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CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Poverty is real and painful problem for millions of people throughout the world. Poverty is a prominesnt obstacle in the way of rapid, balanced and sustainable economic development. Poverty, according to HDR (1997) is the denial of opportunities to lead along healthy, creative life and enjoy a decent standard of living, freedom, dignity, self respect and the respect of others. As per the (HRD 2 005), Indias ranking in human poverty index is 58 out of 177 countries. Women are the most vulnerable group affected by poverty. Women experience hunger and poverty in much more intensive ways than men. If one of the family members has to starve, it is an unwritten law that it has to be the mother. In India, poverty is mainly a rural problem. The overwhelming majority of poor people in India are concentrated in rural areas. Real empowerment occurs only when rights can be legitimately claimed and are universally acknowledged. It is the endeavor of Kudumbashree to bring the discussion on womens rights and issues into the heart of the development debate. The organizational structure and capacity building programmes of Kudumbashree attempt to develop the leadership capabilities and opportunities for intervention in development activities. The Gender Self Learning Programme is a unique experiment to consolidate women's voices and discuss gender disparities.

Kudumbashree is an innovative poverty reduction programme implemented exclusively for women with support of state government and agencies since 1999. The objective of Kudumbashree is unequivocally declared as to eradicate absolute poverty through concerted community action and the leadership of government by facilitating organization of the poor for combining self help with demand red convergence of available service and resources to tackle the multiple dimension and manifestations of poverty holistically.
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The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGP) aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian job guarantee scheme, enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005.

1.1 Significance of SHG

India is one of the developing nations which has promoted institutions for providing micro finance to the poor under various poverty alleviation programmes. In fact, India has the largest network of bank branches in the world. Cooperative institutions, RRBs, and the rural branches of commercial banks have been providing credit to the poor through several schemes under the directions of the Govt. of India. The schemes like National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (NREGP), Kudumbashree, programmes under Small Framers Development Agencies (SFDA), SGSY all were intended to directly target different segments of the poor.

1.2 Statement of the Problem Economic independence is treated as an effective tool to escape from the clutches of poverty of the rural folk especially women. This is possible by setting up of sustainable IGAs/ MEs are not a panacea for the chronic problems of unemployment and poverty, yet MEs. Promotion is a viable and effective strategy for achieving significant income and assets of the poor and marginalized women. In Kerala, Kudumbashree Mission a Government sponsored poverty eradication mission focus attention on women empowerment, as an opportunity for providing gainful employment to the people below poverty line and thereby improving income and standard of living through which they can attain social and economic empowerment. Kudumbashree Mission of Government of Kerala targeted
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the poor women and assists them in establishing Micro Enterprices. Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. In this study, it is proposed to analyse and compare various women development programmes like Kudumbashree and NREGP in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath Idukki district Kerala. 1.3 Objective of the Study The main objective of the study is to evaluate the Womens development Programmes implemented by Pallivasal Grama Pachayath. Other objectives are:1. To study the effectiveness of various Womens development programmes.

2. To study how the womens group is benefited through these programmes.

3. To examine the attitude of beneficiaries towards these programmes.

4. To make suggestions for improving the Programmes for Womens Development.

1.4 Methodology The study is based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data will be collected from beneficiaries of development programme of Pallivasal Grama Panchayath. The data will be collected with the help of interview schedule. The secondary data required for the study was collected from the Journals, Internet and reports of Pallivasal Grama Panchayath in Idukki District.

1.5 Samples Random sampling method is used for selecting samples. Samples are collected from Pallivasal Grama Panchayath in Idukki District. For the purpose of the study 25 Kudumbashree members and 25 NREGP members are selected as samples and approached with a structured interview schedule to elicit their views. 1.6 Tools of Analysis For the purpose of analysis statistical tools like average, percentages and diagrams are used.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The study suffers from the following limitations. 1.The research is confined to certain part of Idukki District and does not necessarily shows a pattern applicable to all of the Country. 2. Some respondents were reluctant to reveal personal information this can affect the validity of all responses.

3.The

sampling

procedure

used

being

the

convenient

sampling,

the

analysis and findings would lack accuracy.

1.8 Chapter Scheme The study is presented in five chapters. The first chapter is the introductory chapter which shows significance of the study, objectives of the study, methodology, samples, tools for analysis, chapter scheme and limitations of the study etc.

The second chapter gives review of literature. The third chapter provides theories on women development. The fourth chapter deals analysis and interpretation of the primary data and fifth chapter summarizes the main findings and suggestions.

CHAPETR 2

CHAPTER 2 REVIEWS OF LITERATURE

LITERATURE REVIEW

Razia, Begam and Kamala, Sreenivasan (2000) conducted a study on the training programme for the self employment of women. They suggested that knowledge cum skill training programme must be taken up for creating self employment for the females of the vulnerable section of the society.

Yunas, Muhammed (2000) in the study entitled Empowerment and Grammeen Bank held the view that poverty has not been created by the poor people. He pointed out that every human being has enormous potential and opportunities should be created for every individual to discover his or her own potential and utilize it to its full capacity.

Pukazhendhi (2000) documented the impact of SHGs members. The study revealed a significant change in the overall socio economic status of the member in terms of increase in income generating assets, improving in literacy level, housing facilities and level of food security.

Sharma (2001) opined that micro financing through SHGs is significantly contributing the development of poor in terms of increase in income level assets, savings, borrowing capacity and income generating activities.

Lakshmi, Devi K.R and P.P. Pillai (2002) in their study in Micro credit programmes, income generating and empowerment of women some Empirical
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Evidence from Kerala examined the role of micro finance programmes in creating income generating activities for the poor women and how far they have been successful on the empowerment of the beneficiary women.

NABARD (2006) observed the following result in a study very 500 SHG member households from 283 SHGs spread over eleven states over India. The average value of the assets, improvement in housing condition. Further almost all the members developed saving habit in the post SHG situation and about 70 percent of loan taken in post SHG situation was for income generation activities.

Jayachandran (2009) in his study entitled Impact of SHGs in Women Empowerment a Study in Kottayam District Kerala. SHG can play a vital role in achieving the long cherished goal of poverty alleviation and rural development through their diversified programs. Empowerment of women and the inculcation of financial training and discipline amongst the poor will undoubtedly have long term social economic benefits.

Beena Skariah (2009) in her study Micro finance support to micro enterprise under Kudumbashree program pointed out that Kudumbashree through micro finance support motivates their members to undertake income generating activities by forming micro enterprises. It would help them to get regular income through self employment which in turn empowers them economically and socially.

Susy Paul and Gireesh Kumar (2009) in a study entitled Impact of SHG Bank Linkage Program on Income Generation of Rural Poor in Kerala. On the whole study include that micro credit based IGAS have clearly helped in
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poverty alleviation and economically empowerment of rural poor especially women. These IGAS made a positive change in the lives of the poor women by providing them with economic independence which brought along with itself confidence and autonomy. But at the same time the incomes merger incomes generated where insufficient to improve the economic status of the households significant or to push all of them above the poverty line.

Puhazhendi and Satyasai(2010) in their study on impact of the SHG programme on members noticed that SHGs are an institutional arrangement could positively contribute to the economical and social empowerment of the poor. The study revealed as increase in the average value of assets cpomprising live sock and consumer durabels by 72 percent between pre and post SHG period. About 59 percent of households admitted and increased its assets from pre to post SHG periods similarly the net income per households admitted as increase in assets from pre to post SHG period similarly the net income per household increased by 33 percent. The study also revealed that about 22 percent of the total sample household crossed poverty during the study period.

