Mr . Backus gave benignant reply that " nothing is more evident, both in reason, and the holy scriptures, than that religion is ever a matter between God and individuals . . .

By permission of Harper U Brothers

JOHN JAY (From a bust by Frazee)

THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE

39

the imposing of religious tests hath been the greatest engine of tyranny in the world," concluding that, with the anti-test clause in the Constitution, Congress could not possibly establish " Popery, or some other tyrannical way of worship " as the religion of the United States . The Rev . Mr. Shute went Mr . Backus one better by declaring that, as for him, he supposed, nay, he even believed, " that there are worthy characters among men of every denomination - among the Quakers - the Baptists - the Church of England - " his voice trailed off to a bemused undertone of astonishment at his own broad-mindedness -" the Papists ." In the other states, so far as disclosed by Elliott's four-volume compilation of the reported debates, the religious-test clause was treated as small matter for argument and a highly desirable insurance policy against clerics' ambitions . Certainly Rhode Island and North Carolina, which had to be blackjacked into ratification later, made no mountain of bones about this feature of the Constitution . The new code being ratified by the necessary majority of states, the Federalist party organized the first central government . Captained by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton, it remained in power until Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic Republicans dynamited it in I8oo. Where religion was concerned, the Federalists were indeed

40

THE WARS OF THE GODLY

the Native Americans, the Know-Nothings, the Ku Kluxers of their day, as Catholic writers point out with a heavy accompaniment of sobs . They distrusted Catholicity as they distrusted the Frenchliberal ideas of Jefferson and any other thought or institution not British-made or home-made . A goodsize wing of the Federalist party would gladly have crowned Washington king ; the Tories of Revolutionary days were almost all Federalists now, and nothing would have pleased them more than a return to British rule . Federalism, in short, was the party of that element which John Jay once succinctly called " the property " ; anti-Federalism and Jeffersonian democracy were the haven for the Outs of all descriptions -small farmers, city and town low-castes, German and Irish immigrants on the northeast seaboard . To say, then, that the Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts and in other ways fought the foreigner's entry into this country primarily because they were anti-Catholics, is as sensible as to say that S . S . Kresge approves the prohibition law in our day because he thinks it is ordained of God and not because he believes it means more money for him . The Federalists opposed any one who threatened by his shrewdness and energy to lay hands on their money or property or political jobs ; and many members of Jefferson's mobs who did so threaten happened to be Roman Catholics .

THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE

41

Hence, what little Catholic-baiting there was in the days of Citizen Genet, the Whisky Insurrection, the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Porcupine papers of William Cobbett, the musical comedy war with France, the birth and howling infancy of the Society of St . Tammany in New York, Jefferson's labored climb to the Presidency . Those were the days, too, in Ireland, of Wolfe Tone, Napper Tandy, Rowan, Reynolds and Russell, and the wild doings of their United Irishmen . Bloody rebellions against England were hatched every night in Dublin and Wexford ; the French and the Dutch were sending raiding expeditions to help the Irish and so hamstring the English ; and many an Irish patriot was finding it necessary to board ship for America without farewell ceremonies . Tandy, Rowan and Reynolds spent several months in Philadelphia in 1795, where Wolfe Tone himself joined them for a brief spell . Ireland's population was swelling at a frightful rate under the spur of the potato ; the great famine was yet to come, but the overflow of the human crop was either hurling itself on British cannon mouths or migrating to America . And so, at this point, the Catholic-Protestant fight in the United States took on the complexion it wears today, and has worn since the first gutter battle between New York nativists and New York Micks in the year 18o6. From Jefferson's time to

He is the prime romanticist. You can love an Irishman or you can hate him . Smith . You cannot think impartially about him probably because he cannot think impartially about any person. The Irish are the extremists of all the world . or the gaudiest rascal . Murphy .. the boldest.e. the master of intrigue. In politics. or the perfect apotheosis of the ward heeler . 42 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Coolidge's.. merriest fighter.e. In business life. then Irishmen to you are the most lovable people that breathe . any Irish member of Tweed's inner circle .e . the champion of amour.g. it has been the Irish Catholic who has drawn most of the rage of the native American Protestant white Gentile. in all the world . and in realms where Italians cannot clip his wings he flies the highest : how many American cardinals and archbishops have been nonIrishmen? . and the same Catholic who has returned most of the Protestant punches with all possible vigor.g. Alfred E .g. In the Catholic hierarchy the Irishman makes the shrewdest worker for Mother Church under the sun. the most deadly politician and organizer and drummer-up of mob sentiment. he concludes his career either by being fired or being elected chairman of the board of directors . Charles F. If you are a person whose flesh does not creep and scalp wrinkle at sight of an Irishman. he makes the ablest statesman . idea or institution within his ken ..

The Irish section would have been looted and burned but for the appearance of Mayor De Witt Clinton. Needless to state. When a city watchman interfered. who argued the natives out of their frenzy . That year. roughneck. too. native American order . all six voted heartily for the second war against Britain . expecting and probably hoping for trouble . an Irishman stabbed and killed him . saw . In 1812. But no services were held . the Society of United Irishmen boasted that six Congressmen were members of the organization . when Patrick McKay was nominated for the Assembly . Tammany Hall began in 1789 as a red-hot. It could not remain an enemy to the Federalist aristocrats and to the immigrant at the same time. A gang of native-born Americans gathered outside St .Irish rallied at St . The Protestants charged. Peter's in force. The following night the . To avenge this insult to law and order.though it was founded by the Irishman William Mooney . and still survive as a political club . Peter's Roman Catholic church on Barclay Street with intent to enhance God's glory by breaking up the Christmas Eve services . the mob chased the Irish all around lower Manhattan . THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE 43 The Union's first " religious " fight of modern character broke out in New York City at Christmastide in i 8o6 . In 18o9 the first Irish Catholic ran on a Tammany-supported ticket for a New York office.

Lafayette visited the United States . General Andrew Jackson was making warlike passes at Spain in Florida . While the War of 1812 lagged along. religious prejudice was forgotten. beseeching them to turn out at an election and prove their gratitude to the party which had shown itself their friend. De Witt Clinton. Thus the movement played its part in pre- . lasting into 1825. 44 THE WARS OF THE GODLY a special appeal issued by the Democrats of New York City to the Irish voters as a bloc. by now a city judge. as it always is in wartime . and in such exciting. Anti-Masonry has only this to do with the subject of religious conflict : its flareup must have set many minds to dreaming dreams and imagining the wind's whistling to be the keen of spirits eery and uncouth . the Missouri Compromise was sweating its weary way through the Congress . the " VirginiaMassachusetts dynasty " at Washington was about to fall before the spoilsmen of Jackson . President Monroe was meditating his Doctrine which was to fence off the western hemisphere from Europe . The " era of good feeling " followed the peace treaty of 1815. handed down a decision in the second year of the war which excused Catholic priests from testifying in court to secrets revealed to them in the confessional . constructive times the only outburst of a mass emotion related to religious hate was the AntiMasonic movement of 1826-32 .

bodies found at the crossroads . of plots. its candidate. Americans were thinking. William Morgan. The Anti-Masonic Jonah was shortly afterward swallowed up in the belly of the Whig whale . closed carriages speeding conspirators' victims to a dreadful doom. . and never seen again. It nominated a Presidential ticket in 1831. but William Wirt. This was never proved . an Anti-Masonic leader. New York. but Morgan himself was first arrested on a charge of debt. and when Thurlow Weed. he replied cynically that " it was a good enough Morgan till after election . was later asked whether he believed the body to be that of Morgan. . The time was ripe for another wave of religious mania . in 1826 announced his intention to publish a book which would contain all the secrets of Freemasonry . ex-priests' exposures and European travelers' tales of Romish plots which was to roll over them during the thirties and forties . then taken in a closed carriage to Niagara Falls. though. secret organizations." The enemies of Masonry organized a political party which by 1830 was the strongest New York adversary of Jackson's Democrats . THE SIXTY-SEVEN YEARS' TRUCE 45 paring Americans to receive the deluge of escaped nuns' confessions. . . His book finally reached print. carried only Vermont . A body found below the falls some days later was alleged to be Morgan's. of Batavia.

In 1829.000 Catholics in a total population of about twelve and one-half millions . PROTESTANT ALARM NATIVE Americanism. while the rest of the country thus far settled was divided into sees and vicariates apostolic of varying degrees of prosperity . nine colleges 46 . There were nearly 360. The Catholic church itself had no little to do with bringing down the lightnings of nativism on its timeless head . The church operated six seminaries. Fifty years of complete liberty under the Constitution had enabled it to become an organization big with membership. rich in lands and buildings and money. the Roman church in the United States looked about from the eminence of its metropolitanate at Baltimore and perceived that it was grown exceeding large . the politico-religious storm which roared through the thirties and forties and culminated in the tornado that was KnowNothingism in the fifties. Not a town in New England but had its Catholic congregation and priest. regimented by an aggressive clergy. arose not solely from the Anti-Masonic furore .CHAPTER V CATHOLIC INVENTORY .

Archbishop Whitfield approached the Pope as to the advisability of the meeting. Rome had given her no cardinal as yet. What more fitting and politic than to call a council of the hierarchy of all this North American province of the church? Archbishop John Carroll first titular head of the Roman Catholic church in the United States and reckoned by some the greatest churchman ever seen in the land -had long dreamed of the day when such a session might be held for the proper edification of the faithful and the .if one may impute harsh motives to so saintly a man -discomfiture of American Protestants . The spectacle must have been a gorgeous one. 1829. a terrifying one to any Protestant who could overcome his abhorrence of popery sufficiently to do likewise . the prelates in their shining robes . Carroll's successor James. thirty-three nunneries and monasteries.CATHOLIC INVENTORY . PROTESTANT ALARM 47 under ecclesiastical control (three of them universities). Daily. Leo XII sanctioned the plan by his breve Quo Longius. The First Provincial Council of Catholicity in America met at Baltimore on October i. and a startling number of hospitals and schools . but no longer was she a mere puny offshoot from the monster tree of religion that overspread Europe and South America . to any Catholic layman attending the open sessions.

There were thirty-eight of these in all. deliberated. One day in that autumn of 1829. the entire council proceeded to his estate near Baltimore. John England of Charleston and Benedict J . to pay its respects to the ninety-six-year-old veteran of the times that tried men's souls . lived to be also the only surviving signer. Decree No . distilled the essence of their wisdom-which the Catholic hierarchy possessed and possesses in generous measure . theologians. most of them having to do with matters perfunctory and administrative only . Besides such eminent suffragans of Baltimore as Bishop John Dubois of New York. 9 warned Catholics to have nothing to do with " corrupt translations of the Bible "-- . A quartet of the decrees promulgated by the council were of a nature to set Protestant teeth on edge . lone Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence.to the written page . Flaget of Bardstown. But into four of the decrees the Catholic prelates managed to pack as much dynamite for Protestants to use against them and their church as could well have been encased in that number of short pronouncements . Charles Carroll of Carrollton. vicars-general of realms outside the Baltimore metropolitanate. there were present in goodly number lesser clerical lights. and even one administrator sede vacante . 48 THE WARS OF THE GODLY and towering miters convened.

The latter had to do with the preparation of schoolbooks suitable to be studied by Catholic children . PROTESTANT ALARM 49 meaning. No . to quote the evasive language of the Catholic historian Shea." regarded baptism of children of non-Catholic parents where there was a prospect of the child being brought up a Catholic .CATHOLIC INVENTORY . 17.and to stand or fall on the Catholic version .P . of course. especially those of the poor. 34 and 35 concerned the elementary schools and the teaching therein . as speedily as might be. the A . from perversion " (Shea's language again) .A . Thus was marked out a new sector in the religious war in America along which the guns still bark . James Harper and his Native Americans bellowed against the Catholic church's position on the education of children in the forties . grew . Many a bloody engagement has been had on that part of the fighting front. Know-Nothing broadsides lambasted it in the fifties . the King James version used by the Protestants . Catholic parishes should build Catholic schools " to save children. The former urged that. Tom Nast cartooned priests as training cannon on the Statue of Liberty in the time of Tweed ." Nos . from Bishop Hughes's sortie against the Protestant-controlled public school funds of New York City in the early forties to the Supreme Court's slaughter of the Oregon school law in 1925 .

Our national destiny is at stake . The public schools must continue incomparably superior to all others . 50 THE WARS OF THE GODLY fat for a season on the morsel when Bryan was in his prime. whether civil or ecclesiastical. We must choose between the schools of Rome and those of America . the reincarnated Menace. must be permitted further to project a rival system here or to exclude American children from American schools . Its third and last plenary council. We have reached the parting of the ways. as did The Menace a half-generation later ." The Catholic church made its school philosophy clearer and more positive with every provincial and plenary council in the United States after 1829 . the United States. held at Baltimore in 1884. " There is but one righteous solution of the problem before us . the Ku Klux Klan has raved over it in our day . and as 192 7 marched down its last lap. Latin America exemplified the former . The alternative is darkness or light. had the following remarks to make about Catholicity and the common schools : " The school issue looks us squarely in the face . then functioning as The New Menace. Their very excellence must command the favor of all loyal citizens . issued a solemn command that Cath- . illiteracy or education . No foreign government. . . . the latter .

The Great Protest. the bishop of the diocese judge that in a particular case other provision may be permitted . some fifteen hundred Roman Catholic bishops and laymen in Britain accepted the Protestant condition ." In 1790. as acknowledged by Catholics and as denied by the established Anglican church. The British No-Popery fight turned on the question of the Pope's superiority. he pronounces any doctrine touching faith or morality to be binding on the. unless. ." This. The position of British patriots toward Catholics was expressed in the offer : " Give up your claims for your Pope. of course. proclaimed : " We acknowledge no infallibility in the Pope . indeed. at which the Ultramontane faction succeeded in dogmatizing the Pope's infallibility when. In the same year the Catholics in Great Britain won their long fight to throw overboard the laws which held them under the Protestant toe .CATHOLIC INVENTORY . Britain rang with the battle for Catholic equality from 1780 to 1829 ." Not only had the Catholic church in America cause to rejoice. signed by this group. as it did. speaking ex cathedra. at that first council in 1829. was long before the Vatican Council of 187o. and you can have some of our civil rights . whole church . PROTESTANT ALARM 51 olic parents send their children " to the parish or other truly Catholic schools.

This fight endured from 18oo to 1829 . 52 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The Relief Act sped through Parliament on publication of the Great Protest. the presentiment that they would take the proverbial mile. plus the victory of the Catholics in Britain. and in 1829 Parliament passed the second Catholic Relief Act. with but the slightest exceptions. whereunder. and the heavier disabilities were removed from the shoulders of all Catholics who would renounce the authority of the Pope in matters temporal . a British Catholic became as good a man as a British Protestant . focused American attention on the church which had prospered unhampered since 1763 . and great was the consternation among Protestant clerics when they perceived the size to which their common enemy had grown. But George IV failed to oppose the Catholic claims. Ten years more. Baltimore's Catholic fiesta of the same year. George III was bitterly opposed to granting the Catholics another inch. . as he did. entertaining. and the Catholics opened their drive to get rid of every legal difference between themselves and Protestants in Britain .

Massachusetts." 53 . but before the time elapsed she fled the nunnery. but there may be . cut loose at his Hanover Street church in Boston a series of anti-Catholic sermons. news. It was not until two years after 1829 that Lyman Beecher. His motive was simple and obvious : there were too many Catholics in and about Boston to suit his tastes . penetrated the American ken far more slowly in those days than it does now . THE FIRST CONVENT BURNS INTELLIGENCE. All her reports came under the same head as that old Chinese proverb which gently muses : " The nunnery stands across the road from the monastery .CHAPTER VI THE FIRST NUN ESCAPES . She must pass six months in this status in order to become eligible for the veil. There is nothing in that . as a probationer. Congregationalist sire to the hellraising Harriet Beecher Stowe and the potent Henry Ward Beecher. The things Rebecca told of having witnessed within the institution were interesting enough to set tongues wagging throughout Boston . In 1833 one Rebecca Reed entered the Ursuline convent at Charlestown. in secret and by night.

So effective was the whispering campaign she waged single-tongued that before a month was out she had all the Protestant enthusiasts ravening for Catholic blood . American womanhood and Old Glory stormed the convent. the abhorred of all the Catholics. however. Nothing of serious nature occurred until. wrecked it from garret to coal bin. another nun in the same Ursuline convent became hysterical and imitated Rebecca Reed's secret flight . and burned the building to the ground. A near-riot took place. Religious frenzy once aroused. in the summer following. That night (it was August i i. No one was killed or injured . 1834). and the Boston selectmen visited the convent and talked with Sister Mary John in person. hoping to satisfy the town that she had returned of her own free will and was not in need of salvage by brawny nativists. speedily repented and returned to the convent under the wing of her brother. Sister Mary John. some five or six hundred defenders of Protestantism. Harrison Grey Otis presided at a meeting in Faneuil Hall the next . 54 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Miss Reed became the pet of the more ardent Protestants of Boston. But a rumor got about to the effect that Sister Mary John was held prisoner by the silent sisters . for such was this second deserter's name. is not to be appeased with such sops as investigation by local bigwigs . drove out the nuns.

By permission of Houghton Mifflin Company SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE .

.

The Catholic bishop. was the inventor of the telegraph . and obtained it after the man had served a decent spell in jail . Fenwick. as every one knows. He was also an artist of genuine talent. Morse. the burning of the Ursuline convent is set as the official opening of the Native American period in this country . and it was not until he turned forty that he began to nose seriously into the deeper mysteries of electricity. forbade his followers to take any revenge . Morse had a religious twist reminiscent of Sir Isaac Newton. when Rebecca Reed flew the Ursuline coop . in New York City. THE FIRST NUN ESCAPES 55 morning. Bishop Fenwick then pressed for this man's pardon. On the homebound vessel Morse's brain had suddenly flashed him the idea for the electric telegraph. By such historians as have not slipped on their galoshes and stepped gingerly around all religious mud puddles. and resolutions cursing the convent burners were thundered forth to be relayed over the nation . spent in studying the Old Masters. one convicted . At about the same time. Samuel Finley Breese Morse was training one of his intellect's numerous heavy guns on the Church of Rome. Further than that. and from his lips had burst the famous remark : " If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any . He had but lately returned from a three years' stay in Europe. Thirteen of the rioters were tried.

To the emotional side of Morse's brain. But during his stay in Europe." The moment he quit the ship at New York. read from Protestant pulpits. but acknowledged the authorship later . all unbeknownst to Mr. and altogether made a terrific sensation . 56 THE WARS OF THE GODLY part of the circuit. This was a Catholic society organized at Vienna for the express purpose of aiding the expansion of the Catholic church in the United States . The letters were reprinted. the Leopold Foundation's existence indicated a plot of the Roman hierarchy to gain control of American politics and society . belabored by Catholic priests and editors. Morse took time out from his labors over the telegraph to write a series of twelve letters to the New York Observer . The case is a curious analogue to the visions of an International Jewish Plot which in our times found their way into Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent. and bearing the solemn imprimatur of four New York Protestant ministers . he plunged into his long fight to wrest the telegraph from the grip of nature . Morse had learned of the Leopold Foundation . Ford . They were later published in book form. I see no reason why intelligence may not be transmitted by electricity . The book galloped through multitudinous editions . . editorially commented upon. under the title A Foreign Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States. He signed them with the pen name Brutus.

a fearful bore from cover to cover . But his book sold widely. and so brought in a few of the not too numerous pennies on which Morse subsisted during the years in which he was bringing the telegraph into existence and to the attention of Congress. not the priests to the people in any case. Possibly the good Lord permitted Himself a wink in the direction of the archangel Michael when He perceived a scientist thus hacking out a bit of a living for himself at the expense of the church whose medieval managers relaxed Bruno to the secular arm and made Galileo eat the truths he had uttered ." Thus Morse drooled for one hundred fifty-odd pages . 57 Take the word of one who knows that Morse's Foreign Conspiracy is bombastic. a right to examine into the manner in which it is disbursed? No! the people account to their priests in all cases. a responsibility which gives the most insignificant contributor of his money towards any object. THE FIRST NUN ESCAPES . A passage is selected at random " Do Popish Bishops or Priests consult the people? Have the people any voice in ecclesiastical matters? Can the people vote their own taxes? or are they imposed upon them by irresponsible priests? Do the bishops and priests account for the manner in which they spend the people's money? Has Popery here adopted the American principle of RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PEOPLE . windy.

later archbishop of New York. and in the same year certain brethren of the Society of Jesus founded the Boston Jesuit. Bishop Francis Patrick Kenrick. The Catholic Herald was initiated at Philadelphia in 1833 by the Rev . but Kenrick was not the last man with whom Hughes had his own way. a group of evangelical clergymen in New 58 . Bishop Benedict J . was earnestly opposed to the Herald and the aims of its founder. John Breckinridge. The New York Truth Teller was long a doughty battler for Catholicity. mainly to furnish Father Hughes a vehicle through which to carry on a bitter war of words with the Presbyterian clergyman Dr . Hughes's ordinary.CHAPTER VII PAPER BOMBSHELLS THE Catholics at this time (the early thirties) were beginning to realize the power of the press in a country where the press could say practically what it pleased. John Hughes. Perceiving that the papists were thus diligent to avail themselves of the weapon which print afforded. Fenwick of Boston established the Catholic Expostulator in 1830.

4 . 1834 . and the journal came out weekly. There was an anti-Catholic paper that was an anti-Catholic paper . The Vindicator's page size was nearly as large as that of the present-day New York Times or Chicago Tribune . Its bound volumes give off a whiff of smoke to this day. digs them out of his more remote arcana. with a heave and a grunt. It had been " transmitted by a Christian Brother. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 59 York City started a paper of their own ." " Romanism " was the simple title of the first issue's leading article. and its first issue came out on August 20. but you have not seen the American Protestant Vindicator . Eight pages made up one issue. XIII. Immediately below the ornately lettered name of the paper rode the catchline. in smoldering black type : " Who is like unto the Beast? Who is able to make war with him? -Rev. whose elegant lucubrations we hope often . This organ was the American Protestant Vindicator. as it might have been the title of all articles the paper published from first to last. When those boys wished to denounce. they named names and used epithets which would have appalled Watterson or Greeley .which indicates that ministers were less fearful of libel suits in those days than in these . You may boast of the anti-Roman hellfire that snorts from the nostrils of your Fellowship Forums or your Rail Splitters today . when a library attendant.

John N . Stark. Duncan Macaulay. W . captioned " Popish Female Seminaries . and the front page concluded with an account of a Christian father's melancholy experiences in an attempt to educate his daughter."' Article two was an enlivening treatise on " The Grasping Character of the Romish Priesthood. Patton." with Protestantism winning on all points." while number three called attention for a column or more to " The Contrast Between Protestantism and Popery. They were. Maclay. ' the end justifies the means ." and was " a masterly development of that most mischievous dogma of Jesuitism." All were residents of New York or Philadelphia and vicinity . Beriah Green. John Breckinridge. John G . because the Vindicator consistently flattered the Episcopal church during the whole of its lifetime of nearly four years . James Lillie. but some of the gentlemen's names would suggest a group of Presbyterians on the Vindicator board . if it is desired to know. Brownlee. George Bowne. and 0 . Morris. It was . William C . Winslow . Certain it is that there were no Episcopalians." Page two betrayed the source of these fiery denunciations of the Beast : twelve clergymen were listed in the editorial flag as " stated contributors . 6o THE WARS OF THE GODLY to insert in the Protestant Vindicator. Drs . the Rev. A . A. The Boston Jesuit called them all Methodists in one of its equally fiery diatribes against Protestantism. Eli Baldwin. M'Leod.

