Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 92

Vydane tituly/Published titles
Monografie I Monographs
Messersc.hmitt 81 109G/K - cz Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Messe rschmitt Me 2.62 - cz Curtiss P-40 - cz

Dvoujazycne vydimi I Bi-lingual edition
Henschel Hs 129 Northrop P-61 Black Widow Avia B-534 Messerschmitt Me 262 (new edition) Focke-Wulf Fw 1.89 .. Republic P-47 .. Curtiss P-40 (new edition) " Skoda LT vz.35 IPz.Kpfw. 35(t)] .. Praga LT vz.38 [Pz.Kpfw. 38(t)] .. Marder III & Grille" t.avocktn La-7 Jagdpanzer 38 Hetzer ~ Avia 8-35/8-135 "

model FILE series:
Polikarpov U-2/Po-2 .. (hard cover)

Knihy I Books
Mustangy nad

protektoratern (Rajlich, J.) - cz

Th e Ai rports of Prag ue 191 8-1 946 (Dudacek, L.) .. The Airports of Prague 1947-2000 (Oudacek. L) " 1. sarnostatna tankova briqada v SSSR "

(Mustan.gs over the Protectorate)


(The First Czechoslovak

Independent Tank Brigade in the USSR)

(KopeckY, M.) - cz cz in Czech only ") Oznacsns tituly na sklade (Ieden .2003)
Marked titles on the stock on January 2003


Foreign official distributors
Mark D. Tuffield 48 Station Road Stoke D'Abernon, Cobham Surrey KT11 3BN, UK Tel.: 01932 866426 Fax: 01932 867099

CZECH - SIX Publication


Publications MBI® are published and distributed by: MIROSLAV BfLY Kocianova 1588 155 00 Praha 5 Czech Republic Tel.: +420-261 610778 Fax: +420-251 610779 E-mail: bily.bila@quick.cz

AEROMODELUEDUARD Topterberq 18 0-02763 Zittau BRD (Germany) Tel.: +49-3583-795256 Fax: +49-3583-795256


Mode.1 Company

GfF & 1/F, Mo. 33 Yin Chong Street

Legend Court" Mongkok Kowloon, Hong Kong Tel.: (852) 2388-0387 Fax: (852) 2435-4586

TUTTOSTORIA Ermanno Albertelli Editore Via Sydney Sonnino, 34 43100 Parma ITALY Tel.: +39-0521·29.2733 Fax: +39-0521-290387

J.ESCARRE, S.L CNalmojado 113 28047 Madrid SPAIN


Tel.: +34·91·7194796 Fax: +34-91-7194796


je registrovana obchodnt ocbranna znarnka a je majetkem nakladatete. is the registered Trade Mark and it is owned by the Publisher.



Denes BERNAo - Pavel KUCERA


(Sbirka autora ..'(. clanky Male letectvo).s.).Bernad . Jan MACE. M.AU Rights Reserved.s. J. CZ ISBN 80-86524 . Marcela Vsechna prava vyhrazena . VL Zitek (Daewoo Avia. aby se stain jednim z mOZlljch obrdncu piedem "prodamfho" Ceskos[ovellska. Tuffield (U. Fortova (Walter. Zvhistni dfk patrf pani L. I would like to thank to all individuals who helped to create this publication. Rajlichovi (HUACR). Miroslav © ANTOS. 468.protokol FVA 0 prototypovych zkouskach .) a lng. Zitkovi (Daewoo Avia. a.English proof reading) and Mr.. Jaroslava Janecky. M. a. s. ing. optical. a country thrown to the wolves in Munich. 471 .r.eteckeho muzea v Praze This publication is dedicated to the memory of Col. RajIich (HUACR).) Avia 8-35 zacata vznikat pft1is po. 470.bilancnl zprava fy.zprava MNO 0 prototypovych zkouskach . No part of this publication may be reproduced nor copied in any form electronic. photocopying or otherwise. VI.Vydall Published by Miroslav BlLY Kocianova 1588 155 00 Praha 5 Ceska republika I Czech Republic Tato publikace je venovana parnatce plk.. Skramousskemu.03 .poznamky J. . L. without prior written permission of the publishers or authors.Kucera Preklad Titulni strana Zadnf strana obalky Barevne kresby Vykresy/Drawings Kresby/Line drawings ~wo~ g~ Avia B·35 came too late to become one of the potential defenders of Czechoslovakia. VI. Francevovi a J. Praha 10.) and Mr. Cenker (NTM Praha).K. Fortove (Walter.karton C.) a pamim M. Cenkerovi (NTM Praha). the founder of Aeronautic Museum in Prague . P. U Pekaren 1. Praha. Thffieldovi (U. (Author's collection) ~Q~~~ © © © © © VELEK. Balousovi. Miroslav © ANTOS. electrical. zakladateli t. 1943 Technicke muzeum v Brne .Avia B-35 & B-135. Krumbacha PeriodikalMagazines Letectvi+Kosmonautika (monografie: Josef Krybus . Jaroslav Janecka. Ing. PrameoylBibliography: Daewoo Avia. P.dl na to. 2003 1_ vydanilFirst edition Tisk/Printed by: JDS s.: podnikovy archiv . s.5 . Special thanks are due to Mrs. Avia. Petr © BrLY.kniha leta. Miroslav © BiLA. Pelr © BILY.o. Vlastimil MACE. Francev a J.Kbely Dekuji vsem. Martin KUCERA.K. Pavel SUCHY. Skramoussky.MB) © Bily . Aerosvjal (Bulharsko) © Miroslav SOy. Jan © BfL Y. M. S. a. ktefi pomohli vytvofit tuto publikaci. mechanical. VI. a. chemical. a. Narodnl technicke muzeum v Praze: . J. Balous.

svetovou valkou je ci az In the history of the Czechoslovak Air Force the Avia factory brand is definitely a household name. but this was [0 be a trend that would avoid Czechoslovakia. low-wing fighter monoplane ~ the Avia BH-3. to such names as Heinkel or Messerschrnitt in Germany and Dewoitine or Bloch in France. March of 1939. As might be expected. indigenous. overshadowed in due course by the fame that their biplane successors enjoyed. and upgrading of their respective air forces. 3 . BH-IO and BH-li training and liaison aircraft of the same layout. Pate jeste nasledovaly typy BH-8 (B-17). ale na jaie 1939 vyhasla. only the last three having seen a limited service utilisation. Internationally. In the early nineteen twenties tbe Czechoslovak Air Force fielded under the B-3 designation their first. under the military designation B-3. vojenskeho letectva na kratkou dobu dostal prvni dolnoplosnlk domaci konstrukce . Zacatkern 20. Polikarpovovi a jeho typu 1-16. ktere na zacatku 2. Nadeje. BH-9 a BH-ll. svetove valky tvofily pater stihacfch letectev valclcich statu. It was followed by the BH-B (B-17) fighter and by the BH-9. especially for fighters. Spolu s dalsirn dolnoplcsnlkem BH-19 koncila kariera techto typu jako cvicnych stroju ve stinu slavy hlavnlho proudu .dvouplosniku. The hope of the Czechoslovak Air Force getting soon at least a European-class fighter waned in the shameful LSth. Despite the fact that until the mid-thirties the biplane configuration dominated the sky.ui maketa stlhadho letounu Avia B-35 byla pfedzvistf. Heinkel a Messerschrnitt v Nemecku nebo Dewoitine a Marcel Bloch ve Francii. N. let.Avia BH-3 pod vojenskyrn oznacenirn B-3. Prvenstvi v zavedeni jednoplosneho stihaciho letounu patfi v tomto pfipade sovetskernu konstrukterovi N.8-35/8-135 Miroslav Bf Y V historii ceskoslovenskehc vojenskeho letectva byla tovarna moine srovnavat napfiklad s vyznamem spolecnosn Hawker Bristol ve Velke Britanii. V race 1937 jiz bylo ve vetSine pripadu zrejrne. let oblohu temef vyhradne ovladaIy d vouplosne letouny pokusy 0 jednoplosne konstrukce jiz existovaly. as a type they did not prove overly popular and after the BH-19 their influence slowly waned. vojenski letectvo vbrzku ziska letoun evropske urovne. ale jen posledni tfi se dockaly ornezeneho zavedeni. zejmena v oblasti stihacich letadeJ. Obrat nastal v prvni polovine 30. In fact. the kudos for introducing the first liz dreve. jak bude vypadat a jakyrn srnerern se bude Avia zavedenym vyrobcem. a move towards the monoplane design was taking place in the thirties. Jeji vyznam v Ceskoslovensku v obdobi pfed 2. Prototyp vzletl v roce 1933 a jen dva roky na to se postupne objevily typy. there had been numerous earlier attempts at monoplane design. • The wooden mock-up of the Avia B-35 fighter was a portent of the fact that something new and so far unseen brews 011 the Czechoslovak aviation scene. Rozdil vsak by] v pnstupu jednotlivych statu k vyvoji a modernizaci svych letectev. there was a difference in tbe approach individual nations adopted to the development. Its importance on the domestic scene could be likened to the position of the Hawker or Bristol companies in Great Britain. ie prtivi vznikd neco noveho a dosud nevidaneho IUl ceskoslovenske letecke seine. However. ie is. ale mimo Ceskoslovensko. Prestoze aZ do poloviny 30. let se do vyzbroje cs.

