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workshop report

by Arch. Carmen Tanase

Workshop on eco-tourism and cultural heritage

Held in Laslea, Transylvania, Romania, 1-8 May 2005

CONTENTS
Summary The purpose of the Workshop The study area Groups of work Data collection Flora and Fauna Conclusions Activities planned for 2005 The list of participants
Who, where, with what purpose, main tasks, the team

p. 2 pp. 3-4 pp. 5 pp. 6 pp. 7-22 pp. 23-25 pp. 26 pp. 27 pp. 28

Laslea Commune and the villages around

Four Work Groups

A detailed description of what each group has done

The three main categories of habitat

SUMMARY
The second Transylvania Village Development Workshop organized by INTBAU took place in the medieval village of Laslea, the administrative centre of the Commune of Laslea , from 1- 8 May 2005. The workshop was organized by INTBAU and the Norwegian Foundation for Urban Renewal and funded by The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Norwegian Directorate for Heritage, The Norwegian Foundation for Urban Renewal and private sponsors. The beautiful architectural and natural landscape of the Saxon villages from Transylvania, the way of life which seems to balance the settlement, nature and culture (a balance toppled in western Europe during the XIXthXXth centuries),and the uniqueness of the pattern of settlements are arising a force of attraction to which it is impossible to resist. photo Carmen Tanase The landscape depends on the communities and centuries-old farming tradition which created form and rhythm of the land. The main challenge for these villages is to carry this beautiful and balanced landscape (which seems to be almost unchanged since the middle-ages) into the twenty-first century , preserving the build and natural Heritage while allowing the full and healthy development of the communities that give life to these places. This workshop is seen as a continuation of the previous, when the main task was to analyse the qualities of the villages and to produce New Urbanism based proposals for future development of Laslea, including a Masterplan with strategic objectives regarding a sustainable development of the village and design guidance for new traditional buildings inside the village and in any future sustainable urban extension.
photo Catalin Rata

Laslea, Transylvania 2005.

Laslea, Transylvania 2005.

PURPOSE

The workshop gathered an international team of practitioners and students from Norway and Romania, coming from different fields such as architecture, restoration, archaeology , history, tourism, construction and sociology, all interested in Transylvanian Heritage and in the future sustainable development of the Saxon villages. The workshop was lead by Audun Engh, a member of the Foundation for Urban Renewal and by Arne Sodal, Norwegian architect-planner ,chairman of the INTBAU Committee of Honour, with the consultancy of the architect Dorin Boila and of Aura Neag , Communications director of INTBAU UK, and both founders of INTBAU ROMANIA. The headquarters of the workshop meetings was the newly opened INTBAU information centre in Laslea which will function as an information point ,both for tourists who are coming here and for Laslea, info point 2005. team at work photo Claus Zapffe locals interested in ecotourism and ways of maintaining their traditional Saxon houses and farming. If the previous workshop has concentrated itself only on Laslea village, this workshop considered as an object of study the whole Commune of Laslea and the relations between the villages within. The Commune of Laslea is also studied in relation with the other villages between Sighisoara and Medias. INTBAU had the task not only of gathering information about local heritage but as well of co-ordinating information supplied by all organisations acting in the area (like MET (Mihai Eminescu Trust) and FCE (Foundation for Culture and Ecology) and others). The purpose of the Workshop project was to make a study of the cultural heritage of the medieval Saxon Villages from Laslea Commune, of the possibilities for eco-tourism ,to test the existing infrastructure and to make Laslea, info point 2005. the team photo Claus Zapffe proposals for improvements. 3

who and where, with what purpose?

PURPOSE

main tasks
More specific Tasks that the participants considered were: 1. To discover the old routes of horse-carriages and to create a map with all this routes. 2. To identify all points of interest in the Commune of Laslea and in the villages around, in order to establish what can attract tourism here, and especially, tourists interested in Heritage and in local traditions. 3. To identify the events and traditions which still exist. 4. To identify the character of architecture, the type which is unique in the case of the Saxon villages of Transylvania. 5. To make a clear description of the villages.

Laslea, 2005. the team in front of the information centre

Considering all these tasks from the very beginning of the workshop, the team started to gather information in order to establish the actual conditions of the villages and the facts that can become advantages in the future development. The main idea is to raise the awareness about the cultural Heritage of Transylvania, about the rarity and the value of the place, both in the consciousness of tourists and locals. If tourism is developing fast in larger towns and cities of Transylvania, in the more remote Saxon villages it is yet largely undeveloped. The day tourists tend to pass through quickly, having as a result little economic benefit for the local communities. The target is ,in this case, to minimize the impact of a possible mass tourism but to bring benefit direct to the community, so the short term gain does not destroy the long term future. 4

STUDY AREA
The study area covers the Commune of Laslea (150sq.km. and population 3000 people) with its five villages: Laslea, Malancr av, Floresti, Roandola and Noul Sasesc (with their old Saxon names of: Lasslen, Malmkrog, Felsendorf, Rauthal and Neudorf ). Laslea is the site of the Town Hall of the Commune and it was chosen by INTBAU as headquarters for their actions in this area ,partly because it is closer to the main road which links Medias and Sighisoara, and because it is like a gateway to the other villages. Malancrav is a particularly interesting village having a well preserved architecture owing to its isolation down 13 km of dirt track, rare 15th century frescoes and a1520 altarpiece in the church. It has as well the highest proportion of remaining Saxons in Transylvania, 170, a resident Evangelical priest and a German language primary school. In a plan of ecotourism development of this area, Laslea can not be considered apart from the other villages in the area. The workshop team has tried to create a network of interesting points, including villages like : Bier tan (from 1993 on the UNESCO list of monuments), Dumbraveni (with the Apaffy castle from 1661), Saros, Richis , Copsa Mare, Valchid and Cris.