" Faith. Other regular features for the delectation of good Protestants were frightful editorial battles with the various Catholic papers . while displaying a decent contempt for such uitlanders as the Unitarians and the Perfectionists .. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 61 equally obsequious toward the Congregationalists. seems to have been a favorite. of 17 Ann St. Wisner & Co . as was also Lorette. for sale at fifty cents a copy. Ira G . The paper's third issue began a serial reprint of Samuel F. bits of gossip about priests and nuns " reported on reliable authority. "Why." Some choice books were advertised for sale by the publishing house which printed the paper (Norwood Browne.. Pat. an' thot's where we'll be putting some o' th' heretics one o' these days . it was said in the advertisement that " every Sunday school library ought to possess a copy. Daughter o f a Canadian Nun ( anonymous ) . Of the History of the Spanish Inquisition. such as the one about the man who saw an Irishman digging a ditch in a New York street and remarked. by Mrs .. History o f Louise. jokes with an anti-papal tang." or " told to us by a gentleman lately from Georgia " . The Nun. bloody oaths which Catholic priests were supposed to take on entering the company of the Beast . B . Sherwood. New York City) . Morse's Foreign Conspiracy ." to which Pat replied. that pit will soon be deep enough for one of the dungeons of the Spanish Inquisition. later of 114 Nassau St . that .

This book is called by some Catholic commentators the Uncle Tom's Cabin of antiCatholicism in America . Both masterpieces rolled out of the binderies within a year of each other. the scoop. and hence more gorgeous stuff . by " a gentleman who had been a Romish priest.Forty Popish Frauds Detected and Disclosed were listed as excellent purchases for the Protestant Christian in search of reading matter to hold his faith at the boiling point . Maria Monk's narrative was of coarser." and Richard Baxter's Jesuit Juggling ." Rebecca Reed's book. Six Months in a Convent. 62 THE WARS OF THE GODLY the boys and girls may learn the value of religious liberty and evangelical truth . sterner. Anthony Gavin's Master Key to Popery. The Awful Disclosures o f Maria Monk . . Rebecca's story has been told in a previous section . but a sequel was selling like hot cakes at fifty cents . after his conversion to Christianity. But the beat. and in one or the other of them you can find the first telling of every convent horror tale told by every " escaped nun " who has caused rustic and small-town eyes to pop with lewd fascination from that day to this . was going for thirty-seven cents a copy a year after its publication. the seemingly immortal triumph of the American Protestant Vindicator's career was its ballyhooing for that enormous literary success. by others the palm is handed to Rebecca Reed's Six Months in a Convent .

With a couple of cronies. After she had spent some months. The result was a rich and odorous manuscript. . which any one who has listened to an " escaped nun " in this day knows by heart. nunnery. bought the book and published it through a dummy firm composed of two of its employees . he sequestered Maria from the efforts of a New York priest to encompass her return to Montreal. a Catholic asylum at Montreal operated by nuns for girls of her character. nunnery. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 63 Maria was a lady of few years and lamentably doubtful virtue who was incarcerated in the Hotel Dieu. J. now one of the nation's largest and most highly respected. and Slocum's partners . Maria's allegations were the usual ones. Slocum. to whom she told a weird and horrible tale . joint product of Maria. and made her repeat her story several times. A New York publishing house. Slocum. Slocum sensed the material for a thriller . and then in the Black. There she fell in with one J . or Grey. The commitment was made on request of Maria's mother . since it grew better with each retelling . one of her gentlemen friends helped Maria to escape her holy keepers and flee from Montreal to New York City . first in the Congregational. or Hotel Dieu. There was one chapter devoted to the murder of a recalcitrant nun. but which were new and racy when first she broached them .

She was received in the best Protestant circles as a soul snatched by a blessed miracle from the hideous grip of Rome . Maria made a lecture tour of the Atlantic States . Habit renders us insensible to the sufferings of others. She blamed her own baby. on one of the priests . its sales-record standing supreme in America until Harriet Beecher Stowe produced Uncle Tom's Cabin . smothered. and careless about our own sins . summarily baptized. to whom she gave birth in Bellevue. " It was uncommon [she remarked] to find compunction expressed by any of the nuns . all of whom were said to have access to the nunnery through an underground passageway . that babies were frequently born to nuns. I had become so hardened myself that I find it difficult to rid myself of many of my former false principles and views of right and wrong . on taking the veil. 64 THE WARs OF THE GODLY which Maria claimed to have seen committed by personal order of Bishop Latigne of Montreal . and deposited in a lime pit in the nunnery cellar ." This mephitic book outsold Rebecca Reed's by thousands of copies. Another chapter averred that. too. She wrote a sequel to her first vol- . Maria told it as Gospel truth. Maria had been advised that one of the sisterhood's secret practices was illicit intercourse with the priests of the Montreal district.

naming it Further Disclosures o f Maria Monk . its prevailing price per copy being fifty cents . The book is still to be had from various antiCatholic publishing houses. . Maria was unquestionably the champion of all " escaped nuns. All this excitement in the world of impolite letters could not fail to have its influence on the politics of the middle thirties . 1835. where she died." it was a fairly safe bet as to what answer the body's deliberations would produce . Her career came to a close when -several impartial committees and individuals having visited the Hotel Dieu and given it a clean bill of health-she herself was taken in adultery and committed anew to a home for incorrigible girls." and the literary ghosts who concocted her book could have taught a few tricks to the ablest ghost that guides the halting pens of men of achievement today. On March 13. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 65 ume. the New York Protestant Association met at Broadway Hall to discuss the question. Nor could it fail to inflame the passions of the Irish in the cities . " Is Popery compatible with civil liberty?" The association having been organized " to spread the knowledge of the Gospel truth and show wherein it is inconsistent with the tenets and dogmas of Popery. The present-day editions are sadly botched and bear signs of repeated editings to comply with obscenity statutes .

had won its martyrs . turned one hundred per cent Whig as soon as he was declared winner. The Catholic clergy next morning roundly scolded the defenders of the faith . Lamps were smashed. a crowd of Irish Catholics broke into the hall and mobbed the meeting . till now a puny handful of immigrant-haters. alas! only for a fleeting moment was popery outdone . B. At least two controversies between clerics of the Catholic and Protestant faiths enlivened the thir- . beat this combination . But. but the Democrats. The Native Americans allied themselves with the Whigs in New York City's election soon after the March riot. the low fellow. and forgot all his nativist supporters when it came to dealing out the good city jobs. Again the fusion lost to the Democrats. or in any other. benches splintered. however. The Whig-Native American fusion at the next election recognized Samuel F . more than one beaver hat perished . Clark. The Native American party cut no more figure in New York politics. Two years later. the city was snatched from the papacy by the election of the fusion candidate Aaron Clark . Morse's services to the No-Popery cause by nominating him for mayor . 66 THE WARS OF THE GODLY As if to clinch the affirmative victory by concrete demonstration. but the Native American party. or Loco-focos. for four years following Clark's apostasy .

was prompt to snatch up Breckinridge's gage of battle." i. on the question " Is the Protestant religion the religion of Christ? " Hughes. John Breckinridge.e. while such books as The Illustrations of Popery (anonymous) . both of Philadelphia. " on the broad field of this important and vital discussion. by John Henry Hobart. by Episcopal Bishop Hopkins of Vermont. The Church o f Rome in her Primitive Purity Compared With the Church of Rome at the Present Day. The Principles of The Churchman Stated and Explained. Breckinridge. Breckinridge was to publish his articles in the Philadelphia Presbyterian. in an article in the Christian Advocate. to produce some champion who would meet him. Episcopal bishop of New York . PAPER BOMBSHELLS 67 ties. throughout the first nine months of the year 1833 Breckinridge began the fight by challenging the Catholic priesthood. while Hughes undertook to . in Distinction from the Corruptions o f the Church o f Rome. and From the Errors of Certain Protestant Sects. kept the shells popping around the feet of the embattled Romanists. The first and most intriguing of these controversies was that waged by Father John Hughes and the Presbyterian Dr. The preliminaries were swiftly arranged . then a young and aggressive priest in search of ways to advancement in the hierarchy..

his first of the series. because its rule of faith is the Bible alone. among others : " I have read your letter carefully . Hughes wrote the first letter in the series. 68 THE WARS OF THE GODLY start a paper of his own. in which to publish his contentions. basing it on the proposition that Protestantism cannot be the religion of Christ. the Catholic Herald." In Breckinridge's rejoinder. which are ingenious enough. " In this whole controversy." . as well as to reprint Breckinridge's . They agreed that the dispute was to be " conducted in the language of decorum. that reaches the difficulty. or approaches the character of manly argument ." Hughes further stipulated. and in a spirit of Christian politeness . " every inch of ground which is not disputed by you shall be looked upon as so much given up to the cause of Catholicity and truth ." " absurd. and although you attempt to neutralize my reasoning by recriminations and glosses. he used no more un-Christian or indecorous words than " pretension. still I am utterly unable to discover anything." Hughes came back in his second letter with the following rabbit punch." and " most presumptuous . which Christ could not have established as the guide for His church since it was not completed until at least fifty years after His death .

They were reveling by now in such mudslinging as the following from Hughes " I began this controversy to reason. that I have not attempted to depreciate your talents or qualifications . and myself . unearthed the book in which the discussions were printed in full . with you . however. and powerful Mr . a new era has come in our country . `who the serpent is ( to use your own illustration) that stings the bosom that warms it . He has. In fact. but not to quarrel. The task requires only a bold and irresponsible pen .' or as ` a garrulous daw. talents and qualifications are quite unnecessary for the man who undertakes to combat the Catholic religion . these reverend gentlemen finished the preliminary argument as to what constituted Protestantism's rule of faith . the way the world goes. The American people will promptly see. And whether you are pleased to represent me as' the fashionable. It is a book of some five hundred pages. At page 252. each of which carries over five hundred words. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 69 The present writer has not been able to exhume the files of the Catholic Herald or the Presbyterian for those long-dead days .' They will hence- . Hughes. learned. But I would simply remark." -and as this from Breckinridge " In a word.' is a matter of trivial importance to the question. to the public.

. or religious toleration . Breckinridge closed his side of the debate thus crushingly : " . or my hopes of heaven . I have not for a moment had the fear of the Rev. 70 THE WARS OF THE GODLY forth know where to send their children for education. and convents." The threat concerned a quotation from an ancient writer which Hughes claimed Breckinridge had garbled . and you must change your system. nor of his ' Lord God the Pope. and it is my grand object in this controversy to keep that day far off. that are to train the children to call their parents heretics. that the time is not yet come. and chapels. I thank my God. permit a free-government.' before my eyes ! No. to build the schools. and when to contribute in generous and abused confidence. Your arrogant and impotent threats only show what you would do if you could . and never can. to the present time. The people are awake or awaking. Even the Bulls of your master become very harmless animals. never will. truth compels me to confess. . when sent to pasture on our happy soil . John Hughes. that from the beginning of this controversy. Sir. when the `THREAT 'of a Roman priest can make me tremble for my reputation. or lose your prize. . my liberty." For another two hundred fifty pages they battled over the question at issue . and are arising to re-establish a religion which never did.

AN ANTI-CATHOLIC CARTOON OF KNOW-NOTHING TIMES " THE KING OF ENGLAND KISSING THE POPE ' S TOE " .

.

) Courier between the Rev . and the Catholic bishop John England of the diocese of Charleston -" Dagger John. Hughes recalled that the question for debate had originally been. Breckinridge now challenged Hughes to a public debate . R. At this juncture Breckinridge was called away from Philadelphia. on the ground that Breckinridge would infallibly quote authorities that were purely imaginary. " Is the Protestant religion the religion of Christ?" and taxed Breckinridge with having failed thus far to tell what the Protestant religion was . C . which Hughes published in his paper . Here. The Presbyterian reprinted a postscript to the controversy. The other famous battle of clerical wits in that decade was the controversy waged in the Charleston (S . Baptist. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 71 But the battle was not over. Perhaps the Presbyterian divine's good right arm was threatened with writer's cramp . and thus unfairly confound Hughes's sweet Christian simplicity . for otherwise the controversy might have been continued interminably.000 words had been discharged by the two knights of the Lord." as the Protestant papers were fond of calling him from his custom of signing himself " 'John. or passages purely imaginary from genuine authorities." . as Breckinridge had fondly supposed it to be . after a total of more than 2 50. Dr . Fuller of Beaufort.luckily. Bishop of Charleston . Hughes declined to take the stump. .

of the Taxe de la chancellerie Romaine. with exhaustive citations and a brilliantly legalistic impeachment of the books Fuller adduced as witnesses to its . in a petition to the South Carolina legislature. published at Lyons in 1564 . a promise to pay the bill. between the state liquor licensing system then in force and the alleged practice of the medieval Roman Chancery of selling the privilege to sin before the sin was committed . they will charge for it as an advertisement if continued . as authority for the temperance scribe's slur. The Charleston Courier was the only party to the fight which lost : the space was not paid for until. ou Boutique du Pape. Bishop England took up the cudgels for his church. The argument began with Fuller's citation. about midway in the argument. the paper published this melancholy note : " The editors of the Courier give notice that as the correspondence is voluminous. and a merry jest -this latter Fuller termed an appeal to the readers' baser passions . while Dr . England denounced the book as a forgery. and may be very long. Fuller rushed to the defense of Protestantism . 72 THE WARS OF THE GODLY A temperance society's scrivener made a slurring comparison." England replied to this announcement with another five-page letter.

but escaped that destiny by a last-minute bolt to the United States . James Gordon Bennett founded the New York Herald in 1833 . Shortly the pair took to splitting hairs of doctrine. the Council of Constance. in a letter to Elbridge Gerry. and the Spanish Inquisition . They covered pretty thoroughly the favorite subjects of John Hus. PAPER BOMBSHELLS 73 genuineness . lifted mainly from the proceedings of the third Lateran council . Bennett was educated for the Catholic clergy in Ireland. England became mired in a fiftypage defense of his Irish brethren and the original question was sunk without a trace . The Catholic-Protestant war that was raging when he established the Herald was thus good grist for Bennett's mill. The debate was printed in book form at Baltimore in 1839. When they reached the then state of Ireland under the Roman Catholic clergy. under the title Letters Concerning the Roman Chancery . tolerant fashion. since he knew a thing or two about theology and realized to the full the truth of Jefferson's remark. Wyclif. as befitted a comfortable old gentleman assailed on a topic near his heart but aware that the gates of hell could not prevail against his church . the Council of Trent. however. and hurling at each other long volleys of Latin. All this the good bishop did at first in a vigorous. .

Bennett's sheet gathered in the pennies of the unregenerate mob. live by the zeal they can kindle. to his own profit . Between the two camps. He was denounced one week by the Protestant Vindicator as a worm. The Catholic Truth Teller was his friend when the Vindicator was hating him. . and the schisms they can create. . like the clergy. which then as now keenly enjoyed the fulminations of the clerics . a vulture and a Jesuit. 74 THE WARS OF THE GODLY that " the printers . hugged as a redeemed heretic the next ." Bennett played both ends of the religious fight against the middle. .

' " Of course! But why grow excited about it? Have the saloon people just found out that the 75 . A CATHOLIC POLITICAL PARTY E VERY one knows that the Protestant churches. `Whenever church organizations meddle with politics and assume to dictate to lawmaking bodies. preening itself as " the church in action against the saloon.CHAPTER VIII . with the Methodist Board of Temperance. they should be treated as political organizations . " A Chicago official of the United Society of Brewers and Liquor Sellers said the other day." is the most prominent case in point of our times. or at least many of the Evangelical clergy. in what the Anti-Saloon League of New Jersey hailed as a " masterly editorial" : " The liquor men have made a discovery equaled only by that brilliantly sensational report that Holland has been captured by the Dutch . dabble in politics on occasion . The Anti-Saloon league. Said the Epworth Herald in mid-1927. Prohibition and Public Morals and the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America furnishing other striking examples .

but insists on being so regarded . If the saloon had kept out of politics the church would not have gone in . But the church must follow the saloon wherever it goes. " So the church is not merely willing to be treated as a political organization in the fight against the saloon. There is usually a righteous-sounding alibi ." The Protestant clergy in the North numbered many a red-hot Abolitionist in pre-Civil War days . Koeling will have no trouble in putting this label on the church . even in the early years of the Union one sect was aggressive enough to call forth from Thomas Jefferson a statement to the effect that the Presbyterian church was the most arrogant and ambitious of all religious bodies . The church put on that badge herself and will not take it off until the saloon as a political power is deader than slavery. 76 THE WARS OF THE GODLY church is in politics? It is. it is equally a fact that Protestant laymen rarely admit to being in politics as church people . just the same as it ought to be whenever an enemy of right living and public morals gets into politics . But he need not exert himself . All this being true and known to the whole public. " Mr. To one . " A ferret worth its salt follows wherever the rats go . because it is a part of the church's business to exterminate the saloon .

it constitutes a deplorable lack of frankness : why not admit that the organization is after secular power. to include a short paragraph to the effect that foreigners' children sometimes went uneducated because of certain restrictions in the school laws and the customary anemia of _school appropriations. and known without qualification as the Catholic ticket . The governor was William H. whichever you choose to call it. The event occurred a long time ago . of having put into an American election campaign a ticket made up of Catholics. He had the unparalleled effrontery. a governor of New York first summoned the courage to say a good word in public for the lowly foreigner . if nothing more . if such can be said to exist in a case of the sort. later Secretary of State in the war cabinet of Abraham Lincoln . that is something in their favor . and that there was some cause for fair-minded citizens to complain at such a state of affairs . . to be exact. for those days . and the performance has never been repeated . pledged to obtain certain measures desired by Catholics and opposed by Protestants. it signifies a regard for the decencies.in 184 1. Seward was a liberal of the first water. To another. in his message of 1840. There were extenuating circumstances. and so clear the atmosphere? To the Roman Catholic church goes the credit or the dishonor. In the year i84o. A CATHOLIC POLITICAL PARTY 77 type of mind. Seward.

Little acumen is required to answer the question whether the Catholics had any access whatever to these funds. in April of 1841 . Samuel F. B. and twice it was turned down . and the New York City delegation would have a . the Public School Society fought the Catholic demand with great bitterness . A mayoral election occurred in the meantime. not requested. had full control of the school funds in New York City. Morse lost. Morse was nominated once more for mayor by a crowd of antiCatholics calling itself the Democratic American Association . New York City had to elect two state senators and thirteen assemblymen to Albany . the Public School Society. Twice the demand went before the council. The Catholics prepared to take their fight to Albany. Of course. In November. The school fight would move to Albany with the convening of the next legislature. a legally organized semi-public body made up entirely of Protestants. 1841. that a share of the school funds be allocated yearly to the parochial schools . When Seward made his radical utterance. the Catholics leaped as if a firecracker had gone off behind them . 78 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Now. He was one of the ablest losers that politics has known . They demanded. The summer passed with no developments in the school fight . as he did whenever he ran for office . but let it be stated for the sake of the record that they had not .

What to do? Bishop John Hughes. Here were the Catholics. later to be Archbishop and head of the Catholic church in the United States. In the Whig party. it declared itself in favor of several men known to be friendly to the Public School Society . It behooved all factions to look alive . anti-Catholic feeling was so strong that a pro-Catholic who was at first placed in nomination was later squeezed off the ticket . He was a fighting Irishman. one of the ablest and most aggressive churchmen who ever made an American diocese sweat money and bloom stone . and now the Democrats had double-crossed the Irish in favor of the nativists and the Protestants. or ever since the Irish had become a political factor in New York City. Nothing could be done about the Whigs. When the Democratic party's nominating committee met to pick candidates. A CATHOLIC POLITICAL PARTY 79 powerful finger in that stew of hatred and cupidity . bade fair to be pulled shut again by the tugs of whichever party might elect its candidates to the legislature . which Seward's message had drawn partially open before their tantalized eyes. The school money-bags. The bishop did not cogitate for long . cogitated . then. caught between two hostile parties. who were anti-Irish from the ground up . John Hughes. But the Democrats (Tammany Hall) had been cordial to the Irish for the last thirty years.

and the political parties a run for their money. Hughes did not expect his ticket to win . But it was obvious that he wanted to show the Democrats that the Irish-Catholic faction held the balance of power in New York City politics. however. as Roman Catholics and as nothing else. Hughes saw that the passive role would not do for his Irishmen . He called a mass meeting at Carroll hall . They must have action. 8o THE WARS OF THE GODLY churches . Very well . for the support of the voters . therefore. and if they are disposed to make infidels or Protestants of your children. " I wish you. The meeting nominated candidates for the legislature as solemnly as ever did a political convention." he told them in one speech. which the Democrats would not forget . should the Irish pull their paper props from under the Demo- . " to look well to your candidates . He would merely advise his flock how to vote . and that. let them receive no vote of yours . and let the city know that these men were asking. For a week Hughes acted on the theory that he could play this political game without seeming to be in politics. He never told precisely what he did expect . or they might flop to any extreme and leave their bishop high. he would give them action. The Democrats must be taught a lesson by the Irish. dry and absurd . named its campaign committee Carroll Hall." At length.

accused him of trying to drill the first hole in the constitutional religious-liberty clause. as remarked above. those nominees would lose. Hughes taught Tammany what it could and could not do without the IrishCatholic vote .690 Catholics 2. An anti-Catholic ticket flew cackling into the fight a day or two after Hughes's mass meeting . Had the Democrats been polite to the Irish.980 Democrats 15. A CATHOLIC POLITICAL PARTY 81 cratic nominees at the polls. they would . showed the following results : Whigs 15. the Democrats could not win . Hughes showed them . when counted. The newspapers in howling chorus damned this cleric for ignoring every American tradition of Church-State separation. But. cursed him for an intriguing Romanist and a flannel-mouthed chaw . Without his parishioners. and the vote. He maintained to the last gasp of blather in that pyrotechnic campaign that he had not meddled in politics and that his skirts were clear of the least smudge of bigotry .200 Anti-Catholics 470 Anti-Slavery party 120 Hughes had demonstrated precisely who held the balance of power when it came to deciding an election in the city of New York .

The nativists controlled their rage until the night of the next election day. and has not noticeably forgotten it from that day to this .200 votes more saddening to the Democrats than it was . Supposing that the 470 who voted the antiCatholic ticket were all Democrats normally. and so had neatly cut away the debatable sliver of a plurality which the Democrats might have had .9oo votes . at which time a nativist gang rounded up all the Irish to be found on the streets and chased them about town until it tired of the sport. Doubtless the Catholic church also learned a lesson from its single undisguised dive into American politics. in April. had the Irish taken it into their heads to side with the Whigs. concluding the celebration by tossing a gross or more of cobblestones through the windows of Bishop Hughes's residence . taken the plunge co nomine into any American political campaign . 1842. to the date of this writing. The Catholics got their school-funds law from the legislature . 82 THE WARS OF THE GODLY have beaten the Whigs by 1. for it has not again. the Whig victory would have been 2. . Tammany had learned its lesson. Hughes had scored in respect to them by luring them outside party fences with the bait of poperyin-politics.

with a roar that echoed fully as far as the shots fired by Lexington's embattled farmers. the average number of parish leaflets and memoirs of escaped nuns rolled off the presses-and an ever-increasing number of Irish and German immigrants reached the ports of New York. 1841 . The usual amount of blather was bandied between the two great Christian divisions. whether bloodless elections or battles spurting the gore of the combatants .CHAPTER IX BLOOD AND FIRE IN PHILADELPHIA BISHOP HUGHES threw his Catholic city ticket into the New York election of November. Then. Boston and Philadelphia . the Catholic-Protestant battle front in the United States was comparatively quiet . there cut loose in Philadelphia the first of the series of " religious " riots which persisted off and on until the Civil War began . Part of the Philadelphia school children's daily dose of instruction was a reading from the King James version of the Holy Bible . For two years and a half after that overflow of clerical gall. The fight was over a school question. Catholic Bishop 83 . as so many of them have been. in the spring of 1844.

carrying among others the statement that Catholics " desire that the public schools be preserved from all sectarian influence .N. Meetings of the Native Americans were held in hall and sand lot ." A man who uses this phrase can be called an earnest and broad-minded Christian. This was. a flock of gutter orators swooped down on the city to gobble the rich pickings which their ilk can always find where religious mania slavers . He issued a card. or he can be called an atheist . on March 12. meat and drink to the fanatics among the Protestants. 84 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Francis Patrick Kenrick took it into his head to petition the Board of Controllers of the Public Schools to grant Catholic children the right to have the Catholic Bible read to them in lieu of the King James . plans were concocted for foiling this newest onslaught of the Pope . The shriek was rushed into print in a boiling pamphlet by the Rev . The Native Americans did not .. U.S . Walter Colton.e. of course. but he was not such a Machiavelli as was his brother Hughes of New York City. under the title A Reply to the Allegations and Complaints Contained in Bishop Kenrick's Letter to the Board of Controllers o f the Public Schools .. 1844. Poor Kenrick did his best to explain his position. i. Ingtantly the charge was hurled that Bishop Kenrick and his papist horde wished to have the Bible excluded from the schools . the Native Americans.

not a sudden. hasty movement on the part of those who were its prime. the Native Americans held a great mass meeting . On the 6th of that month. However. Election day was coming in May . and the supremacy of our equitable and impartial laws. through falsified representations in regard to the Divine volume . but against religion itself. in The Truth Unveiled." The speeches at the meeting of May 6 were mouthed chiefly against the Irish . than that of designing injury and wrong to a particular body of Christians.perhaps no conspiracy against not only social order. was ever entered upon with a greater disregard to truth and justice. and even a Protestant minister (the Rev. whereat the crowd withdrew to the market-house . blood did not flow for almost two months after the excitement began in March . Rain came on. Mr .BLOOD AND FIRE IN PHILADELPHIA 85 fail to loose several swift jabs at the jaw which Kenrick had thus exposed to them . though secret movers . During this retreat the noses of several Irishers who had hung on the fringes of the crowd were poked by several Native Americans. Catholic historians scent a conspiracy behind this gathering. published in Baltimore in 1844) indited this bouquet of hanging clauses denunciatory of the event: "Perhaps no conspiracy -for it was a conspiracy. and a gun or . Goodman of Baltimore.