Navic. some two years ahead of those of the other major nations. The landmark projects 1936 was a turning point in the attitude of the MNO towards the modernisation of the Air Force. vyzbroje a vystroje . actual research into the new enabling technologies and their utilisation within the aviation industry was virtually non-existent in Czechoslovakia at this time. StllUldAvia B·3 (BH·3).e. that some companies attempted. The Aero aircraft factory of Prague-Vysocany. air-cooled. operational career of the Avia monoplanes. vzduchem chlazeny.k tornuto tematu zustaly ve stadiu navrhu . inverted V-12 engine of 330 kW (450 HP). • Avia 8.000. which were to be provided by the MNO. apparently fed by the recollections of the. The Aero A-7 was to be powered by the new Walter Sagitta 1MR. wheels with brakes. prepared by the Aviation department of the MNO in January 1936 and issued under the filing number 23308 duv. By 1937 it was generally clear. Armed Forces was geared towards the ground forces and the belt of border fortifications. Za zminku ale stoji skutecnost. modem fighter monoplane into routine air force service belongs to the Soviet Union and its designer N. not so conspicuous.tfimisrny pozorovacl dennl i nocnf. at' least in theory. IIII. Mimoto. companies was the prototype construction programme.i kdyz nicmene nektere pokrocily do stadia rozmerovych maker Cl pohledovych modele. albeit some proceeded up to the scale model and full-size mock-up phases. It is worth noting. in the opening phases of WW II. It requested proposals for four categories of aircraft: Type I . Vojensky Ietecky ustav studijni).. Pozadoval navrhyctyt kategorii letounu: Typ I . the strategic defence thinking of the General Staff of the Czechoslovak. the company opted far a low powered engine with low fuel consumption. war to test their aircraft in combat. Ackoliv v Ceskoslovenske repubJice existoval VlLO (Vojensky technicky a letecky ustav. to m- Vysocanska lerecka rovarna Aero. Popudem k aktivitam ceskoslovenskych Ieteckych tovaren byl program stavby prototype. letoun mel mit hydraulicky zatahovacl podvozek s pneurnatickymi brzdami. propeller and equipment. The Type I is our proposal of interest.j. 4 . mnozt vyrobci se chopili jedinecne pfilezitosti vyzkouset sve novinky na spanelskem bojisti. N. kdy se dal ocekavat problem s palivovyrni tezsi zdroji. however. kol s brzdami. One of these laudable attempts to introduce the monoplane.the Aviation and technology research institute). dodavajici MNO pfevazne dvournistne pozorovacf a bornbardovacf typy. Polikarpov with his 1-16 type. Typ II . Konstrukce letounu mela byt celokovova vcetne potahu pfevazujtclch casH (pouze kormidla potazena platnem).to melo zajistit MNO). ktere jiz pozdeji nebylo mozne dostihnour. With this in mind. as to the shape and direction that the modem fighter aircraft would take.single-seat fighter. as the primary research organisation.298. now proposed on 5th February 1937 the A-7 (sometimes designated A·I07). again. dfive VLOS . that normally supplied the MNO with designs in the heavier two-seat observation and light bomber categories. Despite the existence of the VTLU (vyzkumny technicky a letecky ustav .two-seat fighter/attack aircraft. lllJ3. ktery bezesporu zhmotn ila at ex isrence letounu Avia B-3 SIB-I3 5. News of the latest developments in the aviation industry abroad was reaching the nation's design offices with a delay that later developed into a technology gap which could not be bridged at will. Jednim z takovych dalstch pokusu 0 zavedeni jednoplosniku byl realizovany projekt A-102D.multi-place day/night tight bomber.36. The reasoning behind this line of thought was that lower fuel requirements represented an advantage in the event of war. The price of the prototype was 2. generalni stab ceskosloveoske armady v te dobe zastaval ponekud odlisne nazory na obranu zeme a tak vetsi cast prostredkc srnerovala do budovani pozemnich sil a vystavby pohranicniho opevneni. into military service was the A-lOID project of the Aero concern presented to the MNO tested in 1934. ze nektere spolecnosri se presto pokusily i bez prime podpory MNO a dosavadnich vysledku dornactho vyzkumu drzet krok s okolnim svetem.·Kc (bez zahmutl ceny podvozku. allowing for a smaller quantity of fuel to be carried. vrtule. oslovila MNO dne 5. vypracovany leteckyrn odborem MNO v lednu 1936 a vydanym pod c. Type II . Novinky z tero oblasti se tal do ceskoslovenskych konstrukcnich kancelafi dostavaly se zpozdenim. The other companies' submissions to this proposal remained mostly at the proposal stage. 23·308 duv. ktera mela byt celokovova na zemi stavitelna.vicemistny lehky bombardovaci denni i nocni. The prototype of this aircraft flew for the first time in 1933. it is perhaps not surprising that many manufacturers seized upon the unique opportunity provided by the Spanish Civil.000 Kc without the Governmeot furnished items. Zlomove projekty Pavel Kucera Rok 1936 by} zlomovym v aktivitach MNO srnerem k rnodernizaci letectva. prepared in accordance with the abovementioned request for proposals in the Type I category. Bohuzel zde stale panovala neduvera k letounum teto koncepce umocnena nedobrymi zkusenostmi s dolnoplosnyrni Avierni. Pfispevky ostatnich tovaren . as it materialised only in the Avia B~35/135.Ministry of National Defence) and the lack of a domestic research effort and data.36. (in the majority of cases). The utilisation of a large-calibre machine gun (cannon) was mooted. It was to be aircraft such as the 1-16 that would provide the backbone of the fighter arms. consequently decreasing the all-up weight of the machine. Typ IV . Besides this. Ve zdnvodneul figurovaly celkove njiSi palivove naroky v pffpade valecnebo konfliktu. Nas zajima Typ 1. Unfortunately the distrust towards the monoplane layout persisted. unora 1937 s nabfdkou stihaciho letounu A-7 (nekde oznacovaneho A-I07) vypracovanou die uvedenych smernic za prototypovou cenu 2. Pocitalo se s umlstenim hruborazneho knlometu ve hftdeli vrtule. During its deliberations with regards to the project. of the waning nations. the undercarriage. prim ami vyzkurn zabyvajlct se vyvojem novych technologii a jejich vyufitfm v leteckem prumyslu v CSR prakticky neexistoval. Letoun Aero A~7 mel mit novy dvourady dvanactivalcovy invertni motor Walter Sagitta I-MR 0 330 kW (450 k). which were funded by a substantial share of the defence budget. Typ 111.vyvoj moderniho stihacibo letounu ubirat.3 (B8·3) fighter. kde videla prednost v moznosti zmensen] palivovych naddl a tudlz celkove hmotnosti pro dany ucel.jednornistny stihaci. The immediate impetus for activating the Czechoslovak aviation. when problems with fuel sources could reasonably be expected. to keep pace with the surrounding world. ktery Aero zkouselo v race 1934. despite a lack of direct support from the MNO tMininerstvo ruirodni obrany . V projektovych uvahach davala firma pfednost mene vykonnemu rnotoru s mensi spottebou.dvournfstny snhact a bitevni.298. Type three-seat day/night observation aircraft and Type IV . i.

the exception being the fabric covered control surfaces. vedle zmlneneho kulometu. Letadlove oddeleni Ceskornoravske Kolben-Danek. also the flaps were to be hydraulically driven. (Foto: NTM . Praha) A wooden wind-tunnel model of the Aero A-7. Besides the aforementio- Drevenj model letounu Aero . LetOUD mel mit radios t anici a veskerc pfistrojove vybaveni pro letanl ve doe i VDOCi. pumy (20 kg) na kfidle a jednoho podtrupoveho zavesniku pro pumy (2 x 50 kg nebo 1 x 100 kg) ci dymovnici. fire through the hollow shaft of the three-bladed. Vyzbroj. The aircraft featured an all-metal airframe. there was a provision for tbe installation of another pair of MGs vz: 30 above the engine.hydraulicky mely byt ovladany i vztlakove klapky. vedene po konstrukcni strance invencnim duchem inzenyra Jaroslava Slechty.Narodn( technicke muzeum. (P'lotO: NTM . ground adjustable propeller. mel byt vybaven dvojid pomerne slabsicb moroni Renault 0 vykonu 2 x 162 kW (220 k). 30 nad motorem a v poufiti sestl zavesnikii pro male.A-7 ureeny pro tunelove zkollsky. Jaroslav Slechta was the chief designer and creative spirit of the aviation division of Ceskornoravska Kolben-Danek (CKD). The aircraft was to be fitted with a hydraulically retractable undercarriage with pneumatic wheel brakes. Realizovanym prototypem by] Typ ill v podobe znameho E-Sl. all metal. The machine was to be fitted with a radio set and complete day/night night instrumentation. lng. oznaceny v typove posloupnosti E-52. Prague) Dobove sn(mky dfevene makety stihacih» letounu Praga E-52. with surfaces from of the sheet light sheet alloy. Kucery) Period pictures of the wooden mock-up of the Praga E-52 fighter. Stihaci letoun. (Sb{rka P. zilo v te dobe ne zcela konvencnimi konstrukcemi s kratkou trupovou gondolou a dvojici ocasnich nosniku. vhodne komponovanymi zvlaste pfi dvoumotorovem usporadani. (P. mela spocivar v montazi dalsich dvou kulo- meta VZ. six wing-racks for small bombs (20 kg) and one fuselage bomb rack (2 x 50 kg or lxlOO kg) or a smoke canister could be carried.National Technical Museum. 5 . Kucera's Collection) ned machine gun.

• P. The design is noteworthy on account of the proximity of the engines' thrust lines. (asymmetric thrust).. whose fallacy was epitomised by the failure of the French Caudron series of "racers turned fighters. It erved the purpose of assessing the aircraft's dimensions..95 m. apparently facilitating handling in the engine out. ci Oba navrhy pfedstavovaly vzhledem ke svemu obdobnernu vykonovemu vybaveni tzv. V navrhu letounu vynika blizko t os obou pohonnych jednotek.30 941 1434 490 .4 m. often featuring tbe short fuselage pod and twin boom layout that was especiaJly advantageous when two engines were called for.Znarny jsou pouze zakladnl rozmery . was designated E-52 and was to be powered by a pair of Renault engines of L62 kW (220 HP) each.0 rn.0 In. 1I nadiiujici eliminaci pfipadne asymetrie pfi rozdilech vykonf vysazeni. vyska 2.430 4 min 40 s 8800 Dole: Ndkresy obou popsanjch projektU pro porOVltan( ve stejnim meHtku. Bottom: Line drawings show both projects in the same scale a 2 3 4 5 .fedpokladane . Slouzila k rozmerovemu posouzenit vcetne usazeni pilora. Lockheed P-38 Lightning prise! brzy pote. Pictures from the CKD factory in Prague-Karlin show a fullscale mock-up of wood and paper on plywood bulkheads. • It produced some far from ordinary layouts for its aircraft. Both proposals represented a "lightweight fighter" concept. "blind alley" concept.wingspan of 11.P02 6 A-107 JP02 E-52 .500 420 . potazena papirem .107) fighter Rozpeti kfidla f Wingspan (m) Celkova delka letounu / o veral 1 length (m) N osna plocha f Wing area (rn") Hmotnost prazdneho letounu bez vystroje (kg) Empty weight (without equipment) Hmotnost letova f Take off weight (kg) Rychlost vodorovna maximalnl ve 3700 m (kmfh) Maximum horizontal airspeed at 3700 m Cesrovni rychlost ve 3700 m na 7110 vykonu (kmlh) Cruising speed at 3. next in the type line.60 11.. including that of the pilot's cockpir. an extreme. "lehky stihaci letoun ' . situation. delka 8. V pozadi jsou videt dalsl takto zhmotnene projekty tovarny.arametlry stfhaefho letounu A-7 (A-107) The presumed performance parameters oftbeA·7 (A.40 7. A case in point was the Praga E-51 prototype built according to the Type III requirement.700 m and 70 % power Vystup do vysky 4000 m f Time to 4.. length of 8. The Lockheed P-38 Lightning came soon afterwards . zhotovena z Ian 11a pfeklizkovych pfepafkach. In the background further similar mockups of other company projects are visible.extrern." With the advantage of hindsight the decision of the MNO to proceed with the "grown-up" type of fighter design from Avia was the absolutely correct one at this time. Predpokladane vykonove parametry se nedochoNa snirncich z tovarnt haly CKD v Fraze Karline je parma rnaketa ve skurecne velikosti.000 m Dostup prakticky f Service ceiling (rn) 8. valy. Only the dimensional data for this aircraft is known . jehoz nizka efektivnost je dostatecne znama napffklad z realizace francouzskych typu Caudron. V tomto uhlu pohledu se jevi rozhodnuti MNO pro typ z Avie v dane chvlli jako naprosto spravne. The assumed performance figures have not survived.4 m and a height of 2. The fighter.95 m.rozpeti 11.

Vitezstvf A vie Jak jiz bylo receno. Based on this. Konstrukcni prace na novem projektu fidi! sefkonstrukter Avie Ing. He devoted himselfto the draft and detailed aerodynamic design of the new low-wing monoplane fighter with the utmost diligence. 7 . ktera v te dobe V CSR pusobila jako osvedceny vyrobce srihacich letadel. v tomto pflpade dolnoplosneho. the MNO asked Avia. 12 kra: se zkousel model trupu s rozdilnyrni prechody mezi kfldlem a trupem. 8320-11. Navrh byl aerodynamieky fistj a nesl l. a proven aircraft manufac- namicke koncepce noveho letounu. Neobycejne rozsahle modelove zkousky v aerodynamickern tunelu VTLD zahrnovaly 22 rOznychliprav chladice vody. 18 konfiguraci umisreni ocasnich ploch ph ruznych delkach trupu.naky pfipom{naj{d nektere zahraniifni typy Ii doby.jak velkou POZOr1Jost konstrukcnt tjm novemu letounu venoval. the MNO issued on 22nd May 1936 a purchase order no. 8320-ll. Extraordinarily comprehensive aerodynamic model rests in [he VTLU wind tunnel at Prague-Letaany resulted in some twenty-two modifications to the chin liquid radiator in- Velmije.mne kfivky makety budouci stt'lUlckyprozrazovaly. Since joi~ ning the company. Pranrisek Novotny. The task of managing the design work. se oddal s mimoradnou peclivosti./36 na dva prototypy letounu B·35. 3 krat model kiidla rurer having supplied a substantial proportion of the machines serving with the Czechoslovak fighter arm. (Sbirka autora) The exquisite lines of the future fighter's mock-up had shown the anention and effort the design team devoted to the new machine. The design was . kvetna 1936 objednavkuc. Novotny had exclusively worked on military aircraft projects having been responsible for bringing theB·534 to the series producr:ion. Navrhu a propracovani celkove aerody- Victory for the Avia As written in the preceding text. Frantisek Novotny. on the new project was given to Avia's chief designer lng. j. for a detailed proposal. once it had assessed the proposals supplied.aerodynamically state-of art and its layout bore a general resemblance to several machines oj the period. po posouzenl dodanych navrhu MNO oslovilo tovamu Avia. ktery se od sveho pftchodu do tovarny venoval pouze vojenskym rypum a mel za sebou uvedeui typu 8·534 do seriove vyroby. Na zAklade jejiho souhlasneho postoje MNO vydalo dne 22.l36 for two 8·35 aircraft prototypes.