characteristic fortified church fortified church

middle age church only saxon village

WORK GROUPS
Arne Sodal organising the groups the skilled draughtsmen

The participants organised themselves, according to the tasks, in four main groups: 1. Hiking group - The group had the task of finding the old routes of carriages between the villages in Laslea and the other villages around and to draw a map. They also had the task of finding the possibilities of horse riding in the area.
People involved in this group were: Raluca Elena Mocanu (murals restorator) Katia Moldoveanu (archaeologist), Bjorn-Are Vollstad (architect student), Ragnhild Bakkevig (architect student ).

Raluca enjoying hiking

Viscri sketch

the way of working hard with joy

2. Points of interest group - The group had the task to identify the most interesting buildings, landscapes, fortified churches in the area and other objects that can become tourist attractions. They also had the mission of finding out about the possibilities of accommodation and of investigating Ecological farming and food as a tourism attraction.
People involved in this group were: Claus Zapffe (architect), Carmen Tanase (architect), Ioana Cristina Bitu (architect), Simina Stan (historian), Catalin Rata (tourism agent).

3. Social and Cultural Events group - The group had the task of finding out about the traditions and events that still exist in these villages.
with talent with passion

4. Building Heritage and Cultural Landscape group - The group had the task of identifying the monuments and the buildings with historical and architectural value and the landscapes with the most interesting Flora and Fauna.
People involved in this group were: Andreas Fadum Haugstad (architecture student), Alexandru Marinel (architect), Cetina Samoila (architecture student). 6

People involved in this group were: Irina Neacsu (architect student), Anca Danilescu (art historian student).

DATA COLLECTION
hiking boots on start on the way

People involved: Raluca Elena Mocanu (murals restorator), Katia Moldoveanu (archaeologist), Bjorn-Are Vollstad (architect student), Ragnhild Bakkevig (architect student ).

seven days hiking trip

hiking group

what a good place to get a nap...

is this the way?

There are more and more tourists interested in active and adventurous holidays in the wild countryside of Transylvania, where they can get contact with the locals and their way of life. These tourists are also very interested in hiking trips , in riding horses or traveling by carriages like in old times and why not, in milking cows. The hiking group has tried to fancy a scenario of a seven days hiking trip between Medias and Sighisoara, including the visit of the Saxon villages, camping and horse riding. They have imagined : - A hiking family route -with shorter distances between villages (2-3 hours) - A hiking sporty route -for trained people with camping equipment The routes were planned for one week, the last day being reserved for the visit of Sighisoara. These routes were tested with the routes: Copsa MareRoandola, Copsa Mare- Noul Sasesc, Noul Sasesc-Malancrav-Floresti. On this tested route they have marked the view points, the picnic spots and the landmarks. The Sporty route was: 1st day: Medias-Brateiu-Atel-halt and accommodation in Biertan 2-nd day: Biertan-Noul Sasesc 3-rd day: Noul Sasesc-Rondola-Valchid-Laslea 4-th day: Laslea-Floresti 5-th day: Malancrav-Apold 6-th day: Apold-Saes-Sighisoara 7-th day: Sighisoara The Family route could include more variations depending on preferences ,the simplest routes being: Medias-Brateiu-Atel-Biertan-Noul Sasesc-Valchid-Rondola-FlorestiCris-Stejareni-Sighisoara Medias-Brateiu-Atel-Biertan-Noul Sasesc-Malincrav-Floresti-Cris7 Stejareni-Sighisoara

so green....

lets milk the cows

a horses farm in the top of the hill

oops, too many...

DATA COLLECTION

hiking group

seven days hiking trip

GENERAL MAP OF THE ROUTS WHICH LINKS THE VILLAGES BETWEEN SIGHISOARA AND MEDIAS

DATA COLLECTION

People involved: Claus Zapffe (architect), Carmen Tanase (architect), Ioana Cristina Bitu (architect), Simina Stan (historian), Catalin Rata (tourism agent).

points of interest travel in time group

Tourist Attractions in Comuna Laslea and Around

The research and field work around the villages that make up Laslea has yielded the following results : The points of interest group have discovered and made a list of the tourist attractions and facilities in the five villages of the Laslea Commune, i.e. Laslea/ Grosslasseln, Floresti/, Roandola/ Rauthal, Nou Sasesc / Neudorf and Malancrav / Malmkrog. The attractions they have researched include the most important heritage points, such as
the fortified Saxon churches and the other churches, the trails / hiking paths that connect the five villages with one another and with villages of neighboring communes, the scenic viewpoints. In the same time, they have researched and added