The proceedings inside the market-house kept up till about ten in the evening. Bishop Kenrick issued another placard the next morning. by which time the speakers were probably blaming the rain itself on the Irish . Down to Second and Franklin streets it galloped a-whoop . leaving their houses to be wrecked and fired by the mob . instructing his aides to post it about the city . conjured Catholics to avoid all excitement and all public meetings -in short. " To the nunnery! " yelled some mobster. and down to Phoenix and Second streets yammered the nation's protectors . and a volley scattered the mob for that night. A few tried to defend their dwellings. could not have been better calculated to roil nativist emotions if His Innocence had wanted it to do so . the Micks hastily departed. No one was seriously hurt. which attempt produced the riots' first killings. Here the minions of perfidious Rome had collected a few rifles. . in wretched shanties lining the streets like the rookeries of medieval Paris . The document sobbed the bishop's grief over the " death of several of our fellow beings." sweetly urged all participants in the previous night's exercises to humble themselves before God. Suddenly the Native American mob flowed outdoors. 86 THE WARS OF THE GODLY two was fired into the air . The Micks lived there. Seeing themselves outnumbered.

took in the situation at a glance. Several companies of militia appeared and halted the mob's fun for the day.which the department declined to do . St. They moved thence to Kensington. Here. The militia then stood by while three members of the mob set fire to the church and the priest's residence . 1844 the nativists turned up in force at St . Mayor Scott himself was knocked senseless. and the First City Troop rode by at a gallop with a loud cheer for the attackers . . taking up the rear himself with a posse of citizens . a Captain Fairlamb. and came on with bricks and clubs . thus enabling the fire department to put out the flames . and stationed the city watch in front of it.May 8. On the third day of the riots . at the head of a detachment of militia. Everybody roared in glee when the steeple of St . Augustine's church next went up in smoke .BLOOD AND FIRE IN PHILADELPHIA 87 The nativists met in the Statehouse yard that afternoon and partook of a sacrament of hate administered by several speakers . where they destroyed the Hibernia fire station as a precaution preliminary to firing twenty-nine more Irish houses and the public market of the district . the watchmen and the citizen guards were shooed away like so many chickens. The nativists arrived. Mayor Scott of Philadelphia got wind of the planned attack on this edifice. Michael's church . demanded the keys of the church from Father William Loughran .

somewhere . Some firemen were present. and burned it down . convened specially to inquire into the riots. war flared again for a day. from which it had been driven away two nights before. Two months later. public masses went unsaid for several weeks . To finish off that pleasurable afternoon of May 8. and these busied themselves with quenching any sparks that chanced to fall on churches of other sects nearby. 88 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Augustine's caved in. They stationed troops to guard other Catholic churches in Philadelphia. the mob returned to the nunnery at Second and Phoenix streets. Nativists on July 5. Augustine's affair : five thousand volumes in the Augustinian Fathers' library attached to the church had gone to the heaven of martyred books when the fire at last burned itself out.doubtless full of whisky and oratory from the national holiday just . taking the cross with it . while the priests and parishioners smuggled the vestments and sacred vessels to private residences . A grand jury. The city authorities now awoke to the fact that there was some disorder in town. returned a bill whitewashing all parties concerned without mentioning a name . The Catholic church's ancient practice of burning forbidden books in the public market-place was neatly reversed by the Protestant rioters at the St . Bishop Kenrick suspended worship in all Catholic churches in the city on May zo. 1844 . 1844 .

Philip Neri's church . But the fury had spent itself for the time . i52 z to z866 . the words. but on the blackened walls of St .wheeled a brace of cannon to St . the militia boldly defended the church. A Catholic historian. Augustine's Church stood out clear and distinct. writing forty-eight years after the Philadelphia riots.' " (John Gilmary Shea : History o f the Catholic Church in the United States. Several Irish Catholics were indicted for murder and riot.) . `The Lord seeth . This time. makes this sweetly Christian and beautifully tolerant comment on the episode : " It was the last great effort of Protestantism in America to crush the Church of God by open violence .BLOOD AND FIRE IN PHILADELPHIA 89 preceding . for reasons unknown. and several people were killed . and placed on trial.

" The New York City excitement began with the April mayoral election. When the hysteria of 1844 broke on New York City. as witness his Carroll Hall political sortie of 1841 .CHAPTER X A FIGHTING BISHOP -AND NO FIGHT I T has been seen how Kenrick. We might forbear from harming the intruder into our house until the last. he remarked : "They should have defended their churches. a month before the Phila90 . Hear now what John. did when the wave of nativist hate rolled into his jurisdiction from Kenrick's and threatened to engulf a hatful of churches and a covey of Irishmen . of the Roman Catholic diocese of New York. since the authorities could not or would not do it for them . failed to make Christian forbearance produce results as a riot cure in Philadelphia. Hughes did not propose to take nativist thrusts lying down . This Hughes was a fighter. a well-meaning but weak bishop. Of the Philadelphia Catholics. Bishop Hughes. but his first violence to our church should be promptly and decisively repelled .

twelve hundred Native Americans carried clubs. This gentleman was James Harper. and so looked on at the parade in total silence. The Irish had been advised by Bishop Hughes to avoid all election fighting. after mopping up the Irish. brickbats. to proceed to St . had elected their candidate for mayor . Patrick's cathedral (old. armed with sword and derringer. on Mulberry Street) and burn it down . The Native Americans. no attempt was made by the Native Americans to burn the edifice. and instructed them to go the limit should the Native Americans lift a finger against the cathedral . the Freeman's Journal. Here. and a choice assortment of No-Popery banners and transparencies through the Irish wards . and said so with howls and catcalls .A FIGHTING BISHOP . As Hughes's official newspaper organ." All was comparatively quiet in New York City.the sixth and fourteenth . On the night before the election of April. the fighting bishop assembled between three and four thousand Catholic men. But a rumor was flying about town that the mob meant. a womanly old fluff by all accounts.AND NO FIGHT 91 delphia riots . who cracked musty jokes in council meetings and ranted about patriotism while his fellow patriots dipped into the treasury illegally in the most approved preCivil-War-Tammany-Hall fashion . taking over the local Whig organization. " for a reason they had. They wanted a fight. reported. 1844. .

The answer was No. A priest. You credited whichever version favored the side to which you belonged. In answer to this pacific advice. he inspired an editorial in the Freeman's Journal. as you invariably do in any incident involving partisanship to a cause . until news came of the May battles and church burnings in Philadelphia . escaped from the Philadelphia war zone. as it has already appeared in Philadelphia. He consulted a lawyer as to whether New York laws provided for compensation for damage by rioters. was begging him to placard the city with orders that Catholics were to keep the peace no matter what might happen . it should be a part of Native Americanism to attack their [Catholics'] houses or churches. then it behooves them. " Then. they did not . It was reported variously that the Catholics had begun the fight in that city. to defend both with their lives . 92 THE WARS OF THE GODLY then. which ran in part as follows : " If. and that the Protestants had begun it . they will not . Bishop Hughes perceived that no half-hearted measures would suffice this time ." In line with this pronouncement. " the law clearly intends that citizens shall defend their own property from rioters . In this. in case all other protection fail." stated Hughes. Hughes did two things .

where it was planned to hold a wailing orgy over the desecrated banner and so refresh nativist hatreds for the Pope and his representatives in the United States . Robert H. in the fighting. But in no case let them suffer an act of outrage on their property. . the city will become a second Moscow"-the reference to Napoleon's mishaps in that flaming city being as trenchant an allusion in 1844 as is mention of Louvain today. I have not the power. had been " trampled on by savage foreigners .A FIGHTING BISHOP -AND NO FIGHT 93 be acting against the law. . " If a single Catholic church is burned in New York." The Native Americans called a monster mass meeting for the following day in City Hall park." Hughes's second step toward letting all and sundry know he was not bluffing was to say. sent a frantic plea to Bishop Hughes to put the snaffle bit of a public verboten on his rearing Irish." replied Hughes . in the hearing of the reporters." . outgoing mayor. . but for the law . Morris. Now came word from Philadelphia that a Native American delegation had left for New York bearing an American flag which. who would surely raid the nativist gathering at City Hall if allowed to follow their own inclinations . " You must take care that they are not provoked . without repelling the aggression at all hazards .

the bishop stationed in every Catholic church in the city a garrison of not less than a thousand men. We can protect our own . heavily armed and grimly " resolved. and see if there were not attached to the police force a battery of artillery. . sir. thus reports the conversation which passed between the two in the mayor's office : MoRRrs : " Are you afraid some of your churches will be burned? " HUGHES: " No. but " . and a company or so of infantry. we know the nature of a mob. . and grave robbers . G . but if I were the mayor. if necessary." Then Hughes called on Mayor Morris in person . and a squadron of horse . J . 94 THE WARS OF THE GODLY He caused the Freeman's Journal to get out an extra. I did not come to tell you what to do . I would examine the laws of the State. . . and I . in which the Irish were warned to avoid public meetings. their own lives for the same cause . official biographer of Hughes. convent sackers. especially a mob of church burners. . . ." By way of establishing that firm front. . but I am afraid some of yours will be burned . . after taking as many lives as they could in defense of their property. to give up. that with it a firm front is the best peacemaker. R. . Hassard.

Hassard-reprinted by permission of the publishers. G .From "Life of the Most Reverend John Hughes. Appleton and Company." by J . D . New York ARCHBISHOP JOHN HUGHES OF NEW YORK (1797-1864) . R .

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and Catholic householders put away the loco-foco matches wherewith they had planned to fire their own homes if necessary and so bring down whole sections of the city in flames about the Native American ears . No mass meeting was held . . and if so. Morris placarded the city with posters forbidding the City Hall assemblage .A FIGHTING BISHOP -AND NO FIGHT 95 think I should find that there were . . . . The garrisons left the Catholic churches. imploring protection from the fiends of the Pope ." The Native Americans next became frightened over the prospect of a bloody argument with the arming Catholics. I should call them out. and rushed to Mayor Morris in their turn.

in the fullness of time.CHAPTER XI THE FIRST SONG OF THE NATIVE-BORN T HE Declaration of Independence. 1845. and the near-riots in New York on which Bishop Hughes planted a hobnailed episcopal boot. Exactly sixtynine years later. 1776 . before or since . was signed July 4. the least flatulent statement of the case for nativism and anti-Catholicism that those Siamese twins in the American side-show of prejudices ever were made beneficiaries of. for a decade or so following the first official formation of a Native American politico-religious bloc in New York City in 1835 . Native Americanism. stirred up intense excitement among those Americans who had been born in the United States . The Philadelphia riots of 1844. the issuance of the pronunciamento aforesaid. to a day. as many people know. was promulgated the most succinct. Hence the assembling at Philadelphia in the early days of July. as an organized political force. of the first national Native American conclave. and hence. 96 . blustered along inside states where foreigners and Catholics were plentiful.

Assembled at Philadelphia July 4. and how " the madness of partisan legislation in removing all effective guards against the open prostitution of the right of citizenship. " a large portion of the native citizens of these United States have felt it to be their most solemn and imperative duty to associate and pledge themselves one to another. as the United States was in grave danger." .THE FIRST SONG OF THE NATIVE-BORN 97 The complete title of the document was " Address of the Delegates of the Native American National Convention." had sensed the danger to the Republic of foreign influences . had converted the slender current of naturalization into a torrent threatening to overwhelm the influence of the natives of the land . " in the very dawn of American Liberty. for the purpose of awakening their countrymen to a sense of the evils already experienced from foreign intrusion and usurpation. and the imminent danger to which all they love and venerate as Native Americans is momentarily exposed from foreign influence . how his nightmares were now coming true because transatlantic travel had grown frightfully cheap and America a much pleasanter place to which to emigrate than it once was." Its sonorous preamble declared that. 1845." Next came a long Declaration which related how even George Washington. to the Citizens of the United States .

lives . and this by our own invitation . . . by the governments of all other civilized nations . worst and most degraded of the European population . insanely legalized through the conflicts o f domestic parties? "' Not only had we let the Hunyak and the papist come in and sit by our fire . 98 THE WARS OF THE GODLY " ` How. has been endowed by American hospitality with gratuitous privileges unnecessary to the enjoyment of those inalienable rights of men-life." And they were grabbing the government jobs : " . we had invited each to cut himself a piece of cake : " The whole body of foreign citizens. [next bawled the Declaration in italics and an extra brace of quotes] shall the institutions o f the country be preserved from the blight o f foreign influence. and the pursuit o f happiness -privileges wisely reserved to the Natives of the soil. the road to civil preferment and participation in the legislative and executive government of the land. . . . . . invited to our shores under a constitutional provision adapted to other times and other political conditions of the world. has been laid broadly open. the vicious and the criminal . . " The discussion of the foreigner ended with this horror of horrors : " The almshouses of Europe are emptied upon our coast. alike to the ignorant. for the last twenty years. liberty.

THE FIRST SONG OF THE NATIVE-BORN 99 of our citizens have been attempted in the streets of our capital cities by madmen. except for the purpose of personal advancement ." Cannily. (5) Had " encouraged political combinations for the purpose of effecting sectarian measures " . just liberated from European hospitals. in the Declaration paragraphs which followed the polishing off of the foreigner. as " a body. however. the Native American convention did not name the Catholic church by name in its Address ." A dozen or more bloody doings were laid at the door of this body. armed with political power. causing riot and murder . with words of command given in a foreign tongue . (4) Had gone into elections as a separate political organization avowedly made up of foreigners . The church was tagged unmistakably. and of whose institutions it feels little interest. (3) It armed and equipped militia companies wearing costumes and insignia of foreign description. chief among which were (I) That it had formed and encouraged associations under foreign names . (2) That it introduced foreign emblems in civic processions. in a country of whose system it is ignorant. (6) Fostered the organization and arming of . upon the express condition that they should be transported to America .

resulting. in which it is at least established that the Irish for once tried to avoid a fight.these ruffians and their abettors have since fomented extensive riot and open . (7) " Emboldened by the often-tested weakness of the constituted authorities. Not daunted by facts. assaulted and temporarily dispersed lawful political meetings of native citizens in various places " ." That last was the climax of all the charges the Native Americans had to hurl at the Catholics . a host of these foreign assassins at length proceeded to redden the gutters of the second city of the Union with the blood of unarmed native citizens. from the ascendancy of the foreign influence at the polls. and the reference was to the riots of the preceding year. I00 THE WARS OF THE GODLY " foreign banditti. the Declaration thundered on about the Philadelphia riots : " Prostrated in this attempt by the ungovernable fury of an outraged community. and with the avowed determination to prevent any political assemblage of the natives of the soil within the limits of one of the political divisions of a sovereign American state . to avenge such insult to the flag of their country. as we solemnly believe. trampled and torn beneath the feet of the very refuse of Europe . moving in mass. The city whose gutters had been so foully reddened was none other than Philadelphia. without even the semblance of provocation." which " repeatedly threatened.

to limit the franchise to the native-born without qualification or exception. at present. the odium of crimes originating with themselves. but because of the previous policies of the United States Government " .THE FIRST SONG OF THE NATIVE-BORN IOI insurrection . to extend as a boon. These rehashed the denunciations of foreigner and Catholic. have striven unceasingly. to all peaceful and well disposed strangers hereafter settling among us. 'Twere better. . uniting with their prejudiced fellow-countrymen. we are willing." The third grand division of the Address. and. UPON THE SAME TERMS AS THOSE IMPOSED UPON THE NATIVES. together with domestic demagogues of various political creeds. property and the legal pursuit of happiness. namely. ." . a legally authenticated residence of at least twenty-one years within the limits of the country . following the preamble and the Declaration. was a set of Principles heralded as those by which true Native Americans lived and had their being . averred the Principles. but added this ripe thought : that no foreigner can forget his fatherland completely. but also the right of suffrage. to fasten upon the victims of their treasonable and murderous proceedings. not only every security enjoyed by the native in the protection of person. and hence no foreigner can possibly become a voter to be trusted .

and rise to the true dignity of God-created freedom. in . 102 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Lest it should have escaped any reader that the Roman Catholic church had been alluded to in the Declaration. the State is incorporated with the Church under the monstrous paradox. on which depends so essentially the pursuit of happiness and freedom of conscience . that sect was further identified and denounced in the Principles in this language. and interdict education and knowledge among the masses. a full recognition of the Bible as divine authority for the rights of man. in all arbitrary governments. they locked up the Bible. A divine right to enslave was admitted when the human right was denied . and crumbled to atoms the Church and State despotisms of those potentates who associate religion with their political systems-who degrade the people in order to rule them. that man. loaded with anti-papal dynamite to a Bible-conning generation : " We recommend to the Native Americans of the several States. and invested themselves with the attributes of Divinity. instruct them how to break asunder their bonds. Hence. To the Bible we are indebted for the wand that broke the sceptre of tryants. " When the ambition of kings projected the slavery of the people. lest intelligence should inform them of their rights. as well as for the separation of Church and State. in their systems of education.

" The Resolutions. was listed as president of the party . and the equal rights of man. Jesse Ford. H. Fountain." In five words. as necessary to freedom of conscience. Most of them. Burtis. Some of the delegates' names furnish a variety of footnotes on the one hundred per cent Americanism of the party. repeated and summarized the first three. Missouri . there was to be discerned . and will continue to defend it. were such home-grown names as Thomas R . Charles Sexton. J. Levin . . is incompetent to self-government . D. or George F. indeed. brigaded demurely with names of stainless Anglo-Saxon derivation. Dearborne. of Massachusetts. S . Pennsylvania . A. C.THE FIRST SONG OF THE NATIVE-BORN 103 the possession of his natural rights. New York . Grover. while farther along in the list. Haldeman. and the Native Americans defend it. against all foreign aggression. But the gruesome fact remains that the first delegate's signature appended to the document was that of L . The reading of the Bible among the people exploded this doctrine. Whitney. Thomas D . New Jersey . Kentucky . Penrose . . Five vice-presidents signed below Dearborne : L. Chapin. and the production closed with the signatures of the one hundred fortytwo delegates to the Philadelphia convention . " To hell with the Pope . fourth and last grand subdivision of the Native American blast. and Joseph K. C. William N.

A. the entire nativist and anti-Catholic philosophy as preached today was crystallized in this Native American platform . Thus. Essentially the same platform was adopted . however. and that of a Thomas Hogan . S. was recommended as the choice of all right thinkers and patriots in the coming Presidential election of 1848. Dearborne as the party's choice for VicePresident . No new thought has ever been evolved on the subject . Zachary Taylor. The same group convened again in 1847 at New York City. eighty-two years ago. It was the Whigs. with H. . 104 THE WARS OF THE GODLY the signature of a James Griffiths . and that of a Thomas McCorkel . whence they adjourned to Philadelphia. The Native Americans made no national campaign . hardly a phrase in the jargon of bombast commonly talked by nativists but is to be found in this paean of hate that was sung in the middle forties . Mexican war hero. who'elected Taylor .

more thoroughgoing measures to protect haters in their pet hatreds . with true Genesis 9 : 11 zeal . spicing these peaceable endeavors with the riots of 11844 previously described . =os . The Irish famine of 11845 shoveled thousands of Irishmen into their graves . But sterner exigencies called for sterner. But it hurled tens of thousands of them into the United States. while the women devoted themselves to the production of little Irishmen.CHAPTER XII TEN YEARS' Mal de Mer NATIVE Americanism drew its life from the wellsprings of Federalist anti-Catholicism and antialienism. The Native Americans contented themselves chiefly with the issuing of books of the Maria Monk type and the promulgation of party manifestos against all foreigners and Catholics wherever found within the United States. or American. party was the legitimate child of Native Americanism . along with their wives and children . the Know-Nothing. So. little Catholics. The men made good Democrats as fast as they became citizens.

the Michael Williams of the forties and fifties." In latter-day support of which acute delineation of character may be cited the actions of Irish policemen when the Ku Klux Klan attempted to . commonly suspect or can easily be made to believe . he observed : " The great majority of them [Roman Catholics in the United States] are quiet. without exaggeration. and who actually do compromise it to an extent much greater than good Catholics. drinking and brawling rabble. Orestes A . and not the large contingent of high-class Irish . attentive to their own business. The shanty Irish are here indicated. in his Boston Quarterly Review. io6 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Irishmen have ever been the heartiest battlers for Mother Church. You may call Irishmen of a certain type in this country. described the former crew accurately when. who have after all a great deal of influence with their countrymen. Brownson.a noisy. a Ku Klux Klan of Romish persuasion . who are usually taken to represent the whole Irish Catholic body. But it cannot be denied that hanging loosely on to their skirts is a miserable rabble unlike anything which the country has ever known of native growth . modest and peaceful and loyal citizens adorning religion by their faith and piety and enriching the country by their successful trade or their productive industry . of course. Dr.

sweating and even a little thinking pre-Civil War decade opened in 1850 . Every one knew that much . Every one whose cerebral cortex was composed of any material more potent than pith had an explanation to offer for the national mal de mer . the northern Whig. Long Island. was notorious at the . Not only were the Irish boiling as never before into this country. Free Men and Fremont!" was the self-explanatory war-cry of the Free Soil party in the presidential campaign of 1856. " Free Soil. The AntiNebraska men split off from their party. Douglas's plan to split the northwest country into two territories the people of which should pass upon the question Slave or Free . in May of 1927 . another of the precursors to the present Republican party. Some of the Democrats thought the same . flooding the cities at a horrid rate of speed. Free Speech. but the country itself was a-boil within as the shouting. Something ailed the United States of America . The Whig party. fighting. The Anti-Nebraska men said the trouble lay in Stephen A . says nothing about prohibition and the crippling of strikes by injunction . TEN YEARS' MAL DE MER 107 join the Memorial Day parade at Jamaica. as the great Republican party. and went into secret session with the anti-Douglas Democrats. to emerge presently bearing the anti-slavery infant which today.

if not third. yearned for some new organization wherewith to give the decadent party the swift kick which they believed it to deserve . particularly in the North. alias Young Sam. and reducing His Excellency the President to the rank of second. alias the Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner. alias plain Sam. By one or another of this set of ringing titles was . alias the American party. 1108 THE WARS OF THE GODLY opening of this thundering decade for its anxiety to keep slavery out of politics as an issue deserving of any consideration . assistant secretary to the Assessor of the Consistorial Congregation? Hence the inception. taking possession of the White House. of the National Council of the United States. has been the milk-and-water slobbering of both Democratic and Republican parties on the subject of prohibition . alias the KnowNothing party. it was but natural that the Native American philosophy should bounce on deck with its same old solution for the mystery of what ailed the nation. then. Thousands of Whigs. hence the rise to a position of ascendancy in the political skies like unto that of a skyrocket. in our day. In this general wild-eyed cerebration of the ten years before Sumter. and hence the equally rocketlike flop. This party's shilly-shallying on the slavery question had long been as pathetic as. What could it be but that His Holiness the Pope had practically completed arrangements for moving on Washington.

