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Exam 3 Notes Chapter 11Marriage and Family 1.

Family: a set of people related by kinship, who share the responsibility for reproduction and caring for children a. Blood related, Related though marriage, Adoption b. Types: i. Nuclear family: a married couple and their unmarried children 1. The ideal type 2. Not the most common anymorehas changed over time ii. Extended family: includes relatives living in the same house 1. Ex: grandparents living in the same house as a mom, dad, and children 2. Not as common in the US, but common/normal in other countries 3. Benefits: a. Not as large of strains because people have a larger support system i. Ex: someone gets divorced, and their family is near to support them b. Economic support iii. Monogamy vs. Polygamy 1. Monogamybeing married to only one person at a time a. Serial Monogamybeing divorced, but being remarried, but still to only one person at a time 2. Polygamy: being married to more than one person a. Polygynyman having more than one wife b. Polygandrywomen having more than one husband 2. Kinshipwho we are related to a. Can be cultural/learned not biological i. Ex: adoption b. Family vs. Kin i. In sociology, to be considered family, members must live together ii. Kin are related, but do not live in the same home; do not function collectively on a day-to-day basis c. Bilateral descent: both fathers and mothers sides of the family are equally important i. Followed in the US ii. Some societies follow Patrilineal descentfathers side is more important iii. Matrilineal descentmothers side of the family is more important d. Patriarchiesmen dominate; men make final decisions i. Most common in the US e. Matriarchieswomen dominate; women make final decisions f. Egalitarianequal amount of responsibility/decision making among men and women within households i. Becoming more common in the US 3. Marriage a. 95% of all men and women in the US marry at least once during their life b. Ways of meeting people is changing The newly developing internet dating source

i. The internet is second only to friends as a source of meeting a partner for all age groups ii. Seems to be important for homosexual couples c. People are dating longer before they commit to marriage i. Rise in people living together before they get married, so what is the rush to get married if they are already living together ii. More people going to school longer, so they tend to wait to get married until after they are finished d. Arranged Marriagelove is not the concern; family status and economic stability is what is important i. Love can come after marriage, but is not necessary for marriage ii. People argue that this is the reason for a high divorce rate in the US 1. Fairytale Lovetoo superficial, and we do not put enough thought into the practical things e. Mate Selection Rules: i. Endogamy: rules that specify the groups within which a spouse must be found 1. Prohibits marriage outside the group 2. Based on race, religion, social class ii. Exogamy: requirements to marry outside of certain groups, like family 1. Specifies what groups are off limit, but any other can be chosen from a. Ex: No marriage within families iii. Homogamy: tendency to select partners similar to you 4. Family Life a. Class differences i. Family traditionupper class must maintain their position 1. Family name is important 2. Good breeding 3. Important to maintain their privileged status 4. Being part of an upper class family is partially having a nuclear and extended family 5. Lineage is a concern ii. Lower class families are more likely to have single headed household 1. Not worried about family name 2. Will you be able to support financially? 3. Lineage is not their main concern 4. Children typically have to grow up quickly a. Can begin thinking about mate selection earlier in life iii. Less prominent than they used to beclass lines are beginning to blur 1. Internet no one knows what your class is if you do not want them to; causing more diverse people to mingle b. Racial Differences: (tied to class in some cases) i. Marriageable Male Pool (MMP) 1. Unemployment is high, so they cannot contribute to families this leaves women with no one eligible to marry 2. This leaves many women single ii. Native Americans remain with family after marriage, allowing for greater familial support networks 1. Live with extended familytypically with the wifes family