stork nest on the rooftop of Laslea church

houses front in Medias main square

to the list the towns and villages that are situated within close range, because they can only work as a complex, a coherent network of settlements. The attractions one can encounter in these different towns and villages complete one another and make a puzzle that can be illustrative for Transylvania. Laslea Commune can not operate alone in this competitive environment. Not only it is too little and deprived of important basic features (accommodation, info center , crafts shop) that are present in the neighboring towns, but it also lacks the prime attractions its neighboring towns can pride on. (the fortified seat of the Saxon bishop in Biertan / Birthaelm or the whole fortified towns, like in Medias and Sighisoara)Therefore, Laslea can only address (at least at this stage of tourism development) a different and much smaller segment of tourism. The tourist infrastructure and the precarious roads do not allow for large flows of tourists. The fact that some of the attractions are at least temporarily closed (one has to look for the caretaker of the church, which may prove quite difficult in an isolated village in a foreign country) may also act as a kind of barrier for those wishing to visit the area. However, Laslea has a favourable geographic location. The village of Laslea lies less than half an hour by car from the three important attractions of the area, i.e. Medias, Biertan and Sighisoara. If we calculate an one hour driving time after departure from the above towns, this allows to get to all of the villages of Laslea Commune. This means that in half a day, with a car, one can do a quick tour of the five villages. Alternatively, hiking or riding a horse (which should prove easier after maps are drawn and published) from Laslea to Nou Sasesc or from Copsa Mare to Nou Sasesc to Malancrav may make a very scenic full day tour. 9 .

DATA COLLECTION
Below is a short presentation of the Commune and its five villages and the most important tourist attractions that are accessible within a half an hour drive.

points of interest travel in time group

Laslea village and the main points of interest - Laslea fortified church. Built in the 19th century on the site
of the former church. It is unique in that it has a north-south orientation, instead of the traditional position along an east-est axis. It is no longer used. - The old belfry tower (from the former gothic church-15th century)

- Laslea Romanian Orthodox church - Lodging


Only available at Claudias guesthouse, which has somehow of an improvised character, lacking proper bathrooms for all the rooms. In the near future, this may become inaccessible, as it is likely to be rented for several years by companies doing construction works in the commune. In the future, the parish priests house may open as a guesthouse and training centre for guesthouse owners, if the Lukas foundation, that is in charge of it and the local hospital, manages to secure funding. At present, according to the director of the hospital, several beds are available for visitors in the attic. (the problem may be that people may not find it attractive to be lodged in a hospital, along terminally ill patients.)
Laslea orthodox church ...Laslea dwellings pattern ............................Natural Landscape with hills in teraces.........orthodox graveyard ...................Laslea fortified tower

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DATA COLLECTION
Nou Sasesc village and points of interest
- Noul Sasesc Evangelical church. Built in 15th century - A catholic and an orthodox church
- Lodging Available on request in the parish priest's house. This has two rooms that can accommodate 4 persons and it also has a bathroom. The person in charge is Mr Johann Schlager, the caretaker of the Evangelical Church. There are some 80 empty houses in the village, the ones in which the Saxons used to live. These are only partly occupied in summer, when some of the Saxon owners come back to spend their holiday. Maybe in the future some of them, at least, could be turned into guesthouses. Currently, they are maintained by the 63 Saxons who still live in the village.

points of interest travel in time group

- Youth camp
After several years of neglect (1998?-2005), the dorms for pupils in the youth camp are being repaired again. They may accomodate up to 50 pupils at once. The accompanying persons sleep in a separate building and the facilities also include a kitchen/ canteen.
Evangelical tower (15th century) ...Noul sasesc dwellings pattern ...Herr Schlager speaking about old Saxon traditions...Evangelical church .......Traditional Saxon costume

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DATA COLLECTION
Malancrav village and points of interest
-Malincrav church.
Built in the first half of the 14th century, . It has outstanding frescoes, which is twice remarkable, since it is one of the very few Lutheran churches that have preserved their frescoes, and since these frescoes display an influence of Byzantine art. -Malincrav Manor House. Built by the Hungarian noble family of Apaffy in the Middle Ages, it is now being restored by the MET. It will be converted into a library and will comprise lodging facilities for specialist visitors. -Malincrav Roman-Catholic Church. There are almost no believers left, and the church is not used any longer. MET has plans to have it restored. -Lodging There is at least one guesthouse owned by the MET.

points of interest travel in time group

Evangelical fortified church (14th century) ... 1520 altar piece........... rare 15th century frescoes................manor house Apaffy (17th century)......................catholic church

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DATA COLLECTION
Floresti village
-The Saxon church is among the oldest in the region. Sadly, it is derelict and no longer used. However, its roof has recently been repaired and the MET have plans to convert it to other functions. -The Orthodox church -Lodging -no -Horse Riding .There were more locals (especially Rroma) that own one or two horses and they were willing to gain some money renting their horses

points of interest travel in time group

Floresti orthodox church ...Floresti dwellings pattern ....Roma kid................house whose facades and roof were renovated by MET ......................................pear in bloom

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DATA COLLECTION
The town of Dumbraveni.

points of interest travel in time group


This apparently common town prides on its large Armenian Roman-Catholic church from the 18th century. Built at a time when the town was the home of a thriving community of Armenian merchants, this church still attracts large crowds for a yearly religious pilgrimage consecrated to the Assumption of the Virgin (August 15). Furthermore, just across the street there is a former Apaffy castle, which was partly destroyed and converted after WWII into a local school. If this is at least partly restored on the outside and if the centre of Dumbraveni is taken care of, we think an itinerary connecting this castle to the other Apaffy property in Malancrav and the Apaffy castle near Blaj, as well as the Bethlen Castles in Cris, Sanmiclaus and Cetatea de Balta might prove interesting for a more in-depth presentation of the history and multicultural background of the area.

The village of Biertan.

Dumbraveni and Saros

This former seat of the bishop of the Saxons (16th to 19th centuries) with its massive hall-church surrounded by three fortified walls has also become a leading tourist attraction of the area in the last years. A restaurant and several guesthouses, some of which are operated by the MET, have opened in the last years. Furthermore, a craft shop which sells good quality artefacts operates now in the main square. The villages of Cris, Valchid, Copsa Mare, Richis, Bratei, which all have fortified churches are becoming more and more interesting for hikers and nature lovers.