But the Catholic hierarchs. And what was the Catholic explanation for the bellyache which griped the United States? Doubtless it was the then regrettably slow. met with more success than did the Protestant autonomists in the endeavor to prevent the jackasses within the fold from organizing political parties or seizing pen and writing down their whole church a body of frantic fools. breakup of Protestantism in this country . which began in 1852 and blew up officially in 1856 . as always. in fact the not perceptible. TEN YEARS' MAL DE MER 109 the child of the Native American spirit known at various times during its career. .

the Sons of America.CHAPTER XIII A Know-NOTHING WIZARD HISTORIANS differ as to who was the true founder of the Know-Nothing party . who I10 . Another mogul. since it is related that the United Americans joined the Sons of the Sires in 1852 and the merger at once jumped into politics . Allen organized. and the Order of United Americans . at New York in the spring of 185o. the net result was that these five orders disappeared in the whalelike belly of Know-Nothingism . christening it the Sons of the Sires . There were four nativist fraternal orders in the northeastern states which seem to have wanted only a strong leader to throw them into politics . and its headquarters were in New York City. These were the United American Mechanics. was James W . The party records were burned after the party collapsed . The last named was the strongest of them all. the American Protestant Association (a lodge of Orangemen). a fifth lodge. One Charles B . of Know-Nothingism. Whatever the details. Barker. According to one historian. Allen was the official founder of the Know-Nothing party. an archbishop if not a cardinal.

and through those of all American anti-Catholic orders before or since . C. But his known career and deeds were colorfully crazy enough to satisfy anybody . Edward Z . He ran away to sea at the age of eleven years . for it was at that age that Judson rescued the crew of a boat which had been rammed by a ferry on the East river between New York City and Brooklyn . and went back to the lingerie when the movement burst. A KNOW-NOTHING WIZARD III began as a dry-goods merchant in New York City. His thirteenth was his lucky year. Allen and Barker. won a reputation as the party's ablest organizer. are credited by some writers with the formation of the party . This heroism moved . C. he was an apprentice seaman on an American man-o'-war . stood for. Judson. These two men. as it has failed to clear up several longish stretches in Judson's span of years .can be secured than from a brief survey of the life and deeds of this mean . 18 Research has failed to disclose what the Z . Judson was born in Philadelphia on August 16. C. By the time he was thirteen. Our chief reason for the choice is that no better understanding of the nature of the sap which coursed through the Know-Nothing party's eventually far-reaching veins . we choose to regard Judson as the true and legitimate sire of Know-Nothingism . Others give the credit to Edward Z . As no first-hand information is available.

in his early years. 112 THE WARS OF THE GODLY President Martin Van Buren to commission the young sailor a midshipman in the United States navy. He was the ideal prototype of the Poor-ButProud lad who finally comes into his own . (b) the Boy Who Showed 'Em All . at last report." sold it to the Knickerbocker magazine. and to have won all seven . Judson was. Judson is claimed to have fought seven duels with various of his shipmates on this account. he became a prototype of three or four beloved American lay figures by a single feat . Judson. a prototype of a good many of the stock characters that adorn the American gallery of heroes . was about to set our world ablaze and which. C. six or seven years ago. The boy is thus seen to have been a rather adequate prototype in his own person of the members of that Younger Generation which. He wrote a story called " The Captain. and with it made so resounding a hit that he became editor forthwith of a weekly fiction paper known as Ned Buntline's Own. indeed. at one fell swoop and a very tender age. At sixteen. found himself (a) a SelfMade Man. He had been a common sailor. and hence their company was a mite too rich for his blood . Thus Edward Z . After his midshipman's commission came down from Washington. the other midshipmen on Judson's vessel refused to mess with him . said they. was still striking the matches .

A KNOW-NOTHING WIZARD 113 Up. They must have been stale. " The Captain. a great name too early won is among earth's most grievous burdens. twenty or more mobsters lost their lives. would not begin grooming himself for the Presidency at the least? Unfortunately. In this. he yet failed somehow to add to his literary stature . rising young journalist though all the evidence showed him to be. and beyond . He put in many a year in New York City. unprofitable years . as some one remarked. We may be sure he realized the magnitude of his own achievements to the fullest extent. years wherein. while Judson was tried and sentenced to do a year in jail and pay a fine of $250 . flat." hit of Judson's nonage. playing a rival Macbeth to that of Edwin Forrest . and recorded history resounds with no echo from any deed of his during the period . The young Judson undoubtedly felt his name to be greater than it actually was . (c) a Virile Editor. was published in 1838 . . What boy of sixteen. with such mighty deeds behind him. We do not hear of him again until 1849. the second Astor Place riot. the year in which Edgar Allan Poe died . and (d) an Author Who Has Lived His Stories. Then he appears as author of an inflammatory article which helped to bring out the mobs of lower New York with ripe eggs and seasoned shillalahs against the tragedian William Macready.

but see the preceding chapter . of the productions must have had as an incident material to the plot's unfolding the confounding by the hero of some rich or socially exalted low-lifer or group of the same. there to perform some deed which won him his elders' instant acclaim . or three hundred twenty. while it goes without saying that in all four hundred of the Judson books the hero was a one hundred per cent American. one feels. In ninety per cent of them. and hence it is fair to pre- . this stock hero must have run away to sea in his blooming youth. Thus Judson. Eighty per cent. a hero must have appeared who was originally Poor but consistently Proud . up to the time of the parturition by some one versed in the midwifery of lodges of the National Council of the United States of America. 114 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Judson used his magazine's ghost-name of Ned Buntline as his own nom de plume. alias the Supreme Order of the . tracing his ancestry to remotest colonial days . preferably by force of his bare hands . He was a quantity dealer in the English language. though one has fortunately read none of them . One likes to imagine the plots of these masterworks. and thereunder committed during the period of his editorship the appalling number of four hundred serial novels . Wouldn't each and every one of Ned Buntline's novels have echoed the early life and deeds of their heroic author? In all of them.

however. This was the type of man who was able to lure one and one-half million adult Americans into a political organization founded on religious hatred . Judson's whole background. perhaps believing that the Pope was again plotting a White House raid. after eight years of national prohibition. Thereupon. the totality of his . Blaine's nomination for the Presidency . Judson transferred his support to Grover Cleveland and died in the bosom of the Democracy . indeed. any doubt remains that anti-alcoholic fanaticism is oftener than not linked with anti-Catholic fanaticism -though the New York Know-Nothings in their heyday were wets -be it here recorded as one more shred of evidence that Judson died a temperance lecturer in 1886. This could have taken him no more than a half-day . 235 saved the ravishing beauty's honor from the entire fo'c's'le gang and the chapter in which the beauty rebuked the hero for a fancied presumption on his heroism which he hadn't meant her to take in that way at all at all . Before that melancholy event. sustaining twenty wounds and acquiring a colonelcy. he had served his country as chief of scouts among the Indians during the Civil War. have dictated the oath to an amanuensis between that chapter in which Hero No . A KNOW-NOTHING WIZARD 115 sume that to him was given the task of writing the oath of the order . If. He was a Republican until James G. He must.

Barker. but who is not often allowed by his clerical nurses to open his mouth and bray a battle-call to the hate which smolders in the bottom layers of his sect as in those of all other Christian divisions . . Erastus Brooks. in their turn. Allen. And all were of a piece with many a Ku Klux Klan satrap of today . Parson Brownlow of Tennessee . All the Know-Nothing captains-general . round viewpoint was regrettably absent . are together classifiable with the professional Catholic whom we have always with us. could have made him nothing but a man from whom a full. 116 THE WARS OF THE GODLY earthly experience so far as recorded. The two sets of fakers and highbinders.were of a piece with Judson . Sam Houston.

in much the same manner as the New York World obtained for publication in 192 i the oaths of the twentieth-century Ku Klux Klan . Georgia.CHAPTER XIV AMATEUR SALESMEN OF HATE THOUGH the records of the Know-Nothing party were burned soon after its demise. nor communicate them even to proper candiIII . until the night in which William Joseph Simmons launched the modern Klan atop Stone Mountain near Atlanta. nor after. sliced off and prescribed as a prerequisite to entry into the new lodge . was ever such a rump cut taken from the raw carcass of the English language as Judson. And not before in history. Doubtless these were sold in the first instance by some mercenary lodge brother to a pressman in search of a sensation. the oaths and the rituals survive . you do solemnly promise and swear that you will never betray any of the secrets of this society. and by the pressman perpetuated. Here is a sample bite from the piece : " In the presence of Almighty God and these witnesses. or whoever wrote the Know-Nothing oath.

under any circumstances. 1118 THE WARS OF THE GODLY dates except within a lawful council of the order ." It was from the oath of secrecy that the custom of the Know-Nothings arose which gave them their nickname and brought them into the contempt of Catholics and calmer Protestants alike . by jiminy . expose the name of any member of this order nor reveal the existence of such an association . in favor of Americans ruling America. nor give your influence for any man for any office in the gift of the people. " I don't know. or in any other manner made legible. except for the purpose of official instruction ." whenever any question concerning the order was put to them by an outsider . that you will not vote. he knew things not everybody knew! . unless he be an American born citizen. that you will never permit any of the secrets of this society to be written. obey the command of the State council. . One can imagine the superior smirk which must have manteled many a rustic countenance as the mouth uttered this formula . president or his deputy. . nor if he be a Roman Catholic . . . . He was on the inside. while assembled by such notice. and respond to the claim of a sign or cry of the order unless it be physically impossible. that you will not. that you will answer an imperative notice issued by the proper authority . This was their policy of answering.

PAGE FROM " KNOW-NOTHING ALMANAC " OF 1856 WITH PEN PORTRAIT OF ERASTUS BROOKS. A NEW YORK KNOW-NOTHING LEADER .

.

.e.. Above all. was to be thwarted in any attempt he might make to move into the White House . under Protestant and American thumbs. among other worthy objectives. . protect every American citizen in the legal and proper exercise of all his civil and religious rights and privileges . and probably but perfunctorily concerned with what went forward in North America or any other foreign land. . i. The property and the political offices which were slipping from native-born hands were to be snatched back to those hands by law . . at that time tremulously relying on French bayonets to preserve for him the temporal power in a nauseated Italy. . to resist the insidious policy of the Church of Rome and all other foreign influence against our republican institutions in all lawful ways . trust or profit in the gift of the people or by appointment none but Native American Protestant citizens . to accomplish the following: " . if one reads the Know-Nothing oaths and rituals in the light of immigration statistics for the period. to place in all offices of honour. AMATEUR SALESMEN OF HATE 119 Sam's published ritual proposed. Pope Pius IX. the tide of newcomers from Ireland was to be checked by any means at hand . Sam said nothing about the boycotting of Catholics in business. or about the hiring of none but ." Catholics and foreigners were to be kept in their place.

like God. not mere one hundred per cent Americans. not one of us can be above ioo-proof in these sorry days. but four hundred per cent Americans at the least. Three of these bore the magic word American in their official titles. showing that the law of compensation. a safe bet that Sam's adherents practised these measures against their Catholic neighbors. Thus do we degenerate . and could names confer that quality of rightness with God. KnowNothingism named specifically the Roman Catholic church and foreigners as its enemies . while one of the names by which the new order went was the American party. nevertheless. The five fraternal orders which merged to make up the Know-Nothing party were listed in a previous chapter .'s practise them against one another in small-town America today . 120 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Protestants to do one's washing or gardening or policing of cows . It is. But in another respect the modern Klan overshadows the Know-Nothings. is not mocked . they would have been entitled to call themselves. exactly as Kluxers and K . and vice versa.C. The Klan confines itself pretty strictly in official utterances to the damning of only such shadowy and indefin- . Thus we perceive that had these granddads of today's Ku Kluxers and Klanswomen been given to reckoning their Americanism in percentages after the fashion inaugurated by Theodore Roosevelt pere.

" " persons not of the white race. . and were forced to resort in those parts to a play upon a hatred of Germans which possessed some Southerners. anti-Catholicism in any city of the first class above the Mason-Dixon line. anti-Afroamericanism anywhere down South. by their lack of foresight to condemn the humble negro. straight anti-alienism in New York and the mill towns of New England ." "non-Nordics. etc . It can sell anti-Semitism in New Jersey and on Long Island. The Know-Nothings were cramped in the harvesting of one of their choicest possible fields." etc .. The Klan is thus forehanded with a sales talk wherewith to market whatever brand of hate is most popular with the dominant faction in any locality it enters . the South. AMATEUR SALESMEN OF HATE 121 able foes as " persons owing allegiance to any foreign potentate.

CHAPTER XV FOR PRESIDENT : DANIEL WEBSTER IN the Presidential election of 1852. New Jersey. New York. in July of 1852 . Neither nominee remained on the ticket until election day in the November following . 122 . Both nominations were plainly the moves of peanut politicians desiring great names as antidote for their organization's smallness . These thirty-one gentlemen placed in nomination for the Presidency none other than Daniel Webster. Maryland. and if the nation did not choose to respond. The first national convention took place at Trenton. Massachusetts. Illinois. the first in which it took part. Washington. It did its infantile best. to shake the nation's eyes awake to the perils of popery. however. that was no funeral of the new crusaders' . the Know-Nothing party pushed but few tremors along the ganglia of the American body politic . Ohio. of Montgomery county. New Jersey. For Vice-President. they proposed George C. then in his seventy-first year and looking back upon a long and spectacular career as statesman and lawyer . Maryland. Present were thirty-one delegates from nine states-Pennsylvania. Virginia and Georgia .

a corn-state Senator of our day when charged with being a member of the Ku Klux Klan? Why did Webster not flatly refuse to give the aid and comfort of his name to a bloc dedicated to the political capitalization of . if he would be a successful politician. and had been several times disappointed in his hope for a Presidential nomination from the powerful parties to which he had belonged in his best years . Webster neither accepted nor declined his nomination by any written word. as any law student fresh from the Dartmouth College or the Girard Will case can advise you . did this generally admirable man.FOR PRESIDENT : DANIEL WEBSTER 123 Washington fell a victim to that self-respect which a politician. say. or by any spoken so far as can be learned. He does not appear again on the fair page of American history. and declined the nomination . and the Federalists had been the hundred percenters of their day . Webster was a former Federalist. exhibit the nervous reticence of. when proffered the Know-Nothing nomination. then. One wonders why . He was an old man when the Know-Nothing nomination was proffered him. Maryland . Why. though it may well be that he enjoyed the respect of his neighbors in Montgomery county. Yet Webster was a statesmanlawyer of the first caliber. and he had more than once sacrificed his personal interests to those of nation or party . should carefully throttle at its first birthcry.

At any rate. It seems fair to presume that Webster was trimming his sails to any breeze that might be whispering over the political sea. the Know-Nothings placed at the head of their ticket one Jacob Broom. 124 THE WARS OF THE GODLY racial and religious hate? He was passing into his last illness. something happened to the Know-Nothing ticket : something serious . and displayed brooms and old coats on the stump and in the campaign literature. Adherents of the two candidates evolved a pretty conceit from their leaders' names. Three days later. Coates made a jest which must have tickled that type of mind Which relishes camp-meeting pre-hysterics wit. As all are agreed. Dr. The week-long campaign of Broom and Coates was an affair of the most astonishing humor . In many a state not a Know- . Daniel Webster died ten days before the election of 1852 . by calling the Broom-Coates combination the " kangaroo ticket " and denominating himself the shorter legs thereof . But when election day at last rolled around. the olden days in America were notable for their shrewd and salty humorists. New Jersey. with a hurricane conceivably buttoned up in its hip pocket . Reynell Coates. a Philadelphian . of Camden. Washington declined . but he did not die until four months after the Know-Nothing convention . had been chosen as kite tail to Webster when George C .

. while comrades debauch the heretic checkers in a nearby boozing ken and the loyal Gaelic copper on the corner turns discreetly away? Broom and Coates went swirling down that dark sewer which yawns for the politician who can neither deliver the goods nor intimidate the majority party .FOR PRESIDENT : DANIEL WEBSTER 125 Nothing vote was recorded . particularly in city precincts where Catholics sat as judges of election . Doubtless many more votes were cast for Broom and Coates than ever attained the dignity of official tabulation. Is it not one's bounden duty to battle for one's faith against the heretic? Shall not he be blessed in the sight of his Lord who chucks a sly batch of heretic ballots down a manhole (or whatever passes for a manhole when the year is 1852). The election of 1852 passed without a hint of the Know-Nothing convulsions which were to seize the country in the next four years .

too prolific. The Know-Nothings had a rich field to plow in that vast body of Americans. Roman Catholics were too numerous. too quietly aggressive on their own side. But it was so much more exciting to believe that the trouble was located in an Old World city where a wicked wizard sat on the papal throne and plotted the subjugation of the United States . the slavery issue was darkening all the skies . The trouble with the United States in the fifties was slavery. Horace Greeley wrote in his Recollections : " The fact that almost every Know-Nothing was at heart either a Whig or a Democrat. for the peace of mind of the lowlier bred native American . as the trouble with it today is federal prohibition . Also. growing vaster as time goes on. who love to excite themselves over any issue save the real one . one suspects.CHAPTER XVI SECOND WIND YOUNG SAM -as the Know-Nothing tracts and almanacs were presently calling the party was down but he was not out . He had just begun to fight . a champion Iz6 . and.

it could have kept its clientele intact and itself unshorn of potency as a political factor up to the day of the firing on Fort Sumter .' rendered its disruption and abandonment not a question of years. deeper interest in other issues than in those which affiliated him with the ` Order. and hence too tough for romance-loving minds to masticate. have averted the Civil War . If any merit resides in this Bolshevik dogma. more : it might even. does any less reside in the proposition that religious hatreds offer a splendid escape valve for emotions which threaten to blow off in the direction of something really important. by such adherence to first principles. and felt a stronger. had it refused to be sucked into any traffic with ideas essential to the Union's survival. During 1853 and '54 the new party devoted its .and present the notion gratis to the present heirs and assigns of Know-Nothingism . The unspeakable Bolsheviki claim that religion keeps the proletariat doped and divided. SECOND WIND 127 or an opponent of slavery." We crave the liberty to disagree with the ghost of Greeley on this point. We think . Nay.that had the Know-Nothing party pounded steadfastly away on its anti-papal tom-tom. and that the smart fellows rule largely in consequence thereof . but of months . and so do serious damage? But we anticipate .

Judson. 1854 : Alabama. The policy was that of boring from within the established parties. Here is a chart of the spread of the party in those years when it furtively prepared for the killing it yearned after : April to December. By May 1. January to April. Michigan. New York City and adjacent counties had fifty-four Know-Nothing lodges in active practice . Pennsylvania. The members were sworn to say nothing of their new affiliations to anybody . New Hampshire. 128 THE WARS OF THE GODLY energies to a furtive whitening of the fields to harvest . Kentucky. Barker. Allen and their disciples worked away in New York City . Thus the Know-Nothing party got away to a running start before the professional politicians had an inkling of what was going on . Iowa. October to December. Mis- . Wisconsin . 1854 : Washington. Maryland. Ohio . 1854 : Illinois. North Carolina. 1853. Low-spoken evangels of hate carried the new revelation west and south from New York until councils of the order dotted the land like an attack of hives . C. Massachusetts. D . New Jersey. Maine . the technique the same as that worked out in our time by Communist William Z . Indiana. Connecticut. 1853 : New York. Rhode Island. Foster for the sapping of the orthodox labor unions .. South Carolina. Georgia. May to September.

which is more than many another suspect saw fit to do . SECOND WIND 129 souri. Arkansas. He was a tobacco-chewing storekeeper near St . Florida. He tells the KnowNothing story on himself in his Memoirs (Vol. Louis in the fifties. 169). Mississippi. May. Louisiana. Grant . Delaware. New Mexico. Oregon . one and one-half million legal and qualified voters were roped in and marked with the unseen KnowNothing brand. Who were some of the converts to the war against popery and the immigrant? Few of them admitted ever having joined up when once the tornado had blown around on its own tail. p. Nebraska . and finally it penetrated the south . it marched thence into New England and out to the middle west. Tennessee. The sweep of the party's organization march followed the route of any new idea that comes to the United States . Easily the most famous Know-Nothing was Ulysses S . that is. and did not dream that he was one day to command the armies in the field of the United States and another day to sit in the White House . Texas. Thus. Grant relates that he went to one . it was snapped up eagerly by the northeastern states. Kansas. but the story did get out on a handful of them . Virginia. within three years after Judson and Barker and Allen launched the venture. I. California. 1855 : Minnesota.

was another Catholic-hater who found a haven in the KnowNothing party . Jerome Crownshield Smith (mayor of Boston. and Union general in the Civil War) . heard preached the word of Judson and Barker. of Alamo fame. Other Know-Nothings whose names in their brief day could make the nation pause at the hearing of them were Humphrey Marshall. Dr. Sam Houston. The last named became Vice-President under Rutherford B . P .). of Alabama. of Baltimore (Congress 1856-58) . . and never went back . Henry Winter Davis. Anthony Kennedy of Maryland. Hayes. was initiated. 1855. John Bell of Tennessee. N . of Louisville (Congress. 1855) . United States Senators John J . 1854) . putting up as brave a fight against Rome as is currently waged by the Hon . Houston served its interests gallantly in the United States Senate. 130 THE WARS OF THE GODLY meeting of the nearest Know-Nothing lodge in his green-grocer days. Thomas Heflin (Dem . Henry Wilson of Massachusetts . J. Banks (Speaker of the House. Crittenden of Kentucky.

The most notable victories were in the municipal elections in Baltimore. confessed to being a Know-Nothing on the morning after his election was certified . To prove himself a sterling nativist.the largest being Worcester and Salem . Philadelphia saw the boring-from-within strategy produce its most horrifying result when Conrad. in all states where they were organized. he saw fit to insult every Irishman since Brian Boru by asserting that all policemen ought to be Americans born. into secret pledges of eternal 131 . Conrad went further than that .and at least forty Congressmen from half a dozen states wore Sam's badge on their souls.CHAPTER XVII I T was partythe spring its 1854 that the waterin of KnowNothing harvested first crop of FIRST FRUITS melons . Several Massachusetts towns rolled into the Know-Nothing basket . In the Congressional elections of 1854 the Know-Nothings. Washington and Philadelphia. supported any candidate whom they could bull-doze. though not on their waistcoats . a la Anti-Saloon League. elected mayor as a Democrat.

though the gubernatorial nominee was lost in the shuffle . Dana when Congress convened a year later. while both houses of the legislature turned up almost one hundred per cent KnowNothing in composition when the ballots had all been counted . Protestant upstate New York rose up against the . and nearly all that of Pennsylvania. 00o votes." From the mere carrying of metropolitan elections in the spring. Henry J ." wrote Horace Greeley to Charles A. and some twenty or thirty of them actually believe in that swindle . Anti-Nebraska men. the new party leaped to the eminence of swinging the state of Massachusetts in the fall of 1854 . Half the Massachusetts delegation." " The majority of the Banks men [Republican supporters of N . P. Banks for Speaker in the Congress of 1855]. are Know-Nothings this day .was chosen governor of the proud old commonwealth by a plurality of so. 132 THE WARS OF THE GODLY enmity toward the Pope and foreigners . " are now members of Know-Nothing councils. Gardner -whom all accounts portray as a broken-down politician of the most revolting type . Delaware elected various Know-Nothing candidates to state offices. Whigs. two-thirds that of Ohio. all looked alike to the nativist crusaders. so long as they entertained " American ideas . We shall get them gradually detached . Republicans.

and presented an absolutely unknown Know-Nothing candidate with 12 2. in the previous July . Delaware and New York landslides James W . and it had been prayerfully supposed by the politicians that from no other quarter was a serious storm to be looked for .even then . . The membership rolls went kiting. formally organized and christened at Jackson. Northern Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats alike were scrambling into the new Republican party. The astonishment that rocked the nation was terrific. had wrought this amazing chain of victories. An unseen force.Babylon of Manhattan island. FIRST FRUITS 133 .000 votes out of a total of 43 5 ooo polled . and had given the ruling powers in three important states a staggering blow . this secret cabal of whose extent and strength none could now form an estimate. an undertow in politics. present and hoping-to-be to join the American party . Four months after the Massachusetts. Nor is mob-like adequate to point up the ensuing rush on the part of office-holders past. had thrown political hacks and clowns into the seats where the mighty had rested and thought themselves secure . Barker reported that 96o Know-Nothing councils were now meeting and plotting in the state of New York alone . Michigan. Pathetic is no fit word to describe the epileptic seizures which laid hold on the professional politicians . Then along had come this interloper.

