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# MOTOR SAVER Technical Book

SK-hitech Co.,Ltd

-CONTENTS-

## 1. Principle of Motor Saver

2. Truth of

I 2 R (Line Loss)

## 1. Principle of Motor Saver

New Concept of Compensation of Power Factor(the ratio of effective power to apparent power) The diversified ways to improve the efficiency of electric system while to reduce power consumption have been developed and will be developed now and forever. However, it is hardly to find the groundbreaking the electric power reduction equipment likes Motor Saver that its main principle is Compensation of Power Factor. Finally, we are able to reduce remarkably electric power consumption both for commercial and industrial with Motor Saver.. What is Power Factor There are two kinds of electric power for the consumers. 1. The electricity[electric power] consumed for carrying out the work 2. The electricity[electric power] consumed for making of magnetic current essential for the operation of inducible electric equipment. The foregoing the electricity[electric power] stated in #2 is called to Wattless Power due to not using for the actual work. The typical examples are the inducible-load like motor or transformer that needs more current-inflow in distribution line to maintain the stable output. After all power factor is calculated as the consumable electric power for the actual work divided by total consumable power. Motor Saver carries out its role to improve power factor by cutting off unnecessary inflow-current by supplying Wattless Power. How does Motor Saver save the consumable money? There are two types for Motor Saver to save money. First, a electric company imposes a fine by the low power factor. From their point of view, the electric company should supply relatively more unnecessary electric power to the customer charge of the low power factor and it makes burden too heavy for the company. But in case of using Motor Saver, it can reduce a fine of low power factor since power factor would be improved. Moreover, the electric charge is expected to be reduced by reducing of the maximum demanded electricity and volume of consumed electric power. Second, the other benefit by using Motor Saver is the relative increase in capacity of the distribution line since Motor Saver reduce the volume of currentinflow to the line. Generally, hanging Motor Saver to the existed line, you can get 20% surplus current to supply with putting current-breaker, new line and
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transformer. The equipments that deteriorate power factor Power Factor may be deteriorated by electrical equipments in the factory, especially by the inducible vibration-equipment in constant load. The general power factor per electrical equipment as follows; Over 80% power factor: air conditioner(with qualified design), pump, grinder, air blower Over 60-80% power factor: induction furnace, printer, textile machine Under 60 % power factor: compressor, auto-machine, electro motor, welding machine, final grinder, If you have the above mentioned equipments in your factory, you can reduce consumable current with Motor Saver system. Who get benefit from Motor Saver system? The customers who use inducible loaded equipment can reduce electric charge immediately after Motor Saver installation. The inducible loaded equipment means that all electric equipment making electromagnetic field likes motors, air conditioner, electric tools, refrigerator, compressor and fluorescent lamp. It is very easy to install Motor Saver and even no need to maintain it. Motor Saver is a new, innovative item that working for 24 hours to save electric charge of customers and it has been achieved recognition for commercial and industrial field, that is certified by test result. Moreover, Motor Saver has been certified that it can reduce 10%-24% of electric charges by users. This fact means that investment would be retrieved within 2 years in the light of Philippines electric charges system. Motor Saver Systems Gain. 1. Improvement of Power Factor Power Factor is the ratio of active power[current] against total consumable power[current]. In other words, the ratio of effective power to apparent power. Power Factor is showed with (decimal) point under 1(one) or percentage. Power Factor(PF) = Effective (Electric)Power / Apparent Power = 60 KW / 100 KVA = 0.6 ( 60 % ) The best effect of Power Factor Improvement is to reduce the current passing through the distribution line and the following gain will immediately be acquired. A. Consumable Apparent Power for acquiring same effective power ; In case the electric charges largely affect the capacity of accommodated
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## Ex.) KVA necessary in actual power 600 KW

Power Factor Effective power Wattless power Total Power 60% 600 KW 800 KVAR 1000 KVA 70% 600 KW 612 KVAR 857 KVA 80% 600 KW 450 KVAR 750 KVA 90% 600 KW 291 KVAR 667 KVA 100% 600 KW 0 KVAR 600 KVA