Vyraznym prvkem byl velky chladic vody pod motorem. Kolektiv statiku ve slozeni lng. protoze vlastni mechanismus zatahovaciho podvozku nebyl jeste k dispozici. za okupace. led by the very experienced Ing. bench testing only taking place after the German occupation of the rest of a mutilated Czechoslovakia. intake to the large liquid radiator. regular series-built AviafHS 12Ydrs engine of only 633 kW (860 HP) output was used. The fighter even had the undercarriage "vanished" in a retracted position and its refined shape could easily compete with the best that other European manufacturers could offer. Vsimnete si velkiho chladice vody pod motorem. Podobna situace potkala i zatahovaci podvozek. The group of static load experts consisted of the engineers messrs. The full-scale B-35 mock-up was to prove a big surprise to the visitors of the National Air Exhibition in Prague. eighteen configurations of the empennage at various lengths of the fuselage. kolern nejz vzduch proudil uzkou sterbinou. Motor sam teprve prochazel vyvojem a na brzde se zkousel mnohem pozdeji. commencing in late 1937. three wing models and twelve variations of the flaps. Maketa letounu B-35 postavena ve skutecne velikosti byla pro navstevniky Narodni letecke vystavy v Praze roku 1937 pfekvapenim. Albeit the information panel listed the Hispano Suiza HS-12-1000Y of 736 kW (1. Klein. A noteworthy feature was the narrow. Tbe public could see for the first time the mock-up of a shapely new low-winged fighter with an elliptical wing and enclosed cockpit. Altogether it took some lO4 wind tunnel tests. First and foremost. Letoun. It turned a two-bladed airscrew and had Makela noveho letounu Avi. 3 zkousky S usekem kiidla s pevnou podvozkovou nohou a usek s vytezem pro planovany zatahovaci podvozek aj. Predevsirn byl pouzit bezny seriovy motor HS 12Ydrs 0 vykonu 632. jehoz propracovane rvary rnohly snadno konkurovat ostatnim evropskym vyrobcum. slot-type. Jindfich Shnunek. the considerably less powerful. The engine was still in the development stage at this time.a B-35 byla na vjstave umistena na efektnim ocelovem oblouku v samem stiedu expozice spolecnosti Avia. (Author's Collection) 8 . the reality was somewhat less impressive. Note the large water radiator under the engine. (Sb{rka autora) • The mock-up of the lIew Avia . Konstrukci Ietounu ovlivnilo pouZiti tzv. Ackoliv iidaje na informacni tabuli uvadely jako planovanou pobonnou jednotku motor Hispano Suiza 12 Y-lOOOC 0 vykonu 736 kW (1000 k) a rychlost az 570 km/h.a 12 krat rozne provedeni vztlakovych klapek. log. Jindfich Simnnek. A further twenty-six tests were done to ascertain stability with and without full power applied. Jednalo se 0 pfeklizku s vnej~i stra- az stallation. Doktor vedl zkuseny lng. The same fate beset too the retractable undercarriage.. Behem stavby prvniho prototypu zahajene koncern roku 1937 doslo k nejedne kon trukcni zmene oproti puvodnirn zamerum. During the actual construction of the first prototype. located in the chin under the engine. Pod vrtulovyrn kuzelern se tak objevil pomerne velky obdelnikovy vstupni otvor ktery ale letounu nijak na krase neubral. Behern zkousek se totif ukazalo. Fedotov. pancerove pfeklizky ktera se pouzivala ve Francii. Dalsich 26 zkousek bylo zamereno na overeru stability s plynem a bez plynu. mel dokonce podvozek v zatazene poloze. Szabo a lng. Fedotov. the B-35 having been the first instance that this device was used on a Czechoslovak fighter.000 HP) as the planned powerplant and a maximum speed of 570 km/h. Klein. twelve shapes of the wing/fuselage fillets. Celkem 104 zkousek. znstalo jen u planu. ze libivy uzkY vstup vzduchu vymodelovany na makete nevyhovuje. Vefejnost tak mela moznost shlednout novy samonosny dolnokfidly jednoplosnik s eliptickym kfidlem a zakrytyrn pilotnun prostorem.5 kW (860 k) s dvoulistou vrtuli a pod film zaveseny tunelovy chladie. Ing.8-35 was displayed on a boldly arched tubular stand in the very heart of the Avia exhibition compound. three tests on a section of the wing were conducted to prove the aircraft's behaviour with. ktere byly na ceskoslovenske stfhacce poprve pouziry prave u tohoto typu. a number of design changes from the original plans took place. Dam odchylkou byl pevny kapotovany podvozek. a fixed undercarriage leg and with the wheel well for the planned retractable undercarriage. Szabo and Doktor.

(NTM Prague) 9 .la pytlem pisku. The mass oj pilot was simulated by a bag of sand. • Detail oj the pilot's seat and the elevator trim wheel. (NTM Prague) Pevnostni zkouska trupu a zaveseni sedadla. • The static strength test of the fuselage and the seat attachment points. Vpozad{ jsou videt ocasni plochy letounu Avia B-71 (SR-2). (NTM Praha) The fuselage with horizontal tail during the specific torsional stiffness test.2.Trup s vodorovnymi ocasnimi plochami pn zkouice memeho krouceni trupu . This layout was used in the 8-35. B-71 (licence-built Tupolev SB-2).kroutici moment 1962 Nm (200 kgm). the background the Avia. The torque applied was 1962 Nm (200 kgm). Hmo tnost pilota byla kompemovtz.1 a pravdepodobni take v R-35. (NTMPraha) The three-point-landinginduced-stress test of the fuselage at the 11=6.1 and probably 8-35. (NTM Prague) pro pristani na tfi body 11=6.2. Ill. (NTM Prague) Pevnostni zkouska trupu Detail sedadla pllota a kola vyskove1w nastaveni: Tato sestava byla pouiiia v B-35.

2 mm a slouzila jako potahovy material khdla a pevnych casH ocasnich ploch. sesroubovanou a snytovanou z ocelovych trubek.Pohled na poruchu po odstraneni ncikladu.. Posledni zkousky se 1 dohotoven a pfipravovan na velky den. pf(pad letu (2. Teprve v tomto pfipade byl splnen predepsany merene 13 nasobek a na- na prvnl prototyp vsak uskutecnily at v srpnu a v zMi. takze jejich vysledky nernely B-35 primy dopad. (NTM Prague) plechern 0 sile 0. (NTM Prague) Kffdlo po pevllostn. POllzite kaseinove klizeni dfevenych nosniku bylo nedostatecne a pfi prvnich dvou Iarnacich zkouskach nastala porucha nosniku v kliteni jiz ph n=lO. (NTM Prague) Kffdlo s vyfezem pro zatahovaci podvozek: pripravcne k pevnostni ikouSce pro 3. The picture shows a test at the wing-tip. The wing after the strength test of the 1'1 ease of flight (2"d test). klapky. stejne jako konee trupu v oblasti.trup. pH ktere se zjiSfovala tuhost kf{dla na krtu. The wing covering ruptured as early as at n. Trup mel typickou pfihradovou kostru. Potah prask!uzpfi n=. Pro tfeti zkousku by to vyrobeno nove ktfdlo s nosniky klizenyrni kauritem.8.. zkousek jednotlivjch skupin draku byla take zkouika. ocas- za kabinou jako potah preklizku (nebo platno pres dfevene late jako u B-534) byla nakonec pouzita karoserie z elektronovych plecha vyztuzena podelnyrni a pffcnymi profily.:8. zkouika). piipad letu (1. • Wing with the cut-out for the wheel well ready for the strength test for the 3'd case of flight. tests of the airframeconcerned the torsional strength of the wing. 10 . tkouska). (NTM Prague) mi elektronovymi panely. The wing covering ruptured as n=I1. kfidelka a motorove Ioze uspokojive prosla. Ridici plochy mely kOVOVOll kostru a plateny potah jako typ 8-534.. The picture shows the rupture after the load was removed.8. Na snimku je zachyce/~a zkouska provddena Ita konei kf{dla. Ten jit byl z velke casn hodnoty vykazaly dokonce n:=: 4. Intenzivnl pevnostni zkousky zacaly v cervenci 1938. prasklj potah ph rt=l1. . ocasnt plochy. (NTM Praha) One of the many strength. pfipad letu. krome kDdla. vet~ina nieh ploch. Kostra byla at za kabinu zakryra odntmatelnynou potazenou hlinlkovyrn Pevnostni z/collska lafdla pro 1.i zkousce pro 1. Oproti puvodniruu zameru pouzlt pro zadni casti trupu sestav .• The strength test oj the wing for the 1" case of flight 0" test).Jednou z mnoha pevnostmch.

the fuselage behind the cockpit hood was not covered in plywood or in fabric doped taut over the wooden formers (as used on the B-534). but of detachable light alloy panels. reinforced on the inside with longitudinal and cross stiffeners and stringers . ie toma tak nebylo. The intense load tests began in July 1938. (Author s Collection) 11 .2 moo thick aluminium sheeting bonded to its external surface was used for the wing. Another difference was the fixed undercarriage. and during the first two load tests the spars glued with the casein failed at n=lO well below the specified load of n=14. (Sbfrka autora) A close-up oj the first prototype's B-35. rulerons and engine bearers passed the tests with satisfactory results. -~--\ . • Ndkre« kitdla s vjfezem pro zatahovact podvozek a diagram pruhybovych kiivek: (NTM Praha) Above: A drawing of wing with the retractable undercarriage wheel-well cut-out and the diagram of the bending curves. \ . jl . hOWD on the mock-up proved inefficient in tests. \ 1\ 1\ ) \ ! I a regular "wide mouthed" liquid cooled radiator in the chin. the ten fuselage assemblies. . this time the spars were glued with kaurite resin. Most of the assemblies . vertical fin and horizontal stabiliser skinning.8 mvk).hybovYch kiivek. which. Following the French experience with "armoured plywood".1. This prototype was nearing completion and being readied for its big day.. Contrary to the original plans and popular belief. but the wing started to play up. This truss was covered right behind the COCkpitwith detachable elektron panels. similar to the ones used on the Avia B-534. plywood with 0. did not diminish tbe elegance of the fighter. as the mechanism for the planned retracting undercarriage was not yet available. Not only did the wing stand up well to the prescribed load of n=13. But this picture and the photos from the crash prove otherwise. Nahore: Nakres kfidla s vyrezem pro zataho vaci podvozek a diagram pru. Fotografie letounu po havani tojell potvrzuji. ploch prvniho prototypu 8-35.\ t-. I I I . According to the previoltsly published information this part of the fuselage was fabric covered.i.~.88 (n=14.e. The aerodynamic controls were of metal internal structure and fabric covering. Note the visible dividing lines between the panels in the rear fuselage. Podle starSCchinformaci by tato last trupu meLa byt casti potaiena platnem: Ze snimku je zrejme. Detailni zaber ocasnich. riveted and bolted together from steel tubes. however. Tbese last tests took place only in August and September and did not influence the design parameters of the first prototype of the B-35. For the third load testing a new wing was manufactured.1. The fuselage was of the characteristic Warren truss structure. as was the tail section around the empennage. bot it successfully held until 14. Vsimflete si viditelnych rozhrani mezi panely zadnt trupu. flaps. The original cleaner-looking narrow-slit arrangement . The casein glue used for the main spars was not strong enough. the empennage.~ ~ .