134 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The Worcester (Mass .of more than a bowing acquaintance with the tricks of his trade ever omits from a discussion of political probabilities. while its chances were declared golden for mopping up enough electoral votes in the South to put whatever lodge brother it might nominate into the White House . the saving " out " which no editorial writer who boasts .tacking thereto. in the matter of the KnowNothing furore as in most other matters political. though not in the manner anticipated by it or any other political snake doctor functioning in 1854 . was the best prophet of them all . The Herald's " out " consisted of a proviso that the Know-Nothing party could shake off the anti-slavery aroma which was already clinging about its garments . Horace Greeley. however. said the respected sheet. James Gordon Bennett's New York Herald made a similar prophecy .) Evening Journal displayed a bit of that uncanny knack for guessing wrong on politics which so many newspapers have preserved into this present : it predicted a national victory for Know-Nothingism in the elections two years ahead . Happily for the Herald. He wrote : " It [Know-Nothingism] would seem as devoid of the elements of persistence as an anti-cholera or anti-potato rot party . this turned out to be the case. That the new party would sweep the North. was a foregone conclusion." .

AN ANTI-CATHOLIC CARTOON OF THE SEVENTIES .

A list of the major to-do's which punctuated the years 1853 to 1856 is appended at the end of this chapter. Kentucky. This celebration was held in observance of election day. differing only in numbers of people wounded or killed and value of property destroyed . was easily the premier . Probably this is because with most of us the emotion traces back to the lessons taught us earliest by our mothers and hence most deeply cut on the tablets of our minds . Festivities commenced early in the morning and lasted well into the night . ordinary riots. They were all of a kind. 1855. then. STONES. that clubs and tar buckets should ride the surge of religious mania blown up by KnowNothingism. or that these implements should come ever more widely into play as the movement swelled toward its peak . It was no more than natural. TAR AND FEATHERS 1135 . its date being August 5. the R ELIGIOUS mania makes men see a deeper STICKS. When the smoke cleared off. Bloody Monday in Louisville.CHAPTER XVIII shade of red than does any other form of hysteria . Of the common.

Catholicity . while about twenty-five Irishmen had gone to glory in one of the grandest running street wars ever fought in the United States . The truly picturesque and thought-provoking event in the string of religious riots which bedecked the fifties was something else . Bedini's tour of the nation was a continuous riot . looked calmly on. wrote to Bishop Kenrick. all KnowNothings. 136 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Louisville cathedral was found to have been entered (though not damaged) by a roaring KnowNothing mob. Archbishop of Thebes and Papal Nuncio to the Court of Brazil . It would be even safer to venture the statement that. of the Most Reverend Cajetan Bedini. nativism boiled over the rim of one caldron of hate. of the Roman Catholic diocese of Bardstown. In 1853 the United States was agitated by the presence within its borders. It is a safe guess that any Protestant remarks to reach paper were couched by way of whitewash for the Protestant faction . both parties welcomed election morn with huzzas of joy at the brewing up of a fine fight . who had piloted the Philadelphia Catholics through the riots of 1844. that " the city authorities. and they are now endeavoring to lay the blame on the Catholics. Wherever he went. as matter of fact." What the Protestants had to say has not been exhumed by the present chronicler . for seven exhilarating months. Bishop Spalding.

Bedini came to the United States because several German Catholic parishes in Philadelphia and Buffalo had got themselves into a state bordering on open schism over the question of legal title to church property . the Pope gave him a personal letter. The United States had a minister to the Vatican. to President Franklin Pierce of the American Republic. couched in terms of the most ceremonious friendliness. what flesh- . To smooth Bedini's path.was the sole and entire scenery of fact before which was staged Archbishop Bedini's American visit in the second year of the Know-Nothing party's existence. Yet what a flurry Bedini's coming caused in this country . by the way.STICKS. what sweatings of diplomats . TAR AND FEATHERS 137 over the other. and this gentleman likewise furnished the archbishop with a letter to the President. This. STONES. in which it was explained that Bedini was not to be regarded as an advance post of the Papal Guard nor yet as a Jesuit scout . instructed him to stop off in the United States and do what he could to cool the Germanic passions .and no reason presents itself why they should . if the historians do not lie . and between them the harmless prelate was all but scalded in half a dozen cities . having named Bedini nuncio to Brazil. The Holy Father at Rome. It was a phase of the " trusteeism " dispute which excited the Catholic church during much of the last century .

and mayhap to have him in to dinner at the White House. While the tremors were dancing along Washington's ever sensitive nerves. would constitute official encouragement of the highest kind for Rome. confronted as it was with the necessity of pleasing the powerful Catholic minority by appearing to welcome Bedini while placating the Protestant majority by seeming to give him the cold shoulder. what writhings and twistings inside the flannels of all official Washington. to shake him by the hand. Bedini had once been commissary of the papal legation at . a group in the hinterland was whittling another stick to thrust into the archiepiscopal chariot wheels . The band was composed of sundry German and Italian revolutionists and anti-clericals whom the European uproars of 1848 had blown across the Atlantic. Marcy is likwise credited by Catholic writers with having so carefully mislaid the letter from minister at Rome to the President that it was never seen again . it was plain that for the President formally to receive Bedini. and it was led by an apostate priest named Gavazzi . Secretary of State Marcy gets the credit for having reasoned thus brilliantly in face of the fact that we already had a duly portfolioed diplomatic representative at the Vatican. 138 THE WARS OF THE GODLY crawlings of politicians r fearful of anti-Catholic votes . To Know-Nothing minds legalistically inclined.

Bedini paid no attention to the story. were caught without proofs pro or con . Troublous times had set in. which was meat for the haters of Catholicity in the United States . Gavazzi and his pals cooked up the appetizing tale that Bedini. Bedini was the highest Catholic dignitary exhibited in person in the United States up to that time. having first seen to it that Bassi was skinned alive . while an officer at Bologna. with the stake barely evaded several times.STICKS. and hence the Catholics strutted their gaudiest paraphernalia for him wherever he went . By the same token the anti-Catholics forgot their local hatreds and fixed their most earnest attention on this sky-filling menace from beyond sea. and cleared Bedini. A conspiracy to assassinate the nuncio was . for one) later investigated the yarn at their leisure. His progress was a mixture of triumphal tour and martyr's parade. however. Out of these facts. and in true Romanist style Bedini had not hesitated to clap a few upstarts into jail and decree a shooting or two . had put to death a rebel priest named Ugo Bassi. Several English and Continental newspapers (the London Quarterly Review. STONES. KnowNothing knives flashed out all over the country the moment the visitor left Washington for the interior . Catholics in America. TAR AND FEATHERS 139 Bologna.

For seven turbulent months Bedini remained in the United States ." Which. He left the United States by way of New York . is a commentary on just how forgiving and just . and (b) the swift collecting outside the cathedral of a KnowNothing mob howlfully desirous of making him guest of honor at a lynching party . The police wounded several of the would-be lynchers . Bedini at length completed his labors among the German hagglers . of course. Conversely.in secret. this presence in the United States of one who had seen and talked with the Pope himself heated many a Catholic's faith to the fighting point. to escape a KnowNothing mob athirst for his blood . He was feted by his friends. Subsequently he advised the Pope that he had found the Catholic church in the United States flourishing. in Pittsburgh . Cincinnati's welcome consisted of (a) a huge special service inside the local cathedral in the archbishop's honor. and " confronting a decaying and disintegrating Protestantism. 140 THE WARS OF THE GODLY uncovered and choked by the police in New York City . called every known variety of dog and dog's progeny by his enemies. His hated presence had no little to do with inflaming the passions of potential Know-Nothings and so making converts to that mushrooming party . not to mention the number of hesitating heretics it induced to climb into the Roman fold . strong only in prejudice .

Newark . Me . As promised. Louis. Numerous fights in New York City between young Irish gangs and the " Wide- . Catholic church burned at Massillon. one Irishman shot and killed . Galveston. Y. Father John Bapst. Brooklyn. St. TAR AND FEATHERS 141 how Christlike any Christian official of any sect is or can reasonably be expected to be . we give here a list of the more important Know-Nothing-Catholic fights of the period . ridden around Ellsworth. 1853 The Bedini riots .. tarred.STICKS. Me . Mass .. feathered. Manchester. Attempt made to burn Ursuline convent. on a rail . Ohio. St . J. STONES. Anne's church. Wheeling. raided in Fourth of July outburst of patriotism . 1854 Gang of Know-Nothings and Ulstermen from New York City raided St . blown up with gunpowder by persons unknown . and Sidney.Boston.. Cincinnati . N . some statuary destroyed . Baltimore.. Ohio . Churches at Dorchester. Texas . Peter and Paul. Mary's Catholic church. S . N . H. Fire started in Church of Sts . Catholic church burned at Bath.

1 855 Bloody Monday. a marble slab sent by the Pope for inclusion in the then building Washington monument ." young nativists wearing wide-brimmed felt hats as insignia. see a later chapter . Ducking party at Washington. threatened by Know-Nothing mob. Know-Nothing mob officiating . but saved by Catholics rallying under Bishop O'Reilly. For Baltimore's Know-Nothing experiences. Louis. Ky .. Louisville. Convent of Sisters of Mercy. Riot at St. as described in the text . R. scene of festivities. Providence. 1856 Election riots between Know-Nothings and Irish Democrats in Baltimore . who warned that any Know-Nothing setting foot on convent ground would be shot .. ten killed . I. guest of honor. . the banks of the Potomac river . 142 THE WARS OF THE GODLY awakes.

The happy event took place in the summer of 1854 . The first Know-Nothing council in Virginia was organized in Jefferson's own home town of Charlottesville . There were few Roman Catholics in Virginia. It is indeed Virginia. Now comes the great battle between Democrats and Know-Nothings which filled with smoke and screams of agony the Virginia spring of 1855. boasting its religious liberty statute as heritage from Thomas Jefferson. which has the distinction of having served as religious fanaticism's fiercest battleground during the KnowNothing period .CHAPTER XIX T has been related how the Know-Nothings elected one governor and a sackful of Congressmen and legislators in 1854. and incidentally snapped the lumbar vertebrae of KnowNothingism as a national power . and how their prospects for a national sweep in 1856 were pronounced more than bright by full many a diagnostician of political symptoms . but it was noted throughout the South that Catholic immigrants were rapidly filling up 143 I SLAUGHTER IN VIRGINIA .

144 THE WARS OF THE GODLY the northern free states and pushing the doctrines of negro freedom into the western territories. were represented on that ticket. John M . The first families of Virginia. Beale of Mason was put up for lieutenant-governor. all of which meant an ever heavier balance in Congress against the South . the Republican party was forming state organizations but had yet to hold its first national convention . was preferable to the Republican party. called to order in March of 1855 . but even that. At any rate. James M . to southern Whigs. They nominated for governor a fine old ex-Whig and able politician-lawyer. because the county squires had all been Whigs and were leaping into the Know-Nothing boat as their own sank . and no record remains to show who they were . which was against slavery. H . and hence would not join the Democratic party . Winchester was the scene of the first Virginia Know-Nothing convention. The Whig party was moribund. Hence. The Whigs hated the principles of Jefferson. the success of the Know-Nothing organizers in the South. the order spread throughout Virginia with the same prairie-fire speed it had exhibited at the north . The delegates were registered at the hotels under false names. Patton of Richmond for attorney-general . They gathered in grateful Whigs by the shoal . one Thomas Stanhope Flournoy of Halifax county . old style.

they nominated Henry A . in tone rather like the questionnaires with which the modern Anti-Saloon League habitually torments 1 45 . used. Smith . SLAUGHTER IN VIRGINIA under their feet ." Four months prior to the Know-Nothing convention. Added to that. He believed in the Democratic party as sired by Jefferson. to reply : " He is apt not to be . and he decided that if he was to win this election he must fight like the very devil . meeting decorously in the Methodist church at Staunton . he took occasion to slap down his cards on the table long before the Democratic convention met . to accomplish. John Syme. Wise for governor . one of this alienated old guard. Wise fought . and a politician who would have delighted the heart of Alfred E . the Know-Nothing candidate . Wise was also a lawyer. The Norfolk council of Know-Nothings sent him a question about his attitude toward Catholics and aliens. he is in damned bad company. he felt that slavery's elimination was a thing for time. not fire-breathing abolitionists prophesying war. when asked if a Democrat was a gentleman. the Virginia Democrats had held theirs. Expecting the nomination. the man had ideas and was a fighter . but if he is. On the second ballot. He was a speaker to whom William Jennings Bryan or Billy Sunday might well have gone for pointers on how to lash mob passions. and a personal friend of Flournoy.

by adoption . with all my head and with all my heart and with all my might. by education. I am a Protestant by birth. I protest against this secret organization of native Americans. yet in every character. I am an American in every fibre.had but one . in every relation. the crossroads court-houses and meeting-houses. my ancestors on both sides for two hundred years were citizens of this country and this State -half English. intus et in cute. as summed up in the prevailing Yankee religion " Gentlemen. New England . half Scotch. but for no political purpose. but a short time back. from Alexandria to Danville . with his voice of brass and thunder . He filled the town churches. in every sense. a Virginian . by intellectual belief.Massachusetts especially . I am a native Virginian . Wise fought as if he had meant every word of that crashing salvo of English . by baptism. He charged up and down Virginia. There was cunning in his roaring. and of Protestants to proscribe Roman Catholics and naturalized citizens! " Once in the fight. Thus craftily he played on the Southern hatred of everything Yankee. 146 THE WARS OF THE GODLY all candidates for offices higher than dog-catcherships . and in every feeling an American . Wise made reply in this fashion : " I belong to a secret society.

all the other odds and ends of isms . the religion of the old Covenanters and Congregationalists . and that was Puritanism. " Who gave you alliance against the King of England? Who but that Catholic King. " But since they have waxed fat. that made the New Englanders a strong people. begun to moralize mankind by legislation. causing the two to paint the third in colors barely distinguishable from the Red. that made them a learned people .' such as you have heard Puritanism has disappeared .Puritanism. And we have in place of it Unitarianism. full of vitality. that made them a rich people. Millerism. that they never yet struck a blow for the freedom of mankind . begun to play petty Providences for the people.until at last you have a grand fusion of all those odds and ends of isms in the omnium gatherum of isms called Know-Nothingism! " And thus cunningly he hitched Old Glory and the Bill of Rights to the Pope. SLAUGHTER IN VIRGINIA 14. begun to preach ` Christian Politics. Universalism. full of spirituality .Puritanism that made even the barren rock of Plymouth to fructify. since they have begun to build churches by lottery. Fourierism. White and Blue : " You tell the people that Catholics never gave aid to civil liberty . 7 ism within her limits. begun to be Protestant Popes over the consciences of men. Louis XVI? . Mormonism .

In that intense moment when the Declaration of our Independence was brought into Carpenter's hall by Rutledge and Franklin and Jefferson. . a foreigner who never was naturalized. . let's pour a little aged-in-the-wood history into mouths that by now are gaping wide : " And sir. 148 THE WARS OF THE GODLY He sent you from the court of Versailles the boy of Washington's camp. . on the 16th of June. six hundred and forty years ago. that they would have Magna Carta or die for it . Bartholomew's remain without an alibi." Lest there be murmurs that all these are modern instances and the Inquisition and St . . a Catholic representative from a Catholic colony . " And not only that . when the general character of all charters of freedom was gained when one man . which not only pledged life and honor but fortune too . Edmondsbury. . and laid upon the table that holy paper. . palefaced man arose and went and dipped the pen into ink and signed ' Charles Carroll ' .swore the barons of England. 1214. at length one spare. against the orders of the Pope and against the power of the King . for the people.a man called Stephen Langton . but bled at the redoubt of Yorktown . . there was another scene enacted on the face of the globe.swore the barons on the high altar of the Catholic church at St .

. a tactician of the first caliber. this Virginian. Louis carried columns about his campaign . " Save the Protestant churches from the pollution of party politics ! " He was a master politician. Flournoy. Wise played with his endlessly repeated and hammered home slogan. His roarings filled the land . by the way. did practically no campaigning . . Stacks of bills. Excitement rose like an unseen wave as Wise boiled up and down the Dominion ." The familiar Bryan trick of leading the actual aggressors to a weeping bout for that they were being themselves trodden upon. or perhaps his heart was not with the party which had chosen him . and if you Know-Nothings don't know who Stephen Langton was. Newspapers as far away as St. Know-Nothingism had met some one who miraculously was not afraid of it . He . and as generally admirable a man as a politician can be . you know nothing sure enough . He was a Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury. notes and cheques wagered on the outcome swelled the safes of stakeholders . He seems to have been swept off his feet by the fury of Wise's attack . SLAUGHTER IN VIRGINIA 149 . a politician had arisen who could summon the courage to take religious prejudice by both horns and try to twist its neck . a boldly piratical fighter.

Wise. " and his shield and lance are broken . Worse. 150 THE WARS OF THE GODLY let the escaped nuns and the ex-priests. having traveled more than three thousand miles in the primitive conveyances of the day and having made innumerable speeches. the whisperers and the blackmailers. and more thoroughly than Wise supposed . but the days of Know-Nothingism were numbered from the night in which his plurality was totted up on Virginia's election records . Wise could not know it.424 votes against Flournoy's 73. ." They were. This joust had had a nation for an audience. do his electioneering . within the month. 1855. the Knight. was fated to fall off the horse he had ridden to so many conquests with such notable results .244 . galloped down the track to a victory of 83. On May 24. and that audience could never again look upon the Black Knight with its erstwhile awe . " I have met the Black Knight with his visor down." he trumpeted to his constituents.

Know-Nothingism's success up to this time was founded on the fact that you can interest more people more quickly with a false issue than you can with a real one . 151 . in which Wise had scored his triumph . exhale the long sigh of content that comes from rationalization achieved . No jest is intended here . Sam delivered to himself . with rashness unsurpassed. and the exact nature of the dig was that the party. That is to say. The average person hates to think . it permitted itself to roll an eye in the direction of the one truly important national issue of that day : negro slavery . fleeing.CHAPTER XX T SAM FORGETS THE POPE HE second body blow to Sam's national prestige as a political party came less than one month after the Virginia election of May. The occasion was the national council of the party held at Philadelphia in June of that year. Popery was the issue to which brains that shrank from thought could flee and. Slavery was the institution whose economic and humanitarian implications really harried the nation. This thrust. 1855. determined to take politics seriously .

self-conscious bigwigs of Know-Nothingism knew it . Sam Houston and the other leaders must needs call a council of all the state organizations to regiment the faithful into some definite attitude toward the thing that mattered . all it wished to graze upon was the ever widening acreage of anti-Catholic literature with which the Know-Nothing presses were sowing the country. The nation's eyes were upon that council. and well the solemn. their power should have persisted and grown . The slavery resolu- . But no . then. After some haggling. 152 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Had the Know-Nothings. while the delegates jabbered and swapped chewing tobacco in the taverns of old Philadelphia . All the flock wished to do was to keep up the pleasant pastime of cutting Catholics and foreigners out of business . Erastus Brooks.the monster that in due time was to rise and slay the party that bore it . let the frightful and fundamental and bitterly depressing question of slavery severely alone. They remained secluded for three whole days. it carried a monster in its arms . When at last the resolutions committee emerged from the secret chambers. had they kept waving their own original gorgeously colored and windbloated Chinese paper fish of an issue in the eyes of the suckers and the lame-brains. a committee on resolutions was named and this group went into secret session . James Barker.

B. as every one knows. . as presented to the national council for ratification. James W . and E . (i) urged Congress not to prohibit slavery in any territory belonging to the United States. the official head of the national president himself. On the third day after the committee reported. which they regarded as their section's economic lifeblood . The fight raged for three days in the open council . was chopped off. Should the resolution be adopted as the sense of the Philadelphia gathering. was the position held by the Southern States. SAM FORGETS THE POPE 1 53 tions. the Southern view prevailed. the Know-Nothing party would stand committed to the views of the slaveholders of the South. and the Know-Nothing party declared for slavery by a vote of 8o to 59 . and opposed to the shrieking abolitionists and the multitude of calm foes of slavery in the North . and by them fought for from Sumter to Appomattox. the Southerners forgot national possibilities and battled to line up the party for slavery. In the scrimmage. Barker's downfall presaged the outcome of the struggle . This. The northern Know-Nothings saw their chances slipping. and (2) told Congress that in it resided no power to keep any territory from entering the Union as a state on the ground that that territory's constitution recognized slavery as lawful . Barker of New York City. Bartlett of Kentucky reigned in Barker's stead .

knit only by the tenuous threads of a common name and a common ritual . a frightful schism rent the party in twain . Connecticut. Massachusetts. The Know-Nothing party was fated henceforth to be nothing more than a congeries of statewide and section-wide factions. Vermont. Illinois. The miracle never happened . These delegations repudiated the slavery plank. 154 THE WARS OF THE GODLY So terrible was the effect of having tackled the real issue that. Twelve states bolted the council . .Maine. Only a miracle could have rewelded it into a national party . Michigan. New Hampshire. Iowa. Wisconsin . while the southern Know-Nothings went home in glee to make ready for the fall campaigns in their respective states with the proslavery plank nailed into the platform . Indiana. Rhode Island. Ohio. immediately the ballots were counted.

We have been able to dredge from the records the names and specific utterances of only three nationally known politicians who. State elections were coming up in the fall of that fateful year of 1855. in a political speech just before the election of 1854 in Worcester. Allen informed the world. no less.CHAPTER XXI delphia council had unrolled. who had been elected governor of Virginia . in 1854 . and Charles Allen of Massachusetts . or. who put a solemn curse upon KnowNothingism during a Fourth of July oration at Independence Hall. Massachusetts : " Perhaps I am speaking too boldly. but I learned to speak boldly a long time ago . if '55 T HE politicos ofVirginiaparties read the signs of rival breakup which the election and the Phila- Pop ! . Stephen A . Douglas. had the courage openly to defy the order . prior to KnowNothingism's Waterloo year. I will speak my sentiments in the face of any organization . These were Henry A . Wise. Philadelphia. and lay low . and no cautious politician would commit himself until they were over . of the Lincoln-Douglas debates.

and Connecticut . the politicians began to crawl out of their hurricane cellars . Following these elections." And the fall elections of 1855 proved that the discreet politicians were wise in their generation . in its New York state convention of December. while the Democrats were barely able to beat the meteor party in their southern citadels of Alabama. The new Republican party. The land presently filled with a mighty shouting . and unseen hands ready to apply the match. I will declare those sentiments that a freeman is bound to utter . Louisiana. The Democrats in the congress which . 156 THE WARS OF THE GODLY it does not show its face. New York voted for minor officials only. Georgia and Mississippi . The Know-Nothings elected governors and legislative majorities that year in Massachusetts. New Hampshire. though its secret mines are beneath my feet. allowed Horace Greeley to write the platform and to swing his right arm elbow-free on the topic of KnowNothingism. 1855. but the KnowNothings harvested most of these . Know-Nothingism and all its works were being denounced . It became the fashion to thunder anathema against the party. singly and in groups. Rhode Island. Know-Nothing governors were elected in Kentucky and in far-off California. Texas put a few Know-Nothings into lesser state jobs.

In New York City. the North Americans and the Mountain Sweets. An amateur political correspondent could have . by the time their national conventions assembled in the following year. pulled them out again in 1855 . In such a state of active disintegration the party convened at Philadelphia on Washington's birthday. who had brought his lodge. the once tough and homogeneous American party divided to become the Sams and the Jonathans. at least three nativist. and rapid was its sinking . not to mention Allen's crowd of disaffected members. These were the Know-Somethings. Pop! 157 convened that same month passed solemn resolutions damning poor Sam . Both parties. Charles B. and both nailed anti-Know-Nothing planks into their national platforms . into the original party in 1852. Allen. to put a Presidential ticket in the field . anti-Catholic orders were blooming wanly in New York City where once the giant orchid of KnowNothingism had smelled supreme . were perfectly sure of their ground on this subject. The new party had split on the rock of slavery. the Sons of the Sires. In Illinois. for example. the step was but natural to a multitude of intrastate cleavages into rival bodies. 1856. Before long. each of which claimed to have a monopoly of the one true antipapal and anti-foreigner faith . From the first faulting along the Mason-Dixon line.

