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Boundary Conditions
Introduction to Boundary Conditions p. 260 Default Boundary Conditions p. 263 Interface Boundary Conditions p. 264 Basic Settings p. 265 Boundary Details p. 271 Fluid Values p. 289 Mesh Motion p. 297 Plot Options p. 298

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Introduction to Boundary Conditions


Boundary Conditions must be applied to all regions at the outer extremities of your domain(s). Boundary Conditions can be inlets, outlets, openings, walls and symmetry planes (periodic interfaces are specified on the Domain Interfaces form: see Periodic Interfaces (p. 304)). Unspecified external regions are automatically assigned a no-slip, adiabatic wall boundary condition. Such regions assume the name <Domain> Default, where <Domain> corresponds to the name of the domain. Unspecified internal boundaries are ignored. Boundary conditions can be applied to any bounding surface of a 3D primitive that is included in a domain (i.e. including internal surfaces). If you choose to specify a boundary condition on an internal surface (e.g. to create a thin surface), then a boundary condition must be applied to both sides of the surface.

Boundary Condition Actions


Right-clicking on a boundary condition in the Object Selector tree (Physics Selector (p. 12)) gives a list of options, which are described below.
The New feature is not employed for Boundary Conditions. Edit the boundary condition using the GUI forms Delete a boundary. Use the copy and paste features to replicate boundaries. Boundaries should be pasted onto Domain objects. Open the Command Editor to view/edit the CCL denition of objects. If physics errors exist (the boundary is coloured red), you can attempt to automatically correct the physics. See Physics Checking (p. 16). This option is available when you have created a plot on a boundary condition, and is enabled when right-clicking on the Boundary Contour object within a boundary. See Plot Options (p. 298).

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Displaying Boundary Conditions


When you create a boundary condition in CFX-Pre, the regions comprising the boundary condition are highlighted according to the highlight settings you have specified on the Edit > Options form (see Highlighting (p. 76)). Symbols for certain boundary conditions are also displayed in the viewer. The boundary condition symbols are shown at surface display line intersections. Inlets use arrows pointing into the Fluid Domain (denoting inflow), while Outlets use arrows pointing out of the Fluid Domain (denoting outflow).

Important: Inlets, Outlets and Openings use arrow symbols whose direction is locally normal to the boundary surface, irrespective of the actual direction specified for the boundary condition. It is possible to show arrows pointing in the specified direction by creating a Boundary Vector object (see Boundary Vector p. 298 for details) and then turning off the default arrow symbols (see Boundary Marker Options (p. 78) for details). The boundary condition symbols and default colour schemes are: Inlet - White arrows Outlet - Yellow arrows Opening - Blue bi-directional arrows Symmetry - Red arrows on each side of the surface Interface: Fluid-Fluid, Fluid-Solid and Solid-Solid - Green octahedra Periodic - Purple semi-circular arrows

Considerations For Visualisation


When you create boundary conditions, the boundary names appear under the Domain object in CFX-Post. Plots can still be created, however, on any primitive region, as all regions are written to the definition and results files.

Creating or Editing a Boundary Condition


To create or edit a boundary condition, select Create > Flow Objects > Boundary Conditions from the main menu bar, or click the Boundary Conditions icon. You can also edit existing boundaries by right-clicking on their name in the Object Selector. See Physics Selector (p. 12).
Boundary Conditions icon

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When you create or edit a new boundary condition, a panel will appear requesting the a name for the boundary. Use the drop-down list to find the boundary to edit, or enter a new name. Select a domain to which the boundary will apply. Valid Syntax for Named Objects (p. 15) give more details on valid names. Boundary Conditions can only apply to one domain. A domain must be created before any boundary conditions can be applied.

