Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 92

Vydane tituly/Published titles
Monografie I Monographs
Messersc.hmitt 81 109G/K - cz Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Messe rschmitt Me 2.62 - cz Curtiss P-40 - cz

Dvoujazycne vydimi I Bi-lingual edition
Henschel Hs 129 Northrop P-61 Black Widow Avia B-534 Messerschmitt Me 262 (new edition) Focke-Wulf Fw 1.89 .. Republic P-47 .. Curtiss P-40 (new edition) " Skoda LT vz.35 IPz.Kpfw. 35(t)] .. Praga LT vz.38 [Pz.Kpfw. 38(t)] .. Marder III & Grille" t.avocktn La-7 Jagdpanzer 38 Hetzer ~ Avia 8-35/8-135 "

model FILE series:
Polikarpov U-2/Po-2 .. (hard cover)

Knihy I Books
Mustangy nad

protektoratern (Rajlich, J.) - cz

Th e Ai rports of Prag ue 191 8-1 946 (Dudacek, L.) .. The Airports of Prague 1947-2000 (Oudacek. L) " 1. sarnostatna tankova briqada v SSSR "

(Mustan.gs over the Protectorate)

es.

(The First Czechoslovak

Independent Tank Brigade in the USSR)

(KopeckY, M.) - cz cz in Czech only ") Oznacsns tituly na sklade (Ieden .2003)
Marked titles on the stock on January 2003

=

Foreign official distributors
Mark D. Tuffield 48 Station Road Stoke D'Abernon, Cobham Surrey KT11 3BN, UK Tel.: 01932 866426 Fax: 01932 867099

CZECH - SIX Publication

Mr.

Publications MBI® are published and distributed by: MIROSLAV BfLY Kocianova 1588 155 00 Praha 5 Czech Republic Tel.: +420-261 610778 Fax: +420-251 610779 E-mail: bily.bila@quick.cz

AEROMODELUEDUARD Topterberq 18 0-02763 Zittau BRD (Germany) Tel.: +49-3583-795256 Fax: +49-3583-795256

'rrtstar

Mode.1 Company

GfF & 1/F, Mo. 33 Yin Chong Street

Legend Court" Mongkok Kowloon, Hong Kong Tel.: (852) 2388-0387 Fax: (852) 2435-4586

TUTTOSTORIA Ermanno Albertelli Editore Via Sydney Sonnino, 34 43100 Parma ITALY Tel.: +39-0521·29.2733 Fax: +39-0521-290387

J.ESCARRE, S.L CNalmojado 113 28047 Madrid SPAIN

SPACE FOR NEW DISTRIBUTORS

Tel.: +34·91·7194796 Fax: +34-91-7194796

MBI®

je registrovana obchodnt ocbranna znarnka a je majetkem nakladatete. is the registered Trade Mark and it is owned by the Publisher.

Miroslav

BILY -

Denes BERNAo - Pavel KUCERA

MBI®

(Sbirka autora . a. photocopying or otherwise. Skramousskemu. Fortova (Walter. Francevovi a J.) and Mr. the founder of Aeronautic Museum in Prague . M. without prior written permission of the publishers or authors.r. RajIich (HUACR). Jan MACE.) a lng.o. VL Zitek (Daewoo Avia. ktefi pomohli vytvofit tuto publikaci. 1943 Technicke muzeum v Brne . Pelr © BILY.) Avia 8-35 zacata vznikat pft1is po. Aerosvjal (Bulharsko) © Miroslav SOy. s. Praha 10..'(. 471 . a country thrown to the wolves in Munich. Miroslav © ANTOS.03 . aby se stain jednim z mOZlljch obrdncu piedem "prodamfho" Ceskos[ovellska. a.. optical. VI. s.English proof reading) and Mr.: podnikovy archiv .dl na to.). Balous. Marcela Vsechna prava vyhrazena .s.Vydall Published by Miroslav BlLY Kocianova 1588 155 00 Praha 5 Ceska republika I Czech Republic Tato publikace je venovana parnatce plk. Rajlichovi (HUACR).karton C.MB) © Bily . Special thanks are due to Mrs. clanky Male letectvo). a. a. P.. Miroslav © BiLA. Jan © BfL Y. chemical. Cenkerovi (NTM Praha). S. L. M. . 468. Zvhistni dfk patrf pani L. No part of this publication may be reproduced nor copied in any form electronic. VI.bilancnl zprava fy. electrical. Krumbacha PeriodikalMagazines Letectvi+Kosmonautika (monografie: Josef Krybus . Martin KUCERA. M.) a pamim M. Vlastimil MACE. Narodnl technicke muzeum v Praze: .Bernad . Jaroslava Janecky. ing. Pavel SUCHY.protokol FVA 0 prototypovych zkouskach .poznamky J.Kucera Preklad Titulni strana Zadnf strana obalky Barevne kresby Vykresy/Drawings Kresby/Line drawings ~wo~ g~ Avia B·35 came too late to become one of the potential defenders of Czechoslovakia.K. Petr © BrLY. a. Praha.K.kniha leta. CZ ISBN 80-86524 . Skramoussky. P. J. 2003 1_ vydanilFirst edition Tisk/Printed by: JDS s. Jaroslav Janecka. Tuffield (U. (Author's collection) ~Q~~~ © © © © © VELEK. Miroslav © ANTOS.eteckeho muzea v Praze This publication is dedicated to the memory of Col.s. J. U Pekaren 1. Cenker (NTM Praha). zakladateli t.AU Rights Reserved. Francev a J. VI. mechanical. 470. Thffieldovi (U. Zitkovi (Daewoo Avia.zprava MNO 0 prototypovych zkouskach .5 . Avia.Kbely Dekuji vsem. Balousovi.Avia B-35 & B-135. PrameoylBibliography: Daewoo Avia. I would like to thank to all individuals who helped to create this publication. Fortove (Walter. Ing.

ktere na zacatku 2. only the last three having seen a limited service utilisation.Avia BH-3 pod vojenskyrn oznacenirn B-3. Prestoze aZ do poloviny 30. Despite the fact that until the mid-thirties the biplane configuration dominated the sky. The hope of the Czechoslovak Air Force getting soon at least a European-class fighter waned in the shameful LSth. 3 . Rozdil vsak by] v pnstupu jednotlivych statu k vyvoji a modernizaci svych letectev. low-wing fighter monoplane ~ the Avia BH-3.dvouplosniku. under the military designation B-3. vojenskeho letectva na kratkou dobu dostal prvni dolnoplosnlk domaci konstrukce . ale jen posledni tfi se dockaly ornezeneho zavedeni. In the early nineteen twenties tbe Czechoslovak Air Force fielded under the B-3 designation their first. overshadowed in due course by the fame that their biplane successors enjoyed. March of 1939. Zacatkern 20. Spolu s dalsirn dolnoplcsnlkem BH-19 koncila kariera techto typu jako cvicnych stroju ve stinu slavy hlavnlho proudu . ie prtivi vznikd neco noveho a dosud nevidaneho IUl ceskoslovenske letecke seine. let oblohu temef vyhradne ovladaIy d vouplosne letouny pokusy 0 jednoplosne konstrukce jiz existovaly. svetove valky tvofily pater stihacfch letectev valclcich statu. Nadeje. N. However. • The wooden mock-up of the Avia B-35 fighter was a portent of the fact that something new and so far unseen brews 011 the Czechoslovak aviation scene. as a type they did not prove overly popular and after the BH-19 their influence slowly waned. let se do vyzbroje cs. Prototyp vzletl v roce 1933 a jen dva roky na to se postupne objevily typy. Jeji vyznam v Ceskoslovensku v obdobi pfed 2. BH-IO and BH-li training and liaison aircraft of the same layout. Pate jeste nasledovaly typy BH-8 (B-17). especially for fighters. there had been numerous earlier attempts at monoplane design. vojenski letectvo vbrzku ziska letoun evropske urovne. svetovou valkou je ci az In the history of the Czechoslovak Air Force the Avia factory brand is definitely a household name.ui maketa stlhadho letounu Avia B-35 byla pfedzvistf. In fact. but this was [0 be a trend that would avoid Czechoslovakia. Prvenstvi v zavedeni jednoplosneho stihaciho letounu patfi v tomto pfipade sovetskernu konstrukterovi N. BH-9 a BH-ll. Obrat nastal v prvni polovine 30. the kudos for introducing the first liz dreve. jak bude vypadat a jakyrn srnerern se bude Avia zavedenym vyrobcem. zejmena v oblasti stihacich letadeJ. and upgrading of their respective air forces. Its importance on the domestic scene could be likened to the position of the Hawker or Bristol companies in Great Britain. a move towards the monoplane design was taking place in the thirties. Polikarpovovi a jeho typu 1-16. there was a difference in tbe approach individual nations adopted to the development. ale mimo Ceskoslovensko. indigenous.8-35/8-135 Miroslav Bf Y V historii ceskoslovenskehc vojenskeho letectva byla tovarna moine srovnavat napfiklad s vyznamem spolecnosn Hawker Bristol ve Velke Britanii. It was followed by the BH-B (B-17) fighter and by the BH-9. Internationally. ale na jaie 1939 vyhasla. Heinkel a Messerschrnitt v Nemecku nebo Dewoitine a Marcel Bloch ve Francii. to such names as Heinkel or Messerschrnitt in Germany and Dewoitine or Bloch in France. ie is. As might be expected. let. V race 1937 jiz bylo ve vetSine pripadu zrejrne.

The utilisation of a large-calibre machine gun (cannon) was mooted. however. not so conspicuous. inverted V-12 engine of 330 kW (450 HP). now proposed on 5th February 1937 the A-7 (sometimes designated A·I07). vyzbroje a vystroje . at' least in theory. Mimoto. N. It is worth noting. The price of the prototype was 2. Nas zajima Typ 1. some two years ahead of those of the other major nations. 23·308 duv. Jednim z takovych dalstch pokusu 0 zavedeni jednoplosniku byl realizovany projekt A-102D. ze nektere spolecnosri se presto pokusily i bez prime podpory MNO a dosavadnich vysledku dornactho vyzkumu drzet krok s okolnim svetem. letoun mel mit hydraulicky zatahovacl podvozek s pneurnatickymi brzdami. vzduchem chlazeny.000. Typ II . Konstrukce letounu mela byt celokovova vcetne potahu pfevazujtclch casH (pouze kormidla potazena platnem).i kdyz nicmene nektere pokrocily do stadia rozmerovych maker Cl pohledovych modele. Despite the existence of the VTLU (vyzkumny technicky a letecky ustav .Ministry of National Defence) and the lack of a domestic research effort and data. allowing for a smaller quantity of fuel to be carried. war to test their aircraft in combat. prepared in accordance with the abovementioned request for proposals in the Type I category. With this in mind. air-cooled.·Kc (bez zahmutl ceny podvozku. operational career of the Avia monoplanes. Zlomove projekty Pavel Kucera Rok 1936 by} zlomovym v aktivitach MNO srnerem k rnodernizaci letectva. consequently decreasing the all-up weight of the machine.j. ktere jiz pozdeji nebylo mozne dostihnour. The Aero aircraft factory of Prague-Vysocany.single-seat fighter. Ackoliv v Ceskoslovenske repubJice existoval VlLO (Vojensky technicky a letecky ustav. generalni stab ceskosloveoske armady v te dobe zastaval ponekud odlisne nazory na obranu zeme a tak vetsi cast prostredkc srnerovala do budovani pozemnich sil a vystavby pohranicniho opevneni. that normally supplied the MNO with designs in the heavier two-seat observation and light bomber categories.vicemistny lehky bombardovaci denni i nocni. The prototype of this aircraft flew for the first time in 1933. i. (in the majority of cases).two-seat fighter/attack aircraft. kdy se dal ocekavat problem s palivovyrni tezsi zdroji. vypracovany leteckyrn odborem MNO v lednu 1936 a vydanym pod c. actual research into the new enabling technologies and their utilisation within the aviation industry was virtually non-existent in Czechoslovakia at this time. prim ami vyzkurn zabyvajlct se vyvojem novych technologii a jejich vyufitfm v leteckem prumyslu v CSR prakticky neexistoval. Armed Forces was geared towards the ground forces and the belt of border fortifications. despite a lack of direct support from the MNO tMininerstvo ruirodni obrany . which were to be provided by the MNO. which were funded by a substantial share of the defence budget. kol s brzdami. Typ IV . mnozt vyrobci se chopili jedinecne pfilezitosti vyzkouset sve novinky na spanelskem bojisti.3 (B8·3) fighter. Pfispevky ostatnich tovaren . again. It was to be aircraft such as the 1-16 that would provide the backbone of the fighter arms. 4 . Navic.298.tfimisrny pozorovacl dennl i nocnf. albeit some proceeded up to the scale model and full-size mock-up phases.to melo zajistit MNO). Pocitalo se s umlstenim hruborazneho knlometu ve hftdeli vrtule. propeller and equipment. lllJ3. as the primary research organisation. dodavajici MNO pfevazne dvournistne pozorovacf a bornbardovacf typy. One of these laudable attempts to introduce the monoplane. During its deliberations with regards to the project. Za zminku ale stoji skutecnost. companies was the prototype construction programme. V projektovych uvahach davala firma pfednost mene vykonnemu rnotoru s mensi spottebou.jednornistny stihaci. into military service was the A-lOID project of the Aero concern presented to the MNO tested in 1934. Letoun Aero A~7 mel mit novy dvourady dvanactivalcovy invertni motor Walter Sagitta I-MR 0 330 kW (450 k). Polikarpov with his 1-16 type. Popudem k aktivitam ceskoslovenskych Ieteckych tovaren byl program stavby prototype.k tornuto tematu zustaly ve stadiu navrhu . ktera mela byt celokovova na zemi stavitelna.multi-place day/night tight bomber. Besides this. of the waning nations.298.36. Novinky z tero oblasti se tal do ceskoslovenskych konstrukcnich kancelafi dostavaly se zpozdenim.e. the undercarriage. The other companies' submissions to this proposal remained mostly at the proposal stage. StllUldAvia B·3 (BH·3). Type II . The landmark projects 1936 was a turning point in the attitude of the MNO towards the modernisation of the Air Force. Unfortunately the distrust towards the monoplane layout persisted. News of the latest developments in the aviation industry abroad was reaching the nation's design offices with a delay that later developed into a technology gap which could not be bridged at will. Bohuzel zde stale panovala neduvera k letounum teto koncepce umocnena nedobrymi zkusenostmi s dolnoplosnyrni Avierni. it is perhaps not surprising that many manufacturers seized upon the unique opportunity provided by the Spanish Civil. when problems with fuel sources could reasonably be expected. Pozadoval navrhyctyt kategorii letounu: Typ I . Vojensky Ietecky ustav studijni).36. The immediate impetus for activating the Czechoslovak aviation. The Type I is our proposal of interest. Ve zdnvodneul figurovaly celkove njiSi palivove naroky v pffpade valecnebo konfliktu. prepared by the Aviation department of the MNO in January 1936 and issued under the filing number 23308 duv. IIII. that some companies attempted. vrtule.dvournfstny snhact a bitevni.the Aviation and technology research institute). ktery bezesporu zhmotn ila at ex isrence letounu Avia B-3 SIB-I3 5. dfive VLOS . as to the shape and direction that the modem fighter aircraft would take. unora 1937 s nabfdkou stihaciho letounu A-7 (nekde oznacovaneho A-I07) vypracovanou die uvedenych smernic za prototypovou cenu 2. oslovila MNO dne 5. the company opted far a low powered engine with low fuel consumption..vyvoj moderniho stihacibo letounu ubirat. The reasoning behind this line of thought was that lower fuel requirements represented an advantage in the event of war. Type three-seat day/night observation aircraft and Type IV . By 1937 it was generally clear. Typ 111. the strategic defence thinking of the General Staff of the Czechoslovak. as it materialised only in the Avia B~35/135. ktery Aero zkouselo v race 1934. wheels with brakes. • Avia 8. The Aero A-7 was to be powered by the new Walter Sagitta 1MR. modem fighter monoplane into routine air force service belongs to the Soviet Union and its designer N. to m- Vysocanska lerecka rovarna Aero. kde videla prednost v moznosti zmensen] palivovych naddl a tudlz celkove hmotnosti pro dany ucel.000 Kc without the Governmeot furnished items. It requested proposals for four categories of aircraft: Type I . in the opening phases of WW II. to keep pace with the surrounding world. apparently fed by the recollections of the.

The machine was to be fitted with a radio set and complete day/night night instrumentation.A-7 ureeny pro tunelove zkollsky. vhodne komponovanymi zvlaste pfi dvoumotorovem usporadani. The aircraft was to be fitted with a hydraulically retractable undercarriage with pneumatic wheel brakes. six wing-racks for small bombs (20 kg) and one fuselage bomb rack (2 x 50 kg or lxlOO kg) or a smoke canister could be carried. Prague) Dobove sn(mky dfevene makety stihacih» letounu Praga E-52. the exception being the fabric covered control surfaces. mela spocivar v montazi dalsich dvou kulo- meta VZ. Vyzbroj. The aircraft featured an all-metal airframe. Stihaci letoun. (Foto: NTM . Besides the aforementio- Drevenj model letounu Aero . Jaroslav Slechta was the chief designer and creative spirit of the aviation division of Ceskornoravska Kolben-Danek (CKD). 30 nad motorem a v poufiti sestl zavesnikii pro male. (P. oznaceny v typove posloupnosti E-52. Kucera's Collection) ned machine gun. ground adjustable propeller. (P'lotO: NTM . Kucery) Period pictures of the wooden mock-up of the Praga E-52 fighter. Realizovanym prototypem by] Typ ill v podobe znameho E-Sl. (Sb{rka P. lng. 5 .hydraulicky mely byt ovladany i vztlakove klapky.National Technical Museum. fire through the hollow shaft of the three-bladed. vedene po konstrukcni strance invencnim duchem inzenyra Jaroslava Slechty. all metal. zilo v te dobe ne zcela konvencnimi konstrukcemi s kratkou trupovou gondolou a dvojici ocasnich nosniku. also the flaps were to be hydraulically driven. Letadlove oddeleni Ceskornoravske Kolben-Danek. with surfaces from of the sheet light sheet alloy. mel byt vybaven dvojid pomerne slabsicb moroni Renault 0 vykonu 2 x 162 kW (220 k). pumy (20 kg) na kfidle a jednoho podtrupoveho zavesniku pro pumy (2 x 50 kg nebo 1 x 100 kg) ci dymovnici. there was a provision for tbe installation of another pair of MGs vz: 30 above the engine.Narodn( technicke muzeum. LetOUD mel mit radios t anici a veskerc pfistrojove vybaveni pro letanl ve doe i VDOCi. Praha) A wooden wind-tunnel model of the Aero A-7. vedle zmlneneho kulometu.

0 rn. The Lockheed P-38 Lightning came soon afterwards . It erved the purpose of assessing the aircraft's dimensions. apparently facilitating handling in the engine out. The assumed performance figures have not survived. Slouzila k rozmerovemu posouzenit vcetne usazeni pilora.107) fighter Rozpeti kfidla f Wingspan (m) Celkova delka letounu / o veral 1 length (m) N osna plocha f Wing area (rn") Hmotnost prazdneho letounu bez vystroje (kg) Empty weight (without equipment) Hmotnost letova f Take off weight (kg) Rychlost vodorovna maximalnl ve 3700 m (kmfh) Maximum horizontal airspeed at 3700 m Cesrovni rychlost ve 3700 m na 7110 vykonu (kmlh) Cruising speed at 3. V tomto uhlu pohledu se jevi rozhodnuti MNO pro typ z Avie v dane chvlli jako naprosto spravne.430 4 min 40 s 8800 Dole: Ndkresy obou popsanjch projektU pro porOVltan( ve stejnim meHtku.. "lehky stihaci letoun ' . • It produced some far from ordinary layouts for its aircraft. zhotovena z Ian 11a pfeklizkovych pfepafkach.30 941 1434 490 .4 m and a height of 2. The fighter. Only the dimensional data for this aircraft is known .500 420 . • P. (asymmetric thrust).rozpeti 11. situation.arametlry stfhaefho letounu A-7 (A-107) The presumed performance parameters oftbeA·7 (A. length of 8.wingspan of 11.. an extreme.fedpokladane .Znarny jsou pouze zakladnl rozmery .95 m. potazena papirem . V pozadi jsou videt dalsl takto zhmotnene projekty tovarny. vyska 2.P02 6 A-107 JP02 E-52 . valy. Both proposals represented a "lightweight fighter" concept. A case in point was the Praga E-51 prototype built according to the Type III requirement.95 m.40 7. "blind alley" concept. Pictures from the CKD factory in Prague-Karlin show a fullscale mock-up of wood and paper on plywood bulkheads. ci Oba navrhy pfedstavovaly vzhledem ke svemu obdobnernu vykonovemu vybaveni tzv. The design is noteworthy on account of the proximity of the engines' thrust lines.700 m and 70 % power Vystup do vysky 4000 m f Time to 4.. often featuring tbe short fuselage pod and twin boom layout that was especiaJly advantageous when two engines were called for. Predpokladane vykonove parametry se nedochoNa snirncich z tovarnt haly CKD v Fraze Karline je parma rnaketa ve skurecne velikosti.60 11.4 m. whose fallacy was epitomised by the failure of the French Caudron series of "racers turned fighters. Bottom: Line drawings show both projects in the same scale a 2 3 4 5 . including that of the pilot's cockpir.extrern. Lockheed P-38 Lightning prise! brzy pote. was designated E-52 and was to be powered by a pair of Renault engines of L62 kW (220 HP) each. 1I nadiiujici eliminaci pfipadne asymetrie pfi rozdilech vykonf vysazeni." With the advantage of hindsight the decision of the MNO to proceed with the "grown-up" type of fighter design from Avia was the absolutely correct one at this time.000 m Dostup prakticky f Service ceiling (rn) 8. jehoz nizka efektivnost je dostatecne znama napffklad z realizace francouzskych typu Caudron. V navrhu letounu vynika blizko t os obou pohonnych jednotek. next in the type line. delka 8.0 In.. In the background further similar mockups of other company projects are visible.

on the new project was given to Avia's chief designer lng. ktera v te dobe V CSR pusobila jako osvedceny vyrobce srihacich letadel. Na zAklade jejiho souhlasneho postoje MNO vydalo dne 22. 8320-11. Extraordinarily comprehensive aerodynamic model rests in [he VTLU wind tunnel at Prague-Letaany resulted in some twenty-two modifications to the chin liquid radiator in- Velmije. 3 krat model kiidla rurer having supplied a substantial proportion of the machines serving with the Czechoslovak fighter arm. po posouzenl dodanych navrhu MNO oslovilo tovamu Avia. 12 kra: se zkousel model trupu s rozdilnyrni prechody mezi kfldlem a trupem. Novotny had exclusively worked on military aircraft projects having been responsible for bringing theB·534 to the series producr:ion. kvetna 1936 objednavkuc.l36 for two 8·35 aircraft prototypes. 8320-ll. 7 . for a detailed proposal. j. once it had assessed the proposals supplied.mne kfivky makety budouci stt'lUlckyprozrazovaly. Pranrisek Novotny. The design was . Neobycejne rozsahle modelove zkousky v aerodynamickern tunelu VTLD zahrnovaly 22 rOznychliprav chladice vody. 18 konfiguraci umisreni ocasnich ploch ph ruznych delkach trupu. ktery se od sveho pftchodu do tovarny venoval pouze vojenskym rypum a mel za sebou uvedeui typu 8·534 do seriove vyroby. v tomto pflpade dolnoplosneho.aerodynamically state-of art and its layout bore a general resemblance to several machines oj the period. Konstrukcni prace na novem projektu fidi! sefkonstrukter Avie Ing. Navrh byl aerodynamieky fistj a nesl l. the MNO asked Avia. Navrhu a propracovani celkove aerody- Victory for the Avia As written in the preceding text. the MNO issued on 22nd May 1936 a purchase order no. Based on this. a proven aircraft manufac- namicke koncepce noveho letounu. The task of managing the design work. (Sbirka autora) The exquisite lines of the future fighter's mock-up had shown the anention and effort the design team devoted to the new machine. Since joi~ ning the company.Vitezstvf A vie Jak jiz bylo receno.jak velkou POZOr1Jost konstrukcnt tjm novemu letounu venoval. Frantisek Novotny./36 na dva prototypy letounu B·35. se oddal s mimoradnou peclivosti.naky pfipom{naj{d nektere zahraniifni typy Ii doby. He devoted himselfto the draft and detailed aerodynamic design of the new low-wing monoplane fighter with the utmost diligence.

Klein. ktere byly na ceskoslovenske stfhacce poprve pouziry prave u tohoto typu. the reality was somewhat less impressive. Celkem 104 zkousek. znstalo jen u planu. pancerove pfeklizky ktera se pouzivala ve Francii. Maketa letounu B-35 postavena ve skutecne velikosti byla pro navstevniky Narodni letecke vystavy v Praze roku 1937 pfekvapenim. Predevsirn byl pouzit bezny seriovy motor HS 12Ydrs 0 vykonu 632. the considerably less powerful. Behern zkousek se totif ukazalo. three tests on a section of the wing were conducted to prove the aircraft's behaviour with. Fedotov. commencing in late 1937. The group of static load experts consisted of the engineers messrs. mel dokonce podvozek v zatazene poloze.000 HP) as the planned powerplant and a maximum speed of 570 km/h.8-35 was displayed on a boldly arched tubular stand in the very heart of the Avia exhibition compound. Dalsich 26 zkousek bylo zamereno na overeru stability s plynem a bez plynu. Klein. The fighter even had the undercarriage "vanished" in a retracted position and its refined shape could easily compete with the best that other European manufacturers could offer. located in the chin under the engine. intake to the large liquid radiator. Albeit the information panel listed the Hispano Suiza HS-12-1000Y of 736 kW (1. three wing models and twelve variations of the flaps. protoze vlastni mechanismus zatahovaciho podvozku nebyl jeste k dispozici. ze libivy uzkY vstup vzduchu vymodelovany na makete nevyhovuje. the B-35 having been the first instance that this device was used on a Czechoslovak fighter. Vefejnost tak mela moznost shlednout novy samonosny dolnokfidly jednoplosnik s eliptickym kfidlem a zakrytyrn pilotnun prostorem. Fedotov. Dam odchylkou byl pevny kapotovany podvozek. eighteen configurations of the empennage at various lengths of the fuselage. Doktor vedl zkuseny lng.a B-35 byla na vjstave umistena na efektnim ocelovem oblouku v samem stiedu expozice spolecnosti Avia. kolern nejz vzduch proudil uzkou sterbinou. log. regular series-built AviafHS 12Ydrs engine of only 633 kW (860 HP) output was used. A noteworthy feature was the narrow. Note the large water radiator under the engine. Jednalo se 0 pfeklizku s vnej~i stra- az stallation. bench testing only taking place after the German occupation of the rest of a mutilated Czechoslovakia. a fixed undercarriage leg and with the wheel well for the planned retractable undercarriage. Ing. The full-scale B-35 mock-up was to prove a big surprise to the visitors of the National Air Exhibition in Prague. 3 zkousky S usekem kiidla s pevnou podvozkovou nohou a usek s vytezem pro planovany zatahovaci podvozek aj. Szabo and Doktor. jehoz propracovane rvary rnohly snadno konkurovat ostatnim evropskym vyrobcum. (Sb{rka autora) • The mock-up of the lIew Avia . Jindfich Simnnek. It turned a two-bladed airscrew and had Makela noveho letounu Avi. Konstrukci Ietounu ovlivnilo pouZiti tzv. Behem stavby prvniho prototypu zahajene koncern roku 1937 doslo k nejedne kon trukcni zmene oproti puvodnirn zamerum. za okupace. Jindfich Shnunek. Pod vrtulovyrn kuzelern se tak objevil pomerne velky obdelnikovy vstupni otvor ktery ale letounu nijak na krase neubral.5 kW (860 k) s dvoulistou vrtuli a pod film zaveseny tunelovy chladie. Vyraznym prvkem byl velky chladic vody pod motorem. Kolektiv statiku ve slozeni lng. A further twenty-six tests were done to ascertain stability with and without full power applied. slot-type. During the actual construction of the first prototype. Motor sam teprve prochazel vyvojem a na brzde se zkousel mnohem pozdeji. Szabo a lng. Tbe public could see for the first time the mock-up of a shapely new low-winged fighter with an elliptical wing and enclosed cockpit. Ackoliv iidaje na informacni tabuli uvadely jako planovanou pobonnou jednotku motor Hispano Suiza 12 Y-lOOOC 0 vykonu 736 kW (1000 k) a rychlost az 570 km/h. Letoun. The engine was still in the development stage at this time. twelve shapes of the wing/fuselage fillets. Vsimnete si velkiho chladice vody pod motorem. led by the very experienced Ing. The same fate beset too the retractable undercarriage. (Author's Collection) 8 . Podobna situace potkala i zatahovaci podvozek. First and foremost..a 12 krat rozne provedeni vztlakovych klapek. a number of design changes from the original plans took place. Altogether it took some lO4 wind tunnel tests.

The torque applied was 1962 Nm (200 kgm). (NTM Prague) Pevnostni zkouska trupu Detail sedadla pllota a kola vyskove1w nastaveni: Tato sestava byla pouiiia v B-35. • The static strength test of the fuselage and the seat attachment points.1 and probably 8-35.Trup s vodorovnymi ocasnimi plochami pn zkouice memeho krouceni trupu . This layout was used in the 8-35. • Detail oj the pilot's seat and the elevator trim wheel. (NTMPraha) The three-point-landinginduced-stress test of the fuselage at the 11=6.la pytlem pisku. Vpozad{ jsou videt ocasni plochy letounu Avia B-71 (SR-2).1 a pravdepodobni take v R-35. (NTM Prague) pro pristani na tfi body 11=6. the background the Avia.2. Ill. (NTM Praha) The fuselage with horizontal tail during the specific torsional stiffness test. (NTM Prague) 9 . (NTM Prague) Pevnostni zkouska trupu a zaveseni sedadla.2. The mass oj pilot was simulated by a bag of sand. B-71 (licence-built Tupolev SB-2).kroutici moment 1962 Nm (200 kgm). Hmo tnost pilota byla kompemovtz.

(NTM Prague) Kffdlo po pevllostn.trup. Kostra byla at za kabinu zakryra odntmatelnynou potazenou hlinlkovyrn Pevnostni z/collska lafdla pro 1. (NTM Prague) mi elektronovymi panely. Ridici plochy mely kOVOVOll kostru a plateny potah jako typ 8-534. POllzite kaseinove klizeni dfevenych nosniku bylo nedostatecne a pfi prvnich dvou Iarnacich zkouskach nastala porucha nosniku v kliteni jiz ph n=lO. Posledni zkousky se 1 dohotoven a pfipravovan na velky den. The wing covering ruptured as n=I1. piipad letu (1. pfipad letu. Na snimku je zachyce/~a zkouska provddena Ita konei kf{dla.. sesroubovanou a snytovanou z ocelovych trubek. Intenzivnl pevnostni zkousky zacaly v cervenci 1938.. Oproti puvodniruu zameru pouzlt pro zadni casti trupu sestav . Potah prask!uzpfi n=. .Jednou z mnoha pevnostmch. • Wing with the cut-out for the wheel well ready for the strength test for the 3'd case of flight. klapky. ocas- za kabinou jako potah preklizku (nebo platno pres dfevene late jako u B-534) byla nakonec pouzita karoserie z elektronovych plecha vyztuzena podelnyrni a pffcnymi profily. stejne jako konee trupu v oblasti. krome kDdla. prasklj potah ph rt=l1.i zkousce pro 1.• The strength test oj the wing for the 1" case of flight 0" test).2 mm a slouzila jako potahovy material khdla a pevnych casH ocasnich ploch. The wing covering ruptured as early as at n. zkousek jednotlivjch skupin draku byla take zkouika. The wing after the strength test of the 1'1 ease of flight (2"d test). ocasnt plochy. Teprve v tomto pfipade byl splnen predepsany merene 13 nasobek a na- na prvnl prototyp vsak uskutecnily at v srpnu a v zMi. tkouska).Pohled na poruchu po odstraneni ncikladu.8. zkouika). takze jejich vysledky nernely B-35 primy dopad. The picture shows a test at the wing-tip. 10 . (NTM Praha) One of the many strength. vet~ina nieh ploch. Pro tfeti zkousku by to vyrobeno nove ktfdlo s nosniky klizenyrni kauritem. The picture shows the rupture after the load was removed.. (NTM Prague) plechern 0 sile 0. tests of the airframeconcerned the torsional strength of the wing. pH ktere se zjiSfovala tuhost kf{dla na krtu. Trup mel typickou pfihradovou kostru.8. kfidelka a motorove Ioze uspokojive prosla.:8. pf(pad letu (2. (NTM Prague) Kffdlo s vyfezem pro zatahovaci podvozek: pripravcne k pevnostni ikouSce pro 3. Ten jit byl z velke casn hodnoty vykazaly dokonce n:=: 4.

ploch prvniho prototypu 8-35. (Sbfrka autora) A close-up oj the first prototype's B-35. this time the spars were glued with kaurite resin. which. . similar to the ones used on the Avia B-534. Note the visible dividing lines between the panels in the rear fuselage. (Author s Collection) 11 . rulerons and engine bearers passed the tests with satisfactory results. but of detachable light alloy panels. bot it successfully held until 14.8 mvk). did not diminish tbe elegance of the fighter. The original cleaner-looking narrow-slit arrangement . Following the French experience with "armoured plywood". ie toma tak nebylo.88 (n=14. riveted and bolted together from steel tubes. Most of the assemblies . Nahore: Nakres kfidla s vyrezem pro zataho vaci podvozek a diagram pru. I I I .i.~. According to the previoltsly published information this part of the fuselage was fabric covered. Detailni zaber ocasnich.e. the empennage. \ 1\ 1\ ) \ ! I a regular "wide mouthed" liquid cooled radiator in the chin. But this picture and the photos from the crash prove otherwise. flaps. Another difference was the fixed undercarriage.~ ~ . -~--\ .hybovYch kiivek. The fuselage was of the characteristic Warren truss structure. \ . Contrary to the original plans and popular belief. as the mechanism for the planned retracting undercarriage was not yet available. Fotografie letounu po havani tojell potvrzuji. Not only did the wing stand up well to the prescribed load of n=13.. plywood with 0. hOWD on the mock-up proved inefficient in tests. and during the first two load tests the spars glued with the casein failed at n=lO well below the specified load of n=14. however. reinforced on the inside with longitudinal and cross stiffeners and stringers . • Ndkre« kitdla s vjfezem pro zatahovact podvozek a diagram pruhybovych kiivek: (NTM Praha) Above: A drawing of wing with the retractable undercarriage wheel-well cut-out and the diagram of the bending curves. the ten fuselage assemblies. This prototype was nearing completion and being readied for its big day. Podle starSCchinformaci by tato last trupu meLa byt casti potaiena platnem: Ze snimku je zrejme. The casein glue used for the main spars was not strong enough. This truss was covered right behind the COCkpitwith detachable elektron panels.2 moo thick aluminium sheeting bonded to its external surface was used for the wing. The intense load tests began in July 1938. Vsimflete si viditelnych rozhrani mezi panely zadnt trupu. For the third load testing a new wing was manufactured.1. vertical fin and horizontal stabiliser skinning. the fuselage behind the cockpit hood was not covered in plywood or in fabric doped taut over the wooden formers (as used on the B-534). Tbese last tests took place only in August and September and did not influence the design parameters of the first prototype of the B-35.1. jl . as was the tail section around the empennage. The aerodynamic controls were of metal internal structure and fabric covering.\ t-. but the wing started to play up.