Millard Fillmore was nominated for President . The story was circulated about Fremont that he was a Catholic . later he had become a Whig. Banks refused to run . He had begun his political life as an anti-Andrew Jackson Democrat . 158 THE WARS OF THE GODLY foretold the outcome . P. after an elopement. The Republicans put up John Charles Fremont. though he and his wife had been married. he was by birth and baptism a Protestant Episcopalian. There was an orgy of bellowing. Fillmore was seized upon by the Know-Nothings as a man likely to take any road that seemed to lead back to the White House. succeeding Zachary Taylor from the Vice-Presidency when Taylor died in office . and eventually. whereupon. To a bloc of extreme pope-haters in the KnowNothing party the nomination of Millard Fillmore was not agreeable . Fillmore had been President once. whom in brighter days the Know-Nothing delegation in Congress had elected Speaker of the House after a two-month fight . Banks. a majority of . An opportunist and a middle-ofthe-roader in all respects. and offered a Presidential nomination of their own to N . by a Roman Catholic priest . no one quite knew how. These bolted the convention. Fillmore's nomination was later endorsed by what remained of the Whig party . and the Know-Nothing judgment proved correct . As a matter of fact. as their nominee for President . of California and Indian fighting fame.

159 the schismatics flopped to -of all candidates the Republicans' allegedly Catholic nominee, Fremont . The balance of them nominated R . F. Stockton of New Jersey, doubtless more with a view to letting the world know they would never stomach Fremont than with any hope of electing their man. The campaign of 1856 was the wildest jamboree since the Tippecanoe-and-Tyler-too circus of sixteen years before, and then some . Fremont was the very captain-general of the Pope to those nativists who believed him a Catholic ; the star of negro freedom and banner bearer of a great new party to his worshipers in the North; an unspeakable nigger lover down South . Fillmore was to some the man who would keep the Pope where he belonged and the Catholic and alien out of the good political jobs, while others saw him as a mere straw man kicked along at the head of a procession of trimmers and religious fanatics . James Buchanan, who led the Democratic parade, symbolized the slaveholding South and its obnoxious aristocrats to the Northerners; he was the savior of all that was right and productive of profits to the voters down South . Buchanan was elected President . Fremont ran a good second, evidencing a lasting vigor in the new Republican party . Poor Fillmore was lost in the shuffle, but was dug up some days later and found to hold, tightly clutched in his fist, the electoral vote of the state of Maryland.

Pop!

CHAPTER XXII DEATH RATTLES KNOWNOTHINGISM never seriously threatened to carry a national election after 1856 . Following that election, there was but one city of the first class which did not promptly forget the Pope and resume with increased intensity the chattering and fretting about the negro and what could be done for him that finally brought on the Civil War . This city was Baltimore . The cow and corn and cotton states of Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland and Tennessee continued sufficiently agitated over the Romish menace to send a scattering of Know-Nothing congressmen to Washington until the year 1 859 . Baltimore's Know-Nothing adventure furnishes a splendid picture of what is to be expected whenever sectarianism lays hands on the political steering wheel . The Know-Nothings captured the city in 1854, and held on until 186o . Once in power, they promptly forgot their pre-election promises of fair play for all and busied themselves with constructing a political machine designed to keep Baltimore
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forever in the hands of Protestants. The KnowNothing district clubs became gangs organized for the sole purpose of patrolling the election booths and keeping Catholic voters at home . Some of these gangs were named the Tigers, the Black Snakes, the Rip Raps, the Blood Tubs, the Plug Uglies . The Blood Tubs, who were butchers by trade, conceived the plan of carrying hogsheads of beef blood to the polls and splashing it merrily on any Catholic who turned up with a view to exercising his constitutional right to the ballot . Kidnapping whole battalions of Catholic voters and sequestering them in cellars and warehouses until the polls closed was another device of the Baltimore Know-Nothing gangs . For a time the Catholics fought, but the going became too rough for them . They maintained a few gangs of their own in the first year or two after the Know-Nothing sweep, some of these bearing the appellations of Bloody Eights, Bloats, Buttenders . The Catholics, or Democrats, were at length able to recapture Baltimore only through the good offices of the state legislature . The Know-Nothings owned the metropolitan police body and soul. Having built up a majority in the legislature from districts outside Baltimore, the Democrats in 186o procured passage of a law which snatched the Baltimore police from local control and placed the force under a legislative commission .

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Thereupon, an allegedly fair election was held . The Democrats cleaned the Know-Nothings out of the political machine-gun nests, and proceeded to give Baltimore a brace of administrations which equaled anything the Know-Nothings had achieved in the line of crookedness and corruption . The Massachusetts "smelling committee " furnishes material for a paragraph or two . Massachusetts' Know-Nothing legislature (1855) gave ear and action to a favorite cry of anti-Catholic agitators everywhere : the demand for state inspection of convents. A committee was named to perform this task which would have tickled the soul of Elmer Gantry, and under the leadership of a bawdy rascal named Hiss it set forth on its snooping tour of the Massachusetts nunneries . The story of the committee's trip is full of fetid details having to do with the plundering of nuns' wardrobes, and so forth . The legislature was finally compelled to appoint a committee to investigate the smelling committee, then a committee to investigate the investigating committee, next a committee to investigate - but why go on with this? Two paper battles of unusual ferocity occurred during the Know-Nothing party's period of glory followed by debacle . One was the Archbishop Hughes-Senator Brooks controversy, the other an astonishing tilt between the Episcopal bishop of Vermont and the Catholic archbishop of Baltimore .

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Archbishop Hughes (New York) was stung into a resumption of his ancient habit of writing to the newspapers by a remark made in the legislature by Erastus Brooks, a Know-Nothing state Senator and party mogul . The Church Property Bill, a pet Know-Nothing measure, was before the Senate for discussion. This bill called for the taking of legal title to church property away from clerics and giving it to trustees of each congregation . Said Brooks: " I suppose its [the property standing in the name of John Hughes as archbishop] value to be, in New York alone, not much short of $5,000,000 ." The fighting archbishop instantly wrote one of his most biting letters to the New York Courier and Enquirer . He expressed pleased surprise at the discovery of his hitherto unsuspected wealth, and went on to say that, while much had been done of recent years toward spreading knowledge through the world, Brooks's speech showed that much remained to be done . Hence, promised Hughes, he would put away a portion of his riches for his old age, and with the rest he would erect a huge public library in New York City, and name it after Erastus Brooks, if Brooks would but point out a tract of land acquired by the archbishop from any church trustees whatsoever, whereon to place the library . Brooks dug up a multitude of conveyances from the city records, published ten of them verbatim in

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the long-suffering Courier and Enquirer, and solemnly demanded that construction of the library commence forthwith . Hughes demonstrated that many of Brooks's finds were leases (albeit one was a 999- year lease at one cent a year), that others were duplications, and so on. The discussion grew exceeding windy and abusive . Of course the whole quibble was on Hughes's powers as holder of naked legal titles . At length, Brooks having named certain properties as belonging to the archbishop, to which Hughes in fact had not legal title, Hughes sat up late one night to cut the following gem with the acid that flowed from his pen : " When Mr . Brooks wrote this, he knew as well as I do, that I am not the owner of a solitary square inch of ground on 5oth or 51st street ; and, with this knowledge in his mind, Mr . Erastus Brooks has exhibited himself in the light of a man who has no regard for veracity, and who is, therefore, utterly unworthy of notice . I take him, consequently, with covered hands, to the nearest open sash of a window, and send him forth, with the single mental observation - ` Go hence, wretched and vile insect : the world has space for you as well as for me.' " Brooks got the decision from a majority of the press, but the archbishop did not build the library .

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The legislature passed the Church Property Bill, which remained law to the great harassment of the Catholic church in New York until 1863 - when, as a Catholic historian remarks, the New York regiments needed Catholic soldiers . The Vermont vs . Maryland conflict arose from a classic exhibition of gall by the Most Reverend Francis Patrick Kenrick, archbishop of Baltimore . Kenrick had been greatly impressed by a reading of The End of Controversy, by the Vicar Apostolic to Great Britain, Milner . Laying down this work, Kenrick proceeded to circularize all the Protestant Episcopal bishops in the United States with a letter wherein they were advised to return immediately to the Church of Rome lest all their flocks should leave them overnight . Bishop John H . Hopkins (Episcopal) of Vermont took pen in hand . He was already an antiCatholic crusader of some repute, having written several books with such workaday titles as The Church of Rome in her Primitive Purity Compared with the Church of Rome at the Present Day and An Humble Address to the Bishops, Clergy and Laity of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, on the Tolerating Among Our Ministry o f the Doctrines o f the Church o f Rome . But here was an opportunity to do some real battling for the faith of the extreme anti-papal Low Churchman.

with the single aim of proving Milner a liar and Kenrick an intriguing scoundrel . of which this is a sample : " . and have his feet kissed by the noblest lips of Europe. and fancy himself authorized to wield the vicarial sceptre of the omnipotent Son of God! " The Know-Nothing movement in the cities generally devoluted to its first status. and open to him the road to the lofty throne of Papal supremacy. Bar- . since the nod of the reigning pontiff can place the Cardinal of Rome amongst the princes of the earth. he went back to the moment when the first speculative leer in the direction of Anne Boleyn began to form on the face of Henry VIII. splitting up into a half-dozen feeble and uninteresting lodges whose members passed many a resolution in the tenor of those promulgated by Big Bill Thompson's America First Foundation. under the title " The End o f Controversy " Controverted . The book was wheezy with purple writing. . . and scoured church history thenceforward to the day before his book went to press. In this masterpiece. where he may be reverenced as a king of kings. One quotation from Hopkins must suffice . 166 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Hopkins produced a two-volume rebuke to Kenrick. and accomplished as little toward realizing their cloudy aims as Big Bill's lodge promises to accomplish at this writing .

Hoar of that state related the incident thus amiably in his Autobiography of Seventy Years : "But a good many anti-slavery men who thought the party feeling of the Whigs and Democrats was a great obstacle to their cause. from the mighty men they had been. (c) that what they had actually been about all along was the clubbing to death of the Whig party. now deserted it by the baker's dozen. F. Like rats swarming over the side of a sinking ship. DEATH RATTLES 167 ker and Judson and Brooks. by the carload . Senator G. and (d) that. Whiggery being now dispatched. who had even patronizingly joined the party when that had seemed the sensible thing to -do. joined the movement simply in order that they might get rid . dropped to the estates for which nature had designed them from birth . the politicians who had beamed on the American party in its lusty youth. which had betrayed both North and South by its miserable equivocating on slavery . The favorite alibi ran as follows : (a) that these fearless fellows had never meant their Know-Nothing pledges at all . (b) that they had subscribed to Sam's flatulent oaths with their fingers crossed . these paragons were returning to the parties which backed worthy candidates and embraced essential doctrines . The sweet story was told with especial effect and pathos in Massachusetts .

and prepare the state as with a subsoil plow for a new one . . " Of these was Henry Wilson. . God was in His heaven.a million and a half alios had not sweated in vain . who had been the organizer of the Emigrant Aid society and the movement for the deliverance of Kansas and Nebraska . who owed his first election to the Senate to the Know-Nothing legislature. and Eli Thayer. to go about the business of building churches and making proselytes and solidifying against the infidel and heretic the battlements of what Catholics are pleased to call the One True Faith. and the President sat secure in the White House . I68 THE WARS OF THE GODLY of the old parties. and expected to destroy the Know-Nothing party in its turn when it had destroyed Whiggery and Democracy . Judson. praise be. The Civil War was imminent . Allen et al. and were willing that men of foreign births and Catholics should have their just rights." Catholicity lifted its bloody head again. But the Pope remained in Rome. at least . Barker. The nation had been saved from papal overlordship. and practically everything was wrong with the United States and growing worse . They had no belief in the proscriptive doctrines.

Some of these are merely exciting and not a little romantic . at least.A.CHAPTER XXIII SKIRMISHES SEVERAL items in the story of church conflict from the Civil War's beginning to the A . in the War Between the States . in fact chiefly when you come right down to it. not by the Confederates alone. Some research and even a little thought led the present writer to conclude that the story is ground16g . but also. There is the question of the dread role played by the Catholic church. by emissaries of ambitious Rome at work on the waxen wills of Jefferson Davis and his coterie. echoes into this present like a fairy-tale of old time which many a child mind in an adult body still believes . join onto no movement but deserve sketchy narration . and particularly by the Jesuits. Anti-papal books can be procured today in which this claim is proved so completely that not a doubt of its truth remains in the minds of the books' authors .P. One of them. Many an evangelical chair smasher in the jungles of Indiana or Arkansas has electrified his audiences with the assertion that the Union was threatened.

A priest or a parson who cannot discern the presence of God on his own side of the firing line is commonly held sub- . worldly division in the worldwide spiritual domain of the Pope as alleged vicar of God . The Baptists divided for missionary work both home and foreign. did not divide on the rock of war . and that it is kept alive by two influences only . The Northern and Southern Methodist churches frown like a two-headed monster on liquor. The other is the same degree of hatred. Catholic chaplains could with perfect anesthesia of conscience march and starve and pray with the armies of both Union and Confederacy. of a priest of the last century who was kicked out of the Catholic church and who rounded out the frightful span of ninety years upon this earth . of course. tobacco and petting parties today. The Roman Catholic church in the United States. Presbyterianism was blasted into ten or more fighting fragments . embalmed in a book. 170 THE WARS OF THE GODLY less. even as Catholic communicants could and did battle in large numbers on either side . genteel and elastic Protestant Episcopal church split into northern and southern factions. One of these is the ever-flaming hatred of the more forthright among the evangelical clergy for the Roman Catholic church . The Civil War split several evangelical churches in twain . A nation is but a secular. Even the suave. though it snapped back to unity immediately after the war.

those mysterious soldiers of Rome. should have been able with extreme ease to draw implications of treason from the unbroken unity of the Catholic church? It was easier to charge the Jesuits. as a matter of almost but not quite established fact. It was. The Knights of the Golden Circle. not that of the Church of Rome . was thought by many to be officered by Jesuits . and so vitally weaken themselves. war mayor of New York. to be Democrats. added richness to the Jesuit odor wished upon the Knights of the Golden Circle . But these phenomena do not affect the universality of the Roman Catholic church. as now. What more natural than that the doctors of those churches which did divide. with treasonous intentions than it was to charge any other body of Catholics .000 pacifistic Northern Democrats . The Vatican's diplomacy down the ages has been consistently not of a stupid variety . What could have been more stupid than for the Catholic hierarchy to have intrigued for either side in the Amer- .000 to 300. SKIRMISHES 171 normal and must suffer the consequences . a secret society formed by the anti-war Democrats of the North in the hope of forcing an end to the war. chieftained by Fernando Wood. The fact that many Catholics happened then. These were intent on hamstringing a war-harried Republican administration for the benefit of the Democrats. Its membership comprised from 200.

Reference has been made to the books of Rebecca Reed and Maria Monk. plain enough to have penetrated even the thickish skull of Pius IX. The title of this 832-page champion among books is Fifty Years in the Church of Rome. you can believe in astrology Or the sincerity of the average cowtown evangelist. The war could not last forever . The evidence of disloyalty adduced by the Catholic-haters is detailed and interesting. There is the logic underlying the answer to the question whether Catholicity was in any way disloyal in the Civil War . in preparation for a clean-up in souls following the conclusion of a treaty of peace . which share the honor of being known to Catholic historians as the Uncle Tom's Cabin of anti-Romanism in the United States . The third masterwork in the nineteenth century's trilogy of hate. is now before us for brief consideration . but too voluminous to introduce here . was to step lightly and be polite to everybody so long as the war should last. and the last really epic volume against Catholicism to have been produced thus far in America. The obvious policy for Catholicity. 172 THE WARS OF THE GODLY ican Civil War? The Protestant denominations were rent and confounded by the struggle . and the . If you can believe in the truth of either the evidence or the facts it is claimed to prove.

Hauled up for trial at Urbana. to take charge of a congregation of French-Canadian colonists at St . and was several times called on the carpet by his ordinary. Illinois. in Kankakee county. He began his clerical career in 1833. Chiniquy got himself entangled with the law through the villainies of Rome. which he named the Christian Catholic . as a Catholic priest in a French-Canadian parish . in May of 1856. he relates that his defense was conducted by Abraham Lincoln and two other lawyers . It had no connection with the Christian Catholic organization established a generation later at Zion City.was a gentleman blessed with the tinkling name of Charles Pascal Telesphore Chiniquy. SKIRMISHES 1'73 genius who wrote it .and it was in this period of anguish that his acquaintanceship among the great of our nation was formed . Chiniquy quit the Catholic church and formed a sect of his own. Chiniquy was born in 18o9 and did not depart this life until 1899 . where it was hoped he would be a good boy .for he was a genius . by John Alexander Dowie . of course . He was formally welcomed into the diocese of Chicago. and Bishop Anthony O'Regan withdrew his faculties . But presently Chiniquy was on the loose again. Illinois. He was a turbulent soul. The two unnamed counsel charged him a thousand dollars . At length he removed to Illinois. Anne.

They got their information from this same book. . Louis. if we do not. either directly or by garbled quotations and extracts . for their services. Chiniquy claims to have sobbed : " Mr. there were in the [courtroom] crowd not less than ten or twelve Jesuits from Chicago and St . . What troubles my soul just now and draws my tears is that it seems to me that I have read your sentence of death in their bloody eyes . Often enough they did not know where the quotations came from. Nothing can be compared to the expression of their rage against you. . The anti-Catholics in rural America have known for years . . but they knew the thing must be true because the parson or the anti-Catholic weeklies told them it was . and why . though it was his " awful and superhuman eloquent denunciation " of the Catholics' " infamy. 174 THE WARS OF THE GODLY . When Lincoln inquired the reason. Or. Chiniquy burst into tears. while Lincoln refused to accept more than a pittance as fee. . who came to hear my sentence of condemnation to the penitentiary . diabolical malice and total want of Christian and human principle " which had won the case for Chiniquy . Lincoln. we can find out in the remaining six or seven hundred pages of Fifty Years in the Church o f Rome ." Now we know who killed Lincoln. when you wrenched me from their cruel hands . As Lincoln was signing the due-bill. .

The President countered with these words. he found out the proofs of a most formidable conspiracy against this country and all its institutions ." Chiniquy called on the President again the next day . the learned inventor of electric telegraphy . . I . M. He repeated his warning that the Jesuits were even then hunting for some one possessed of the devil's courage to assassinate Lincoln . Morse. be done ! . " I am so glad to meet you again. in great part. . Let His will. among numerous others : " I may add. today." Lincoln babbled happily at their first reunion in 1186I" . On one of these occasions Lincoln was too busy to do more than shake hands.]. he told me that when he was in Rome. It is evident that it is to the intrigues and emissaries of the Pope that we owe. and not mine. not long ago [only 30 years .R. will not let you go before telling you that a few days ago I saw Mr . that I have a presentiment that God will call me to Him through the hand of an assassin . but on the others Chiniquy's " noble friend " ushered him into his private office to hear the latest inside stuff on the Jesuits . the horrible Civil War which is threatening to cover the country with blood and ruins . SKIRMISHES I 75 Chiniquy claimed to have called on Lincoln three times while the latter was President of the United States .

for the matters which Chiniquy had to impart to President Lincoln were too important for other ears . . it is more against the Pope of Rome. than against the real American Protestants." or ten months before Lincoln was shot. " I feel more and more every day. and their blind and bloodthirsty slaves. " the President listened to my words with breathless attention . but multiplied . It is frequently garbled and decorated to suit the editor's fancy . . . No one else heard the conversation.A. 176 THE WARS OF THE GODLY . " on the morning of June 8th. When Chiniquy called for the last time on the President. that it is not against the Americans of the South alone that I am fighting . that we have to defend ourselves ." The words were as before. his perfidious Jesuits. . . I will be forever grateful for the warning words you have addressed to me about the dangers . and Ku Klux days and the years between . Lincoln's chief contributions to the chitchat were a . 1864.P . This ex-priest was as secretive about his revelations as was the angel Moroni in making Joseph Smith privy to the existence of the golden Book of Mormon in the bowels of the hill Cumorah ." The delver into the literature of American antiCatholicism will find the last paragraph quoted in numberless books of A .

which can likewise be found in volumes unnumbered of anti-Catholic literature as a verified utterance of Abraham Lincoln : " I do not pretend to be a prophet . but our children. spreading ruin and desolation from north to south . for popery with its merciless inquisition will have been forever swept away from our country . will see those things . It will rise and increase till its flanks will be torn by a flash of lightning followed by a fearful peal of thunder . It is filled with tears of blood . Then a cyclone such as the world has never seen will pass over the country. according to Chiniquy. given Chiniquy in strictest confidence." The man who thus. Neither I nor you. shoveled his adjectives into palpitating heaps and grossly overworked his conjunctions and dependent clauses. But though not a prophet. After it is over there will be long days of peace and prosperity. And that dark cloud is coming from Rome. and the following remark. Chiniquy proceeds in the latter part of his book to build up a huge edifice of proof that Lincoln's assassination was the result of a Jesuit plot hatched . SKIRMISHES 1 77 tip. the Gettysburg address. was the man who also was able to produce that model of clipped English rhetoric. that General Meade had been tricked by a Jesuit out of a remorseless pursuit of his victory at Gettysburg. I see a very dark cloud on our horizon.

Against Chiniquy's fearful rot. and his wife was undeniably among those hanged for the murder . a Catholic . that is certain . 1855. it reads as follows : " I am not a Know-Nothing. and he made far less pretense to religiosity. did indeed wander off and eventually enlist in the Papal Zouaves . dated August 24. This isolated utterance is one of the most beloved in the arsenal of American Catholic propagandists . plotted and carried through the assassination of Lincoln was long since blown into a cocked hat . Contained in a letter from Lincoln to Joshua Speed. Surratt was indeed a Catholic. He was about as religious a man as was the late Warren G . working through the Jesuits. however. deliver himself on the subject of the Know-Nothing party . And Surratt. How could I be? How can any man who abhors the oppression of negroes be in favor of degrading classes . But the story that the Catholic church. while he had all the politician's horror of being tricked into an argument even remotely connected with religion . the jury in his trial for murder having disagreed. the Catholics have little from Lincoln's verified utterances to quote . Lincoln once did.except in the minds of no one knows how many people resident on farms and in small towns of the midwest and southern states . Harding. 178 THE WARS OF THE GODLY in the home of John Surratt.

` all men are created equal. where despotism can be taken pure. The Toronto volunteers. of which Sinn Fein is said to be the legitimate heir. 1 79 . Starting off in 1858 under John O'Mahony as Head Centre. 1867 . for instance. can be disposed of in a few brief sentences so far as concerns the Catholic-Protestant fight in America . Fenianism was an Irish revolutionary surge of the greatest imaginable gaudiness and pomposity. fourteen hundred in number. speedily kicked them back across the Niagara river.' When the Know-Nothings get control it will read." The Fenian movement. O'Mahony set up his comic opera government in the City of New York. and they were as swiftly arrested en masse by a United States marshal on the Buffalo shore . I shall prefer emigrating to some country where they make no pretense of loving liberty .his government of Ireland.to Russia. ' all men are created equal. be it understood . and without the base alloy of hypocrisy. but of no religious significance whatever. except negroes . As a nation we began by declaring that' all men are created equal .' " When it comes to this. SKIRMISHES of white people? Our progress in degeneracy appears to me pretty rapid . except negroes and foreigners and Catholics .' We now practically read it. Nine hundred shanty Irish invaded Canada via Buffalo in June.