2. Everyone helps raising the children iii. Latinos emphasize extended families 1. Rely on networks for jobs 2. Live close to families, if not in the same home 5. Children a. Parenting as a social rolebiggest responsibility that a married couple has i. Parents are the primary people for teaching children socialization society depends on a person raising their children properly ii. Learning to parent 1. By watching other people parent 2. By being parented 3. Everyone has different opinions on how to raise children there is no one right way iii. Duration to parenthood is extending, with kids living at home longer iv. Boomerang Generation or Full-Nest Syndromesons and daughters returning home to live with parents 1. Because of divorce, financial problems b. Adoption: the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or guardian i. Happens mostly through an agency ii. About 2 million households are raising adopted children iii. 4% of the US population is adopted iv. Easiest for married heterosexual couples v. Functionalist 1. Say that it is good for the government because the people who are putting the babies up for adoption are young unwed mothers who would need governments financial aid (welfare) vi. Not anyone can adopt a childthere are guidelines that agencies follow 1. Ex: over the age of 50, someone in poor health, someone singlecannot adopt 6. Alternative Families a. How many marriages really end in divorce? i. Statistics say 50%, but it is beneficial to think of WHO is getting divorced Ex: people who got married in 1980 got divorced in 1990, and they were compared to the number of people who got married in 1990, not the number of people who got married in 1980 b. About 63% of all divorced people will remarry i. Women less likely than men because of children involved women end up with custody of children, so it makes new relationships harder c. Reasons for why divorce has become more common i. It is more socially accepted ii. More liberal laws 1. Most states have no fault lawspeople can get a divorce without having to prove a reason iii. Families having fewer children 1. Children keep parents together sometimes, so with less children, there is less of a reason to stay together iv. Increase in income makes it more affordable v. Increase in equality makes women less dependent d. Cohabitationliving together before marriage

i. About 50% of all married couples today lived together first e. Stepfamilies i. Becoming more common because more divorced people are getting remarried f. Remaining single i. People remaining single for longer ii. Reasons: 1. People do not want to be dependent/have others being dependent on them g. Voluntary or Involuntary Childlessness i. 16-17% of women will never have children, up from 10% in 1980 1. Reasons: a. Some people choose this b. Others have health issues c. Better birth control could be part of the reason why people are having less children d. Expense expensive to feed, clothe, and shelter children h. Gay Marriage recent issue i. Vermonts Civil Unions 1. Vermont was the first state to give gay couples the right to marriage 2. Called it Civil Unions 3. 2ndMassachusetts 4. Some people may not feel that it is morally right, but they do not want to take away rights from others ii. Supreme Court must decide 1. Supreme Court has to decide if gay marriage/unions are for the entire nation a. As of now, states are fighting about it amongst each other b. Must be the same nation wide because people can get married in one state, move to another, and then their marriage/union is not recognized i. Domestic Partnershipsigning an agreement that you benefit from each other financially, but not having to actually be married i. Having the benefits of being married ii. Would benefit homosexual and heterosexual couples 7. Sociological PerspectivesDo we need marriage? a. Functionalistssay that we do need it because it provides: i. Reproduction 1. Must replace the dying people ii. Protection 1. Parents are responsible for their children until they are at an age where they are self-sufficient iii. Socialization 1. Family is the primary socialization for children a. Teach culture, values, language iv. Regulation of sexual behavior 1. Varies across societies 2. Family teaches what is acceptable and what is not

v. Affection and companionship 1. Family usually provides warm and intimate relationship vi. Provision of social status 1. Family gives an ascribed status (can be good or bad) b. Conflict Theorists i. Family reflects inequality of wealth and powerfurther shows male dominance 1. Historically, patriarchies are the main form of family life ii. Acknowledge that we are drifting toward egalitarian families, but we still have a long way to go; men are taking on more of womens roles, like parenting c. Interactionists i. Importance of family interactionday-to-day interaction between parents and children ii. If the father is the one to be more involved with the children, children have fewer behavior problems, get along better with others, and are more responsible 8. Polyandry a. Nyinba cultureHimalayas i. Tibet and Nepel ii. Provides the benefit of several laborers to support one family while also limiting reproduction 1. If the woman is unable to bare children, then they bring in another womantypically a sister or cousin of the woman 2. Having male children is wished for, female children are not as exciting because they do not provide labor to support the family iii. Brothers share one wife 1. The oldest male is the head of the family b. Matriarchial Culture i. Mosuo culturewomen are the most important/highly respected 1. Also in Himalayas 2. Family consists of a woman, her children, and daughters children 3. Everyone lives with their mother Men do not live with wives/women that they are in relationships with 9. Feminists Theoryagree that families perpetuate gender stereotypes that have existed throughout history a. Defense of single parent families i. Feminists say that we should not have such negative stereotypes for this type of family 1. Research shows that they are doing better than expected a. Single mothers show resilience in the face of economic hardship b. They also rely heavily on kin networks for support i. Single mothers rely more on help than single fathers 10. Family Violence a. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)abuse by a former or current spouse, partners who live together or not, and current or former boyfriends or girlfriends