Compared to the wooden mock-up it differed in many respects. 11. Hochfelda).. mast (late) ___ pevnosti. Osmnacr minut trvajici zalet odstartoval dlouhou serii lerovych zkousek. photographed in October 1938 at the factory airfield in Prague-Cakovice.2). vystupujici pod krycirn jrneuern Toman). 2432). bombardovaci perute RAF. zahajili Dalecky s Kosarem predavani prototypu do VTLD predvadecfmi lety. nasledujicf lety patfily pilotum Jako prvn.Letov Hd 43 (konstruktera Ing. Ministerstvu narodni obrany (. 7 YetSinu letu vsak letoun odletal s dfevenou vrtuli Avia 232A (c. JeSte ten sarny den Dalecky vzletl dvakrat. Ilejvyraznijsizminou by/ tvar a typ chladiCe vody pod motorem. prave on uskutecnil 13. Mirno jine..1 Po vsech uepfijemnostech spojenych s fesenim odpovidajici stowr anMny (pouUji) antenna. Po eely fijen pak prototyp B-35.MNO) doporuci seriovou vyrobu.1 with the two-blade metal M~100 propeller. Vyjimkou byly dva Iety z 3.Vsichni zucastneni piloti byli s lerounem velmi spokojeni. V tovame 12 .. Proti dfevene makete se letoun v mnohem liiil. listopadu 1938. zko IIsky. Karel Mares (pozdeji zoamy velitel 311. Pomineme-lipodvozek. ktere se soustfedily na zkousenl ruznych k rnefeni vYkomi s nirni dosazenych. zan 1938 v 9:54 hod. kratce po poledni. protoze byl ve vsech beznych rezimech letu vyborne ovladatelny.1 s dvoulistou. One 7. po nero si Ietoun vyzkoVTUJ. the most notable change was the shape and type of the chill radiator.Prim { prototyp stihaciho letounu B~35. kdy byla pouzita jina kovova vrtule . pilotovany setpilotem Avie Rudolfem Daleckyrn. (Author' Collection) Avia 8-35.i za fizeni usedl sefpilot pplk.nu 1938 na tovdrnim letdti v Praze ~ Cakovidch. .1 absolvoval tovarm letove typu vrtuli a ze vystfelne kamily kulometu machinegun troughs ventilaee kabillY cockpit air vent vice net polovinu letu tento mesic odletal pilot Oldfich Kosar. stejne dobry dojem a miru ohodnoeeni zanedlouho potvrdili i jim. ktery se nechal slyset. (licencnf SB. Prvnf prototyp. prvni let s pouzirim kovove dvouliste vrtu Ie M -100 z letounu Avia Bw J. Zde je nutne pnpomenout. 10. chIadic !lody water radiator regulacn( klapka flow control flap vzj14kovci klapka landing flap usel take rnjr. Jan Arnbrus . mohly konecne pfijit na fadu skutecne letove zkousky. Sest kontrolnlch a poznavacich leni za VTLU odletali piloti major ze chladic oleje oil radiator piivod vzduchu ke kompresoru supercharger air duct water radiator air inlet Arnbrus. The undercarriage notwithstanding. Marese. kapitan Gavelcik a stabm kapitan Sernerad. predevsim d1ev~ne konstrukce nosnikn krtdla. Jak se ale pozdeji ukazalo.The first prototype of the B~35. Nadseni nejvlce vyzafovalo z pplk. Takove zavery po prvnim uspesnem letu se obvykle pfijimajf s jistou reservou. uskutecnil svuj prvni let 28. kovovou vrtuli M~100 fotografovany v n. Protoze letoun nevykazoval zadne vyrazne negativni chovani.

c prevzal Avii B-3S. surname 20 h 2J min behem 58 letu. Pravdepodobne az zde letoun dostal vojenskou vystroj a vyzbroj. 11.nehrane kitdla.1 oficialne 9. 11. C.lever Above and below: On both pictures the dllctfor the compressor and carburettor air in the port wing leading edge. vrr. Den pred odletem do VTLU. vcetne pfedvadecich a kontroJnieh letu ph ptedavant. C. 8. 13 . 49 a jeste ryz den jej Kosaf zaletal. 1938. vcetne motoroveho kanonu HS 404 raze 20 mm. Letoun tak byl tent pfivodu vzchuchu ke kompresoru ntibe'1. (Sbtrka autora) Nahofe a dole: Na oboa snimctch je mimo jille dobie videt umisa karburdtoru v leve pakn otevtnini kabiny callopy j"ilial opening . pfeletem na vlastnt letiste ustavu.ochranny pylon turnover bar prvni protoryp naletal. 10 pozadovanou kan6novou verzi HS 12Yers vyr. byl v letounu nahrazen stavajici motor HS 12Ydrs vyr. prosel nezbytnym vazenirn a zjistovanim te:li~te.

as is the national insignia on the wing underside. the machine was again fitted with the Avia 232 propeller. (Sbtrka autora) A staged promotional photo shows well the nose with the radiator and flow control flap from an unusual angle. A balance tab is visible near the wing-tip. (NTM Prague) pozicn( svetlo position light kovova konstrukce metal structure sn(matelmf panely detachable panels pozicn{ svetlo position light ostmho"e kola tail wheel ~ vyvaiovad ploska • pouee vprava trim tab • at starboard only Fotograjie z p6zo win ( pro propagacni . (Author's collection) 14 .Po odzkousenf kovovjch vrtuli letoun dostal opet puvodn{ drevenou vrtuli Avia 232.l na spodni strane kiidla. On the smaller picture the machine with the M·I00 propeller is shown. Na menstm snimku uprostied je pro srovniini letaun s vrtuli M 100.U!ely umoiiiuje pozorovat pHcf s chladicem a reguUlcni klapkou z netypickeha uhlu. Velmi dobie je videt tvar vstupu vzduchu k chladici vody. • After the metal propellers were tested. The shape of the water radiator air intake is very clearly visible. Pied koncem kHdla je videt vyvaiovaci ploika a umistenl vjsostnych Zllak.

Noteworthy is also the relatively small radius oj the wing-fuselage fillet. jej Dalecky preletl zpet do VTLO v Lettianech. pfi zjistovarn rychlosti ve standardni vysce 460 m. ktery prototypu B-3S. Vlevo nahoie je na ohnutim plechu ctistecne vide! oznacen! na trupu . (Author's collection) pfed zahajenirn protorypovych zkousek uveden odpovidal podminkarn MNO.. 11.. Vzhledem ke skutecnosti. KavaJec podcenil vlastnosti noveho stroje. nun pore intenzivne letal pilot VTLO eela}' Arnost do stavu. zejmena elegantni piechod mezi kabinou pilota a zadni casti trupu. zkazu Kavalec. jak by! ndraz sUny. Pro pilota zvykleho letat stroje B-534 byly nektere schop- Havdrie B-3S.1 dne 22. 11. 11. Ve dnech 21. 1938 u Hloubetina (dnes soucdst Prahy). ze v rnaterske rovarne bylo s Ietounem jiz odletano vice nez 58 leta bez mirnofadnych udalosti. vCetne podelnych a pffCnjch vYztuh. ale jiz 19. bez pumovych zttvesniku a pumoveho shazovadla dosahla 2360 kg. (Sbtrka au/ora) At top left the bent skin panel carries the Us 3" fuselage marking. • The view from the rear shows to advantage the fine lines of the aeroplane. Both pictures convey the strength of the impact. Dne 22.1 prototype on 22nd November 1938 near Hloubettn.1 nosti noveho dolnoplosneho stroje zcela odlisne. Narazem byl stroj znicen a v jeho troskach zahynul i pilot. 11. Do tovarny se letoun dostal jeste jednou a naposledy 16.. including the longitudinal and transverse stiffeners (Author's collection) 15 . Z obou snimkli je videt. prave cet. a 22. • The crash of the 8-35. Behem prudkeho prechodu do zatacky stroj sklouzl po kridle a zntil se na zem. 1938.Pii pohledu 114 letoun od zadu vyniknou jeho jemne tvary. Vzletova hrnornosr s kompletnirn vojenskym vybavenim.5 3". pfi ctvrtem preletu nad rychlostni trikilometrovou zakl ad nou . The bottom picture shows clearly the metal skin panels of the rear fuselage. Pozorovatele jiste zaujme pomerne maly piechodovy radius mezi kitdlem a trupem. 11. Na spodnim snimku jsou zretel'le videt ko vove casti potahu zadnt casti trupu. especially its shapely transition between the cockpit and the rear fuselage. (now part of Prague).