P . by virtue of a confusion of old and new calendars. the great day in Protestant Irish history .because it was trying to force Great Britain to settle the Alabama claims that grew out of the Civil War .religiously speaking . to note that the United States government looked with a mild eye on the Fenians' gestures of hostility toward Canada. 180 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The Fenians' second invasion of Canada. Any anti-Catholic writer who tries to add Fenianism to his list of Catholicity's crimes in the United States puts the cart before the horse. and several of their leaders were arrested by Canadian authorities . 1871 . and even hired counsel to defend sundry arrested Fenians . in years past and wild. in 1870. though not pertinent to this volume. was repulsed. July 12 is. A number of physical battles between Catholics and Protestants enlivened the otherwise dull period . It was therefore the day on which. A. It is interesting. and they expressly banned from their meetings all discussion of religion or of American politics . anything could . The Fenians were Catholics because they were south-Irelanders .from the Civil war to the blooming of the A . The bloodiest of these was a massacre of Irish Catholics by New York militiamen in New York City on July 12. held to be the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne. and the wrong cart at that .

Fifty-one of the attackers and three of the militiamen were shipped to the burying grounds . their wives and families. 1870. SKIRMISHES 181 happen in a community which harbored delegations of both Orangemen and Hibernians . On this particular Boyne day. The Orangemen paraded . Patrick's Day. thought of this affair is not of human record . followed . Several thousand Catholic Irishmen determined that no such dirty thing should take place . In due course . The militia fired one volley . Who was not consulted beforehand.at Twenty-fourth Street and Eighth Avenue -the parade was rushed by the Catholics . one hundred Orangemen determined to conduct a parade in New York City. Scannel was a twentythree-year-old Democratic alderman. Generally whatever did happen was by way of revenge for what had occurred on the previous St . They were chaperoned by five companies of militia . even a judge or two. Aldermen. and his funeral was brilliant enough to satisfy the heart of a modern Chicago gangster . city officials. This massacre took place one year to the day after the Elm Park riot in New York City . picnicked in Elm Park on Boyne day. one Florence Scannel had died . Two thousand five hundred Orangemen. and he had been shot in a drunken brawl . What the good Lord. He died some months later. Some weeks prior to the happy event.

182 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Florence to his final resting-place. then used in the Boston public schools. 1886. then. The Catholics of Boston discovered. William Hale (" Big Bill ") Thompson. Florence Scannel was avenged . The Catholics. as have been a hundred such clashes before and since . has at least one precedent in American history for his campaign against the teaching to school-children of any historical fact that tends to dim the luster of America's puissance. mentioned the Catholic church's medieval practice of selling . A. On Boyne day. and a glorious time was enjoyed by all .D . at this writing mayor of Chicago. six hundred Catholic Irishmen rushed the two thousand five hundred Orangemen at picnic in Elm Park . of whom he was one. that a footnote in Swinton's General History. they were echoes of Ireland's unending internal strife . Harper's Weekly commented editorially : " The Democratic political managers govern the City of New York by means of such rioters who vote for such magistrates as Florence Scannel ." These fights were not religious in character or motive . who were thought to have caused his death . But they were meat for the haters of Catholicity. swore revenge upon the Orangemen. Several on both sides were killed and many others wounded .

A reasonably watertight analogy can be drawn between the twentieth-century Ku Klux Klan of highly Protestant complexion and the Molly Maguires. thuggery. Everybody knows that is true . The Mollies carried the system to its logical develop' For most of the research on which this treatment of the Molly Maguires is based. . A bitter political battle ensued. Harcourt Parrish.l who flourished in the Pennsylvania anthracite regions from 1854 to 1877. blackmail. but was forced by pressure of other business to abandon the project after completing his inquiries into the history of the Molly Maguires. but a delegation of pious Catholics visited the publishers of the book and " persuaded " them to delete the footnote . of New York City . and other well-known means of extralegal suasion . The modern Klan is intensely nativist-" America for Americans! " The Mollies' motto might as well have been " Coal mine jobs for the Irish! " Klan tactics here and there have included the use of intimidation. resulting in the election of a Protestant school-board and the triumphant restoration of the footnote . -Author. Mr. SKIRMISHES 183 indulgences as one cause of the Protestant Reformation . Parrish was to have collaborated in the production of this book. I am indebted to Mr. boycott.which doubtless the publishers had cynically kept in type against just such an eventuality . and all of whom were Irish Catholics.

Both orders were oath-bound. The Klan has from time to time been damned roundly by high prelates of the Methodist and Baptist churches -from which it draws the bulk of its membership -but many a rural and small-town minister of these denominations has been tracked to the local klavern. but the primary cause of Molly vengefulness and the scores of murders it produced was that the English. German and Welsh miners. One achievement of the Mollies was the further exacerbation of anti-Catholic prejudice throughout the country. secretmembership societies devoted to the aim of getting everything possible in the way of jobs and preferments for themselves . The order was organized in 1854. The Molly Maguires were under the official ban of the Roman Catholic church . mine bosses and foremen were the objects of the Molly Maguires' particular hatred . 184 THE WARS OF THE GODLY ment by simply murdering any one against whom a member filed a complaint with the body-master of his lodge. Welsh and Germans were making off with the jobs which the Irish considered their own by God's decree . While it is not certain that any parish priests belonged. as an inner . All these groups happened to be chiefly Protestant in creed. which made them doubly hateful to the fire-eating Irish Catholics who composed the Mollies . English. many of them approved the order .

threw frenzied Irishmen into the bloody draft riots of 1863 in New York City. and that few Molly Maguires had ever seen $300 . SKIRMISHES 185 lodge of the Ancient Order of Hibernians . and having as its object the beating up of processservers and the tormenting of landlords . Ireland. the New York Daily . No connection between the bands in Ireland and America was ever discovered . The same consideration. At length. among others. in the year of grace 192 7. The campaign of secret murder in the coal fields went on unchecked for years. Gowen sent James McParlan into the district next door to those bituminous fields which. It stole its name from a secret society that grew up in County Monaghan. The reason for it was that the draft laws included the dynamite-laden provision for purchase of a substitute by any draftee who had $300. One of the Molly Maguires' early activities was to wage a fight on enlistments and drafts in the Civil War. Their membership in the Catholic church had nothing to do with their earnest objection to being shot at while the Rotten Rich stayed at home . Franklin B . in 1873. beginning in 1843. This fact contributed its bit to the legend that the Catholic church intrigued against the Union during that conflict . and helped to win for that place its present reputation among Catholic haters as a hopeless papal citadel planted on American soil .

who said afterward : " I dislike to draw Irish blood. . deck swab. Body-master James Kerrigan of the Tamaqua division . News called " hell in Pennsylvania " by reason of 186 THE WARS OF THE GODLY the appalling strike going on there at the time . . So would the doings of Jack Kehoe. the stories circulated about McParlan that he was a detective who could " hang half the people in Schuylkill county. . He was also a Pinkerton detective . but I want no better sport than to shoot such men as Yost . Father O'Connor. The story of McParlan's worming into the inner councils of the Shenandoah division of the Molly Maguires. McParlan's instructions were to " get " the Molly Maguires if he could . Gowen was president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company. He knew the ways of such men as composed the Molly Maguires . This man had been teamster. Major Brothers. would make glorious reading if there were space for its inclusion here . and his eventual bringing of nineteen murderers to the gallows. coachman. The order died in 1877 under the bludgeonings ." and McParlan's dauntless demand to be tried on the charge by a council of body-masters of the Molly Maguires . policeman. McParlan was an Irish Catholic himself . the killing of Policeman Yost by McGehan. When he was shot he hollered like a panther " . and proprietor of a liquor store .

McParlan himself lived long enough to play a leading part in the Idaho labor-and-capital drama of Governor Steunenberg. and the Rev . Blaine. Haywood and Pettibone. It was during the course of his remarks that Burchard told what he thought of the Democratic party. Romanism and Rebellion . had always been and was still the " party of Rum. Romanism and Rebellion " likewise played a part in interring a man beneath the political sod. Blaine on a speaking tour received a bevy of Protestant clergymen at the Fifth Avenue Hotel. Jug and Jesuit " tag which Klansmen strove to hang upon Oscar W . Samuel D . in the estimation of Burchard." Blaine did not hear the phrase when it was . when Grover Cleveland. Republican. Burchard delivered a welcoming address to the Republican candidate . in toto . That party. Dr . 1 87 Most of us have heard the catch-phrase " Rum. There was much billing and cooing and shaking of hands. Underwood of Alabama in 1924 . won over James G. The occasion of its coinage was the Presidential campaign of 1884. Moyer. though in different fashion . And " Rum. SKIRMISHES of McParlan and the rope swinging of the courts . Democrat. Romanism and Rebellion . New York City." It was the last century's synonym of the " Jew.

very high . or if he did he failed to make any repudiation of it . Buchard's masterpiece echoed in the New York newspaper offices in less time than it takes to tell it. Blaine lost New York to Cleveland by 1047 votes .and New York's defection lost Blaine the Presidency . . and sang over the wires even faster than that . Before nightfall of the next day Blaine was being credited the country over with having himself made the quip. New York state was normally Republican . New York's percentage of Catholic voters was then. and Democratic politicians were welcoming outraged Catholics into the fold with the pleased obsequiousness of so many headwaiters . as now. 188 THE WARS OF THE GODLY uttered.

It was only in the last days of the colonies and the early years of the Republic that the state began to take over the business of instructing the youth . through its Society for the Propagation of the Faith . The Puritan denomination conferred the same boon on the children who were unlucky enough to have been born in New England while Calvinism held happiness under total eclipse . nowadays. functions and blots up billions in taxes today. or that they will enjoy the splendors of this world with the I8g .CHAPTER XXIV IN an acute chapter of his Our Times: America Finding Herself. Whatever sect was most powerful in any given part of the British colonies educated most of the children of that section . Whereas. Catholics and Protestants alike educate their children in the hope that they will all own Pierce-Arrows and die wealthy. Mark Sullivan resurrects the for- SCHOOL WARS gotten fact that the Protestant churches are the parents of the American public school system as it exists. The Church of England taught the bulk of the little Southerners to read.

I90 THE WARS OF THE GODLY maximum of relish. " The operation of the common school system. 1919. any one unable to read the Bible stood in grave danger of hellfire ." declared the pastoral letter of the archbishops and bishops of the United States. contribute as required by law to the maintenance of the public schools . for the sake of principle. all the popular education there was. " as the same is now administered. is a violation of our civil and religious rights . assembled at Washington in September. " to maintain a system of education distinct and separate from other systems ." " The Church in our country is obliged. under the chairmanship of Cardinal Gibbons. Hence. They have never since then been able to stomach the state as an educator without gagging . to the hierarchy yesterday. It is supported by the voluntary contributions of Catholics who. The Bible was the Word of God delivered unto man ." said Bishop (later Archbishop) Hughes of New York in 1840. at the same time." Education. for generation after generation. today . When the state began the taking over of public mass education. the Protestants used to educate them with an eye solely to their salvation in the world to come . the Roman Catholic church was just commencing its long march to immensity and power in this country . in the Protestant British colonies . The clergy of that sect did not welcome the state's invasion .

thus reasons the priesthood . and. Two subjects for red-hot debate naturally flow from the two theories of Church education and State education . intellectual and moral qualities. SCHOOL WARS 191 and presumably forever. as it was to the Protestant clergymen who really ruled this country of old time . but only the home and the church can nurture the frail flower of morality to sturdy maturity . The orthodox. of course. and conceives a doubt that the Catholic laity is as hot for churchly education of its offspring as its clerics wish it were . One is whether or not Catholics should be taxed for the support of the public schools . is that Catholics should not be taxed for public school support in the first place. beholds the goodly number of one's Catholic friends and acquaintances who are not sending their children to the parochial schools. but that since they are so taxed their schools should share in the levies . if they are to be so taxed. The . To handle the physical and intellectual development of the children. The fathers reason that character is a composite of physical. and that it is the business of education to develop all these faculties symmetrically . the state is adequately equipped. One looks about. whether or not the parochial schools ought to come in for a share of that money . though by no means unanimous Catholic answer to the questions. is a sacred prerogative of the church.

' is that every taxpayer. Vermont. D . within earshot of Catholic school-children . even without comment. shall chip in to support the common schools and that state funds shall not go to any sectarian schools whatever . C . New York City . Debates have been many and heated . and West Virginia . The Catholics object to the reading of the King James version of the Bible. of St . and were studiously to avoid the name of God or of Jesus Christ our Redeemer. 1 Exceptions : Arkansas. while (b) " if they taught no religion whatever. Protestants as vigorously oppose the Catholic version . must necessarily inculcate some form of religious belief in the children. (Courtesy of United States Bureau of Education. North Carolina.) . also the District of Columbia . Washington. Ann's Roman Catholic church. Maryland. they would in our sense be sectarian. Catholicism's position was carried out to the ultimate limit of beauteous absurdity in 187o by the Rev . Father Preston blandly told a Protestant audience that (a) a public school where the Bible is read. regardless of creed. Rhode Island. 192 THE WARS OF THE GODLY Protestant answer. as embodied in the constitutions of forty states. or any other Protestant version. Maine. Iowa. Father Thomas Preston. The other line of cleavage between the two educational theories runs along the character of religious or moral instruction which may legitimately be given in an elementary school .

or who are not provided for. Yet." By this act. permission was granted for funds to be paid to " incorporated religious societies " which then or thereafter supported charity schools in New . The society's name was changed in 18o8 to that of the Free School Society of New York. with the financial victory perched on the banners of Protestantism ." In 1813. Its duty was " to educate poor children in a free school. and so sap the foundations of our creed . by any religious society. Honors in the conflict were even at the time of going to press. so far as we have been able to learn. who do not belong to. eager as Catholic clergymen have chronically been to lay hands on the public school funds. SCHOOL WARS 193 for they would teach immorality. the question of any religious sect's right so to do was first decided by a state. as a consequence of an overt act by a Protestant church." Thus the two great school issues which have agitated Christians in the United States . In 1805. while its powers were enlarged to allow it " to extend a free education to all children who are the subjects of gratuitous education . all sectarian schools were expressly cut off from the charity-school funds. the legislature of New York incorporated the Public School Society of the State of New York .

not for the maintenance or enlargement of a school already built . A too amiable legislature handed Bethel Baptist church of New York City a dipping from the Free School Society's surplus funds for the building of a school for poor children. said school to be operated by the church. For fully nine years after the passage of this law. and heaven alone knew to what it might lead . could obtain money on application to the Free School Society by showing that it did maintain or had organized a charity school . That they forbore to overstep its limitations for that length of time is a testimonial to the self-control of the godly in those days . The consequent uproar was doubly tremendous. it is to be noted. Control of the public schools of New York City then passed into the hands of a new body known as the Public School Society . all the sects confined themselves to strict observance of the same . 194 THE WARS OF THE GODLY York . Theoretically this group .if it is not a witness to their timidity . Any religious society. The New York legislature presently repealed the law of 1813 which gave churches a call on freeschool funds . It was a plain case of state subsidy of a church enterprise. since it was pumped up not only by public leaders but by dominies of other churches which had not been so forehanded in the legislative halls as had Bethel Baptist . But in 1822 the inevitable happened .

and every possible measure was taken for their protection against the ever multiplying papists of New York City . they are no more entitled to the school funds than your petitioners or any other denomination of professing Christians . SCHOOL WARS administered the schools and the school funds in the interest of the whole public. in addition to his dictum quoted earlier in the present chapter. Actually its members were all Protestant for many years . Said the bishop. the first organized American Catholic drive toward the sequestration of a share of public tax monies for Catholic schools . That was not enough for Hughes . " If they [the public schools] do not exclude sectarianism. but brief mention of one or two of its incidents will not be amiss here . All this led to Bishop Hughes's attack on the Public School Society in 1840. Protestant history was taught them. and to try to persuade the teachers to say no word which might wound Catholic sensibilities . if they do exclude sectarianism. Protestant doctrines were drilled into the public-school pupils' heads. 195 . then your petitioners contend that they exclude Christianity." The Public School Society offered to expunge from the school and library books all matter offensive to Catholics. The story of that fight is told in more detail in an earlier chapter (" A Catholic Political Party ").

When a teacher is ousted nowadays.which obviously meant that Hughes wanted to give nothing for the money . was the obstacle to compromise which could not be overcome . practically forgotten piece of Tweed scandal which awaits the patient searcher of records is Tweed's bid for clerical sup- . " The unwillingness of the petitioners [Catholics] to agree to any terms which did not recognize the distinctive character of their schools. At that time. 196 THE WARS OF THE GODLY In exchange for placing the parochial schools under the Public School Society's control. Said the committee of the City Council. Lindsey . A scantily written about. At the present time (1928) complaints are almost never heard of improper sectarian influences at work in the New York schools . " Boss " Tweed and his Ring. Nothing further of serious moment occurred in the New York school fight until the year 1869 . were ruling the city and gutting the public money chests ." New York City's schools remained non-sectarian in theory and Protestant in fact. of deathless fame. throwing up its hands at the end of the bitter fight. it is usually on grounds of undue flirtation with Bolshevism or the doctrines of judge Ben B . he demanded a veto power for the Catholics in the selection of textbooks and the appointment of teachers . or which would exclude sectarian supervision from them entirely.

The Ring first tried to buy up the clergy by introducing in the legislature of 1869 a bill whose first section read as follows : 197 "Whenever there shall be. No one was deceived as to Tweed's intentions in proposing the law." Had this law passed the legislature. with public school funds . But a legislative setback never yet daunted a New York City politician bent on helping his old friends or buying new ones . it shall be the duty of such city.SCHOOL WARS port. every denominational free school of any size in New York would instantly have landed on all fours in the public treasury with mouth unmuzzled . or has been established or maintained. or of the Board of Supervisors of the county of which such city is a whole or a part. and particularly Catholic clerical support. any free school or schools. He turned the trick by means of a special clause inserted in the city tax levy of 1869 . and after a vicious fight the bill was defeated . in which not less than 200 children have been or are taught and educated gratuitously. Tweed proceeded to dip into the city revenues for the salving of the denominational schools . . in any city of this State. to make provision from year to year for the expenses of such school or schools.

" bawled a Harper's Weekly editorial in the following year. or refused the money for any schools under his wing. 198 THE WARs OF THE GODLY " The result is. Grant that it is not of record that any Protestant minister roared for Tweed's blood on account of this sectarian steal." Discount the Weekly's anti-papal bias . " that $2114.880. Of this sum 2 5 Roman Catholic schools receive $1153." The Weekly was as bitterly anti-Catholic in those times as it was anti-Tammany and antiTweed . The fact stands that there was much more than a scintilla of truth in the last statement quoted above from the Harper's Weekly editorial. while it is notorious that this grant of money for special sectarian schools is part of the plan of the Roman Catholic ecclesiastics to break down the system of public schools in the State . .1107 . and 28 Protestant schools receive $611. But careful investigation shows that proper care would even now make room for all children. It went on to say of the Tweed clerical subsidy : " The words of the clause authorizing the sectarian distribution imply that the provision is made for children whom the public schools cannot receive .987 have been taken from the city money and given to 53 sectarian schools .

DR . Superior President By per of Harper $ . OCEOLA B . left to right) E . H . BOWERS. FOUR LEADERS OF THE A . Founder and First Supreme President . A . (Top. FRYAR. F . Supreme Secretary of State (Bottom. P . DUNBAR. J . Supreme Sergeant at Arms . left to right) HENRY F . JACKMAN.

.

Other priestly roars resounded from Cleveland.e. St . Father Thomas Preston used his rare logical gifts in a campaign for state aid from the pulpit and rectory of St . Doubtless the chief force behind this aggressiveness on the part of the clergy was the Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic church which was held at Rome in 1870 . i. Ann's church. and not a few bright-eyed bishops and monsignori talked and wrote as if they intended_ to conquer Protestantism and the American State. New York. over the writhing cadaver of a last-ditch opposition . Hecker bawled for it in his Catholic World (New York) . . as now. the hierarchy took the announced dogmas of the church far more literally than did the laity. Michigan. though its knees shook. Louis . at least knew where it was supposed to stand . T. Father I . SCHOOL WARS 199 What evidence remains printed on dry and crackling pages out of those years goes to show that the Catholic priesthood hoped more boldly and schemed more ambitiously to win state support for parochial schools during the seventies than in any other period of our history . Then. on the rock of the Pope's infallibility when speaking ex cathedra on any doctrine touching faith or morality. There the Ultramontane faction of the church had railroaded the doctrine of papal infallibility into the body of Catholic dogma.. Catholicism.

or prohibiting the free exercise thereof . Blaine proposed to amend the first clause of the Federal Constitution's first amendment to read as follows : " No state shall make any law respecting the establishment of religion. or derived from any public land therefor. Grant in his message to Congress in 1875 . for the support of public schools." Blaine introduced the amendment by way of echo to a remark of President Ulysses S . we warn our fellow Catholics that this is certain to come. shall ever be under the control of any religious sect . but one will be forced upon us . that the Catholics of the United States will ` fight it out on that line if it . and no money raised by school taxation in any state. and we retort upon the instigator of this new internecine war. James G . nor any public lands devoted thereto. To Grant the Catholic Review made this startling answer : " We seek no contest. or land so devoted. nor shall any money so raised. be divided among religious sects or denominations . without going into entangling details as to why he thought so . 2 00 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The net result was one to make the Puritan and Episcopal czars of ancient days turn over in their graves. Grant cautiously acknowledged that such an amendment might be desirable.

while a starved public school principal peered wistfully into his wilted moneybags. Its topmost level exhibited a ring of little Americans. . A Catholic layman. What Protestants thought of the clerical drive on the school funds was best summarized in a cartoon by Thomas Nast which appeared early in the seventies . Jews." (Quoted from an apparently accurate. This gentleman said that nine out of ten Catholics had no respect whatever for the clergy's judgment in regard to the schools and did not want the state to contribute to the support of the parochial schools . annoyed by the accusations of popish plots. Scots and negroes dancing in front of a public school ." No Sect! No Caste ! Free to All ! " Deck number two depicted several villainouslooking priests of Rome running away with sackfuls of tax money. anti-Catholic article in Harper's Weekly for January 1. 1876. dropped a line to Harper's Weekly in the year of Blaine's agitation for the amendment above quoted .' not one season. SCHOOL WARS 2 01 takes. but another century of our beloved country's existence. as to facts. The picture was a three-deck affair .) Yet the situation was possibly not so alarming from a patriot's point of view as the Pope's haters supposed . Chinese. Their happy childish voices were caroling -as who has not heard them do at recess? .

Catholic. details of the slaughter not given. In all these instances. the financial concessions consistently came from the Protestant side . Schools bearing the signs Methodist. In i888. In the foreground a little colored boy was pulling a Chinese lad's pigtail. The Faribault plan. worked out chiefly by the late Archbishop Ireland. Low Church. Episcopal. The result is that forty states now bar sectarian schools by constitutional enactment from participation in public funds. in 1891 . in 1873. Blaine's proposed amendment kicked around Congress for years . it was stated by Senator Blair that the amendment had been killed by the machinations of the Jesuits. Compromises were arranged here and there. 202 THE WARS OF THE GODLY The bottom tier of Nast's cartoon showed what might be expected should the state go in for supporting sectarian schools . Jewish. African and Chinese were marshaled side by side along a city street . and at Faribault. The school-boards of the towns rented the Catholic . achieved considerable fame and was adopted in a number of cities of the West and Middle West . New York. Our fathers were wiser in the handling of this question than were we in answering the liquor question : they left the matter to the states to decide . as at Poughkeepsie. Minnesota. High Church. while a Cro-Magnon child with a rosary slung from one arm and a Douai Bible squeezed under the other was brandishing a shillalah in the face of a little Jew .