CONCLUSION

With the provision of equal access to healthcare as well as educational and training programmes and improved employment opportunities, women made advancements in various fields of development. During the Eighth Plan period, efforts will continue to further enhance the status of women as equal partners in development. Towards this end, the Government will provide the enabling environment and supportive mechanisms, including the implementation of gender sensitive programmes, to enable women to reach their full potential in the social and economic fields of development.
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CHAPETR 3

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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL REVIEW OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME


3. WOMEN DEVELOPMENT
Women constitute an important pool of resource that can be mobilized to achieve the national development agenda. Through the continuous efforts of the Government in providing an enabling environment during the Seventh Plan period, women continued to participate in and contribute towards the social and economic development of the country. During the Eighth Plan period, efforts will continue to be undertaken to enhance the role, position and status of women to ensure their participations equal partners in national development. Women will be provided with the skills and knowledge to cope with the challenges of globalization and fulfill the needs of the knowledge-based economy.

3.1 Empowerment process of the Indian women


In India the empowerment process has already begun. We are now, witnessing a steady improvement in the enrollment of women in the schools and colleges and even in the professional colleges. The reproductive health status and general health status are better, when compared to their health status in the earlier decades. Especially, the primary health strategy, has improved the general health status of rural women, (majority of Indian women live in the villages} resulting in higher average expectation of life. Due to increasing awareness among the parents, child mortality rate has come down. In this decade women are entering into the job market in increasing number and also venturing to become entrepreneurs. They are entering even into the nontraditional sectors like the police, defense, administration, media and research fields. s26 laws have been enacted so far to protect women from
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various crimes. The recent Law on the protection of women against domestic violence satisfies the long pending demand of the women activists. In the political field, the reservation for women in local administration is a step towards political empowerment. When 33% reservation for women in parliament becomes a reality, Womens voice will be heard in the highest forum of democracy and greater number of women will participate in the law making process. That day women of India will reach zenith in their empowerment process and their concerns will be expressed loudly and clearly to the world and the suffering in silence decades will come to an end.

3.2 Women development programmes in Kerala


Poverty is a crucial problem in all developing countries in the present day world. It is felt that the problem of poverty can be solved through a concerted effort by the State. Sustainable livelihood opportunities can be provided to the deprived and the destitute by means of lending asset creating facilities. Women households are the cruel victims of deprivation and destitution. Therefore, any programme for poverty alleviation must aim at improving the living environment of the women folk. It is through creating livelihood opportunities for the women that they can be empowered, and the micro-credit and self-help groupings are a better means through which their living conditions can be improved. Poverty alleviation schemes based on micro-credit system have been implemented in many of the developing countries in recentyears1. In all developing countries state actions are being reinforced in streamlining poverty alleviation programmmes.

3.3 Women development in Idukki District


Kerala's largest district, Idukki is one of the most nature rich areas of the state. High ranges and wooded valleys are girded by three main rivers Periyar, Thalayar and Thodupuzhayar and their tributaries. An astonishing 50% of the area is covered by forest. It offers diverse attractions like wildlife sanctuaries, hill stations, spice plantations, mountain treks and elephant rides. Agriculture is the main

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occupation of the people in the District. Dairy is the main supplementary source of income of the farmers in the district. Recently, floriculture, mushroom cultivation, medicinal plants, vanilla cultivation etc., are being taken up by some progressive farmers / women in the district.

3.4 Women Development Programmes in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath


The Women development programme in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath aims to empower rural women in legal, social, economic and political spheres. The SHGS include both tribal and non tribal community members, both men and women. With their own savings, revolving fund and loans from different banks the SHG members are running various income generation programmes. The various Womens development Programmes implemented by Pallivasal Grama Pachayathu are :

Agriculture Development Programmes

Health Protection programmes Kudumbashree Programmes NREGP House Construction Programmes

Educational Programmes Computer Awareness Programmes Dairy Farming Programmes Self Employment Programmes In this study, it is proposed to analyse and compare various women development programmes like Kudumbashree and NREGP in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath Idukki district Kerala. 1. Kudumbashree

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Kudumbashree is an innovative poverty reduction programme implemented exclusively for women with support of state government and agencies since 1999. The objective of Kudumbashree is unequivocally declared as to eradicate absolute poverty through concerted community action and the leadership of government by facilitating organization of the poor for combining self help with demand led convergence of available service and resources to tackle the multiple dimension and manifestations of poverty holistically. Kudumbashree launched by the Government of Kerala in 1998 for wiping out absolute poverty from the State through concerted community action under the leadership of Local Self Governments, Kudumbashree is today one of the largest women-empowering projects in the country. The programme has 37 lakh members and covers more than 50% of the households in Kerala. Built around three critical components, micro credit, entrepreneurship and empowerment, the Kudumbashree initiative has today succeeded in addressing the basic needs of the less privileged women, thus providing them a more dignified life and a better future. Literal meaning of Kudumbashree is prosperity (shree) of family (Kudumbam). 1.1Organizational Structure Kudumbashree was conceived as a joint programme of the Government of Kerala and NABARD implemented through Community Development Societies (CDSs) of Poor Women, serving as the community wing of Local Governments. Kudumbashree is formally registered as the "State Poverty Eradication Mission" (SPEM), a society registered under the Travancore Kochi Literary, Scientific and Charitable Societies Act 1955. It has a governing body chaired by the state minister of LSG. There is a state mission with field officers in each district. This official structure supports and facilitates the activities of the community network across the state. Kudumbashree is formally registered as the "State Poverty Eradication Mission" (SPEM), a society registered under the Travancore Kochi Literary, Scientific and Charitable Societies Act 1955. It has a governing body chaired by the State Minister of LSG. There is a state mission with
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Kudumbashree differs from conventional programmes in that it perceives poverty not just as the deprivation of money, but also as the deprivation of basic rights. The poor need to find a collective voice to help claim these rights. 1.2 History and Background

Various forms of microfinance practices have been in Kerala from early days.

existence in

When the concept of Self Help Group was introduced in Kerala 1980s, it was quick to gather momentum.

in the

In the early nineties a community led poverty identification was developed as part of the Alappuzha UBSP Programme.

format

By this time the NABARD promoted SHG, linkage banking programme had established itself as a viable microfinance model.

In 1994, the CBNP project of Malappuram tried to assimilate these experiences and develop a woman based community service delivery of government programmes. The 73rd & 74th constitutional amendments strengthened PRIs and ULBs. Shortly afterwards, the People's Plan Campaign for decentralized Governance created strong local self governments Municipalities) in the State. Kudumbashree was launched in 1998 as a community network that would work in tandem with local self governments for poverty eradication and women empowerment. (Panchayaths and structure for

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1.3 Objectives The Aims and Objectives for which the mission established shall be as follows: 1. Facilitating self identification of the poor families through transparent risk index composed of socially accepted indicators of poverty through a participatory survey. 2. Empowering the women among the poor to improve their individual and collective capabilities by organizing them into Neighborhood Groups at the local level, Area Development Societies at the local government ward level and Community. Development Societies at the local government level. 3. Encouraging thrift and investment through credit by developing CDSs to work, as "Informal Banks of the Poor". 4. Improving incomes of the poor through up gradation of vocational and managerial skills and creation of opportunities for self-employment and wage employment. 5. Ensuring better health and nutrition for all poor families. 6. Ensuring access to basic amenities like safe drinking water, sanitary latrines, improved shelter and healthy living environment. 7. Ensuring zero drops out in schools for all children belonging to the poor families. 8. Promoting functional literacy among the poor and supporting continuing education. 9. Enabling the poor to participate in the decentralization process through the CDS, as a sub-system of the local governments. 10. Helping the poor to fight social evils like alcoholism, smoking and drug abuse, dowry, discrimination based on gender/religion, caste etc.
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11. Providing a mechanism for convergence of all resources and services meant for alleviation of poverty in the State. 12. Collaborating with governmental and non-governmental institutions and agencies in all activities related to improving the quality of life of the poor.