Jan Arnbrus .Prim { prototyp stihaciho letounu B~35. The undercarriage notwithstanding. (licencnf SB. vystupujici pod krycirn jrneuern Toman). Hochfelda). Prvnf prototyp.1 Po vsech uepfijemnostech spojenych s fesenim odpovidajici stowr anMny (pouUji) antenna. photographed in October 1938 at the factory airfield in Prague-Cakovice..The first prototype of the B~35. Ministerstvu narodni obrany (. Ilejvyraznijsizminou by/ tvar a typ chladiCe vody pod motorem. V tovame 12 .. 10. kovovou vrtuli M~100 fotografovany v n. Zde je nutne pnpomenout.i za fizeni usedl sefpilot pplk. Karel Mares (pozdeji zoamy velitel 311. zahajili Dalecky s Kosarem predavani prototypu do VTLD predvadecfmi lety. Protoze letoun nevykazoval zadne vyrazne negativni chovani.nu 1938 na tovdrnim letdti v Praze ~ Cakovidch. bombardovaci perute RAF. 7 YetSinu letu vsak letoun odletal s dfevenou vrtuli Avia 232A (c. zan 1938 v 9:54 hod. . 11.1 with the two-blade metal M~100 propeller. kdy byla pouzita jina kovova vrtule . listopadu 1938. Po eely fijen pak prototyp B-35. kapitan Gavelcik a stabm kapitan Sernerad. mohly konecne pfijit na fadu skutecne letove zkousky.2). prvni let s pouzirim kovove dvouliste vrtu Ie M -100 z letounu Avia Bw J. Nadseni nejvlce vyzafovalo z pplk. kratce po poledni. Mirno jine. (Author' Collection) Avia 8-35.Letov Hd 43 (konstruktera Ing. prave on uskutecnil 13. JeSte ten sarny den Dalecky vzletl dvakrat.1 s dvoulistou. ktere se soustfedily na zkousenl ruznych k rnefeni vYkomi s nirni dosazenych.MNO) doporuci seriovou vyrobu. Osmnacr minut trvajici zalet odstartoval dlouhou serii lerovych zkousek. Vyjimkou byly dva Iety z 3. zko IIsky. pilotovany setpilotem Avie Rudolfem Daleckyrn. Proti dfevene makete se letoun v mnohem liiil. the most notable change was the shape and type of the chill radiator. Marese. ktery se nechal slyset. 2432). Takove zavery po prvnim uspesnem letu se obvykle pfijimajf s jistou reservou. Jak se ale pozdeji ukazalo. uskutecnil svuj prvni let 28. po nero si Ietoun vyzkoVTUJ. chIadic !lody water radiator regulacn( klapka flow control flap vzj14kovci klapka landing flap usel take rnjr.. stejne dobry dojem a miru ohodnoeeni zanedlouho potvrdili i jim. predevsim d1ev~ne konstrukce nosnikn krtdla. nasledujicf lety patfily pilotum Jako prvn.Vsichni zucastneni piloti byli s lerounem velmi spokojeni. mast (late) ___ pevnosti.1 absolvoval tovarm letove typu vrtuli a ze vystfelne kamily kulometu machinegun troughs ventilaee kabillY cockpit air vent vice net polovinu letu tento mesic odletal pilot Oldfich Kosar. Pomineme-lipodvozek. protoze byl ve vsech beznych rezimech letu vyborne ovladatelny. Compared to the wooden mock-up it differed in many respects. Sest kontrolnlch a poznavacich leni za VTLU odletali piloti major ze chladic oleje oil radiator piivod vzduchu ke kompresoru supercharger air duct water radiator air inlet Arnbrus. One 7.

11. 8. vcetne pfedvadecich a kontroJnieh letu ph ptedavant.lever Above and below: On both pictures the dllctfor the compressor and carburettor air in the port wing leading edge. byl v letounu nahrazen stavajici motor HS 12Ydrs vyr. prosel nezbytnym vazenirn a zjistovanim te:li~te. 13 .c prevzal Avii B-3S. surname 20 h 2J min behem 58 letu.nehrane kitdla. Den pred odletem do VTLU. 11. C. vcetne motoroveho kanonu HS 404 raze 20 mm. (Sbtrka autora) Nahofe a dole: Na oboa snimctch je mimo jille dobie videt umisa karburdtoru v leve pakn otevtnini kabiny callopy j"ilial opening . 10 pozadovanou kan6novou verzi HS 12Yers vyr. Pravdepodobne az zde letoun dostal vojenskou vystroj a vyzbroj. 49 a jeste ryz den jej Kosaf zaletal. 1938. vrr.ochranny pylon turnover bar prvni protoryp naletal.1 oficialne 9. C. pfeletem na vlastnt letiste ustavu. Letoun tak byl tent pfivodu vzchuchu ke kompresoru ntibe'1.

A balance tab is visible near the wing-tip. • After the metal propellers were tested.Po odzkousenf kovovjch vrtuli letoun dostal opet puvodn{ drevenou vrtuli Avia 232.l na spodni strane kiidla. Na menstm snimku uprostied je pro srovniini letaun s vrtuli M 100. as is the national insignia on the wing underside. (NTM Prague) pozicn( svetlo position light kovova konstrukce metal structure sn(matelmf panely detachable panels pozicn{ svetlo position light ostmho"e kola tail wheel ~ vyvaiovad ploska • pouee vprava trim tab • at starboard only Fotograjie z p6zo win ( pro propagacni . Velmi dobie je videt tvar vstupu vzduchu k chladici vody. the machine was again fitted with the Avia 232 propeller.U!ely umoiiiuje pozorovat pHcf s chladicem a reguUlcni klapkou z netypickeha uhlu. The shape of the water radiator air intake is very clearly visible. On the smaller picture the machine with the M·I00 propeller is shown. (Sbtrka autora) A staged promotional photo shows well the nose with the radiator and flow control flap from an unusual angle. Pied koncem kHdla je videt vyvaiovaci ploika a umistenl vjsostnych Zllak. (Author's collection) 14 .

Behem prudkeho prechodu do zatacky stroj sklouzl po kridle a zntil se na zem. especially its shapely transition between the cockpit and the rear fuselage. (now part of Prague). Na spodnim snimku jsou zretel'le videt ko vove casti potahu zadnt casti trupu. jej Dalecky preletl zpet do VTLO v Lettianech. Do tovarny se letoun dostal jeste jednou a naposledy 16. prave cet. Pozorovatele jiste zaujme pomerne maly piechodovy radius mezi kitdlem a trupem. The bottom picture shows clearly the metal skin panels of the rear fuselage. Noteworthy is also the relatively small radius oj the wing-fuselage fillet. zkazu Kavalec.. nun pore intenzivne letal pilot VTLO eela}' Arnost do stavu. zejmena elegantni piechod mezi kabinou pilota a zadni casti trupu. 11. vCetne podelnych a pffCnjch vYztuh. bez pumovych zttvesniku a pumoveho shazovadla dosahla 2360 kg. Vlevo nahoie je na ohnutim plechu ctistecne vide! oznacen! na trupu . Vzletova hrnornosr s kompletnirn vojenskym vybavenim. 11.5 3".. Z obou snimkli je videt. 1938. 1938 u Hloubetina (dnes soucdst Prahy).1 prototype on 22nd November 1938 near Hloubettn. Narazem byl stroj znicen a v jeho troskach zahynul i pilot. • The view from the rear shows to advantage the fine lines of the aeroplane. Both pictures convey the strength of the impact. 11. a 22.. Dne 22. Pro pilota zvykleho letat stroje B-534 byly nektere schop- Havdrie B-3S. pfi ctvrtem preletu nad rychlostni trikilometrovou zakl ad nou .1 nosti noveho dolnoplosneho stroje zcela odlisne. 11. jak by! ndraz sUny.Pii pohledu 114 letoun od zadu vyniknou jeho jemne tvary. Ve dnech 21. ze v rnaterske rovarne bylo s Ietounem jiz odletano vice nez 58 leta bez mirnofadnych udalosti. Vzhledem ke skutecnosti. ale jiz 19. ktery prototypu B-3S. pfi zjistovarn rychlosti ve standardni vysce 460 m. including the longitudinal and transverse stiffeners (Author's collection) 15 . • The crash of the 8-35. (Sbtrka au/ora) At top left the bent skin panel carries the Us 3" fuselage marking. (Author's collection) pfed zahajenirn protorypovych zkousek uveden odpovidal podminkarn MNO. 11.1 dne 22. KavaJec podcenil vlastnosti noveho stroje.

Nasledujici valecne roky prokazaly. promeny tvaru As the photographs of the subsequent prototypes were taken from near-identical aspects. prudsim pfidanfrn se letoun odklanel ze smeru. .stroje nepochybne zpusobila chyba pilotaze. they showed to advantage the development of the radiator shapes . Vseobecne obavany rnanevr. Odpoved' pfisla v podobe pfedbezneho posudku 0 proto typovych zkouskach s datem 22. Vy~e uvedene vlastnosti nebyly jedinymi. Je pochopitelne. se letoun choval jako stabilni a dobre ovladatelny. jako je vyvrtka.000. (Sbtrka autora) prototypri. Stranou pozornosti nernohou zustat ani samotne vykony prototypu. 11.e ph plnem bojovern zanzem (munice. misto stavajiciho umlsteni vlevo pod palubnj deskou. zavesnfky. bez rnoznosti pfistupu a kontroly. I pres omezene moznosti motoru. svetel se u nasledujicich letounu taki zmellil. Podle nazoru nekterych historiku bylletoun . kterymi prototyp ptekvapil. Nutno poznamenat ze behern tovamlch zkousek s kovovou vrtuli M-IOO Dalecky dosahl dokonce rychlosti 485 kmIh. tento pffkaz jiz dam: vyvoj typu neovlivnil. zda s terniro fakty pocitali i odpovedni pracovnici MNO. behem nenOl. Podobna doporuceni se tykala i ovladani benzinoveho kohoutu. dalSi pokles rychlosti mel za nasledek rychly pad na jedno ci druhe kffdlo. Delka dojezdu se pohybovala okolo 244 m. Vzhledem k postaveni. Hodnoceni po 30 zkusebnich letech v celkove delce 4 hod a 18 minut vskutku velrni povzbuzujici. co se Iibilo zkusebnlm pilotum. lso the location and A shape of the navigation lights changed with the subsequent aeroplanes. jak by se dalo ocekavat. 30 v kombinaci s kan6nem HS 404 raze 20 mrn (se 60 naboji).pilot musel jit na pfistani z vetSi vzdalenosti.) by se pravdepodobne tyro pararnetry zhorsily.pfi zamfreni a stfelbe. plynove paky a provedeni tabla superboostu. Krome kladnych hodnoceni tjkajicich se chovani letounu na zemi.790. ktere k p. S tim lze jen tezko souhlasit. dobie viditelne.12 a jednim z hlavnich pozadavku bylo pouZiti dvou kulometu vz. Procesni ffzenl spojene se ztratou prvniho prototypu se protah10 az do cervna 1939. za poufitf superboostu as kJapkami vysunutymi na 10° se draha zkratila na III m. zvolna. Krome toho se podil v budoucnu deficitnich materialu pohyboval na minimalni potrebe. ze se zrodil stihacl letoun hodny pozornosti i dalsiho vyvoje. Spolu s citlivou a jemnou funkci konnidel tak podJe nazorn vetsiny piiotU rna 16 . Tento fakt ve svem z. pomod plosek oa kormidlech snadno vyvaZitelny. Podle dostupnych pramenu dalo MNO v kvetnu 1939 fume Avia pffkaz k vyrobe 10 letounu B-35. ve kterem se MNO nachazelo. Jen ph vzletu se doporucovalo pfidavat plyn se ukazalo. Vzhledem k celkovyrn velmi dobryrn vlastnostem i vykonum prototypu B-35. Samostatn9m bodem bylo nutne resent vytapent kabiny. MNO kde potvrdilo. nebyl v te dobe vyzkouseny. Pfi ptedavam letounu do VTLU Dalecky ale pokusne proved) tfi otocky vyvrtky v pravo i vleyo. Pro vyrobce a MNO vsak byl dulezity posudek VTLU. vcetne ocenenl lepslho vyhledu z kabiny nez u B-534. K ptek:vapeni vSech se zjistil0.1 nemel VTLU namitek prori zahajeni seriove vyroby v pfipade udeleni objednavky na letouny tohoto typu.1 pfevzalo k vykonani zkousek. ze po "puStenf korm. V zaveru zpravy se konstatovalo. Pfistani s klapkami i bez nich bylo snadne a zvladnutelne i "siabsim pilotem '. Protoie podohne situovane snimky jsou dale pouzity take li ndsledujtcicb chladice vody jsou z tohoto tihlu. vsak v radove slu!M mohlo pusobit problemy rnene zkusenym pilotum.idel" letoun snahu dostat se z vyvrtky sam. To. Povolenirn i'izeni neptechazel do vyvrtky. Navzdory tragicke hava. 1. V zajmu jednotnosti umistenl ovladacich prvki't bylo take doporuceno urnistit paku klapky vodnfho chlacice jako u B-534. Take vysouvani a zasouvani klapek pomoci rue nib 0 hydraulickeho cerpadla bylo zdlouhave . Kritizovan byl hlavne rozdelovaci kohout k ovladani pfistavacich klapek . ze letouny podobne konstrukce jsou naopak stejne hodnotne a navic snadno opravitelne v polnich podminkach. napf. U budoucich stroju se proto uvazovalo 0 zvetseni sfly na ridici pace. priznala firme Avia jako naruadu castku Kc. Stroje mely nest oznaceni Bp3S.za letu obtizne dostupny a k nastaveni jednotlivych poloh bylo zapotfebi znacne sUy. Zpusoh umisteni a tvar polohovych. pumy aj. a protoze po prohlidce havarovaneho stroje nebyla zjistena zavada.6. Odstranitelnost techto nekolika zavad nebyla zvlast slozira. prumerna delka rozjezdu bez lclapek byla na hranici 187 m. 1939. Nevybovujicl vsak vznikl velmi obratny stroj. V te dobe jiZ probibala likvidace ceskoslovenskeho MNO.vyvojove neperspektivni" z duvodu pouzite trubkove konstrukce trupu a dreveneho kftdla. prihledneme-li k pomerne malemu vykonu pouzite pohonne jednotky a navie zatizenemu pevnym podvozkem. i.rii. 1938 v typove vysce 4000 m namerena maximalni rychlost 471 km/h. Navzdory tern to slabinam byla 21. C02 u prototypu neni at tak neobvykle. Vlastnosti nesporne dobre zejmena v boji . ze vykony jsou velmi dobre a blizi se vykonurn nejlepsich zahranicnich Ietounu. ze prototyp B~35.3 az B-3S. ale nabiral rychlost a mel schopnost se sam vyrovnat. vzesly z VTLU i kriticke pfipomlnky. prosince 1938. Zduraznen muze byl klidny klouzavy i strernhlavy let. VTLO pozadoval zkraceni teto doby alespoii na polovinu. Neill ale jasne. bylo umlsteru elektronovych nadrzi uzavfenych v kfidle. Neklidnym se letoun staval pfi zavrenem plynu pfi rychlosti kolern 160 km/h. Jakovleva. Tak. S.fipadu zaujalo konetne stanovisko ve zprave ze dne 17..e v ostatnich letovych rezimech bylletoun veLmi dobi'e ovladatelny. Ty se dotykaly predevsim umisteni nekterych ovladacich prvku v kabine pilota v porovnani se stavajicim standardnim typem B-534.-.lverecnem hodnoceni vnimali i odpovedni cinitele VTLU a pouzitl kovove vrtule bylo pro dalsi zkousky uprednostneno. Jako pftklad poslouzit konstrukce sovetskych stihaclch letounu konstrukcni kancelare A. Hurricane (Hawker). Zjistene zavady byly ale zastineny prekvapive dobryrni vlastnosoni. Navic obe nadrze se uzaviraly a orevlraIy soucasne bez jakehokoliv zalozniho mnozstvi paliva.

17 .

1 bylo do jiste mfry ovlivneno dobou.Avia 8 . The plan view with colour patches shows the machine as it looked once the wing roundels were added and with the VTUJ marking (83) on fuselage. An interestingcamoufIage layout was used on the streamlined undercarriage spats. 35. Letoun mel zpocatku vysostne znaky jen na smerovern korrnidle. Nejvetsi podll horruch ploch byl nastrlkan pfskovou barvou (FS 16160). ale pravdapodobne tmavst odstln. tzn. kdy letectvo hleda10 novy vhodny zpusob karnuftovanl. Podobne jako tomu bylo u pozsrnnt techniky i v tomto pi'fpade doslo na pouziti nspravldelnych polf. 18 . na krldlech byly doplneny pravdepodobne ai po zkouskach s kovovou vrtulf.. Zbyvajicf dva barevne odstiny pati'ily tmave hnede (F8 30040) a trnave zelene barvs (FS 34095). koncem fijna 1938. Zajfrnavyrn muflovane podvozku. zpusobsrn byly kaaerodynarnlcke kryty Poznamka: Pfiblizny odstfn podle Federal 8tandardu 595a.1 Zbarvenf prvniho prototypu neirnodernejsfho ceskoslovenskeho stihaciho letounu Avia B-35. Note: The approximate colour hues according to the Federal Standard 595a.. nez jakY byl pouiity na pozemnf technice. Pudorys s rozlozenfrn barevnych poll piedstavuie letoun po doplneni vysosmych znaku na krfdle a s oznacenlm Vyzkumneho ustavu (s 3).

1 zobrazen v podobe. This page shows the 8-35.Colouring of the first prototype of the most advanced of Czechoslovak fighter aircraft. The remaining two colours were dark brown (FS 30040) and dark green (FS 34097). in late October 1938. the wing cockades were added probably after the tests with the metal propeller. Similarly to the land forces' equipment.1 was to a certain extent influenced by the period of Czechoslovak Air Force's seeking of a new suitable camouflage method. kdyz letal ve Vyzkumnem ustavu (VTLU) s bflym trupovym oznacernm "s 3" az do okarnziku havarle. AFV's and other land equipment. ale take nepravidelne ve tvaru vlnovky. also here the irregular colour patches were utilised.1 prototype in the livery it carried during the VTLU institute test period until it crashed. not straight. 19 . Rozhrani mezi hornfmi a spodnfmi plochami nebylo rovne. The undersides were sprayed in light grey colour (FS16376). vprecu az pod vrtulovy kuzel. ktera prechazela at na boky trupu. The colour demarcation line was wavy. Spodni plochy byly nastrfkane svstlesedou barvou (FS16376).e. the division line on the nose being up to the propeller spinner. i. The largest proportion of the upper surfaces was in the sand (light ochre) colour (FS 16160) probably of a darker shade than the one used on the cars. the Avia 8-35. applied also on the fuselage lower sides. Na teto strance je prototyp 8-35. The national insiqnla was originally on the rudder only.

which displayed excellent controllability in all of the too. the actual flight-testing could take place at last. s/n 49. such as the Avia B-534. throttvarious types of propellers and on the measurement of the perforle and supercharger boost actuator. compared to the existing standard on the B~S34 res. flown by Avia's chief test pilot Rudolf Dashape of a preliminary assessment of the prototype tests. However. Such conclusions after the maiden the flaps using a hydraulic hand pump was slow. Semerad flew six of the aircraft'S steady behaviour in the glide and dive was emphasized. and by use of the in-flight adjustable tabs. chier with the throttle closed at around 160 km/h. Besides the positive quent flights. The machi485 km/h.'''&. He be unsatisfactory. On 21st and 22nd rienced test pilots liked. The criticism primarily concerned the flap control valve. end of the report the performance was judged as being very good. was not that the machine received its military equipment.000 rn.1 20 . allied to the added drag of the fixed undercarriage. level by itself."" ~~ . Elation exuded from Lt.1 prototype with all of its military equipment. Col. A separate issue was that of rnance achieved with these. Dalecky flaps.1 prototype passed the facB-534. s/n 10.he display and check would undoubtedly hold good for the aircraft as a gun platform flights.. but as early as the 19th November it was ferried made the machine very controllable and nimble. At the lecky. are usually repilot to make a longer landing approach. our of biplanes. What the expeback to the VTLD in Letriany by Dalecky. The machine became twitflights. On 22nd engine. Cpt. sirioning to a turn apparently stalled the wing.• ~ . Despite November. in the very early afternoon. flown.'lh~1Jiu1'i&i:llarln~PJj'o{. For the sake of unification of pilots would confirm an equally favourable impression and assessthe placement of the controls. including the tested at this time. As the machine did not show any markedly adverse behaviour. Jan Ambrus taking the controls on the followground and including virtues sucb as a much better view from the ft.360 kg. tbe aircraft would not a motor-cannon HS 12Ycrs. Gavelclk and Staff Cpt. as wen as those using flaps.''''i\H' uf. This assessment after the [list 30 test flights of 4 hours and 18 permission was given for the VTLU pilots to carry Oil! the subseminutes duration was very encouraging.. It was probably here totype displayed. Karel Mapilot's cockpit. at these weak points the date of 21st November 1938 witnessed a a standard altitude of 460 m over a 3km measuring base. however. 21 minutes during the course of 58 test during aiming and firing in combat. The Ambrus. machine. of a spin to the right and left. They mainly concerned the placement of the controls in the common flight regimes. amongst others. fighter. especially for the wooden wing spars. instead of its existing position under the instrument panel tory flight test programme. The spin. some of the characterisAlso the performance figures for the prototype could not be left tics that the new low-winged monoplane possessed proved to be without comment. the cause of Kavalec's demise could apparently be put down to pilot error.iquid ment of the aircraft. with no fuel reserve bomber on 13th October 1938. vember 1938. the existing HS 12Ydrs. assessments regarding the behaviour of the new machine on the Karel Mares. which concentrated 00 the testing of to the left Similar requirements beset the fuel cut-off valve. the control handle for the l. especially considering the limited power of the totally clifferent to those with which they were familiar. The report confirmed that. "Ctllith'll' l'emat16~PJPpeilj~iJ'w. in the other flight regimes the aircraft's controls were bomb racks and bomb release gear was 2. Yet these few shortcomings were easily eclipsed by the surpriThe exceptions to the rule were the two flights of 3rd November. ordinary service pilots. ved. The VTL.mg m~11 .mIh achieved by the aircraft at the rated Kavalec underestimated these differences and while abruptly tranaltitude of 4. with the wooden Avia 232A (s/n 2432) propeller. The response dated 22nd December 1938 arrived. It was also the VTLO. who stated tbat he would recommend series production of the airwhich was not easily accessible in flight. requiring the night. Tbe metal propeller. slipping in the turn Dalecky flew the machine during the factory tests at a speed of and impacting into tile ground with considerable force.. could become a handful for the November the VTLU pilot Sgt. the aeroplane being test flown enter a spin. After an of the problems caused by the structural strength calFor the manufacturer and the Czechoslovak. The electron sheet wing fuel tanks were found to alJ of these flights were 'flown by the (est pilot Oldfich Kosaf. a generally feared manoeuvre. The take-off weight of the itself once the controls were released! B~3S. finding to everyone's The aircraft was therefore put into the condition required by the surprise that the machine tended to start the recovery procedure by MoD before the prototype tests began. Dalecky took off on a further two occasions that day. the first flight with the M-IOO two bladed therefore inaccessible for the purpose of monitoring checks." easily handled landings without On 7th November 1938. to their airfield.. less experienced. on 8th Noction of speed brought with it a swift stall. the other test least a halving of the lime required. The majority of the flights were provided.. later one of the commanders. with a roll to the side. Maj. flight. even a "less experienced pilot. The responsible personnel of the VTLU appreciated Avia B-3S. Sgt. should only be advanced gradually. It is noteworthy that more than half of cockpit heating. The first to have a go on the machine was Lt. the unfortunate pilot loosing his life in the crash. These virtues first prototype new altogether. 311 (Czechoslovak) Sq. Therefore the increase of finding that it required much effort. during the hand-over procedure to engine-mounted. a further reduThe day before the official hand-over to the VTLO. flown with the Letov Hd 43 propeller. i. such as the Hawker rest flights. Maj. including t. taken from [J1e B-71 (licence-built Tupolev SB-2) tanks also opened and closed simultaneously. This combined with the sensitive and fine controls 16th November. and required too much craft to the Ministry of National Defence (Minislerslvo ndrodni strength to set the Hap positions. however. It was recommended that during and Kosar performed demonstration flights as the start of the protake-off the throttle. Also extension and retraction of obrany = MNO. With the M· 100 metal propeller fitted. was replaced with On release of the controls during the stall. singly good behaviour of the aircraft. At the factory the its stability and controllability being noteworthy. took place on the morning of 28th September 1938 at 09:54. RAF.~gre v~. MoD). Arnost Kavalee flew the aircraft. te the slipstream induced veering-off of the runway centreline. MoD the VTLU's culations. For a pilot used to the behavistick control forces was mooted for the series built machines. Tbe VTLU took over the Avia 8-35. The flight lasting eighteen minutes was the first in the long line of approaching that of the best foreign machines.ry:'h!t15p -Wili"f th'e"P~Cot§l{plf... test pilot Dalecky experimentally executed Lhree turns weighed and the position of its centre of gravity established. to elirninacedures for the hand over of the prototype to the VTLU. but without Also. Yet in due course. flying the fourth in a series ofmaximum speed tests. had been resolassessment was of paramounr importance. Hurricane.. some 20 hours.: ne was destroyed.:o. but accelerated and displayed a tendency to come with this new engine 00 the same day by Kosar. finely harmonised. These faults however were easy to remedy.D asked for at garded with a certain reserve.1 officially on 9th These features were not the only pleasant surprise that the proNovember with a fen). easiThe machine returned to the factory for the last time on the ly trimmed. being enclosed in the wings without access and flew. respectively. 20mrn calibre HS 404 cannon.. at the very beginning of a test programme.!'5'3zJ. cooling duct had to be moved to a position similar to that on the For the whole of October the B-3S. Col. maximum speed of 47L k.ioIs@"iH. check and familiarisation flights for the VTLU. Judging from the fact that the machine had been flown at the factory on 58 occasions without incident.e. taking the The first prototype.lrGinpRI eJ"u!Hhe· B-.\> .

to start manufacturing a series of ten B-35 machines. it awarded the Avia company compensation to the tune of 1. Nastfikovaci pumpa .Brake pressure gauge 5. (Sbtrka autora) The sole known photo of the cockpit of the B-35. They were to bear the serials B-35. Tlakorner kompresoru . Palivomer . 1930 machine guns and a 20mm HS-404 cannon with 60 r. vykonu rnotoru . it was a part of the test equipment.Compass A. Tlakomer oleje a pal iva . Vyskomer . It is not clear.Ammunition counter 11. Rucni palivove cerpadlo . At this time the dissolution of the Czechoslovak MNO (MoD) was ion full swing.Engine priming fuel pump 4. So. Besides this the mixed structure saved on strategic materials. Thanks to the excellent overall flying characteristics and performance parameters of the B-35. (Author's collection) 21 .Pitch trim indicator 13.Rate of climb indicator 3. the metal propeller becoming the favoured choice for the subsequent tests.1 prototype the VTU) had no objections against the beginning of series production in the event of an order being placed for the type. Pfepinac magnet .1 prototype for tests. and as there was no fault found with the crashed machine. Velkj cifernik vlevo pod piistrojovoa deskou nepatiil iOOnemu z palubnfch pristroju. bomb racks. firing though the propeller hub. Kompas . Tahlo max. as the subsequent wartime years showed that machines of a similar structure held their vaJue in the most austere of conditions and were easily repairable in the field. Tahlo basictho pnstro]e Fire extinguisher control 7. Litigation relating to the loss of the first prototype dragged on until June 1939. S. The large dial below left beneath the instrument panel was not a part of the standard fit.p.Ammunition counter 10.Oi I and fuel pressure gauge 15.Machine gun charging 6. This is hardly a defendable opinion. Ukazatel vyvazen! .Maximum engine output knob 22.Magneto switch 17.Machine gun charging 19. According to the available sources the MoD ordered the Avia Company. one of the main requirements was that they were to be armed with a pair of synchronised 7.g. Pfida vne rnazani rnotoru .12.790.Oil and water temperature gauge 16. Otackomer .92mm vz. Yakovlev design bureau's family of fighters. bombs) was taken on board. the order would not influence the subsequent development of the type. Despite the limited engine power the average length of the take-off run was below 190 m without flaps.·Of course these parameters would deteriorate once full combat equipment (ammunition. Tlakomer dychace . Poehae nabojti .Air speed indicator 23. Fuel gauge 9.this fact. Tlakomer brzd . Opakovani kulometu .1 (reconstructed) 23 24 1 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Jedinj zmfmj pohled do kubiny prvniho prototypu 8-35. and it took a final position on the matter in its report of 17th June 1939.Flap position indicator 12. despite the tragic crash.Opening for artificial horizon Hlavnl pflstrojova deska 8-35.Altimeter 24.3 to 8-35.Supercharger pressure gauge 20. Variornetr . ale meficimu pnstroji. whether the MoD (MNO) personnel responsible considered these facts at the time. A case in point is the 1. Owing to the position the MNO held at this time. Opakovani kulometu .Tachometer 21. Otvor pro umely horizont . Ukazatel vztlakovych klapek . It confirmed in this report that it had taken over the B-35. however. According to some historians the machine "lacked true development potential" on account of its mixed metal tube fuselage and wooden wing structure.Hand fuel pump 8. The landing roll was around 244 m. mass-produced for the Soviet VVS. Rychlorner . a not uncommon OCCUITence with prototypes at this time.Lu bricati on boost control 18.. 2. Teplomer oleje a vody . using the "superboost" and 10° of naps the length of the take off run was shortened to 111 metres.1 (rekonstrukce) Main instrument panel of the 8-35. in May 1939.Oxygen breather pressure gauge 14.000 Kc. it was apparent that a fighter certainly worth further attention and development had been created. Poeltae nabojn .1} the first prototype.1.

It was sprayed in silvery grey overall.etoun byl nastifkan pouze sWbrosedou barvou. The national blue border six positions least until insignia with narrow were placed in usual and stayed there at 22nd March 1939.2 was much less colourful than the 8-35. 1939.1. Vysostne znaky s uzkym modrym lemovanfrn byly urnisteny na obvyklych mfstech a vydrzely zde jests minimalne do 22. 22 .1.. 2 Nater druheho prototypu Avia 8~35. Galy I. Only the panels with openings for the exhaust stubs were understandably left bare . Bez natsru zustaly z pochopitelnych duvodu jenom plechy s otvory pro vYfuky. The second prototype. the Avia 8-35. 3..Avia 8-35 .2 jif nabyl tak pestry [ako na B~35.

2 flew in the same colour livery.2 ve stejnem nateru. 23 . na kfrdle umlstene pFiblizne v mfstech puvodnfch ceskoslovenskych vysostnych znaku. The sole "colour" change was the black of the "beam crosses" (Balkenkreuze) placed on the wing roughly over the original Czechoslovak roundels. I An inevitable adornment was the "crooked cross of Germany" as W. For the whole subsequent test flight period the B-35. Jedinou .barevnou" zrnenou byly nove vysostne znaky v podobs nsrneckych kffzu. Nezbytnyrn doplnkem tohoto obdobl byl hakovy kflz na smerovern kormidle. the black swasti ka on the rudder. Churchill put it.Po cele nasledujcl obdobi zkousek letal 8-35.

1 8-35..10.D.3 'V' c.11:01 11:48-12:30 53 rychlost 42 24 .1 B-35. Datum Dale Flight nr. C. 14.1 B-35.1 " " M-100 M-IOO M-I00 (z B-71) 13.. Pilot Pilot Typ zkousky Type of the test Cas Duration of flight Minut Minutes 2029 28.1 8-35..10.I5: 10 10:54-11 :41 11:14-11:20 11:22-11:26 11:27-11:30 1l:32-11:35 11:38-11 :42 11:44-11:47 11:56-11:59 12:00-12:03 12:05-12:08 12:10-12: 14 12:16-12:21 6 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 Kosat Kosaf Dalecky Dalecky DaleckY Dalecky Dalecky ---- -_-..1 B-35."-----. lYpe Typ C.ro c."--- ---. 10 DaleckY RIjen I October 01..1 B-35.1 B-35.ro M-IOO M-100 M-IOO M-IOO M-I00 232A 232A 232A ------------- c.11. Oalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletavaci zaletavaci pplk.1 B-35.. 10 e. -. 10.10. Vrtule Propeller nr."-" " " " 11... C.9. 21 . B-35.1 Av. 18.10. motoru Engine nr.1:36 12:12-12:58 14:38.1 B-35.-_. Ambrus zaletavaci zkusebnt zkusebni zaletavaci rychlost vyska 09:54-10:12 11:46-12: 15 14:38-15:02 16:14-16:32 16:40-16:59 12:06-12:26 13:34-14:08 16:50-17:10 18 29 24 18 J9 20 34 20 29..I0 H.1 B-35.10. B-35. 10 " -.1 Av.1 e.10. (Hd 43) 232A (c. Listopad / November 03. B-35."--. zkus. "--" 14:08-14:40 14:56-15:17 11:45-12:05 11:04-1."-" Av. B-35."-----._ ---.1 8-35. 04.AVIA 8-35.11. B-35.10.1 B-35..1 11:15-11:55 14:20-14:37 14:38-14:53 15:14-16:18 08:24-09:05 09:54-10:05 10:06-10: 10 11:26-11:56 13:56-14: 14 11:56-12:14 28 53 42 11 40 17 15 64 4] 11 4 30 18 18 32 21 20 32 46 32 47 17. 07..1 Av.--- _. 20. 10. -. 18. -. 07. 05.to Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Kosar Kosar Dalecky Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosat Ko~af Kosar Dalecky Kosar Dalecky zaletavaci vyska rychlost predvadeci vyska zaletavacl zaletavacl zaletavaci rychlost zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavacl zjiSiovAni obratek akrobacie akrobacie ptedvadeci 14:40-15:08 14:45-15:38 11:54-12:36 16:10-16:2.. . zkus. 21 .-_ _ . 2432) C.10. 10. 8-35..1 B-35.1O e..1 B-35.1 1938 Zari / September Let az -.1O -------- e.1 ero c.c.1 8-35.10. 11. 10 c. 10. 13..9. 2432 Dalecky Dalecky Dale cky Dalecky DalecJcy Dalecky vyska zaletavacl vyska vyska vyska 11:42-12:29 14:58-15:21 ?? 47 23 ?? 10:08. Mares mjr.10. 07.10. B-35.ro eio C..1 C. 2 merenl startu a pfistani ---'_ "--~--.ro Dalecky Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosaf rychlost vyska zaletavaci rychlost e..lO Av.10.ro e.