b. 27% of men and 16% of men have experienced IPV at some point i. These are low, partially because there is a negative stigma that comes with reporting the crime c. Leading cause of death for women between the age of 15-44 (1200 per year) d. Abusers are typically male e. What characterizes abusers? i. Macro Variables 1. Unemployment and poverty ii. Micro Variables 1. Drug abuse (one or both partners) 2. Too many childrencannot afford to raise them 3. Violent background/upbringing people tend to parent like their parents parented f. Four most common disagreements: i. Gender role expectations ii. Money 1. Saving vs. spending iii. Children (raising/disciplining) iv. Infidelity g. Child Maltreatment i. Neglect and physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse ii. 10 per 1,000 children in the US are victims of abuse or neglect this declines with age because they become old enough to fight back or leave the situation 11. Aging a. What is old? it is a social construction that is on different variables i. It is different between cultures ii. Depends on life expectancy also different in different cultures b. Africas AIDS/HIV epidemic causes old age to be 40 c. US i. 65-67 is considered old because you can retire and you become eligible for benefits ii. Average life expectancy: 78 d. Some people base it on physical health e. Estimated that by 2030, older people will outnumber young people in the world i. People having less children ii. People living longer Chapter 12Education 1. Education is responsible for formal socialization a. Institution that socializes young members of society into how society works b. College is the new high school because it is hard to get by with just a high school degree more and more people are having to go to college c. People aged 25 and older with high school diplomas i. 196041% ii. 200886% d. Proportion of college degrees: i. 19608% ii. 200829% e. Sociological Perspectives i. Functionalists

1. Manifest functions: transfer of knowledge to new generations a. Passing on knowledge b. Our culture is language basedlearning how to speak and read to survive in society c. 2. Latent Functions a. Transmitting culture b. Promoting social and political integration i. Sometimes the government being involved in school can be good, others can be bad 1. Ex: Chinas governments causes exaggeration, and leaves negative things out in their education ii. Teaching people how to act together, despite differences iii. Society having a common identity once people go through the same school systems iv. Helps foreign students integrate into our culture/way of life c. Maintaining social control i. School teaches things like punctuality and responsibility before people enter the workforce ii. Keeps young people busy, and out of the work forcecontrols the competition from jobs iii. Transition from our parents being our main authority, to teachers/principals being authority iv. Perpetuates gender roles d. Acting as an agent for social change i. Education broadens your horizons leads to social change ii. Sex Ed classes began as teen pregnancy rates went up iii. Affirmative actiontrying to equalize peoples opportunities for education iv. Indirectly-> people who go through higher education are more open to new ideas, have more diverse opinions, and can analyze situations in a more complex way brings change because people are thinking in different/new ways v. Causes younger people to question facts there is more than one way to look at situations ii. Conflict Theorists: 1. Education as an instrument of the domination of the elite a. The elite dominate the education system, and this is what is taught in school teaches the dominant culture b. Say that making everyone act the same is a bad thing because you are lessening individuality among people 2. Hidden curriculum: subtle undertones in schools that overly reinforce obedience

a. Refers to standards of behavior that are deemed proper i. Ex: not cheating, raising a hand to be called on in class b. Argue that the classroom is overly focused on obedience to authority does not give way to creativity 3. Credentialism: increase in the minimum amount of education needed a. Say that it increases inequality because not all people can afford college i. Limiting the jobs that people can get without a college degree b. As time goes on, credentials need to be higher to get better jobs c. Job market is competitive, and jobs are becoming more complex 4. Status: your education gives you status just by obtaining it a. Argue that status further separates us from each other iii. Symbolic interationists: 1. Labeling theory: certain aspects of the educational system that risk separating children into stigmatized groups a. Causes students to get labeled in a certain way and they have a lot of trouble breaking that label b. Ex: (negative) trouble-maker, not having to pay for lunch because of low income family, low income scholarships i. When other people find out, they are already judging without any proof 2. Teacher-Expectancy Effect: teachers expect certain performance from certain students a. Up to 3rd grade is the more influential b. Telling students that they are bad/acting as if you think they are not worth much, and they do poorly c. Studies have shown that some teachers show favoritism, further separating students 2. Bureaucracy in Schools a. Division of labor: teachers are assigned to certain age groups and/or subjects i. Separate students based on their level of obtaining knowledge b. Hierarchy of Authority: teachers, principals, superintendents, board of education c. Written rules and regulations d. Impersonality: class size increases, personal/individual attention decreases e. Employment based on technical qualifications: teachers hired based on professional qualifications 3. Teachers a. In 1996, 11% of male college students and 37% of female students said they were interested in being teachers i. The number of people interested in teaching has gone down ii. In 2009, only 4.1% of first year college students said they were interested in elementary school teaching, and 4.4% in being high school teachers