1 pfevzalo k vykonani zkousek.e ph plnem bojovern zanzem (munice. V te dobe jiZ probibala likvidace ceskoslovenskeho MNO. prumerna delka rozjezdu bez lclapek byla na hranici 187 m. zvolna. Vlastnosti nesporne dobre zejmena v boji . C02 u prototypu neni at tak neobvykle. svetel se u nasledujicich letounu taki zmellil. zavesnfky.. napf. Nasledujici valecne roky prokazaly. Stranou pozornosti nernohou zustat ani samotne vykony prototypu.1 nemel VTLU namitek prori zahajeni seriove vyroby v pfipade udeleni objednavky na letouny tohoto typu. Stroje mely nest oznaceni Bp3S. prihledneme-li k pomerne malemu vykonu pouzite pohonne jednotky a navie zatizenemu pevnym podvozkem.-. za poufitf superboostu as kJapkami vysunutymi na 10° se draha zkratila na III m.vyvojove neperspektivni" z duvodu pouzite trubkove konstrukce trupu a dreveneho kftdla. S. a protoze po prohlidce havarovaneho stroje nebyla zjistena zavada.za letu obtizne dostupny a k nastaveni jednotlivych poloh bylo zapotfebi znacne sUy.000. ve kterem se MNO nachazelo. 11. 1. Samostatn9m bodem bylo nutne resent vytapent kabiny.790. Kritizovan byl hlavne rozdelovaci kohout k ovladani pfistavacich klapek . V zaveru zpravy se konstatovalo. vcetne ocenenl lepslho vyhledu z kabiny nez u B-534.e v ostatnich letovych rezimech bylletoun veLmi dobi'e ovladatelny.) by se pravdepodobne tyro pararnetry zhorsily. se letoun choval jako stabilni a dobre ovladatelny. 30 v kombinaci s kan6nem HS 404 raze 20 mrn (se 60 naboji). Zduraznen muze byl klidny klouzavy i strernhlavy let. Jen ph vzletu se doporucovalo pfidavat plyn se ukazalo.rii. nebyl v te dobe vyzkouseny. Take vysouvani a zasouvani klapek pomoci rue nib 0 hydraulickeho cerpadla bylo zdlouhave . Podobna doporuceni se tykala i ovladani benzinoveho kohoutu.fipadu zaujalo konetne stanovisko ve zprave ze dne 17. ze se zrodil stihacl letoun hodny pozornosti i dalsiho vyvoje.pilot musel jit na pfistani z vetSi vzdalenosti. Zpusoh umisteni a tvar polohovych. Vzhledem k celkovyrn velmi dobryrn vlastnostem i vykonum prototypu B-35. Procesni ffzenl spojene se ztratou prvniho prototypu se protah10 az do cervna 1939. bylo umlsteru elektronovych nadrzi uzavfenych v kfidle. pomod plosek oa kormidlech snadno vyvaZitelny. lso the location and A shape of the navigation lights changed with the subsequent aeroplanes. VTLO pozadoval zkraceni teto doby alespoii na polovinu.pfi zamfreni a stfelbe. Delka dojezdu se pohybovala okolo 244 m. Tak. Krome toho se podil v budoucnu deficitnich materialu pohyboval na minimalni potrebe. kterymi prototyp ptekvapil. misto stavajiciho umlsteni vlevo pod palubnj deskou. Tento fakt ve svem z.6. Podle dostupnych pramenu dalo MNO v kvetnu 1939 fume Avia pffkaz k vyrobe 10 letounu B-35. Zjistene zavady byly ale zastineny prekvapive dobryrni vlastnosoni. i. Spolu s citlivou a jemnou funkci konnidel tak podJe nazorn vetsiny piiotU rna 16 . plynove paky a provedeni tabla superboostu. dalSi pokles rychlosti mel za nasledek rychly pad na jedno ci druhe kffdlo. 1938 v typove vysce 4000 m namerena maximalni rychlost 471 km/h. Jakovleva. Nevybovujicl vsak vznikl velmi obratny stroj. bez rnoznosti pfistupu a kontroly. Navzdory tern to slabinam byla 21. Navzdory tragicke hava. MNO kde potvrdilo. dobie viditelne. they showed to advantage the development of the radiator shapes . I pres omezene moznosti motoru. K ptek:vapeni vSech se zjistil0. Krome kladnych hodnoceni tjkajicich se chovani letounu na zemi. ze po "puStenf korm. zda s terniro fakty pocitali i odpovedni pracovnici MNO.12 a jednim z hlavnich pozadavku bylo pouZiti dvou kulometu vz. pumy aj. Neklidnym se letoun staval pfi zavrenem plynu pfi rychlosti kolern 160 km/h. Protoie podohne situovane snimky jsou dale pouzity take li ndsledujtcicb chladice vody jsou z tohoto tihlu. priznala firme Avia jako naruadu castku Kc. ze vykony jsou velmi dobre a blizi se vykonurn nejlepsich zahranicnich Ietounu. co se Iibilo zkusebnlm pilotum. Vzhledem k postaveni. promeny tvaru As the photographs of the subsequent prototypes were taken from near-identical aspects. vsak v radove slu!M mohlo pusobit problemy rnene zkusenym pilotum. Odpoved' pfisla v podobe pfedbezneho posudku 0 proto typovych zkouskach s datem 22. Je pochopitelne. ze prototyp B~35. jako je vyvrtka. Povolenirn i'izeni neptechazel do vyvrtky. Pro vyrobce a MNO vsak byl dulezity posudek VTLU. Ty se dotykaly predevsim umisteni nekterych ovladacich prvku v kabine pilota v porovnani se stavajicim standardnim typem B-534. Pfistani s klapkami i bez nich bylo snadne a zvladnutelne i "siabsim pilotem '. Hurricane (Hawker). Hodnoceni po 30 zkusebnich letech v celkove delce 4 hod a 18 minut vskutku velrni povzbuzujici. tento pffkaz jiz dam: vyvoj typu neovlivnil.lverecnem hodnoceni vnimali i odpovedni cinitele VTLU a pouzitl kovove vrtule bylo pro dalsi zkousky uprednostneno. V zajmu jednotnosti umistenl ovladacich prvki't bylo take doporuceno urnistit paku klapky vodnfho chlacice jako u B-534. vzesly z VTLU i kriticke pfipomlnky. .idel" letoun snahu dostat se z vyvrtky sam. Vy~e uvedene vlastnosti nebyly jedinymi.stroje nepochybne zpusobila chyba pilotaze. Pfi ptedavam letounu do VTLU Dalecky ale pokusne proved) tfi otocky vyvrtky v pravo i vleyo. prosince 1938. Podle nazoru nekterych historiku bylletoun . (Sbtrka autora) prototypri. Nutno poznamenat ze behern tovamlch zkousek s kovovou vrtuli M-IOO Dalecky dosahl dokonce rychlosti 485 kmIh. ze letouny podobne konstrukce jsou naopak stejne hodnotne a navic snadno opravitelne v polnich podminkach. ale nabiral rychlost a mel schopnost se sam vyrovnat. Neill ale jasne.3 az B-3S. jak by se dalo ocekavat. U budoucich stroju se proto uvazovalo 0 zvetseni sfly na ridici pace. ktere k p. 1939. behem nenOl. S tim lze jen tezko souhlasit. Navic obe nadrze se uzaviraly a orevlraIy soucasne bez jakehokoliv zalozniho mnozstvi paliva. Vseobecne obavany rnanevr. Odstranitelnost techto nekolika zavad nebyla zvlast slozira. prudsim pfidanfrn se letoun odklanel ze smeru. To. Jako pftklad poslouzit konstrukce sovetskych stihaclch letounu konstrukcni kancelare A.

17 .

1 bylo do jiste mfry ovlivneno dobou. Pudorys s rozlozenfrn barevnych poll piedstavuie letoun po doplneni vysosmych znaku na krfdle a s oznacenlm Vyzkumneho ustavu (s 3). The plan view with colour patches shows the machine as it looked once the wing roundels were added and with the VTUJ marking (83) on fuselage..1 Zbarvenf prvniho prototypu neirnodernejsfho ceskoslovenskeho stihaciho letounu Avia B-35. Zbyvajicf dva barevne odstiny pati'ily tmave hnede (F8 30040) a trnave zelene barvs (FS 34095). koncem fijna 1938. Zajfrnavyrn muflovane podvozku.. Nejvetsi podll horruch ploch byl nastrlkan pfskovou barvou (FS 16160). Letoun mel zpocatku vysostne znaky jen na smerovern korrnidle. nez jakY byl pouiity na pozemnf technice. Note: The approximate colour hues according to the Federal Standard 595a.Avia 8 . Podobne jako tomu bylo u pozsrnnt techniky i v tomto pi'fpade doslo na pouziti nspravldelnych polf. tzn. ale pravdapodobne tmavst odstln. kdy letectvo hleda10 novy vhodny zpusob karnuftovanl. 18 . zpusobsrn byly kaaerodynarnlcke kryty Poznamka: Pfiblizny odstfn podle Federal 8tandardu 595a. An interestingcamoufIage layout was used on the streamlined undercarriage spats. 35. na krldlech byly doplneny pravdepodobne ai po zkouskach s kovovou vrtulf.

also here the irregular colour patches were utilised. The remaining two colours were dark brown (FS 30040) and dark green (FS 34097). 19 . the Avia 8-35. The colour demarcation line was wavy. the division line on the nose being up to the propeller spinner. Na teto strance je prototyp 8-35. The national insiqnla was originally on the rudder only. applied also on the fuselage lower sides. Similarly to the land forces' equipment. The undersides were sprayed in light grey colour (FS16376). kdyz letal ve Vyzkumnem ustavu (VTLU) s bflym trupovym oznacernm "s 3" az do okarnziku havarle. not straight. the wing cockades were added probably after the tests with the metal propeller. Spodni plochy byly nastrfkane svstlesedou barvou (FS16376). i. This page shows the 8-35. Rozhrani mezi hornfmi a spodnfmi plochami nebylo rovne. The largest proportion of the upper surfaces was in the sand (light ochre) colour (FS 16160) probably of a darker shade than the one used on the cars. vprecu az pod vrtulovy kuzel.Colouring of the first prototype of the most advanced of Czechoslovak fighter aircraft.1 zobrazen v podobe.1 prototype in the livery it carried during the VTLU institute test period until it crashed.1 was to a certain extent influenced by the period of Czechoslovak Air Force's seeking of a new suitable camouflage method. ktera prechazela at na boky trupu. AFV's and other land equipment. in late October 1938.e. ale take nepravidelne ve tvaru vlnovky.

i. s/n 49. the aeroplane being test flown enter a spin. Arnost Kavalee flew the aircraft. Tbe VTLU took over the Avia 8-35.!'5'3zJ. less experienced.:o. Also extension and retraction of obrany = MNO. allied to the added drag of the fixed undercarriage. Karel Mapilot's cockpit. This combined with the sensitive and fine controls 16th November.. especially for the wooden wing spars.mg m~11 .• ~ . instead of its existing position under the instrument panel tory flight test programme.1 officially on 9th These features were not the only pleasant surprise that the proNovember with a fen)." easily handled landings without On 7th November 1938.''''i\H' uf. 21 minutes during the course of 58 test during aiming and firing in combat. including the tested at this time. to their airfield. Maj. s/n 10.. at the very beginning of a test programme. Col.. These faults however were easy to remedy. Semerad flew six of the aircraft'S steady behaviour in the glide and dive was emphasized. vember 1938.. They mainly concerned the placement of the controls in the common flight regimes. the first flight with the M-IOO two bladed therefore inaccessible for the purpose of monitoring checks. however.~gre v~. however. taking the The first prototype. The machi485 km/h.he display and check would undoubtedly hold good for the aircraft as a gun platform flights. The flight lasting eighteen minutes was the first in the long line of approaching that of the best foreign machines. such as the Hawker rest flights. Dalecky took off on a further two occasions that day. at these weak points the date of 21st November 1938 witnessed a a standard altitude of 460 m over a 3km measuring base. With the M· 100 metal propeller fitted. are usually repilot to make a longer landing approach. This assessment after the [list 30 test flights of 4 hours and 18 permission was given for the VTLU pilots to carry Oil! the subseminutes duration was very encouraging.e. cooling duct had to be moved to a position similar to that on the For the whole of October the B-3S. in the very early afternoon. amongst others. should only be advanced gradually. in the other flight regimes the aircraft's controls were bomb racks and bomb release gear was 2. to elirninacedures for the hand over of the prototype to the VTLU. Maj. The majority of the flights were provided. Col. Such conclusions after the maiden the flaps using a hydraulic hand pump was slow. the cause of Kavalec's demise could apparently be put down to pilot error. of a spin to the right and left. even a "less experienced pilot. the unfortunate pilot loosing his life in the crash. being enclosed in the wings without access and flew. Sgt.1 20 .. throttvarious types of propellers and on the measurement of the perforle and supercharger boost actuator. It is noteworthy that more than half of cockpit heating.1 prototype with all of its military equipment. such as the Avia B-534. te the slipstream induced veering-off of the runway centreline. finding to everyone's The aircraft was therefore put into the condition required by the surprise that the machine tended to start the recovery procedure by MoD before the prototype tests began. the other test least a halving of the lime required. end of the report the performance was judged as being very good. Despite November.. check and familiarisation flights for the VTLU. "Ctllith'll' l'emat16~PJPpeilj~iJ'w. The report confirmed that.. taken from [J1e B-71 (licence-built Tupolev SB-2) tanks also opened and closed simultaneously. flying the fourth in a series ofmaximum speed tests.\> . fighter. Gavelclk and Staff Cpt. At the factory the its stability and controllability being noteworthy.mIh achieved by the aircraft at the rated Kavalec underestimated these differences and while abruptly tranaltitude of 4.ry:'h!t15p -Wili"f th'e"P~Cot§l{plf. flight. The Ambrus. The spin. Judging from the fact that the machine had been flown at the factory on 58 occasions without incident. test pilot Dalecky experimentally executed Lhree turns weighed and the position of its centre of gravity established. Jan Ambrus taking the controls on the followground and including virtues sucb as a much better view from the ft. Yet these few shortcomings were easily eclipsed by the surpriThe exceptions to the rule were the two flights of 3rd November. slipping in the turn Dalecky flew the machine during the factory tests at a speed of and impacting into tile ground with considerable force. Besides the positive quent flights. requiring the night. It was probably here totype displayed. flown by Avia's chief test pilot Rudolf Dashape of a preliminary assessment of the prototype tests. For a pilot used to the behavistick control forces was mooted for the series built machines. including t. but as early as the 19th November it was ferried made the machine very controllable and nimble. The electron sheet wing fuel tanks were found to alJ of these flights were 'flown by the (est pilot Oldfich Kosaf. maximum speed of 47L k.D asked for at garded with a certain reserve. compared to the existing standard on the B~S34 res. machine. as wen as those using flaps. with a roll to the side. However. assessments regarding the behaviour of the new machine on the Karel Mares. took place on the morning of 28th September 1938 at 09:54. After an of the problems caused by the structural strength calFor the manufacturer and the Czechoslovak. Cpt. Hurricane. As the machine did not show any markedly adverse behaviour. Elation exuded from Lt. What the expeback to the VTLD in Letriany by Dalecky.: ne was destroyed. later one of the commanders. Therefore the increase of finding that it required much effort. It was recommended that during and Kosar performed demonstration flights as the start of the protake-off the throttle. tbe aircraft would not a motor-cannon HS 12Ycrs. some of the characterisAlso the performance figures for the prototype could not be left tics that the new low-winged monoplane possessed proved to be without comment. some 20 hours. 20mrn calibre HS 404 cannon. ved. singly good behaviour of the aircraft. MoD). was not that the machine received its military equipment. Dalecky flaps.lrGinpRI eJ"u!Hhe· B-. could become a handful for the November the VTLU pilot Sgt.iquid ment of the aircraft. RAF. The response dated 22nd December 1938 arrived. At the lecky. level by itself. a generally feared manoeuvre. which concentrated 00 the testing of to the left Similar requirements beset the fuel cut-off valve. On 21st and 22nd rienced test pilots liked. The machine became twitflights. flown. flown with the Letov Hd 43 propeller. The VTL. on 8th Noction of speed brought with it a swift stall.360 kg. It was also the VTLO. who stated tbat he would recommend series production of the airwhich was not easily accessible in flight. respectively. with no fuel reserve bomber on 13th October 1938. but without Also.1 prototype passed the facB-534. finely harmonised. Tbe metal propeller.. especially considering the limited power of the totally clifferent to those with which they were familiar.. Yet in due course. had been resolassessment was of paramounr importance. A separate issue was that of rnance achieved with these. chier with the throttle closed at around 160 km/h.'lh~1Jiu1'i&i:llarln~PJj'o{. The criticism primarily concerned the flap control valve. MoD the VTLU's culations. which displayed excellent controllability in all of the too. sirioning to a turn apparently stalled the wing. The responsible personnel of the VTLU appreciated Avia B-3S. our of biplanes. and by use of the in-flight adjustable tabs.ioIs@"iH. He be unsatisfactory. a further reduThe day before the official hand-over to the VTLO. The take-off weight of the itself once the controls were released! B~3S. ordinary service pilots.'''&. These virtues first prototype new altogether. and required too much craft to the Ministry of National Defence (Minislerslvo ndrodni strength to set the Hap positions. the existing HS 12Ydrs.000 rn. during the hand-over procedure to engine-mounted. the control handle for the l. but accelerated and displayed a tendency to come with this new engine 00 the same day by Kosar. For the sake of unification of pilots would confirm an equally favourable impression and assessthe placement of the controls. On 22nd engine. the actual flight-testing could take place at last. easiThe machine returned to the factory for the last time on the ly trimmed."" ~~ . 311 (Czechoslovak) Sq. with the wooden Avia 232A (s/n 2432) propeller. was replaced with On release of the controls during the stall. The first to have a go on the machine was Lt.