Kudumbashree towards Rural Areas At the inception, the activities of Kudumbashree was confined to the Urban areas and Rural areas of Malappuram District, where the anti poverty programmes have been attempted through community based structure as envisaged in Kudumbashree in expanding the physical coverage and set new milestones for Kudumbashree by extending its activities to the rural areas. Hence afterwards, it was decided to cover the entire rural area of the state in a phased manner and in the first phase 261 Grama pangayaths where identified by the following fixed criteria. Massive training programs where organized for the Panchayath functionaries, officials and activist in the rural area. Unlike the Urban program there is slight variation in the organization structure adopted for the rural side: 1. Kudumbashree Ayalkoottam (NHG) 2. Kudumbashree Ward Samithy (ADS) 3. Kudumbashree Panchayath Samithy (CDS) Kudumbashree Mission and the CDS System CDS system is the heart, soul and life of Kudumbashree Mission. It is envisaged as a three-tire system of the poor women of Kerala on the basis of a risk index based survey ,conducted with the active participation of the community, the poor households of the state will be identified. By organizing one women each from the high risk families of every locality, grass root level self help groups called Neighbor Hood Groups (NHGs) will be formed throughout the state. By federating the NHGs at ward level, area development societies (ADSs) will be formed.
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ADSs will get federated to community development societies at panchayat/ Municipality/ Corporation levels. NHGs and ADSs are envisaged as informal bodies, while CDSs will be registered under Charitable Societies Act. Formation of 190355 NHGs, 17003 ADSs and CDSs is specified as the most important milestone in front of the poverty reduction mission named Kudumbashree. CDS system and development initiatives Kudumbashree mission believes in the inherent potentials of the poor women of the state. The poor women will be given the opportunity to plan and design their own destiny. On the basis of felt- needs surveys conducted by the poor women themselves, NHGs will prepare micro plans. At ADS level micro plans will be integrated to mini plans. Every CDS will integrate the mini plans of ADSs functioning under it to form the CDS plan. Poverty alleviation programmes will be implemented as per the CDS plan, by the poor women themselves. The CDS system will also function as an informal banking system for the financial empowerment of the poor women.

i.

Neighborhood Group (NHG) For effective convergence of the programme, a three- tire Community Based

Organization (CBO) is in action. The lower most tier constitutes the Neighborhood Group consisting of 20-40 women members selected from the poor families. Meetings are convened on a weekly basis in the houses of NHG members. In the meeting various problems faced by the group members are discussed along with suggestions for improving the situation, Government officials were also invited to the meeting for explaining the scheme implemented by them. In, the weekly meeting all members bring their thrift which will be collected and recycled, to the system by way of sanctioning lones. Micro plans are also prepared after taking stock of the situation. In each Neighborhood Group from along the poor women Five Volunteers are selected for undertaking various functional activities.
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1. Community Health Volunteer- She will look after the various healths related aspects of the group members including children, women and the aged. Convergence of various programmes under taken by Health and Social Welfare Departments are also carried out under the leadership of the Community Health Volunteer 2. Income generation activities volunteer The collection, consolidation and maintenance of books of accounts and registers in connection with thrift mobilization is looked after by this volunteer. Necessary training is imparted by NABARD for increasing their capability. 3. Infrastructure Volunteer - Infrastructural backwardness of the group is tackled with the help of various ongoing governmental programmes under the leadership of this volunteer. It is proposed to take micro contracting ass an income generating activity by this group after sharpening their functional skills through a series of training programmes. She will liaison with the local bodies and act as a catalyst for local development. 4. Secretary- The proceedings of the meeting are recorded by the secretary and necessary follow up including motivation and team building are the responsibilities of the secretary. 5. President- She will preside over the weekly meeting and will impart necessary leadership and guidelines to the group members. ii. Area Development Societies

The second tire is Area Development Society, which is formed at ward level by federating 8-10 NHGs. The activities and the decision in the ADS is decided by the representatives of the poor elected from various federating NHGs. Area Development Society function through three distinct bodies viz.
1.

General Body - consists of all president and Secretaries of federated NHGs along with representatives of Resource Persons selected from that area.

2. Governing Body - constituted by electing a president, Secretary and five

members Committee from among the General Body.


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3. Monitoring and Advisory Committee - To streamline their activity with the

activities of Local Self Governments, a ward level monitoring and advisory committee is formed under the chairmanship of ward member of the Local Body iii. Community Development Society (CDS) Community Development Society is the apex body at the town level and is the coordinating agency for programme implementation. Chairpersons,Vice chair persons and members of all the ADSs from the General body of the CDS. A project officer of the Municipality/ Panchayath act as the member secretary of the CDS. The CDS has a president, Vice president and seven other members elected from the General body of the CDS to form the committee of the CDS.The committee and the Member Secratery constitutes the governing bodi of the CDS. The Community Development Society monitors the programmes undertaken by the ADS on monthly basis and takes the steps to improve the implementation of the programmes. The silent feature of this arrangement is the fixation of priorities by the poor; in tune with the policy framework of Local Self Governments. 1. Micro Finance Micro Finance (MF) is the core activity of Kudumbashree, the binding force of the NHG. Each NHG has operational flexibility in respect of its MF operations, within a broad framework. The various activities taken up by Kudumbashree under MF are: 1. Thrift and credit operations. 2. Linkage Banking. 3. Matching Grant. 4. Interest Subsidy for Linkage Loans 5. KAASS.

Kudumbashree has positioned accountants in each CDS to keep track of the multifarious MF Activities of the CDS. Very often, in addition to the
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activities listed above, the CDS might have taken on need based MF products, on their own (such as cooking gas loans). The activities of the CDS are subject to review and facilitation in the Evaluation Committee at LSG levels.

1.1 Micro Credit

Kudumbashree plays a vital role in enhancing the financial status of the less privileged women in the State through its thrift and credit societies. These societies facilitate them to save and provide them with cost-effective and easy credit. The savings of the women are pooled together and given out as loans to the most deserving. These loans have been used for purposes ranging from covering hospital expenses to meeting working capital needs for micro enterprises. The Community Development Societies facilitate bank linkages for farming, micro housing and micro insurance. They also serve as the delivery point for skill up gradation and market development support to micro enterprises.

1.2 Thrift and Credit The NHGs of Kudumbashree double up as thrift & Credit Societies to encourage the poor to save and to provide them cost effective and easy credit. The function of thrift and credit is the core activity of the neighborhood group (NHG), and forms the basis of the weekly meetings of the NHG. Accounts are scrupulously maintained and are subject to annual audit by KAAS, Kudumbashree home grown audit and account support service. The amount of loan and the priority of disbursement are decided by the NHG. The repayment is collected weekly during routine NHG meetings. The total thrift collected by NHGs in the state comes to ` 1549.54 Crore and the internal loans generated are to the tune of ` 4372.32 Crore (as on January 2011). Details are reported in the monthly meetings by the CDS.