1. Lower prestige associated with teaching 2. Medium pay for going to school for the same amount of time as going for something that you could make more money doing a. With a low pay, teachers tend to not be as good schools get bad reputation more students get into schools so that teachers can make more money larger classes are harder for teachers to handle, and this is frustrating because they are not getting paid enough to make up for this extra work 3. Have to get different certifications just for moving to different places iii. In most other counties, teachers get above average salaries 4. Student Subcultures a. Latent function: students social and recreational experiences i. Helps young children how to properly socializeshare, make friends ii. Form close relationshipsfriends, partners b. Cliques and social groups i. Based on race, class, athleticism, educational interests, etc. ii. People group together based on similar interests/activities iii. Four categories of subcultures: (can be a member of more than one) 1. Collegiate subculture: having fun and socializing a. Reasonable amount of academics (not a huge commitment to school), and balance it with social life/athletics 2. Academic subculture: intellectual concerns and knowledge a. Value knowledge and academics 3. Vocational subculture: learning for career advancement a. Career opportunitiesfocused on school, but in a particular skill/type of class 4. Nonconformists subculture: hostile to the college environment a. Not very involved in school or extra curricular 5. Home-Schoolingfor it to work properly, there needs to be come type of regulation with guidelines for everyone to follow a. 1.5 million students home-schooled (3% of school-aged people) b. Critics argue: i. Formal socialization is absentnot getting proper social skills 1. Can cause some people to develop differently, while others are fine in the outside world 2. Some are still involved in outside activities and recreational sports ii. Quality control is not consistentsome states involved, some not 1. Legal in all states, but some states do not regulate it or require knowing, some know but do not monitor it, and others are strict and cause people to submit lesson plans and follow a program 2. Some people might get a good home-schooling education, while others may not a. Depends on how disciplined you are, and how your parents are c. Used to be for people who lived in rural areas, or who had strict religious rules that kept them from regular school

d. Good for children who need extra attention (ADD/ADHD, more individual attention, small groups of students rather than large classes) 6. Inequality in Education a. Inequality in literacy i. 20% of Third World countries are still illiterate b. Between school inequality i. Schools in the US receive extremely unequal funding, creating a huge gap in levels of resources 1. Would leveling the playing field, or attempting to equally distribute resources mean that everyone gets a mediocre education? ii. Segregation in schools 1. 80% of schools attended by whites have 10% of fewer African American students iii. Effect on home life in some schools outweighed availability of resources at school c. The inequality is not always based on the individual, but based on the resources available to the students and teachers d. Within school differences i. Differences between students in the same school ii. Tracking: separating students into groups based on ability, and teaching them accordingly 1. Smart kids are taught more, challenged, and motivated more, and are separated form slower students as not to be held back 2. Slower kids are taught at a slower pace suppose to heal children keep up with the material 3. Its not fair to lump them together, but its not fair to separate them, so what is the solution? 4. By doing this, students are put into categories early on, and they are labeled, then they are stuck in the group a. If someone is expected to perform poorly, then they do this would happen to the students in the lower group iii. Intelligence 1. Are some people (or groups) just biologically smarter than others? a. Means that people naturally perform at their own levelpeople have different IQs b. Some people used to think that only certain groups of people had more intelligence than others, but this is not true c. Environmental explanation differences in performances are due to differences in opportunities and background sociology says that it is a social process, not a biological process 2. Low performance is likely due to feelings of inferiority Chapter 12 continuedReligion 1. Religion: unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things a. Sociologists are concerned with how people behave in religion, or dont i. How religion affects society/the social impact b. Durkheim