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Default Boundary Conditions


You should be familiar with the concept of primitive and composite regions before reading this section: see Mesh Topology in CFX-Pre (p. 81). All fluid-world 2D primitives are assigned to the Domain Name Default boundary condition when its parent 3D primitive is included in a domain. Each new domain has its own Domain Name Default boundary. When 2D primitives (or composites that reference them) are assigned to other boundary conditions and domain interfaces, they are removed from the Domain Name Default boundary condition. A fluid-world 2D primitive is one that forms the boundary between the fluid(s) in the simulation and the outside world that is not modelled. The Domain Name Default boundary condition is a no-slip adiabatic wall, but this can be edited like any other boundary condition. Solid-world 2D primitives behave in a similar way. Fluid-solid regions are also initially contained in the Domain Name Default boundary condition. When a Solver (Definition) file is written, any fluid-solid regions in the Domain Name Default boundary condition are removed and assigned to automatically generated Fluid-Solid Domain Interfaces. If every region is assigned to another boundary condition, the Domain Name Default boundary object will cease to exist. In such a case, if a boundary condition is subsequently deleted, the Domain Name Default wall boundary will be re-created for the unspecified region. Since the Domain Name Default wall boundary condition is controlled automatically, you should never need to explicitly edit its Location list. Fluid-fluid 2D primitives (i.e. internal 2D primitives) are ignored unless a boundary condition is explicitly assigned (these are then thin surfaces). Each side of a fluid-fluid 2D primitive can have a different boundary condition, but most often both sides will be a wall. Thin surfaces are created by assigning a wall boundary condition to each side of a fluid-fluid 2D region. You can specify thin surfaces in CFX-Pre by specifying one side of each thin surface and selecting the Create Thin Surface Partner (p. 267) toggle on the Basic Settings panel for wall boundary conditions. Solid-solid 2D primitives are always ignored since you cannot create a boundary condition inside a solid domain.

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Interface Boundary Conditions


All Domain Interfaces automatically create boundaries of type Interface that contain the regions used in the Domain Interface. These boundaries are named < Domain Interface Name > Side <Domain Name> Part < 1/2 >, At least one of these boundaries will be autocreated for each domain involved in the interface. You can edit these boundaries like any other boundary, but you cannot create new Interface boundaries directly. You will usually not need to edit an auto-generated Interface boundary, but options are available for Fluid-Solid interfaces (which can be considered as being a special case of wall boundaries). The settings and options available when editing Interface Boundaries are described in Boundary Details: Interface (p. 286) and Fluid Values: Interface (p. 294).

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Basic Settings
The basic settings for boundary condition are to set the type, location, coordinate frame, and frame type (stationary or rotating) for each.
Select the Boundary Type. Select the Location(s); the drop-down list contains the commonly used regions (all the composite names and the primitive names that are not referenced by any composites). Hold the <Ctrl> key to select multiple regions. The extended list contains all regions in a domain. Alternatively, use the picking tool to select locations from the viewer using the mouse. See Boundary Condition and Domain Interface Locations (p. 82 in CFX-Pre). Choose a Coordinate Frame. See Coord Frame (p. 266). For Rotating Domains, select the frame type. See Frame Type (p. 266). For creating a boundary condition that forms a pair with this one. See Create Thin Surface Partner (p. 267) Use prole data to dene this boundary condition. See Profile Boundary Conditions (p. 78 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

Boundary Type Inlet, Outlet, Opening, Wall and Symmetry boundary conditions can be created. Interface boundaries can be edited, but not created. Location The Location list contains all 2D Composite and Primitive regions. For a discussion of primitive and composite regions, please refer to Mesh Topology in CFX-Pre (p. 81). Multiple 2D regions can be selected by holding the <Ctrl> key as you select additional regions.

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Coord Frame Coordinate frames are used to determine the principal reference directions of specified and solved vector quantities in your Domain, and for specifying reference directions when creating boundary conditions or setting initial values. By default, CFX-Pre uses Coord 0 as the Reference Coordinate Frame for all specifications in the model, but this can be changed to any valid CFX-Pre coordinate frame. See Global Coordinate Frame (Coord 0) (p. 23 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for more details. Frame Type CFX-Pre treats boundary conditions differently when a Rotating Frame of Reference has been specified for the domain. Under these circumstances, the option to set Frame to Rotating or Stationary appears on the Boundary Conditions panel. The term rotating frame is the Rotating Frame of Reference itself. Selecting the Rotating option means that all values are set relative to the rotating frame. An Inlet boundary condition prescribed using the Rotating option rotates about the same axis as the Domain. The term stationary frame is a frame of reference that is stationary and does not rotate with the Rotating Frame of Reference. For example, an Inlet boundary condition specified with the Stationary option does not rotate about the axis along with the domain. A discussion of the Frame Type on cartesian and cylindrical velocity components is given in Cartesian Velocity Components (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) and Cylindrical Velocity Components (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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Create Thin Surface Partner

If creating a thin surface boundary condition, enable the toggle. Select one side of each thin surface boundary in the Location list.

Wall Boundary conditions have an additional toggle which, when selected, will attempt to create an identical boundary condition on the other side of the specified region. This is useful for modeling very thin surfaces, such as baffles. After creation, these boundaries can be edited in order to apply slightly different physical boundary conditions to either side of the region.