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For the year 2010-11 the total thrift collected by NHGs is ` 174.88 Crores and the internal loans generated is ` 458.64 Crores respectively. Bank Linkage -SHG The Bank Linkage programme has helped NHGs to augment their existing resources collected through thrift. The efficiency and effectiveness of the NHGs are verified on the basis of some objectively verifiable and easily identifiable parameters. NABARD has developed a 15-point index for rating NHGs on the basis of which they will be allowed to link with various banks under the Linkage Banking Scheme. The total amount which has been mobilized under linkage banking is ` 1244.91 Crore and 131712 NHGs have availed of the loans. The linkage loans may be raised directly by the NHG or as bulk loan through the CDS. For the year 2010-11 the total amount of loan disbursed by banks through linkage banking is ` 251.26 Crore to 13001 NHGs. 1.4 Matching Grant to Thrift & Credit Societies Matching Grant is an incentive provided to NHGs. This grant linked to amount of thrift mobilized, performance of NHG in the Grading and loan availed from banks. An amount of 10% of the savings of the NHG subject to a maximum of Rs 5000/- is provided as matching grant to each NHG. The grant is released based on their assessment rated using a 15-point grading criteria developed by NABARD. In order to avail Matching grant a NHG must have passed the grading and availed loan from bank. In case of SC/ST NHGs, matching grant will be provided if the NHG has passed grading. Availing bank loan for a SC/ST NHG is not compulsory in order to be eligible for matching grant. 1.5 Interest Subsidy

The interest subsidy scheme is a new initiative by the Government of Kerala to enhance the affordability of formal credit. As per the scheme, all commercial and cooperative banks that are prepared to lend to Kudumbashree NHGs under the linkage banking programme at 9% or below, will be participants in the
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scheme. The CDS would be raising the claim with the banks and the amount would be dispersed to a designated nodal branch by Kudumbashree State Mission in the case of commercial banks and to the concerned cooperative banks/societies by the district missions in the case of cooperative institutions. The interest subsidy would be provided as annual installments to the banks. One highlight of the scheme is the inclusion of joint liability groups for farming in the ambit of the scheme Microfinance-Interest Subsidy Operational Guidelines for the scheme were approved by the State Level Bankers Committee held on 14.01.2010 and the scheme was formally launched on 28.1.2010. The following banks have entered into Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Executive Director of Kudumbashree (as on March 2011):

1. State Bank of Travancore (SBT) 2. Syndicate Bank 3. North Malabar Gramin Bank (NMGB) 4.South Malabar Gramin Bank (SMGB) 5.Central Bank of India (CBI) 6.Canara Bank 7. Punjab National Bank

these seven banks are actively lending to the NHGs/JLGs under Interest Subsidy scheme. The operational modalities of channelizing interest subsidy through co-operative institutions to NHGs are being separately worked out. Features 1. Interest subsidy of 5% to NHGs and JLGs (farming groups) of Kudumbashree. 2. Interest on loan amounts up to Rs 100,000 and periods upto 3 years.
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3. Interest subsidy channelized through banks institutions. 4. Participating banks charge annual interest at 9% or below. 5. Co-ordination between the banks and the NHGs will be through the CDS. For the Year 2010-11, ` 1.64 Crore was disbursed to 3959 NHGs and 236 JLGs as interest subsidy. 1.6 KAASS KAASS, the Kudumbashree Accounts & Audit Service Society; a home grown enterprise to ensure proper account keeping in the community network Each district has been furnished with a KAASS team that has been drawn from commerce graduates and is guided by professional chartered accountants. These teams have been facilitating management of accounts at the NHG, ADS and CDS levels, and pointing out to defects and rectification where ever needed. They function as a concurrent audit mechanism as well, giving inputs to the mission teams about capacity building requirements for financial management. There are over 300 members in KAASS across the state.

The new byelaws provide for internal auditors from within the community network. These internal auditors will be capacitated by KAASS.

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Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.


The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural The household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work National Rural employment Guarantee Act (NREGP) Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. The Act aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The Act came into force on February 2, 2006 and was implemented in a phased manner. In Phase one it was introduced in 200 of the most backward districts of the country. It was implemented in an additional 130 districts in Phase two 20072008. As per the initial target, NREGA was to be expanded countrywide in five years. However, in order to bring the whole nation under its safety net and keeping in view the demand, the Scheme was extended to the remaining 274 rural districts of India from April 1, 2008 in Phase III. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)is the first ever law internationally, that guarantees wage employment at an unprecedented scale. The primary objective of the Act is augmenting wage employment. Its auxiliary objective is strengthening natural resource management through works that address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and so encourage sustainable development. The process outcomes include strengthening

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grassroots processes of democracy and infusing transparency and accountability in governance. With its rights-based framework and demand driven approach, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) marks a paradigm shift from the previous wage programmes. The Act is also a significant vehicle for strengthening decentralization and deepening processes of democracy by giving a pivotal role to the Panchayati Raj Institutions in planning, monitoring and implementation. Unique features of the ACT include, time bound employment guarantee and wage payment within 15 days, incentive-disincentive structure to the State Governments for providing employment as 90 per cent of the cost for employment provided is borne by the Centre or payment of unemployment allowance at their own cost and emphasis on labour intensive works prohibiting the use of contractors and machinery. The Act also mandates 33 percent participation for women. Basic objective of the Act
1. Increasing Employment Opportunities:

In 2007-08, 3.39 crore households were provided employment and 143.5 crore person days were generated in 330 districts. In 2008-2009, upto July, 253 crore households have been provided employment and 85.29 crore person days have been generated.
2.

Enhancing Wage Earning and Impact on Minimum Wage: The enhanced wage earnings have lead to strengthening of the

livelihood resource base of the rural poor in India; in 2007-2008, more than 68% of funds utilised were in the form of wages paid to the labourers. In 2008-2009, 73% of the funds have been utilized in the form of wages.
3. Increasing Outreach to the poor:

Self targeting in nature, the Programme has high works participation of marginalized groups like SC/ST (57%), women (43%) in 2007-2008. In 2008-2009, upto July, the participation is SC/ST (54%) and women (49%), strengthening Natural
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Resource Base of Rural India: In 2007-08, 17.88 lakh works have been undertaken, of which 49% were related to water conservation. In 2008-2009, upto July, 16.88 lakh works have been undertaken, of which 49% are related to water conservation.

4. Financial Inclusion of the poor:

The Central government has been encouraging the state governments to make wage payment through bank and post office accounts of wage seekers. Thus far, 2.9 crore (upto July '08) NREGA bank and post office accounts have been opened to disburse wages. The Ministry is also encouraging the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) workers to obtain insurance under Jan Shri Bima Yojana. Initial evidence through independent studies indicates enhancement of agricultural productivity (through water harvesting, check dams, ground water recharging, improve moisture content, check in soil erosion and micro-irrigation), stemming of distress migration, increased access to markets and services through rural connectivity works, supplementing household incomes, Increase in women workforce participation ratios and the regeneration of natural resources

Broad Outlines

1. village. 2.

The NREGS is open to all rural households who are in need of wage

employment and desire to do unskilled manual work in and around his/her

ANREGS is not confined to BPL families. Efforts would be made to opportunities for women under the

provide one third of employment Programme. 3.

A job card is necessary for demanding employment under the scheme.

28

4.