The town of Sighisoara. It is a municipality with over 30,000 inhabitants and important social
and economic functions. Above all, in the recent years it has developed as a major tourist attraction. The presence of a fortified town with evangelical churches, mediaeval streets, towers and bastions listed as an UNESCO heritage site has been attracting increasing numbers of tourists. Consequently, the economy of Sighisoara has developed a lot, with many new hotels, guesthouses and restaurants. The town of Medias. Just like Sighisoara, a municipality with over 30,000 inhabitants. Its economic and industrial functions seem more important than those of Sighisoara, while it gets definitely less tourists. The fortified town is no longer intact, but the impressive Church of St Margaret or the Castle, as the locals call it, is still a landmark of the area.

Biertan

In the surroundings of all these towns and villages and in between them, one can find several dozens of species of rare flowers along the pastures and haymeadows. The terraced hills provide interesting points of view over the surroundings and integrate into the general cultural landscape of the Saxon villages. One can also spot, at day or at night, various kinds of birds and animals such as foxes, rabbits, deer, bore, lynxes or hawks, falcons and plenty of storks which nest on the chimneys and roofs of the houses and churches or on the upper part of lampposts. 14

FINAL RESULTS/ PRESENTATION DATA COLLECTION

People involved: Irina Neacsu (architect student), in search Anca Danilescu (art historian student).

Social and Cultural Events group


of old traditions

Floresti windows type

The Social and Cultural Events Group had the task of making a research regarding the folkloric and architectural traditions that still exist and discover the events (holidays, festivals, fairs...) and customs of the place, which define a very typical way of life. The idea was, on one hand, to propose an archive of the built environment which can lead further to a code of regulations in the construction field, and, on the other hand, to discover the possibilities of maintaining the communities which gave the place life.
The rapid exodus of the Saxons from the 1990s, after the Romanian revolution, has precipitated sudden great change in the communities. The villages have emptied; the remaining communities are elderly and impoverished. In 1990, the ethnic mix in the Saxon villages was 70% Saxons, 25% Romanian and 5% Rroma, with a Saxon population of 90.000. Today, the population stands at less than 20.000, from which, 5% are Saxons, 35% Romanian and 60% Rroma. The Romanian and Rroma population brought their specific customs and traditions and only in few places there are Saxon traditions which are still kept. (in Richis- the custom of hanging mistletoe branches at the windows in may saying that there are girls at that house, is an old Saxon tradition). The exodus of the Saxons had a big impact on the built environment. Since todays population is mostly orthodox and catholic, the fortified evangelical churches are not anymore used for service, and thats why they are kept in a very bad condition. The houses are mostly owned by Romanians and Rroma who have a very different tradition in construction and do not

Laslea windows type

street facade in Noul Sasesc and Viscri

necessarily appreciate so much the appearance and identity of their villages. Those who can afford to invest are looking more for modern comfort and effects like pebble-dash, crazy paving, tarmac and Alpine picture windows, statements of the modern world. To educate the locals and to help them to appreciate the long-term economic benefit of conservation in terms of property values and tourism could be more effective than State regulation and conservation.

In the next pages is presented a calendar with the major events and holidays that exist in the Saxon villages of Transylvania nowadays:
the Saxon tradition of cutting the roof to the street facade

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16

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Building Heritage and Cultural Landscape group

DATA COLLECTION

People involved: Andreas Fadum Haugstad (architecture student), Alexandru Marinel (architect), Cetina Samoila (architecture student).

The unity and diversity of settlements

Noul Sasesc street outline

View from the church in Floresti

The Building Heritage and Cultural Landscape Group had the task of looking at the cultural and natural heritage sites and documenting a village profile based on the findings. Their research tried to find the common and the particular features of the Saxon villages , their relationship with the landscape, the typical and equally, the unique which is significant for the Saxon villages.
The common features of the Saxon villages from Laslea Commune are listed below:

Noul Sasesc street outline

Up on the hills

they display a remarkable and unspoilt harmony between people and landscape. linear street pattern with subsidiary cross-streets. the villages are enclosed by steep valley sides (in Laslea and Roandola, where the landform is less steep , development follows a looser pattern). a stream typically runs down the street and pear trees are planted on either side. the houses have a regular pattern: they end-on to the street , painted in a rich variety of colors with a typicall hipped roof, bringing unity and diversity to the villages a house unit has the common structure: house-courtyard-barnvegetables garden - orchard-forest the fortified churches the dancing circles-(tanzplatze) the centuries-old agriculture methods that survive today the daily rituals in the countryside village streets and squares are the focus of public life the use of natural materials like lime mortar and clay roof tiles ,of lime wash colors 20

Building Heritage and Cultural Landscape group

DATA COLLECTION

The unity and diversity of settlements The state of the built heritage: the state of the houses: Some of the houses have changed their decoration styles over the years (some getting influences from Art Nouveau and Art Deco) but more recently the changes bring very strong, severe, and unfortunate effects. Materials like cement-mortars, crazy pavement and pebble dashed exteriors and Alpine-style windows are seen as signs of modern life. The locals, Romanians and Rroma mostly, do not appear to appreciate the appearance of the Saxon houses which are, for them, old, and unsuitable for modern comfort. As the knowledge and the craftsmen needed for a proper restoration are lacking, the one who have money to renovate their houses make appeal to todays materials and cheap untrained workers. the state of the fortified churches: The Evangelical Saxon churches are mostly in a bad condition due the fact that the small Saxon congregation no longer has the means to maintain them. The remaining Saxons are taking part at services in small improvised rooms, or in parish houses or small Chapels. This is happening as well due to the lack of heating in the old Evangelical churches. In conclusion, if there is no future potential for ecclesiastical use, alternative uses (community halls, concert halls) should be sought. To improve the state of the houses or to maintain them on a long-term development, means to make people understand the value of build heritage both in cultural and economical terms and to make local workshops of crafts where locals should be trained in traditional methods of restoration.