B. The Change of Effective Power Volume in same Apparent Power In case Motor Saver is installed, it can reduce consumable power of transformer and distribution line in the factory. From the result, it is available for additional installation of motor, lighting fixtures or heater in the factory. And it can mitigate the load of electric equipments that have excessively been operated and lengthen its life span and keep far stable voltage. In example (1),it shows how the process is going on. Before the installation of Motor Saver, this motor needed 10 ampere but only 8 ampere needed after installation of Motor Saver, that means 20 % reduction. Thats because Motor Saver can supply magnetic current that necessary for the motor. The ratio of reduction is depends on the type of motor. Ex1) Picture

Ex)2 When 600 KVA is supplying ,the available volume of the effective power Power Factor 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Effective power 360 KW 420 KW 480 KW 540 KW 600 KW Wattless power 480 KVAR 428 KVAR 360 KVAR 262 KVAR 0 KVAR Total Power 600 KVA 600 KVA 600 KVA 600 KVA 600 KVA C. Voltage-Improvement by improving voltage drop in line If the rated voltage is not available in a motor, it would be overloaded or inappropriately operated. The graph shows change of the number of rotation and moving-torque depend on the impressed voltage.

D. Smallization transformer and circuit breaker leads to reduce electric wire price: In case of new facility (Ex.)The following pictures indicate the required thickness of electric wire is different depends upon power factor when 100 KW power supplied.

E. Line-Loss[I through.

## R]Reduction =Proportional to the square of the current passing

The loss of electricity on the line =(square of the current passing through) x (line resistance) = I 2 R If current is reduced 20% with Motor Saver, the loss of electricity on the line would be reduced 36%.
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The ratio of line-loss[I 2 R] Reduction(%) = 100 100 (previous Power Factor / new Power Factor)2 (Ex) In case Power Factor has improved from 65% to 90% ; The ratio of Line-Loss[I 2 R] Reduction(%) = 100 100 (65 / 90)2 = 48 %

## 2. Voltage Improvement, Illumination Efficiency Upgrade,& Efficiency of motor Improving

The low voltage is refined as words of high cost. Sometimes, excessive voltages make lightening system as inefficient but proper motor managing not available in low voltage condition. Moreover, a lot of electric elements are working under unfavorable conditions, and electric furnace cant radiate heat. These kinds of problem are resulted from inducible load that necessary for wattless power and Motor Saver focuses to solve these problems. Motor Saver can improve voltage drop with supplying wattles power without extra consumption of power. After all, Motor Saver can reduce electric charges with reduction of power consumption but also reduce maintenance expense and extend the life span of electric equipment. (ex) In the ideal electric circuit, the phase of voltage and current are coincided. This means 100% effective power is consumed in load condition.

In general electric equipments, the phase of voltage and current Are not coincided due to inducible resistance and total efficiency on the line would be low.

If some electric power system has difference in the phase as foregoing, each electric equipment needs more current-inflow to carry out the burden work. This leads also additional burden of line loss[I 2 R],consumable power volume, and maintenance expenses. Just in that case, if you use Motor Saver, it would upgrade total efficiency of electric equipment depends upon the character of individual system and finally can reduce overall expenses including electric charges.

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## Truth of Line loss (I2R) and Calculation Method

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parallel load is same but the current is same as total of current passing through each load. If put the branch circuit as dotted line in the following pictures, the total loaded-current is to be not 6A but 8A.

Therefore, total current in electric system means total current passing through all branch circuits. Regardless the size ,if any load is added, the current from that is increased and since it passes through same wire, Line loss is increased. After all, it is no choice but to reduce the current in order to Line loss.

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< Calculation method of Line loss and the effect as increased-load > 3 PHASE,240 VOLT,12,000 WATTS(power factor ; 100 % )

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We can the important fact as follows from the calculation example; (1) Even in the line that 100% power factor, line resistance occurs inevitably.(Thats because even any conductor, resistance is existed. The only solution to reduce this is using expensive low-coefficient resistance likes gold or silver or copper its thicker conductor of large volume) (2) Line loss occurred because of initial load of 12,000 Watts is 165 Watts. By the way, In case of increased 4 loads, Line loss will be increased 2819.29 Watts. That is, the fact is not simple 165 Watts X 4 = 660 Watts. This means that Line loss is represented the square of line- current and each loadedcurrent affects accumulatively to the increase of Line loss. The below graph indicates the change volume of Line loss whenever current is variable 5 Amps .You can get the fact that though current variable limit of 5 Amps, the total current is larger, variable range of Line loss is larger, the total current is smaller, variable range of Line loss is smaller,