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Use Profile Data In order to specify a boundary condition using a data file that describes a profile distribution, you must first read in your profile data file. Select Tools > Initialise Profile Data to select the file to read. Initialise Profile Data

Click to Browse to the le containing your prole data.

The elds are displayed in the output.

Profile boundary conditions refer to the boundary conditions whose data vary spatially over the boundary condition region. The variation of the data is specified in a number of ways including form functions, user Fortran, and in term of discrete data values (and locations). Types of Discrete Profiles 1-D profile uses one spatial coordinate to define the data position, for e.g., x, y, z or a cylindrical value. This could be used to describe the axisymmetric flow down a cylindrical pipe (i.e. the data values for a value of r). 2-D profile uses two spatial coordinates (cartesian or polar), for e.g., (x, y), (x, z), (r, t), (a, t), etc. if you are importing the data from a 2D code on a planar boundary, you may wish to use this as a boundary condition in a 3D case in CFX. 3-D profile uses three spatial coordinates, for e.g., (x, y, z) or (r, t, a). Among various uses of 3-D Profile Data are boundary conditions, spatially varying fluid properties, additional variables or equation sources. Profile Data Format The format of the profile data file is shown below:
# Comment line # The following section (beginning with [Name] and ending as [Elements]) # represents one profile, which can be repeated to define multiple profiles.

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[Spatial Fields] r [m], theta [degrees], z [m] . . . [Data] X [ m ], Y [ m ], Z [ m ], Area [ m^2 ], Density [ kg m^-3 ] -1.77312009e-02, -5.38203605e-02, 6.00000024e-02, 7.12153496e-06, 1.23141646e+00 -1.77312009e-02, -5.79627529e-02, 5.99999949e-02, 5.06326614e-06, 1.23143399e+00 . . . # -------- end of first profile 'My Boundary'---------[Name] Plane 2 . . .

The guidelines for creating profile data format are listed below: The name of each Locator is listed under the [Name] heading. The names of the fields are case insensitive (i.e. [data] and [Data] are acceptable). The names of variables used in the data fields are case sensitive. For e.g., 'u [m]' is valid x velocity component, whereas 'U [m]' is unrecognized field name. You have to map this unrecognized field name with valid variable name when loading in to CFX-Pre. This is consistent with the use of CEL elsewhere. Comments in the file are preceded by # (or ## for the CFX-5.6 polyline format) and can appear anywhere in the file. Commas must separate all fields in the profile. Any trailing commas at the end of a line is ignored. Any additional commas within a line of data will be a syntax error. Blank lines are ignored and can appear anywhere in the file (except between the [<data>] and first data line, where <data> is one of the key words in square brackets shown in the data format). If any lines with text are included above the keyword '[Name]', a syntax error will occur. Such lines should be preceded by # character to convert them into comments. Multiple data sets are permitted within the same file by repeating the sequence of profiles; each profile begins with keyword '[Name]'. Point coordinates and the corresponding variable values are stored in the Data section. The [Spatial Fields] can contain 1, 2, or 3 values, corresponding to whether this data is 1D, 2D or 3D.
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The data file has a .csv extension for compatibility with other software packages. When this data file is read-in, it is checked for any format violations; physics error is shown for such situations. See Physics Checking (p. 16 in CFX-Pre) and The RULES and VARIABLES Files (p. 79 in CFX-Solver Manager). Example: Consider a multiphase boundary condition is set up using the profile data file having a profile named myProfile and one of data fields is Temperature [K]. CFX-Pre allows function as myProfile.water.Temperature(x,y,z) in order to refer to a data field stored in the profile. This derived value can be assigned to a parameter, say Fixed Temperature. The expressions that are automatically generated in CFX-Pre for profile boundaries are simply the expressions in terms of interpolation functions. This means that you can modify them in the same way as a normal CEL expression. For example, the expression myProfile.Temperature(x,y,z) could be modified to 2*myProfile.Temperature(2x,y,z). Also see Profile Boundary Conditions (p. 78 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for following details: Using a profile from one location at another location Standard Variable Names Non-standard Variable Names Custom variables Using r-theta profiles Data Interpolation method Extracting Profile Data from Results Files