1 B-35.2 B-35.03.2 B-35.2 C.49 kpt. 6 hod 3 min zkusebnich c.---- Bfezen I March 139 140 141 142 02.11.02.67 . 2432 Kosar zaletavacl Celkem: 20 hod 21 min letovych. Ol.ro e. 30. 02.03.2 B-35. 22. B-35.2 B-35.2 8-35. ll.1O Vrtule 232A (c. ro e. 30.2 B-35.12.ro c.2 B-35.67 c.2 B-35.1938 Listopad I November Let c. Ambrus kpt.03. 17 19 26 27 31.2 B-35.2 B-35. 03.1 Dalecky Kosaf mjr. 2432 C. 01. 03.1O c. Typ C. 2432 Dalecky c. 02.1O e.io c. 01.49 12.02. Ol. Gavelcfk kpt.2 B.2 C. 17. 16. ? c. 11. Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vyska rychlost vyska rychlost 220 221 224 225 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky pfelet do Letrian zpet 226 Hd43 Hd43 zaletavaci " zkusebni kpt.03.02. 09. 02.2 B-35.ro 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Da1ecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletavaci zaletnutl zaletnuti rychlost .. Semerad C. Ol. 22.ro c.--" " 232Af2432 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti rychlost vyska vyska rychlost zaletnuti 232A12432 M-100 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletnuti zaletnuti M-lOO 232B " " B-35. ? e.02.2 B-35.03. 15. Dalecky vyska rycblost 11:23-11 :35 11:40-11:55 13: 10-13:25 13:50-14:03 10:50-11 :25 11:55-12:35 13:45-14:25 12 15 15 13 35 40 40 Unor I February 32 33 34 38 39 59 60 82 83 92 93 104 01.02. 2432 kpr. Semerad predvadeci akrobacie kontrolni kontrolni 11 52 20 9 9 6 poznavaci poznavaci poznavaci 11 9 19 11 6 _2 08. 18. 30. B-35. 8-35.02.2 c.67 Hd43 " " ~.2 B-35. 31. ? 10:06-10:57 11:50-12:23 14:06-14:50 16:00-16:28 09:20-09:31 14:52-15:00 10:00-10:25 14:10-14:20 15: 10-15:21 51 33 44 28 11 8 25 10 11 25 .03.01.67 c. 2432) Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 12:46-12:57 13:48-14:40 15:20-15:40 15:41-15:50 15:52-16:01 16:02-16:08 16:10-16:21 16:22-16:31 14:36-14:55 09:30-09:41 13:21-13:27 14:06-14:15 Minut 8-35.67 c. 8-35. Ga velcfk prelet do VTLU C. 11. 02. Ambrus mjr.2 8-35.11. 17. ? c.1 B-35. Prosinec I December 30. ? M-l00 " " Av (232A)? Av Av C.1O e. motoru c. 09.1O c.1 B-35.03.01. 23.02. ? c. Gave)cfk skpt.03.2 B-35.ro e. Gaveleik prelet do tovarny c.-.1O e.67 c. 23.03.02.2 8-35.2 B-35.2 B-35. B-35.49 prelet do Letnan cet.. ? C. poznavaci skpt.01.49 C. 02.35-2 B-35. 16. 09.2 B-35. Kavalec zahynul letoun znicen pfi havarii.2 B-35. 21.2 e.2 8-35. 11. Datum 07. ro eio c. 10 Avia Dalecky zaletavani 10:58-11:07 9 1939 Leden I January 3 15 16 05.1 c.2 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletnuti predvadeci 1L:55-12:05 13:30-14:10 16:45-16:20 13:55-14:30 15:25-16:00 15:45-15:58 16:00-16:15 14:10-14:30 10:50-11: 15 13:50-14:05 13: 15-13:28 14:40-14:50 10 40 35 35 35 13 15 20 25 15 13 10 Bulharum --~~------. 17. 23.67 c.67 c.1 B-35. 02. Ol. 02.2 8-35.

" --Dalecky meren! starru .....2 M-100 -_ -" --- Zemanek -_ ."...05...--'"----.2 C..04.."--_ .... 14. .._ "-----. " --Hd 43 Zemanek Zemanek Hlado Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vy§ka rychlost rychlost --. 08... 24. 74 232A 232A 232A M~100 Zemanek Zemanek Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vyska rychlost zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavacl zaleravacl 07:45--08:20 13:12-14:07 1.04.".... 06..."--~== .. 07... ~-H 16. ."--_.05."--. . --..... "-~ rychlost --.. -'.."----- (3-lista) Zemanek ----..."----.2 B-35. SIS 516 542 549 56S 24."--...-zkusebnl c..2 B-35.05.2 B-35.. 25...2 .. _ . 261 Datum 04. "."----..."--..."--- ]6.. 11..-."--_ ." ----...2 B-35. 8-3S....... 06.. 16."-.--. ".. --..."----.2 8-35.. 16...".".06..2 B-35...--H Zemanek zku~ebni --..... 11.......".....".. B-3S.. 30...."----.."----.-."----.... " _ "~...05. 06. 06..... ..-- --...3 B-35. 10...?) Avia Zemanek Zemanek Dalecky zaletavaci zaletavaci 09:11-10:07 11 :35-12:08 13:47~14:16 56 33 29 Avia zaletavaci Listopad / November 830 831 832 02. ... 05.--.. ---. OS. ."----...08.. ~~~~~~ " ~~~~~~ " ... OS.2 ~-.."--M-IOO --."----. 31.."--"~~~ . 21.. 05. -~~ --" --.. --.. 06..... OS... 06."----..". as. "~~--..2 B-3S. ".1939 Duben / April Let c.. .67 c... "--- c. 19.....-... 08... "... --.67 e.."_'-- 10:02-10:14 11:18-11:32 13:50-14:21 12 14 31 26 ."--Dalecky --...3 B-35. 05..2 --.. ?l.2 . 20. --. OS.."-~~ c.05.67 c..67 Hd43 Hd 43 -_... _. 21.. 16.2 B-3S. 943) --. 05....._- ..."--- --...67 c...05. 02. ' . ..67 Hd43 (? C. 16. ". --.. . B-35. B-35.04...."--_.2 Avia (c. --. as."--- M-I00 -- --...04. 06."----. 06.2 B~35.2 B-35.."--Avia (232A?) Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Francke zaletavaci .."----.. mereru startu ."_.67 c. 04.... 16.67 e. ..05...".."--_ . ~=-"--~-~~ " .2 B-35. 74 C."--zkusebni zaletavaci zkusebni 13:00-13:09 13:12-13:15 13:18-13:22 13. . motoru c.67 Kveten /May 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 02. . -.. "...."--- 37 22 59 vyska Cerven / June 566 567 575 576 01. ". ."---Zemanek vy§ka . mefent startu zaletavaci 13:47-13:S2 13:54-13:58 14:00-14:05 14·:07-14:15 10:23-10:40 14: 22-15:0S 08:35-09:12 16: 15-16:47 13:38-14:37 5 8 ]7 33 --. Typ B-35..:24-13:32 13:35-13:39 13:41-13:48 14:02-14:05 14:40-14:48 9 3 4 8 4 7 3 18 14:S0-14:55 14:57-15:00 15:07-15:14 13:45-14:22 1345-1400 1002-1100 1515~lS42 09:05-09:32 10:00-10:50 13:38-13:41 13:42-13:45 5 3 7 37 15 58 27 27 50 3 3 5 4 388 417 433 434 435 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 02.. 16.-rychlost --. ."--Av Av Av --... OS... --.....3:S0-14:52 09:00-09:36 11:35-11."..~ ... B-35."--- --..~= ' Dalecky '=-..."--- rychlost vyska M-100 M-IOO C." .. 08.:53 14:45-15:08 17 :35-17 :S7 15:37-15:50 35 55 62 36 L8 13 22 13 Srpen / August 729 730 731 11... --. 11.."----.. '_ " ."--.04."--- --..2 Hamilton --..06."--- zaleravaci --... --._ ."~ --. 06.. B-35. e-~= -~ ".._-...67 Vrtule Hd43 Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 10:55-11:12 14:00-14:20 13:36-14:02 II:55-12:42 11:55-12~16 Minut 17 20 26 47 21 274 275 276 285 --.. as.. 613 620 621?? 622 8-3S."--. ' ~~~--" --.3 B-35. 74 C."-. 10. 11...~~ ..67 c."---.2 M-IOO --.."--B-35.05.."--- vy§ka ' --.67 c..

" --. --..2 _ ... --..429/1433 c. POZNAMKA: V puvodnfm zaznarnu.05 27. Z{l kabinou se objevil stotdr auteny ."---Hamilton ._ "----- meteni starta a pristaru 14:42-14:46 14:52-14:56 14: 58-15:01 1 J :30-12:03 11: 12-12. 16.....14:45 55 12:16-12:32 14:55~15:07 16 12 12:00~12.1" etc. Posledn! intima podoba prototypll 8~35..1... OS as 307 28<05 28..1). -_ ..1 or 8.." ----. The radio mast appeared behind the cockpit.2 B-35."--(3-lista) ~~~.429/1433 Hamilton " " " " (3~listll) Zemanek Zemanek Atanasov Atanasov Popgancev zaletavact zaletavaci zkusebni " 13:50.. Typ B~35.135·1.. 11.. _ . 16.. 11. ...1 (8·135....... 42911433 c.429/1433 c....05 B-3S... 22. the form of "8·35. This photo was taken probably briefly before the handover to the VTLU. "--------.2 .. 297 304 306 24. U.. .._.. . v Knizeletu.2 B-35. 11. 17 12:24-12:47* 17 " (* havaroval) 23 B..35·1. (Sbirka aurora) The last known configuration of the B·3S._ .~ " . For the sake of simplicity and order we adhere to the way the writing of OUI designations is stabilised in the Czechoslovak (Czech) literature t.35·1 nebo 8. _ ..-.2 B-35..1939 Listopad I November Let C.2 c..2 8-35. startn Cas '14:14-14:18 Minut 4 6 4 3 4 4 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 Zemanek .~~ --..-.."------.... -."--. Datum 16... 11. ~ -~~ " .. 8-35.. (3-lisra) (3-lista) (3-lisUi) Zemanek vyska vyska rychlost rychlost 53 37 Zemanek Zemanek 16 Prosinec I December Behem tohoto mesice neletal zadny z prototype B-35 I During this month no B-35 prototype was flown 1940 Kveten I May 283 21.2 B-35...... motoru Vrtule Hamilton -~-.2 8-35. 16..429/1433 C...2 8-35. 27 .2 B-3S..--- 870 874 883 21.. B..35. 16.....2 8-35.05 09: 11-09:48 12:19-12:35 3 33 884 II.1 prototype. . 22...1.2 B~3S. ie oznacenl typu ve tvaru napr.e.. C. ".. Pro p ublikacnlucely je zpusob oznacenl typ u v pooobe zavedene v cesk€: literature. (Author's Collection) /J -1~7Q."-----. Tato fotografle byla poiizena pJ"avdipodoblli krdtce pred pfeddnim do VTLO. 11. _ ....."---Hamilton Hamilton Hamilton .. Pilot (3-lista) Typ ZkODsky mefeni . "_ .35-2 uskutecnil 108 Ietn (28 hod 20min) NOTE: The original record in the flight log book the type is entered as 8."--B-3S... tzn. II. " " ~=~ --- a pfistani 14:23-14:29 14:31-14:35 14:37-14:40 Zemanek --.

do not differ much from the first one's. pficernz konstrukce kfidla zustala zachovana. B-35. protoze zamysleny zatahovaci rnechanizmus stale jdte nebyl k dispozici. 10. ale od 1. Nasledujlcf mesice zustal na vsechny zkousky sam. tzn. ktery v letounn zustal az do srpna. prosince 1938 ph havarii letounu Avia Bk-534.2 po svern ptedchadci podedil motor Avia 12Ydrs C. 30. Druhy prototyp vzletl poprve tesne peed koncem roku ]938.2 Neslavny konec prvniho prototypu rozhodne neznarnenal zastaveni vyvoje. Vyrazna zmena zasahla pfekryt kabiny. letoun uskutecnil srovnavaci zkousky s dvoulistou kovovou vrtuli Letov Hd 43.lnez u pfedchudce.2 se od prvniho letounu svymi hlavnimi kiivkami pnlis nelisil.relocated chlddil vody water radiator novy pfekryt kabillY new cockpit canopy iddne ibrane Il0 machine guns chladii: oleje ctyn (jako B-35. designation B-35. V lednu se letalo pouze s drevenou vrtuli Avia 232B. ale zvetsenymi vztlakovymi klapkami. proroze v te dobe byl uz v Avii dokoncovan druhy prototyp B-35. Tyto zkousky jen potvrdily vysledek novy tvar .Druhj illpace second intake. protoze jeho kolega Oldfich Kosar zahynul 20. Behem (mora a zejmena 2. Letoun pilotoval opet Rudolf Dalecky. Avia 232B. Od prvniho Letounu se lisil mime zmensenymi kfidelky. bfezna 1939 byly provedeny obdobne zkou ky s kovovou vrtull M-IOO pohanenou motorem c. Hd 43 a M-IOO. • The curves of the prototype.piemisteno new shape . ale bez tech to prolisu.2. ktery byl v okamziku havarie v dilnach a tudif neposkozeny.547 na kbelskem letisti. Misto puvodni celokovove karoserie bylo zvoleno provedeni pouzite u typu B-534. nyni vybaveny dvoulistou drevenou bandazovanou zkusebni vrtull Avia 232B. Rozdil» lze spatfit pfedevsim ve tvaru vzduchu pod pf{d~ boule na boku pftde se zmenita v pro lis. The variations concern mainly the chin radiator air the bulge on the nose side panel that changed to a depression. V pfedni casti trupu byl horni panel s vystrelnymi kanaly zbrani nahrazen tvarove stejnyrn dilern.2. (Author's Collection) Avia 8-35. a letoun dostal zcela novy piekryt kabiny pilota. 67.1) 28 .2 zkousely vrrule Avia 232A. k drevene tvarove karoserii Z uzkych lati potazene platnern. prosince. do 3.1) oil radiator (as B-35. and the completely new cockpit enclosure. ktery byL mnohem UZS. Upravy se dotkly pouze tvaru kapotovani. Stejne jako u prveho prototypu se na B-35. Podvozek zustal i v tornto pHpade pevny. prototyp oznaceny B-35. 2. Toto zatent se pfeneslo i do hfbetni partie zadni casti trupu.

Tovdrn! zkuiebni pilot Rudolf Dalecky u prototypu 8-35. V houstnouci atmosfefe zacatku roku 1939. One 23.2 a na pfistich 10 minut poutal pozomost potencialnich zilkazniku.unora 1939 byl bulharske m'ivsteve pfedveden nejprve leroun Avia Bk-S34. Jejim poslanlm bylo zajistit pro domaci letectvo vhodne typy. Na snimku je videt novy typ pouzite Pitotovy trubice a vidlice ostruhoveho kola. (NTM Prague) 29 .2. Letoun S nimi vykazoval rychlosti aZ 483 kmlh.2 prototype. ktera nevestila nic dobreho. Rudolf Dalecky in the B-35. the B-35. (Sbirka autora) • The factory test pilot Rudolf Dalecky with the 8·35. The handle of the sliding part of the cockpit transparency and the turnover pylon beneath his head are visible beneath his head.. Dole: Celni pohled umoznllje srovndni tvaru vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladili vody s tvarem u B-35. Vzapet] se predstavil i nejnovejsl Ietoun 8-35. Below: Nose view gives the comparison of chin radiator intakes o/bothprototypes.S55 (14:26 .14:37 h).2. (Author's collection) Rudolf Daleckj v kabine B. v unoru tovarnu navstivila bulharska vojenska delegace. The new type of the Pilot tube and the tailwheelfork is readily visible. V nasledujiclcn dnech bulharsti specialists studovali technickou a vyrobni dokumenraci. 5. Zajeho hlavouje videt ochran3 nj pylon a rukojet posuvneho casu piekrytu kabiny. Osratni vykony zustaly na stejne urovni jako u prvniho prototypu. (Author'S collection) pfedchozich nedokoncenych mereni vykonu s kovovyrni vrtulemi.2 cockpit.2.1. Zajem bulharskeho vojenskeho Ietectva na sebe oeoechal dlouho cekat.1 and -. protoze letoun zapusobil mirnoradne silnym dojmern.

ale toke jej nepf(jemni ve vysce ramen pilota.Nikolik snimku dovolujieich dostatecne srovndni s prvnim prototypem. but. Novy kryt kabiny tvar trupu zjemnil. alas. (Author's collection) 30 . The new transparency made the fuselage lilies finer. (Sbirka autora) zuzil Several pictures that allow to compare the first and second prototype. made the entry and egress much more difficult due to the limited shoulder room.

Vzhledem ke skutecnosti. Ai do 22. srpna se ph dalsich zkusebnich letech s B-3S. ktery si 19..neji prerusila snad jen navsteva generals Udeta a jeho doprovodu. ohnura vrrule.zakopnout" a prevratit jej na zada. Teto fazi zkousek byli opel pfitomni bulharstf zkusebni letci. protoze veskera predchozi mefenl prokazala jejich positivni dopad na jeho vykony. a ndsledne i seriovycl: letounii.5.2 vybavenym tfilistou stavitelnou vrtuli Hamilton. 5. Diky prornyslenemu systernu trubkovych vzper za sedadlem nedoslo ke zraneni pilota. 42911433) pohanejfcirn opet tfilistou vrtuli Hamilton. Jen 0 nekolik dnn pozdeji.Osudny 15.2 zaleral. Ackoliv se jednalo 0 zkuseneho pilota. Atanasov a nasledujici den se k nernu pfidal i kpt. J 940. proc se nepri toupilo k jeho oprave by mohla byr i skutecno t. piedevsim kormidlem.. vyzkousel por. Pro letoun byl vsak 28. s Avil B-3S. kteryrn bylo de facto dokonceno obCeskoslovenske republiky v pods tate nepfilis vaine ovlivnil program zkousek. Odpocinury letoun Zemanek znovu zaletal at. Po te byly zkousky preruseny. novy proto- poziClz( svhlo position light ostruhove kola tail wheel nove pozienl svelio new position light typo 31 . byiy piechody mezi vodorovnoa a svislou ocasni plochou. 4.2 strtdali Dalecky s novyrn tovarnim pilotem sazeni jii oklestene Frantiskem Zemankem. Jake prvni si letoun 27. II. 1939 probihalo me-reni vykonu pfi ruznych refirnech letu vcetne vyskovych a rychlost- nich leta. lednim z clenu by] i znamy nemecky zkusebni pilot Ing. brezen 1939. Popgancev. Duvodem. Od listopadu se letovernu programu venoval uz jen Zemanek. kveten dnern poslednfho lew. Nasledujlclch pet meslcii stravil prorotyp ve vyvojovych dilnach a nabyre zkusenosti konstruktefi prenaseli do rodici se konecne podoby posledni aviacke stihacky.jen zlomena podvozkova noha. Karl Francke. 1939 provedl prvni let s B-35. Nicmene.e ryden pred havarii uskutecnil svuj prvnf let zcela jiny. One 2. kvetnern 1939 at do 14. I. 23. especially the rudder. Pocinaje 2. Od tohoto data prototyp Ieral vyhradne s kovovymi vrtulerni. protoze znacna cast technicke kapacity zavodu se v te dobe pfipravovala na vyrobu cvicnych Ietounu Arado Ar 96. nasledujicl zkousky se provadely rakfka vyhradne na tovarnim leristi. J 1. preletl Dalecky Ieroun k vyzkouseni do Letiian. 21. Poskozeru samotnebo letounu nebylo prflis rozsable . pf pfistanl se mu podafilo s Ietounern lehee . tenro proces va1. mime deformovana kylova ploeba SOP a prornacknuty kryt vzduchoveho kanalu k chladici vody. 3. ale plntenj potah fabric covered rear fuselage Zaj(mavym prvkem vsech tft prototypu.cerstvyrn" motorem (c. (Author's collection jiz s . (Sbirka all/ora) An interesting detail on all Avias was the fillet between vertical and horizontal tail surface. ie v nove vzniklem protektoratu se tovarna Avia dostala pod spravu Risskeho mnisterstva letectvi (Reichsluftfahrtministerium). Podle vyjadfeni tehdejsich zamestnancu Avie byl Francke lerovyrni vlastnostmi "petatficitky" nadsen.

na ramo. celnlho stitku neni nic jineho nei teplomer. 1939. Skupinka ceskoslovellskych lelcit nedobrovolne postdvala na rozbiedlem terenu u sveho sverelJce.Piehlidka ceskoslovenske letecke techniky uspohidand pro nemeckou delegaci na letisti VTLU. For the Czechoslovak side he was accompanied by Col. za ceskoslovellskoll stranu jej doprovtizel plk. Fetka (++). J. (Author's collection) Delegaci vedl sam Uf Technickeho tiiadu RLM generdlmajor Ernst Udet (btU klopy plnstif). General Luftzeugmeister Ernst Udet (in overcoat with white lapels]. Aby se pocetnd delegace citila opravdu . According to the logbook of flights the 8-35. The windshield carries onl» a thermometer. To make the German delegation feel like at home. (J..2 prototype was flown here in the morning of 23rd March 1939. held for the Nazi German delegation at the VTLU airfield. V pozadi je zkuiebni pilot Karl Francke (+). 3. some subservient soul let the machines "adorned" with Nazi German symbols. (Sbirka autora) A group of Czechoslovak airmen unwillingly steps in the slush» sod near the aircraft.the German test pilot Karl Francke (+) is in the background. "ifjaky dobrdk "ozdohil" letadla nemeckymi symboly. Zazvonil collection) 32 . F etka (++).2 preletl rdno 23. Podle knihy letu sem prototyp 8-35. Mimo jine. (Sbirka. The delegation was led by the Chief of the Technical Office of the RLM.jako doma". Zazvonila) • A display of Czechoslovak aircraft.

.··r:- G r B-B I. L 33 .

2 The ignominious end to the fir ( prototype did not result in the cancellation of the type. 1940 dopadla pro pilota i pro letadlo podstatne lepe. A clay that was to have little effect on the test-flying program- 34 . The Bulgarian specialists studied the technical and manufacturing documentation. tasked with finding. while the wing structure remained the same. flown by Rudolf Dalecky. thus having escaped any damage. no. For the researcher's benefit the crash shows the "other side" of the aircraft to advantage. The B-35. The propeller was the Avia 232B two-bladed. uitable aircraft types for their Air Force. The machine had demonstrated speeds of up to 483 kmfh.l1owed soon after the show. as the intended retractable one was still unavailable. Ko- me saf bad perished on 20th December 1938 in the crash of the Avia B-534. During February. Over the following four months he nevertheless remained the sole test pilot for the programme. A major change took place with the cockpit canopy which became much narrower than that of its predecessor. The undercarriage remained fixed. 232B. similar tests were conducted with the metal M-lOO propeller. not auguring well for the future. per the Avia B-534.555. attracting the interest of the Bulgarian VIPs. These performance tests only confirmed the previously incomplete results of measurements taken while using the metal propellers. 10 from its predecessor. On the 23rd February in the early afternoon. but lacking the gun troughs of the first prototype. (Author's collection) Avia B.. In the front fuselage there was a cowling panel fitted on top similar in shape. as the fighter had left a very favourable and strong impres ion. The second prototype took off for the first lime on 30th December 1938.2. the Bulgarians were first shown the Avia Bk-534. In January 1939 the aircraft was flown only with the 232B fined. Hd 43 and M-IOO propellers respectively fitted. As for the first prototype. driven by the Avia 12 engine. The original all-metal fuselage formers were replaced with fabric-covered narrow wooden strips making up the external streamlined shell.547 at Kbely airfield. This slimming down was of cour e carried back to the rear fuselage top decking. It differed from the first machine by having the area of the ailerons reduced and the flaps enlarged. Only the external shape was changed somewhat. The results were not too long in coming. bandaged. the month of February would witness a visit from a Bulgarian military delegation. (Sbirka autora) The crash of the second prototype on 28th May 1940 brought much less harm both to the man and the machine. Diky teto udalost.35. and immediately afterwards the latest pride of Czechoslovak aviation industry the Avia 8-35. [he B-3S. In the dark days of early 1939. as this engine was ill the workshops at moment of crash.2 was fitted for te t purposes with the Avia 232A. mrlzeme videt tento letoun i JOt druhe strany". as the construction of the second one was in its final stages at the Avia factory. 67. just before the end of the year. the other performance figures were virtually unaltered from those of the first prototype. and especially on 2nd March 1939. 5. wooden test unit. The fighter showed its paces and capabilities for ten minutes. but from lst to 3rd of February the machine underwent tests comparing its performance with the Letov Hd 43 fitted.Havdrie druheho prototypu 28. the official request from the Bulgarians for data fo. as his COlleague O.2 inherited the Avia 12Ydrs no.

the fateful 15th March 1939.only a broken undercarriage leg.) me would. although an experienced pilot. However. proving also the speed and altitude performance of the prototype. nonetheless. managed to "stumble" during a landing and nosed tbe aircraft over. Kovan( vystu- pajle( z povrchu stiedni elisti kiidla bylo pfipravou montat pumovych' zavesrziku. co S8 od nij ocekdvalo a k oprave nedoilo. Alas for the Avia Company. Despite this. The latter. 96 training airplane. again driving a three-bladed Hamilton propeller. Only a few days later. The machine having stood idle was flown again on 21st May 1940. Yet the machine probably fulfilled all tbe requirements and the repair eventually did not take place. slightly disfigured vertical tail and a dented water radiator air intake duct fairing to show. Popganchev.PoskOZ8n{ letounu skutecfie nebylo tak vaine a vetsinu poskoze"ych casti by bylo mottle bez preble- letoun patrnl ut splnil vie.3 (later renamed B-135.2 prototype spent its time in the development workshops. One of the members of the party was the German test pilot Ing. brand new B-35. who on 19th April took the B-35. jeho poloha je zdrojem cennjm informaci napi. the Avia B-35. the subsequent test took place almost exclusively on the factory airfield at Cakovice.2. would see the first liquidation of an already mutilated Czechoslovakia.2 up for a flight. From this date on the prototype only flew with metal propellers. The fittings protruding from the wing centre seclion bottom surface were the bomb rack anchor points. its precarious predicament gives a fine view of the flap design. From November the testflying programme was tasked to Zemanek only. which earlier bad been shorn of its natural border of mountains and its mall-made ring of concrete fortifications by the Munich Agreement. Then the tests were interrupted as a major portion of the technical capacity of the factory was taken up by preparations for production of the Arado AI. bent propeller. 0 konstrukci vztlakoAt'IlZ vych klapek. followed the following day by Cpt. seal the de facto fate of a nation. (Author's coll. according to the memories of the Avia staff present he was elated by the flying qualities of the machine. Karl Francke. the testing process was intenupted fOT the visit of Generalluftzeugmeister Ernst Udet and his entourage. Atanasov. the 28th May was to see the final flight of the Avia B-35. Thanks to the well-conceived tubular umover structure behind the seat the hapless pilot escaped unhurt. The damage to the aircraft was not too extensive. the machine ending up on its back. Ale The damage was minor and majority of parts were easily replaceable. Dalecky flew the prototype to Leti'iany for testing purposes. Up to 22nd November the test flights were flown to check the behaviour of the type in various flight regimes. 35 . This phase of testing took place with the Bulgarian test pilots again present On 27th May the first Bulgarian to have a go on the machine was Lt.3 prototype took place. On 2nd November 1939 he flew the B-35. It received a "fresh" Avia engine (no. 429/1433). as the previous measurements had proved that they improved its performance.2 for the first time fitted with the three-bladed Hamilton Standard variable pitch propeller. this would be the last fighter aircraft they were to design. With the establishment of the so-called "Protektorat Bohmen und Miihren" the Avia Company became subject to the control of the Reich's ministry of aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium RLM) and as such. (Sbtrka autora) mu nahradit.1). From 2nd May 1939 until the 14th August Rudolf Dalecky and the new factory pilot Frantisek Zemanek took it in turn to fly the Avia B-3S. This day of infamy. • The final fate Ita of the machine notwithstanding. (Author's collection) se potom s letounem stalo cokoli. on 23rd March. The reason why it was not repaired have been the fact that a week before this accident the first flight of a completely different. During tbe following five months the B-35. here the design team transformed the experience gained during the development of this prototype to the final shape of the nascent fighter.2 prototype.

The new machine looked much more like the series-built fighters. s platenym potahem zadni casti trupu za kabinou. jako tornu by to u typu Meserschmitt Bf 109 nebo Supermarine Spitfire. klapky ziskaly na rozpen.B-35. Besides the retractable undercarriage iJ got also a narrower cockpit canopy.3 prototype was taken shortly after the maiden flight. pnpravy se prornitly zejmena v konstrukci chUuJil vody water radiator mime zmenseni kfidelek. ze se podarilo uspokojive vyfesit pevnost kfidla v oblasti ulozeni podvozku (behem zkousek na Iarnaci stolici se objevovaly trhliny v plechovern potahu kndla).3 .3 ejektorove vjfuky exhaust ejector stubs Zatimco se nemecka administrativa zabydlovala ve vsech ffdicich strukturach nove vznikleho protektoraru Cechy a Morava. Nasledujici den odpoledne s letounern provedl dam dva lety.3 alias 8-135. Prototyp B-35. Zasadnlm celodreveneho kfidla. Prostredni nadri se pouzivala jako zaloznf a tim byl splnen jeden z rady pozadavku VTLO. lelikoz se planovala seriova vyroba. ale posledni pro tento rok. Konstrukce trupu zustala ve srovnani s druhym protorypern beze zrnen. (Author's collection) Avia 8-35. Podvozkove nohy se zatahovaly smerem ke koncum kfidel.3 pDf/zen] pravdipodobni krdtce po zdleiu: Novy letoun se svym vzhledem pnblfiil ke svi koneene podohe.Tovdrni sntmek prototypu B-35. Doslo take na opetovne vystfe/ne kandly krokem pfi konstrukci bylo vyfeseni problernaticke demontaze palivovych nadal Z kfidla. Jejich zavedeni bylo odpovedi na kritiku prilis uzkeho trupu ve vysce ramen pilota. tzn. Krome zatahovactho podvozku stroj zfskfll i novy piekryt kabiny. ledinou vaznou novinku predstavovala mala bocni dvifka pod kabinou na levern baku trupu. pohanejict drevenou dvoulistou vrtuIi Avia 232.8-135. stavba tfetiho prototypu . kteremu se jinak obtizne]! nastupovalo a vystupovalo z kabiny.jiz byla v pokroeilern stavu.3 s motorern Avia 12Ycrs. 36 kulometii chladic oleje oil radiator novj tvar flew shape .1 . zaletal tovarni pilot Dalecky 20. cervna 1939 tesne pled polednem. letoun mohl dostat pine zatazitelny podvozek francouzske finny Messier S olejopneurnatickyrni tlumici a s koly Dunlop. ktere v teto faz: vyvoje ziskalo rovnou nabeznou hranu kvnli zjednoduseni vyroby. Nove se prostrednl m'tdrZ vyjrnula po odstraneni kryctho panelu na spodni strane khdla a pore byto mozne vyjmout obe postranni nadrze. • The factory photo of the B-35. Vzhledern k tornu.

2.2 nove ostruhove kolo se zajisten{m ~ new Jail wheel with lock the second prototype.B-35 .3 (dole).3 (below) had a slightly modified water radiator air intake.2 & serfe Porovndntm s druhjm prototypem B-35. By comparison with ostruhove kolo jako u B~35.. the B-35.1 3 B-13S. the 8-35.2 (vpravo) lze odhalit mime upravenj tvar vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiCi vody u B-35. & B-13S. (Author's collection) 37 .2 tail wheel as on the B·35. shown right.

2 prototype.2 8-35.ete casteene porovnat i vyvoj nekterjch vnitinicl: detailu. (Author's collection) Vyvoj prekrytu pilotnfho prostoru Cockpit canopy development B-35. mrll. Pod timto uhlem pohledu jsou pekne videl takfka vtechny vnljSt upravy.Ukcizka eastecnl "odstrojeniho" letounu.1. Podle tohoto snimku. (Author's collection) 38 . B-135.2 B-135 serie boc".) • Below: Below: Comparative picture. kteri prototyp 8·35. Za sedadlem je zpfistupllen prostor radiove soupravy a zavazadlovy prostor.3 B-135. This angle of view shows almost all external modificadims.2 nemil. (Sbtrka autora. (Sbtrka autora. Behind the pilot's seal the compartment for the radio set and the baggage compartment. including the gun troughs that were absent on the B-35.) A somewhat "skinned" machine provides for a partial comparison of development of certain internal detail.' vstUplI( tlvirka Dole: Srovndvact sntmek. veetnl vystfelnych kandltl.

Po skonceni aerosalonu byl letoun prevezen do tovarny. resp. differing thusly from all other Czechoslovak machines all display.s. Zde byl pochopitelne vystavovan jako vyrobek protektoraru. nemeckeho leteckeho prumyslu tReichsverhand der Deutschen Lufifahrt-lndustrie). Prague) 39 . kde na pralli Bulharu as pozehnanim nemeckeho vedeni pokracoval dalSi v)rvoj. cervence 1939. s vjjimkou (Podn. company archive. ale prekvapive bez svastik nebo jine nemecke "parady". Zastupci bulharskeho letectva se v te dobe jiz seznarnovali nejen s technickou dokumentaci ale i s technologit vyroby.Vpravo a uprostred: vystaven.~bezjakehokoliv illjormacnlho panelu podpffdf. Praha) Rigbt and centre: IIIBrussels the prototype was shown without any fwtional insignia or company logo. V Bruselu by/ letoun by/ vfsostlieho nebo firemniho oznacen(m. Prague) Kratce po zaletani byl letoun opatten kovovou dvoulistou vrtuIi Letov Hd 43 a odeslan do Belgie na II. mezinarodnt aerosalon v Bruselu (Salon de I'Aeronautique) zahajeny 8. company archive. a.. (Walter a.940. archiv Walter. Dole: Pohled na protektordtnt stdnek v Bruselu. na rozdtl od ostatnfch leskoswvenskjch konstrllkc.s.s. The sole exception was the information/data panel under the nose. (Walter a. Bottom: A view of the Protectorate Bohemia/Moravia display stand in Brussels. Do listopadu 1939 pak letal jiz jen druhy prototyp a letove zkousky typu byly obnoveny at v kvetnu J.

