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CS/OCT 2008/QMT500

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE COURSE CODE EXAMINATION TIME

: : : :

STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERING QMT500 OCTOBER 2008 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. 2. 3. 4. This question paper consists of five (5) questions. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each question on a new page. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) ii) iii) iv) the Question Paper an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty a two - page Appendix 1 (Key Formulas) Statistical Table - provided by the Faculty

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 6 printed pages
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CS/OCT 2008/QMT500

QUESTION 1

a)

In testing a certain kind of truck tyre over a rugged terrain, it is found that 7% of the trucks fail to complete the test run without a blowout. Of the next 20 trucks to be tested, find the probability that: i) at least 3 have blowouts. (2 marks) ii) less than 5 have blowouts. (2 marks)

b)

The number of customers arriving per hour at a certain car wash centre is assumed to follow a Poisson distribution with an average of 7customers per hour. i) Find the probability that more than 10 customers will arrive in a 2-hour period. (2 marks)

ii) What is the standard deviation of number of arrivals during a 4-hour period? (2 marks)

c)

The tensile strength of a certain metal component is normally distributed with a mean 10,000 kilograms per square centimetre and a standard deviation of 100 kilograms per square centimetre. Measurements are recorded to the nearest 50 kilograms per square centimetre. i) What proportions of these components exceed 10,150 kilograms per square centimetre in tensile strength? (2 marks) If only 10% of the components meet the specification requirement, what should be the minimum value of the tensile strength? (3 marks)

ii)

iii) If specifications require that all components have tensile strength between 9750 and 10,200 kilograms per square centimetre inclusive, what proportion of components would we expect to scrap? (4 marks) iv) If there are 20 samples of these components, what is the probability that the sample mean will have more than 10,025 kilograms per square centimetre in tensile strength? (3 marks)

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QUESTION 2 A manufacturing company is interested in buying one of two different kinds of machines. The company tested the two machines for production purposes. The first machine was run for 8 hours. It produced an average of 126 items per hour with a standard deviation of 9 items. The second machine was run for 11 hours. It produced an average of 117 items per hour with a standard deviation of 6 items. Assume that the production per hour for each machine is (approximately) normally distributed. a) The machine supplier claims that the mean number of items produced by the first machine is 130 items per hour. Do the data contradict the supplier's claim? Test at the 1% significance level. (5 marks) Calculate a 99% confidence interval for the mean number of items produced by the first machine per hour. Does the interval support your conclusion in part a)? Explain. (4 marks) Find a 95% confidence interval for the ratio of variances for the number of items produced per hour for the first and the second machines. Based on the confidence interval, can you conclude that there are differences in the variances? Explain. (4 marks) Using the result on the variances in part c), test whether there is significant evidence at the 5% level of significance that the mean number of items produced per hour by the first machine is more than the number of items produced per hour by the second machine. (7 marks)

b)

c)

d)

QUESTION 3 a) A large company buys thousands of light bulbs every year. The company is currently considering four brands of light bulbs to choose from. Before the company decides which light bulbs to buy, it wants to investigate if the mean lifetimes of the four light bulbs are equal. The company's research department randomly selected a few bulbs of each brand and tested them. The following table lists the number of hours (in thousands) that each of the bulbs of each brand lasted before burned out.

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Total

Brand 1 23 24 19 26 22 23 25 162

Brand 2 19 23 18 24 20 22 19 145

Brand 3 23 27 25 26 23 21 27 172

Brand 4 26 24 21 29 28 24 28 180

Given: G = I X y = 659 ^ X ^ = 15,751 At 5% level of significance, test the null hypothesis that the mean lifetimes of bulbs for each of these four brands are equal. (7 marks) b) A study is conducted to compare gas mileage for 3 competing brands of unleaded petrols. Four different car models of varying size are randomly selected. A randomized complete block design was used in the study where the order of testing is random for each model. The data in km/litre are shown in the following table. Gasoline Brand Q 35.6 28.6 37.6 36.2 138 Total R 38.7 29.9 39.1 37.9 145.6 106.7 87.3 113.2 108.5 G= 415.7 SS (Error) = 43.5416

Model A B C D Total

P 32.4 28.8 36.5 34.4 132.1

Given :(Xy) 2/n = 14,400.5408 i)

Total SS = 160.7092

State the treatment factor and blocking factor in the above study. (2 marks)

ii) Why do you think blocking was used in this design? (1 mark) iii) Is there any significant difference among the treatment means? Test at a = 0.01. (6 marks) iv) Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate differences among the block means? Test at a = 0.01. (4 marks)

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QUESTION 4

a)

Violence and lack of discipline have become major problems in schools recently. A random sample of 300 adults was selected, and they were asked if they favour giving more freedom to school teachers to punish students for violence and lack of discipline. The results of the survey are given in the following table: Opinion Against 70 32

