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Subnetting & Supernetting

Marc Khayat, Technical Advocacy Team makhayat@cisco.com

October 2011

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Part I - Subnetting

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Number of required subnets Number of required hosts per subnet

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Using the numerical calculations Using the graphical representation

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Numerical Calculations
Network size is the number of IP addresses in a subnet, including the

network ID and the broadcast address


Magic nb is the same as the network size if prefix > /24

Magic nb must always be between 1 and 255. If greater than 255, divide

by 256. If smaller than 1, multiply by 256.


Every time you divide by 256, you move 1 octet to the left

Every time you multiply by 256, you move 1 octet to the right
Everything is a multiple of the magic nb (therefore, the name )

Dont bother googling the term magic nb

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Numerical Calculations
Nb of required subnets should be an exponential multiple of 2 (so, 2, 4,

8, 16, 32, etc.). If not, then round up.


To get the magic nb, few easy steps:

1.
2. 3. 4.

Identify the first non-255 number in the mask


Subtract that number from 256 Divide the outcome by the number of required subnets Thats your magic nb!

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Numerical Calculations
Required number of subnets 5 (should be really looking at 8) Mask: (/24) 255.255.255.0 First non-255 number is 0 256 0 = 256 256 / 8 = 32 (thats the magic number) Mask: (/16) 255.255.0.0 First non-255 number is 0 256 0 = 256 256 / 8 = 32 (thats the magic number) Mask: (/20) 255.255.240.0 First non-255 number is 240 256 240 = 16 16 / 8 = 2 (thats the magic number)

On the 4th octet

On the 3rd octet

On the 3rd octet

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Numerical Calculations
Required number of subnets 12 (should be really looking at 16) Mask: (/25) 255.255.255.128 First non-255 number is 128 256 128 = 128 128 / 16 = 8 (thats the magic number) Mask: (/20) 255.255.240.0 First non-255 number is 240 256 240 = 16 16 / 16 = 1 (thats the magic number)

On the 4th octet

On the 3rd octet

Mask: (/21) 255.255.248.0 First non-255 number is 248 Started on the 3rd but moved to the 4th octet 256 248 = 8 8 / 16 = 0.5 * 256 = 128 (thats the magic number)

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Numerical Calculations
Simply add the magic nb to the initial network. Example: subnetting

192.168.252.0 255.255.252.0 (/22) into 2, 4 or 8 subnets:


2 Subnets Magic Nb = (256-252)/2 = 2 4 Subnets Magic Nb = (256-252)/4 = 1 8 Subnets Magic Nb = (256-252)/8 = 128 (multiplied by 256)

192.168.252.0 192.168.254.0

192.168.252.0 192.168.253.0 192.168.254.0 192.168.255.0

192.168.252.0 192.168.252.128 192.168.253.0 192.168.253.128


192.168.254.0 192.168.254.128 192.168.255.0 192.168.255.128

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Numerical Calculations
Subtract the magic number from 256. So to continue with the previous

example of subnetting 192.168.252.0/22:

2 Subnets Magic Nb = 2 (3rd octet) 256 2 = 254

4 Subnets Magic Nb = 1 (3rd octet) 256 1 = 255

8 Subnets Magic Nb = 128 (4th octet) 256 128 = 128

255.255.254.0 (/23)

255.255.255.0 (/24)

255.255.255.128 (/25)

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Numerical Calculations
With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224, all network IDs would be a

multiple of (256 224 = 32), 4th octet, so x.x.x.0, .32, .64, , .224

With a subnet mask of 255.255.128.0, all network IDs would be a

multiple of (256 128 = 128), 3rd octet, so x.x.0.0, .128.0

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Numerical Calculations
Subnet 192.168.16.0/20 into networks of 4 subnets

/20 => 255.255.240.0 => 256 240 = 16 16 / 4 = 4 (magic number, on the 3rd octet) Networks are: 192.168.16.0, 192.168.20.0, 192.168.24.0,192.168.28.0

Mask is 256 4 = 252 => 255.255.252.0 or /22

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Numerical Calculations
1st and foremost: add the 2 IPs of network ID and broadcast address Look for the closest exponentional multiple of 2 Thats your network size. Continue as previously explained.

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Numerical Calculations
Subnet 192.168.16.0/20 into networks of 700 hosts per subnet

700 => 702 => 1024 (network size) 1024 / 256 = 4 (magic number, on the 3rd octet) Networks are: 192.168.16.0, 192.168.20.0, 192.168.24.0,192.168.28.0

Mask is 256 4 = 252 => 255.255.252.0 or /22

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Numerical Calculations
123.45.164.255/22: network, broadcast or valid host? If broadcast or

valid host address, what is the network address? Answer: valid host, network address is 123.45.164.0/22
100.198.7.64/18: network, broadcast or valid host? If broadcast or valid

host address, what is the network address? Answer: valid host, network address is 100.198.0.0/18

Hint: from prefix, get mask, then get magic number, then see the closest

multiple of that number and match it to the appropriate value in the address provided above.

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Numerical Calculations
It gets a little bit confusing when it is requested to subnet a network into

several subnets, each with a different size.

So, lets start with an example!