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Boundary Details
The values which you need to set at boundaries depend on the characteristics of the flow. For instance, you can only specify temperature at a boundary if heat transfer is being modelled. If you change the characteristics of the flow, you must ensure that your boundary conditions are correctly specified. In most cases, CFX-Pre will alert you of the need to update settings in the form of Physics Validation errors. See Physics Checking (p. 16) for more details. For example, suppose you create a Domain, specify isothermal flow and set an Inlet boundary condition. If you then alter the flow characteristics on the Domain form to include heat transfer, you must change the Inlet specification to include the temperature of the fluid at that location. When modelling buoyancy, a pressure specified by a boundary condition will be interpreted as excluding any hydrostatic contribution. See Buoyancy and Pressure (p. 13 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) and Buoyancy (p. 25 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) for details. The following links will direct you to different Boundary Details panel descriptions: Boundary Details: Inlet (p. 271) Boundary Details: Outlet (p. 277) Boundary Details: Opening (p. 280) Boundary Details: Wall (p. 282) Boundary Details: Interface (p. 286)

Boundary Details: Inlet


The following panel shows the boundary details for a single-phase, single-component simulation. For details on other types of inlet, please see: Boundary Details: Inlet: Rotating Frame Settings (p. 273) Boundary Details: Inlet: Supersonic (p. 274) Boundary Details: Inlet: Variable Composition or Reacting Mixture Settings (p. 275) Boundary Details: Inlet: Multiphase Settings (p. 275) Boundary Details: Inlet: Additional Variable Settings (p. 276)

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Boundary Details: Single-phase, Single Component


If an expression describes the boundary condition, use the expression editor Expressions (p. 160) to create the expression, then click the expression icon and enter the expression name. Choose a subsonic or supersonic inlet. For multiphase simulations, subsonic must be chosen. Specify Mass and Momentum as: Normal Speed Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Mass Flow Rate Static Pressure Total Pressure See Mass and Momentum (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Options are different for Rotating Frames, Multiphase and Supersonic Inlets (see following pages). Specify a Turbulence option. See Turbulence (p. 57 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details on each option. Specify a temperature at an Inlet boundary using: Static Temperature Total Temperature (when Total Energy Heat Transfer is used) See Heat Transfer (p. 59 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details and the following pages for further model dependent options.

If you are modelling radiation, set one of: Adiabatic Local Temperature Radiation Intensity: the direction components of X,Y and Z must be specied. External Blackbody Temperature: specify a temperature. Radiative Heat Flux: set an inlet ux in [W m^-2]. The available options depend on the radiation model. See Thermal Radiation (p. 60 in CFX-5 Solver

More Help:

Inlet (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Inlet (subsonic) (p. 36 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) Recommended Configurations of Boundary Conditions (p. 50 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

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Boundary Details: Inlet: Rotating Frame Settings


Specify the Flow Regime for the Inlet boundary as either Subsonic or Supersonic. See Boundary Details: Inlet: Supersonic (p. 274) for supersonic options.. Mass and Momentum as: Normal Speed Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Static Pressure Stat. Frame Total Pressure Mass Flow Rate See Mass and Momentum (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for more details. Options are different for Multiphase and Supersonic Inlets (see previous and following pages). Flow Direction options include: Normal to Boundary Cartesian Components Cylindrical Components. See Mass and Momentum (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Specify a Turbulence option. See Turbulence (p. 57 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details on each option. Specify a temperature at an Inlet boundary using: Static Temperature Stationary Frame Total Temperature See Heat Transfer (p. 59 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details and the following pages for further model dependent options.

If you are using a radiation model, set one of: Adiabatic Local Temperature Radiation Intensity: the direction components of X,Y and Z must be specied. External Blackbody Temperature: specify a temperature. Radiative Heat Flux: set an inlet ux in [W m^-2]. The available options depend on the radiation model. See Thermal Radiation (p. 60 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

More Help:

Inlet (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Inlet (subsonic) (p. 36 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) Recommended Configurations of Boundary Conditions (p. 50 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

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Boundary Details: Inlet: Supersonic

Mass and Momentum as: Cartesian Velocity Components and Pressure Cylindrical Velocity Components and Pressure See Mass and Momentum (p. 61 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for more details. Specify a Turbulence option. See Turbulence (p. 57 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details on each option. Specify a temperature at an Inlet boundary using: Static Temperature Total Temperature (when Total Energy Heat Transfer is used) See Heat Transfer (p. 59 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details and the following pages for further model dependent options.