i. Sacred: of the beyond; events that inspire awe, respect, fear 1. Believers accept things that they do not completely understandthings that are other worldly events ii. Profane: ordinary and commonplace iii. Something can be both at the same, depending on how it is being used 1. Ex: a cup that has been blessed iv. Contemporary Sociology 1. Study the norms and values 2. Social functions of religion 2. World Religions a. 89% of the world population is a part of some religion i. Monotheism: One God ii. Polytheism: more than one god iii. Atheism: no god b. Judaism (1200 BC)oldest religion i. Gods chosen people awaiting the Messiah ii. Christians refer to their text as the Old Testament c. Christianity (largest religion) i. Jesus was the Messiah ii. Old Testament and New Testament d. Islam2nd largest i. Similar to Christianityboth monotheistic, existence of prophets, belief in afterlife, Jesus as an important prophet ii. Koran (aka Quran)religious texts received in 570 AD by Mohammad iii. Believe in some of the Old Testament e. Hinduism i. Polytheistic, although many worship only one deity ii. Belief in reincarnation or rebirth iii. Oral tradition no religious text f. Buddhism i. Meditation removes the need for selfish physical or material need and pleasures ii. First appearance of monks iii. Started in India, but then they were kicked out, and it spread to parts of Asia 3. Sociology of Religion a. Manifest functions (intended purpose) i. Defines the spiritual world ii. Explanation for troubling or difficult events 1. Provides an explanation for things they we do not understand b. Latent Functions (unintended purposes that just happen) i. Meeting place/socialization for people and children who share in the same religion 1. Ex: church c. Durkheim felt that religion was integrating i. Also integrating are nationalism and/or patriotism ii. Gives meaning to life iii. Outlines values iv. Socializes children v. Hope and comfort in times of sorrow

1. Can act as a therapist d. Charities and outreach i. Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives (Pres. Bush) ii. Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships (Obama) 1. Encourage peaceful pro-life and pro-choice activities 2. Help children of singe-parent homes 3. Encourage interfaith dialogue among religious leaders e. The Protestants Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber) i. Religious allegiance and development of capitalism religion made capitalism form/religion causes social change ii. Weber looked at Calvinists and their belief in predestination: 1. God shows favor on those going to heaven a. When you are born, God already knows if you are going to heaven or hell, and there is no way for you to change it b. This causes people to want to know where they are going so that they can live the proper life-style, because you were already going to a specific place, so things that you did, did not matter or change your course this whole idea led to capitalism 2. People began working for favor a. The Protestant Ethic People began to strive for success/work hard for a lot of money i. God showing them that they are going to heaven because he is allowing them to make money 4. Modern Social Change a. Liberation Theologychurch should actively fight in justice in society i. Even nonbelievers deserve some level of respect and justice ii. This requires religious leaders to take a role in politics this is the way to fight injustice in our society b. Conflict Perspective i. Marx religion is the opiate of the masses, perpetuates inequality ii. Saying that religion is only to make people happy, even when their life is terrible religion is a distraction from their problems 1. Religion causes people not to fight inequality Christianity teaches not to worry about worldly concerns, just to live a life that will get you to heaven a. If slaves were of a religion, they were forced to practice some form of Christianity iii. Women are excluded from the most important jobs of the Church gender inequality c. Poorer countries are more religious than industrialized countries 5. Non-believers a. Agnosticism: the belief that as humans our knowledge is limited to what we can experienceclaims of religious faith can never be proven i. There is a possibility that there is a God, but there is no way to prove it b. Atheism: belief that there is no god or spiritual realm c. Researched benefits of atheism:

i. Belief of any kind is associated with diminishing negative effects of old age 1. Believing strongly in something, a person can benefit strongly believing in atheism has the same benefits as strongly believing in a religion ii. Religious belief is not associated with improved physical health 1. Held constant with age, race, gender, and education level iii. Individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to adopt liberal and/or atheistic belief systems 6. Elements of Religion (Symbolic Interaction) a. Beliefs: statements to which the religious adhere i. Fundamentalists: shift in belief to literal interpretation of doctrine b. Rituals: religious practices, required or expected i. Example: 1. Catholics are expected to go to church on the weekend 2. Catholics are required to be baptized, 1st communion, confirmation to before being married in the church ii. Most take place at a worship ceremony c. Experiencecan be big or small i. Southern Baptists were most likely (75%) to be born again meaning they are going back to the church after a bad experience, or doing something to increase their faith ii. Catholics are least likely to be born again 7. Religious Organizations a. Universal Church: includes all members of society and is part of the fabric of society i. Does not seek to change inequality can actually encourage inequality b. Ecclesia: national or official religion, includes most members of society i. Dominant religion usually reflects the values of the ruling/dominant class aligned with politics ii. Promotes the interest of society (the ruling class) 1. Causes people of a lower class to switch to different religions iii. Usually the same faith as your parents iv. Ex: Catholicism in the Spain, Anglican church in England c. Denominations: large organized religions not linked to state or government, typically contain many members i. Roman Catholics is the larges single denomination in US with 25% ii. Protestantism is not a single denomination because there are different factions to it, but as a whole combined, it is the largest in the US d. Sects: small religious group that breaks away from larger organization i. Usually claims to be returning to authentic version of the faith 1. This is how the Protestant faith came to be broke away from Catholicism 2. Most do not survive because they are too extreme 3. Established Sectsformal, but do not integrate into society a. Ex: Amish ii. Cults (New Religious Movements): represents a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith 1. May or may not be related to an existing religion 2. Like sects, the extreme fade out eventually