(Sbtrka autora) The sole known photo of the cockpit of the B-35. Kompas .·Of course these parameters would deteriorate once full combat equipment (ammunition. Poehae nabojti . Poeltae nabojn .Pitch trim indicator 13. it awarded the Avia company compensation to the tune of 1. Tlakomer dychace . Rychlorner . A case in point is the 1. At this time the dissolution of the Czechoslovak MNO (MoD) was ion full swing. S.Rate of climb indicator 3.1 (reconstructed) 23 24 1 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Jedinj zmfmj pohled do kubiny prvniho prototypu 8-35. So.p. Variornetr . Tlakorner kompresoru . ale meficimu pnstroji. one of the main requirements was that they were to be armed with a pair of synchronised 7. despite the tragic crash. Vyskomer . bombs) was taken on board. According to some historians the machine "lacked true development potential" on account of its mixed metal tube fuselage and wooden wing structure.Magneto switch 17.1.12. as the subsequent wartime years showed that machines of a similar structure held their vaJue in the most austere of conditions and were easily repairable in the field. Tlakomer brzd .g.Air speed indicator 23. Litigation relating to the loss of the first prototype dragged on until June 1939. firing though the propeller hub. the order would not influence the subsequent development of the type. and as there was no fault found with the crashed machine. using the "superboost" and 10° of naps the length of the take off run was shortened to 111 metres.1 prototype the VTU) had no objections against the beginning of series production in the event of an order being placed for the type. to start manufacturing a series of ten B-35 machines. Teplomer oleje a vody . Velkj cifernik vlevo pod piistrojovoa deskou nepatiil iOOnemu z palubnfch pristroju.Oil and water temperature gauge 16.Brake pressure gauge 5. Besides this the mixed structure saved on strategic materials.1} the first prototype. Tahlo max.Machine gun charging 19.Engine priming fuel pump 4. Otvor pro umely horizont .92mm vz. a not uncommon OCCUITence with prototypes at this time. however. bomb racks.Machine gun charging 6. They were to bear the serials B-35.Compass A. Thanks to the excellent overall flying characteristics and performance parameters of the B-35.Opening for artificial horizon Hlavnl pflstrojova deska 8-35. in May 1939. Nastfikovaci pumpa . Fuel gauge 9.Ammunition counter 11.1 prototype for tests.790. Ukazatel vztlakovych klapek .Maximum engine output knob 22.3 to 8-35. Rucni palivove cerpadlo .Hand fuel pump 8. 2. According to the available sources the MoD ordered the Avia Company. (Author's collection) 21 .Altimeter 24.Lu bricati on boost control 18. Opakovani kulometu . and it took a final position on the matter in its report of 17th June 1939. This is hardly a defendable opinion. Pfepinac magnet . The landing roll was around 244 m. Owing to the position the MNO held at this time. It is not clear. whether the MoD (MNO) personnel responsible considered these facts at the time. Otackomer . Yakovlev design bureau's family of fighters. Tlakomer oleje a pal iva . Despite the limited engine power the average length of the take-off run was below 190 m without flaps.1 (rekonstrukce) Main instrument panel of the 8-35. Palivomer . Opakovani kulometu . it was a part of the test equipment. 1930 machine guns and a 20mm HS-404 cannon with 60 r. the metal propeller becoming the favoured choice for the subsequent tests.this fact.Flap position indicator 12.000 Kc.Oi I and fuel pressure gauge 15.Oxygen breather pressure gauge 14. The large dial below left beneath the instrument panel was not a part of the standard fit. it was apparent that a fighter certainly worth further attention and development had been created.Tachometer 21.Supercharger pressure gauge 20. Ukazatel vyvazen! . It confirmed in this report that it had taken over the B-35.. vykonu rnotoru . mass-produced for the Soviet VVS.Ammunition counter 10. Pfida vne rnazani rnotoru . Tahlo basictho pnstro]e Fire extinguisher control 7.

1939. 2 Nater druheho prototypu Avia 8~35.1. the Avia 8-35. Vysostne znaky s uzkym modrym lemovanfrn byly urnisteny na obvyklych mfstech a vydrzely zde jests minimalne do 22. Galy I.1.. Bez natsru zustaly z pochopitelnych duvodu jenom plechy s otvory pro vYfuky.Avia 8-35 . The national blue border six positions least until insignia with narrow were placed in usual and stayed there at 22nd March 1939. It was sprayed in silvery grey overall. 22 . The second prototype. Only the panels with openings for the exhaust stubs were understandably left bare .. 3.etoun byl nastifkan pouze sWbrosedou barvou.2 was much less colourful than the 8-35.2 jif nabyl tak pestry [ako na B~35.

2 flew in the same colour livery. 23 .Po cele nasledujcl obdobi zkousek letal 8-35. For the whole subsequent test flight period the B-35.2 ve stejnem nateru.barevnou" zrnenou byly nove vysostne znaky v podobs nsrneckych kffzu. the black swasti ka on the rudder. na kfrdle umlstene pFiblizne v mfstech puvodnfch ceskoslovenskych vysostnych znaku. Nezbytnyrn doplnkem tohoto obdobl byl hakovy kflz na smerovern kormidle. Jedinou . The sole "colour" change was the black of the "beam crosses" (Balkenkreuze) placed on the wing roughly over the original Czechoslovak roundels. Churchill put it. I An inevitable adornment was the "crooked cross of Germany" as W.

10. motoru Engine nr. 13."-" " " " 11.1 11:15-11:55 14:20-14:37 14:38-14:53 15:14-16:18 08:24-09:05 09:54-10:05 10:06-10: 10 11:26-11:56 13:56-14: 14 11:56-12:14 28 53 42 11 40 17 15 64 4] 11 4 30 18 18 32 21 20 32 46 32 47 17..3 'V' c."-" Av.1O e."-----.10. B-35.1:36 12:12-12:58 14:38.1 8-35..10.-_. C. C. 8-35. Oalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletavaci zaletavaci pplk.1 8-35.11:01 11:48-12:30 53 rychlost 42 24 . 20.1 B-35. 18. -.1 B-35.AVIA 8-35.ro Dalecky Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosaf rychlost vyska zaletavaci rychlost e. 2 merenl startu a pfistani ---'_ "--~--.1 B-35.1 8-35.10.. 04..ro eio C.c. Vrtule Propeller nr. -."-----.. 21 .11. 2432) C.1 B-35.I5: 10 10:54-11 :41 11:14-11:20 11:22-11:26 11:27-11:30 1l:32-11:35 11:38-11 :42 11:44-11:47 11:56-11:59 12:00-12:03 12:05-12:08 12:10-12: 14 12:16-12:21 6 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 Kosat Kosaf Dalecky Dalecky DaleckY Dalecky Dalecky ---- -_-. Listopad / November 03.. 07. 2432 Dalecky Dalecky Dale cky Dalecky DalecJcy Dalecky vyska zaletavacl vyska vyska vyska 11:42-12:29 14:58-15:21 ?? 47 23 ?? 10:08.1 B-35. B-35.1 B-35.ro M-IOO M-100 M-IOO M-IOO M-I00 232A 232A 232A ------------- c. lYpe Typ C. B-35. 07..--- _.1O -------- e. 05..D.._ ---. 11... 10 c. "--" 14:08-14:40 14:56-15:17 11:45-12:05 11:04-1. Datum Dale Flight nr.1 ero c.1 B-35.to Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Kosar Kosar Dalecky Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosat Ko~af Kosar Dalecky Kosar Dalecky zaletavaci vyska rychlost predvadeci vyska zaletavacl zaletavacl zaletavaci rychlost zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavacl zjiSiovAni obratek akrobacie akrobacie ptedvadeci 14:40-15:08 14:45-15:38 11:54-12:36 16:10-16:2.10.1 B-35.1 Av. (Hd 43) 232A (c. 10. -.-_ _ .10.10. 21 . zkus.1 C. 10 DaleckY RIjen I October 01. Pilot Pilot Typ zkousky Type of the test Cas Duration of flight Minut Minutes 2029 28.1 8-35."--.10. 10. B-35. 18.10.lO Av. B-35. 14..ro e. zkus.10."--- ---. B-35.9.1 Av.11.1 B-35.1 1938 Zari / September Let az -. 10 e. 10...1 " " M-100 M-IOO M-I00 (z B-71) 13.1 B-35.ro c.10.1 e.9. 10 " -.10. . Mares mjr...1 Av. 07.1 B-35. Ambrus zaletavaci zkusebnt zkusebni zaletavaci rychlost vyska 09:54-10:12 11:46-12: 15 14:38-15:02 16:14-16:32 16:40-16:59 12:06-12:26 13:34-14:08 16:50-17:10 18 29 24 18 J9 20 34 20 29. 10..I0 H.

