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QUESTION 1 (a) First language A first language is the language a person has learned from birth or within the

critical period or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity. The first language of a child is part of their personal, social and cultural identity. Another impact of the first language is that it brings about the reflection and learning of successful social patterns of acting and speaking. It is basically responsible for differentiating the linguistic competence of acting. A person's first language may not be their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition. This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption), to a new language environment. L2 to L1 is recognized as the fifth skill and the most important social skill since it promotes communication and understanding between strangers (Ross, 2000:63).

(b) Mother tongue The origin of the term "mother tongue" harks back to the fact that linguistic skills of a child are honed by the mother and therefore the language spoken by the mother would be the primary language that the child would learn. In some countries, the terms native language or mother tongue refer to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Mother tongue has potentially both positive and negative consequences: it may serve social and cognitive functions (Carless, 2008:331). In the context of population censuses conducted on the Canadian population, Statistics Canada defines mother tongue as "the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the census." Sometimes, there can be more than one mother tongue, when the child's parents speak different languages. Those children are usually called bilingual. Sometimes

the term mother tongue or mother language is used for the language that a person learnt as a child at home (usually from their parents). Children growing up in bilingual homes can, according to this definition, have more than one mother tongue or native language. In some countries such as Kenya, India, and various East Asian countries, "mother language" or "native language" is used to indicate the language of one's ethnic group, in both common and journalistic parlance (e.g. 'I have no apologies for not learning my mother tongue'), rather than one's first language. Also in Singapore, "mother tongue" refers to the language of one's ethnic group regardless of actual proficiency, while the "first language" refers to the English language that was established on the island through British colonisation, which is the lingua franca for most post-independence Singaporeans due to its use as the language of instruction in government schools and as a working language. "The notion of 'mother tongue' is thus a mixture of myth and ideology. The family is not necessarily the place where languages are transmitted, and sometimes we observe breaks in transmission, often translated by a change of language, with children acquiring as first language the one that dominates in the milieu. This phenomenon . . . concerns all multilingual situations and most of the situations of migration." (Louis Jean Calvet, Towards an Ecology of World Languages. Polity Press, 2006)

(c) Second Language A second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. A second language or L2 is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas (such as Esperanto). According to some researchers, the defining difference between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) is the age the person learned the language. For example, linguist Eric Lenneberg used second language to mean a language consciously acquired or used

by its speaker after puberty. In most cases, people never achieve the same level of fluency and comprehension in their second languages as in their first language. Acquiring a second language can be a lifelong learning process for many. Despite persistent efforts, most learners of a second language will never become fully nativelike in it, although with practice considerable fluency can be achieved. A 'second language' usually has official status or a recognised function within a country which a foreign language has not and furthermore these two different situations frequently have important consequences to which attention has been drawn in some books. For example, Persian is a second language for Kurdish people, but not vice versa, because there is no Kurdish environment for Persian speakers who are learning Kurdish. On the other hand, English is a foreign language for both groups, because there is no contact between Kurdish and Persian people with English people. However, if an Iranian person goes to USA, then English becomes a second language for him or her. Thus British immigrants to Iran learn Persian as a second language and Persian speakers study English in Britain as a second language. In Kermanshah or Kurdistan, we can speak of learning Kurdish by Persian speakers as a second rather than foreign language.

(d) Foreign language A foreign language is a language indigenous to another country. It is also a language not spoken in the native country of the person referred to, i.e. an English speaker living in Japan can say that Japanese is a foreign language to him or her. These two characterisations do not exhaust the possible definitions, however, and the label is occasionally applied in ways that are variously misleading or factually inaccurate. Some children learn more than one language from birth or from a very young age: they are bilingual or multilingual. These children can be said to have two, three or more mother tongues: neither language is foreign to that child, even if one language is a foreign language for the vast majority of people in the child's birth country. For example, a child learning English from her English father and Japanese at school in

Japan can speak both English and Japanese, but neither is a foreign language to her. In pedagogy and sociolinguistics, a distinction is often made between 'second language' and foreign language, the latter being learned for use in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Arguably, English in countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands can be considered a second language for many of its speakers, because they learn it young, speak it fluently, and use it regularly, indeed in southern Asia it is the official language of the courts, government and business. The same can be said for French in the Arab Maghreb Union, except for Libya, although like for English in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, French is not an official language in any of these Arabic-speaking countries. In China (with the exception perhaps of Hong Kong), however, English would be considered a foreign language due to the lack of a number of characteristics, such as historical links, media, opportunities for use, similar vocabulary, and common script. In Malaysia, the scenario is different from other country because Malaysia is a multiracial country. There are many languages but French, can be considered a foreign language.

QUESTION 2 Normally, I read material in Malay language (first language) like magazine and advertisement. Mostly, the magazine that I interested the most was published in" Bahasa Malaysia" likes "Majalah Pengguna"," Majalah Wanita"," Dewan Masyarakat" and others. I think to red advertisement in Malay Language is better than in English because the 90 percent of the advertisement has word and grammatically error.

QUESTION 3 My second language is English. Most of the time I read materials likes newspaper, readers digest and novels. I interested those material in English because I am a keen reader. Furthermore, the material in English Language is more interesting from the word, vocabulary and structure that make those materials more interesting. QUESTION 4 (a) Reading novel is interesting when the words are easy to understand. Normally, novel is more detailed than movie. Reading also is suitable for the person who loves reading than season reading. The person who reading as a hobby will get more from reading and can feel the chronology of the story. Meanwhile, watching movie based novel will enjoyed the story because we can get the input through audio and visual at the same time. People dont like reading because reading make them bored but its different when watching movie. However, the chronology of the story in the movie is not detail as novel. So, the best way to really get a deep story is reading but if we want a good time is through watching movie. (b) My experience tells me that I love reading and watching movie. I rather choose to watch movie based novel than reading novel because its more time valuable that I can save more time. Reading need a good mood, relax time and focus to get the story and the worst is reading takes time to finish and sometimes didnt finish at all. An example, it may takes three hours to watch movie Lord of the ring but it needs more than a week to finish the book. On my opinion, nowadays I prefer to watch movie with nice graphic design, science innovation, real actor and actress and many more that entertaining.


Since childhood in the family, I rarely read with my siblings. Sometimes, my parents bought books for us to read and its so interesting at that time because those books were about folk story. Influenced from my siblings also has encouraged me to read book. My parents also always remind us to read book for our knowledge, enhance vocabulary and fluently reading skill.


During my school time, I like to visit library because there were many books to read. My book types are all about kids and their adventure investigation. This kind of books had many series and I read all those books. Besides that I read text book but not so enthusiasm as reading story book.


Most of the time, I will have my book with me. I cant stand without do anything especially go travelling or in the waiting room. The time that I had at home supposed to be filled with benefit activities, so outside the house reading is one activity that I can easily do.