Chapter 13The Political System 1. Government: enactment of policies and decisions regarding matter of the state a. Politics: means by which power is used to affect governmental activities i. Affect the government ii. Power: the ability to exert influence 1. Must have power to get into government b. Civil Right: legal rights held by all citizens i. Some people around the world do not have them ii. Some people had to fight for these in the US, but now everyone in the US has them c. Political rights: provide for participation in the political process i. Hold office, vote, etc d. Social rights: refer to the expectation that everyone deserves a minimum standard or economic welfare and security i. Welfare, unemployment, sick leave, minimum wage, etc. provided by the government 2. Capitalism: the means of production are held privately and profit is the main incentive for economic activity a. Peoples wealth used to be based on how much land someone owned b. Industrial Revolution changed this people could invest money, create new products, and get wealthy c. Business owners and bankers became the people with the most wealth, it is not longer people with the most land d. When capitalism began, there was no government influence, but as things grew, the government became involved i. Make sure that one business doesnt eventually own everything ii. Take care of the consumers and not take advantage of them e. Everyone has a shot, and everyone is trying to get ahead 3. Socialism: the means of production are collectively owned and meeting peoples needs is the main incentive a. Government owns/runs everything, and then distributes it evenly b. Government is not trying to make money (theoretically) c. No competition among businesses d. Marx believed that these economies would wither away and become communists 4. Communists: all property is communally owned by one party a. All citizens are equal b. One party controls everything c. Sometimes during elections, there is only one party to choose from, and only one person to choose from d. There is no country that has followed exactly what Marx said capitalism was countries are typically a mixture of socialism and capitalism, not 100% of one 5. Types of Government a. Monarchy: a form of government headed by single member of a royal family, ruling by divine right i. People stated that God gave them the divine right to be rule b. Oligarchy: rule by a few individuals i. Not common because the group of people cannot agree c. Dictatorship: one person has total power and often rules by force d. Democracy: government by the people

i. When it began in Greece, everyone was a part of it ii. Because the US is so large, this cannot happen, so we have a representative democracychoose representatives to speak for the people 6. Ruling in America a. Pluralism: idea that competing interest groups are in control i. Businesses, trade union, environmental organizations, etc. ii. Each groups has their own interest, and there is a constant comprise going on attempting to please everyone iii. No one group is completely dominate iv. US is the more pluralists countrythere are so many diverse groups b. The Power Elite argument is the idea that the most powerful people in business, the economy, and the military have unified to create one ruling group i. Meaning that people with the most education, money, power, and prestige have the most control ii. Tend to share common interests iii. Once people get to this level, they are interconnected 1. Politicians have business interests, business owners become part of the government, Military officials sit on boards of big business iv. This would work if their interests were the same as common people, but they are not representative of everyone they work for their own interests/benefit 7. Voting a. Almost 40% of the US voters do not align with either majority party (Republican and Democrat) b. Only 8% of American belong to a political organization i. Fewer than 20% have ever contracted and elected official c. Highest voter turnout in decades was in 2008, when almost 60% of registered voters participated d. Least likely to vote are: i. Minorities ii. Low Income iii. Young People 8. Terrorism: a. Political terrorism: using force, intimidation, coercion, threats, etc. against innocent individuals to achieve a political goal i. Intentional ii. Using violence iii. Types: 1. Revolutionary terrorism: enemies of the state who use terrorism against their own nation to encourage political change a. Ex: religious group wanting more rights; violence over how resources are distributed throughout the country 2. Repressive terrorism: committed by a government to suppress its people a. Government makes the decision, and people do not have a voice if people speak out, violent acts will occur against them