Catholic Church Malancrav

House Unit in Laslea

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Building Heritage and Cultural Landscape group

DATA COLLECTION
Floresti

The unity and diversity of settlements


Below are listed the plans and sections of some of the villages from Laslea Commune showing their particular and common features: Small village along the river Not all the houses are built fallowing a Saxon tradition Most of the population are gypsies Floresti church-is the oldest in the area. It is situated close by the waterfront; it is in a very bad condition; only the roof was partly remade by MET The forest is very close to the village.

Floresti plan and section

Noul Sasesc
Village developed along the river- mainly on one side Village located in a valley The landscape is interacting with the village Typical Saxon housing A small beautiful evangelical church and cemetery located up on a hill The dwellings seem to be in a very good shape One catholic church on the hills An orthodox church is located in the middle of the village A great variety of wild plants and insects A small Roma community Village with houses on each part of the river The fortified church is located in top of a hill close to the village: The church and its tower are in a good shape. It is a great view from the hill to the village The second church is a Romano-catholic one , and it is in a bad state A regular pattern of houses which sit end-on to the street, painted in a rich variety of colors like: ochre, green, blue. Distinctive hipped roofs

Noul Sasesc plan and section

Malancrav

MAlancrav plan and section

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DATA COLLECTION
The natural landscape:

The natural landscape Flora and Fauna

The natural landscape of this Saxon Villages proved to be extremely rich in terms of relief and of biodiversity, encountering here some rare species of plants and animals. Very important research work in this field is being done here by The ADEPT Foundation, a registered charity working to promote the conservation of Romanias internationally important natural heritage, to create local economic incentives for conservation, and to provide environmental education. Measures will be designed and implemented with full community participation, to ensure that they are practical, bring local economic benefits, and enjoy local support. Their aim is to create a virtuous circle between conservation of the environment and the well-being of the inhabitants. In the Saxon villages of Transylvania, low intensity agriculture coexists with spectacular flora and fauna, including many endangered species. The landscape is threatened by rural poverty, loss of traditional land and forest management, and lack of awareness at both local and national levels of the biodiversity value of the area. Dr John Akeroyd and Owen Mountford of the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology have made a detailed study of the wild habitats of the Saxon villages in Transylvania. They have found here three main categories of habitat: Native deciduous woodland Dry Grasslands Wet Grasslands, marshes, flushes, stream sides For the most passionate , on the next pages are listed the most important 23 species of plants:

DATA COLLECTION

The natural landscape Flora and Fauna

Trees and shrubs: The most frequent broadleaved deciduous trees in the Saxon Villages region are: Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus, followed by Quercus robur, Q.. pubescens and Q. pedunculiflora. Conifers are dominated by Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra, P. strobus, Picea abies and Larix decidua. A feature of Laslea Commune is woods of Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens), a Mediterranean tree associated with sub-steppic conditions in Central Europe. Of the shrubs, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus spinosa and Ligustrum vulgare are particularly frequent (Peri-Pannonic hawthorn-blackthorn scrub). In deforested areas, Rosa canina, Viburnum opulus and Euonimus europaeus are locally dominant, often with Corylus avellana. species):Silver Fir (Abies alba) Field Maple (Acer campestre) Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) Tatarian Maple (Acer tataricum) Silver Birch (Betula pendula) Tr ees (40 species): Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) Chestnut (Castanea sativa) *Quince (Cydonia oblonga) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) *Walnut (Juglans regia) Larch (Larix decidua subsp. carpatica) *Apple (Malus sylvestris) Bird Cherry (Prunus padus, Padus avium) Norway Spruce (Picea abies) *Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra subsp. nigra) *Weymouth Pine (Pinus strobus) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) *London Plane (Platanus hispanica) White Poplar (Populus alba) White Poplar (Populus nigra) Aspen (Populus tremula) Wild Cherry (Prunus avium) *Pear (Pyrus communis) Wild Pear (Pyrus pyraster) Quercus pedunculiflora Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea) Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens) Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur) *False Acacia (Robinia pseudacacia) White Willow (Salix alba)Goat Willow (Salix capraea) Bay Willow (Salix pentandra) Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) Wild Service-tree (Sorbus torminalis) Small-leaved Lime (Tilia cordata) Large-leaved Lime (Tilia platyphyllos) Silver Lime (Tilia tomentosa) ,European White Elm (Ulmus laevis) Shrubs species):Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea) Hazel (Corylus avellana) Woodland Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) Spindle Shr ubs (36 species): (Euonymus europaea) Evonymus verrucosa Alder Buckthorn (Frangula alnus) Privet (Ligustrum vulgare) Steppe Cherry (Prunus fruticosa) Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) Prunus tenella Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) Mountain Buckthorn (Rhamnus saxatilis) Black Currant (Ribes nigrum) Dog-rose (Rosa canina) Downy Dog-rose (Rosa corymbifera) Provence Rose (Rosa gallica) Small-flowered Sweet-briar (Rosa micrantha) Harsh Downy-rose (Rosa tomentosa) Dewberry (Rubus caesius)Bramble (Rubus fruticosus) Rubus glandulosusRubus hirtus Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) Grey Willow (Salix cinerea) Salix daphnoidesSalix rosmarinifolia Almond Willow (Salix triandra) Osier (Salix viminalis) Elder (Sambucus nigra)Elm-leaved Spiraea (Spiraea chamaedryfolia) Bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata) Guelder-rose (Viburnum opulus)* introduced DRY GRASSLAND The grasslands, managed as meadows (mown or scythed) or pastures (grazed), probably derive from wood-steppe and fragments of grassland and scrub on steep slopes, river-banks and other naturally open ground. The drier grasslands contain at least 21 species on the Romanian Red Data List and one species (Red Vipers-bugloss, Echium russicum) listed under the EU Habitats Directive. Note that just a single application of fertilizer would have catastrophic effects on the survival of these remarkable grasslands and their special assemblages of plants and animals.