VLSM = Variable Length Subnet Mask

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Numerical Calculations
192.168.1.0/24 to be subnetted into A (100 hosts), B (40 hosts), C (10

hosts), D (2 hosts).
Subnet Nb of Net Hosts Size Magic Mask Nb (4th octet) Prefix Subnet address

A
B C D

100
40 10 2

128
64 16 4

128
64 16 4

256-128=128 /25
256-64=192 256-16=240 256-4=252 /26 /28 /30

192.168.1.0
192.168.1.(0+128=128) 192.168.1.(128+64=192) 192.168.1.(192+16=208)

Remember to always start with the largest network first!


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Numerical Calculations
For subnet A, start from the initial network address (192.168.1.0). The

next network would be a multiple of the magic nb, as explained before. So, 192.168.1.128. Remember that were working on the 4th octet;
For subnet B, the address is 192.168.1.128. The next network would be

a multiple of the magic nb, so we add 64 to 128. So, the next network is: 192.168.1.192.
For subnet C, address is 192.168.1.192. For the next network, we add

the magic nb (16) to the current address, so 192.168.1.208.


For subnet D, address is 192.168.1.208. The next network and all remaining addresses are free

(192.168.1.212 192.168.1.255)

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Numerical Calculations
192.168.160.0/19 to be subnetted into A (2000 hosts), B (500 hosts), C

(100 hosts), D (4 hosts).


Subnet Nb of Net Hosts Size Magic Nb Mask Prefix Subnet address

A
B C D

2000
500 100 4

2048 2048/256=8 256-8=248 (3rd octet)


512 128 8 512/256=2 128 8 256-2=254 (3rd octet)

/21
/23

192.168.160.0
192.168.(160+8=168).0 192.168.(168+2=170).0 192.168.170.(0+128)

256-128=128 /25 (4th octet) 256-8=248 (4th octet) /29

Free addresses: 192.168.170.(128+8) 192.168.191.255.


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Numerical Calculations section end


Questions?

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Graphical Representation
Graphically map addresses of an octet Very easy to operate within one octet Rule of thumb: always divide in half Will ensure that you wont waste/forget networks

Step 1 Step 2

Identify your magic numbers (already know how to do it) Segment and reserve networks on the bar graph starting with the largest network first. Youre done!

Step 3
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Graphical Representation
The bargraph shows a complete octet (from 0 till
0

255), so 256 values


You are only allowed to split a segment in half

128

Golden rule still applies: always start with the

largest network first


Choose the subnet locations according to the

requirements
8 64

4 32 256 16
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Graphical Representation
0

Subnet 192.168.10.0/24 into:

A (100 hosts), B (20 hosts), C (10 hosts) All on the 4th octet.
Subnet A B C FREE Magic Nb 128 32 16 Subnet ID 192.168.10.0 /25 of 256 Width 192.168.10.128 /27
This represents the
128

A (128)

B (32)
octet
160

192.168.10.160 /28

4th

C (16)
176

Width of 32 192.168.10.176 Width of 16 Width of 128

192.168.10.255 Width of 64
255
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FREE Addresses

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Graphical Representation section end


Questions?

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Part II - Supernetting

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Using the numerical calculations Using the graphical representation

Actually, these are the reverse methods of those of

subnetting.

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Numerical Calculations
Look for the number that encompasses all subnets Must be an exponential multiple of 2 (so, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.) Has to start from a multiple of that number. If not, then round up. To get the mask, deduct this number from 256 on the appropriate octet.

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Numerical Calculations
Networks: 192.168.1.0/24, 192.168.2.0/24, 192.168.3.0/24 Number is 4, starts from 0, at 3rd octet.

Supernet address is 192.168.0.0 255.255.252.0


Networks: 192.168.23.0/24, 192.168.25.0/24, 192.168.27.0/24,

192.168.29.0/24
Number is 16, starts from 16, at 3rd octet.

Supernet address is 192.168.16.0 255.255.240.0


Networks: 192.168.96.0/20, 192.168.112.0/21, 192.168.120.0/22,

192.168.124.0/23
Number is 32, starts from 96, at 3rd octet.

Supernet address is 192.168.96.0 255.255.224.0

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Numerical Calculations section end


Questions?

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Graphical Representation
Very easy to operate within one octet Map subnets to the famous bar graph Stack networks onto each other, in order Supernet should be a number that: Is an exponential multiple of 2 Has to start from a multiple of that number. If not, then round up.
8 64
0

128

4 32 256 16
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Graphical Representation
0

Subnet A B C

Net Size 128 32 16

Subnet ID 192.168.10.0 /25 192.168.10.128 /27 192.168.10.160 /28


128

A (128)

B (32)

Supernet address: 192.168.10.0/24

160

C (16)
176 192

FREE Addresses
255
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Graphical Representation
0 0 16 32

Subnet A B C

Net Size 1 2 1

Subnet ID 192.168.10.0 /24 192.168.12.0 /23 192.168.14.0 /24


128 8 64

Supernet address: 192.168.8.0/21

FREE
10

A (1)
11 12

FREE
B (2)

14

C (1)
15 255 16
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FREE
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Graphical Representation section end


Questions?

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Thank you.