6. Na snimku je spoilt se zdstuci bulharskeho letectva. a 20. already in the German markings.1. 6. ale take predvesr sve vykony zastupcurn bulharskeho letectva. nynf oznacenym jako B-135. Pfidany dll je velmi dohre rozpoznatelny. protoie letoun majeste plivodllf kryci piechy podvozkovych kol.1. tervna 1940 pravdepodobni v dflnach VTLD. (Author's collection) Po jedenacti mestclch od zaletani 8-35. Novy program letovych zkousek zahajll pilot Zemanek 21. cervna probehlo mefenl (?rychlosti?) Ilprava krytu podvozkoveho kola prototypu B-135. cervnem 1940.Staronovy prototyp 8-35. sledoval i zkuseny a nebojacny kPL Popgancev. as the original undercarriage wheel doors prove. 1940 ctrnacriminutovym zaletavanlm. 1940 mel Z~ ell nejen provefit hodnoty spocitane a namerene Avii. ktery v podstare predstavoval podobu seriovych stfhacek.3 byly s letounern. jen drevenou vrtuli nahradila dvoulista kovova Hd 43. Temef pet hodin trva- v jicl exhibici Zemanka. Snimek cea mezi 14. (Sbirka M. V teto fazi zkousek mel letoun stale puvodnl typ podvozku a kol. pfisli spolecnou praci ovefit zastupci ceskeho i bulharskeho tyrnu. shows the machine with the Bulgarian representatives. Na letiste vyzkumneho ustavu si 14. ktery stroj pfedvedl skoro ve vsech rezimech letu. Po Zemankovi usedl do kabiny par.1 byla provedena 21. • The "new old" 8-35.1. Pouze kryt kol byl ve vyzkumnem ustavu mime zvetsen a je~te pfed odletem do tovarny 21. ale ul v nemeckem markingu. Oba talc meli moznost porovnar chovanl stroje. Atanasov (na 33 min) a po nem i kpt. Bay) 40 . 5. Popgancev. Pfelet do Leti'ian 10. The photo. Na levem snimku je cdstellli vUilt puvodnftyp otejoveho chladice. Motor tohoto staronoveho stroje zustal zachovan. ktery diky odolnosti konstrukce neztratil duveru k novernu stroji.3 prototype took to air again as the B-135. Na pozdeji vyrobellych siriovych strojich bylo lvetien( teto casti krytu asi jell polovicllt.3 se do vzduchu znovu dostal pod oznacenim Avid B-135. taken some time between 14th and 20th June 1940. opet obnoveny letove zkousky.

Krome toho byla technicka kapacita tovarny zatizena i vyrobou letoumi B-7l.1 011ly) o chladiC oleje s hladkjm povrchem oil radiator with smooth surface air scoop 41 . (mora 1941.1 pokracoval ve ZkOllSkdch pod oznacentm Avia 8-135. 74.2 v Letiianech leta! s jinym. Ph havarii stroje B-71. nahrazen motorem Avia 12 Ycrs c. Prakticky cely program odletal pilot Zemanek. Pro uplnost stoji za to zmlnit skutecnost. (NTM Praha) • The B-135. 6. shows the original type oj the oil cooler. The added section is clearly discemible. probably in the VTLU workshops.1 took place on 21st June 1940.Prototyp B-135. 6. V teto Jdzijiz doilo na kompletni vjmenu.1 prototype carried Oil the tests marked as the B-135. (Author's collection) po tete uprave. The later series-built machines had this addition only half-size. 21.. The picture shows the machine at the VTLU airfield. behern svych "pobytiI" ze B-13S. PIne disky kol byly pro point podntmky take praktiftijsi.2 teleskopickj 1.6. vielne kryctct« plechii. 25. 1940 a program zkousek v celkovem rozsahu 47 letu v trvani 23 h 07 min zde nasledujici den take zakoncil.. including the wheel and leg covers.1 uveden motor c. podvozku. (NTM Prague) Bottom left: Modification o/the wheel cover on the B-135. pouze sest letu provedl pilot VTLU Spumy. Podle zaznamu 0 zkouskach vedenych touto institucf byl 11. dokoneil tovami prototypove zkousky.1) telescopic gun sight (B-135.2. The undercarriage was completely replaced at the time. 11..Windshield ejektorove vyfuky exhaust ejector stubs 8-135.213. bearing the civilian D-IBPP registration.2. 6. 1433. Na snimku je zachycen na ploie leliste VTLU s civilnt pozndvact znackou D-IBPP.llmlfQvac novy podvozek (pouze B-135. Nasledujicich devet mesicu se letoun do vzduchu nedostal. The picture at left partly .. zahynul zkuseny Ze- Celni stitek . 18. Na domaci pude tovamiho letiste pak 24. 6. ackoliv je v tovarru knize tern u B-135.1 & -. Zkusebni pUoti si ale rozhodne neodpocinuli protoze v tomto obdobi presedali z jednoho Arada Ar 96 do druheho. Do Leti'ian se vratil jeste jednou 25. 6.

dubna 1941. Posledni zaznam 0 pnlhodinovem letu B-1 35. ze prototyp se navenek li~i1 pfedevsim zmenou podvozku. cervna.Petra Sirokeho. na 1850 mm.Prototyp Avia B-135. Na snimku je zachycen na plose letiste VTLU ve svetiem nateru barvoa RLM 02 s civilni poznavact znackou D-IBPP. Tovarni cast zkousek s letounem oznacenym B-135.zkousku dospelosti''. Ze zpravy a z fotografil je patrne. Z tohoto abdobi pochazi i podrobna prototypova zprava VTLU (FVA) c. Pravdepodobne po preletu do vyzkurnneho usravu 6.2. Rozpeti kfidelek se zmensilo at.2 probihala v Avii aZ od 7. kvetna letoun dostal na trup a kndlo nemeckou civllnt poznavaci znacku D-IBPP. 74.j. se za ffzenfrn.2 prototype at the VTLU airfield. Na letiianskern letisti si stroj odletal svoji skutecnou . Ve skutecnosti se jednalo 0 dva samostatne lety. painted in the RLM 02 light grey-green overall) Letov factory buildings are visible in the background. Behern 58 uskutecnenych zkusebnich a mericich letu. Rozchod podvozku se zversil na 2500 mID. Mimo jine uvadi. z nichz posledni by! 24. brezna 1941 do 21. 1686/41. stndali piloti VTLO Brazda a Biciste. rnisto kol Dunlop byla pouzita kola a brzdy Argus 650 x 180 na hlavnim podvozku a 290 x 110 U ostruhy. cervna. ze prototyp nese 2 kulomery srfHejici okruhern vrtule a jeden "velkorazny kulomet" v ose vrtule. V pozadi jsou vide: budovy Letova. Puvodni typ Messier by1 nahrazen vlastnim systemem tovarny Avia. rovnez s motorem c.2 pochazi z 3. Do tovarny se Siroky s letounern vratil 26. (Sbirka autora)» The Avia B~135. cervence 1941. (Author's collection) manek a tak by1 novy letovy program sveten do rukou jednoho z nejzkusenejslch piloru Avie . Prvni 42 .

I pfi reto rychJosti bylo Ifzenl stroje lehee zvladnutelne a pilot nezaznarnenal zadue vibrace.. zaobleno . .2 ve VTLU existuji vsak take zaznamy 0 zkouskach letounu oznaceneho B. (NTM Praha) • During the tests not only the internal equipment was changed.2 (D-IBPP) shown also in the head of page (NTM Prague) B-35. 1941 !). but in a considerably darker paint scheme of dark green overall..1 Ackoliv se do toboto data v knize letu objevuje pouze oznaceni B-135.2 (casove vyrazne oddelene).3. B-135. 22. Vyvoj pfivodu vzduchu ke kompresoru a olejoveho chladice Supercharger air inlet and oil radiator development . Z obdobi pobytu stroje B-13S. Pro porvrzeni existence dalsiho prototypu jsou tyro utrzky bohuzel nedostatecnym dukazern a podrobnejsl hmatatelne informace 0 aktivite tovarny Avia ve spojitosti S timto prototypem v tomto obdobi se nedochovaly. but also tile colouring.1 a B-135. (NTM Prague) byl bezny zalet. (NTM Praha) zobrazeny v za- Bottom left: A head-Oil view on the 8-135. 5.2 (D-IBPP) hlavi vlevo nahoie. Na fotografii je stejnj letoun.2. 5..L35.V prilbihu zkousek se na letounu B-135.2 & serie B-35. a 23.1.3 & B-135. Ty casove zapadaji do obdobi zkousek stroje B-135.2 (rninimalne 21. ale v podstaille tmavsim nateru tmave zelenou barvou.2 8-35. .rounded B-135. 5. ale i zbarveni. This photo shows the same machine.1. ph druhem Siroky opet zjistoval rychlostni rnoznosti stroje a ve stremhlavem letu dosahl rychlosti 715 km/h po ztrate vysky 1945 mew. . Vlevo dole: Celni pohled na B-135.2 menilo nejen vnitin: vybavent.3.1 ~~of-~:---~- zebrovany povrch corrugated surface hltulkf povrch smooth surface © Miroslav SiLY 43 .

Avia B-35.3
alias B-135.1 to B-135.3
While the German administration spread throughout all of the governmental structures of the newly created "Protectorate" of Bohemia and Moravia, the third prototype of the aircraft ~ the B-35.3 - was in an advanced slate of construction. As the structural issues concerning the wheel weU area of the wing, (cracks had appeared in the sheet metal covering of the wing during loading t.ests), had now been fully resolved, the aircraft

major novelty was the small cockpit access door on the port fuselage side. This was introduced as a reaction to the criticism of the fuselage as being too narrow at the pilot's shoulder level; until introduction of the doors, entry and egress of the cockpit was somewhat difficult. The B-3S.3 prototype with the Avia 12Ycrs engine, driving the wooden two-bladed Avia 232 propeller, was test-flown by the factory test pilot Dalecky on 20111 June 1939, shortly before noon. During the following day, in the afternoon, two further flights were made; alas these were to be the final ones for that year. Shortly after the maiden flight the machine was fitted with the Letov Hd 43, a metal two-bladed propeller, and sent to Belgium for the lInd Salon de l'Aeronautique, the event taking place in

..,

-

---~-

__ -

_-.i->:

- ~.
_--

1-

could be fitted with afuJly retractable oleo-pneumatically damped. undercarriage supplied by the French Messier company, with Dunlop wheels. The ule legs retracted towards [he wing tips (as with the Supermarine Spitfire and Messerschmitt Bf 109 types). As series production was planned, the changes primarily concerned the wooden wing, which at this stage of its development was given a straight leading edge, apparently to facilitate production. The span and area of the ailerons was again slightly decreased, the flaps growing in span. A substantial design issue was also tackled at this time: the questionable removal of the wing fuel tanks. The new design as adopted bad a centreline access panel beneath the central tank, which, once removed, made a place for the removal of both of the lateral wing tanks. The centreline tank was used as a reserve, thus fulfilling one of the requirements of the VTLO (Vojens/"'1 technicky a letecky ustav - Military technical and aviation institute), Compared to the second prototype, the fuselage design remained unchanged, i.e. with fabric covering aft of the cockpit. The only

Brussels, beginning on 8111 July 1939. The aircraft was presented as a product of the "Protectorate" industry, i.e. the German aeronautic industry tReichsverband del' Deutschen Luftfahrt-Industriei, but surprisingly it did not carry any markings such as the swastika, or any other "adornments" of the German Nazi Party or state. Once the "Salon" was over, the aircraft was transported to the factory, where, based on the requirements of the Bulgarians and with the blessing of the German management, its development continued. The Bulgarian Air Force representatives were at this time acquainting themselves not only with the technical documentation, but also with the production technology and process. By November 1939 only the second prototype was flying and test flying with the third prototype was only resumed in May 1940. Eleven months after the maiden flight of the B-35.3, the test flying with the aircraft, now marked B-135.1, was resumed. Pilot Zemanek started the new test programme on 215t May 1940 wi th a brief flight lasting fourteen-minutes. The aircraft flew with its original engine, new number and with the aforementioned metal lWO-

44

bladed Hd 43 propeller replacing the earlier wooden one. The ferry flight to Letriany on 101h June 1940 was used to prove not only the values calculated and measured by the manufacturer, but 'also to show the Avia to the Bulgarian Air Force representatives. On 14'" June 1940 representatives of both the Czech and Bulgarian teams came to the Military technical and aviation institute to

Tenia vjkres je puvodn[m tovdmim vykresem. Ostatni pfipojene vjkresy vzn'ikly rovnez na ;fikladl tovdrnich. vjkresu u/otenje" v Ndrodntm technickem muzeu. Vjkresy byly kopirovdny a studovany pouhyeh ne'1colikmalo misleu pied jejieh teZkym poskozentm, ktere utrpily pfi katastro/alni po vodni v liti 2002. (NTM Praha)

~__.--------_"~--.-.__....__.

_-

A~135

This drawing is original factory drawing. Other attached drawings are as well based 011 factory drawings preserved in National Technical Museum. The drawings were copied and researched just few months before originals were heavily damaged during katastrophic summer flooding, 2002. (NTM Prague)
see the results of their joint effort. The exhibition by the test pilot Zemanek lasted for almost five hours, as he demonstrated the machine in almost all of its possible flight regimes. The display was intently watched by amongst others the experienced and gallant Cpt. Popganchev, whose confidence in the stout structure of the machine had been reinforced by his previous experience with Avia's product on 28<hMay. After Zemanek, Lt. Atanasov took over the controls for some 33 minutes, then Cpt. Popganchev. Both pilots had the opportunity to confirm for themselves the behaviour of the machine, which by now had the characteristics of a series-built aircraft. In this phase of its test programme, the machine was fitted with

its Original undercarriage and wheels. SUbsequent modifications saw only a slight enlargement of the wheel covers and on 21"" June 1940, before the return ferry flight to the manufacturer, speed tests were undertaken to verify the results of this modification. Factory prototype testing of the aircraft was finally concluded on its home turf, the Avia Company airfield, on 24tb June 1940. The machine returned to Lernany on the following day and on 26th June 1940 concluded its test programme there, which had consisted in total of 47 flights, of 23 hours 07 minutes duration. The company test pilot Zemanek bad flown virtually the entire programme, with only six flights being performed with a VTLO pilot, Spumy, at the controls. For the sake of completeness, it is worth mentioning that despite the fact that the factory flight logbook lists engine no. 74 as powering the B-13S.1 airframe, during the "stints" at Letnany the aircraft flew with other power plants. According to the records of the VTLU, the Avia12Ycrs engine no. 1433 replaced the original one during testin g on the days of 11111, 16'h, 21" and 25'h June. The aircraft did not fly again duri.ng the following nine months. However the test pilots did not remain idle during this period, mounting one newly made Arado Ar 96 after another. Besides this aircraft, the capacity of the factory was utilised to build the B-71 bomber ..On the 11 Febru ary 1941 the crash of the B -71.213 took the life of the experienced pilot Zemanek and so the new fighter programme was given over to tbe care of Petr Siroky, (of pre-war aerobaric fame), one of the most experienced pilots that Avia had. Factory testing took place from 7111 March to 21" April 1941 with the machine re-designated as the B-135.2, again with engine no, 74. The aircraft was marked with the German registration D-IBPP on the wing and fuselage sides, probably following its ferry flight to the VTLO on 6'" May. At Letilany airfield the machine flew its real "final exams" ..During the 58 flights, flown for the purpose of testing and measuring its flight performance, (completed by 24111 June), the aircraft was flown by the VTLO pilots Brazda and HiCi~te. Siroky returned with the Avia to the factory on 261ll June. The detailed report of the VTLU (PVA - Flugversuchsanstalt Prag) no. 1686/41 from this period, states, amongst other things, that the prototype carried two (synchronised) machine guns firing through the propeller disc and one "large calibre machine gun" firing though the propeller hub, From the report and from photographs of the aircraft, it is apparent that the prototype differed externally from its original guise, especially in respect of changes made to the undercarriage. The original Messier units were replaced by the proprietary Avia system, the Dunlop wheels and brakes were replaced with those of Argus manufacture, sized 650 x 180 mm on the main undercarriage and 290 x 110 mm On the tail unit. The undercarriage track increased to 2,500 nun. The aileron span was reduced to 1,850 mm, The last recorded flighr of the Avia B-135.2 bears the date of 3nl July 1941. In fact there were two separate flights on this date. The first one was a normal initial testflight, during the second one, Siroky tested the diving capabilities of the machine, reaching a speed of 715 kmIh while losing 1,945 m altitude in the dive. Even at this speed the controls were easily handled and the pilot did not observe any vibration. Up to this point, only the designations B-13S.1 and B-135.2 ap~ pear in the flight logbook (but notably separated time-wise). However, from the period of testing of the B-13S.2 there also appears, in the VTLU records of tests, a machine designated B-135.3. The references to it fall into the time frame of tests on the B-135.2 (at least on 21", 22"d and 23m of May 1941 !). These fragments, however, do not'prove in themselves the existence of another prototype and further tangible information on the activity of the Avia Company regarding this prototype is lacking.
II;]

45

Letove charakteristiky

.

Flight Characteristics

Ing. Pavel KUCERA
Jak pnblizit letove vlastnosti a skutecne vykony tohoto v ceskoslovenskych dornacich podminkach vyjimecneho, ba v retrospektivnlm pohledu ptimo rnagickeho letounu B.35 ci jeho odnoze B.135, je nejlepe pfimo citovat ze zkusebnich zprav, Nezavisle zkousky na sklonku tficatych let provadel tehdejsi vojensky technicky letecky ustav (VTLU) v Leti'ianech. Dochovaly se zpravy z pozdejsi etapy zkousek prototypu B.135.1, jii z doby okupace. Ustav tehdy jiz nesl nazev Flugtechnische versuchsanstali (PVA) For best describing of real flight characteristics of this quite exceptional in Czechoslovakian industry, or even magical B.135 aircraft it is necessary to quote flight test reports. Objective flight tests on the eve of the war were carried out by Military Technical Aviation Institute (VTLU) at the time, in Prague Letnany. Reports from prototype B.135.1 testing, from time of German occupation survived. German name for in titurion was changed to Flugtechnische versuchsanstait (FVA) Prag. Fir. t report on proving te ts of B.135.1 is numbered plement to item nr. 163J/40, dated 14 June 1940. Weighing results are as follows: 4, as sup-

Prag. Prvni zprava

0 vzorovych zkouskach letounu B.135.1 rna C. 4 (poradi FVA) jako pfiloha k c.]. 1631/40 ze 14. cervna 1940. Nejprve uvadi vysledky vazenl Ietounu:

Prazdny letoun / Empty aircraft
(bez pohybliveho PalivofFuel OlejlLubricant zatizeni / without removable load)

1905,5 kg 234,0 kg 24,0 kg

Hmotnost vystroje a pilota byla nahrazena zatizenim (pytle s olovem)
Pilot and his accessories was replaced by load (bags with lead): Pilot / Pilot Padak / Chute 2 kulomety vz.30 /2:<: machine guns vz.30 500 naboju 1 500 projectiles 1 cHic 1 Aimer 1 kan6nl Gun 1 zasobnfk pro 60 naboju 1 Ammunition magazine (60 projectiles) 80 kg 10 kg 24 kg 17 kg 0,35 kg 43 kg 25,7 kg 24,5 kg 225 kg

Radiovystroj 1 Radioequipment Celkem 1 Total
Dalsi vystroj byla nahrazena

cca 1 approx.

hmotnosti meficich pfistroju I Further equipment of measuring instruments.

was replaced by tbe weight

Celkova hmotnost (pfictenim vystroje Hmotnost letounu Hmotnost letounu

letounu 1 Total aircraft weight 1 adding accessories) zvazenim I Aircraft weight as result of weighing die lldaju fy Avia / Aircraft weight according Avia data

2416,9 kg 24210 kg 2422,0 kg

pani do vysky 4500 rn, s horizontalnlrn Ietern na ploy plyn a sestupem (ubytek paliva 105 kg) cinil 550 kID (1 hod 08 min). Vodorovny usek probihal ve standardni vysce 4640 m ph rychlosti 507 kmlhod otackach 2400 lImin a tlaku dmychadla 825 mm Hg. Pfi letu s cestovnl rychlosti ve vodorovnem useku (ubytek paliva 84 kg) byl zjisten dolet 800 km (2 hod 13 min). Pritom vodorovny usek probihal ve standardni vysce 4715 m pfi rychlosti 393 kmJhod, 1930 ot/min a tlaku dmychad1a 715 mm Hg.

Nasledujl namerene vykonove pararnetry. Mefem spotreby se provadelo z vystupn do urcite vy§e (4500 m) a po sestupu byl zjisten vazentm ubytek paliva. Dolet vcetne stou-

Measured performance parameters are as follows. Fuel consumption measurement resulted from climbing up to specific height (4,500 m) and after descent fuel consumed was calculated from aircraft weighing. Range inclucting climbing up to 4,500 m with horizontal leg with throttle fuUy open, and descent (total fuel consumed 105 kg) was 550 km (within 1 hr 08 min). Horizontal leg was performed in standard height of 4,640 m at 507 kmfbr speed, with engine on 2,400 rpm and compressor presure 825 mm Hg. In flight with cruise speed in horizontal leg (84 kg fuel consumed) the range was found 800 km (2 hrs 13 min). Horizontal leg was established in standard level of 4,715 m at 393 km/hr speed, 1,930 rpm and compressor pressure of 7] 5 mm Hg. Takeoff and landing length was measured Takeoff length and time measured three times: 243 m (14.1 235 m (14.2 237 rn (13.4 338 m (17.3 309 ill (17.5 292 TIl (16.1

Delka vzleru a pfistani se mefila trikrat: delky a doby vzletu -

Mereru

243 III (14,1 s) 235 m (14,2 s) 237 ill (13,4 s) 338m(17,3s) 309 m (17,5 s) 292 m (16,1 s)

Meren! delky a doby pfistani s klapkami

Landing length and time with flaps

sec) sec) sec) sec) sec) sec)

46

At aircraft weight of 2421 kg and c. vlastnlrn bojovyrn obranim a k padum a vyvrtkam. Ph vyssfch otackach byla pozorovarelna snizena srabilita (letoun mel tendenci klonit se vpravo). the danger of overturning. Pfi volnych kfidelkach podlehala vlivu predcho- All practically dynamically used sustained horizontal stable with controls left free. se pilot vyslovovaJ ke vzletu. with flaps and undercarriage extended was 174 km/hr. even with sidewind. at airspeed of Pro klouzavy let s vysunutyrn podvozkem a pristavacich klapkach ph rychlosti At gliding flight with undercarriage extended and landing flaps down. from the reason of urgency.25 dilku/unit 2. Toto mereru bylo provedeno tiro zpusobem. Zatacky na obe trany se s letounern provadely snadno pfi vsech rychlostech a ruznem naklonu. Let stremhlav by! proveden z vysky 4580 m do vysky vybrani 1030 m. at airspeed of 202kmlh 0. Takeoff was standard. Ph vaze Ietounu 2421 kg a centrazi 625 mm za nabeznou hranou Id'idla bylo provedeno meren! podelne dynamicke tabiliry pro nasledujlct rezimy letu. in most cases with overturning to the right wing. Braking was possible just after touchdown without. S letounem bylo mozno normalne provadet veskerou akrobacii a bojove obraty. During takeoff he assessed ground handling as very comfortable due to tailwheel and efficient wheelbrakes. Aircraft with engine at 1800 rpm at altitude of 1000 m in sustained horizontal flight experienced good lateral stability. only longitudinal dynamic stability with free controls was assesed. Maximalni dosazena rychlost dle udaje palubniho rychlorneru Kollsman byla asi 695 kmlh. After stabilizing the aircraft at flight phase the pilot made input by elevator for 20 krnJhr speed change. With speedy character of the aircraft in mind the control lrnputs had to be performed precisely. PerforIn the part ztho tvrzent pro pncnou stabilitu. Increased engine rpms caused decreased stability with tendency to bank light. the aircraft had no tendency to enter the spin. Time to perform flat eight was around 34 sec at altitude 500 m using full throttle. Vzlet byl normalni. Dosednuti bylo vzhledern k dobremu odperovani hladke. Ve vybehu byl Ietoun dobre ovladatelny bez snahy utikat do stran. Pro pfistaru uvadel nejvhodnejsi rychlost klouzani asi 170 180 krn/h podle udaje palubniho rychlomeru. pfistani. ktere se vsechny jevily jako podelne dynarnicky stabilni: Rezim letu Flight regime Ve stoupani ph rychlosti In climbing at airspeed Pro vodorovnou maximalnl rychlost At horizontal maximum speed of Pro vodorovnou cestovni rychlost At horizontal cruise speed of Pro minimalni vodorovnou rychlost Ar minimum horizontal speed of Pro klouzavy let pfi zatazenem podvozku :Rychlost (vi ) Airspeed 231 kmlh 425 km/h 372 kmfh 221 kmIb 2500m 2570m 2220 m Po!ohavyvazovaci plosky Trhn tab marked on 3. longitudinal dynamic stability was measured for foUowiug flight phases in all of which the aircraft is dynamically stable: i letove vlast- nosti . Pojizdeni za vetru bylo bez obtfzi. Vzhledem k rychlostnirn vlastnostem letounu (sic) by to nutno s konnidly pracovat jemne. Turns were performed easily to both sides. turns.5 dilku/unit Vsechny prakticky pouzivane ustalene pnmocare rezimy lew se jevi tedy podelne dynamicky stabilni s volnym kormidlem.z jeho pisemneho vyjadren: citujeme: "V ramci ovefeni podelne stability byla vzhledem k pilnosti zkousek zjHtena pouze dynamicka podelna stabilita s volnyrn korrnidlem ph vyvazeni vyvaZovaci ploskou pro pfislusny rezim Ietu. During speed loss. lower rprns caused also decreased stability with tendency to bank left. the pilot evaluated stall and spins. Control inputs as essed as normal. with easily held direction. Test flight of dive speed was carried out from entry at 4. For landing best recommended speed was approx 170 to 180 km/hr according flight deck airspeed indicator. Aviation Institute pilot Spumy summarized his findings in flight characteristics in final report: "During longitudinal stability evaluation.580 m to levelling at 1030 m. v assessing combat manoeuvrability oddile hodnoceni Behem bojove obratnosti bodnotil phases of takeoff.75 dilku/unir 1. letoun bylo mozno snadno drzet ve srneru. with elevator quickly positioned back to neutral and make it free. zatackam." flights are a sesed as Lateral stability was assessed further by PVA evaluation pilot. Doba potrebna pro provedeni jedne osmicky byla asi 34 sec ve vy§ce 500 m na plny plyn. Stall enter was possible at 140 to 150 km/hr of indicated airspeed. Touchdown was smooth due to acceptable oleo damping. landing. During landing run the aircraft wa easily controllable without the tendency to go out.Namefene hodnoty minimalnich rychlosti ve standardni vysce cca 820 m Cinily pri zatazenych klapkach a podvozku (cisty Ietoun) 197 kmlhod pti vysunutych klapkach a podvozku 174 km/hod. with trimming by trim tab appropriate to flight regime.25 dilku/unit 1 dilek/unit a pristavactch klapkach pfi rychlosti 221 km/h At gliding fligbt with undercarriage retracted and landing flaps up. With ailerons free above for lateral tability applied. Pouziti korrnidel posouzeno jako norrnalnl. Pilot Ostavu Spumy hodnotil ve svem posudku Minimum speed measured at standard bight of 820 m with flaps and undercarriage retracted was 197 km/hr. Letoun se ph otackach kolem L800 ot/rnin ve vysce 1000 m pri plimocarem ustalenern letu jevil pficn~ stabilni. positioned 625 rnm behind wing leading edge. Uvedeni do padu by to moine pfi indikovane rychlosti 140 az vzleru pojiideni jako az 47 . Smerova stabilita byla dle pilota vyhovujlci pri pevne drzenych kridelkach.g. Maximum attained speed according KoUsrnan airspeed indicator was approx 695 km/hr. pri nizsfch otackach byl rovnez mene stabilni (naklanel se vlevo). for all speeds and various bank angle." Dale se tzv kontrolni pilot FVA zameril na ptfcnou stabilitu. combat manoeuvers. Brzdeni bylo mozne ihned po dosednnu aniz by hrozilo pfevraceni letounu. All aerobatic and combat manoeuvers were carried out normaIy. Directional stability was found acceptable with firmly held ailerons. ze letoun byl opatren osrrubovym velmi dobre koleckern a ueinnymi brzdarni. vzhledem k tomu. ze po usraleni letounu v prtslusnem rezimu letu pilot porusi let vychylenim vyskoveho korrnidla a zmenl rychlost asi 020 km!h a uvede vyskove kormid10 rychle zpet a tam pusti.

It can be Osetrovant a obsluha letounu B-135 je v provozu pomeme however supposed for similarity with earlier Avia products. Duda. Da se predpokladat. nema FVA podkJady pro posouzeni v tomto smeru. Z. Ndrodniho steel tubes joined by o pevnosutich zkousbolts and nuts fabric kach zaslany BAL technickeho muzea v Praze. trup spojovany srouby a nyty je z ocelovych trubek s potaous products. Avia comfirmy Avie. Stress testing was pertypove zkousky u byvaleho II. the airframe is suitable for mass hem platenyrn). Avia predpokladat. metod a materialu. ohyb i krouceni. Altitude loss during the spin was assessed as considerable. with the exception of Byly vsak provedeny wing. pouzila tovarna Avia bezne zavedenych vyrobnich production within mid-scale and large-scale batches (series). at takeoff weight of 2421 kg with Avia 12Ycrs engine of ru dnes jiz kategorie motorn 0 porneme mensl vykonnosti. by its perforu FVA. event. except snadna a jednoducha a nevyzaduje zadnych specielnfch zanzeru retractable undercarriage and its mechanism. June 1940. In overall FVAjudgement it was stated: Avia B-135 aircraft is derived from B-35 prototype. fadove 300 m na jednu otocku. ktere se behem provozu vyskytnou. But this wing zasrupca tovarny jsou with cutout was testu obou typu stejne ed for bending and s vyjimkou kftdla. It can be assumed. being easily and safely handled in all positions. byJa pomerne kratka a provozni zavady se prakticky vyskymance . being 300 tll per one tum. 1940. All tested ktere u letounu B-135 parts complied with rna v potahu vyfez stress specification of pro zatahovaci podthe time. Institute personalities Ing. but equivalent to speedy character of the aircraft. Pilot poznatky shrnul v konstatovani. VesIn aircraft structukere zkousene castl re. Pilot summarized his findings. undersigned by podruznejsiho vyznamu. ze drak letounu je vyrobne vhodny zvlas[ pro stavbu ve sttedne velple. which are B-135 provedeny neaccording factory rebyly. a to na May 29. the B. s nimiz je dokonale obeznamena a ktere vesrnes Serviceability of B-135 during operation is quite easy and simpouzivala pfi svych dosavadnich vyrobcich. Failure occurence during operation couldkych seriich. pilot Spumy and Ing. the pilot input was necessary to stop it. nybrZ mimym souvratem nabyl rychlosti (sic) a sam presel do klouzaveho letu. Pokud jde 0 moznost during operation will be of negligible character. Da se vsak z podobnosti 6 min and by its flying characteristics with given engine now konstrukce letounu di'ivejsimi vyrobky fy. po nekolika malo otockach (dve at tfi) nabyl rychlosti a sam se vyrovnal. formed on vital ubPevno: tni zkousassemblies of B-35 ky s drakem letounu airframe. on B-135 popevnostni zkousky sessing large lower s vetsinou soucasti skin cutout for retracdraku letounu B-35. kvetna of wood. odboru VTLU v Praze Letnanech. Pokud jej pilot uvedI do vyvrtky vlevo. time to 5000 m around tujl az po delsfrn pouzivani v provozu. nor byl vyroben v race 1938 a s nimz byly provedeny castecne protowas performed stress analysis revision. that potential faults a zvlastntho skoleni obsluhujicfho personalu. Records on vozek. belonging to those less powerfull. Baj) and materials. nebor doba po kterou byl letoun B-135 v provozu By its overal concept as cantilever monoplane. after few turn (u ually two or three) the aircraft recovered itself. Ph ztrate rychlosti nemel letoun snahu prepadnout do vyvrtky. je uloien. vyskytu zavad v provozu. which is of mixed vyhovely tehdejsim character (wing and pevnostnim predplfixed empenage part sum. ming mild stalled tum it regained the speed establishing the glide flight. If the spin was entered intentionaly to the right. ze po strance letovych vlastnosn letoun vyhovuje velmi dobre.150 kmIh vetsinou vpravo (tedy s prepadnuttrn na prave kfidlo). Btlj) covered).135 aircraft by itis flight characteristics meets the needs for fighter aircraft very well.in Prague. tento dokument obsahuje take fotografie vztahujici se ke zkousenema letounu. budou jen Such were the findings of official protocol. Toto kl'idlo stress tests were sent s vyrezem vsak bylo to BAL in Avia on vyzkouseno. Dne 29. If the spin was entered to the left. which was built in 1938 and which went through partial prototype testing at V celkovem posudku se pravt: former 2nd branch of VTLO in Prague Letnany. ktera je smlse. svymi vykony (8 vodorovnou rychlosti vYSSl nez 500 krn/h). krery Static stress tests on B-135 airframe were not performed. jezto je ve vsech polohach snadno a bezpecne ovladatelny. Letoun Avia B 135 je odvozen od prototypu letounu B-35. twisting. avsak umerna rychlostnim vlastnostem letounu. One copy of the type test report was saved in the National Technical Museum archives pany used estabPfi konstrukci letounu. Krome vlastniho hodnoceni typu B~135. Besides the assessment of qualities of the fighter the document contains also lished and proven production methods na (kfidlo a pevne the photos relevant to the tested aircraft. not causing the need of special equipment end special training for servicing personnel. with casti ocasnich ploch which it is perfectly familiar and used them mostly on their previdtevene. ze fighter aircraft of producers outside of Protectorate. Ztrata vysky ph vyvrtce byla shledana jako znacna. se 48 . Byl-Ii letoun zasahem pilota priveden do vyvrtky vpravo. zavady. (Foto: M.horizontal speed over 500 km/hr. jeho mechanismu. B-135 matches the parameters of s vyhradou zatahovacfho podvozku resp. table undercarriage ktere podle vyjadteni bay. (Photo: M. Ruzha in Celkovym provedenim v podobe samonosneho jednoplosniku. bylo tfeba zasa hu pilota k zastaveni vyvrtky. casern During performance evaluation by factory pilot Zemanek on vystupu do 5000 m (kolem 6 min) a vlastnostrni pfi danem moto11<b June. ani nebyla propresentatives identivedena kontrola jeho cal on both types pevnostnich vypoctli. ve sbirkdch. nit be assessed because FVA testing was relatively short. fuselage of 1940 byly protokoly Ieden z exempldid zprcivy 0 typollych zkouikdch.