To get a job card a family must apply for it, in writing or orally to the

local gram panchayat for registration. 5. A job card will be issued to a family that applies for registration within

15 days by the Gram Panchayat after verification. 6. To be eligible for a job card, a family must have local residence in the

area of the Gram Panchayat. 7. 8. 9. Job cards with photographs are given to a family as a whole. Registration, job cards and photographs are free of cost. A job card holding family may demand employment according to its

choice for a total number of 100 days. 10. A written application by a job card holding family to the Gram

Panchayat or Programme Officer is necessary for demanding employment. 11. Dated receipt of the application for employment must be given by the

Gram Panchayat to the applicant. 12. 13. Unskilled manual work is provided within 15 days of demand. All adult members whose name is on the job card can apply for

employment. The entitlement of 100 days of employment in financial year is for a household as an aggregate. 14. Minimum wages for agricultural labour are to be paid according to the

prevalent schedule of rural rates 15. If employment is not provided within 15 days of application

unemployment allowance will be paid by the Gram Panchayat.

Funding Pattern

1. The programme will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme as cost sharing basis between the Centre and the Administration.
29

2. The Central Government will bear the cost on the following items: a. The amount required for payment of wages for unskilled manual

workers under the scheme b. Upto 75% of the material cost and wages of skilled and semi-

skilled workers c. Administrative expenses towards the salary of the Programme

Officers and his supporting staff, Gram Rozgar Sevak and work site facilities.

3. The Administration will bear the costs on the following items under Additional Central Assistance of UT Administration. (a.) Unemployment allowance payable in case the Administration cannot provide wage employment on time. (b.) 25% of the cost of material and wages of skilled and semiskilled workers. (c.) Administrative expenses towards salary of the officials at District and state levels appointed under NREGA. (d.) Administrative expenses of the State Employment Guarantee Council.

Fund Flow Government of India will release its share of funds to District Programme Coordinator. Corresponding Administrations share to the District will be released by the Commissioner for Rural Development & Local Self Govt. to the District Programme Coordinator. Details of Employment

30

1. As far as possible, employment shall be provided within a radius of five kilometers of the village where the applicant resides at the time of applying. 2. A new work under the Scheme shall be commenced only if;a) At least twenty laborers become available for such work; and b) The laborers cannot be absorbed in the ongoing works; Provided that this condition shall not be applicable for new works, as determined by the State Government, in hilly areas and in respect of afforestation.

A period of employment shall ordinarily be at least fourteen days continuously with not more than six days in a week.

4.

Every Panchayat/Tribal Council shall provide employment to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work for seven hours a day, not less than one hundred days of such work in a financial year.

5.

Every person who has done the work given to him under the scheme shall be entitled to receive the Agricultural Minimum Wages as notified by the Andaman and Nicobar Administration under section 3 of the Minimum wages Act 1948 for agricultural labourers.

6.

The Panchayat/Tribal Council shall disburse wages on a weekly basis or in any case not later than a fortnight.

The wages can be paid either in cash or through Bank or post office, in accordance with the preference of the wage earners.

To ensure transparency in payment of wages all efforts would be made to pay the wages through Bank or post offices wherever such facilities exist

31

CHAPTER 4

32

CHAPTER 4 A COMARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP PROGRAMME

The main important women development programme under Pallivasal Grama Panchayath is Kudumbashree and NREGP. An analysis of a comparative study of women development programmes under Kudumbashree mission and NREGP programme is attempted in this chapter. The study was conducted with the help of both primary data and primary data. The main objectives of the study is to the effectiveness of various Womens development programmes, to study how the womens group is benefited through these programmes, to examine the attitude of beneficiaries towards these programmes,to make suggestions for improving the Programmes for Womens Development.

ANALYSIS OF DATA It deals with the analysis of data using percentage analysis. Tables and suitable diagrams have been used at appropriate places.
33

Table 4.1 Age of the Respondents

Kudumbashree

NREGP

Total

Age Below 30 30-40 40-50 50 above Total

No 2 7 13 3 25

% 8 28 52 12 100

No 8 12 5 25

% 32 48 20 100

No 2 15 25 8 50

% 4 30 50 16 100

Source: Primary data The above table shows that majority of the respondents are in the age group of 40-50. 30 percent of the respondents are from the age group of 30-40 and 16 percent of the respondents are from above 50 age group. And only small percent of respondents are from the age group of below 30.

34

Table 4.2 Religion of Respondent

Kudumbashree Religion Hindu Muslim Christian Total No 16 2 7 25 % 64 8 28 100 No 15 10 25

NREGP % 60 40 100 No 31 2 17 50

Total % 62 4 34 100

Source: primary data It shows that most of the respondents are from Hindu religion with 62 percent, followed by Christian religion 34 percent. Only small number of respondents is 4 percent from the Muslim category. In NREGP there are no respondents from the category of Muslim.

35

Distribution of samples by community


The community wise distribution of samples is given on table 3

Table 4.3 Caste of Respondents

Kudumbashree Caste SC/ST OBC General Total No 5 12 8 25 % 20 48 32 100 No 7 11 7 25

NREGP % 28 44 28 100 No 12 23 15 50

Total % 24 46 30 100

Source: primary data It shows that most of the respondents are from OBC category with 46 percent; followed by General Category 30 percent and 24 percent of the respondents are from SC/ST Category. In Kudumbashree and NREGP most of the respondents are from OBC Category and small numbers of respondents are from SC/ST and General Category.

36

Distribution of samples by level of Education


The education wise distribution of samples is given in the table 4

Table 4.4 Level of Education of Respondents

Kudumbashree Educational Qualification Below SSLC SSLC Pre-degree Degree Total 11 3 1 25 44 12 4 100 7 1 25 10 40 17 No % No

NREGP % No

Total %

68

27

54

28 4 100

18 4 1 50

36 8 2 100

Source: primary data


Table 4 reveals that major share of respondents 54 percent have education up to <SSLC 36 percent up to SSLC and only 8 percent each have education up to pre-degree and 2 percent respondent from the category of degree. Majority member of Kudumbashree units 44 percent have educational qualification up to SSLC under NREGP majority of the respondents have educational qualification up to below SSLC. In short educational level of Kudumbashree members are better than NREGP members.

37

Distribution of Samples by Marital Status


The Marital status wise distribution of samples is given in the table 5

Table 4.5 Marital Status of Respondents

Kudumbashree

NREGP

Total

Marital Status Married Un married Widowed Divorced Total

No 25 25

% 100 100

No 25 25

% 100 100

No 50 50

% 100 100

Source: primary data

Table 5 shows that all respondents are married. This is equally true in the case of Kudumbashree unit and NREGP members. It is observed that there is no single un married women participate in the programme.

Distribution of sample by Occupation


The occupation wise distribution of sample is given in the table 6
38

Table 4.6 Occupation of the Respondents Kudumbashree Occupation Jobless Coolies Self employed Employed Total No 5 13 5 2 25 % 20 52 20 8 100 No 2 15 8 25 NREGP % 8 60 32 100 No 7 28 13 2 50 Total % 14 56 26 4 100

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the occupational status of the respondents. Out of the 50 respondents 28 are Coolies. Out of 50 respondents 13 are self employed that is 26 %, 4%are employed and 14% respondents are jobless. In the case occupation NREGP unit and Kudumbashree units, most of the respondents are coolies and self employees.

Distribution of samples by Annual Income


The annual income wise distribution of samples is given in the table 4.7

39

Table 4.7 Annual income from Occupation

Kudumbashree Annual Income Up to 10000 10000-50000 50000-100000 100000above Total No 5 10 7 3 25 % 20 40 28 12 100

NREGP No 2 15 6 2 25 % 8 60 24 8 100 No 7 25 13 5 50

Total % 14 50 26 10 100

Source: primary data

This table shows that most of the respondent has an annual income between 10000-50000 that is 50 percent. 26 percent respondents have income between 50000 and rupees 100000. And 14 percent respondents have income up to 1000. And only 10 percent respondents have an annual income above 10000 rupees. In the case of annual income, NREGP members and Kudumbashree units, most of the respondents are from the annual income between 10000 rupees and 50000 rupees.