Characteristic species include:


Grasses and sedges: Common Bent (Agrostis capillaris),Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum),False Oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius),Tor-grass (Brachypodium pinnatum),Quaking Grass (Briza media)Chrysopogon gryllus, Crested Dogs-tail (Cynosurus cristatus), Cocks-foot (Dactylis glomerata),Dichanthium ischaemum, Festuca rupicola, Festuca valesiaca, Grey Couch-grass (Elymus hispidus),Erect Brome-grass (Bromopsis erecta), Soft Brome-grass (Bromus hordeaceus),Bromus squarrosus, Dwarf Sedge (Carex humilis),Heath Sedge (Carex montana), False Sheeps Fescue (Festuca pseudovina),Valais Fescue (Festuca valesiana),Yorkshire Fog (Holcus lanatus),Crested Hair-grass (Koeleria macrantha), Transylvanian Melick (Melica transylvanica),Narrow-leaved Meadow-grass (Poa angustifolia),Smooth Meadowgrass (Poa pratensis),Purple-stemmed Timothy-grass (Phleum phleoides) Legumes: Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. polyphylla),Stemless Milk-vetch (Astragalus dasyanthus),Montpellier Milk-vetch (Astragalus monspessulanum),Sainfoin Milk-vetch (Astragalus onobrychis),Chamaecytisus albus,Crown Vetch (Coronilla varia),Dorycnium (Dorycnium pentaphyllum subsp. herbaceum),Black Broom (Lembotropis nigricans),,Birds-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus),Sickle medick (Medicago falcata),Black medick (Medicago lupulina),Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia),Restharrow (Ononis arvensis),Hares-foot Clover (Trifolium arvense),Hop Trefoil (Trifolium campvestre),Zigzag Clover (Trifolium medium),Upland Clover (Trifolium montanum),Sulphur Clover (Trifolium ochroleucon),Red Clover (Trifolium pratense),Tufted Vetch (Vicia cracca),Hairy Tare (Vicia hirsuta),Common Vetch (Vicia sativa) Orchids: Marsh Helleborine (Epipactis palustris) Fragrant Orchid (Gymnadenia conopsea),Twayblade (Listera ovata),Bug Orchid (Orchis coriophora),Military Orchid (Orchis militaris),Green-winged Orchid (Orchis morio) ,Three-toothed Orchid (Orchis tridentata),Perforate St Johns-wort (Hypericum perforatum),Inula ensifolia,Iris aphylla,Jurinea (Jurinea mollis subsp. transilvanicas),Yellow Garlic (Allium flavum),Field Scabious (Knautia arvensis subsp. pannonica),Ox-eye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare),Purging Flax (Linum catharticum),Yellow Flax (Linum flavum),Perennial Flax (Linum perenne),Tasselled Hyacinth (Muscari comosum),Purple Nonea (Nonea pulla),Spiked Star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum pyramidale) ,Orlaya (Orlaya grandiflora),Pepper Saxifrage (Pimpinella saxifraga),Field Cow-wheat (Melampyrum arvense) Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata),Hoary Plantain (Plantago media),Large Milkwort (Polygala major),Sulphur Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta),Cut-leaved Self-heal (Prunella laciniata),Large-flowered Self-heal (Prunella grandiflora),,Rumelian Hay-rattle (Rhinanthus rumelica),Sorrel (Rumex acetosa),Nodding Sage (Salvia nutans),Meadow Clary (Salvia pratensis),Transylvanian Clary (Salvia transilvanica),Salad,Burnet (Sanguisorba minor),Yellow Scabious (Scabiosa ochroleuca),Purple Vipers-grass (Scorzonera purpurea),Orpine (Sedum telephium),Silene chlorantha,Austrian Woundwort (Stachys austriaca),Downy Woundwort (Stachys germanica),Red Germander (Teucrium chamaedrys),Small Meadow-rue (Thalictrum minus),Flax-leaved Bastard-toadflax (Thesium linophyllon),Goats-beard (Tragopogon pratensis),Large Speedwell (Veronica austriaca),Spiked Speedwell (Veronica spicata),Purple Mullein (Verbascum phoeniceum),Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum hirundinaria subsp. hirundinaria).