. Dudy a pilota Spur- neho. ••. ve 4000 m 506 kmfh a v 6000 m 499 krn/h Dalst merici Iety tyro vysledky potvrdily. cervna 1941. Obsirna zprava je psana v nemcine a v uvodu konstatuje. ph vzletove hrnornosti 2421 kg.000. 1658/4]. maximum airspeed 521 krn/hr and limit dive speed 715 kmlhr. toun nebyl zpocatku dle techto predpisu staven a nemusi jim ludii ve vsech polozkach odpovidat.vyrovna letoun B-135 stthacim letounum j mirno protektoratnich tovaren. Pro pocetm pripady je uvedena lerova v . za prispeni lng. First part is dealing with the stress analysis. ha 2440 kg. ·. For analysis ca .1. which is revised with respect of B VF speci fication with conclusion. dokonce bylo dosazeno vyssfeh vodorovnych rychlosti. aileron push-rod fairing B-3S. as supplement to document number 1686/41 issued 11 June 1941. cervna tovarnim pilotem Zernankern." '.0 s. Hd 43 propeller nr.m 456 km/h. Zjistene rychlosti byly v 1.0 s. Landing Ienth was 313 m within 17.9 S.2 aerodynamicky kryt tdhla kridelek aileron push-rod fairing 8·135 serte rovnti mibeznd hrana straight wing leading edge B-35.. delka dojezdu 313 m za 17.. Poznarnka / Note: Autor je specialistou v oblasti aerodynamiky II leteckem priimyslu Author's profession is aerodynamics ill aviation. 4000 m za 5 min 35 5. ze le- 860 k. Die zkusebniho prograrnu vzoru r..- - © Ing. Srnolar. ve 2000 m 473 km/h. 1000 m within I min 26 s. Z.1 rovnd ndbizna hrana straight wing leading edge 8-135. giving even better horizontal speeds. that the aircraft was built to former Ministry of Defence order under ordering number 8320di'rv. -. Pfi vystupu bylo dosazeno vysky 500 m za 44 S. -~. B· 135.3 & B-135...1. 5500 m in 8 min 40 s. jako pnloha k cislu jednacimu 1686/41. Airspeed profile resulted as follows: 456 km/hr at 1000 01. 4000 m ill 5 min 35 s. 9. maxirnalni rychlost Sz l kmlh rneznl pfipusta 113 rychlost v leru srfemhlav 715 kmfh.• _i __ .3. 2000 m in 2 min 47 S. 473 km/hr at 2000 m. Pfi meteni vykonu ] I.. 1000 m za I min 26 s. Petr ANTOS 49 . 3 aby zaleiirost byla shrnuia zpravou FYA C.9 s was measured.. Porud tedy tvrzeni odborniku Ustavu Ing. ze letoun byl postaven die objednavky tehdejsiho Ministerstva narodni obrany pod cislern objednacim 8320dUv. Y prvni casti je podroben revizi pevnostni vypocet ktery se kontroluje die nemeckeho predpisu BYF s kon tatovanlm. . 943 takeoff length of 238 m within 13. Dalsi overovant ve FYA absolvoval typ B-135 v prvnim pololetl roku 1941.. Report was worked out by V. kvetna 1936. Kocka and confirmed by undersigning by department head V.. Zpravu zpracoval V Kocka a podpisem stvrdil vedouci odoeteni V Smolaf.2 & serie Q ~.5500 m pak za 8 min 40 s. industry Vyvoj tvaru kffdla Wing shape development eliptickd nabezll(i hrana elliptic wing leading edge eliptickd ndbeind hrana elliptic wing leading edge B~35. Avia 8-135 aircraft cln 3 was evaluated and the results concluded in PVA report No...-1l/36 z 22. According test program Nr. 506 krn/hr at 4000 rnand 499 krn/hr at 6000 rn. 943 byla zjistena delka rozjezdu 238 m za 13. the aircraft was bui IL initialy without this specification in mind and so It hadnit COITespond in each items. Further measuring flights confirmed these results.2 o aerodynamicky kryt tdhla kiidelek. During climbing 500 m altitude was reached in 44 s.-II/36 dated 22 May 1936.2. Ruzhy z cervua 1940.' . Next phase of B-135 evaluation by FYA followed during the months of first half of 194J. 1658/41 se podrobil prezkoumanf letoun Avia B-135 Werk NT.9. 2000 m za 2 min 47 s. Comprehensive report is written in German and state in introduction. s motorem Avia 12Yers 0 860 k a rtuli Letov Hd 43 C.es the night weight quoted is 2440 kg. vydanou 11.

V csrvenem pruhu na srnerovce nechybelo nezbytne oznacent letadel FUse. Zakladnim nate rem hornlcn ploch byla barva RLM 02. This part of the surface kept its original colour even afterthe topside colour was changed. Ptsmena poznavacl znackv byla pravdepodobne cerna.Avia8 .2. when it flew. kdyz v roce 1941 letal pod oznacenlm 8-135.2 as civilnl poznavacl znackou D-18PP.. Tretf prototyp v podobs. The red horizontal stripe across the vertical tail carried the inevitable black swastika. The registration letters were apparently black. Pohled na spodni plochy tretfho prototypu 8-135. which extended to the rear fuselage sides below the hortzontal tail. 135. A view of the undersurfaces of the third prototype the 8-135. They carried the D-IBPP civilian registration. ktera zasahovala na bocfch zadnf casti trupu i pod vodorovne ocasnf plochy. too. The standard day-fighter underside colour of RLM65 was applied to the Avia's undersides. bezlemu.BPP' Na spodnf plochy prlpadta svetle rnodra barva RLM 65. ktera v te debs patrllak letounu bezne pouzivanernu odstinu pro vetsinu dennfch stfhacfch Tato cast povrchu letadla sf svou barevnost uchovalal pote.2 na kterych byla take umistena civilnf poznavacl znacka O-I. The third prototype as it looked like in 1941... The base colour of the upper surfaces was the RLM 02. 50 .2. with no border ..The undersurfaces were in the light blue-grey RLM 65. marked 8-135. kdyz doslo ke zrnene barvy na zbytku draku. with a civilian registration D-IBPP.2.

ze v dobe zavereenych typovych zkoussk vypadal tak. Photo left: A. ze se [edna 0 puvodnt nater barvou RLM 02. Jiste vsak je. During the process. jako na obrazku Horn! plochy byly kornpletne pfestffkane tmavs zelenou barvou RLM 71. Itis certain. The upper surfaces were completely oversprayed in dark green RLM 71 Ounkelqrun. Oznaceni letadel Rise zustalo na svern rnfste. that during the final. the colour apparently being the original.Avia 8-135. the civil registration D-IBPP was probably masked off. Note the irregular and uneven border width. pricemz civilnf poznavact znacka D-IBPP zustala zachovana. Foto vlevo: Cast plsmen poznavaci znacky na pravem boku trupu . Vsirnnete sl nepravldelne a nestejne sfFky lemu. The picture comes from the type test report. (NTM Prague) The date of the upper surface's colour change cannot be tracked with absolute accuracy. The tail nationality marking (swastika on red stripe) remained in place. period of the type tests it already looked as shown here.trnave zeleneho" prototypu. Snfmek pochazi ze zpravy a typovych zkouskach. Kolem pfsrnen se objevil sveUy lem a Ize S8 domnfvat. base RLM 02 shade. (NTM Praha) Datum zrneny barvy hornlch ploch nelze vyslovit s naprostou pfesnostl. fragment of the letters of the registration on the starboard side of the "dark green" prototype. however.2. 51 . givIng rise to the light coloured border to its letters.

tlakomery vpravo k nouzovemu meni klapek. Do uvedene skupiny samoziejme patiila i pomocnd pffstrojovti deska umCstend na podlaze kabiny pilota (tj. Vsimnete si po pisek v bullUlritine nil tlakomeru djchale.1 (-2) .Pilotni prostor stihaciho letounu Avia 8-135.1 (-2) fighter prototype Hlavni pf(strojova deska prototypu B-13S. The same applied to the auxiliary instrument hoard on the cockpit floor (i.e. na povrchu kHdla). the wing upper surface).2 prototype.prototyp The coe kpit of the Avia 8-135. (National Technical Museum. (NTM Prague) __.2. Note the inscription in Bulgarian (Cyrillic) characters on the oxygen breather manometer. The pair of manometers 0" port side of the instrument board belonged to the circuit of the emergency undercarriage extension. Prague) 52 . Dvojice tlakominl vlevo nil desce patiila do okruhu nouzoveho sp0uSten( 'podvozku. (NTM Praha) The main instrument panel of the B-135.- --- Spinact skf{ifka pod hlavni pnstrOjOVOlldeskou by/a soulasif vybaveni take seriovych letounii.1 a -. the manometers of starboard side 10 the emergency control of flaps circuit. (NTM Praha) The switch box beneath the main instrument panel was a part of the equipment fit in the series-built machines.1 and -. (NTM Prague) Sedadlo pilota upravene pro ztidovj paddk Pilot's seat with its backrest modified to take the back parachute.

Kola nastaveni vyskoveho stabilizatoru Horizontal stabilizer adjustment (trim) handwheel 6. Tahlo hasiciho pristroje Fire extinguisher control 7. Rucni pativove cerpadlo ~ Hand fuel pump 8. ~ Ammunition counter 11.Cannon safety Hlavni pr.0 2 9 13 3 7 4 1. Ovladani klapky chladlce . Variometr .Tlakorner brzd . Pfepinac magnet ~ Magneto switch 17. Opakovant kulomeru ~Machine gun charging 19. Nastfikovaci pumpa .Machine gun charging 6.Air speed indicator 23. Pfidavne mazanl rnotoru '.Lubrication boost control 18. Palivomer ~ Fuel gauge 9. Teplomer oleje a vody ~ Oil and water temperature gauge 16. Shoz purn .Rate of climb indicator 3. Uzaver pfivodu kysliku .istrojova deska Main instrument panel 23 24 25 1 3 5 18 6 17 16 15 14 12 11 1 1.The magneto coil 10.Brake pressure gauge 5. UmiH9 borizont ~ Artificial horizon 25.Flare pistol 11. Vyskova korekce . Ukazatel vyvazem • Pitch trim indicator 13.Canopy initial opening lever 3. Opakovani kulometu .Mixture control 4. Signalnl pistole . Pozarru uzaver paliva (?) .Fuel cut-off valve (?) 5. Tahlo max.Oxygen supply cut-off valve 00 the pressure bottle 9. VS'skamer . Kolo vyskoveho nastaveru sedadla pilota The pilot's seat height adjustment handwheel S3 . Pojistka kan6nu . Kompas ~ Compass 2.Radiator airflow control 7.Ammunition counter 10. vykonu motoru ~ Maximum engine output knob 22.. Tlakorner kornpresoru ~ Supercharger pressure gauge 20. Civka magneta .Oil and fuel pressure gauge 15.Altimeter 24.Engine priming fuel pump 4 . Tlakorner dychace ~ Oxygen breather pressure gauge 14. Ptynova paka ~ Throttle lever 2. Bomb release 8. Tlakomer oleje a paliva . Rychlorner . Pocitac naboju. Ukazatel vztlakovych klapek ~ Flap position indicator 12. Otvirani kabiny . Otackomer ~ Tachometer 21.Pilotni prostor stfhaciho letounu Avia 8-135 (serle) The cockpit of the Avia 8-135 fighter (production) I. PoNtae naboju .

The available information did not suffice to identity and show the colours of many small details. The tubular structures were silvery grey. trubkova konstrukce stlfbroseda. The inner surface of the side panels was light grey. the seat in dark grey. Drobne detaily nebylo moine z dostupnych podkladO identifikovat a zakreslit. zvyklosti). sedadlo trnavesede.Rekonstrukce vybavenr kabiny pilota v seriovych letounech Avia B~135 pro bulharsks letectvo. including the inside faces of the canopy framing. Reconstruction of the cockpit in the series-built machines. VniH'nf strana bocnich plechu byla svetIe seda (die cs. The Avia B~135 for Bulgarian Air Force. . veetne nimu pi'ekrytu. (as per Czechoslovak habit).

odvozene ze serioveho clsla.3" na trupu.Avia 8-135. was the first of the "Bulgarian dozen" of machines-test flown in Bohemia. instructor of the air school of the Dolna Mitropolija. Flight with this Avia AV-135-112..:. on wing and horizontal tail complemented by blotches of RLM 70 black green.10 1. green and red horizontal stripes on the rudder were part of the Bulgarian Air Force marking. Horni plochy byly pravdepodobne nastrlkany trnave zelenou barvou RLM 71. Avia 8-135.bulharskeho tuctu". Undersurfaces were RLM 65 light blue-grey. The white 3 tactical number on the fuselage was derived form the series number was repeated underneath both wing halves in black. Hornf plochy byly v barye RLM 71.. White. Pismena registra6nf znacky byla cerna bez lernovanl. Bfly. ale jen na kffdlech a vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach. zelen a 'cerveriypruh na smerbVem kbrmidle byl soucastf ~~[:e. The spinner was in solid RLM 71 dark green. Undersurfaces were RLM 65. tactical number "12". Pro vrtulovy kuzel platl take RLM 71. with no borders..:'''''''===~~':~~~~~~~~ neno oznacenl letounu oulharskeno vojenskeho letectva. s taktickym cistern . Pro spodnl plochy plati barva RLM 65. jako u vsech ostatnfch bulharskych Aviif.. Zbarvenf stroje byto stejne.. . a " .. Letters of the registration marking were black. Letem s Avi! AV-135-112. byla prvnfm v Cechach zaletanyrn strojem z ... .. V Bulharsku pam podobne prvenstvf stroji s vyrobnlrn cfslern B-135. ss . designated AV-135-1 03 a la Bulgarian.103. instruktor letecke skoly z Dolne Mitropolije. The upper surfaces were sprayed apparently in RLM 71 dark green. was the last one for 1943 in the logbook of Lt. - In Bulgaria a similar "first" belonged to the B-135. Na spodnfch plochach byla pouzita svetle rnocra barva RLM 65. Petar Manolev.12".1 03. na kterou pozde] pfibyla nepravidelna pole cernozelene barvy RLM 70. uzavrel svuj letovy denfk za rok 1943 porucfk Petar Manolev. Bile takticke CIslo .101 with the civilian registration D-IWKM. The upper surfaces were RLM 71 dark green.po bulharsku" AV-135-103. _ . The camouflage scheme was the same as with the other Bulgarian machines. se v cernem provedenf opakovalo na obou polovinach spodnf plochy krfdla. na kiidlech a vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach doplnene poli RLM 70. later complemented by irregular blotches of RLM 70 black green on wing and horizontal tail upper surfaces. s civilni reqlstracnl znaekou O-IWKM.".:.

.....06..06..1 B-135.. 20. --._ min. 74 ...."--Zemanek ..... ".. zaletavani zaletavani ---.... 29.. Popkancev ."--B-135... --"----... ".". vyska . in November and December only the Ar 96 and the B-715... 01. _ . 21...1 B-135.. rychlost rychlost let stremhlav osmicky akrobacie poznavacf ~~~-~~ " vyska spotteba --'_ " --14."----. " ....."----. Zemanek --....1 Avia C.".. --._.-..06. 06.... 74 B-135... 28... --. .".-.06... 24. 14..... "--- 299 302 305 308 " --." --= Hd43 Hd43 Zemanek --.1 Spumy Zemanek --.._ . 06.1 C.... zai'i ...... zaletavani --.06... 74 zaletavani . 25. ". B-135..1 B-135. 05."----........ 12..."----....1 B-135..06...06..l Hd43 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 376 377 380 381 383 384 poznavaci _.... 1L 06....06. ~ -.1 --. 9 10 Cerven I June 315 316 317 328 329 330 331 332 333 338 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 01. 06..«----- Pilot Zemanek --..3 Typzkousky Datum 21. pfelet do Leman v9~ka ". 74 B-135......32 15:47-16:05 13:25-14:03 11:14-11:23 10:37-10:47 Minut 14 11 18 38 c..06."----. ".. 11. 24. 06...... 18. . 06. 10._.... motoru Avia Vrtule Hd43 --."--." ~ por.1 Avia c...".... 01... 06 ..."----.. Hd43 Zemanek --."---.. 74 --.:33 15:05-16:00 16:30-16:53 17:30-18:15 13:00-13:10 14:43-15:30 17:18~18:04 09:26-09:30 09:33-09:37 09:39-09:43 12:45-13 :04 15: 12-15:53 16:40-17:27 09:28~09:59 1L:42-12:50 13:30-13:48 15:45-15 :58 16:01-16:25 16:47-17:20 17:43-18:15 09:1O~1O:05 13:23-14:05 15:10-15:50 09:01-09:20 09:22~09:38 10:05-10:32 11:29~12:37 13:47-14:24 14:30~14:55 13:37-14:03 11:25-12:22 15:37-15:50 13:57-14:33 15:03-16:03 10:15-10:22 1453-15:57 17:08-18:03 lO:45~10:50 I3 6 11 32 24 63 55 23 35 10 47 46 4 4 4 19 41 47 31 68 18 13 24 33 32 55 42 40 19 16 27 68 41 25 26 57 13 36 60 7 64 55 5 V obdobi cervenec ~srpen 1940 le1aly pouze Ar 96 a B·71.."... 06. 06 ...1 B-135.. from September to October only the Arados. 21..06..... rychlost H B-135 .. _...... _......05....." _.. --. 25..._ . _.. Hd43 Zemanek ~-. In the July...1 1940 Kveten I May Lete... 13.. .. 05.."--zal etav ani zkusebni --- --- " .. Atanasov kpt.cc .. 74 B-135. 24.1 --. 26.06...... 25. 05."--Hd43 vyvrtlcy zkusebni vyska pfelet do tovarny rychlost vyska pfelet do Letiian vyska rychlost prefer do tovarny Zemanek 09:30-09:43 10:23-10:29 10:56-11 :07 15:54-16:26 07:51-08: 15 10:30-11.1 Avia c.1 Avia C.----...AVIA 8-135. "......06.06."--. 05..11 B-135.. "=~~ 07.".. .....ffjen jen Ar 96.--- ..August 1940 period only the Ar 96 and the 8-71 were flown......... 07. 74 Hd43 Zemanek . .06......06.06. ..06. 286 289 ~ az -. ."--.......".."--.. llstopad a prosinee jen Ar 96 a B·71. Cas 16: 10-16:24 IO:21~lO.1 S~135..05. 14. 23. --- ..... 25.1 B-13S.1 Avia C... _ --" Hd43 --......---. 56 .."_ .1 Avia C.. B~135.... B-13S. " . Typ S-13s.. --......."~ ~ --. Zemanek B-135. spotreba ."--- Hd 43 Hd43 Hd43 Zemanek Spumy rychlost 19.... rychlost starty /pfi stam ~~~--" -..."--Zemanek Zemanek ---"----... stabilita zkusebni 19. 06. B-135.

1941 Brezen I March Let 395 396 489 490 557 577 578 621 622 c.2 B-135.35. B-135...1.2 B-135.04. 18.07.06.2 B-135. 19."---- ---- " -=-- " " " " Siroky " vyska " Duben I April 830 831 865 16. 21.35.03. 04. B-135.03. 14.03.04. 04.2 Avia C. 74 zaletavani zaletavanl " Kveten I May 1072 06.2 B-1. 74 " " Hd43 " 232A12432 Hd43 SirokY --- "--- zalet rychlost Siroky Siroky " zkouska drevene vrtule 09:50-10:12 14:27-14:56 13:43-14:16 10:05-10:16 16:00-16:25 22 29 32 11 25 898 899 B-. ---. ----. 17.03. 24.2 B-135. motoru Avia C.03.. 74 Vrtule Hd43 " " Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 13:42~ 13:56 16:00.2 C.. zaletavani zaletavant " " zaletavaru " " " Siroky " " ---."-.2 Avia C.35.2 B-135.. 74 Hd43 Siroky pftlet z Leman 11:05 Cervenec I July 03.2 Avia C.2 B-1.".. 07.03. z tovarni dokumentace vydflne k tomuto typu • Control circuit diagram as in the factory documentation SCH[NA RIZ[N/ 57 .2 Avia C. B-135.. 14. 16.16:22 11 :57-12:28 15:47-16:05 11 :05-11 :20 10:40-10:57 13:35-13:45 10:43-11:15 10:22-11:05 Minut 14 22 31 ]8 15 17 ]0 32 43 . 19.2 8-135.2 Avia C.03.2 B-135. 21.05.. Datum 07.2 " B-135. 74 Hd43 SirokY pfelet do Leman 11 :55-12:25 20 Cerven I June 1585 26. Typ B~135. 74 Hd43 Siroky 112 bod 15:10-15:44 34 Schema fize" .04. Siroky Siroky " " " " " . B-135.03.2 B-135. 22.03.

oznacene cisly 8-135. Z boka trupu za motorem take zmizely prolisy odvadejici prebytecne teplo od motoru. Iijnem 1942 byly v Avii postupne dokonceny a pfedevsim zaletany vsechny letouny B-135 objed- zhotovena.8-135. Pro zajimavost Ize uvest. chladic oleje s hladkjm povrchem oil radiator with smooth surface nane bulharskou stranou. Predmetem aktivity byla objednavka 1-1191/9.102. K datu 31. dubnern at 6.isly 8 .35. jen "plechy" za motorem a vstupni otvor vzduchu k chladici vody domaly mensicb zmen.2.Posledni vyvojova varianta prototypu . 1941 byla objednavka z 90% pouze dva kulomety vz. -.ze pro zaletani letounu s c.000. only the panels behind the engine cowling and the water radiator air intake were .. 1 vrtuli mel kazdy ze stroju . kterou Bulharsko objednalo 12 draku letounu B-135 za pevnou dohodnutou cenu 609. Dalsi zajimavosti je i fakt. • The last developed versionofthe prototype. zaletal v ~t~inou pilot Petr Siroky. Drobne upravy se dotkly bezpro!isu without depression podvozek jako B-I3S. The rear fuselage including the tailwheel remained the same.K za kus.108 a -.2 undercarriage as B·13S.v podstate poslouiila jako vyrobni vtor pro ndsledujici poctem omezenou seriovou vyrobu.llO byl pouzit stejny motor s ~islem 21811. v Avii se zacalo pracovat na prvni a take posledni serii . the B-135. z nicnz 50 melo byt dodano po zeleznici a 12 rnotoru vestavenych do draku melo do Bulharska dorazit vzdusnou cestou. however limitedin numbers.30 two machine gun only cz te V obdobi mezi 7. Zadni trupu. jake 0<1 prototypech oznacovanych 8-135. 'Rzi~tem cele objednavky bylo dodani rnotoru a licence.. ze novy ova lilY tvar new oval shape 58 .i tvar karoserie se [apac vzduchu odSlranen air scoop deleted zrnenil jen velrni neparme.102.11 0 zaletal tOY ami pilot Kraus.2.stopetarficirek''.svoji". Tyro stroje.2 jen nekterych vnitrntch instalaci a pfistrcioveho vybaveni (sntky a popis pi'istroju v bulharstine). ktery se jinak venoval zaleturn cvicnych letonnu Arado AI 96B. vyroba a dodavka 12 draku B-135 predstavovala v podstavedlejsi obchod.106 a -. ale vnejs. 35. Na seriovych strojich jiz nebylo pouzito kratke vyfukove potrubi. Spolu s draky bylo objednano i 62 motam Avia HS 12 Ycrs.1 a B-135. (Author's collection) cast Avia B-135 Serle pro Bulharsko Zatimco probihaly posledni protorypove zkousky.2 served in/act as the pattern machine/or the subsequent series production. Od posledrriho prototypu se viditelne lisily zejmena ovalnym tvarem hrdla vstupu vzduchu k chladici vody.slightly modified. Soucasne Avia prodala Bulharsku licencni prava na stavbu 50 draku B~1.101 B-13 5. vce/ne ostruhy zus/ala stejnd. 12. -.112 a opatrene ci vilni poznavaci znackou. "C isla" B-13 5 ..

the remaining twelve were to arrive in Bulgaria by ali. the test-flown and partially dismantled machines were crated. It is interesting that for the test flights of the B-135. Ratier. At the same time.vrtule Hd 43. the temporary end-station of the fighters. 1942 byly zaletane a castecne demontovane draky ulozene v ptepravnlch bednach a cekaly na prfkaz k transportu.the series for Bulgaria While the final prototype tests were underway. As of December 31 st. (N7'M. dfevena Avia a kovova fy. of this number 50 units were to be brought to Bulgaria by rail. ninety percent of this production order had been completed. Avia B-135 . all of the B -1355 made to the Bulgarian order were built and test-flown. These machines bore the series numbers B-135. RLM povolilo pouze dodavku prvnich 35 mown'] a zbyvajicich 27 si ponechaJo pro vlastni potrebu. The factory technicians Messrs. In the period of 7th Apri 1 to 6th October 1942. ale B-135. the wooden Avia and the metal French Ratier unit. haha) 59 . sixty-two Avia HS 12Ycrs engines were ordered. Odtud zasilka pokracovala do zavodu DSF iDariavna Samoletna Fabrika . Bilancni zprava z 15. The Bulgarian order. flown by PeU' Siroky. From Plovdiv the shipment continued to the DSF factory (Darzhavna Samoleta Fabrika) near Lovech. The focus of the whole order was indeed the licence agreement and the purchase of engines the production and supply of a dozen fighters being a secondary trade case. the same engine. The cooling air exhaust gill of the engine compartment located on the fuselage sides. This pilot normally devoted his attention to test-flying the Arado Ar 96B training rnachines. Pnnejmenslm aZ do Plovdivu je doprovazeli tovarni technici Struha a MUller. . behind the cowling. The last test flight of the B-135. Planovany prelet 12 stroju odpadJ a spolu 5 nim i plano- vana licence. The short exhaust stubs of the B-'135. V unoru 1943 bylo vsecn 12 letounu odeslano po zeleznici do Bulharska. Petr SirokY ill ade 7 flights with it. The planned licence production was therefore cancelled. The Avia factory balance statement of 15th June 1943 assesses the whole business as a net loss.2 prototypes were not used again.112 and were given a civilian registration. njna 1942 patril k poslednirn okamzikum kdy je~te byJ. This decision had a major effect on the situation.106 and . These machines differed visibly from the Last prototype by the oval shape of the air intake for the water radiator. 194 J. testing three types of propeller: the Hd 43. bullumki objedndvlcy II zkulebnkh ve VTL(J. keeping the remaining 27 for itself. cervna 1943 hodnoti cely obchod jako ztratovy.built mtlChine for the Bulgaria" order in the VTLU logbook. In February 1943 all twelve crated Avias were sent by rail to Bulgaria. Jeste net byla eels objednavka pfipravena k odeslani. . 12..102. (NT~ Pt:aha) A record oj one Qj'the test an4 tneDSuring flights o/thejirst serNs .111. the production of the first (and last) series of B-135 fighters was started. Minor modifications took place to some internal installations and instrumentation (placards and markings in Bulgarian).110. ktere bylo pro Avie docasnou konecnou stanici.poslednirn zaletanym strojem nebylo ptekvapive cislo B-135. its wings in the sides above Bohemia.1 and B-13S. Toto rozhodnuti zasadne ovlivnilo stay veci. disappeared. asked for a series of twelve B-135 airframes at a fixed unit price of 609 000 Czech crowns (Kc). By 31st December 1942. built into the completed aircraft.o moine spatfit B-135 na ceske obloze. but the . Avia sold the licence rights for the construction of 50 Avia B-135 airframes. the RLM permitted only the delivery of the first 35 engines. It is of some interest that the last machine to have been test flown was not the . awaiting their transportation order. no.Statnt letecka tovarna) u mesta Levee. otherwise the changes to the external shell were minimal.lll on 6th October 1942 was probably the last moment when this type spread. Together with the airframes.108 and .110 were test-flown by the factory pilot Antonin Kraus. 21811 was used while the propeller was always the one "belonging' to the given machine. Posledni zalet cisia ••111" dne 6. Pilot Siroky s nim uskutecrrilcelkem 7 vzletu ana letounu byly odzkouseny tfi typy vrtuli .112. K datu 31. Struha and MUller accompanied the crates at least as far as Plovdiv.102.ZI! mi1idch ktUpnnilw serioveM klllunu z. as was the ferry flight.111. The majority of the aircraft were test- Zdvuun jednohtJ . Even before the first order was ready for shipment. number 119119. numbers B-13S.101 to 8-135.112.

_ u.101 B~135.07. --. 21786 21811 21786 21811 --- .."--. 10. B-135. "."--..1. 04 23.04 09. 17.07.A 8-135..04 17."--- --??-- Siroky mereni startn 10:37:10:45 14:00-14:03 1. 10. vrtule Propeller nr..07...4:06-14...05...101 B-135...(vyska) ---" .--- zaletavanl 13:50-14:00 zaletavani 15:31-15:44 10:29-10:38 mereni s tartu LO:58-11:01 meteru startCi* *' Ph pristant by.. 15.06..448 1460 1461.04 21....Ill 8-135.09....:07 _ ..01 B-135. 8-135. 28.:09 14:12<1." . 241304 ..109 B-135.Knize leru" tykajid se Avie B-135 This is the last record in the "Flight book" about Avia B-135 60 .~ _ .." --~-.. C..104 21822 21786 21824 --?-241304 27t-1307 Siroky --..."--rychlost SirokY Kraus 241305 zaletavam akrobacie a prelet do Leman zaletavani 09 :50~LO: 5 1 15:45~16:00 14:09-14:35 10: 15-10:50 11:51-12:30 15:25-16:00 14:38-14:47 10:00-10: 15 13:02-13:17 25 15 26 35 39 35 9 15 15 Kveten 746 754 800 \ 06... .. '£-135...11l B-135.l poskozen nosnik ostruhy 10 13 9 3 Srpen 1290 1364 18.101 1942 Duben Let c. 10. 07...05.107 B-135.102 B-135.111 B-135.(vyska) rychlost 11:25~11 :35 11:20~J 1:50 15:40-16:03 12:33-13:08 Siroky 8 13 13 10 30 23 35 Toto je posledni zaznam v . ~ -.".. B-135.. 21...... 1462 16.101 B-13S. zaletavant zaletavaru vyska --.112 8-135.03 '£-135....jen 1557 1558 1564 1574 1579 Ol....111 B-135. Siroky ..". az -.109 B-135...04 07.'~~~ ..... -"--241304 241305 241304 ~.04 25....~~ .1...112 Pilot Pilo! pro bulharske letectvo lfor the Bulgarian Air Force Datum Date Typ Type C.. ... vrtule zkouska vrtule 13:45-13:53 15:52-16:05 1O:54-11. Flight nr.101 H-135..08.102 21786 --.....111 B-135. _2]824 241315 dfev.112 B-135... Siroky ~ ~ ~~~ " ."--- zaletavani mefeni starta --..111 21824 --.05.. 17... ~~-. 1580 1590 B-135..106 241308 241309 Siro~y SirokY zal~tavfmi zaletavani 10:46-10:55 10:49-10:55 9 6 Cervenec 1139 1140 U8I I I 82 21.. Typ zkousky Type of the test Cas Duration of flight Minut Minutes 540 07. S-135.??-- Siroky ---. _- SirokY . 03. zaletavani zkouska dt. 10. . Siroky metenj ---"--."--"-~~ -. 28.'--21824 --.. 10."--21824 --.09. _. 06.04 27._. Siroky Siroky zaletavam " ~..240 Ratier 1146312 --. 05.09...."--Ratier 11463/2 _"-.....101 B-135..105 21786 21811 B-135..111 B-135...04 B-135.06...109 21824 21927 21824 21824 241312 241310 241312 241312 Siroky --.....AVI...112 B. 22.~~- zaletavani pfilet z Letiian zaleravani "~~~ 14:25-14:31 13:53-14:03 14:28-14:38 6 10 10 Cerven 916 983 09. motoru Engine nr.4:14 8 3 3 2 H..101 B-135... 02..LOl B-135. " ---"_'.. 10..."--Ratier 1146312 Siroky --. 28..108 B-135. 05.. 08.". 01 . Siroky ..08... 10...09...110 21786 21811 241311 241313 Kraus Kraus zaletavant za Ieta van r ]4:15-14:28 LO:03-1 11 0: 13 8 Zan 1. 17.135.04 14..112 --??---??-- --?'1---??-- --'1?---??--..