We reproduce the gem below.D . SCHOOL WARS 203 school buildings at a nominal sum. Haid. and dubbed them public schools . and . The question put to each was whether he would at that time sanction a movement for a division of school funds . Ludden and Verdaquer . Some of the most prominent recanters were Archbishops Ireland. beginning with Archbishop Ireland. Possibly the most acute piece of political rhetoric ever uttered on the public school fund issue was given voice by Theodore Roosevelt in a speech at Boston in 1893 . while the school-boards paid the teachers and kept the buildings in order . was at the height of its power. Bourgade and Janssen. in 1893.P. Catholic religious instruction went right on. When the A . J." with varying words of qualification which indicate to a lay mind that the good doctors wished to preserve for themselves the well-known " out " in case of a sudden shift in the political or educational wind.A . The four die-hards were Bishops Durier. At Faribault. the Independent queried twenty-nine Roman Catholic D . J . Katzer.'s of the greatest eminence. on the subject of the schools ." with analogous negatives pregnant subjoined . Twenty-five of the prelates answered " No. Keane. Four answered " Yes. and Bishops McQuaid and Horstmann . the Protestants scored a victory in that religious instruction was scheduled outside school hours . imparted by the same teachers.

in order that every American citizen. but the professors of all creeds be treated alike." New York's supreme court declared the Poughkeepsie scheme unconstitutional in 19or. " Because [said Roosevelt] we are unqualifiedly and without reservation against any system of denominational schools. " Exactly as we welcome to them alike the children of Jew and Gentile. above all. without regard to what his own private religious belief may be. and. maintained by the adherents of any creed with the help of state aid. free from any attitude of hostility to the adherents of any particular creed . therefore we as strenuously insist that the public schools shall be free from sectarian influences. so we insist that in their management no one creed shall have any special jurisdiction. of Catholic and Protestant. 204 THE WARS OF THE GODLY commend it to the earnest study of any politician who wishes to become proficient in the art of feigning a fight with everybody but in reality tickling everybody's most precious prejudice . under the pretense of friendship for them. stir up hostility toward them by seeking to discriminate in their name against those people who hold a given religious belief. shall feel that he has an equal voice therein . A few towns here and there operate under the Faribault . and we denounce as the worst foes of the public schools those who.

though their howlers have delivered the customary yardage of magniloquence anent the Little Red Schoolhouse and the menaced minds of our precious children ." to use the forceful language of one antiCatholic writer.for decades to come. Maine. Bible-reading in the public schools has been forbidden or made optional in thirtyseven states . let the Catholic clerics raise as may please them the ancient shriek of " Taxation without representation ! " The United States Supreme Court put the Oregon school law to the sword a couple of years after its passage . and Tennessee . Georgia. but the school fight is about at an end to all appearances at the time this is written . Kentucky.though in religious conflict nothing is certain . Indiana. " As the result of the joint campaign. It is required only in Alabama. The Protestants have won the fight over the money . . There the matter bids fair to stand . Pennsylvania. Delaware. the Catholics have seen a principle carried to victory. let the Klan rave as it may about the appalling number of public school teachers who profess the Roman Catholic religion. Oregon. New Jersey. waged by papists and Jews against the Word of God. From that time to this the anti-Catholics have done little of a specific nature toward removing the alleged cancer of parochialism from the body politic. North Carolina. SCHOOL WARS 205 system.

Butte . The story follows : On the morning of July 4. Across the street were the Columbia saloon. Virginia .CHAPTER XXV T HE writer's father. I had come to Butte some three weeks before from Charlottesville. 1894. Mr . I was sitting at the window of the office where I worked as a law clerk. Maury's narrative concerns a series of glorious free-for-ails staged by Protestants and Catholics at Butte on the 119th birthday of the independence of the United States as a land of freedom for all. has been enough to paper the eyewitness story which constitutes this volume's opening chapter on what was unquestionably the gaudiest. Mr. Montana. religious freedom being included by express stipulation of the Federal Constitution . had never heard of the American Protective Association . 206 THE BRAVE DAYS OF OLD . at 17 West Broadway. Maury of Butte.good Lowndes to commit H. brassiest and most picturesque anti-Catholic movement in the nation's history . and a saloon known as Tommy & Teddy's Place .

The man whose forehead had been hit was up and fighting again in two or three minutes. The county sheriff. THE BRAVE DAYS OF OLD 207 A crowd of twenty-five or thirty young Irishmen came up the street .A. It developed later that the bullet had glanced and struck another man in the groin. striking him on the forehead . The police force of the city were chiefly Irishmen. S . Suddenly another crowd of men rushed from the Columbia saloon and a general fight commenced. The crowd increased for about an hour . a " horse pistol. One pointed at some American flags draped to form the letters A . He shot the Irishman from a distance of four or five feet. in Virginian parlance. . who had a rock in a sock as his weapon . O. Duggan. though I do not believe he was ever a member of the A. as was Mayor E . Reynolds. I do not recall any police interference . sympathized with the other faction. They stood muttering for some moments . over the saloons above-mentioned . J . It was a long-barreled pistol .A.P." though I soon learned to call it a gun . This man picked out a large Irishman. all kinds of weapons being brought into play. Some of them were under the influence of liquor and some were not .P. When the Irishman fell I thought he was dead. while the man with the groin wound died some ten days later . One man from the saloon had what I then called.

strange to say. in spite of its anger. but the deputies repulsed them without firing any shots . Lyons was known to be half crazy. so that when he commenced firing the crowd scattered as fast as it . two deputy sheriffs appeared from within and showed their badges . These men were perfectly fearless. and remained visible for many years. a local character . nor Catholic.A. I was standing in the crowd in front of this saloon about three P . Several of the crowd attempted to enter the saloon. with rifles as I learned afterward . but.P . The street in this block was crowded with men until about three in the afternoon .P.ran up to the Sazerac and fired six revolver shots through the front window.M .I think he was neither A . The crowd showed.A . but simply crazed by the general excitement . a willingness to obey constituted authority . and were organized for attack on the building . Another saloon in the same block. called the Sazerac. and there were cries from them that they would tear down the flags . that day when one " Cap " Lyons. also displayed the American flag draped to form the letters A . But as they moved to storm the Columbia. no one inside this building was hit . The men inside returned Lyons's fire. The bullet-holes in the building across the street were numerous enough. 208 THE WARS OF THE GODLY An enormous crowd of Catholics had gathered by noon in front of the Columbia saloon.

McHatton. whether they were A . " I will tear them down or bite the dust . As the highest officer of the law in the county.'s or Catholics . out of respect for property rights and regard for their own personal safety. now entered the Sazerac by the back door. One Daly. Fist fights were going on throughout the city of Butte that day from ten in the morning to threethirty P . and the crowd had massed once more before the Sazerac saloon . About four o'clock in the afternoon the mayor ordered out the fire department. he earnestly asked them to disperse. evidently a Catholic. THE BRAvE DAYS OF OLD 209 could. he stood up in a second-story window and addressed the crowd . a man in front of the saloon said.M. " Bite the dust "-and shot him twice in the region of the heart . Having emptied his pistol. saying in dramatic fashion. a devout Catholic and district judge.P. Some stayed from curiosity. With the owners' permission. Another half-hour. which played hoses on the crowd and soon scattered it .A. Daly died almost instantly . This speech had no effect on any of us . John J . drew a revolver and started for the flag-draped saloon. Men at that time . as I did. Lyons himself took to his heels . There was fighting of every variety that night in the Butte saloons ." As the words left his mouth. and some stayed to fight and argue .

was a devoted Freemason and likewise a devout Roman Catholic . some from Cornwall. some from Wales . there were never more than 300 A. in the aorta . a town then of 35. It was said on reliable authority. that in Butte.A . The A. so far as could be learned. Some were from Canada.000 people. Many people who were not Catholics were supposed by the Catholics to be members of the A.P . Membership (1928) 50. The bullet lodged in the heart .A. No prosecutions were ever instituted against any of the rioters . The bitterness between the organization known as the Sons of St . In the Pine Tree saloon a Cornishman was trampled to death . he lived seven and onehalf days . George' and the 1 A national fraternal order composed of men of English birth or descent . 210 THE WARS OF THE GODLY outnumbered women in Butte by at least two to one.P. To the astonishment of medical men. or at least so the press reported .A.P. with either faction was shot. after the society became moribund.000. The head of the firm for which I worked. chapter in Butte was composed chiefly of men born outside the United States . then Montana's leading law firm. . The organization's membership was thought to be much larger than it actually was . In another saloon a man in no way connected. I was informed. In the West of those days fraternal lines were not drawn so tightly as they are now .'s.

and. Maury wrote later .P.A. " I was never in any way identified or allied with either faction.A." ." Mr . by way of reflective postscript : " The hatred engendered by that day's work was from ten to twenty years in dying out .P. This fact was always a fair indication to me of what nationality probably made up the bulk of the local A . and the Irish Catholics . THE BRAVE DAYS OF OLD 211 Irish Catholics was almost as intense as was that between the A .

ooo-bill which he asserted could be heard calling Gosper a liar . Bishop McNamara. because Catholics and Protestants were boycotting one another . Ex-priest Slattery precipitated a bloody riot at Keokuk. Such things were going on all over the northern and western states -for be it noted that A . J. and exhibited a $i. 212 . brought on a similar uproar at Kansas City . Michigan.P. Stores and offices were closing in Saginaw.CHAPTER XXVI T HUS did Americans buffet onewas floweringthe another in name of religion when Bryanism in HoW THE A .A. K . Donegan. whereupon uprose D .A'ism gained scarce a foothold in the South . at a banquet in that year. Gosper told the Unity club of Los Angeles. of a pocket cult owned by himself and Ann O'Delia Dis Debar. Iowa. BEGAN Nebraska and Cleveland sat in the White House striving to massage away the black eye which the panic of 1893 had given his administration .P. F. The Butte incident is no lone and isolated case picked out of those times to point a moral . contractor. that he knew five hundred stand of arms were at that moment stacked under the Roman Catholic cathedral .

when the A. What of its birth and infancy? Henry F . and the Catholics were beginning to grumble about the " new KnowNothingism. when he was succeeded by W. Most of its chapters -or councils. was well on the way toward becoming but a memory.P. This office he held until the A .P. It was organized in twenty states by the early part of 1893. Bowers at the time was sixty years of age and a respected member of the Clinton bar . H .A. Almost nothing in the way of active proselyting was done by the Bowers fraternity during its first six years . obsessed with a strong but not violent dislike of the Roman Catholic church .000 members. the Association's first supreme president . Yet by 1893 it had 70. as they were technically called . Bowers qualified as among earth's noblest : born in 182 7.A.'s blossom-time in 1894-96. BEGAN 213 But all these events took place when the order was six years old . of course. In 1898. Certainly if length of days is any index to character.P. Bowers was re-elected to his old post by his crumbling legions. Bowers founded the American Protective Association on March 13. Traynor of Detroit .were in towns of the northern Mississippi valley . 1887. HoW THE A. at Clinton. he lived into the year 1911. and held it until he died . J. Iowa .A. He seems to have been a worthy sort personally. He was." while the press customarily referred .

plus sound sentiments on immigration . or whoever wrote the A . marked off the A. This was that native-born Americans were not the only people who could qualify for membership in the order .A. so long as they possessed the qualities of " good Americans. Thus facts to make the present-day Ku Kluxer sweat with shame for his immediate spiritual forebears the Germans and Norwegians ran the A .P. the Swedes in Minneapolis. belt.000 by little more than a word-of-mouth campaign . and no more. Foreigners were admitted without question. oath.P. One principle. from the Native Americans. 214 THE WARS OF THE GODLY to the northern territory from Ohio to Nebraska as the " A.A. Bowers rounded up his first 70. was not the master of English that was Judson.P.A. were held to consist chiefly of hate for anything Roman Catholic.A. or whoever wrote the oath of the Know-Nothings . council in Milwaukee.A . Bowers.P.P." These facts constitute a splendid business index for any salesman of hate who wishes to know how large a potential market exists for him in the Middle West. and to gauge the probable amount of advertising he will have to do in order to win a modest degree of success . the KnowNothings and the twentieth-century Ku Klux Klan . Nor ." which by the A . the Anglo-Canadians in southeast Michigan .

" I furthermore promise and swear that I will not aid in building or maintaining. that I will not employ a Roman Catholic in any capacity if I can procure the services of a Protestant. A . oath is of interest . labor.. Congressman from Michigan. to become a member of this order.A. Follows Oath Number 4 of the A . M. Paul Globe in its exposure of the order.P.P. Linton.P. that I will use my utmost power to strike the shackles and chains of blind obedience to the Roman Catholic church from the hampered and bound consciences of a priest-ridden and church-oppressed people . " I do most solemnly promise and swear that I will always. by my resources. that I will never allow any one. any Roman Catholic church or institution of their sect . plead and wage a continuous warfare against ignorance and fanaticism .P. a member of the Roman Catholic church. as published by the St . 1893. to the utmost of my ability. when H . the A . BEGAN 215 did he possess the rhetoric of him who wove the vocal ties that bind the Klansmen of today .A.A . But to the connoisseur of hatreds expressed in neo-formal language. and also as read into the Congressional Record of October 31. HOW THE A .A. Youmans was battling to unseat William S. that I will use my influence to promote the interest of all Protestants everywhere in the world that I may be . I knowing him to be such .

but will do all in my power to retard and break down the power of the Pope. amen. nor will I enter into any agreement with a Roman Catholic to strike or create a disturbance whereby the Catholic employes may undermine and substitute their Protestant coworkers . " To all of which I do most solemnly promise and swear. of the members thereof. any Roman Catholic. that in all grievances I will seek only Protestants and counsel with them to the exclusion of all Roman Catholics. and the mandate of the Pope . so far as may lie in my power . Amen. endeavor to place the political positions of this government in the hands of Protestants. in this country or any other . I will erase the name of the ticket I vote . to the entire exclusion of the Roman Catholic church." . amen . that I will at all times. or counsel others to vote for. " I furthermore promise and swear that I will not countenance the nomination. of a Roman Catholic for any office in the gift of the American people. and will not make known to them anything of any nature matured at such conferences. so help me God . but will vote only for a Protestant. that I will not enter into any controversy with a Roman Catholic upon the subject of this order. 216 THE WARS OF THE GODLY or creed whatsoever. Should there be two Roman Catholics on opposite tickets. in any caucus or convention. and that I will not vote for.

followed in lockstep by a denial that the A . but such liberty was construed as not including the right in any ecclesiastical power of " absolute control over the education of children growing up under the Stars and Stripes . they were twelve in number . Loyalty to " true Americanism " led all the rest. The constitution of the United States was then conceded to guarantee religious liberty.A . No one not a citizen was to be allowed to enlist in army. says the historian Humphrey J.A. The customary blast against use of public monies for sectarian schools followed . war was declared . Church property was to be taxed like any other realty or personalty if the A . navy or militia . in 1898. HOW THE A." Catholic teachers in the public schools were put under the order's official ban by Principle 5. This codification was simply an ordered arrangement of the beliefs and aims which had guided the fraternity from its birth .A.P.P.P. Next came a denunciation of any ecclesiastical power that acknowledged an overlord higher than the United States government . held at Des Moines in 1894. and so were Catholics as members of school-boards . which " was cheerfully waived when. BEGAN 217 The principles which guided these patriots were the usual nativist dogmas . should have its way .a proposal. Desmond. As promulgated by the Supreme Council of the American Protective Association of the World. was politically partisan in any respect .

To What Extent Catholics Have Contributed to the A . all hospitals.A .the A .P . Jr .P . The A . charitable institutions and convents were to be thrown open to state inspection . Thus the professions and aspirations of the order which the Rev . the National Order of Videttes.P . Uprising . J. Lastly. .the A . "that hydraheaded monster. Narrative Founded on Personal Experience and Observation East and West. and the Catholic Claim to Religious Liberty in the United States .P ." Immigration was to be restricted and the naturalization period lengthened to seven years . 1894. absorbed-were the Order of the American Union. this secret. as a fair sample of the blather in which both sides indulged during the A.Its Principles .A.Its Methods-Causes of its Extension .P .Its Origin and Growth ."' Among the thirteen minor anti-Catholic and nativist orders formed between 1872 and 1 895 which the A. 1 Father Tighe's book was published in New York City.A .A . to Incite Riot and Create Panic. Tighe tastefully called. the Templars of Liberty. Father J .A. licentious and hell-founded organization which seeks to strike the baneful roots of its confederacy into the heart of this Republic . P . and the Crescents . We offer its full title here.P. by D . Stone Catholic Procession -the A . The courts were to be told that they must be less free and easy about admitting applicants to citizenship . Charge Catholics With Murder! They Extinguish Electric Light in Public Hall. The book was called : The A .A . excitement . Murphy. and the School Agitation . and the Liberal Catholic Party .P. in his book on the A. fractious.A .A .A . 218 THE WARS OF THE GODLY against Spain .A ..P. The A .P.P . .

which took the highly nativist and anti-papal name of the Order of the Little Red School House . John Jay III and others. . King. never drew from the Catholics any blast more withering than an occasional sneer of " Bigotry! " or snarl of " Misguided heretics! " tossed out of the corner of the mouth . What gave the A . at the beginning. founded at Saratoga. itself. BEGAN 219 The A.A. so horrible a mien in the eyes of good Catholics? Its principles and pretensions. New York. in 1889 by James M.A. HOW THE A. were identical with those of the National League for the Protection of American Institutions . Yet the latter order.P.A.P.P. gave birth to a child. as a consequence of the East Boston riot in 1895.

a professor at the Catholic University.A. Francis Archbishop Satolli. Washington. PANIC .'s sudden burst into national eminence and million-headed membership after six years of insignificance goes in about equal measure to the items listed in the title .P.another flareup in the long fight over the schools . But the Rev . PAGEANT . New York . The Catholics had lately won some local victories in their drive to put parochial schools on a fiscal par with public schools. Minnesota. titular of Lepanto.CHAPTER XXVII SATOLLI . CORE . and first apostolic delegate to the United States . FORGERY CREDIT for the A. had stirred up a fight in the hierarchy by his pamphlet Education : To Whom Does It Belong? Bouquillon had flown in the face of most Catholic priestly educational philosophy by declaring : 220 . and Poughkeepsie. A sixth factor was of considerable importance . Satolli's full name and title were His Excellency. sometime papal commissioner to the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. notably at Faribault. This prelate's first visit to the United States occurred in 1892 . He later became a cardinal . Father Thomas Bouquillon.

4 . ARCHBISHOP OF BOSTON P . . CARDINAL O'CONNELL. Photo. & .WILLIAM.

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and not to any one of these four factors separately . of such import as to necessitate a council of archbishops at New York City in the following year. nor did the well-meaning prelate. Monsignor Satolli (he was but a monsignor at that time) was asked to advise the agitated clerics . PAGEANT . Nothing came of that . . The battle was not resolved until Pope Leo XIII. in 1893 peremptorily ordered the church in America to look to the decrees of its third plenary Baltimore council for guidance on the subject and nowhere else . fail to tell Americans precisely how they ought to conduct themselves under numerous and varied circumstances . Satolli cast into fourteen formal propositions what he considered the proper attitude for his church to take in matters educational. He proceeded to deliver numerous lectures in all the principal American cities . to the church. to all four together. to the family. fresh from Italy. CORE . and submitted the document to the archbishops . and set up offices at Washington like any ambassador . 1892 . PANIS . using Cardinal Gibbons as mouthpiece. FORGERY 221 "Education belongs to men taken individually and collectively in legitimate association. to the state." A furious debate ensued.SATOLLI . But Satolli returned to the United States as apostolic delegate in 1893.

in which he insulted the apostolic delegate as thoroughly as possible and said as little of a concrete nature as could well have been drawn out to 35. and the reaction was strong . Another influence that drove its tens of thousands into the A . This time the outsider happened also to be a Roman Catholic prelate. and the American Citizen Publishing Company of Boston issued them in a book which ran through several editions . He simply made himself unpopular and increased the nativist distrust of his denomination . Protestant Episcopal bishop of western New York . At any rate. seized on Coxe's outpourings with great glee. was the panic of 1893 . Americans have never craved advice from outsiders . Coxe was at this time an aged man.000 words of abuse . a very pompous and opinionated one . whose controversial genius was in flower when Coxe was a young clergyman . Grover Cleveland had beaten Benjamin Harrison to the . The ranking plumed knight in the paper fight on Satolli was the Rt . the bishop addressed a series of open letters to Satolli.A. and. Dr. The A . 222 THE WARS OF THE GODLY No wild applause cheered to the echo these addresses by the delegate .A . Cleveland Coxe. nor was his life conspired against as had been Bedini's forty years before him . Yet Satolli was not mobbed. A .P. Probably he dreamed of duplicating the rhetorical triumphs of Bishop Hopkins of Vermont. if his photographs prove anything. Rev.P.

Lincoln and Jefferson combined .A. as it would have blamed any President ensconced in the White House at the time though his virtues outshone those of Washington. mistook the A .A. All of them wanted to have a finger-hold on the biggest available club wherewith to brain the Cleveland administration when next the chance should offer . breadlines festooned the cities like drab necklaces of woe. there were no jobs for the underdog .even though base libels were already in circulation to the effect that Columbus was no Catholic but a Genoese Jew? Catholicity did celebrate . Many a Republican who had voted the Democratic ticket saw red. CORE . PANTS .P. PAGEANT .SATOLLI . So did many a Democrat .P . money froze in the banks.'s numerous municipal victories for signs of approaching national power. The nation blamed Cleveland. The year 1892 was the four hundredth anniversary of America's discovery by Christopher Columbus .P. and immediately thereafter times had gone to the bad . out of weedhood into red and purple inflorescence .A. Parochial schools and Catholic societies paraded and cornerstoned and dedicated with an industry scarce par- . Strikes crippled industries and railroads. FORGERY 2 2 3 Presidency in 1892. What more appropriate than that Catholicity all over the land should celebrate . and rushed into the A . Catholicity itself had no little to do with the sudden blooming of the A .

the rapid spread of educated intelligence. hot from the Vatican .P. Early in 1893. primate of his church in the United States. And. Cardinal Gibbons himself. too. was more than enough to terrify that excitable portion of the American public which sees sinister intentions beneath any display of Catholic fervor . bringing up the rear by way of countersignature . knowing well . Such a year-long jubilee. some enterprising person within the order itself decided that the time was gone by for mere passive recruiting .A. From this source. The first of these was entitled " Instructions to Catholics . drummed up its share of legionaries . lastly. To the " Instructions " were appended the names of eight American archbishops. " We view with alarm [the prelates were quoted as saying in the body of this vicious lampoon]." The second purported to be a bull of Pope Leo XIII. two alleged official documents of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in the United States began to circulate through midwestern America. reaching its apex of rapture on October 12. Something big must be done. 224 THE WARS OF THE GODLY alleled in American history . with the name of James. something that would impress and affright . Catholic laymen wrote long and boresome panegyrics of Columbus to the newspapers . the A . Archbishops and bishops verbally volleyed and thundered.

It stands before the world as the tongue which has for 300 years ever been opposed to our holy church. CORE . Therefore we call upon our subjects to do all they can to break down and destroy the free public schools of this protestant nation. so glorious. which has . to do the thinking of this world ." Another evil beset this province of the church militant : " We view with alarm the rapid diffusion of the English language . the people must not think . That in order to restore the order of things that made the reign of Gregory VII." As to schools : " We are opposed to any system of schools that teaches the youth more than the Roman catechism. and those who speak it have been foremost in assailing the holy see . PAGEANT . a waste of time and money. who by divine right is the only person appointed by God to do the political and religious thinking of this world . especially at the Vatican council in 1870. or that teaches the youth to think -it is unnecessary. of holy memory. FORGERY 225 that wherever the people are intelligent. that is a privilege that belongs only to the pope. PANTS . when the holy father has been appointed by God.SATOLLI . the priest and prince cannot hope to live on the labor of the masses whose brains have been fertilized with our holy catechism .

above all the press . thus lessening the incomes of the clergy . mines. papers in the United States was printing them over and over .P. There are many ways to consult your father confessor. Within a month after their first publication every one of the sixty-odd A . railways." The remedy prescribed for these manifold evils : " In order to find employment for the many thousands of the faithful who are coming daily to swell the ranks of our Catholic army. Some held . which will in due time possess this land. You must not stop at anything to accomplish this end .A.in fact. it is your duty to do so . newspaper they were first published is not known . every enterprise requiring labor. a malevolent fake from beginning to end. forged. as the merest high school student of grammar and English composition could have divined . but ` be careful to do nothing that will create scandal . we must secure control of all the cities.' " The " Instructions " were. this will render it necessary to remove or crowd out the American heretics who are now employed . of course. manufactories. in order to furnish our newcomers employment . 226 THE WARS OF THE GODLY compelled us to set up and maintain at great expense