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You can know Line loss reduction volume of motor that connected to some circuit is same when power factor is compensated regardless of loaded or unloaded condition, from actual experiment in the laboratory or through mathcalculation. That is, in case unloaded 5HP motor that its initial power factor of 0.33 is compensated to 0.6 with Motor Saver, its Line loss reduction volume would be 47 Watts. This motor is even under loaded condition, its initial power factor o.7 is compensated to o.9,its Line loss reduction volume would be 47 Watts also. That is, in case of 5 HP,3Phase motor, its power reduction is to be 47 Watts regardless of loaded or unloaded condition. In the light of thus result, lets suppose that 5 motors same as that in page 12 &13 connected from MCC part to voltmeter through sub-distribution part and main-distribution part. The concerned wire was properly designed and selected as indicated in the pictures. Since the total currents consumed for motor operation have to pass through each section wire from voltmeter, line loss(I2R),It has been calculated by the section unit. (picture A.B,C,D,) In case Motor Saver that its capacity of 10 KVAR(or 2KVAR,5 sets)is attached to these motors, Line loss reduced in section D is 235 Watts,507Watts in section C, 321 Watts in section B, 207 Watts in section A. Accordingly, total line loss reduction volume is 1270 Watts. And you can have surplus capacity room to install additionally motor one set without any protection apparatus or alternating to thicker wire as 14 A current would be reduced.
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In other words, you can get the overall Line loss reduction effect, not only in section D, but also in section A,B,C with reduced current 14 A after installation of Motor Saver. Moreover, this example is only one case limited to one field. Therefore, when you once install[attach] Motor Saver properly to each field, you can achieve remarkable line loss reduction effect through overall electric system. Regardless of electric charge system is KWD or KWH, or complex charges system, you can get considerable cost reduction effect whenever & wherever. Especially, you can more gain from overall electric system when install [attach] Motor Saver to near the end-load part.

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## KVA = 5.27 KVAR=3.73 KW = 3.73

KVA = total power KVAR= wattless power KW = effective power Power Factor: 70% Total current: 21.95 AMPS Effective current: 15.54 AMPS Wattless current: 15.54 AMPS

The connected line to motor is # 310-16, 10 of copper wire of NEC.TABLE and over level. The resistance on this wire is 1.06 OHM per 1000 If the length of motor and panel is 236, the resistance per one phase circuit is 0.25 OHM.
CONSUMABLE POWER : WORK 3730 KW I2R Line Loss 120 KW

## KVA = 4.11 KW = 3.73 KVAR = 1.73

Total Power =17.13 AMPS Effective Power = 15.54 AMPS Wattless Power = 7.21 AMPS Power Factor = .91 Total Power = Work 3,730 KW 2 I R Line Loss .073 KW Total 3.803 KW
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Line Loss Calculated as below ; (X2-Y2)R X = AMPS(Before compensation of power factor) Y = AMPS(After compensation of power factor) R = OHMS Total Power before compensation = 3.850 KW Total Power after compensation = 3.803 KW .047 KW

Power Factor : .33 Phase Angle : 70.7 Unloaded Before compensation (to P.F) P.F)

## Power Factor : .6 Phase Angle : 52.8 Unloaded After compensation (to

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Power Factor : .7 Phase Angle : 45.6 Loaded Before compensation (to P.F)

Power Factor : .9 Phase Angle : 25.84 Loaded After compensation (to P.F)

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Conclusion
As stated in the foregoing papers Line Loss occurred when additionally attach a load to the existed wire is considerably larger than in case of making the individual load as sole wire. Ex.)1 : See 20A passing on the circuit of 0.5 OHMS

## In the case of that, Line loss is

Supposed this load is an inducible load that of 10 AMPS reactance, install Motor Saver on the circuit and supply the loss of 10 AMPS, you can reduce total input-current as 10 AMPS.