~~ 4 l -:-'_ !P02 2 3 s 61 .~ r R-H I-I l' .... I . ) 1("' 1 •...AI 91 CI DI E j F j G f HI DJ ~ ~~ -.

pokud bude dodavka neprodlena.-Eng.VNVV -Ietectvo jeho velicenstva) byla pripravena vazne posoudir jakoukoliv uabidku vojenskeho letadla.The Bulgarian Dozen by DipL.e securing of licensing rights for the indigenous manufacture of several aircraft types. ktere by se vyrabely v Bulharsku. Note the telescopic sight protruding from the cockpit windshield. Protoze ale nasledujtciho mesice vojska Treti fise Pfislusnici bulharske delegate a konstrukteii Avie u prototypu B-135.a tvorena mj. they were open to any offer. Pozdeji tehoz dne jim sefpilor Avie Rudolf Bulgarian Interest In February 1939. as such. Bnlhafi pozadal! 0 seznamenf s typem a sefkonsrrukter Avie lng. the Avia B-35.Denes Bernad Bulharsky zajem Kdyz v unoru 1939 navstivila rovarnu Avia pocetna bulharska vojenska delegace.1 prototype at the VTLU premises in June 1940. monoplane bomber. of any warplanes. During the following days. Viimnete si vylnivaj(dho teleskopickeho zamNovace z ceintho . Later on in the same day. hledajic rychly zpusob jak odstranit kriticky nedostatek pluohodnotnych stroju pro sve ledva dosptvsjicl Ietectva (Vazdusni na Negovo Velicestvo Vojski .-Eng. as well as th. The commission looked at both the purchasing of warplanes that were readily available for sale. zkusebnimi piloty lng. chtela nakoupit jak bojove letouny nabizene hoed k pnmemu odprodeji. Mezi okamzite dostupne typy vybrane k nakupu patfila obratna Avia B-534 a modern] celokovove jednoplosne bombardery B-71. presented the prototype of the B-35 to the commission. kdyz mlli moinost porovnat letove vlastnosti nejnovejStM prototypu s piedchozim strojem 8-35.dushni na Negovo Velichestvo Voyski (VNVV . Frantisek Novotny jim 23. Everyone liked Dalecky ukazal stroj v letu.1 na plede VTLU v cervnu 1940 krdtce polt. the Bulgarians thoroughly studied the technical documentation for the fighter aircraft.Avie B~35.Eng.2. unora prorotyp na zemi pfedvedl. Dimitarem Anastasovern. Petko Popgancevem a Krasto Atanasovem v roli technickych odborniku. Krome techto dvou typn delegace projevila zivy zajem 0 prototyp moderne vyhlifejfciho dolnoplosneho stihacfho stroje . the delegation expressed considerable interest in the prototype of a low-wing. The photo was take briefly after the Bulgarians were given the chance to compare the latest fighter prototype flying abilities with those of the preceding B~35.2. In accordance with the request of the Bulgarians. Frantisek Novotny. Dipl-Eng.st(tku kabiny. tak licence na nekolik typu. . Besides these two types.md Dipl. Vsem se pfitailive vyhlizejtc! letoun smisene konstrukce HbH. Among (he readily available models chosen for purchase were the agile Avia 8-534 biplane fighter and the modern B. D:ipl.. as well as the test pilot Krasryo Atanasov provided its technical expertise.71 an-metal. Dimitar Anastasov led the commission. Avia's chief test pilot Dalecky demonstrated the machine in flight. chief designer of the Avia Company. Kornise. kornise proto rozhodla 0 pokracovani zkousek. • Members of the Bulgarian delegation and the Avia's design team members around the 8-135. on 23rd February. (Author's collection) 62 . and test pilot Petko Popgantchev. for imrnediate delivery. vedena Ing.His Majesty's Air Army). a Sizeable Bulgarian military delegation visited the Avia Works as part of their search for an immediate solution to the critical equipment needs of the fledgling Va'l. V prnbehu nasledujlclch dnt Bulhari peclive prostudovali technickou dokumentaci stihaciho typu. modem looking fighter aircraft..

owing to an excessively high landing speed. elektrikaru zbrojifu atd. Dimitar Anastasov. aby se dukladne teoreticky reznamili s ruznymi fazemi letecke vyroby kterou ul. cely dals! mesic s novym prototypem udalosti nepostihly. Duda.2. jiz Bulbar ko planovalo. techniky a piloty. Dipl. the Bulgarian Ministry of War did not give up its pursuit of the pre-ordered warplanes. Tato zkuseno t z prvni ruky jim pornohla nashromazdit zkusenosti zivotne dulezile pro velkoseriovou vyrobu. all-metal fighter plane. when the Third Reich occupied Western Czechoslovakia. which were badly needed for the expanding Bulgarian air force. Pres tuto vyznamnou udalost bulharske ministerstvo valky nevzdalo svlij boj 0 zajisteru objednanych dodavek vojenskych Ietadel. Consequently. Po nekolika dalsich sklenkach dobreho vina mel Popgancev prohlasit. kdyf sing.a kovozpracovatelu. Ing. Cesi zvladli. wood and metal workers. Nastest! jiz jel relativne pomalu. the process came to an abrupt halt in the next month. while it was still in full development The work was intense and not without ramifications. During one of these practice flights on 28th May 1940. Ruzha. Ponekud otreseny. ale ve skutecnosti se rovnez t1castnili samotneho procesu vyroby.-Eng. Vedl je Ing. pozdejf ocenene na 5 %. zachranil zrvot. engineers and pilots was present at Letriany to actively assist in the design work and factory test of the new aircraft type. krere bylo stale jeste ve vyvoji. Dimitar Anastasov. therefore the commission decided to continue with the test programme. Petko Popgancev a Ing. Krasto Atanasov.1 was to become the manufacturing standard and would serve as the model for the forthcoming series production. znovu na- B ulbary uf behem rozsahlych letovych zkousek. The Czecb personnel at the Avia Works were joined by a sizeable Bulgarian technical delegation . bulharske strany. prace log. as mastered by the Czechs. spojili se Bulhafi znovu s tovarnou Avia. Later on in the evening following the accident. to T. the B-135. He par- NejdulezitljU osobnosti bulharske delegace. electrician " and armament specialists. he had been born again thanks to his new Czech friend. Novotny in a Prague restaurant. Duda a Pavlicek a zkusebni piloti Dalecky. No other significant incidents occurred to the Bulgarians during the extensive test flights. Dimitar Anastasov. They eventually succeeded in persuading the new management of the company to finalise the contract. 63 . Na snimku zleva por. takze letadlo.1. Dipl-Eng. while wining and dining with. utrpelo jen mens! skody. Ing. Mdne vyznamnejst ticularly emphasised the inclusion in the rear of the cockpit of the turnover bar. in effect. K ceskemu personalu tovarny se pfipojila velka delegace bulharskych techniku . dfevo. ale nezraneny Bulhar e z mists nehody vzdalil pesky. kpt. On the Bulgarian side a commission made up of aviation specialists. the Bulgarians again contacted the Avia Works in order to resume their negotiations with them. Novotnyrn nebodu zapijeli. tak nalehave potrebnych pro rostouct bulharske vojenske letectvo. which the Bulgarian was convinced had saved his life during the accident. However.1. aby dokoncili jiz dflve zacaty obchod. the aircraft turned over. svafecu. After acquiring the necessary permits in Berlin. Pornineme-li nektere rnensl upravy a vylepseni.): U. Popgantchev reportedly declared that. testing at the Avia Works continued with the active participation of the Bulgarians.konstrukteru. ktery mu. led by Dipl-Eng. Pouzili dostupny prototyp B-35. Eng. parallel to the development and manufacturing process. The somewhat shaken Bulgarian pilot was able to walk away unhurt from the site of accident. Pavlicek and the te t-pilots Dalecky and later also Zemanek.including engineers. pozdeji i Zemanek. the B-135. Bulharska komi e. Notwithstanding some minor changes and upgrade. jak byl (pravem) presvedcen. the Bulgarian technician also took part in the manufacturing proce s of the aircraft. B-135. Dipl. In the meantime. After serving several glasses of fine wine. The Czech side was represented by Dipl. which continued throughout the following month with the new prototype. Smolaf.-Eng. despite this unpredictable event. Krastyo Atanasov. but because of its low speed the resulting damage was minimal. Nakonec se jim podafilo presvedcit nove vedeni firmy a pfipravili s nim smlouvu. Nonetheless.2. inadvertently steered the aircraft off the paved landing strip and onto the rough surface of the airfield. V Avii zatim pokracovaly zkousky s akrivnl ucasr. Behem jednoho seznamovaciho Ietu dne 28. the attractive looking. Bulgarian pilots including Poruchyk Atanasov and Popgantchev. Pozdeji vecer tehoz dne. (Sbirka autora) The Bulgarian most important VIPs were (l. This bands-on activity helped them accumulate the necessary experience that would prove vital to the planned fuIJscale production in Bulgaria. Novotneho. Smolar. Cpt.okupovala oklestene zbytky Ceskoslovenska. Zatim se soubezne s vyvojem a vyrobou prototype zacali s le- tounern ve vzduchu seznarnovat porucici Atanasov a Popgancev. Petko Popgantchev and Ing. kvetna 1940 Petko Popgancev pfistal na pi'Uis vysoke rychlo ti pfi vybehu neudrzel smer a sjel ze zpevneneho pasu do nerovneho terenu. Petko Popgantchev. v Letrianech aktivne pomahala ph vyvojovych pracich a tovarnich zkouskach noveho typu letadla. ~e se diky kvali[(! rodil. tvofena leteckymi odborniky. They used the available prototype Avia B-35.-Eng. Bulharsri technici pfijeli nejen proto. Dimitar Anastasov A well a familiarising themselves with the various aspects of the theory of aircraft production.1 u~ byla v pcdstate pripravena pro vyrobu a take poslouzila jako predloha pro nadchazejici serii. Prace probihaly intenzivne a zahrnovaly mnoho oblasti. Popgantchev praised the sound construction of the Avia prototype. Popgancev chvalil odolnou stavbu letounu a zvlaste zduraznil prornyslenou konstrukci kozliku za hlavou pilota. obchodni jednani se nahle zarazila. monteru. In the meantime. welders fitters. Dipl. (Author's collection) ktere se pfevratilo na zada. started to familiarise themselves in the air with the machine. Potom co zlskali nezbyrna povoleni v Berllne. konanych po B-135. Na ceske strane se jich zucasrtiovali inzenyfi Ruzha. recorded later as only 5%. sveho noveho ceskeho pntele.

Production would. after the successful conclusion of all of the redesign work and detailed testing. (M. The reworked contract compelled the Bulgarians to purchase twei ve modernised versions of the B~35 fighter . krere meta Avie vy~ robit v prubehu nasledujicich dvou let. (Sbirka M.The contract also secured for the Bulgarian party the rights to series production of the airframe in Bulgaria. The deal called for 50 airframes to be manufactured at DSF from indigenous Samoletna Fabrika . byla poAvif a bulharskym ministerstvern valky. Prepracovauou smlOUYOU Bulhafi nakoupili 12 modernlzovanych verzi stfhaci B-35 .either a rear-view mirror or an air intake/vent. po uspesnem skonceni vyvojovych. vyzbroj a ruzne palubni prtstro- Temer zkompletovanj letoun vjrobn{ho ell'la AV-135-107.now designated B-135 . SmJouva pfedpokladala vyrobu 50 drake z vlastnlho materialu v DSF. respraci a podrobnych zkousek. have been undertaken at the newly erected aircraft factory at Lovech. A New Deal In early 1940. novy obchod . Note the detail on the windshield top . Pocatkem roku 1940. or State Airplane Factory). Bl1j collection) 64 .Nova doba. Venovat se ji mel nove postaveny vyrobnl zavod DSF (Dariavna pektive rekonstrukcnich depsana smlouva mezi A New Era. Vsimnete si detailu na vrcholu ifebzfho Itftku (pravdepodobni zpetne zrauko nebo ventilace) a pomocne pffstrojove desky na podlaze kabiny. called Darzhavna Samoleta Fabrika (DSF.nynl oznacenych B~135.Statni letecka tovarna) v severobulharskem meste Levee. the contract between the Bulgarian Ministry of War and the Avia Works was finally signed. B11j) The almost complete machine (series number A V-135-1 0 7)..to be manufactured by Avia during the next two years . pticemz motory. Smlouva rovnez zajistovala bulharske strane prava na seriovou vyrobu draku v Bulharsku. and the auxiliary instrument panel Oil the cockpit floor.

Bay collection) Trup stroje s Cislem AV-J35-106 s casteenou mon/aZ{ ocasnicb ploch. BlUko) Left: The first flown Avia B-135 on Bulgarian soil.see the horizontal tail and the wing leaning against the wall in the background. Botiiakova) The Lovech assembly hall with several Avias in mid-assembly. AV-135-106 with the empennage almost fitted.e. (M. i. The tactical number 3 on the fuselage side was derived from the numbers allotted to machines by Bulgarians. (Sbtrka D. The fuselage of machine no. the "last two" digits: AV-J35-103. (M.viz vodorovne ocasni plochy a v pozad{ kiidlo opfeni 0 zed'.Monuii. Snimek je zejmena zajimavy jako doklad existence druhe barvy na hornich plochdcb . (8 & 8 collection) 65 . Nice shot 0/ a section of flaps and the structure of the fuselage formers. (B & B collection) Vlevo: Prvni zatitany letoun Avia na bulharskem uzemi. Bay collection) AV-135-111 s pl'ipojefljrn kfldlem a podvozkem. (Sbirka M. Takticke cislo . This picture is interesting especially as the proof of existence of the second camouflage colour on the upper surfaces .. Peknj pohled na last vztlakovjch klapek ana kostru karoserie. The darker second camouflage colour is clearly visible here. AV:"J35-111 with the wing and undercarriage fitted. I zde jeuetelne vide/ druhd tmavst kamufldin: barva.nf hala v Loveci s nikolika casteene smontovanymi Aviemi. Berndda & S. too.z poslednlho dvojc{sli. resp.3" na trupu vychdzelo Z pfide1e1liho bulharsklho oznacent AV~135-1QJ.

Protoie kan6ny nebyly dodtiny. the propeller spinner was plugged. on flat bed wagon platforms . arrived in Bulgaria. this time in close up. Emanuel Avia s cfslem . Karel Subert a Stanislav Hudomil. Vyroba tuctu Avit B-135 v matefske tovarne v Letrianech trvala do 6. including Dipl-Bng. the complete documentation had been delivered as well. armament and various flight instruments were to have been supplied by the Czechs. (8 & B collection) je mely byt dodavany ceskou stranou. Production of a dozen B~135s by tbe Avia Works. pouze s nemeckymi napisy. Pttjeli rovnez ceSti odbornici. ale zblizka. in front of the assembly hall in wyeth.Along with the machines and spare parts. pfed montatl'll halou v Loved. including test flying. dorazily do bulharske Lovce na plosinovych vag6nech. vjstrelny otvor ve vrtulovem kuzelu byl zaslepellyzatkou. V pozadi a vpravo jsou rozmistine pfepravni bedny S oznacentm vyrobce a typu letounu. Bohumil Hostalek. a pfi sefizovani techniky behern planovaneho zavadeni seriove vyroby v DSE materials. There was even a Bulgarian name selected for the new fighter. too. ffjna 1942.. labelled only in German. Drevene kontejnery. vedoucl skupiny. Avia number "5". head of the team.Pravdepodobne prvni v Bulharsku smontovany letoun Avia B-135. the opening in. a technici Anton Vucek. mj. DAR~lI "Lyastovitza" (Swallow).. vjrobnl Cislo 105. After the final test flight the aircraft were disassembled and crated. In the background and at right there are transport crates with the manufacturer's logo and type designation visible. and technicians Anton Vucek. at Lovech. Jejich ukolern bylo pomoci pri konecne montaz. Spolu s nimi dorazily i nahradni dHy a uplna dokumentace.DAR~11 Ljastovica (vlastovka). Blly collection) 66 .. was completed by 6th October 1942. (M. Novy letoun zaroven dostal jmeno . Emanuel Us. The wooden containers. As the cannon were not supplied. lng. the s/n 105. • Probably first Avia B-135 assembled in Bulgaria. while the power plants. Bohumil Hostalek. Po poslednlrn zkusebnim letu byly vyrobene Avie rozebrany a ulozeny do dopravnich beden. A group of Czech specialists arrived.5".

Karel Subert and Stanislav Hudomil. See the overalls of the (probably) Czechoslovak mechanic and the high boots of (probably) Bulgarian military technician. jii v Avii. and a four-digit Nomenklaturen Noma (Register Number) 7067. They were [0 assist in the final assembly. or AV-135-103.. Note not only the "open" side. 5). was No. ale i tvar aerodynamicke krytky tdhla kfidelka a poloha vjsostneho znaku. Podle kombinizy lze usoudit. according to the Bulgari. Na snimku je zaj(mavj nejen . By August 1943. The aircraft scheduled for the first flight. Lis. Probably also the "5". (8 & B collection) Jeiti nevybalend svislti ocasni plocha upevllena v drevenim prepravnim rdmu.odstrojenj" bok. The still crated vertical tail in its wooden transport frame. all twelve machines were assembled and prepared for their mandatory test flight.an registration system. The Spo/eCrul mOIlUlZ. ie 0 [(Slech bylo rozhodnuto drive a miter byl proveden. They received serial numbers between 1 and 12. Vsechno nasvidcllje tomu. Bay collection) 67 . All data seem to support the fact that the numbers were approved beforehand and applied in the Avia during painting. as well as in the setting up of the technology for the planned series production at the DSF.3.Pravdipodobnistejnj letoun (c. but also the streamlined cover of the aileron push-pull rod and position oj the national insignia. ze osoba vlevo je jeden z ceskjch technikii. vpravo bulharsky pracovnik: (viz vojenske boty) Joint assembly effort. (M.

05 a. veliteli. Dostaly Nomenklaturen Numer (nomenklamrnl Cislo) 7067 a seriova ctsla od 1 do 12. Also the differences between the density (or reflectance) of colours on fabric anddetachable metal surfaces are worth modelier's consideration. 2 at Dolna Mitropolia from 10. Commanding Officer of the VNVV's Ittrebitelnata Shkola (Fighter School). the Avias were ferried directly to the base at Dolna Mirropoliya. take iustruktofi stfhaci skoly porucici Bogdan Ilijev a Petar Kolev. letadlo je v zapisnlkn vedeno jako AVIA latinkou. Prvni byla zaletnuta Avie s bulharskym oznacentm AV-J35-I03 a taktickym cislem . ktef podnikli zkusebni lety. stihact skoly.VNVV. Note the bulkiness of the safety andparachute harness. kde sidlila suhaci skola VNVV. podporucici Petar Manolev a Nedjo Kolev. (8 & B Collection) Posledni okamiiky pied dlouho ocektiv.u bylo i s nasledujicimi. The initial test flight went without any incidents.1 . Pozoruhodne je. borne of the Fighter School. 2 v Dolne Mitropoliji od 10:25 do 11:05. as did the subsequem ones.25 a.3" cast Preparations prior to the first take-off on Bulgarian soil. Pilotem vybranyrn k vykonant prvniho letu byl uznavany pilot. all twelve aircraft had been test flown and officially accepted by the VNVV. jak tomu bylo u ostatnich typu. Za pozomost jiste stojt i rozd{l v sytosti barvy mezi kovovou plochou odnlmatelmjch pane Ill. (M. Podporuchyk Petar Manolev and Dimitar Sotirov. zafi J 943. Apart from Atanasov. srpna ji:i by to vsech dvanact letadel zalerano a uJedne prejato zakaznikem. With the reception procedures completed. to the cockpit of the Avia AV·135·103. to 1. Part of the black H3" on the wing undersurface is visible here. proc se zbrusu nove stfhaci stroje octly hned jake druhosledovy material ve stlhact pilot chosen to perform this maiden flight was the highly regarded Kapitan Krasto Atanasov. Avie byl pfeletnuty pnrno na zakladnu Dolna Mitropolija. based at Dolna Mitropoliya. Interestingly. Dnvodem. kdy letel na "stopetatficirce" c. Na spodni strane kitdla je vidlt cemeho cisla . The reason why these brand new fighters were assigned to a secondary role as fighter trai- 68 . the aircraft type is referred to by the Latin characters (AVIA). in this case Lyastovitza ..as was the case with the other types that Manolev flew. a paddkovjch pdsu. The last moments before the long-awaited event. Atanasov.anou uddlosti. when he flew No. The ground crew helps Cpt.3". Manolev's wartime log book relating to the new aircraft is dated torn September. as well as Feldfebel Yordan Ferdinandov and Nedio Kolev. a plochou s pkitenym potahem.Piiprava pred prvntm startem no bulharske pudi. The first entry in Ppor. ktere Ietal. Jakrnile byly predavaci procedury ukonceny. rather than its Cyrillic Bulgarian nick-name. Atanasovi. ze By the 28th August. Krome Atanasova byli dalsimi piloty. kapitan Krasto Atanasov.m.. Pozemni personal ponuihd kpt. Vsimnete si mohutnosti upinactch. do kabiny Avie AV-135~103. Commander of the Fighter school. Btlj collection) Do srpna ] 943 bylo vsech dvanact stroju sestaveno a pfipraveno k povinnernu zaletu. velitel lstrebitelnata skola (stihaci skola) z Dolni Mitropolije. nikoliv azbukou a of icialnim nazvem. 28. Prvni zaznam ve valecnem zapisnfku lew ppor .. Manoleva nese datum to. the other pilots involved in the test flights were also instructors at the Fighter School: Poruchyk Bogdan Ilyev and Petar Kolev.m. Prvni let probehl bez incidenru a podobne tom.

Nahofe: Avie se ro7jlidf k prvntmu vzletu z bulharske pudy. Od podobneho okamiiku v Praze zatim obenly cele tii roky. Uprostred: Po odlepeni.... Dole: Vzticnj letovy snimek. Krtuce po vzletu stroj zacal nabirat vysku. Above: Avia rolls to its first take-off in Bulgaria. It took three years since the same event in Prague. Centre: Moments after the lift-off··· Below: A rare in-flight photo. The machine started its climb after the take off

69

skole, byly smisene pocity bulharskych zkusebnich pilotu, ktere novy letoun vyvolaval behern zkousek, Problemy pf vzletu padaly na vrub slabemu motoru, tvrde tlumeni podvozku zpusobovalo silne a nepnjemne chveni be-hem pojizdeni, Jakmile byla Avie ve vzduchu, podavala odpovldajici vykony, nicmene behem akrobacie, pf meznich podrrunkach, kdy se obvykle leta na vysokych nasobcich, drak nevyhovoval, NaptikJad behem cvicneho souboje dvou pim.i B-135 letanych zkusenymi instruktory, kdy Ietouny konaly prudke obraty a prudke stfemhlave lety, doslo u jednoho letounu k trvale deformaci kndla a peruse jeho konstrukce, Roztrhl se jeho potah a pilot, Bogdan Ilijev, se zapotil, nel. Avii pfivedl na zem. Dusledkern bylo vydane omezeni akrobatickych obratu, d1ky kterernu se ale stalo Ietadlo neschopnyrn skutecneho boje, kvuli kteremu bylo porizeno. Navic vyzbroj, sestavajtci z pam kulometu puskove n'lte, byla pravem povazovana za nedostatecnou pro pfipad souboje s modernimi stlhacimi nebo bornbardovacimi letouny USAF nebo sovetskeho letectva. Planovana manta! 20mm rychlopalneho kan6nu stfilejlciho vrtulovou hfideli by vyznamne zvysila palebnou Ilu tohoto stihaciho letounu, ale nikdy k of nedoslo, cimz Avie B-135 zustala nepouzitelna jako ucinny bojovy nastroj. V dusledku toho bylo pfijato rozhodnuti pfesunout dvanact Avii do role cvicneho stlhaciho letounu a pfedat je do stfhaci skoly. Ale ani tam na ne instruktofi zaky radeji nepousteli, nebot Avie povazovali za pffli~ narocne pro nezkuseneho pilota, Proto si na Aviich pfilezirostne letala jen hrstka instruktoru, ktefi si tak udrzovali nalet hodin a letove navyky".

ners, instead of front line duty was because of the mixed opinions formed by the Bulgarian test pilots while testing the aircraft. They had experienced problems during take off, on account of the underpowered engine used by the B-135. Also, as a result of the stiff undercarriage there were strong and unpleasant vibrations while taxiing, Once in the air, the Avia performed adequately; however during aerobatics, in extreme conditions, where high wing loading occurred, the airframe performed poorly. For example, during a mock dogfight between two pairs of B-1358, each flown by a highly skilled instructor, there followed a series of hard turning manoeuvres and steeply angled dives, the wings of one aircraft were deformed and the sheet metal skin cracked giving much cause for concern to the pilot, Bogdan Jlyev, in his attempt to bring it back safely to the ground. As a consequence, restrictions were issued concerning the amount of aerobatics that could be performed; effectively making the aircraft unsuitable for 'live' combat the role for which it wa originally designed. Finally, the armament consisting of only a pair of rifle calibre machine guns was considered inadequate in the event of the aircraft encountering the modern USAAF or VYS fighters and bombers. The planned installation of a centrally mounted 20mm rapid-fire cannon would have greatly improved its firepower; however, this never materialised. rendering (he Avia unusable as an efficient combat tool, As a consequence, the decision was made to relegate the twelve 8-135s to the fighter-training role and transfer them to the Fighter School. Even here, the instructors did not allow the students to fly them, as they considered the type too difficult to be handled by an inexperienced flyer. Thus, only a handful of instructors occasionally flew the aircraft to keep their hand in on the type*.

*) Da!sf let ppor, Petara Manoleva probehl az 25. listopadu. Tentokrat je zrnfnsno cele oznacenl typu AVIA 135, bez zaznarnu jeimo sertoveho cisla. Poslednf Manolevuv let na typu se konal 28. Iistopac u 1943 (stroj 6. 12). PifsHho roku je prvnl zazna m ze 14. (edna (c. 12), potom z 24. Jedna (c. 4), 30. a 31. brezna (c·. 4), 4. a 5. (dvakrat), 15. a 17. dubna - vsechny na c. 4. V kvetnu letel i nekolik bojovych vzletu; pocfnaje 23. (na c. 5), potom 24. a 26. 5. (na c. 6). V oervnu lete! jen stroj C. 6 ve dnech 7. a 22. Poslednf let v kabine Avie 8-135 absolvoval Manolev 6. cervence 1944, kdy vzlett do vzduchu s tim sarnyrn strojem c. 6 a asi na rozlouceni si dal petatficetirnlnutovy let nad Dolnou Mitropoliji.

") Manolev's next flight in the aircraft was performed only on the 25th November. This time the whole aircraft type is mentioned in his logbook: AVIA 135. without the individual serial number being recorded. The last flight flown by Manolev in the aircraft in 1943 was on Nov. 28 (No. 12). In the next year, the first entry on type is dated Jan. 14 (No. 12), then Jan. 24 (No.4). March 30 and 31 (No.4), April 4, 5 (twice), 15, 17 - all on NO.4. In May, he logged a few sorties, starting on the 23rd (No.5), then 24th and 26th (No.6). In June, he flew only No.6 on the 7th and 22nd. His last flight aboard an Avla 8-135 happened on July 6, when he took off in the same No.6 for a 35 min. flight over Dolna Mitropoliya.

70

Piedposledni bulharskd Avie s taktickym l£Slem ,,11" (AV-13S-111). Na predchtizej{c( strdnee je na celn(m pohledu na tentjz letoun dobie videt ovalnj tvar vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiCi kapaliny a celkove zlUen{ teto partie v piednt casti. • The penultimate Bulgarian Avia (tactical number "11", AV-13S·111). On the previous page the head-on view shows to advantage its oval radiator air intake and the general slimming down of the whole chin of a series-production fighter. (M. Baj collection)

Nazor pilota
Takto shmul sve zkusenosti s Avii 8-135 jeden z instruktoru Ietecke skoly, plk, let. v.v. Petar Manolev, kdyf jej v cervnu roku 2000 vyzpovidal Theodor Muchovsky: .Letadlo melo dost slaby motor. Chybifla mu i kyslikovd soustava pro vy§kove lety. V nekierych. fdstech byl velmi podobny Doganu [Avia B-534], nebot vyzbrol, motor a piistroje byly stejne. Vzhledove byl letoun velmi podobny Spitfiru, piedevsim dik» eliptickym kffdlum. Ale v porovnani s touto anglickou stihaikau meta Avia podstatne deiSt rozbsh. pti vzletu. Behem dlouheho rozbenu i dobehu nemel pilot pNjemny pocit. (... ) Ai ve vzducha Avia 8-135 velice pomalu trychlovala - jeji motor byl proste slabY. (... ) V /manevrovem/ boji jsme nemeli pocit jistoty, brdnili jsme se letadlo pFfli,~zateiovat, abychom se vyhnuli nehoddm: Myslim, ie letoun byl dobry pro bojovy vycvik, jako piechodovy typ mezi dvouplosnymi zdkladnimi cvicnymi a plnohodnotnymi bojovymi typy, jako Messerschmitt [Bf l09G] nebo Dewoitine [D.520 J. Ale nakonec jsme stejl'le nenechdvali pilotni iaky tuhle masinu Ietai ze dvou duvodu: Zaprve, vdlecne poiadavky byly velmi ndrocne a my jsme posilali piloty k bojovym letkdm (jaio), jakmile riskali bojove zkusenosti na Doganech. V bojovycli jatech piechdzeli nejprve na Dewoitiny D.520, pozdeji, od roku 1944, ptimo na Messerschmitty Bf 109. Zadruhe, Avie B-135 vyiadovala pritis mnoho letovych hodin na jhrych typech nei. jsme na ni mohli pustit taka. Neodpoustela chyby. Kdybychom je nechali letat na B·135, zakrdtko by je zniCili - bylo jich jen dvandct, letdni s nimi nebylo nic snadneho, a neme1i jsme ndhradni dily. Proto jsme s nimi letali jen my instruktoh. " Dais! pilot, plk, let. v.v. Jordan Ferdinandov, ktery rake Avii B-135 caste letal vzpornlna: "Avia B-135 mlla 6ste tvary a elegantne zaoblend kiidla. Letoun byl lehce ovladatelny, pfi vzletu mel tendenci utikat vlevo, ale snadno se to korigovalo. Letoun mel jednu vadu: pti motorove zkousce na piny plyn se letounu zvedal ocas a hrozilo, ze vrtule

In The Pilots' Opinion
Here is how one of the instructors at the Flying School, retired Col. Petar Manolev, summed up his experiences with the Avia 8-135, when interviewed by Theodor Muchovski in June 2000: "This plane had a somewhat underpowered engine. Also, it had no oxygen system for high altitude flights. In some parts it was very similar to the 'Dogan' [AviaB-534. all notes in square brackets are by D. B.}, as the armament, engine and cockpit instruments were the same. In appearance this aircraft [the B.135} was velY similar to the Spitfire, mainly owing to its elliptical wings. But compared to the English fighter; the Avia required a much longer take offrun to reach the required speed for flight. During both the long take off and landing process, the pilot would experience an unpleasant feeling. (... J In the air; the Avia 8-/35 could not gain high speed quickly enough, as the engine was weak. (. ..) Wefound the plane insecure in combat and we decided not to go 100 far with the wing overloading, to avoid accidents. I think that this plane was good for transition [from primary biplane trainers] to the Dewoitine [D.520] and the Messerschmiu [Bf 109G]. But we never let student pilots actually fly with this machine, for two reasons. Firstly, the wartime [condition) was very 'hot' and we were sending the pilots to the combat yato-s [squadrons] immediately after they had accumulated experience with the 'Dogan '. In the combat yatos, they were transferred to the Dewoitine and, from1944, directly to the Bf 109. Secondly, this plane required many flight hours on. other types, before one should attempt to fly it. it did notforgive any mistakes. If we had let them fly the B-J35, they would have destroyed th.eplanes in no time, as there were only 12 such machines, which were quite difficult to fly and without readily available spare parts. That is why we, the instructors, were the only ones who flew the type. " Another pilot, retired Col. Yordan Ferdinandov, who also often flew the Avia monoplane, recalls: "The Avia B-135 had a clean. shape and nicely rounded wings. The control of the plane was light,' however, at take off it had the tendency to roll to the left, but this could be easily overcome. This

71

Typicki armadni doku men tarni jotograjie noveho typu. (Sbtrka M.e velke plochy potahu kiidel byly pokryty ko ro. Dvl dlouhe podvozkove nohy piinasel» problemy pi] vzletu a piistdni. II off the ground in time because the landing strip was too short and J struck a haystack.. the damaged surfaces polished.92 rnm. that this airplane would 1101 tolerate mistakes and thus was nor suitable for inexperienced pilots. with the risk ofthe propeller hitting the ground and fuming the aircraft over. The button for it. Tlacitko kanonove spousti. protoie Avia byla ph pojif. The aerodynamics of this airplane was very successful. (. BtUho The typical armed forces documentary photos of a llew type. Proto muselo pri motorove zkouSce sedet na vodorovnem stabilizatoru nekolik muia pozemnihopersonalu. natieli a pote opaitili vrchnim lakem. v zdvodecn DSF. the corrosion soon reap~ peered. was removed the aperture being covered with a piece of bandage tape. Baj collectilm) plane had another inconvenience: when the engine was run at full power on the ground. nedokdzal jsem na phlis krdtke drd. cot zpusobilo mens! nehodu. jsme zkorodovanou vrstvu pecliw! odbrousili smirkovym papirem. sabotaged] back in Czechoslovakia. planovany 20m. z. the machine would tiltforwards critically. Because of this. (after we had accepted them from the facto ry [afte r assembiyl}. umistene vpravo ad spousti kulometu. mounted over the engine. painted and varnished again. drieli jsme tuto skutecnost v tajnosti. namontovanymi nad motorem.stala se jakoby lehci a okamiite zrychlovola. bylo odstraneno a otvor po nem zalepen ovijeci paskou. I forgot to say. Kdyi letadla dorazila \I bedndch do Bulharska. Vyhied vpied z ni by! velmi dobry po zaiaieni podvozku se menilo jeji chovdni .te kiidia byla jefte v Ceskoslovensku zeimlrne zesabotovdna ~ polita kyselinou. Despite this. presto jsem Avii B-135 duveivva!. established that the wings had been purposely sprayed with acid [i. " ze Note: All notes in square brackets are written by paragraph's author ~DEmesBernad. I personally trusted the Avia B-135. during tests. The control commission. Musim zdurazit. ze sabotdi piispela ke krdtkemu tivotu Avit B-135. Pokud by byl tento kan6n namontovdn a doslo k nelaerym vylepsenim konstrukce. causing minor damage. when the engine had to be tested on the ground. The planned 20 mm cannon. When the airplanes arrived in their crates and after unpacking of the main parts. who came hereto help us assemble the airplanes.). (M. tohle letadlo neodpoustelo chyby. nasi technici po vybaleni hlavnich d[Ju zjistili na kovovem potahu kitdel hnedave skvmy. When we were moving the planes from. Aerodynamicky byla B~135 velice dobra.92 mm machine guns.T want to emphasize. sttilejici dutou osou vrtule nebyl nikdy namontovdn. It turned out that large areas of the wing surface were corroded. 72 . It had good instruments and 1felt in its cabin as comfortable as in the Bf 109.. Protoie jsme nechteli. the short flight life of the machine. asi by ale potiebovala silnej!i motor a vylepseny podvozek. stojicich v Dolne Mitropoliji venku se koro:e Opel brzo objevila. Ukdzalo se. mela dobre piistrojove vybaveni. I could not lift No. Lovech. undercarriage legs caused dif· ficulties at take off and landing. v kabine jsem se citil stejne pohodlne jako v Messerschmittu Bf 109. po1kozeny povrch vylestili.: Vsechny vysvettlvky uvedene v hranatych zavorkach doplnil autor kapitoly Denes Bernad. situated to the right of the buttonfor the machine guns all the pilot's control column. although chocks were put in front of the wheels. " udeii do zeme a letadlo se prevrau. a proto nebylo vhodne pro nezkusene piloty. Kontrolni komise zjisfila. But I think this impacted on. protoie na strojich. the Bulgarian technicians discovered strange brownish stains 011 the joil that covered the wings.e. At Lovech [at the DSF Works}. shooting from the axis of the propeller. maybe it needed a more powerful engine and an improved landing gear..e uirhnout "jedenactku" ad zem! a trefil jsem kupku sena. Vzpom(ncim si jefte na jednu zajtmavou podrobnost. as we didn 't want the Czech specialists. becoming lighter and increasing its speed immediately. to be persecuted. several men of the ground staff had to sir on the plane j. byli potresttini. Zapomnel jsem zminit vYzbroj . that this plane was armed with only MO synchronized 7. tv Dolna Mitropoliya. The forward view was velY good and after retraction oj the landing gear the machine's behaviour changed. We kept this fact secret. I. if only this cannon could have been installed and with some other design improvements. Kdyz jsme pieletdvali sestavene stroje Z tovarny v LavCl do Dolne Mitropolije.tento letoun byl vyzbrojen jen dvema synchronizevanymi kulomety raze 7. Pozn. V Lovci.n kanon. The two main. the plane would have been an excellent weapon. was never installed . .deni po nerovnem terenu ndchylnd k pievrdceni. the corrosion was carefully removed with soft sandpaper. as during their storage ill the open at Dolna Mitropoliya. as the airplane could turn over easily when taxiing on rough terrain. 1 remember another interesting detail. kteii ndm piijeli pomdhat s monuiii techta lelade I. letoun by byl vynikajici zbrani. aby cesti odbornici. horizontal stabilizers. Stejne si ale myslim.