3. State sponsored terrorism: government funds or supports terrorists organizations a. Gov not actually committing violence, but supporting it 9. Work a. Division of Labor i. People can produce more if you streamline their jobs to one task each ii. Pin factories and productivity iii. You can make many more pens when everyone has their own job iv. Assembly line 1. Lots of individuals doing their own job b. Marx: Division of Labor creates alienation and separation i. Industrialization has compounded this problem by making it so that jobs require less skill ii. Workers lose sight of what the end result is so they cant take pride in their finished work c. Conflict between the workers and owners of production i. Strikes ii. Labor unions iii. Fights between powerful and powerless 10. Corporations a. Large business firms as opposed to individually owned and run b. Owned by the shareholders, but run by the managers and chief officers i. People who run the business are still monitored by the shareholders who dont usually take part in the actual work c. Acquisitions i. Creates super-companies 1. Companies that keep buying out everyone so they control everything like AT&T is the largest phone and cable company because they bought out Cinglular Wireless and etc. ii. Risk of monopolies and oligopolies 1. Oligopolies- only a few groups own it so there isnt too much competition 2. Companies keep each other in check because if a company wants to charge a ridiculously high price you can just go to another one Chapter 15Urbanization 1. Rural America2,500 residents or less who live in open country a. Declining because we do not need them as much anymore b. Reliance on industries such as: i. Farming ii. Mining iii. Manufacturing c. Lack of growth due to residents, particularly young people, leaving for bigger cities with more opportunities i. Cities offer more schooling and more job opportunities d. Other problems: i. High child poverty95/100 counties with highest child poverty are in rural areas 1. Primarily in the most remote rural areas where the population is primarily made up of minority

2. Are not always associated with the high crime rate like in urban areas ii. High rates of motor vehicle fatalities iii. Low levels of health and educational services iv. Gender Inequality 1. Women have less opportunitiesthey are the group that is the worst off e. Despite these problems, they still do not have as many as urban areas f. Civic Engagement i. Rural communities are more stable ii. Civic participation is high, residents often involved in more than one aspect of community life 1. Ex: Same people that you see at church are the same people who own local businesses iii. Areas of geographically separated and so are insulated from outside problems g. Positives that help buffer residents from negative consequences i. High rates of home ownership ii. High number of civic associations, churches iii. High voter turnout 1. People feel as though they can make a difference in their community because there are not as many people as in the city iv. Many small business, self-employed v. Residential stability h. Crime rates are stable and typically low i. Reason: the types of crimes that happen may be more personal abuse, drunk drivingso they are not dependent on society, and cause no drastic change ii. Some people argue that crime rates in rural areas can increase when a rural area transforms into an urban area causes the loss of the small town charm 1. People try to make changes to get more people/business, but then negative urban consequences can come along 2. Suburbiatowns surrounding bigger cities, associated with lower cost of living and less spacial restriction a. Becoming more populated by minorities i. Moving for the same reasons: better and more affordable housing, schools, etc ii. Still, minorities only account for 25% of suburban populations 3. Urban Areas a. Urbanization: movement of people into town and cities, away from open land i. Britain was the first to start this trend b. Concentric Zone Theory about the layout of cities i. From inner city central business distrct all the way out to suburbs c. Problems: i. Spacial mismatchblue collar jobs no longer located in center cities where the blue collar workers are 1. Jobs replaced instead by white collar industries 2. This can explain why there has been an increase of minorities into suburbs

ii. Global citieslocation of transnational business and corporate headquarters 1. Especially susceptible to urban problems 2. Coexisting with people living with poverty, but not interacting with the poor people iii. Residential segregationminorities are having less and less contact with people in the upper classes 1. Minorities are only interacting with people who are in the same situation as them, so no one is getting ahead or gaining opportunities not getting jobs, so the situation gets increasingly worse d. Gentrification: movement into and renewal of old city buildings by the wealth i. Often forces low income residents out ii. Young people moving to the city for more opportunities iii. As people with money move in, the city is updated and transformed to something better e. Are cities inherently alienating? i. Large numbers of people living in close proximity with no privacy ii. More diversity for people to find others with like interests f. People in rural areas may be polite and nice on the surface, but that does not mean that you are in the group because there are already such close knit ties, but in urban areas, there are always new people, so it may be easier to make connections/relationships 4. Urbanization in developing Nations a. Rapid in developing nations because they can access the resources that urban nations have already created, and use the resources to make their countries more urban b. Migrant workers move into cities and rely on less formal forms of employment, enough to which cannot be created to satisfy the need i. By 2025, a billion new jobs would need to be created to meet the demand c. Problems: i. High poverty ii. Poor health care iii. Poor educational oppurtunities iv. Low levels of public services 1. Education high population of young people, so they need education, but the countries cannot keep up with the demand a. Many who are parts of poor families have to work to help support the family, and cannot go to school anyway v. Resources are spread thinnot enough to help everyone who needs help 5. Population Growth in All Nations a. Paul Urics prediction: i. 900 years from now there will be 60,000,000,000,000,000 people on the planet 1. 100 people for every square yard of space on the face of the earth (including water) 2. In 30-40 years the population may have already reached unsustainability