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DATA COLLECTION

The natural landscape Flora and Fauna

All these dry and semi-dry grasslands are colourful from early May onwards, when several orchids a feature of this habitat - are in flower, for example Military Orchid, Green-winged Orchid and Threetoothed Orchid , also Yellow Adonis, Montpellier Milk-vetch, Purple Mullein, Purple Vipers-grass and the first sages. By June the grasslands present a superb spectacle. The mix of colours derives from high species diversity, notably the suite of clovers, vetches and other legumes. From a distance the massed cream heads of Dropwort, loose pink spikes of Sainfoin and blue splashes of Clary are particularly distinctive. At closer quarters the pale pink of Squinancywort, the yellow of Ladys Bedstraw and longstalked pink-and-bronze heads of Charterhouse Pink, are conspicuous. Extensive patches are pale yellow with Rhinanthus rumelica. In late July the grasslands remain colourful, with splashes of blue Creeping Bellflower and Spiked Speedwell, purplish-pink knapweeds and Zigzag Clover, yellow Agrimony and Ladys Bedstraw, white Wild Carrot, pale yellow and conspicuous greenish-cream clumps of the umbellifers Field Eryngo and Longleaf. On some steeper slopes the clumps or stands of Blackthorn and Privet scrub, with some Wild Pear, supports a sub-Pannonian wood-steppe flora, with lusher grassland. The scrub shows evidence of burning, presumably to clear land for grazing, and Wood Ant nests occur here and there. Growing in this community are two roses, French Rose (Rosa gallica) and Small-flowered Sweet-briar (Rosa micrantha), and occasionally (for example, just south of Cris) the striking and scarce subshrub Burning Bush (Dictamnus albus). ME M E SIC GRASSLAND

Some drier grasslands show an increasing influence of human management, with mesic habitat conditions neither markedly wet nor dry, moderately nutrient-rich (but not excessively fertilised) and neutral to mildly acid pH. Where such swards were managed by cutting and some aftermath grazing, communities could be ascribed to the order Molinio-Arrhenatheratalia to include permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows or coarse permanent grassland and tall herbs. These are usually mown but little grazed. Such communities are widespread throughout Europe, and have a generally similar composition. These sort of grasslands are decreasig around villages, often resown with forage legumes such as alfalfa. Species include Yarrow (Achillea millefolium),Common Bent (Agrostis capillaris),False Oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius)Quaking Grass (Briza media),Autumn Crocus (Colchiucum officinale),Crown Vetch (Coronilla varia) Rough Hawks-beard (Crepis biennis),Ox-eye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare),Crested Dogs-tail (Cynosurus cristatus),Cocks-foot (Dactylis glomerata),Wild Carrot (Daucus carota),Eyebright (Euphrasia roskoviana),Birds-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) ,Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratensis),Red Fescue (Festuca rubra),Dropwort (Filipendula vulgaris),Ladys Bedstraw (Galium verum),Rough Hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus),Ox-eye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare),,Field Woodrush (Luzula campestris),Green-winged Orchid (Orchis morio),Lambs-tongue Plantain (Plantago lanceolata),Smooth Meadow-grass (Poa pratensis),Tormentil (Potentilla erecta),Cowslip (Primula veris),Sorrel (Rumex acetosa),Greater Burnet (Sanguisorba offficinalis),Lesser Stitchwort (Stellaria graminea),Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum),Upland,Clover (Trifolium montanum),Red Clover (Trifolium pratense),White Clover (Trifolium repens),Yellow Oat-grass (Trisetum flavescens).

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DATA COLLECTION FINAL PRESENTATION

Final Results and Conclusions


Extras from the short Report written by Terje Nypan
The final presentation took part in the INTBAU info centre in Laslea and all the four groups presented their work and conclusions.

Conclusions about Walking: The footpaths are walkable, there is an absolute need for topographical maps to mark the paths and in some places physical marking of the paths are necessary. There were not experienced any great problems with stray dogs or wild animals . The flora contains over 1000 species and over 100 are on the European red list. The walking group saw many animals; mostly fox and deer. A tour guide must be developed and the material from the workshop can be used for this. At present, a Romanian-speaking tour guide is recommended. Horse riding and using horse carts is unproblematic, but the logistics of organisation is at present an obstacle. Conclusions about Accommodation: A few guesthouses in the village are functional. The accommodations possibilities in the old priest houses and other private homes need a serious upgrading. The major problem with accommodation is the difficulty in finding the people who have the key and in booking such accommodation in advance. Here a major organisational effort must be made. For the moment we can only recommend that such tours be organised for groups and that they be planned well in advance. The information office in Laslea has an important role to play in this respect. Village profiles, cultural heritage landmarks and events: An event calendar has been made. The major problem here is that many of the traditional events are disappearing with the last remaining Saxon inhabitants. This should not pose a great problem as the new Romanian population are introducing their own festivals, but these are different. Village profiles and landmarks can be developed to a higher level of sophistication, if one wishes. There are two major problems here: A: The need for maintenance and the falling into disrepair of many of these landmarks B:The ongoing dilapidation of many of the traditional Saxon houses and their typical element and the change of village architecture which takes away much of the charm and therefore also the attraction. The strong sides are the continued rural life style with cows returning and leaving the villages to their pastures, the ducks, geese and hens freely wandering in the villages, the large flock of sheep grassing in the hills and the shepherds following them. And of course the nature and the landscape itself, with is flora and fauna.

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DATA COLLECTION Activities planned for 2005


Off infor mation centre Of f ice and inf or ma tion centr e . Restoration and training on house 344

Extras from the short Report written by Terje Nypan

With the special funding from the Norwegian Embassy in Bucharest the INTBAU (Ro) information office will be run. A permanent presence has been assured for 1 day pr. Week through cooperation with village volunteers. Further, the local members of INTBAU (Ro) who are based in Medias will visit the office on a regular basis.