Table 4.8 Poverty line of Respondent Kudumbashree Poverty APL BPL No 16 9 % 64 36 No 12 13


40

NREGP % 48 52 No 28 22

Total % 56 44

Total

25

100

25

100

50

100

Source: primary data It shows that most of the respondents are from APL category that is 56 percent and 44 percent are BPL Category.

Table 4.9 Housing Facilities

Kudumbashree Housing facilities Concrete Asbestos Thatched No 12 4 % 48 16 No 12 5 41

NREGP % 48 20 No 24 9 -

Total % 48 18 -

Tiles Total Source: primary data

9 25

36 100

8 25

32 100

17 50

34 100

The above table shows that all respondents have their own house. 48 percent of houses are concrete and 34 percent houses are tiled. 18 percent are asbestos. There is no thatched house. In the case of NREGP members and Kudumbashree units majority percent have concrete house.

Agricultural assistances from the programmes

Table 4.10 Do you have any agricultural assistance from the programme?

Income Yes

No 50
42

% 100

No Total
Source: primary data

50

100

This table reflects that out of 50 respondents all respondents get agricultural assistance.

Table 4.11 Agricultural assistance of Respondents

No 1 2 3 4

Agricultural assistance 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-25000 25000-50000

No. of Respondents 33 12 5 43

% 66 24 10

Total
Source: primary data

50

100

This table shows that out of 50 respondents 33 respondents get agricultural assistance between 1000 and 5000. 24 percent respondents get assistance between 5000 and 10000. And only 10 percent get assistance between 10000 and 25000.

Benefits of Kudumbashree scheme

Table 4.12 Do you get any benefits from Kudumbashree Scheme?

Benefits Yes No Total


Source: primary data

No 25 25

% 100 100

44

This table reflects that out of 25 respondents all respondents get benefits from Kudumbashree scheme.

Table 4.13 Benefits from the Kudumbashree Programme No 1 2 3 4 Benefits 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-25000 Above 25000 Total
Source: primary data This table shows that most of the respondents are get benefits between 1000 rupees and 5000 rupees. Out of 25 respondents 20 percent get the benefits between 5000 rupees and 10000 rupees. Only small numbers of respondents are 8 percent enjoy the benefit above 25000 and 24 percent respondents between 10000 rupees and 25000 rupees.

No of Respondents 12 5 6 2 25

% 48 20 24 8 100

Benefits of NREGP Table 4.14 Do you get any benefits from NREGP Scheme?

Benefits Yes No Total Source: primary data

No 25 25

% 100 100

45

This table reflects that out of 25 respondents all respondents get benefits from NREGP scheme.

Income Generation of Members

Table 4.15 Do you have regular source of income

Income Yes No Total


Source: primary data

No 50 50

% 100 100

This table reflects that all respondents from Kudumbashree unit and NREGP unit have regular source of income.

46

Incremental income of the respondent Formation of Micro Enterprises results in increased income to the SHG members. The average monthly income of the members before and after and increase in income revealed by perception of the respondent is presented in table 15

Table 4.16 Incremental monthly income of the respondent Income Mean <5000 3803 Pre SHG N 19 (37) 500010000 >10000 8742 6325 26 (53) 5 (10) Total 18870 50 (100)
Source: Primary data Note: Figure in brackets indicates percentages to total.

Post SHG Mean 4100 N 4 (7) 5317 38 (77) 14000 8 (16) 23417 50 (100)

Increase

297

1008

5258

4547

47

Table indicates increase in monthly earnings of the respondents after joining the group. The average monthly earnings of the household before and after joining the group Rs 18870 and Rs 23417 respectively with increase Rs 4547 majority 77percent of the respondent have income in the range of Rs 5000-Rs 10000. Only 16 percent of the respondent have income >10000. It is gratifying to note that the proportion of members earning income between Rs 5000-Rs 10000 jumped from 53 percent to 77 percent registering an increased monthly income of Rs 1008. It is a remarkable achievement that 6 percent of the members are able to change their income level above Rs 10000 with an average increase of Rs 5258.

Distribution of respondent on basis of income level Bar diagram

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 < 5000 500010000


48

BE OR F

AF E TR

> 10000

Table 4.17: Incremental Monthly income Mean Income Before Kudumbashree N=25 NREGP N=25 Total N=50
Source: primary data The analysis of increase in average monthly income as given in the table 16 reveals that members of SHG unit linked to NREGP dominates with an average increase of Rs.2820. Saving Habits of Members
49

Mean After Rs.

Income Increase Rs.

Rs.

20979 25446

23400 22626

2421 2820

18870

23417

4547

Table 4.18: Do you have Regular Saving Habits

Saving Yes No Total

No 50 50

% 100 100

Source: primary data All the respondents from Kudumbashree and NREGP units have regular saving. Incremental saving of the respondent It is observed that all of the respondents have increase in the saving.

Table 4.19: Incremental saving of the respondent Saving Before Mean <1000 1000-2000 2000-3000 >3000 Total 323 1075 7575 8973 N 45(90) 2(4) 4(6) 50(100) After Mean 735 1470 2370 7313 11488 N 15(30) 18(37) 3(6) 14(27) 50(100) 412 395 2370 262 2915 Increase

Source: primary data Table 19 it is evident that average annual saving was Rs.8973 during pre SHG period. After the saving of Kudumbashree and NREGP average annual saving increased to Rs.11488 registering an increase of Rs.2915.

50

Before the formation of Kudumbashree and NREGP 90 percent of the respondent have saving of Rs.1000 with an average amount of Rs.323 which declined to 30 percent after the formation of these groups.

Figures4.1: Distribution of Sample on the Basis of Saving Bar Diagram

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 < 1000 1000-2000


51

BEFORE AFTER

2000-3000

> 3000

Table 4.20 Incremental Saving of the Respondent

Mean Saving Before Rs. Kudumbashree N=25 NREGP N=25 Total N=50
Source: primary data

Mean Saving After Rs. 7656

Increase

207

7449

9299

12373

3074

8973

11488

2915

The analysis of change in total saving on the basis of type of SHGs indicates Kudumbashree units have higher increase in average savings with Rs.7449 compared to NREGP units with Rs.3074. There is significant variation in average increase in saving across different type of groups.

52

Impact on Asset Acquisition Any programme targeting the poor should strengthen their asst holding pattern. Increase in asset base strengthen the financial position of the house hold and also improves its shock absorption capacity. Increase in asset holding has been analyzed by classifying the asset in to,

Household Asset Business Assets Ornaments and Land and Building

Table: 4.21 Acquisition of Asset

Asset

Before joining Mean N 50 50 50

After joining Mean 39083 3300 71308 159072 272763 N 50 50 50 50

Increase

Household assets Business assets Ornaments Land and Building Total Source: primary data

32966 63010 221064 317040

6117 3300 8298 61992 44277

Table 21 shows that out of 50 respondents their average asset value is Rs.317040 but after the formation of group the asset value is Rs.272763 with
53

increase Rs.44277. Before the formation of the group nobody have business asset. It is observed that all of the respondents have increased the acquisition of asset after the formation of the Group.

