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# Subnetting & Supernetting

October 2011

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Part I - Subnetting

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Numerical Calculations
Network size is the number of IP addresses in a subnet, including the

## network ID and the broadcast address

Magic nb is the same as the network size if prefix > /24

Magic nb must always be between 1 and 255. If greater than 255, divide

## by 256. If smaller than 1, multiply by 256.

Every time you divide by 256, you move 1 octet to the left

Every time you multiply by 256, you move 1 octet to the right
Everything is a multiple of the magic nb (therefore, the name )

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Numerical Calculations
Nb of required subnets should be an exponential multiple of 2 (so, 2, 4,

## 8, 16, 32, etc.). If not, then round up.

To get the magic nb, few easy steps:

1.
2. 3. 4.

## Identify the first non-255 number in the mask

Subtract that number from 256 Divide the outcome by the number of required subnets Thats your magic nb!

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Numerical Calculations
Required number of subnets 5 (should be really looking at 8) Mask: (/24) 255.255.255.0 First non-255 number is 0 256 0 = 256 256 / 8 = 32 (thats the magic number) Mask: (/16) 255.255.0.0 First non-255 number is 0 256 0 = 256 256 / 8 = 32 (thats the magic number) Mask: (/20) 255.255.240.0 First non-255 number is 240 256 240 = 16 16 / 8 = 2 (thats the magic number)

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Numerical Calculations
Required number of subnets 12 (should be really looking at 16) Mask: (/25) 255.255.255.128 First non-255 number is 128 256 128 = 128 128 / 16 = 8 (thats the magic number) Mask: (/20) 255.255.240.0 First non-255 number is 240 256 240 = 16 16 / 16 = 1 (thats the magic number)

## On the 3rd octet

Mask: (/21) 255.255.248.0 First non-255 number is 248 Started on the 3rd but moved to the 4th octet 256 248 = 8 8 / 16 = 0.5 * 256 = 128 (thats the magic number)

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Numerical Calculations
Simply add the magic nb to the initial network. Example: subnetting

## 192.168.252.0 255.255.252.0 (/22) into 2, 4 or 8 subnets:

2 Subnets Magic Nb = (256-252)/2 = 2 4 Subnets Magic Nb = (256-252)/4 = 1 8 Subnets Magic Nb = (256-252)/8 = 128 (multiplied by 256)

192.168.252.0 192.168.254.0

## 192.168.252.0 192.168.252.128 192.168.253.0 192.168.253.128

192.168.254.0 192.168.254.128 192.168.255.0 192.168.255.128

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Numerical Calculations
Subtract the magic number from 256. So to continue with the previous

## 8 Subnets Magic Nb = 128 (4th octet) 256 128 = 128

255.255.254.0 (/23)

255.255.255.0 (/24)

255.255.255.128 (/25)

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Numerical Calculations
With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224, all network IDs would be a

multiple of (256 224 = 32), 4th octet, so x.x.x.0, .32, .64, , .224

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Numerical Calculations
Subnet 192.168.16.0/20 into networks of 4 subnets

/20 => 255.255.240.0 => 256 240 = 16 16 / 4 = 4 (magic number, on the 3rd octet) Networks are: 192.168.16.0, 192.168.20.0, 192.168.24.0,192.168.28.0

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Numerical Calculations
1st and foremost: add the 2 IPs of network ID and broadcast address Look for the closest exponentional multiple of 2 Thats your network size. Continue as previously explained.

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Numerical Calculations
Subnet 192.168.16.0/20 into networks of 700 hosts per subnet

700 => 702 => 1024 (network size) 1024 / 256 = 4 (magic number, on the 3rd octet) Networks are: 192.168.16.0, 192.168.20.0, 192.168.24.0,192.168.28.0

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Numerical Calculations
123.45.164.255/22: network, broadcast or valid host? If broadcast or

valid host address, what is the network address? Answer: valid host, network address is 123.45.164.0/22
100.198.7.64/18: network, broadcast or valid host? If broadcast or valid

host address, what is the network address? Answer: valid host, network address is 100.198.0.0/18

Hint: from prefix, get mask, then get magic number, then see the closest

multiple of that number and match it to the appropriate value in the address provided above.