An agreement has been made between MET1 and INTBAU (Ro) to organise a cooperative venture to restore the house 344 in Laslea. This house was planned for demolition by the Municipality. The order to demolish has now been cancelled. Work on the house has started with documentation, under the supervision of Master mason Mr. H. Rumboldt and a team of English craftsmen. The work on the house will simultaneously function as a training opportunity for local craftsmen. INTBAU will be responsable for restoring and equipping the interior of the house and to run the centre for five years after completion.

Cobble- stones on the new watering emplacement for livestock


This project, which was to be organised by INTBAU (Ro) and part financed by a special funding by the Norwegian Embassy in Bucharest, will be initiated during the summer 2005.

activities Sundr y acti vities


A test tour for eco-tourism planned for the fall 2005. INTBAU Ro has been invited to organise a week study seminar in Bran, which will be held first week of august 2005. The seminar is part of a summer university organised in cooperation with the Bran Museum and the Ministry of Culture. The objective is to study how development inside Bran village and the surrounding countryside can be directed and managed to assure a more controlled development in Bran. Bran is presently experiencing a growing problem with uncontrolled construction in its surroundings and haphazard centre development.

Sustainability
By the establishment of the INTBAU office in Laslea a more permanent presence in the municipality has been assured. The work on House 344 in the centre of Laslea also assures a visible presence and reminder of the need and potential of maintaining the traditional architecture in the village. This is strengthened by the offices being next door to the Town hall and the close cooperation intended in the cobblestone project. In cooperation with the Municipality INTBAU will negotiate some specific restoration activities in Laslea during 2005.

1 2

Mihai Eminescu Trust Such is the case with the manor house in Malencrav, which, if finished by mid September 2005, would count as 3 houses.

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DATAof participants List COLLECTION


1.Claus Zapffe zapffe@zapffe.com (+47) 91 114 117 Schivesgate 10B 0259 Oslo, Norway 2. Simina Stan stan_simina@yahoo.com (+40) 021-2321810 Bd. Aerogarii nr. 2-8, bl II/1, sc. C, ap. 21 sector 1, Bucuresti, Romania 3. Anca Danilescu ancadanilescu@yahoo.com (+40) o21 315 75 20 (+40)0722 95 97 25 Str. Episcopiei nr.6, etaj 4, apartament 9 sector 1, Bucuresti , Romania 4. Raluca Elena Mocanu ralumocanu@yahoo.com (+40)021 778 37 18 (+40)724 58 76 94 Str. Drumul Taberei nr.92 Bl.C7 sc.E ap.187 sector 6 Bucuresti, Romania 5. Catalin-Tudor Rata catalin3007@yahoo.fr (+40) 21.346.31.80 (+40) 744.37.31.35 Calea Vitan 219, bl. 10, sc. 3, et. 4, ap. 140 Bucuresti-3, 031291 PO-Box 77-08, 033290 6. Ragnhild Bakkevig ragnhba@stud.ntnu.no (+47) 92848085 Postboks 1464 Bleikemyr, 5518 Haugesund , Norway 7. Andreas Fadum Haugstad andreasf@stud.ntnu.no (+47) 92014116 Nordre Lokkevei 18 3120 Tonsberg , Norway 8. Irina Neacsu yna_line@yahoo.com / yrynaa@yahoo.com (+40)722134307 Bd. Natiunile Unite, nr.5, bl.110,sc.B, ap.42, 9. Katia Moldoveanu katia_moldoveanu@yahoo.com (+40)0740.824.698 Radu Popescu 17, bl.24A, sc.1, ap.24 Bucuresti 1, RO 10. Ioana Bitu ioanabitu@yahoo.com (+40) 727707105 Str. Vasile Milea nr. 7, bloc B1, apt. 14 sector 6, Bucuresti, Romania 11. Alexandru Marinel alexprotest@yahoo.com (+40)0742904753 Str. Turbinei, nr.5, ap. 1, sector 2 Bucuresti, Romania 12. Samoila, Cetina cetina2@email.ro (+40)0723.411.300 Str. Gutuilor, nr. 14, Arad jud. Arad, Romania 13. Carmen Tanase carmenarh@yahoo.com (+40)0740030555 Str. Intrarea Dr. Felix, nr.2, bl.M4, sc.A, ap.79 sector1, Bucuresti, Romania 14. Bjorn-Are Vollstad bjornav@stud.ntnu.no (+47)97140250 Rennekleiva 17, 6800 Forde, Norway 15. Aura Neag aura.neag@princes-foundation.org +44 (0)207 613 8530 19-22 Charlotte Road London EC2A 3SG, UK 16. Audun Engh audun.engh@broadpark.no +47 98028911 St. Olans Gate 9 0165 Oslo, Norway 17. Arne Sodal arnsoeda@online.no +47 92298996, +4722200924 St. Alavset 7 0165 Oslo, Norway 18. Dorin Boila dorinb@rdslink.ro +400723282450 19. Per Halvorsen mar-5@online.no +4791702777 20. Carl Wilhelm Tyren tyren@as.online.no (+47)91152271 Angerstv. 38B, 1349, Rykkin, Norway

and contact details


21. Oyvind Eikvam (+47)22492229 Alaf Bullsvei 3A, 0765, Oslo, Norway 22. Olav Bjerve olbjerve@online.no (+47)22203344,(+47)91776895 St.Alavsat 7, 0165Oslo, Norway

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