Table 4.22 Acquisition of assets Type of SHG

Assets

Kudumbashree Before Mean After Mean 41026 6600 72000 318144 437770 6426 6600 8000 95364 116390 Increase Before Mean 31332 62020 219348 312700

NREGP After Mean 37140 70616 107756 5808 8595 14403 Increase

Household 34600 Business -

Ornaments 64000 L&B Total 222780 321380

Source: primary data

Table 22 shows that change in acquisition of assets on the basis of type of SHGs. Before the formation of group the asset value under Kudumbashree unit is Rs.321380 and after the formation of Micro Enterprises the asset value is Rs.437770 with increase of Rs.116390.Under NREGP unit before joining the group the asset value is Rs.312700 and after Rs. 107756 with increase Rs.14403. The asset value is increased after joining the group. Impact on Employment Generation
54

Undertaking supplementary activities such as animal husbandry, poultry farming etc and non farming activities like petty shop, manufacturing units etc provided to a great extent.

Table 4.23 Average Monthly Employment Generation

No of Days

Before

After

Nil 1-10 10-20 20-30 Total


Source: primary data

15 5 14 16 50

30 10 28 32 100

11 14 25 50

22 28 50 100

The above table shows that number of days of work increased after formation of Micro Enterprises. Analysis of the distribution of samples on the basis of Employment Generation before and after formation of Micro Enterprises indicates that during pre SHG period, 15 percent of the respondents had no employment of their own. This declined to 0 during post SHG situation. After formation of Micro Enterprises 25 respondents 50 percent have been employed between 20-30 days as against 16 respondents 32 percent during the pre SHG period. It is observed that Micro Enterprises programme has been critical in employment generation to poor women.

55

Table 4.24 Incremental Employment Generation- Type of SHG

Type of SHG

Mean Employment Before (Days)

Mean Employment

Increase

Kudumbashree N=25 NREGP N=25 Total N=50


Source: primary data

22

19

18

18

20

19

Analysis of Employment Generation on the basis of type of SHG indicates that average employment generation is highest under Kudumbashree with 19days compared to NREGP with 18days.

Problems Faced by Beneficiaries Women who set up Micro Enterprises are mainly new comers in business and they have to face many problems while running their enterprises.

56

Table 4.25 Problems of Micro Enterprises

Kudumbashree

NREGP

Total

Problems Financial

No 25

% 100 40 100 100

No 25 25

% 100 100

No 50 10 25 50

% 100 40 100 100

Production 10 Marketing Other Problems Source: primary data 25 25

Table 4.24 shows that all the respondents under Kudumbashree units face financial, production, marketing and other problems. But only a 40 percent of respondents face production problems under Kudumbashree units. In NREGP, there is no production and marketing problems and all respondents have financial and other problems.

57

CHAPTER 5

58

CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

FINDINGS
1. Majority of the respondents are in the age group of 40-50. 30 percent of the respondents are from the age group of 30-40 and 16 percent of the respondents are from above 50 age group. And only small percent of respondents are from the age group of below 30. It is considered that most of the respondents from Kudumbashree and NREGP are from the age group of 40-50. 2. On the basis of religion, 62 percent of the respondents are from Hindu religion followed by Christian religion 34 percent. Only small number of respondents is 4 percent from the Muslim category. In NREGP there are no respondents from the category of Muslim. Majority of the respondents from NREGP and Kudumbashree are Hindus. 3. Community wise most of the respondents are from OBC category with 46 percent; followed by General Category 30 percent and 24 percent of the respondents are from SC/ST Category. In Kudumbashree and NREGP most of the respondents are from OBC Category and small numbers of respondents are from SC/ST and General Category. 4. Major share of respondents 54 percent have education up to <SSLC 36 percent up to SSLC and only 8 percent each have education up to pre-degree and 2 percent respondent from the category of degree. Majority member of Kudumbashree units 44 percent have educational qualification up to SSLC under NREGP majority of the respondents have educational qualification up to below SSLC. In short educational level of Kudumbashree members are better than NREGP members.

59

5.

Marital status of members shows that all respondents are married. This is equally true in the case of Kudumbashree unit and NREGP members. It is observed that there is no single unmarried women participate in the programme.

6.

The occupational status of the respondents, Out of the 50 respondents 28 are Coolies. Out of 50 respondents 13 are self employed that is 26 %, 4%are employed and 14% respondents are jobless. In the case occupation NREGP unit and Kudumbashree units, most of the respondents are coolies and self employees.

7.

The respondent has an annual income between 10000-50000 that is 50 percent. 26 percent respondents have income between 50000 and rupees 100000. And 14 percent respondents have income up to 1000. And only 10 percent respondents have an annual income above 10000 rupees. In the case of annual income, NREGP members and Kudumbashree units, most of the respondents are from the annual income between 10000 rupees and 50000 rupees.

8.

Most of the respondents are from APL category that is 56 percent and 44 percent are BPL Category.

9.

All respondents have their own house. 48 percent of houses are concrete and 34 percent houses are tiled. 18 percent are asbestos. There is no thatched house. In the case of NREGP members and Kudumbashree units majority percent have concrete house.

10. Out of 50 respondents all respondents get agricultural assistance. That out of 50 respondents 33 respondents gets agricultural assistance between 1000 and 5000. 24 percent respondents get assistance between 5000 and 10000. And only 10 percent get assistance between 10000 and 25000. 11. That most of the respondents are get benefits between 1000 rupees and 5000 rupees from Kudumbashree units. Out of 25 respondents 20 percent get the benefits between 5000 rupees and 10000 rupees. Only small numbers of respondents are 8 percent enjoy the benefit above 25000 and 24 percent respondents between 10000 rupees and 25000 rupees.
60

12. Out of 25 respondents all respondents get benefits from NREGP scheme. 13. All respondents from Kudumbashree unit and NREGP unit have regular source of income. The average monthly earnings of the household before and after joining the group Rs 18870 and Rs 23417 respectively with increase Rs 4547. The analysis of increase in average monthly income as given in the table 16 reveals that members of SHG unit linked to NREGP dominates with an average increase of Rs.2820. 14. All the respondents from Kudumbashree and NREGP units have regular saving. The average annual saving was Rs.8973 during pre SHG period. After the saving of Kudumbashree and NREGP average annual saving increased to Rs.11488 registering an increase of Rs.2915. The analysis of change in total saving on the basis of type of SHGs indicates Kudumbashree units have higher increase in average savings with Rs.7449 compared to NREGP units with Rs.3074. 15. Out of 50 respondents their average asset value is Rs.317040 but after the formation of group the asset value is Rs.272763 with increase Rs.44277. Before the formation of the group nobody have business asset. It is observed that all of the respondents have increased the acquisition of asset after the formation of the Group. Before the formation of group the asset value under Kudumbashree unit is Rs.321380 and after the formation of Micro Enterprises the asset value is Rs.437770 with increase of Rs.116390.Under NREGP unit before joining the group the asset value is Rs.312700 and after Rs. 107756 Rs.14403. The asset value is increased after joining the group. with increase

16. Analysis of the distribution of samples on the basis of Employment Generation before and after formation of Micro Enterprises indicates that during pre SHG period, 15 percent of the respondents had no employment of their own. This
61

declined to 0 during post SHG situation. It is observed that Micro Enterprises programme has been critical in employment generation to poor women. Analysis of Employment Generation on the basis of type of SHG indicates that average employment generation is highest under Kudumbashree with 19days compared to NREGP with 18days. 17. The respondents under Kudumbashree units face financial, production, marketing and other problems. But only a 40 percent of respondents face production problems under Kudumbashree units. In NREGP, there is no production and marketing problems and all respondents have financial and other problems.