io c. B-35.2 B-35.2 B-35.49 12.49 C. 21.2 C.01. 03.1 B-35.ro e.2 B-35. 22. ? c.02.2 e.. 02. 10 Avia Dalecky zaletavani 10:58-11:07 9 1939 Leden I January 3 15 16 05. 17. 2432 kpr. ll. Ol.01.2 B-35. B-35. 11.1 B-35.ro c.02.1O c.1 Dalecky Kosaf mjr. ? 10:06-10:57 11:50-12:23 14:06-14:50 16:00-16:28 09:20-09:31 14:52-15:00 10:00-10:25 14:10-14:20 15: 10-15:21 51 33 44 28 11 8 25 10 11 25 . 18.2 8-35. 2432 Kosar zaletavacl Celkem: 20 hod 21 min letovych.2 B-35. 02.02.1 B-35.03.67 c.2 c. Ga velcfk prelet do VTLU C.2 B-35. 15. Ol. Dalecky vyska rycblost 11:23-11 :35 11:40-11:55 13: 10-13:25 13:50-14:03 10:50-11 :25 11:55-12:35 13:45-14:25 12 15 15 13 35 40 40 Unor I February 32 33 34 38 39 59 60 82 83 92 93 104 01. 17. ? M-l00 " " Av (232A)? Av Av C..03. 23. 02. ? e.02.49 prelet do Letnan cet. 23.1O Vrtule 232A (c. 11.67 c.2 B. 09. 22.2 B-35.ro c.2 8-35.11. ro e. 02.2 B-35.2 8-35.1O e. Kavalec zahynul letoun znicen pfi havarii. 09. 11.02.2 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletnuti predvadeci 1L:55-12:05 13:30-14:10 16:45-16:20 13:55-14:30 15:25-16:00 15:45-15:58 16:00-16:15 14:10-14:30 10:50-11: 15 13:50-14:05 13: 15-13:28 14:40-14:50 10 40 35 35 35 13 15 20 25 15 13 10 Bulharum --~~------. 30. 30. 23. motoru c. 31.2 B-35.03.03. Semerad C.01. 01.2 B-35. Datum 07.02.35-2 B-35.ro e.03. Semerad predvadeci akrobacie kontrolni kontrolni 11 52 20 9 9 6 poznavaci poznavaci poznavaci 11 9 19 11 6 _2 08. 17. 09.2 B-35. 02.2 B-35.2 B-35. Ambrus kpt.2 8-35.--" " 232Af2432 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti rychlost vyska vyska rychlost zaletnuti 232A12432 M-100 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletnuti zaletnuti M-lOO 232B " " B-35. 8-35.1 c. 2432 Dalecky c. 02. 17 19 26 27 31. Gavelcfk kpt.49 kpt.2 C. ro eio c.03. 16.11.2 B-35. poznavaci skpt.03. Ambrus mjr. 03. 2432 C.67 c. 8-35.03. 02. 16.02. ? c. Gaveleik prelet do tovarny c.67 Hd43 " " ~.02.03. 01.67 c. ? c.1O e.1 B-35.ro 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Da1ecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletavaci zaletnutl zaletnuti rychlost .2 B-35.-.12.67 c. 30.67 . Prosinec I December 30. 2432) Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 12:46-12:57 13:48-14:40 15:20-15:40 15:41-15:50 15:52-16:01 16:02-16:08 16:10-16:21 16:22-16:31 14:36-14:55 09:30-09:41 13:21-13:27 14:06-14:15 Minut 8-35. 6 hod 3 min zkusebnich c. ? C.67 c. Ol. Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vyska rychlost vyska rychlost 220 221 224 225 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky pfelet do Letrian zpet 226 Hd43 Hd43 zaletavaci " zkusebni kpt.1O e.2 B-35. Gave)cfk skpt.1O c.2 B-35. B-35.---- Bfezen I March 139 140 141 142 02.2 8-35. Ol. Typ C.1938 Listopad I November Let c.

....."----.67 Vrtule Hd43 Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 10:55-11:12 14:00-14:20 13:36-14:02 II:55-12:42 11:55-12~16 Minut 17 20 26 47 21 274 275 276 285 --. ~~~~~~ " ~~~~~~ " . 613 620 621?? 622 8-3S........"--Av Av Av --..... OS..2 M-100 -_ -" --- Zemanek -_ ... 8-3S. 06.. --."--- rychlost vyska M-100 M-IOO C.". . --. 31. 16..2 B-35.3 B-35.. 05.:53 14:45-15:08 17 :35-17 :S7 15:37-15:50 35 55 62 36 L8 13 22 13 Srpen / August 729 730 731 11."_.. 16. 11.. --. --..2 B-35."--_..."~ --...2 B-35.. . as...67 e....". 21. " _ "~. --......". 20.3 B-35. _ .05...04. ...05.1939 Duben / April Let c.67 c. B-35."----.67 c.04.3:S0-14:52 09:00-09:36 11:35-11. -... .. 11."--- --.2 .~~ .?) Avia Zemanek Zemanek Dalecky zaletavaci zaletavaci 09:11-10:07 11 :35-12:08 13:47~14:16 56 33 29 Avia zaletavaci Listopad / November 830 831 832 02....."--_ ."---. B-35..2 B~35...."----."."-..."--- vy§ka ' --.. ".. ---. 06....... ."..2 Avia (c..--'"----."--Avia (232A?) Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Francke zaletavaci ...05..2 M-IOO --..05..05.. "~~--. 04...--. ".. 08.. .."--."----. .. 06.. 10."----. 943) --."----......"-~~ c.. . OS.05.......... -~~ --" --.. 06."--_ .. . 08._ ..--..2 . OS. ".. .04."--.06."-...2 B-35.-rychlost --. --.. SIS 516 542 549 56S 24."----.... 06. "."--- ]6.2 B-35. 07. "-~ rychlost --..08.. ~-H 16....... 06.. Typ B-35.05. mefent startu zaletavaci 13:47-13:S2 13:54-13:58 14:00-14:05 14·:07-14:15 10:23-10:40 14: 22-15:0S 08:35-09:12 16: 15-16:47 13:38-14:37 5 8 ]7 33 --.... ."--- M-I00 -- --....-- --... 74 C. B-35.....2 B-35._- .. .67 Hd43 Hd 43 -_...2 Hamilton --."--." --Dalecky meren! starru .. mereru startu . --..67 c. --.."--"~~~ ... 25."---Zemanek vy§ka ..."----.. 16."..."----...".-.2 B-3S..3 B-35......"--M-IOO --..... -'. 08.2 8-35. as. OS. " --Hd 43 Zemanek Zemanek Hlado Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vy§ka rychlost rychlost --. 19.. motoru c.. ' ~~~--" --."----......"--- zaleravaci --. _. ...2 B-3S._ "-----."--Dalecky --.."----...."----- (3-lista) Zemanek ----... 261 Datum 04. "--- c. 10.67 e."_'-- 10:02-10:14 11:18-11:32 13:50-14:21 12 14 31 26 .~ .. ..2 --. 24.. 21... 74 232A 232A 232A M~100 Zemanek Zemanek Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vyska rychlost zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavacl zaleravacl 07:45--08:20 13:12-14:07 1.~= ' Dalecky '=-..."--_ .:24-13:32 13:35-13:39 13:41-13:48 14:02-14:05 14:40-14:48 9 3 4 8 4 7 3 18 14:S0-14:55 14:57-15:00 15:07-15:14 13:45-14:22 1345-1400 1002-1100 1515~lS42 09:05-09:32 10:00-10:50 13:38-13:41 13:42-13:45 5 3 7 37 15 58 27 27 50 3 3 5 4 388 417 433 434 435 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 02."--- --. as.. "..04. 14._-.. 11. --."----..-zkusebnl c.."--. 05.-. ".......2 ~-.-.05.2 B-35. '_ " . B-3S.04. 05. "..67 c. 05... B-35..06. 16.67 Hd43 (? C.. --."--zkusebni zaletavaci zkusebni 13:00-13:09 13:12-13:15 13:18-13:22 13. ' ..."--- --... OS.".."--.... ~=-"--~-~~ " . 06.. 16.". 06.--H Zemanek zku~ebni --..67 c.. e-~= -~ ". 74 C...."--- 37 22 59 vyska Cerven / June 566 567 575 576 01... 11. 30. 16.. ?l.2 C."--~== ."--_.67 c." .." ----. 06.67 Kveten /May 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 02. 02.."--B-35.

2 c.." ----..."--B-3S. 297 304 306 24. Tato fotografle byla poiizena pJ"avdipodoblli krdtce pred pfeddnim do VTLO...05 B-3S.."--..2 8-35.. 8-35. "_ .... _ ..1. II...429/1433 c. Posledn! intima podoba prototypll 8~35.05 09: 11-09:48 12:19-12:35 3 33 884 II. _ . 27 ...... Z{l kabinou se objevil stotdr auteny . -.. Typ B~35.2 B-35. ". 16.... -_ . --. This photo was taken probably briefly before the handover to the VTLU..2 B-35.429/1433 c. 11.1939 Listopad I November Let C. Pro p ublikacnlucely je zpusob oznacenl typ u v pooobe zavedene v cesk€: literature..2 _ .. "--------.2 8-35. --..._.1" etc..2 B-35. 16. (3-lisra) (3-lista) (3-lisUi) Zemanek vyska vyska rychlost rychlost 53 37 Zemanek Zemanek 16 Prosinec I December Behem tohoto mesice neletal zadny z prototype B-35 I During this month no B-35 prototype was flown 1940 Kveten I May 283 21.. 11. B.429/1433 C...~ " ..."---Hamilton Hamilton Hamilton .1.429/1433 Hamilton " " " " (3~listll) Zemanek Zemanek Atanasov Atanasov Popgancev zaletavact zaletavaci zkusebni " 13:50..... 11. 16.35·1 nebo 8.135·1. motoru Vrtule Hamilton -~-. C.35·1. 17 12:24-12:47* 17 " (* havaroval) 23 B. 22. . ... _ .1 (8·135.2 B-3S.... Pilot (3-lista) Typ ZkODsky mefeni .. 11..2 .. 16..1 or 8. Datum 16... 42911433 c.e.. POZNAMKA: V puvodnfm zaznarnu. ie oznacenl typu ve tvaru napr.--- 870 874 883 21.2 8-35.2 8-35.14:45 55 12:16-12:32 14:55~15:07 16 12 12:00~12."--(3-lista) ~~~.1)..."---Hamilton . U. ......2 B-35. The radio mast appeared behind the cockpit.1 prototype.. " " ~=~ --- a pfistani 14:23-14:29 14:31-14:35 14:37-14:40 Zemanek --.." --.. the form of "8·35. 11..-... tzn. startn Cas '14:14-14:18 Minut 4 6 4 3 4 4 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 Zemanek . (Sbirka aurora) The last known configuration of the B·3S.. OS as 307 28<05 28..~~ --.05 27. ._ "----- meteni starta a pristaru 14:42-14:46 14:52-14:56 14: 58-15:01 1 J :30-12:03 11: 12-12. 22.2 B~3S....-._ .... ~ -~~ " . For the sake of simplicity and order we adhere to the way the writing of OUI designations is stabilised in the Czechoslovak (Czech) literature t..35..35-2 uskutecnil 108 Ietn (28 hod 20min) NOTE: The original record in the flight log book the type is entered as 8."-----. v Knizeletu. (Author's Collection) /J -1~7Q."------..