Behind the engine boxes the other transport crates are visible. vyrobenych v Loveei. probably with wings.Wtsina beden s hlavnimi skupinami d. Majority oj crates with the main components of fighters including the power plants were stored in the open during the assem- bly. ktere rneli v arzenaIu . Nemec byLy zruseny.1u letadel. Sem zapadla i bulharska objednavka padesati motoru. pravdepodobne s kHdly. To znamenalo podftdit jim vsechny protektoratni tovarny a dilny schopne Ietecke vyroby. the whole manufacturing process collapsed. a completed DAR-II would never roll off the assembly lines of DSFLovech. tbe Messerschmitt Bf 1090. This included the Bulgarian order for 50 engines.11 byl nakonec zrusen.rskjm vjsostnym oznacenim. Without the availability of these vital items. takze Avie nebyly schopne bojoveho nasazent. the German military would demand tbat all of the available resources of its aviation industry be directed to fulfi Lling the rapidly increasing needs of the Luftwaffe. the Third Reich fully involved in a war of attrition. This photo taken ill 1945 shows one of them with the new "Allied" national insignia. V roce 1942 potrebovala TIeti rise. (M. • Differing in this respect from Avias. aby splnily rychle rostouci pozadavky front. With. Ani k dovyzbrojeni stavajiciho tuctu Avii kan6nem 20 mm nedos10. Na snimku z roku 1945 jejeden z nich s novjm bul1uz.Ljastuvka" . The Germans tried to compensate for this loss by offering second-rate material.Messerschrnitt Bf 1090. byla v przibe"hu monuiie uskladnena pod sirjm nebem. Krome motoni meta ceska strana dodat i palubni pfistroje. aby stihaci soucast bulharskeho letectva VNVV mohla zavest planovane rozsffeni. Za bednami s motory jsou vide! daLStpiepravky." were lumped all of the manufacturing units with an aeronautical profile from within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. vyzbroj a dalsl slozite dily. Balous Collection) az 73 . vcetnl pohonnych jednotek. Bez techto zivotne dulefirych polozek objednavky se cela vyroba zhroutila. Mrtve narozeny ptak Pres smlou vu uzavrenou mezi ceskou a bulharskou stranou o seriove vyrobe B-135 v Bulharsku nakonec nesjel z montazni linky v DSF v Loveci ani jediny DAR-H. ktere mely byt zabudovany do draku DAR-ll. the handful of Avia B-135s were thus sidelined and relegated to the training role.520. Simultaneously. te raze Na ro.zdil od Avie 8-135 se i starU verze nemeckeh» Messerschmtttu Bf 109£ aktivne zucastnily bojil do konce vtilky. and the entire DAR-ll project was finally dropped. Cely projekt DAR. Hlavni pncina tohoto selhani muze byt pfictena k (izi realnym panum Vychodnf Evropy doby .vlastovka byla velky mrtve narozeny ptak. by 1942. . Jeste pozdeji Nemci (tedy Reichsluftfahrtministerium • RiSske ministersrvo letectvf) nabidli jednu z nejvykonnejsich zbrani. nevyjimaje velkou tovarnu Avia. Later. As part of these "available resources. armament and other sophisticated parts. namely the French Dewoitine D. intended for the DAR-ll airframes manufactured at Lovech. rendering the fighters unfit for combat. including the large Avia Works. pine zamestnana valkou vsechny kapacity sveho leteckeho prumyslu.Nemcum. the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) would offer the most potent weapon existing in its arsenal. jmenovite francouzskou Dewoitinu D.lement the planned expansion of the VNVV's fightertleet. Vsechny smluvni prace pro jine zakazniky nef. The 'Lyastuvka' (Swallow) was truly a stillborn bird. the Czechs also had to supply cockpit instruments. Nemci za ztratu nabidli druhofady letecky material. even the older Bulgarian Air Force Messerschmitts Bf 1 09E 's took active part in the combat until the end of war. to imp. AU contract work for non-German clients was cancelled. Zaroveii s tim byla hrstka Avii B-135 odsunuta na vedlejsich kolej a predana k vycviku. The primary cause of this failure can be attributed to the real masters of the Eastern European region: the Germans. Besides the engines. Even the proposed upgrade of the existing B-135s with the engine-mounted 20 nun cannon could not take place.520. A Stillborn Bird Despite the agreement reached by the Czechs and Bulgarians regarding series production of the B-135 by the latter party.

It was done for political effect. s cilem rozvrdtit hospodtiistvi a terorizovat obcany. Voyski Order Concerning the Air Defence of the Country. the Central Railway Station and the Poduene Railway Station.'"- . Btld) 74 . ) On. bombardovala oblast Skobelevova buivdru. made up of 30-35 bombers. Pro Ieps! sledovani celkoveho prubehu udalosn toho dne citujeme ze zpravy velitele bulharske protivzdusne obrany.300 ft). The area covered by the bombs was the Sugar jactory district. kvetna 1944 . J _.m. each flying in a wedge formation. V. in jour separate waves. A unique 'live' combat mission which would yield the sole 'kill' . phletela od zdpadu . of the USAAF bases in Southern Italy.800 m (22. Orientacnt mapa jihovychodni Evropy. zatil svou minutu SUNY. 0 site asi 3 letek.dane. The firs! wave. The second wave. made up of 30-35 bombers. bulvdru Ferdinanda 1a Slatinski Redut.. Prvni vlna.. about 2 squadrons strong. from 09:45 a.m.. came/rom W . came from the North hlavni mesta llvddimi v textu a vybrane uikladny USAAF na jihu Itdlie. an enemy air formation of about 450 bombers ('Liberator' and 'Fortress fl' type) and about 150 fighters ('Lightning' and 'Mustang=types). the 30th March 1944. Letovd vysKa byla 6400 m..although unconfirmed . ustiedni nadraii a Podunajske nadraii. . before the "dozen" Bulgarian B-135s would fall into obscurity. " 1· • • . Velickova: The Sole 'Kill' There was a last glitter however.. 'Ferdinand I' Boulevard and 'Slatinski Redut'. Ctvrtd vlna. Vyznaceny jSQU To have a better overaJl view of the events of this particular day..J •• . made up of 35-40 bombers. Nedeiya' Square and His Majesty's Military School... Druhd vlna rovnez zhruba tli letky silnd.".. we quote the report compiled by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bulgarian Air Defence Forces. about 3 squadrons strong. (Drawing M.000 ft). Vojski Pffkaz k obrane vlastt. ve ctyfech samostatnych vlndcli dvaruicty ndlet na nose hlavni mesto Sofii. a mas ive bombing raid of several waves against the Bulgarian capital and surroundings was carried out by theUSAAF.. Flight altitude was 6. Letovd hladina dosahovala at 7000 m. about 3 squadrons strong.SW and released their bomb load in 'carpet bombing' style. V oblasti pokryte pumami leiela tovarna cukrovaru. . formacich. (15th May 1944) "( .000 m (23.J ' •• .. plk. each flying in a wedge formation.. byt nepotvrzeny sestfel.. came from the South and released their bomb load in the same 'carpet bombing' style over 'Vlizrazdane'Square. piiletela ze severu a shodila pumovy nakLad na ndmesti Svita nedllja a oblast Lozenec.. The fourth wave. V. 15.ROMAN A r ". The marked cities are the capitals mentioned in the text and some . Tieti vlna 0 sile asi 35 at 40 stroju ze tii letek v klinovitych formacich. Flight altitude was 7..jihozdpadu. ndmesti St. made up of 35-40 bombers. Sofia.. .. made the 12th air attack against our capital. Vozdusni na N.4\. col. N. Ndlet byl podniknut pro politicky vysledek. 30. came from the SW and released their bomb load on 'Skobelev' Boulevard. Nedelya a na Vojenskou skolu jeho Velicenstva. Jedinecna "astra"· bojova akce totif dala jediny.. The third wave. • An general map of the South-Eastern Europe. about 3 squadrons strong.35 bombardery v klinovitych formacich. Velichkov: Vazdushnj na N. Flight altitude was 6. biezna 1944 od 09:45 do 11: 15 hod dopoledne vykonal nephitelsky letecky svaz slof..eny z asi 450 bombarderu (fypy Liberator a Fortress 11) a asi J 50 stihacek (typ« Lightning a Mustang). each flying in a wedge formation. . to 11:15 a.400 m (21. each flying in a wedgeformation. Jediny sestrel Jeste net tucet bulharskych BR 135 zrnizeJ v zapomnenr. tvoierui 30 .in the short and un pectacular career of the Czech fighter plane. On 30th March 1944.. to disorganise the economy and terrorize the people. c{raia 30 at 35 born" barderu vtdy ve tiech klinovitych..000ft).Dne 30. v sile asi dvou peruti.. brezna 1944 podnikJo americke letectvo rnasovy bornbardovaci nalet v nekolika vlnach na bulharske hlavni mesto Sofii a okoli. 'St.. piiletela z jihovychodu a shodila pumy kobercovym zpusobem na oblast ndmesti Vazrai.

) The incoming 4th wave of enemy aircraft at 11:05 found Skupina leteckycb instruktoro ve chvilce volna s Avii na letist: Dolna A1tiTopolija.B. i'izena tamnlmi instruktory. After bombing. (. landing one after the other.520 vedli tezkY boj s pocetni ptevahou nepiitele.102 lbs. ) 2/6 lstrebitelen orljak (stihaci letka 2/6) na letisti vraidebna. . nebyla ctvrtd vlna zachycena vcas. comprised of Dewcitine D..B. Fighter Squadron). each wave flew towards the Sw.. (.anasov velitelhlidky. Jordan Ferdin and ov. Chtll jsem jim pomoci co nejvic. skupin. (. Therefore it took by surprise the fighte r units. As the first three waves flew away to the South and to the West.)" Here is how the action of the Bulgarian fighter units were described in connection with the surprise 4th bombing wave: "3/6 Iztrebitelen orlyak (3/6. Only the patrol of four Avia B-135 fighters from the Fighter School at Dolna Mitropoliya. An Avia and a group of flight instructors during a lull at the Dolna A1itropoliya airfield. The cowling is set aside on the engine. Piistdvaji jeden za druhym. . Na snimku stojl za povsimnutt tvar krytU podvozku a pe"knj oval vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiei vody. 500 and 1. Po bombardovdni kaidd vlna odletela na jihozdpad..000 destructive [high explosive] and 30.. Navic jii mnoho obcant: opustilo kryty (. orlyak (2/6. v.ftivotrhavych a 30000 zdpalnych pum.Dopadlo asi 3000 tfi. nepiitel jii shodil pumy a odlete1 na jihouipad.). the enemy bombers had already dropped their bombs and flown away to the Sw.)" In Col. located at the village of Chibaovtsi could detect effectively no more than one or two groups of enemy aircraft. ktera se jako jedina pustila do souboje s neocekavanou ctvrtou vlnou bombarderu USAF. ppor.pected fourth USAAF bombing wave. Indeed. 500 a 1500 kg. Bozhurishte airfield. Velickova neni ani zmlnky (116 Istrebitelen z letiste 0 stihaci peruti 116 orljak). destroying 3.. dopliiovdni munice je kryt odloien nad motorem. Krasto AtanaSOY. Feldfebel Yordan Ferdinandov and Podporuchyk Petar Manolev along with his wingman... Note the shape of undercarriage doors and nice oval intake of the water radiator. vlny na Sofii. ktere znicily na 3357 budov. before they could reach the necessary flying height. Pravdepodob"I kvrll. the fighters had returned [from combating the third bombing wave. Fighter Squadron). Je zminena jen hlidka Avii B-135 z letecke skoly v Dolne Mitropol.000 incendiary bombs were dropped.5208. This is why these fighters could not engage the enemy..i. as it was based far away from Sofia.iji. D. kdyi lere1y nad mesty Vraca a Ferdinand a smlfovaly nad Staru Planinu [pohoti. his wingman. a protoie radiolokacni stanice Freya ve vesnici Cibaavce nemohla uCinnl sledovat vice nei fjve skupiny nepi'dtelskjch letadel. rozdeleny na vice maiych. Petar Manolev a jeho cislo Fw. protoie mezi nimi byti i moji byvalt iad Setkali jsme se s americkymi bombardery ze ctvrte vlny.].500 kg (551 lbs. and since the 'Freya' radar station. About 3. takie se neZLl-castnil boje. ). V temie okamiiku se otyvd velice opo[dene omdmeni 0 ndletu 4. protoie jsme slyseli z radiostanic. (. Typicke rdte pouiirych pum byly 250.. the anti-aircraft defence forces. tak protichemickou obranu. so it could not enter combat..30.. z velitelstvi VNW}.307 lbs. Refuelled and reloaded with ammunition. Protoie prvni tii vlny odlete1y na jih a zapad. Velichkov's report there is no mention tbe 1/6 Iztrebitelen orlyak (116. }. velitel stihaci skoly. (B & B Collection) vzdalenost od Sofie]. .3/6 istrebitelen orljak (stihaci letka 3/6) na letisti Boturi!t!' V 11:00 se stfhaci vrdtili l: boje se tieti vlnou bombardera].357 buildings. ) 2/6 Irtrebitelen. D. the fighters take off However. is mentioned at the end as having contacted the enemy. and also the anti-chemical defences. operujici Karlovo [jednotka parmi! nezasfthla do boju pro svou and released their bomb load on the 'Sveta Nedelya' Square and the Lazenet: District. a very delayed announcementfor the incoming 4th wave of bombers targeting Sofia is received.. and 3. . Rozhodl jsem se sam [be: povelu. Nedjo Kolev.v. vzpomina: .m. Krasto At. Yrashdebna airfield. Feldfebel Nedio Kolev. apparently the four impromptu warriors were the only ones to actually engage in combat with the unex. flown by flight instructors. biema 1944 jsme vzletl: ve skupine ctyf Avii 8-135 z letitII Dolna Mitropolija. " Ve zprave plk. ktere miiiiy na Sofii ze severordpadu. the fourth wave was not noticed in time. Kapitan Krasfo Atanasov. vlna zastihla v li:05 tento orljak uprostied doplnovdni paliva. By 11:00 a. jak nasi prdtele ze tfi the orlyak in the process of refuelling. from Karlovo airfield [a unit which probably did not contact the enemy.. The pilots were the commander of the Fighter School. (. The typical bomb calibres were 250..]. " Nasleduje popis cmnosti bulharskych stihacich jednotek y souvisJosti s prekvapujicim naletem ctvrte vlny bornbarderu. Fighter Squadron). vyzbrojene Dewoitinami D-S20. probably due to the ammunition replenishment. V Aviich seceli tito piloti . jeho dvojka Fw. respectively. . Piiletajici 4..kpt. ctyr letek. vyzbrojenycn Bf 109 a D. Proto stihaci nemohli neptitele napadnout. At the same time. kiere de'li Bul- PUc let. they became scattered into many smaller groups. Many citizens had already left the shelters (. 75 . 1. ). Proto piekvapila jak protivzdusnou obranu. Stihacky s doplnenou munici a palivem opet vzletajt: Nicmene net nastoupaji potiebnou vyfku..

ctyrmotorov}'ch bombardera blyskajtcich se ve slunci. protoie kryt zbralri nebyl zcela uzamknut. Piilepili jsme se na jeden bombarder. armed with Bf 109s and D. we gained height rapidly. 1000 metra pod ndmi jsme uvideli asi 30 at 40 nepiatelskych. Ucinek lUI. We saw the last fighters of the 2/6 and 316 Orlyaki landing for refuelling and rearming at Yrazhdebna and Bozhurishte airfields after their hot combat over the capital. Yraidebna a BozuriSte. a vzapJti jsme stoupali k daili ZleCi. Americane potom. Petar Manolev sl rovnez vzpomina na rotc akci: v . aby doplnil» palivo a munici no letiitich. protoie zaca! hoiet.kYm 60 af 70 neprdtelskym bombarderum. jak smefujf be. ke startu proti nepiiteli. ie tato skupina bombarderu nemelazddny stihaci doprovod. there were only the four of us in. The pilot probably just posed for the photo.].44. The heavy machine started to lose height over the mountains. Llberatoru: Odpoved je prostd .E. " Retired Col. We met the American bombers from the 4th wave. as there WClS no radio connection between us.. My bullets apparently hit the radial engine. Plk. On his own initiative. . Our joy was greatwe had done it. Well.si stielby byl ale Mmer neznateltty. dvou kulometu male raze a napadali jsme neptitele ve stoupdni zezadu a zespoda. All four airplanes of the alarm patrol took off almost simultaneously [Manolev flew No. Pdlili jsme dlouhe ddvky z nasich. jak po tvrdych. byli jsme trvale piipraveni k bojovemu vzleiu. also managed to set on fire the nearest engine . Kapitan Atanasov orde red the four of us to take off against the enemy. Soustiedil jsem palbu na jeden jeho motor a . as it started to burn . in a right-hand curve.}. Flying in the direction of Telish. unsuccessfully. Behem stoupdni jsme utvoiili bojovou formaci podle vidu. Nekdo se muie zeptat. Memu Cislu. I took the decision all by myself [without specific order from the Headquarters of the VNW. Ndco jsme museli podniknout.1 gave an order for the attack. at the former frontier with Yugoslavia. 4). Petar Manolev also recalls the same event: "As it was a rule for us to keep four Avia 8-135 fighter trainers combat ready.12u• Pilot se patne jen nechal zvicnit na pamdtku. and after the Americans had released their bombs. povaiujici nos za nepititele.B. Takie v tomto okamiiku piekvapenijsme byli na nebi noel Sofii jen my ctyfi proti nlja.pod ndmi hoiela Sofie. which were heading to Sofia from the Nw.zfejmif jsem jej zasahl.. were having a hard time with the numerically superior enemy.Posledni Avia v bulharsk« else1ne fade . as some of them were my former students. na byvalych hranicicn s Jugoslavii. my wingman. Yordan Ferdinandov. We had to do something. Some may ask how we had the courage to attack this well-armed force of 'Liberator' bombers with only our small calibre machine guns.ne hrane kiidla: The last Av. Take mne dodalo odvahy. ktery se opozdil. that this particular bomber group had no fighter escort.. But near the town oj Radomir. A much more interesting detail is the smooth and gloss surface of the wing leading edge oil tank. V bojove formaci odstupiiovane doprava jsme s prevysenim asi 800 at lOa m zautocili v prudkem klesdni na Fortressy posledni skupiny. 50. Vide1ijsme jeste stihack» od orljaku 2/6 a 3/6. v. Also. and were hurrying towards their bases to the south they broke their compact formation. in this moment of surprise.ia in the "Bulgarian" sequence of numbers ~the white "12". leader of the patrol. Nase radost byla velikd . Behem letu na Telis jsme v mime prave zatdcce rychle nabirali vY:fku. " Retired Col. as the machine gun compartment was still unlocked. se podaiilo zapdlit vedlejs! motor: Nad horami stroj za{:al ztrdcet vYSku. So. mel! jsme potii je znovu dostihnout.Ymca a 0 nejakych. I wanted to help them out as much as I could. len nod mestem Radomir. jakehokoliv stihaciho doprovoda k Sofii. D.03. We formed the combat formation during the climb by looking CIt each other. protoie jsme nemeli vzdjemne rddiove spojeni. Vsechny cty'fi letouny hotovostni skupiny vzlelly temef soucasne (Manolev letel v C. co odhodili pumy. let.Protoie jsme mlli pravidlo udriovat cryfi cvicne stihaci Avie B-135 v bojove pohotovosti. Mnohem zajt~ mavijSfm detailem je hladkj a lesklj povrcb olejo- ve110 chladice v ndbfi. Dosahli jsem 5000 metric v oblasti Biala Slatina. remembers: "On 30. Nekolikrat jsme zautocili. We 'stuck' to one bomber that was left behind. spechali na sve Zlikladny no jihu a rozvolnili sve tlsne formace. as we had heard on the radio that our friends from the three fighter squadrons. Kapitan ArC/nasov na SVOLI zodpovednost vydal ndm cryfern piika. a proto jsem dal rozkar k utoku. the skies of Sofia/acing some 60~70 enemy bombers. we were prepared for a combat mission at any moment. Sofia was burning under us.520s. Lellli jsme za nimi jihozdpadnim smerem a v oblasti Perniku na 11(1S zacalo pdlit vlasti protiletadlove dl!ostfelectvo. sestielili jsme Liberatoral 0 jednoho protivnika mene! S poslednimi kapkami paliva jsme piistali na Boiuriiti Cl ohlasili uddlost.povedlo se. (B & B Collection) harsko na jitni a severni cast}. bojicn nad hlavnim mestem pfistavaji. Jordanu Ferdinandovovi. ale neusplIne. D. when they were already over the towns of Vratza and Ferdinand and were heading towards Stara Planina [the long mountain that separates Bulgaria into its Northern and Southern parts.4]. kde jsme nabrali odvahu napadnout s nasimi kulomery maM rdze desuky dobte vyzbrojenych. Krast'o Atanasov. I concentrated my fire on one of its engines.. we took off with four Ada B-J35s from Dolna Mitropoliya airfield. Zachranili jsme se rychlym protiflako- 76 . We had shot down a 'Liberator'! One enemy less! With the last drops offuel we landed at Bozhurishse and reponed the events. Protoie nase rychlost byla zhruba stejnd jako rychlost bombardera. J gathered courage from the fact..ht'/ii . We attacked a few times.

the effect of our shots was negligible. We saved ourselves with a quick anti-flak manoeuvre repeated often at the school. " Another participant in that day's events. ) ". retired Col.OOOm (3.v.281 ft.]. immediately climbing for a second tum. ale nephitelsky bombarder jsme bel ohledu na mnoistvi zdsahtl na trupu a kiidlech. Kdyt jsme se vrdtili na Dolnu Mitrapoliji. from 800-1. returning to the airfield on conclusion of the engagement. vydany jako Rozkaz c. ()" . Atanasov was criticised for his decision. " Vsimneme si. Atanasov thinking of some sort of reprisals for the unauthorized mission.4000 ft. Tento dokurnent fadi piloty VNVV podle bodovaciho systemu+".. 1decided.m. Continuously firing our pair of small-calibre machine guns. " Doklady arnerickeho letectva uvadejf. as we had just shown. Velickova. Yrdtili jsme se na Dolnu Mitropoliji a v 11: 30 piisuiii s poslednimi kapkami paliva. z. where Tiro's Communist partisans operated. vzpomina: "Leteli jsme k Sofii a jii z ddlky jsme vidlli koui nad mestem. Pod datem 30. formed a 'jour' of 'Avias'. as we were mistakenly identified as enemy planes.000 m (2. the C/O of the School. Aianasov za svu] rozkaz kritizovdn. jeuplny uredni seznarn vsech sestfehi ziskanych bulharskyrni stihacimi piloty proti nepnteli. the airplane fell to the ground. Krasto Atanasov ctyfClenny raj Avif. m. ale rovnei. The four [pilots} probably shot down one enemy bomber. ze toho dne byly nad Bulharskem a Jugoslavii ztraceny ctyfi ctyfrnotorove bombardery (viz tabulka . rozhltieli jsme se. vraceli jsme se k nasemu letisti.seznam). Vracy jsme piimo pied sebou spatiili obrovskou skupinu Liberdtoru. their airframes shining in the sun. ktery ocekdval n. "My conclusion is the following: each pilot fired all of his rounds. Kapitan Atanasov reported (he shoot down of a 'Fortress'. Celkovy seznam "pravdepodobnych" sestrelo toho dne. [Podle Manolevova zapisniku trval let 75 minut. casta nacvicovanym ve skole. without any fighter escort. Nastesti nemlli stihact doprovod. log book.V bombarder: (. When the Headquarters of the Vazdushni Voyski asked/or the names of the four pilots. from 10. This automatically Jed to tbe claim being confirmed only 77 . plk. to our studentfighters how to enter a combat and how to get out of it wll'h a .) above the enemy. to 11. Velichkov: "(. Kapt.281 ft. Soon after. Here they met a group of enemy bombers. se pozdeji ukazalo. ktere uvadi rozkaz plk. Nasleduje zprava podana plk.. bombarderis. kde operovali Titovi komunistieti partyzani .. The machine turned to the right. ze zprava hovof a jednom "pravdepodobne sestfelenern" bornbarderu USAAF. nepidtelskycb bombarderech. Ja s mym c{stem jsme byli na konci bojoveho doletu nasich. that we were nearing the end oj the Avia 8-135~' combat radius therefore I signalled to my wingman to return to base . using up the last drops of fuel. Atanasov ohlasil sesttel . In a 'right-side-step' style combat formation. ktere se opozdilo za formaci..m. When we returned to Dolna Mitropoliya. chasing the enemy. I didn.] "Muj zaver je ndsledujici: kazdy z pilotu vystiile! munici. Fortunately. Velickovem: "Stihaci Skala.). they had no fighter escort. V seznarnu lze nalezt kpt.' VtC10ly. protoie jsme prave piedvedli pilotnini idkum. " Dalsi ucastnik tohoto boje. called us and said: 'And now. Since the USAAF bomber reportedly crashed into the territory of Yugoslavia. They engaged it and chased it EO wards Radomii. proto jsem rozhodl 0 ndvratu a signalitoval jsem to svemu cislu. ). We made a turn. 1 bod (. pote se vrdtili.. kiere jsme taznamenali. vcetne uvedene kofisti Avii. (.) under us. }" One can note that the report mentions one USAAF bomber "probably shot down". There. Tbe first pair were Iater compelled to land at the Bozhurishte base. Since our speed was almost identical to the bombers'. od 10:15 do 11:30. Letadlo zacalo zatdcet doprava. We were near Vratza when we saw a huge group of 'Liberators 'just in front oj us. Later on. in the region of Pernik. Zde se setkali se skupi!lOU nephitelskych. let v. ztrdcelo vyJku a vyskdkalo z nl) pet clem:t posddky. but I had my own doubts thinking about the difference in the armament. Aranasova s celkem peti body za vitezstvt. in the area of Trun and Breznik. we were attacked by our ownflak.) in the area of Biola Slatina.ym manevrem. 1944. umistend no Ietisti Dolna Mltropolija: Po obdrieni prvni hZdJky 0 piiletajicich. ze skutecne cislo je pet sestreln. However. but we could not shoot down an. Kapitan Krasto Atanasov. enemy bomber regardless of the actual hits observed on the bomber's wings and fuselage. Zaidceli jsme. in the mountains. based at Dolna Mitropoliya airfield: upon receiving the first announcement about the incoming enemy bombers. tfi sesttelene nepfatelske letouny. The first pair had gone for ahead.ejake tresty za nepovoleny bojovy let. jimz se oteviely paddky. Proto byl tento sesttel automaticky zafazen do "pravdepodobnych". I made a sign to the commander. Z tohoto seznamu by vyplyvalo. The order was to attack the airplane that is left behind by the formation. home of 3/6 Orlyak. what are we going to do with that combat [light?' I remember Petar Manolev saying.624-3. Albania. even when compared to a bomber. opening their parachutes.Fortresses 'of the last group. returned to our airfield. it was difficult to reach them again. zpozorovanych. jak zahdjit boj ajak z neho vlleznl vyjlt (. Rozka. each of us attacked the enemy from down-behind. Soon. Kdyz velitelstvi VNVV poiadalo 0 jmena dotcenych ctyf pilotu. mezi instruktory se 0 tomto bojovem lew rozhoiela vzrusend diskuse.. Nechtll jsem se k rozkazu vyjadiovat. a lively discussion about the combat took place among all of the instructors. ze jsme piipraveni se podelit 0 zodpovednost s Atanasovem.. nad albanskym rneslem Tirana. K doplneni celkoveho obrazu onoho pornerne velice rusneho dne. '1 want to comment on the order. We reached 5. we dived on the . eita devet letadel. the right pair of engines started to smoke.. 12.v. About }. Nedlouho po tom letoun spadl na zem v oblasti Trunu a Bremiku. . heading towards Sofia." [According to hi. ale mel jsem sve pochyby kvuli rozdtlu ve vyzbroji \.• oemohlo byr nalezeno pfesne rnisto dopadu. Signalizoval jsem veliteli. bfezna 1944 je uvedena nasledujici poznamka: "Poskozen ctyfmotorovy bombarder. Atanasov. but also commended for his victory..Co s tim bojovym letem udeldme?' Pamatuji si jak Petar Manolev iekl. Nekolikrd: jsme na osamele letadlo iautocili a brio se ndm podaiilo zapdli: oba motory na pravem kitdle.e letadlo od 30 I. bombardo- Continuing with the report filed by Col. We landed there at 11:30 a. Yordao Ferdinandov says: "We were fiying towards Sofia and from a long distance we saw the smoke over the city. nebyli schopni sestielit kvtdi neucinnosti kulometu mate rdie. Pozdeji byl kpt. Prvni roj se dostal daleko dopiedu a prondsledoval neptitele. byl napadnout letadlo. Flying Fortressu*. 78/28. As for my pair. Zautocili na ne a prondsledovali je k Radomiru. sestavil velitel fkoly kpt. seen over the town of Tirana. They took off under his command in the direction of Vratza and Berkovitza. Dalsi soudoby dokument. Jordan Ferdinandov.Ie srovndni s bombarderem.30 a. we discovered about 30-40 four-engined bombers. because of the ineffectiveness of our small-calibre armament.) The Fighter School. Avii B-1 35. Manolev's flight lasted 75 minutes. . the exact crash site could not be found. that we were ready to share the responsibility with Alanasov. pochvdlen zzr bojovy uspech. ktery podjeho velenim vzletl smerem na Vracu a Berkovicu.Dolna Mitropoliya. Chasing the enemy to the Sw. We auacked the lone airplane a few times. looked around and. Pobl~f.15 a. ruis tavolal a iekl: . kde mel svou zakladnu 3/6 Orljak. loosing height. as we did not see any enemy airplanes. ale protoie jsme Iadnd nepidtelskd letadla nevideli.000 m ( 16. and 5 crewmembers jumped out. as they had had used up all of their fuel. . Protoze se arnericky bombarder udajne zfitil 11a uzemi Jugoslavie.Fortressu ". " Prvnl roj muse] ptistat se zbyrkem pali va na zakladne Bozuriste.Vratza. Ctyri paoli prav&fpodobn€ sesiielili jeden l1epi':dtels/c. Tam take kpt.

od roku 1944 . was nicknamed "Vagabond". 19.vaci skupiny (419. 4-engined bombers lost over Bulgaria/Yugoslavia (see table . Avions (France) Nos.and 22. and Dec. Byla to B-17F. when the last survi ving aircraft were used as targets during air-to-ground shooting practice.135'. official list of all victories obtained by tbe Bulgarian fighter pilots against their adversary. but to complete the overall picture of this rather busy day. 1944). 1 or 0 'points' could also be awarded. Sofia. Ztrity ze dne 30. New York. k nemuz doslo 8. Velichkov only three enemy aircraft are mentioned as shot down. Koncem roku 1944.list). 1947) Borislavov. All ten crew members became POWs (Prisoners of War). Cvetan: Koj koj je.. Skrzydlata Polska (Poland) a Letectvt+Kosmoneutrka (Czechoslovakia) 78 . bf'l!zna 1943 uv:adene l1SAAF Looses stated by '(JS. Theodor Muchovski and Petar Manolev for their kind assistance. pilotovane ppor. Gordon: The Complete Book of Fighters.tch 19:43 Typfl'ype B~24 B-17 B-17 B-17 VYr. It was last seen over Central Yugoslavia at 12:45 hrs. jjz neby10 dana dozit dlouheho veku. depending on the degree of damage reported as being inflicted. zan 1944. The aircraft.was nine. . there were a few other USAAF bornbers damaged in combat over the area where the Bulgarian patrol clashed with the intruders. podobny systsrnu pouzlvaoernu skYm letectvem rumun-. which did return to their base in Italy. The document ranks the VNVV pilots according to the point system**. 1994 USAAF MACR (Missing Air Crew Report) seznamy pro 30. William. ktere se ale na zakladnu v Italii vratily. dva body za kazdy ovei'eny sestfel dvournotoroveho letadla a jaden bod za overeny sestrel [ednomotoraku. Sofia. By the end of 1944. an block B-17F. 1944. Smithmark Pu bl . Notes: ") during the war.)". bombardovact letky). while 1 'point' was awarded for every single·engined aircraft being confirmed as shot down. From the list.'. a 'Flying Portress'" . Rumen: Samoletite na Balgaria.including the reported victim of the Avias. kdyf poslednl pretivsi kusy poslouzily jake cllove pfi nacviku letecke stfelby na pozemni cfle.O} Toto byl typicky bulharsky system. kde se bulharsky roj potykal se ctyrmotorovym vetrelcem . nekdy lam zahrnovali i dvcurnotorove North American B-25 Mitchell a Martin B·26 Marauder. However.e oben Avii . with the influx of new Soviet technology after the Bulgarian about-face of September 8. Izdatetstvo 'Litera Prima.AAF on 30th Ma. Ivan.The day's total number of 'probable' victory claims . ffj na 1939 do 18. Smutny konec je neminul v roce 1946. via Josef Pregosi Periodlka I Magazines 'L'Avia B. . pojmenovana "Vagabond". by1 nejspfs onim. on that day. 12. Stephan Boshniakov. In the order of Col. Vsech deset clenu posadky padlo do zajen. s dodavkami nove sovetske techniky po bulharskern veletoci a zmene stran. For 30th March 1944. Bibliografie I Bibliography: Zapisnlk letu Petara Manoleva (od 19. brezen 1944 (listings for March 30. * * *' * The Author wishes to thank Messrs.. it was later found that the real number was in fact. Nicrnene v oblasti. cJSerial 42-5251 42-31683 42-31851 42-30465 J ednotkalU nit 450th BO 2ndBO 2ndBO* 30Ist BO Cas/Time 08:49 10:01 10:01 12:45 * srazka s druhou B -17 I crashed with fellow B -17 as 'probable victory'. Tills could raise the possibility of one of them being the actual victim of the Avia B-135. . jeden a zadny bod. To by mobIo znamenat. 78/28. 1939 to 1une 18.J point (. >I< Epilogue This melee involving the four-aircraft Bulgarian patrol and a cut off USAAF bomber was actually the swansong of the short-lived Avia 8-135. 1994 Sblrky a n1znii cisla Krile (Bulgaria). bylo v boji poskozeno vic bombarderu USAAF. there were four. Williamem C.Jzdstelstvo 'Ikar Press' . the following note is given: "Damag ed a 4 -eng ined bomber . was most likely the one claimed by Kapitan Atanasov. Naposled byJa videna nad stfednl Jugoslavii ve 12:45. na ktere si del a] narok kapitan A tanasov. Nov. two 'points' for every 2-engined aircraft being confirmed shot down. in a forgotten corner of Dolna Mitropoliya airfield..8S). i. Za kazdy letoun poskozeny v boji mohly 'bYt poole stejnano klfce udelovany dva. U) This was a typical Bulgarian system. Balgarska Aviacija. Their sad end came in 1946. somewhat similar to the system used by the Rumanian Air Force from 1944 onwards: 3 'points' were awarded for every tour-enqined aircraft being confirmed shot down.Kirilov.. one can find Kapitan Atanasov with a total of five victory points . Autor dekuje panum Stephanu Boshniakovi. Bulgarian airmen referred 10 every 4-engined USAAF aircraft as a 'Fortress' -or 'Flying Fortress' sometimes including the twinengined North American B·25 Mitchell and Martin 8·26 Marauder.) bshern valky nazyvall bulharstl letol [menern . cervn3 1947) I Log book Petar Manolev (from OCI. 1996 Cakov. Photo credit: Denes Berndd & Stephan Boshniakov collection are marked as (B & B collection) VysvelUvky: .. byly malo zname Avie prakticky stazeny ze sluiby a ponechany pod ~:irYm nebem v zastrcenern koute leti~te Dolna Mitropolija. USAAF documents reveal that. five ...8~135 by! jeden z nich. 2. 1999 Green. Doslov Tento boj ctyrclenneho bulharskeho roje a osameleho americkeho bombarderu by! skutecnou labuti pisni Avie B~135. it would appear that the aircraft of the 30 I sr SO (419th .. issued as Order No. is the complete. Theodoru Muchovskemu a Petaru Manolevovi za Iaskavou pomoc.. Millerem. In this list.Fortress" nebo "Flying Fortress" vsechny ctyrmotorove amertcko lstouny. TIl body byly za ka1dy oveFeny sestrel elyrrnotoroveho Ietadla. 21. For every enemy aircraft damaged in air combat. Miller. the littleflown Avias were effectively withdrawn from service and stored in the open. Anomer contemporary document. piloted by 1st Lieutenant William C. S wanbcrough. v zavislostl na ohlasene mfre pcskozenl protivnfkova stroje.