SUGGESTIONS
1. Adequate training must be provided to the members. 2. Legal awareness programmes must be conducted. 3. Educated women must be given the opportunity of formulating for women component plan. 4. Timely orientation programmes are inevitable. 5. Attractive saving schemes have to be introduced to enhance their thrift habits. 6. Adequate marketing facilities must be provided. programmes

Conclusions
Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that SHGs provided a convenient plat form for empowerment of women in the society. The major factors that motivated the women to join the group are social contact, self employment savings etc. From the study it can be concluded that Kudumbashree and NREGP programme motivates their members to undertake Income Generating Activities. It would help them to get

62

regular income through self employment which in turn empowers them economically and socially.

A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP IN PALLIVASAL GRAMA PANCHAYATH, IDUKKI DISTRICT, KERALA QUESTIONNNAIRE 1. Name of Respondent 2. Age of Respondent 3. Religion 4. Caste : ............................................................ : 20 30 : Hindu : SC/ST 30 40 Muslim OBC 40 50 Christian General SSLC Pre degree Above 50

5. Educational Qualification: Below SSLC Degree 6. Marital Status : Married Divorced 7. Occupation : Jobless Employed 8. Annual income of your family: Up to 10,000

Unmarried

Widowed

Coolies

Self employee

10,000 50, 000 Above100000 BPL Asbestos Tiles

50,000 1,00,000 9. Whether you in APL or BPL : APL

10. Type of hose roofing that you have? : Concrete Thatched

11. Do you have any agriculture assistances from the programmes? Yes No
63

If Yes Specify: 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-25000 25000-50000

12. Do you get any benefits from the KudumbaShree programmes? Yes No If Yes Specify : 5000-10000 10000-25000 25000-50000

1000-5000

13. Do you get any benefits from the NREGP? Yes No

14. Do you have any regular source of income? If source and monthly income:Source Income of the respondent
Yes No

Amt. before joining the group

Amt. of after joining the group

15. Do you have regular saving habit?

If yes, organizations with which you are saving. Source Group Bank Chitty Others Total Amt. before joining the group Amt. of after joining the group

64

16. Acquisition of Asset Amt. before joining the group (value) House hold asset Business asset Ornaments Land & Building Amt. of after joining the group

17. Employment Details No.of days employed before joining the group Respondent No. of days employed after joining the group

18. Problems faced by beneficiaries? Financial problems Yes No No No No

Production problems Yes Marketing problem Other problem 19. Suggestions, if any Yes Yes

BIBILOGRAPHY

65

1.Dr.C.Jayachandran (2009) Impact of SHGs in Women Empowerment a Study in Kottayam District, Kerala. Micro Finance Role of Self Help Groups in Rural Development published by Mar Athanasius College Kothamangalam. 2.Rasia,Begam and Kamala,Sreenivasan (2000), Running program for the Self Employment of Women SEDME Vol.1,No.27 3.Yunus Dr. Muhammed (2000), Employment and Grammen Bank, Yojana,Vol.44,No.2 4.Dr. Punithavathi Pandian,R. Eswaran, Yojana (2002) Empowerment of Women through Micro Credit. 5.S.K. Nashi, Southen Ecomist (2004) Micro Finance; A Study of Stree Shakti (SHG) Programmes. 6.Beena Skariah (2009) Micro Finance support to micro enterprise under Kudumbashree programme. Micro Finance Role of Self Help Group in Rural Development published by Mar Athanasius College Kothamangalam October 30 and 31,2008 7.Lakshmi, Devi K.R and P.P.Pillai (2002) Micro Credit Programmes, Income Generating and Empowerment of Women Tecnology. 8.Susy Paul and Dr. Gireesh Kumar (2009) Impact of SHG Bank Linkage program on Income Generation of Rural Poor in Kerala published by Mar Athanasius College Kothamangalam October 30 and 31,2008 9.Puhazhendi and Satyasai (2010) Rural credit and Women Self Help Groups
10.

some Empirical Evidence from

Kerala seminar paper applied Economics, Kochin University of Science and

www.kudumbashree.org

66

A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP IN PALLIVASAL GRAMA PANCHAYATH, IDUKKI DISTRICT, KERALA

Dissertation submitted to the Mahathma Gandi University in Partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master of Commerce

By ANU MOHANAN Final Year M.Com Reg.No: 160376

Under the guidance of Smt. Susy Paul, M.Com, M.Phil

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAR ATHANASIUS COLLEGE KOTHAMANGALAM 2010-2011


67

MAR ATHANASIUS COLLEGE, KOTHAMANGALAM DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Date:

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Dissertation titled A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP IN PALLIVASAL GRAMA PANCHAYATH, IDUKKI DISTRICT, KERALA is a banafide record of work carried out by Miss. Anu Mohanan., Final M.com student in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Master of Commerce (2010-2011) of Mahathma Gandi University, Kerala.

Smt. Susy Paul.,M.Com, M.Phil, Phd Selection Grade Lecturer Department of Commerce M.A College, Kothamangalam
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DECLARATION

I, Anu Mohanan., Comparative Kudumbashree Study

hereby declare that this dissertation entitled A of Women Development Programme under

Misson and NREGP in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath,

Idukki Dist, Kerala has been prepared by me under the guidance and supervision of Smt. Susy Paul, M.Com, M.Phil, Phd, Selection Grade Lecturer, Department of Commerce, Mar Athanasius College , Kothamangalam.

I also declare that this dissertation has not been submitted in fully or partly here of to any University or Institution for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Place :Kothamangalam Date : Anu Mohanan

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness too many people who have been involved with me at every phase of this study. Firstly, I express my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor Smt. Susy Paul M.Com, M.Phil, Ph.D Selection Grade Lecturer and Head of the Department of Commerce for her valuable suggestions throughout the completion of the dissertation work. Being a student of Mar Athanasius College let me express my profound gratitude to Dr. Winny Varghese, the principal of Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam.

I am deeply indebted to the Mr. K.B Varadarajan Panchayat President of Pallivasal Grama Panchayat, Smt. Susan Elias Kudumbashree officer for the assistance and co-operation for collection of data.

I am extremely grateful t o my friends for the help given to me in the preparation of this dissertation. I remember with great gratitude for the encouragement given by my parents and all members in my family in the successful completion of my work. Above all, I am thankful to Almighty God for the successful completion of my dissertation.

ANU MOHANAN
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LIST OF CONTENTS

List of Tables List of Figures

Chapter

Title

Page No

I.

INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE THEORETICAL REVIEW OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

1 7

II.

III.

11

IV.

A COMARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP PROGRAMME 32 59

V.

FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS APPENDIX- INTERVIEW SCHEDULE


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BIBLOGRAPHY

LIST OF TABLES

Table No

Title

Page No

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12

Age of Respondents Religion of Respondents Caste of Respondents Level of Education Marital Status Occupation of the Respondents Annual Income from occupation Poverty Line of Respondents Housing Facilities Do you have Agricultural Assistance from the Programme Agricultural Assistance from the Programme Do you get Benefits from Kudumbashree programme

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

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4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.42 4.23 4.24 4.25

Benefits from Kudumbashree programme Do you get Benefits from NREGP Do you have regular Source of Income Incremental Monthly income of the Respondent Incremental Monthly Income Type of SHG Do you have regular Saving Habit Incremental Saving of the Respondent Incremental Saving of the Respondent- Type of SHG Acquisition of Asset Acquisition of Asset- Type of SHG Average Employment Generation Incremental Employment Generation- Type of SHG Problems of Micro Enterprises

45 46 47 48 50 50 51 53 54 55 56 57 58

LIST OF FIGURES

4.1 4.2

Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Income Level Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Savings

49 52

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