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Boundary Details: Inlet: Variable Composition or Reacting Mixture Settings

If you are using the Soot Model with Combustion, set a value for either Mass Concentration and Nuclei Concentration or Mass Fraction and Nuclei Specific Concentration. See Soot Model (p. 281 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). The Component Details section of the panel appears when a variable composition/reacting mixture has been created for a single phase simulation, or a simulation with one continuous phase and particle tracking. Highlight the material from the list and enter the mass fraction. Mass Fractions must sum to unity on all boundaries. To enter an expression for the mass fraction, click the Enter Expression icon and enter the name of your expression. See Combustion Modelling (p. 257 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details on each of the combustion models. When modelling the partially premixed combustion model, the Reaction Progress variable is also set. See Reaction Progress (p. 277 in CFX-5 Solver

Boundary Details: Inlet: Multiphase Settings For a multiphase simulation using the inhomogeneous model, the fluid-independent information for an Inlet is entered on the Boundary Details panel shown below. The purpose of this panel is to specify Flow Regime and Flow Specification. When the Homogeneous model is used, the Mass and Momentum, Heat Transfer and Turbulence information is also set on this panel. These options are set on the Fluid Values panel when the inhomogeneous model is used. For both inhomogeneous and homogeneous models, a Bulk Mass Flow Rate can be specified. The Flow Direction must also be set on the Boundary Details form for this case.

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The Component Details section of the panel will appear if the homogeneous model is used, and at least one of the fluids is a variable composition mixture. If the inhomogeneous model is used, component details are set for each fluid on the Fluid Values tab panel (Fluid Values: Inlet/Opening (p. 289)).

Subsonic ow regime must be chosen for multiphase simulations. Options available for Mass and Momentum are: Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Static Pressure Total Pressure Fluid Velocity Bulk Mass Flow Rate If a pressure specication is chosen, enter the pressure. The direction is chosen on the Fluid Values tab panel. If Fluid Velocity is chosen, the velocity details are entered on the Fluid Values tab panel. See Mass and Momentum (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

Boundary Details: Inlet: Additional Variable Settings

Highlight the Additional Variable to edit, and enter its mass concentration. For details on Additional Variables, see Additional Variables (p. 19 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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Boundary Details: Outlet


The panel below is used to set the boundary conditions at an Outlet for a single phase stationary domain simulation. For details on other outlet types, see Boundary Details: Outlet: Multiphase Settings (p. 278 in CFX-Pre) and Boundary Details: Outlet: Mass Flow Settings (p. 279 in CFX-Pre)
Choose a subsonic or supersonic Flow Regime. If supersonic, only the thermal radiation data needs to be set. Options available for Mass and Momentum are: Normal Speed Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Mass Flow Rate Average Static Pressure Static Pressure See Mass and Momentum (p. 62 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). If you are using a radiation model, set one of: Adiabatic Local Temperature Radiation Intensity: the direction components of X,Y and Z must be specied. External Blackbody Temperature: specify a temperature. Radiative Heat Flux: set an inlet ux in [W m^-2]. The available options depend on the radiation model. See Thermal Radiation (p. 60 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

If you use Average Static Pressure when your Domain is Rotating, you can base the pressure averaging on one of: Average Over Whole Outlet Average Above Specied Radius (enter a radius value) Average Below Specied Radius (enter a radius value) Circumferential For stationary domains only Average Over Whole Outlet and Circumferential are available. See Average Static Pressure (p. 62 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).
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Outlet (p. 62 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Outlet (Supersonic) (p. 66 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Outlet (subsonic) (p. 41 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) Outlet (supersonic) (p. 44 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) Recommended Configurations of Boundary Conditions (p. 50 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

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Boundary Details: Outlet: Multiphase Settings For a multiphase simulation, the Outlet boundary values are set on the panel below. When the Inhomogeneous model is used and the option is set to Fluid Velocity, then the Fluid Values tab panel is used to set phase-specific velocity data (see Fluid Values: Outlet (p. 291).
Options available for Mass and Momentum are: Average Static Pressure Static Pressure Degassing Condition (inhomogeneous) Cartesian Velocity Components (homogeneous) Cylindrical Velocity Components (homogeneous) Fluid Velocity (inhomogeneous) Bulk Mass Flow Rate If Average Static Pressure is chosen for a rotating domain, a Pressure Averaging option should be chosen. See Average Static Pressure (p. 62 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for more details. See Mass and Momentum (p. 62 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for information on the options available.

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Boundary Details: Outlet: Mass Flow Settings

Where a mass ow Update Option is chosen, select from the following options. Scale Mass Flows Constant Flux Shift Pressure (requires a Pressure Prole and/or Pressure Prole Blend). When a Pressure Prole is chosen, circumferential pressure averaging over a number of circumferential bands can be chosen. See Mass Flow Rate (p. 63 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for more details on these options.