b. A century ago there were only 1.5 billion people, now there are 7 billion c. Demography: the study of population and its size, movement, composition, and change d. The population grows exponentially, so it is constantly doubling, not just multiplying i. If a country has: 1. 1% population growth double in 70 years 2. 2% population growth double in 35 years 3. 3% population growth doubles in 23 years ii. 2-3% is basic for developing countries 6. Malthusians a. Thomas Malthus i. Population growth is exponential, but food supplies are finite (not exponential, so they will eventually run out) 1. We are limited to the amount of land that we can cultivate 2. Limit on how much food can be produced on the land ii. We only have a certain amount off resources, which will eventually run out b. Critics maintain that: i. We are rational beings who will not just blindly reproduce if we cannot support more life ii. Technology has allowed us to produce more food and use the land more effectively c. Developing countries still very much in danger from this issue i. Lack the advantages of technology and are particularly susceptible to drought and land shortages ii. Reproduction is desired and culturally important 7. The Case of China a. Chinas population accounts for 1 out of every 3 people on the planet i. Programs have been enacted to reward families who only have one child, and penalize large families 1. One child: a. Better housing and education b. Better healthcare 2. Larger families (3+ children): a. Wages could be cut ii. Problems include higher rates of adoption and abortion b. Pollution due to urbanization i. 16 out of the most populated cities in the world are in China 1. Chemical spills, water pollution, air pollution, acid rain ii. Physically dangerous iii. Taking over resources 8. Effects on the Environment a. Global Warming: greenhouse gases that humans release into the air get trapped in the atmosphere and act like the glass on a greenhouse; trapping in heat and moisture i. Will eventually lead to: 1. Melting polar ice caps and glaciers 2. Widespread flooding 3. Drought bad enough to turn farmland into desert, then there is no production of resources

4. Increased hurricane and tropical storm activity b. Sustainability: economic growth that recycles natural resources instead of depleting them, and attempts to preserve biodiversity 9. Did you know? a. Americans produce an average of 5 lbs. of trash a day per person (In 1960, it was 2.7 lbs.) b. Logging destroys 50,000 species a year, with about 17,000 more in danger of extinction i. These species are largely responsible for producing new medicines c. Most humans have up to 116 toxic chemicals in our bodies that didnt even exist in the environment 75 years ago d. Americans use an average of 151 gallons of water a day (showering, cooking, drinking, flushing toilets, etc.) compared to 23 gallons in China, and 3 gallons in Mozambique MovieThe Corporation y The government has granted privately owned businesses/corporations the same rights as individuals in the US o Companies have taken advantage of this, which:  Causes people to lose their individual rights and powers  Increase the money they make (leaving a larger gap between the rich and the poor) y Fox Lies o Fox was under the possibility of being sued by Montesano, who created a chemical to be put in milk that was harmful to human health/could cause cancer o Employees did not want to lie for a big corporation the employees were fired  They reported a claim against their employer y The employees did not win because it was not against the law to falsify news  They wanted to air a truthful broadcast that would hurt the corporation that was doing wrong (Montesanos chemical), but Fox wanted them to falsify the news so that they would not be sued by Montesano y By the year 2025, many people will not have clean water o Water has become a privatized operation, and people could not afford to pay for clean water tried to protest, but the government came back with violence (fascist government) y IBM kept track of the deaths in the Nazi concentration camps of WWII o IBM made money had a contract with the IBM branch in New York y Corporations with trade/sell/buy things from countries who are enemies/terrorists of the US, which is illegal, just to make money y Corporations have gone global o Governments do not have as much power over the corporations as they used to because of the globalization o Presidents and CEOs of companies have gained more and more power they have a closer control over the companies than the government y Corporations and government are intertwining industry is beginning to take over o Money is power y Social Responsibilitycorporations are not truly responsible, they just want to seem responsible; want to seem like they are taking care of society

Corporations should not make decisions for US citizens decisions for America should be made by government representatives they citizens choose People have a say in the government, but not in corporations o People need to participate in government to make it a government that they do no fear make it something that works for them, because corporations do not work for them o