Gender

Men Women

In Favour 93 87

No Opinion 12 6

Using 1% level of significance, test if there is any association between the gender and the opinion. (7 marks) b) The manufacturer of a unleaded petrol additive claims that the use of additive increases petrol mileage. A random sample of six cars was selected and these cars were driven for one week without the petrol additive and then for one week with the petrol additive. The following table gives the mileage in kilometre per litre for these cars without and with petrol additive. Without With 24.6 26.3 28.3 31.7 18.9 18.2 23.7 25.3 15.4 18.3 29.5 30.9

Test at 5% level of significance whether the petrol additive increases the mileage of the car. State two assumptions needed for the above hypothesis testing. (7 marks) c) Home Mail Sdn.Bhd. sells products by mail. One of the products sold is the electrical components of a resistor. The company's management wants to find out if the number of orders received for this product at the company's office of the five days of the week is the same. The company took a sample of 400 orders received during a four-week period. The following table lists the frequency distribution for these orders by the day of the week. Day of the week Number of orders received Monday 92 Tuesday 71 Wednesday 65 Thursday 83 Friday 89

Test at the 2.5% significance level the null hypothesis that orders are evenly distributed over all days of the week . (6 marks)

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QUESTION 5 a) Fill in the blanks with the correct terms for the following statements.

0 A.
parameter. ii) The parameter.

is a range of values that is likely to contain the population

hypothesis is a statement about the value of the population

iii) A is the set of values of the test statistic that leads us to reject the null hypothesis. iv) The number of errors per page is an example of a variable. random

v) If the p value is smaller than the level of significance a, then the researcher should the null hypothesis at level a. (5 marks) b) The following data give information on the ages(in years) and the number of breakdowns during the past month for a sample of seven machines at a large company. Age Number of breakdowns i) 12 10 7 5 2 1 8
4

13 12

9 7

4 2

Find the sample correlation coefficient between the age and the number of breakdowns of the machine. Comment on the value obtained. (3 marks)

ii) Taking age as the independent variable and number of breakdowns as the dependent variable, find the estimated least squares regression line for the above data. Interpret the slope of the line in the context of the problem. (2 marks) iii) Find the coefficient of determination and interpret the value. (2 marks) iv) Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that number of breakdowns of a machine is linearly related to its age? Test at 1% level of significance. (8 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER


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APPENDIX 1(1)

CS/OCT 2008/QMT500

KEY FORMULAS
Binomial probability formula

p(x) = P(X = x)= [ n ] p x ( 1 - p ) n ~ x ; x = 0, 1,2, ..... n

Poisson probability formula

p(x) = P(X = x ) = ^ f - ; x = 0,1,2

CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
Parameter & description Mean n of a normal distribution, variance o2 unknown
Two-sided (1 - a)100% confidence interval

ta/2^j;

df=n-1

Difference in means of two normal distributions \a-\ - \x2, variances a2 = CJ22 and unknown

* -

y n-| n 2 I(n1-1)s12+(n2-1)s22
"
p

df = ni + n2 2,

1 +

n2-2

Difference in means of two normal distributions ^ - n2, variances a* * CT22 and unknown

I 2/ ^a/2 i l

2 '

df-

(s 1 2 /n 1 + s 2 2 /n 2 f

Si 2 /nif

(s22/n2F

n i 1 n2 1

Mean difference of two normal distributions for paired samples, (id Variance a2 of a normal distribution

df = n - 1 where n is no. of pairs

f(n-i)s2 (n-i)s 2 l
2 ' y2

df - n - 1

Ratio of the variances G2la2 of two normal distributions

V
.s2
2

'

2 -Fa/2;v2,vi

\<

- V2

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APPENDIX 1(2)

CS/OCT 2008/QMT500

HYPOTHESIS TESTING Null Hypothesis


HQ '. \i = Ho

Test statistic
tcalc = s
t

df = n - 1

a unknown
LJ t\
l

_(xi-x
i

)-D.
i

n o . (Xi - JJ.2 ~ '-' a* = CT22 and unknown

calc

Vn1

/(n-i - I J s ^ + ( n 2 - 1 ) s 2 2
df
LI . . . ,, p\ n o . \l] - \l2 U

"'

^ t

~p
tcalc

V
2

n1+n2-2
)-D.
.

_(xi-x
|

variances a* * u22 and unknown

V "1
Hf _ 2

(,2/n? f 2 /n ?
^s-| /n-\j n-( - 1 ^s2 / n 2 j n2 - 1

(si /ni+s 2 /n 2 f

H o : Hd = D

tcaic = - ;

df = n - 1 where n is no. of pairs

U . 2 2 , > n o . C (To ^Or 0" CJo^ T

a2

s2
HQ

: CTi = 0 2

TESTING SIGNIFICANCE OF REGRESSION (Analysis of Variance approach)

Total sum of squares


&

fn
n

N2

Regression sum of squares

SSR = z ( y i -- y ) 2 = Pi S xy

where S^ =

Is
n

/i

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