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Boundary Details: Opening


This panel shows the settings for a single-phase simulation. For other simulation types, please refer to Boundary Details: Opening: Multiphase Settings (p. 281 in CFX-Pre) and Boundary Details: Opening: Additional Variable Settings (p. 282 in CFX-Pre)...
Choices for Mass and Momentum include: Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Pressure and No Direction (Entrainment Condition) Pressure and Direction (stable) Static Pressure See Mass and Momentum (p. 67 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). If you are using a radiation model, set either: Adiabatic Local Temperature Radiation Intensity: the direction components of X,Y and Z must be specied. External Blackbody Temperature: specify a temperature. Radiative Heat Flux: set an inlet ux in [W m^-2]. The available options depend on the radiation model. See Thermal Radiation (p. 60 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) If using a variable composition mixture, specify the mass fraction of each of the components at the boundary.

More Help:
Opening (p. 67 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Opening (p. 44 in CFX-5 Solver Theory)

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Boundary Details: Opening: Multiphase Settings


Choices for Mass and Momentum include: Fluid Velocity (when using the Inhomogeneous Model) Cartesian Velocity Components (when using the Homogeneous Model) Cylindrical Velocity Components (when using the Homogeneous Model) Pressure and No Direction (Entrainment Condition) Pressure and Direction Static Pressure Bulk Mass Flow Rate See Mass and Momentum (p. 67 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). More Help: Opening (p. 67 in CFX-5 Solver
Modelling) Opening (p. 44 in CFX-5 Solver

See Fluid Values: Inlet/Opening (p. 289) for data that is set on the Fluid Values tab panel.

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Boundary Details: Opening: Additional Variable Settings


Highlight the Additional Variable to edit, and enter its mass concentration. For details on Additional Variables, see Additional Variables (p. 19).

Boundary Details: Wall


The panel below shows the wall settings for a single phase simulation. See also Boundary Details: Wall: Multiphase Settings (p. 284), Boundary Details: Wall: Wall Adhesion

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Settings (p. 284).


Wall inuence on ow can be set to No Slip, Free Slip or Counter Rotating Wall (in rotating domains). Enable U, V and W to set Cartesian components for a moving wall, or leave unchecked to set a stationary wall. When setting Boundary Details for a Wall, the Wall Roughness is required. See Wall Roughness (p. 72 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). If heat transfer is modelled, the following options are available for wall modelling: Adiabatic Fixed Temperature Heat Flux Heat Transfer Coefcient If a multiphase simulation is being carried out, you can choose to specify the wall contact model as Use Volume Fraction Specify Area Fraction See Area Contact Model (p. 192 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Not applicable to Homogeneous Multiphase. Radiation options are discussed in Thermal Radiation (p. 75 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

If using additional variables, select: Fluid Dependent Boundary Conditions Zero Flux Flux In Value

Wall (p. 70 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Wall (p. 46 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) Wall Boundaries in Multiphase (p. 191 in CFX-5 Solver

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Radiation settings must be specified for all radiation models except the algebraic (Rosseland) model.

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If additional variables exist, they can be set at a wall on a bulk basis if they are present in both fluids and if the Kinematic Diffusivity is set. If Additional Variables are only present in some fluids, or if you select the Fluid Dependent option on the panel below, then the Additional Variable values are set on a per-fluid basis on the Fluid Values panel. Boundary Details: Wall: Multiphase Settings
When setting Boundary Details for a Wall, the Wall Roughness is required. See Wall Roughness (p. 72 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). If heat transfer is modelled, the following options are available for wall modelling: Adiabatic Fixed Temperature Heat Flux Heat Transfer Co-efcient Fluid Dependent (when using the Inhomogeneous model) If a multiphase simulation is being carried out, you can choose to specify the wall contact model as: Use Volume Fraction Specify Area Fraction See Area Contact Model (p. 192 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Not applicable to

Wall (p. 70 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Wall (p. 46 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) Wall Boundaries in Multiphase (p. 191 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

More Help:

See Fluid Values: Wall (p. 292) for data that is set on the Fluid Values tab panel. Boundary Details: Wall: Wall Adhesion Settings This part of the panel is used to set the wall contact angle for a free surface flow in which the surface tension force is modelled (Surface Tension Model is set to Continuum Surface Force). This allows wall adhesion effect to be accounted for. See Surface Tension (p. 161 in CFX-5 Solver Theory) for details.
Set the contact angle that the primary uid makes with the wall.