From the calculation of Line loss after install Motor Saver, you can get . Therefore, you can acquire electric gain of 150 Watts after install Motor Saver.

## Line Loss = 402 X 0.5 OHMS = 800 Watts

Install the same Motor Saver that reduced 10 A in example 1 to the circuit .In this case, the reduced currency is 13.56 A.
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## X .5 OHMS = 350 Watts

That is, line loss deduction is 450 Watts. As explained before, in 2nd example, though the load has been increased two times than 1st example, loss reduction volume has been 3 times.This is can be done by only Motor Saver with its remarkable feature and quality.

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## 3. Difference of Motor Saver and Capacitor Bank

Commonly, condenser is installed in large sized building or receiving end impedance of factory as following purposes; 1) Prevent from Power Factor Declining(prevent the loss by low power factor) 2) Enlarge suppliers power supplying ability. One the other hand, Motor Saver is installed beside motor or inside panel to the following purposes; a)Prevent from Power Factor Declining b)Enlarge suppliers power supplying ability. c)Enlarge the affordable ability of each panel and line d)Keep stable voltage by reduction of line loss. e)Reduction of line loss, maximum power demand, and consumable power Of the above mentioned purposes, e) is main purpose of Motor Saver and of cost down. In case condenser is connected in parallel on line, power factor is increased while current passing through the line would be reduced. Therefore, the beneficiary from the condenser attaching is just the supplier of the electricity, the electric company. With tightly reducing the consumers consuming electric power, the company can drastically reduce not only the capacity of circuit breaker, automatic switch, and generator but also line loss but most customers still have problem of line loss and voltage decline. But Motor Saver is different from this, as it is installed nearest in loaded parts, from the installation point to the receiving end impedance, users are to be beneficiary with diversified effects and finally, electric suppliers could become beneficiary also. In some cases, invest to Motor Saver would be burden than several condenser, it is worthy enough to choose in the light of energy saving and upgrade function.

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## 4. Experimental Verification of Motor Saver Effect

In Motor Saver working place, it is very hard to compute KHW reduction volume by individual load(end-line unit) except some special cases. Even it is available to show KHW reduction status with spot experimental example, but it not easy to indicate the result example of considerable and accumulative effect with using of Motor Saver for all facilities. That is because as below; First, reduced power by Motor Saver is total reduced volume of total line loss from end-load Motor Saver attached to main meter on the line. Therefore, you should set meter beside main meter since exact reduction volume is accumulative calculated in main meter. However, the individual reduction effect by each Motor Saver is physically impossible. Second, if section circuit is exist, line loss is composed. That is, the total section loss is larger than grand total loss volume. This is PIGGY BACK phenomenon. Like this, More Motor Saver installed in all load parts, more its reduction effective.

To conclude, even you can guess reduction volume by each motor, you cant check all reduction volume through the main meter. Thats because there isnt section circuit between experimental meter and motor and reduction volume from PIGGY BACK Effect is not clear.

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## 5. Proper Installation Way of Motor Saver

Motor Saver is a FAIL-SAFE CAPACITOR that approved by CSA and UL. All Motor Savers equipped with pressure cut-off apparatus and it would be separate and cutoff Motor Saver from outside circuit in case of accident. As Motor Saver is connected in parallel to power transmission line of motor, it is not obstructed for operation even during separated after accident. Concerned Power Factor of inducible motor, it is recommended to observe the following installation standard ; 1. When use the capacitor that power factor adjustable, you set total KVAR of motor controller is under 1(one),,power factor during unloaded. If total KVAR over 1(one),passing current is excessive and it leads to occur excessive voltage, current, and torque. Therefore, it may lead physical risk or motor damage, or give ill affect to driving system.

2. In the following cases, you cant directly connect the capacitor that power factor adjustable to motor terminal. i.e.; elevator motor, multi-single speed floating motor, plugging-jogging motor, star-delta motor, automatic transformer, driving motor, some motor for winding machine

## If so, it can keep the inflow-

current to the relay that prevent overload motor, and then, no need to adjust the relay. In case of ,you have to change the fix-current of the protect-relay. The motor in the aforesaid article # 2 should be installed to . In any case, please dont make excessive condition and set the power factor of BUS is not beyond 95%.

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