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Numerical Calculations
It gets a little bit confusing when it is requested to subnet a network into

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Numerical Calculations
192.168.1.0/24 to be subnetted into A (100 hosts), B (40 hosts), C (10

hosts), D (2 hosts).
Subnet Nb of Net Hosts Size Magic Mask Nb (4th octet) Prefix Subnet address

A
B C D

100
40 10 2

128
64 16 4

128
64 16 4

256-128=128 /25
256-64=192 256-16=240 256-4=252 /26 /28 /30

192.168.1.0
192.168.1.(0+128=128) 192.168.1.(128+64=192) 192.168.1.(192+16=208)

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Numerical Calculations
For subnet A, start from the initial network address (192.168.1.0). The

next network would be a multiple of the magic nb, as explained before. So, 192.168.1.128. Remember that were working on the 4th octet;
For subnet B, the address is 192.168.1.128. The next network would be

a multiple of the magic nb, so we add 64 to 128. So, the next network is: 192.168.1.192.
For subnet C, address is 192.168.1.192. For the next network, we add

## the magic nb (16) to the current address, so 192.168.1.208.

For subnet D, address is 192.168.1.208. The next network and all remaining addresses are free

(192.168.1.212 192.168.1.255)

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Numerical Calculations
192.168.160.0/19 to be subnetted into A (2000 hosts), B (500 hosts), C

## (100 hosts), D (4 hosts).

Subnet Nb of Net Hosts Size Magic Nb Mask Prefix Subnet address

A
B C D

2000
500 100 4

## 2048 2048/256=8 256-8=248 (3rd octet)

512 128 8 512/256=2 128 8 256-2=254 (3rd octet)

/21
/23

192.168.160.0
192.168.(160+8=168).0 192.168.(168+2=170).0 192.168.170.(0+128)

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Questions?

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Graphical Representation
Graphically map addresses of an octet Very easy to operate within one octet Rule of thumb: always divide in half Will ensure that you wont waste/forget networks

Step 1 Step 2

Identify your magic numbers (already know how to do it) Segment and reserve networks on the bar graph starting with the largest network first. Youre done!

Step 3

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Graphical Representation
The bargraph shows a complete octet (from 0 till
0

## 255), so 256 values

You are only allowed to split a segment in half

128

## largest network first

Choose the subnet locations according to the

requirements
8 64

4 32 256 16

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Graphical Representation
0

## Subnet 192.168.10.0/24 into:

A (100 hosts), B (20 hosts), C (10 hosts) All on the 4th octet.
Subnet A B C FREE Magic Nb 128 32 16 Subnet ID 192.168.10.0 /25 of 256 Width 192.168.10.128 /27
This represents the
128

A (128)

B (32)
octet
160

192.168.10.160 /28

4th

C (16)
176

## Width of 32 192.168.10.176 Width of 16 Width of 128

192.168.10.255 Width of 64
255

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Questions?

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Part II - Supernetting

27

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subnetting.

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Numerical Calculations
Look for the number that encompasses all subnets Must be an exponential multiple of 2 (so, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.) Has to start from a multiple of that number. If not, then round up. To get the mask, deduct this number from 256 on the appropriate octet.

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Numerical Calculations
Networks: 192.168.1.0/24, 192.168.2.0/24, 192.168.3.0/24 Number is 4, starts from 0, at 3rd octet.

## Supernet address is 192.168.0.0 255.255.252.0

Networks: 192.168.23.0/24, 192.168.25.0/24, 192.168.27.0/24,

192.168.29.0/24
Number is 16, starts from 16, at 3rd octet.

## Supernet address is 192.168.16.0 255.255.240.0

Networks: 192.168.96.0/20, 192.168.112.0/21, 192.168.120.0/22,

192.168.124.0/23
Number is 32, starts from 96, at 3rd octet.

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Questions?

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Graphical Representation
Very easy to operate within one octet Map subnets to the famous bar graph Stack networks onto each other, in order Supernet should be a number that: Is an exponential multiple of 2 Has to start from a multiple of that number. If not, then round up.
8 64
0

128

4 32 256 16

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Graphical Representation
0

Subnet A B C

128

A (128)

B (32)

160

C (16)
176 192

255

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Graphical Representation
0 0 16 32

Subnet A B C

Net Size 1 2 1

128 8 64

FREE
10

A (1)
11 12

FREE
B (2)

14

C (1)
15 255 16

FREE
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Questions?