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Boundary Details: Wall: Deposition Settings This part of the panel is available for dispersed phases using the Algebraic Slip Model. For information on wall deposition, please refer to Wall Deposition (p. 203 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

Set the Option to Deposition if wall deposition is to be modelled.

Boundary Details: Wall: Erosion Model The erosion modelling capability is available when particle tracking is enabled. For details on the available model options, please see Erosion Model (p. 232 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).
Options available for erosion are: None Finnie (p. 215 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

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Boundary Details: Interface


See Interface Boundary Conditions (p. 264) for an introduction to interface boundaries. Boundary Details: Interface: Fluid-Solid Interface, Fluid Side The following panel appears when editing an interface for the fluid side of a Fluid-Solid interface for a single-phase simulation or a homogeneous multiphase simulation (see below for the inhomogeneous case).

The Wall Inuence on Flow must be No Slip (Free Slip is not allowed). See Wall Influence on Flow (p. 70 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). The default wall roughness is Smooth Wall. You may choose to select a rough wall and enter a roughness height. See Wall Roughness (p. 72 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). For Heat Transfer, Conservative Interface Flux is the only option. When radiation is modelled (not available for multiphase), you can use Conservative Interface Flux or the Opaque option, which requires values for Emissivity and Diffuse Fraction. See Opaque (p. 290 in CFX-5 Solver

If you are using the Particle Tracking model, then a Fluid Values tab panel will also be available where particle options can be set, see Fluid Values: Interface (p. 294).

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The following panel appears when editing an interface for the fluid side of a Fluid-Solid interface when the inhomogeneous multiphase model is used.
See Wall Roughness (p. 72 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). When heat transfer is modelled, Conservative Interface Flux is the only option available. The Wall Contact Model can be set to Use Volume Fraction (default) or you can specify an area fraction. See Area Contact Model (p. 192 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

Boundary Details: Interface: Fluid-Solid Interface, Solid Side The Solid side of the interface uses Conservative Interface Flux for Heat Transfer, if modelled. You may set a Thermal Radiation option, which is the same as the Fluid Side described above. You cannot set any particle options since particles can not exist in a solid domain. Boundary Details: Interface: Solid-Solid Interface The Solid sides of the interface uses Conservative Interface Flux for Heat Transfer. You may set a Thermal Radiation option, which is the same as the fluid side of a Fluid-Solid interface, as described above. Boundary Details: Interface: Fluid-Fluid and Periodic Interfaces For Periodic and Fluid-Fluid interfaces, Conservative Interface Flux is the only available option for all quantities and cannot be changed.

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Symmetry Boundary Conditions


When specifying symmetry boundary conditions, select the locations from the drop-down list box and select the Frame Type if your domain is rotating. No further settings are required, and the same settings apply for fluid and solid domains.

Choose the location(s) of the symmetry plane(s) from the list. When modelling particle transport, see Symmetry Plane Boundaries (p. 234 in CFX-5 Solver

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Fluid Values
The Fluid Values panels are used to set boundary conditions for each fluid in an Eulerian multiphase simulation and each particle material when Particle Tracking is modelled.

Fluid Values: Inlet/Opening


Fluid Values: Inlet/Opening: Multiphase
This section applies when Fluid Velocity is set on the Boundary Details tab panel. Select from: Normal Speed Cartesian Velocity Components Mass Flow Rate See Mass and Momentum (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details. This section applies when Static Pressure is set on the Boundary Details tab panel. Select from: Normal to Boundary Directional Components See Mass and Momentum (p. 55 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details on these Set Turbulence quantities at the inlet boundary (if applicable). See Turbulence (p. 57 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) for details. Set the inlet temperature of each phase (if applicable). See Heat Transfer (p. 59 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) Enter the Volume Fraction of the selected Fluid at the inlet. The total Volume Fraction summed over all the uids must be equal to 1. If one of the uids is a variable composition mixture, specify the mass fractions of each of the components. For details, see Boundary Details: Inlet: Variable Composition or Reacting Mixture Settings (p. 275).

