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Dual magnetron Configuration


A Dual magnetron sputtering (DMS) is typically done by using mid frequency AC in the range of 10100kHz which is provided to the rig by a floating power supply (neither terminals of power supply is connected to ground). The conductive material is either connected to ground or is kept floating between ground and a positive supply rail. If the substrate is not connected to power supply or ground, then no electrical biasing is provided to substrate.

In a typical dual magnetron system, the two magnetrons are connected to the end of a secondary coil of an isolation transformer. A conductive substrate is connected to the secondary line coil of the DC transformer through a resistor and/or an additional floating biasing power supply. When changing the resistor or the biasing voltage, it is possible to control the energy delivered to the growing film and therefore the film properties. When sputtering a dielectric, it is accompanied with the sputtering of the inner surface of the deposition chamber. Due to these coatings, reactive sputtering dielectric suffers from two problems,

Arcing and disappearing anode. These two problems are solved by using the dual magnetron sputtering technique. In both cases the output of the power supplies of the magnetron and the anodes are floating and basically are not connected to the substrate so therefore no need to bias the substrate. Substrate biasing is provided by connecting the centre tap isolating transformer to the substrate. The connection has a resistor and an additional power supple, which both can provide control for the biasing voltage. If there is no resister or power supply connected to the substrate i.e. the substrate is connected directly to the cathode, then the substrate works as an additional cathode. The plasma density near the substrate determines the current flow through it. The advantage of the resister is to provide to lower ion current through the substrate (and the voltage and the energy of the arriving ions), while the positive potential applied to the substrate can cause the substrate to attract electrons for heating (working as an anode)

An example of Dual magnetron sputtering systems; Rotatable (BOC) Co-Planar (BOC) Co-Planar (Von Ardenne) Doubling Ring (FEP) The potential benefit of dual magnetron sputtering on aluminium substrate include Reactive Dc sputtered Alumina film and Pulsed Reactive DC sputtered alumina film [1]

Some of the benefits of the Depositioning of dual magnetron systems: No need for power supply to shut down for arc Preferential resputtering of poisoned regions claimed. No matching or tuning of generators Extended material and composition variety Long term stability (greater than 300 hours claimed by brauer in 1997) Control of plasma parameters (as temperature increases with frequency, Bradley 2001) Control of energy delivered to the substrate (Bradley 2002).

Novel Materials/ properties

Tin Coatings
Is an extremely hard ceramic material which is often used to coat titanium alloys, steel, carbide and aluminium components to improve the substrate surface property. Used as a thin coating, TiN is used to harden and protect cutting and sliding surfaces for decorative purpose (due to its gold appearance) and as a nontoxic material for medical implants. The thickness of the coating is about 5um thick. Tin is used in semiconductors industry. In copper-based chips, such films uses the TiN as a conductive barrier material between silicon devices and the metal contacts used to operate it. The TiN provide good electrical connections by diffusion block into the silicon. The TiN is classified as a barrier metal. Recent chip design in the 45nm technology and beyond makes good use of TiN as a metal material for improved transistor performance.

ZnO: Al coatings from powder target.

Zinc oxide has the following behaviour, Has stable discharge- no arcing or outgassing Dense and defect free material Composition: 2wt% Al (close to target composition) Low resistivity (0.0027Ohmcm) high transmission (%90) and strong 002 structure.

Copper Indium Diselenide Coatings

Typical composition 24.1% Cu, 25.5%ln, 50.4%Se, It is a good substrate for solar cells as it has high efficiency (high absorption coefficient) It has been produced by co-evaporation so it is difficult to maintain stoichiometry and also the DC RF sputtering has proved not successful. The pulsed DC sputtering of powder targets used for the first time is made by crushing CIS crystals. It is saved between 0.005 to 1mm.

Summary of pulsed magnetron sputtering

It is widely used for the deposition of dielectrics Not affected by arc effects therefore giving process stability Production of defect free films is possible. Commercially viable deposition rate possible. Plasma properties are modified with pulsing. Plasmas are hotter and denser on time average. The electron temperature (Te) and plasma potential (Vp) are modulated by driving the voltage waveform. High energy ion are created during phase-off Process offers benefits in deposition of other materials. Low friction TiN Doped ZnO and CIS coatings from powder targets.

Application of Magnetron Sputtering

It is easily scalable from lab R&D to industry Relatively simple and reliable process. Extremely versatile Excellent film property Metals, ceramic. Alloys, multilayers , graded coatings. Uniform deposition over large or complex surface Control of process allows control of properties .

Application of coatings
Wear resistance coatings Corrosions resistant coatings Optical coatings Electro- Optic device Reflective coatings Data storage media Sensors Chemically active sensors

Wear Resistance Coatings [2]

Any material that has nitrides or carbides area good source of resistance coating. Nitrides/ Alloy nitrides Carbides/ Carbo-nitrides Carbon based Molybdenum-disulphide based.

Carbon based coatings

Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) DLC, diamond bonding, deposited in hybrid PVD/CVD process Hard (2000VHN), low friction (0.15) also has decorative applications

Graphitic bondings, lower friction and wear rates than DLC Available as Cr/C multi layer Performs well in aqueous environment

Improved DLC from Teer coatings Lower Friction (0.03 to 0.1) and wear rates.

Commercial application for DLC

Motor racing engine parts Other automotive components Cutting tool for brass and alloys Forging tools Vacuum pick up nozzles Worm Gears Linear bearings

Molybdenum Sulphide- based coatings (MoST)

( ) Its a Amorphous solid solution of Ti in Retains low firction of but is much harder (1500VHN) Excellent in vacuum, or low humidity Extreme wear resistance 0.02 coefficient of friction High load carrying capacity Protects opposing face

Application of MoST
Cutting and forming tools Dies Valves Saw blades Module Parts Bearings Aerospace Application Dry machines

Decorative Coatings
Scratch and wear resistance on bathroom tubs, and door furniture, spectacle frames and watches. ZrN is usually used to for GOLD coatings. DLC for black coatings Metals and Plastic substrate.

Corrosion Resistance coatings

In Aerospace, the fasteners application are commonly using either cadmium electro-plated or al coated using the IVD (Ion vapour depositioning) The cadmium plating produces toxic effluent which is likely to be banned in the near future. The IVD are not fully dense and will require post-deposition shot penning. Does not offer 100% protection to substrate. Have poor tribological properties The solution to these problems is to use magnetron sputtering using ALMg alloys

Sputtered optically coating

Low E/solar control Architectural, automotive Anti-reflective/ anti-static (AR/AS) Architectural, flat panel display, CRTs, opthalmic Transparent Conductive oxides (TCO) Displays, Photovoltaic, OLEDS Photocatalytics Self-cleaning (Active) glass Coatings reacts with UV light to produce OH radicals that decompose organic matter. This forms a super-hydrophilic layer Adaptive Glassing Electrochromic, gasochromic coating (most commonly WO3) Optical and energy transfer varies with current flow, or gas flow

Transparent Conductive Oxide coating (TCO)

The TCO coating are an integral part of : Diplays, OLEDs, Photovoltaic solar cells, AR/AS coating etc. ITO most commonly used ZnO:Al and SnO2:F also avaliable

Reference [1] PJ Kelly, OA Aub-Zeid, RD Arnell and J Tong, Surf Coat, Technol, 86/87, (1996) 28-32 [2] Teer Coatings Ltd