.. A ........._...e« ... 4t/1wave 4-./ • Lovec j(radar " " PLOVDIV • oblast dopadu US bornbarderu area of fall of a US bomber " ..... '.. 7 •• /" \ "'... " ".Tefis----heading or the 8-135 night .. ........ ...:> ~.'_ ..~. pocatecnl kurs skupiny instruktoru s Aviemi initial heading for flight instructor with Avias ') ablast stretu s US bornbardery area of the battl e with th e US bombe rs p Fiblizny srne r letu a merlckych bombard ovacich svazu 30..... .._...... /( : ..vlns • Biaia Slatina • Dolna Mitropofija / (8-135) smer Jetu roje 8-135 ... ..Orlentacnl mapkazapadniho Bulharska s dulezitymi orlentaenlmi body The general map of the Western Bulgaria with the most important orientation points • I . • • . ._.... . ......_· .J. 9....... ·o_......__ . o . . ..--- Vidine . " i : . r-: ~. • • .~ '../ . . .. ..... ... •-.... brez na 1944 probable direction of flight of the US bomber units on 30th March 1944 79 . 4· .. .

A circular flap in the windshield allowed the cockpit to be ventilated with external fresh air. which were. which provided protection for the pilot in the event of a turnover. The diagonal braces in the front fuselage were of steel tubes. Paky ovladanl plynu klapky vodnfho chladice. Tfidtlny pfekryt pilotnlho prostoru . Stredni cast trupu byla zhotovena z profilovych latek zasazenych v pficoych The Avia B-135 was a cantilever. Svarovani nebylo z dnvodu snadne vymeny poskozenycb dilu pouzito. sesroubovane a snytovane Z ocelovych trubek a duralovych nosnfku. single-engined fighter monoplane of mixed structure. Vyztuzenl horni a dolnl roviny za pilomim prostorem bylo z trubek. stfedni vzad odsunovatelny a zadni dil byly vyrobeny ze syntetickeho skla znacky "Plexiglas" v trubkovych rarnech. attached to a welded steel tube frame. The pilot's seat was designed to accommodate a back parachuteo Using a hand wheel on its starboard side. Podobnyrn zpusobem byla snimatelnyrni panely s kontrolnimi otvory zakryta i cast trupu pod ocasnimi plochami. Na prave strane sedadla byla uvoliiovacl paka postroje. signalnl 80 . which were held in curved. Pilotni sedadlo. Oblopricne vyztuhy pfedni casti trupu tvofily ocelove trubky. vpravo za 111 packu brzd. Kruhove drzadlo fidici paky rnelo ve svem stredu spouse palubnich zbraru. Trubky vztycene nad zakladni kostru za sedadlern pilota tvofily jeho ochranu pfi prevracenl. Posuvnou eft t bylo mozne zaaretovat v jakekoliv poloze. The complete forward fuselage skinning consisted of removable electron sheet panels. standardu. The cockpit was heated by a regulated flow of hot air taken from the engine's water radiator. The fuselage was a Warren truss steel tube structure. The engine bearers were made-up of steel tubes and dural profiles. The throttle lever pro upeviiovaci srouby motoru. ktere se pripeviiovaly na ram svareoy z ocelovych trubek. nytu a sroubu. with a retractable tail wheel undercarriage. The sliding hood could be locked in any position along the length of its travel. benztnoveho koboutu a tlacitka odhozu purn byly umistene na leve strane pilotniho prostoru. ~traIlj pilotnibo prostoru se provadelo kruhovou klapkou ve stitku kabiny. in the rear fuselage of the streamlined steel Avia wires. Those panels requiring a more frequent access were attached with Avia quick-release fasteners. Pouract system pasu pilota byl petibodovy s rychlospojem. Trup letounu mel phhradovou kostru z ocelovych trubek. ktere svyrni kulovymi cepy sedely v luikach postranic.celni sutek. Rubber shock absorbing mounts for the engine attachment bolts were fitted inside the dural profiles. ktere byly vzajemne spojeny pomoci stycnfkovych plechu. which were also fitted with inspection covers. K homim podelnikum trupu a ke kovani na prednirn nosniku kndla bylo ctyfmi cepy uchyceno rnotorove loze. bylo uzpusobeno pro zadovy padak. in easy reach of the pilot's fingers. it was height adjustable by 120 nun. Na prave trane byla umistena dvoudilna schranka na rnapy. K vytapeni kabiny se vyu~ zival regulovatelny prtvod tepleho vzduchu ad vodntho chladice. The circular grip of the control column bad a gun trigger button in its centre. the brake lever was behind the grip. attached with a total of four bolts to the top fuselage longerons and to the brackets on the front wing spar. Behind the cockpit there were tube erected above the basic truss. stretched over the contour forming wooden strips. Pedaly nozniho fizeni byly take stavitelne. koleckem na prave strane stavitelne v rozsahu 120 mm. all made from Plexiglass organic glass held in a steel tube framing. v zadni casti byly pouziry ocelove profilove draty "Avia". cs. The surface of the fuselage centre section consisted of a doped linen covering. ostatnt zajiStenymi srouby. The rudder pedals were also adjustable to according to the pilot'S height. oblouccich a potazena platnem. a rearward sliding cockpit hood and a fixed rear section. transverse brackets. Uvnitf duralovych nosnfku byly ulozeny gumove tlurnice vibraci Cela prednt cast trupu az za kabinu pilota byla zakryta odnimatelnymi elekrronovymi panely. The horizontal diagonal bracing in tbe fuselage truss top and bottom plane panels behind the cockpit was of steel tubes terminated with ball joints. the remainder with locknut screws. fining into the sockets of the truss side panels. Casto snimane panely byly upevneny prostlednictvtrn rych lozamku "A via ". The rear fuselage beneath the empennage was covered with similar panels. joined together by riveted and bolted fishplates. low-wing.Avia B-135 z technickeho pohledu Avia B-135 from technical point of view Avia B-135 by) stihacl samonosny dolnokndly jednoplosnfk smisene konstrukce s klasickymi jednoduchymi ocasnimi plocbami a zatahovacim podvozkem zadoveho typu. The three-section cockpit canopy transparency had a fixed windshield.

) 35 radio set and weapons' control buttons. (Author's coil. The Avia B-534 fuselage structure for comparison oxygen breather pipe coupling was located on the same side. Ruene ovladany hasici pfistroj s dvouLitrovou lahvi smesi to the NACA 23020 at the root. The general stowage trol stick had a ring-shaped handle with compartment. changing gradually ovladani klapek a podvozku. odpruzene zavesena. Pod hlavni deskou carry-through structure with a straight leabyla zavesena pomocna spinae] skfiiika a na ding edge and a semi-elliptical trailing edge.kruhove driadlo s gency flap and undercarriage controls were ovkidactmi prvky. Schranka se stielivem I Ammunition box. the so-called armoured plywood. podlaze panel nouzoveho hydraulickeho Two box spars carried 25 ribs of NACA 23012 section at the tip. Vystrelny kanal signalnf pistole I Flare pistol1rough. Pallvove nadrze I Fuel tanks. Schranka elements. consisting Za sedadlem pilota se nachazel zavazadloof 1. 6. vlevo kysllkova lahev. This ensured a smooth surface to the Ovladani radiostanice bylo upevneno oa wing and protected the plywood against the leve strane pilotnfho sedadla. fire extinguisher. The complebyl uchycen na trubkove konstrukci trupu te assembly was covered io plywood. The spars and ribs were glued with Iekamicky byla u seriovych letoumi za Kaurit. 81 . resin. 4. Purnovy zelv8snfk I Bomb rack. ~Micf paka I Control stick. dostupna zvenku. a flare (rocket) pistol and its ten rounds were both plaKonstrukce trupu letounu Avia B-534 pro porovnani ced on the starboard side of the cockpit. the plywood was glued with Bakelite sedadlem. the vz. 5. all-wood. the fuel cut-off valve and bomb release buttons were located on the port side of the cockpit. 10. Radiov8 souprava I RfT set. Vpravo za palubni deskou bylanapojena hadice dychace. Beneath the main instrument panel the auxiliary switch box was located. thinner-gauge tubes made up the space frame that held the metal fairings and removable skin panels..) the compressed air bottle for the wheel brakes were all behind the pilot's seat. The lightercoloured. nabijeni zbrani a nastfikovacl pumpa. 30 machine gun. hasiciho pfistroje. weapons' charging and fuel-priming pump. t 1. Nadri: hydraullckeho oleje / Hydraulic oil tank. Motor HS 12Ycrs / HS 2Ycrs engine. Stlaceny vzduch I Compressed air. 2. lubrication boost. misto pro radiostanici vz. The main instrument panel consisted of a complete set of flight and engine control instruments. A double map-case. 35 a vzduchova lahev brzdoveho systernu. 8. The a motorovych pfistroju a vystupovala z nt radio control panel was placed on the port tahla superboostu. 9. K oberna blokum motoru byly vyvedeny dve vetve. Bilj collection) raketova pistole a 10 raket. (Mk. (M. prtdavneho mazani side COCkpit coaming. Svette tenet ~ . Zavazadlovy prostor I Baggage compartment. obsahovala kompletni sadu letovych (pull to add power as with the Austro-Hungarian or French aircraft). panelii: The fuselage load-bearing structure of the Bulgarian Avia B·135. Chladfc vody I Water radiator.2 mm thick plywood with a 0. Hlavni pfistrojova deska. the engine water radiator control flap lever.2 nun thick aluminium sheet bonded to its outer vy pros tor.Kostra trupu bulharske Avia 8-135. 3. • Upper part of the conon the floor beneath it. cast casti Legenda k rezu I Cutaway drawing key: 1. 12. Kulomet cz VZ. with protruding controls for the take-off boost. The wing was a one-piece. behind the instrument panel. the emerHorn ( Hdid ptiky . side. upevnent kovove karoserie a sntmatelnych.'-:tr!!bky~~ !!!!tY£:r . motam. the oxygen bottle was on the port side. This stressed skin wa again covered by a layer of v prave pilotniho prostoru.

Signalni svitilna pod sedadlem pilota rnela svirit zasklenym kruhovym otvorem ve spodni st~ne trupu. Na spodrn strane ktidla by to kovani upraveno k montazi pumovych zavesniku. se ovladaly hydraulickym cerpadlem s nahonem ad motoru v nouzi rucntm cerpadlem. ale rovnou nabeznou hranou. 82 nabezne many praveho kfidla byla elektricky . Krfdlo celodrevene konstrukce bylo sestavene jako prubezne s eliptickym tvarem odtokove hrany. Vyvazovaci ploska smeroveho kormidla byla stavitelna pouze na zemi.tahlo a lana. Rizeni bylo tahly.Prostoru za sedadlem .2 mm S nalepenyrn hlinikovym plechem 0 sfle 0. K fizen! vyskoveho kormidla slouzlt kombinovany nahon . pro preklizky bakelir. Kftdlo se k trupu pripevriovalo pres kovani cryrmi cepy. ale plosku vyskoveho kormidla mohl ovladat pilot z kabiny za leru. Na tento nosny potah byla naklfzena tzv. Veskere Mdiei plochy byly ulozeny v kulickovych lozisctch. 16° . Kostry kormidel byJy snytovany Z ocelovych trubek a porazeny platnem. (NTM Praha) Compartment behind the pilot seat . diferencovane. Maximalni vychylka srneroveho .5 s. vodorovne mely elipticky ptidorys. nahoru. aerodynarnicky i staticky vyvazena a ulozena na kulickovych loziscich. vyztuzene jednoduchymi zebry. ktera zajistovala kfidlu hladky povrch a zvysovala jeho odolnost proti vnejsim vlivum. k ffzent srneroveho lana.kormidla byla 29° vpravo i vlevo. Smerove i vyskove kormidlo bylo aerodynamicky i staticky vyvazeno.23020 a celek potazen pfeklizkou. at the right the baggage compartment. vyskoveho kormidla 28° nahoru a 25° dolu. Ocasnf plochy byly samonosne.2 mm).vlevo jsou drzaky radiosoupravy. pancerova preklizka (pfeklizka 0 sfle 1. Ve stredu vyhnvana trubice rychlornerneho systemu fumy Prema. Dva sknnove nosniky byly osazene 25 zebry s profilem NACA 23012 . Kostra byla svarena z ocelovych trubek a potazena plarnem. Celoduralove vztlakove klapky. K lepeni nosnfku a zeber se pouztval kaurit. Stabilizator a kylova plocha rnely stejnou konstrukci jako ktfdlo. Maxirnalnl vychylka klapek byla 55° overena doba vysunun i zasunuti cinila 7. 12° dolu. Kfidelka byla sterbinova. vpravo schrdnka pro zavazadlo.on the left are brackets for RlT set.

(NTM Praha) This picture unveils many interesting details. were pi voted at the rear face of the front spar. V pfipade poruchy motoru nebo hydraulickeho cerpadla bylo mozne vysunout podvozek pomoci hydraulickeho akumulatoru. jen cast ostruhoveho kolecka vystu- povala ze spodnfho obrysu trupu. Zatahovani se dele hydraulicky smerem ke koncum kfidel. The two-section undercarriage doors were attached La the legs. Otocnou ostruhu s pneumatikou Conti 290 x 110 bylo mozne zaaretovat ve stredru poloze. pedaly nozntho fizenl prave nebo leve kolo Hydraulicky system by! urcen k ovladanl podvozku a vztlakovych klapek a hydraulicke cerpadlo pohanel motor. stejne jako pneumatika nolly 8-135. The maximum rudder deflection was 29° either side. The empennage of cantilever design followed the design of wing. the undercarriage legs. The rudder trim tab was ground-adjustable only. stroju. Hlavni podvozkove nohy s roz- chodem kol 25] 0 mm byly vybaveny olejopneumatickyrni tlurnici "Avia" a zaveseny na zadni strane pfedniho nosnlku kfidla. The push-pull rod/bellcrank controls actuated the ailerons differentially. rowards the wingtips.2.510 mm. 16° up. The Conti 650 x 180 mm air wheels were mounted on stub axles and fitted with Argus disc drum brakes. Dvoudilny kryt zakryval pouze vzperu a jen cast kola. rearward retracting. The main wheels had a track of 2. The undercarriage was fully retractable. The swivelling. fitted with "Avia" hydro-pneumatic shock absorbers. Pokud by doslo The ailerons were slotted. Sklapela se smerem dozadu. There were attachment points on the wing underside. The maximum deflection of the flaps was . They were actuated by an engine driven hydraulic pump. [he elevator trim tab couJd be adjusted in flight from (he cockpit. stiffened by simple ribs. The light-coloured object in front of the windshield is the hydraulic oil tank.2 rozkryJ1a mnoho zajfmavych detaiM. TIle main undercarriage leg of the 8-135. The wing was attached to the fittings of the fuselage centre section structure by four bolts. The wheel legs hydraulically retracted outwards. cables actuated the rudder. for the attachment of bomb racks. The split flaps were of an-metal (dural) structure. Letrno uchycena kola s phiSti Conti 650 x 180 mm mela pneumaticke kotoucove brzdy Argus. On the series-built machines the same unit was used. Svetly objekt pred celllfm stl'tkem je nddri hydraulickiho oleje. 290 x 110 mm railwheel could be locked in a centred position. Their structure was of welded thin-walled steel tubing with a fabric covering. hinged on ball beatings and covered with fabric. the elevator travel was 28° up and 25°down.2 in close-up. (NTM Prague) Podvozek byl zatahovacl. only the lower half of the tailwheel protruded from the fuselage bottom. together with the tyre featuring the transversal tread pattern. 83 .Snimek B-135. V popiedi je videi Pitotova trubice (delka 750 mm) a podstatrui cast podvozkove nohy. which they covered together with the upper half of each wheel. sachta nernela zakryu.55°. and by a hand pump in an emergency. The elevator control circuit utilised push-pull rods and cables. aerodynamically and statically balanced. In the foreground the Pitot tube (750 mm long) and a substantial part of the undercarriage leg. Pneumaticke brzdy a intenzita brzdeni se ovladaly packou na fidici pace. 12°down. The fin and horizontal stabiliser was of a wooden structure. The brake handle on Detail hlavni podvozkove u seriovych. ktera byla stejtui jako s pfibzym vzorkem. The aerodynamically and statically balanced elevator and rudder were riveted from steel tubing. hinged in ball bearings.

podvozek bylo moine vysunout pneurnaticky nebo jej mechanicky odjistit a k VYSUDUti doslo. Polohu podvozku oznamovala svetelna s ignali zace. V cele instalaci bylo celkern 65 litru. Dalkovyrn [Izenim Teleflex Kablo pilot ovladal trojcestny palivovy kohout.e. the aircraft's engine. (M. The hydraulic system that actuated the undercarriage and flaps had a pump driven by.:::.mal. radiostanice. Mallerit. Tlakove lahve se plnily na 14 kp/cm'.55 MPa (5.5 kp/cm'. Ze site byla napajena pozicot svetla. Baj collection) The factory photo of the power plant the licence-built Hispano Suiza HS 12fcrs. Below: The water cooling circuit diagram.4 MPa (14 kp/cm").z s vodou / Water tank \ \1- . The electric network was fed by a 12 Volt accumulator battery of 13 Ah capacity. Ke spousteni loufil pneumaticky poustec Viet. a pneumatic emergency lowering was possibJe.umistene mezi nosniky ve stredni casti kfidla. Plnici hrdlo pro vsechny ti:i nadrze bylo na prostredni (zalozni) nadrfi opatrene take vypoustecim ventilem.7 litru byla umistena nad reduktorem motoru. Pohonnou jednotku ptedstavoval vodou chlazeny dvanacti- valec do "V". K motorovernu 101i byl pnpevnen 18 srouby. the operating pressure was reduced to 0.. Pfedepsana byla Ncid. fI -1L__L::' _ .. Podtlakovy ventil omezoval tvofeni podtlaku v instalaci prudkyrn ochlazenim vody.k poskozem i rohoto nouzoveho systemu. ktery odebiraJ potrebny vzduch z letistni lahve.of .~~. Bay) u zeme.J. The network fed Tovdrni sntmek pohonne jednotky . Pfipojka byJa umistena na pravern boku trupu za odtokovou hranou kfidla.: function the undercarriage could be extended using a hydraulic accumulator. Chlazeni vody zajistoval vostinovy chladic ve tvaru "U" urnisteny pod motorem a pfichyceny na rnotorove Ioze do 4 patek oceIovyrni pasy.dve postranni s objemem po 125 1 a jedna 0 120 I . the pressure distribution to either the port or starboard wheel brake (i. Jiny sarnostatny pneurnaticky okruh slouzil k ovladani brzdoveho systemu a k odhozu pum.5 kp/cm')._. Another independent compressed air circuit actuated tbe wheel brakes. Pneumaticky system nouzoveho vysouvani podvozku tvofil sarnostatny okIuh 'napajeny dvema vzducnovyrni Iahvemi. in the last resort the pilot could unlock the undercarriage and let the gravity to pull down the wheels. Prntokove mnozstvi chladiciho vzduchu pilot rjdil regulacni klapkou za chladicern pomocl trubkovych tahel..__:.a . to give directional control) was provided by the brake pedals. osvetleni pilotniho prostoru. K sesti karburatorum Solex bylo palivo dopravovano dvema rotacnimi cerpadly AM pohanenymi motorem. The storage bottle pressure was 1. spousteni palubnich zbrani a ukazatele polohy podvozku a pristavacich klapek. Bay collection) Dole: Schema okruhu vodntho okruhu. (M. pracovni tlak byl redukovan na 5. vlastru hmotuosti. Palivove potrubi bylo zbotoveno z ohebnych hadic zn. Mosazna vyrovnavaci nadrz vody 0 objemu 12. In. Palivo' nesly tfi nadrze svafene z hlinikovebo plechu ."'~ . signalni svetlornet..licencne vyrdbineho motoru Hispano Suiza Hs 12fcrs. If this emergency system was damaged. case. (Drawing M. Two air bottles fed the pneumatic system for the emergency extension of the undercarriage.-. Po jejicb vycerpani pfepnul na prostfedni. Nadrz byla vybavena ptetlakovyrn ventilem. ktery slouzil ke zvyseni bodu varu ve vyskach. Elektrickou sit zasoboval akumulator 13 Ahl12 V umisteny pod sedadlem na leve strane a generator 300 W Il2 V pohaneny motorem. Avia HS 12Ycrs s kompresorem a reduktorem 3:2 s rnaxirnalntm vykonern 632 kW (860 k) pfi 2400 ot/min v rypove vyke 4000 m a srartovnim vykonu 588 kW (800 k) pf 2200 or/min the control column actuated the brakes. ktery dovoloval cerpat palivo ze dvou postrannicb nMdl jako celku. placed under the seat at the port side and by a 12Voltl300 Watt generator driven by the engine.__ vody Water cooler 84 .. Motor pohanel na zerni stavitelnou kovovou dvoulistou vrtuli Letov Hd 43.

(NTM Prague) 8S . The fuel filler for all three tanks led to the central (reserve) tank. fed from the ground supply. suppli. he switched to the central (re erve) tank.2 prototype.Detail konstrukce piedn: elisa prupu pted kabinou. (NTM Praha) A close-up of the forward fuselage structure in front of the cockcockpit ventilation. v- Lahiidka pro milovniky detailii. A brass header tank of 12. Note the smooth oil cooler surfacethe same was used on the series-production machines. the exhausts still have the short stubs. It was attached to the engine bearers with 18 bolts. The upper one is for clsra "pokud mozno mekka" voda. placed under the engine. zaroveri ulohu chladice. two-bladed Letov Hd 43 metal propeller.7 litres capacity was placed above the propeller gearbox. the gun firing mechanisms and the undercarriage and flap position indicators. Note the two openings in the windshield. Once they were emptied. A If-shaped. but all other details are perfectly like the series-built standard. Vsimnete si dVOII otvora v celnim stitku . Fuel was carried in three tanks welded from aluminium sheet. As the photo shows the B-13S. The under-pressure valve prevented the collapse of the cooling system's tubes and vessels during a rapid cooling-down of the liquid.ed with compressed air from an external source of pressure (e. Potrubi bylo ocelove. the radio set.horni je ventilace. the signal beam. Six of the Solex carburettors were supplied with fuel via a pair of engine-driven AM rotary pumps. geared (3:2 ratio) liquid-cooled Avia/Hispano-Suiza HS 12Ycrs twelve engine of 632 kW (860 HP) maximum output at 2. airfield doily). provided dissipation of engine's waste heat. the position/navigation lights. the centra] one. ale vie ostatni je srovnaielne se seriovymi letouny.g. tatoinj byl pouzu pfi seriove stavbi. the pilot remotely controlled the three-way fuel selector valve that enabled to drain both lateral tanks simultaneously. It had inside a CKD electric re i tance heater of 500 wattsl 220 Volts. The tank was fitted with an overpressure valve.adkj povrch olejoveho chladice. Pozornosti neunikne hl. A treat far the lovers of fine detail. had a capacity of 120 litres. An automatic regulator controlled the oil temperature in the circuit. Potrubi vodni instalace bylo z hlinikovych a medenych trubek. ensuring instant response when ar readiness. The engine drove a ground-adjustable. The radiator was attached to four brackets on the engine bearers by steel belts. the cockpit lightning. The powerplant consisted of a mechanically supercharged. Olejova nadrf 0 objernu 39 litrO vyrobena z mosazneho plechu. v nabezne hrane leve poloviny kfidla. Using the Teleflex Kablo mechanical circuit. The two lateral ones were of 125 litres capacity each. The cooling system piping was of aluminium and copper tubes. located between the wing spars in the centre section.400 rpm. The oil piping was made of steel. The flexible fuel tubing wa of the Mullerite type. The oil tank of 39 litres volume was made of brass sheet. the lower (plugged) sight.2. (NTM Prague) is for the telescopic gun pit. Pure. plnila diky sve konstrukci a umisteni. when an equally rapid drop of the internal pressure would occur. increasing the pressure in the system to raise the boiling point of the liquid at higher altitudes. ktery udrzoval provozni teplotu oleje a teplotu v okrubu ftdil automaticky regulator teploty. which also bad the drain valve. "possibly oft" water was specified for the cooling system. Uvnitf byl elektricky ohfivac oleje rypu eKD 500 W/220 V napajeny z pozernniho zdroje. it was positioned exposed in the port wing' leading edge root doubling as a radiator. Protoie se jedna o snimek B-135. The pressure coupling was located on the starboard fuselage side behind the wing trailing edge. The pilot controlled the volume of the cooling air passing through the honeycomb by actuating the flow control flap through a series of push-pull rods. spodni (zaslepenj) pro p16novanj teleskopicky zameroval. vjfuky maji jeste ndtrubky. Engine starting was by the Viet pneumatic starter. The complete volume of cooling liquid was 65 litres. honeycomb radiator.

Leteckj' kulomet Cz Strakonice vzor (vz.owe oJoiit o 180'0 {I um(Jwit tdk pHsun muniee z.sliding removable ammunition belt case held up to 900 rounds altogether. za motorem. 2002 ltulomet uteckj zujf zb1'ttif s podtivtinlm ntiboj()viho pdsu zprasa. Note the drawings show the right-hand ammunition feed. The cannon was omitted/or clarity. 30 v provedent pro zPsl4vbu do trupu (nebo kffdla) urleny pro strelbu skrze okruh vrtule: Kresby zobra- The Cz VZOl' (Mark) 30 aircraft mtrohine gun in the version for fixed (/useitlge or wing) installation. The weapons were located in the upper fuselage behind the engine and were boresighted to converge at 300 m in front of the aeroplane.) 30 aircraft machine gun of 7. ((} become a left hand one. Pro pray)' kulomet je tomu naopak. The armament consisted of a pair of synchronised Strakonice vz. Podtlvac bylo m. 30 a schrdnek se stielisem.92 mm calibre cz Strakoniee vz: 30 raze 7. The Samek synchronisation head provided the gun synchronisation. it couli/: be turneJl by 180 ikg. It 'Wassynchronised to fire through the propeUer disc.321 in) cali bre. 30 machine guns of 7. (Kresba: M.92rnm (. Baj) 86 . Zbrane byly ulozeny v horni casti trupu za motorem a byly nastreleny na vzdalenost 300 m.92 rum s elektrickyrn natahovanim. Leva schranka byla urcena pro pravy kulornet a pro prazdne dutinky a dinky leveho kulometu. cz vz. (Drawing M.92 mm © M. Bl1j) cz cz The diagram of the liZ. Poloha kanonu neni pro prehlednost zakreslena. Dve do stran vysuvne schranky pojrnuly at 900 naboju (2 x 450). Two sideways . Vyzbroj sestavala ze dvou synchronizovanych kulornetu CZ Strakonice vz: 30 raze 7. sny. The port case fed the belt to the starboard MG and collected the spent cartridges and belt links of Schema uloieni kulometii vz. Synchronizaci zajistovala synchronizacni hlavice Samek. 30 machine guns and ammunition boxes arrangement behind the engine.le'va.

Ve vetSine pfipadu vsak moznost instalace pumovych zavesu zustala nevy- the port MG.o) umozrioval strelbu jen z kulometu nebo kanonu a nebo paIbu vsech zbrani najednou. the so-called "moteur cannon" of the HS 404 or Oerlikon FFS-20 type. The exhibit is in the Aviation and space museum in Prague . with a 60-round drum magazine. (Foto: M. projecting through the windshield. Teleskopicky zamifovac firmy Srb a Stys. 87 .Leteckj motor Hispano Suiza 12Ycrs s demontovanymi vdlci umoiiiuje prohlednout si instalaci 20mm kanonu zblizka. The same attachment points allowed for the installation of a frame with six racks for 10 to 20kg bombs. This unique exhibit is in the storage of the N1'M in Prague. Most of the time the ability to carry these bomb racks remained unutilised. BUts( pohled na zadll( stenu zdsobniku 20 mm kanonu. K zamffeni slouzil opticky zarnerovac Srb a 8tys prochazejlci celnim stitkem kabiny. The necessary selector and release switches were on a small panel on the port side of the cockpit. Han "B". Ctyfpolohovy spinae na fidici pace (ctvrta poloba . A close-up of the rear face of the Hispano cannon 20mm. Besides the machine guns there was a provision for the installation of a 20mm cannon. Beneath the fuselage the racks for either two 50kg or a Single lOOkg bomb were located. Vsechny zbrane pilot odpaloval elekromagneticky.Zajisten. Bt1j) The telescopic gUll sight made by the Srb a Stys company. ammunition drum magazine. Na stejna kovani bylo mozne instalovat ram se sesti zavesniky pro 10 at 20kg pU1l1Y. (Foto: M. uia je shodny s typem pouiitjm v Avii B-135. (Photo M. Bl1j) The Hispano Suiza HS 12Ycrs with cylinders removed hows to advantage the arrangement of the 20mm cannon in close-up. Zobrazenj typ byi vyzkouien v Avii B -534. ale neni zcela jas ne. Tento jedinecnj expondt je uloien v depositafi NTM v Praze.Kbely. but it remains unclear whether it was used on the B-135 as well. Kan6n se ukladal mezi bloky valcu rnotoru a stfflel dutou vrtulovou hfideli. Expondt je umi'sten v Leteckem muzeu v Praze-Kbelicb (hala B). The type shown was tested on the Avia B-534. Odhoz pum se pro vadel pneumaticky .najednou nebo jednotlive. Potrebna tlacftka a pfepinac byly na rnalem panelu na levern boku kabiny. Pod trupem byly zavesniky pro dve pumy po 50 kg nebo pro jednu a hmotnosti 100 kg. cannon only or all three weapons together the fourth position was "Safe". The cannon breech was placed between the cylinder banks. It was very similar or the same as the one used on German MG-FF cannon. vice versa for the starboard case. They were released in a salvo or individually by a pneumatic system. uzita. Tvar uisobnikuje velmi podohl1j nemeckym pro kanony MG-FF. Baj) Krome kulometn bylo moine montovat i motorovy kan6n Hispano Suiza HS 404 nebo OerlikonFFS-20 raze 20 mrn s bubnovyrn zasobnfkem na 60 naboju. All weapons were fired electro-magnetically. The four-position trigger switch on the control column allowed to fire the MG's' only. To aim the guns the Srb a Stys collimator tube sight was used. the barrel protruded through the hollow propeller shaft.

082 Plocha vyskoveho konnidla Elevator surface Vychylka v)lskovebo korrn. Mikoltise VUI autor) z motnjch n34 S One of the possible bomb armament arrangements the Skoda HE bomb on the Pantof rack.--------.-.117 m leve left 16°00' 11°50' 1 Ocasni plochy I Empenage geometry Plocha vodorov.-. (Sbtrka D."" '*-J!f 111 \!iJ '*' T-" J/~ rr ~ ~ . MikoUis collection via Author) 88 .0 m.st. Leteckd puma SKODA na ztivesntku Pantof. / Elevator deflections nahoru I up 27°50' dolu / down 24°50' Vychylka vyvazovaci plosky 11'rim tab deflection nahoru I up 19°30' dohi / down 20°30' Plocha SOP I Vertical tail surface 1 462 Plocha kylovky I Fin surface 0. tailplane surface Plocha stabilizatoru 1.480 Plocha smeroveho korm. 46 to 49). 46 . Vychylka kfidelek prave Aileron deflection right nahoru I up 16°35' dolu / down I. .36C.5 m Vyska I Height 2. Note: The performance parameters of the fighter are listed in the chapter Flight Characteristics (pp.Hlavai technicke odaje Main technical data Zakladni rozmery I Basic dimensions Rozpeti I Wingspan 10 85 m Delka / Length 8. 1.ky (str.152 Horizontal stabilizer surface 1.15 m" 2.-.-. - __. I Rudder surface 0.982 Vychylka smeroveho kormidla / Rudder deflection vlevo I left 28°50' vpravo / tight 28°50' m 2 m m Z 2 m 2 ro 2 m 2 Poznamka: Vykonove parametry letounu [sou uvedeny v kapitole Leiove charakter. (D..l °10' Vychylka pristavactch klapek 55° Landing flaps deflection 17. 20 kg • 50 kg 100 kg ccO'.49). ~ .--- H~ rHu variant pumove vYzbroje. hloubka kfidla I Wing chord max.'U$ Jedna " " ~ I~ ~ \~I __ "'l. ocasni plochy 2.6 m Nosna plocha I Wing geometry Plocha ki:idla I Wing surface Plocha kridelek / Surface of ailerons Max.~.234 Horizontal.

ploch. ale jii s ceskoslovenskjmi vjsostnjmi znaky. Na nabetnjch hrandcb kiidla je dobre videt nepravidelny prechod (vlnovka) mezi nmerem homicb a spodnich.Nahofe: Prvni prototyp B-3S. .1 v titbarevnem kamujUizn{m nateru hornfch plocb pied umistenim vjsostnjch Zllaku. Dole: Stejnj letoun.

brezna1944 feldfebl Jordan Ferdinandov zautocH na formaci arnerickych bornbardern. flown on 30th March 1944 by feldfebl Jordan Ferdinandov to attack a formation of American bombers.5" na trupu bylo odvozene od ssnoveno 6fslaletounu. Bile 61sl0 . 1944 Czechoslovak Avia B~135 fighter in service with the Royal Bulgarian Air Force 1943 .. barva RLM 65 podle nsmeokehc standardu.RLM 71.. The Avia 8-135. ISBN 80-86S24~03-5 9 788086 524030 .. Na spednf plochy byla pouzlta svetle madre. The white "5" tactical code number on the fuselage was derived from the machine's serial number. Stejne 61S10.CeskoslovenskY stihaci letoun Avia 8 .1944 Avia B-135. Trup byl opatren [sdnobarevnyrn natsrem tmave zelenou barvou . on the wing and tail upper surfaces comp:lemented by a disruptive pattern of irregular stripes of RLM 70 black green. Na ki'fdlech ana vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach tento odstfn doplnovele nepravidelna pole cernozelsne barvy RLM 70. The top and side surfaces of the machine were painted in a uniform shade of RLM 71 dark green. The same number was repeated on the underside of both wings.ale nastrfkane cernou barvou.105. se kterou 30.135 ve sluzbach bulharskeho kralovskeho letectva 1943 . The undersurfaces were in the RLM 65 light blue as per standard German practice.1 OS. se nachazelo na obou polovinach spodnl plochy kfidla.