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Fluid Values: Inlet/Opening: Particle Tracking Settings


Select the phase to set properties for. Optionally specify particle properties at the boundary. When this toggle is disabled, particles do not enter through this boundary. Select from: Normal Speed Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Fluid Flow Rate Extrapolation Zero Slip Velocity See Mass and Momentum (p. 227 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Choose how the particles are injected. See Particle Position (p. 227 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) and Particle Locations (p. 230 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) See Particle Mass Flow Rate (p. 230 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling) See Particle Diameter Distribution (p. 211 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Available when heat transfer is enabled. See Heat Transfer (p. 231 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Available when the particle phase has been set up as a variable composition mixture. See Component Details (p. 231 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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Fluid Values: Outlet


If you are using the inhomogeneous multiphase model and selected the Fluid Velocity option on the Boundary Details tab panel, the fluid-specific velocity information is set on the panel shown below at an outlet boundary.

Options available for Mass and Momentum are: Normal Speed Cartesian Velocity Components Cylindrical Velocity Components Mass Flow Rate See Mass and Momentum (p. 62 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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Fluid Values: Wall


When modelling particle transport, see Fluid Values: Wall: Particle Tracking Settings (p. 293) for wall details.

Select the uid to set properties for.

Set the way in which the wall inuences the ow. See Wall Influence on Flow (p. 70 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

Set a Heat Transfer option. See Wall Heat Transfer (p. 72 in CFX-5 Solver Where additional variables are modelled, set an option for treatment of each one at the wall. See Additional Variables (p. 75 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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Fluid Values: Wall: Particle Tracking Settings As well as setting properties for the erosion model, restitution coefficient and mass flow absorption, particles can also be introduced on wall boundaries by enabling Define Particle Behaviour.

See Fluid Values - Restitution Coefficients for Particles (p. 232 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

See Erosion Model (p. 232 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). See Mass Flow Absorption (p. 233 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). This option is available when a Particle User Routine (Particle User Routine (p. 181)) has been created. See Wall Interaction (p. 233 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Introduce particles into the domain from this boundary. The options available here are the same as described in Fluid Values: Inlet/ Opening: Particle Tracking Settings (p. 290)

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Fluid Values: Interface


Fluid Values: Interface: Fluid-Solid Interface, Fluid Side The following panel is available on the fluid side of a Fluid-Solid interface for an inhomogeneous multiphase setup.

Available when you are using the Inhomogeneous multiphase model. You must use a No-Slip wall, but can set a wall velocity. See Wall Influence on Flow (p. 70 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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The following form appears when particle transport is enabled, and contains the same options as those that appear for wall boundaries.

See Fluid Values - Restitution Coefficients for Particles (p. 232 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). See Erosion Model (p. 232 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). See Mass Flow Absorption (p. 233 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling). Introduce particles into the domain from this boundary. The options available here are the same as described in Fluid Values: Inlet/ Opening: Particle Tracking Settings (p. 290)

Fluid Values: Interface: Fluid-Fluid and Periodic Interfaces For Periodic and Fluid-Fluid interfaces, Conservative Interface Flux is the only available option for all quantities and cannot be changed.

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Sources
The Sources form is available when the Discrete Transfer or Monte Carlo radiation model is selected. Sources can be specified at Inlet, Opening, Outlet and Wall Boundaries. The Discrete Transfer Model can be used to specify a directional radiation flux.

Click to specify a new radiation source. More details on Radiation Sources are given in Sources (Discrete Transfer and Monte Carlo models) (p. 61 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling)

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Mesh Motion
The Mesh Motion tab becomes available when the Mesh Deformation option is set to Regions of Motion Specified on the Basic Settings form for the domain (Mesh Deformation p. 205).

The options available depend on the type of boundary, and will be one of the subset discussed in Mesh Deformation (p. 5 in CFX-5 Solver Modelling).

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Plot Options
The Plot Options panel allows you to create Boundary Contour and Boundary Vector graphics to display scalar and vector values at boundaries, respectively.

Select from one of the available variables using the drop-down list. Select from one of the available vectors using the drop-down list.

Boundary Contour This draws the boundary surface coloured by the selected variable. The available variables depend on the settings on the Boundary Details and Sources panels, as applicable. A Legend appears by default showing the variable plotted on the boundary with a local range. You can turn off visibility for the legend by right-clicking on the Boundary Contour object associated with your boundary condition and toggling the Show Legend option. To access the Boundary Contour object in the Physics Selector, click the + sign to the left of the boundary condition to which it belongs to expand the selector tree for that boundary condition. Boundary Vector This draws vectors at the nodes of the boundary surface, pointing in the direction specified by the Profile Vector Component setting. The available vectors depend on the settings on the Boundary Details and Sources panels, as applicable.

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