V pfedni casti trupu byl horni panel s vystrelnymi kanaly zbrani nahrazen tvarove stejnyrn dilern. Podvozek zustal i v tornto pHpade pevny. prosince. protoze zamysleny zatahovaci rnechanizmus stale jdte nebyl k dispozici. nyni vybaveny dvoulistou drevenou bandazovanou zkusebni vrtull Avia 232B.2 Neslavny konec prvniho prototypu rozhodne neznarnenal zastaveni vyvoje. B-35. Behem (mora a zejmena 2.piemisteno new shape .2 zkousely vrrule Avia 232A. proroze v te dobe byl uz v Avii dokoncovan druhy prototyp B-35. The variations concern mainly the chin radiator air the bulge on the nose side panel that changed to a depression. pficernz konstrukce kfidla zustala zachovana. 2.lnez u pfedchudce. Upravy se dotkly pouze tvaru kapotovani. ktery byL mnohem UZS. Nasledujlcf mesice zustal na vsechny zkousky sam. letoun uskutecnil srovnavaci zkousky s dvoulistou kovovou vrtuli Letov Hd 43.1) 28 .1) oil radiator (as B-35. ale bez tech to prolisu. 30.relocated chlddil vody water radiator novy pfekryt kabillY new cockpit canopy iddne ibrane Il0 machine guns chladii: oleje ctyn (jako B-35. k drevene tvarove karoserii Z uzkych lati potazene platnern. Tyto zkousky jen potvrdily vysledek novy tvar .2 po svern ptedchadci podedil motor Avia 12Ydrs C. tzn.2 se od prvniho letounu svymi hlavnimi kiivkami pnlis nelisil. prototyp oznaceny B-35. Druhy prototyp vzletl poprve tesne peed koncem roku ]938. bfezna 1939 byly provedeny obdobne zkou ky s kovovou vrtull M-IOO pohanenou motorem c. ale zvetsenymi vztlakovymi klapkami. a letoun dostal zcela novy piekryt kabiny pilota. protoze jeho kolega Oldfich Kosar zahynul 20. 10. Stejne jako u prveho prototypu se na B-35. Misto puvodni celokovove karoserie bylo zvoleno provedeni pouzite u typu B-534. • The curves of the prototype. prosince 1938 ph havarii letounu Avia Bk-534. do not differ much from the first one's. Letoun pilotoval opet Rudolf Dalecky. 67. Od prvniho Letounu se lisil mime zmensenymi kfidelky. designation B-35. ale od 1. ktery v letounn zustal az do srpna.547 na kbelskem letisti. Avia 232B. (Author's Collection) Avia 8-35. do 3.Druhj illpace second intake. and the completely new cockpit enclosure. ktery byl v okamziku havarie v dilnach a tudif neposkozeny.2. Hd 43 a M-IOO. Vyrazna zmena zasahla pfekryt kabiny. Toto zatent se pfeneslo i do hfbetni partie zadni casti trupu. V lednu se letalo pouze s drevenou vrtuli Avia 232B.2. Rozdil» lze spatfit pfedevsim ve tvaru vzduchu pod pf{d~ boule na boku pftde se zmenita v pro lis.

2. (NTM Prague) 29 .1. 5.unora 1939 byl bulharske m'ivsteve pfedveden nejprve leroun Avia Bk-S34.Tovdrn! zkuiebni pilot Rudolf Dalecky u prototypu 8-35. One 23. Na snimku je videt novy typ pouzite Pitotovy trubice a vidlice ostruhoveho kola.1 and -. (Sbirka autora) • The factory test pilot Rudolf Dalecky with the 8·35. V houstnouci atmosfefe zacatku roku 1939. Letoun S nimi vykazoval rychlosti aZ 483 kmlh. V nasledujiclcn dnech bulharsti specialists studovali technickou a vyrobni dokumenraci. The new type of the Pilot tube and the tailwheelfork is readily visible. the B-35.2 cockpit.. Zajeho hlavouje videt ochran3 nj pylon a rukojet posuvneho casu piekrytu kabiny.2. The handle of the sliding part of the cockpit transparency and the turnover pylon beneath his head are visible beneath his head.2 a na pfistich 10 minut poutal pozomost potencialnich zilkazniku.14:37 h). (Author's collection) Rudolf Daleckj v kabine B.2 prototype. v unoru tovarnu navstivila bulharska vojenska delegace. Vzapet] se predstavil i nejnovejsl Ietoun 8-35. Jejim poslanlm bylo zajistit pro domaci letectvo vhodne typy. Osratni vykony zustaly na stejne urovni jako u prvniho prototypu. Rudolf Dalecky in the B-35.2. Zajem bulharskeho vojenskeho Ietectva na sebe oeoechal dlouho cekat. Dole: Celni pohled umoznllje srovndni tvaru vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladili vody s tvarem u B-35. Below: Nose view gives the comparison of chin radiator intakes o/bothprototypes. protoze letoun zapusobil mirnoradne silnym dojmern.S55 (14:26 . ktera nevestila nic dobreho. (Author'S collection) pfedchozich nedokoncenych mereni vykonu s kovovyrni vrtulemi.

Novy kryt kabiny tvar trupu zjemnil. alas. (Sbirka autora) zuzil Several pictures that allow to compare the first and second prototype.Nikolik snimku dovolujieich dostatecne srovndni s prvnim prototypem. ale toke jej nepf(jemni ve vysce ramen pilota. made the entry and egress much more difficult due to the limited shoulder room. The new transparency made the fuselage lilies finer. (Author's collection) 30 . but.

Osudny 15. ie v nove vzniklem protektoratu se tovarna Avia dostala pod spravu Risskeho mnisterstva letectvi (Reichsluftfahrtministerium). II. nasledujicl zkousky se provadely rakfka vyhradne na tovarnim leristi. Od tohoto data prototyp Ieral vyhradne s kovovymi vrtulerni. protoze veskera predchozi mefenl prokazala jejich positivni dopad na jeho vykony. Vzhledem ke skutecnosti.2 strtdali Dalecky s novyrn tovarnim pilotem sazeni jii oklestene Frantiskem Zemankem. Nasledujlclch pet meslcii stravil prorotyp ve vyvojovych dilnach a nabyre zkusenosti konstruktefi prenaseli do rodici se konecne podoby posledni aviacke stihacky. especially the rudder. kveten dnern poslednfho lew. 1939 provedl prvni let s B-35. (Author's collection jiz s . 4. lednim z clenu by] i znamy nemecky zkusebni pilot Ing. Jen 0 nekolik dnn pozdeji.e ryden pred havarii uskutecnil svuj prvnf let zcela jiny. a ndsledne i seriovycl: letounii.jen zlomena podvozkova noha. ale plntenj potah fabric covered rear fuselage Zaj(mavym prvkem vsech tft prototypu. Pro letoun byl vsak 28. Podle vyjadfeni tehdejsich zamestnancu Avie byl Francke lerovyrni vlastnostmi "petatficitky" nadsen. Diky prornyslenemu systernu trubkovych vzper za sedadlem nedoslo ke zraneni pilota.neji prerusila snad jen navsteva generals Udeta a jeho doprovodu.5.zakopnout" a prevratit jej na zada.cerstvyrn" motorem (c. One 2. kvetnern 1939 at do 14. kteryrn bylo de facto dokonceno obCeskoslovenske republiky v pods tate nepfilis vaine ovlivnil program zkousek. proc se nepri toupilo k jeho oprave by mohla byr i skutecno t. Poskozeru samotnebo letounu nebylo prflis rozsable .. vyzkousel por. Ai do 22. brezen 1939. I. Jake prvni si letoun 27. Od listopadu se letovernu programu venoval uz jen Zemanek. s Avil B-3S. srpna se ph dalsich zkusebnich letech s B-3S. Karl Francke. novy proto- poziClz( svhlo position light ostruhove kola tail wheel nove pozienl svelio new position light typo 31 . J 940. preletl Dalecky Ieroun k vyzkouseni do Letiian.2 zaleral. 21. Nicmene. Po te byly zkousky preruseny. pf pfistanl se mu podafilo s Ietounern lehee . ohnura vrrule. 23. piedevsim kormidlem. Pocinaje 2. Teto fazi zkousek byli opel pfitomni bulharstf zkusebni letci. protoze znacna cast technicke kapacity zavodu se v te dobe pfipravovala na vyrobu cvicnych Ietounu Arado Ar 96. 1939 probihalo me-reni vykonu pfi ruznych refirnech letu vcetne vyskovych a rychlost- nich leta.. 5. 42911433) pohanejfcirn opet tfilistou vrtuli Hamilton. Duvodem. byiy piechody mezi vodorovnoa a svislou ocasni plochou.2 vybavenym tfilistou stavitelnou vrtuli Hamilton. ktery si 19. Atanasov a nasledujici den se k nernu pfidal i kpt. tenro proces va1. Ackoliv se jednalo 0 zkuseneho pilota. 3. Popgancev. J 1. (Sbirka all/ora) An interesting detail on all Avias was the fillet between vertical and horizontal tail surface. mime deformovana kylova ploeba SOP a prornacknuty kryt vzduchoveho kanalu k chladici vody. Odpocinury letoun Zemanek znovu zaletal at.

.jako doma". Fetka (++).the German test pilot Karl Francke (+) is in the background. Zazvonil collection) 32 . "ifjaky dobrdk "ozdohil" letadla nemeckymi symboly. (Sbirka. V pozadi je zkuiebni pilot Karl Francke (+).2 prototype was flown here in the morning of 23rd March 1939. (J. To make the German delegation feel like at home. 1939. J. For the Czechoslovak side he was accompanied by Col. General Luftzeugmeister Ernst Udet (in overcoat with white lapels]. 3. Mimo jine. Skupinka ceskoslovellskych lelcit nedobrovolne postdvala na rozbiedlem terenu u sveho sverelJce. some subservient soul let the machines "adorned" with Nazi German symbols. Aby se pocetnd delegace citila opravdu . na ramo. The delegation was led by the Chief of the Technical Office of the RLM. Podle knihy letu sem prototyp 8-35. held for the Nazi German delegation at the VTLU airfield. (Author's collection) Delegaci vedl sam Uf Technickeho tiiadu RLM generdlmajor Ernst Udet (btU klopy plnstif). F etka (++). celnlho stitku neni nic jineho nei teplomer. According to the logbook of flights the 8-35. Zazvonila) • A display of Czechoslovak aircraft.Piehlidka ceskoslovenske letecke techniky uspohidand pro nemeckou delegaci na letisti VTLU. za ceskoslovellskoll stranu jej doprovtizel plk. (Sbirka autora) A group of Czechoslovak airmen unwillingly steps in the slush» sod near the aircraft.2 preletl rdno 23. The windshield carries onl» a thermometer.

.··r:- G r B-B I. L 33 .

attracting the interest of the Bulgarian VIPs.l1owed soon after the show. thus having escaped any damage. The machine had demonstrated speeds of up to 483 kmfh. just before the end of the year. no.2.Havdrie druheho prototypu 28. not auguring well for the future. In January 1939 the aircraft was flown only with the 232B fined. the Bulgarians were first shown the Avia Bk-534. driven by the Avia 12 engine. wooden test unit. The Bulgarian specialists studied the technical and manufacturing documentation. In the dark days of early 1939. The second prototype took off for the first lime on 30th December 1938. the official request from the Bulgarians for data fo.547 at Kbely airfield. as the fighter had left a very favourable and strong impres ion. 1940 dopadla pro pilota i pro letadlo podstatne lepe. For the researcher's benefit the crash shows the "other side" of the aircraft to advantage. (Author's collection) Avia B. but lacking the gun troughs of the first prototype.2 inherited the Avia 12Ydrs no. The B-35. (Sbirka autora) The crash of the second prototype on 28th May 1940 brought much less harm both to the man and the machine. and immediately afterwards the latest pride of Czechoslovak aviation industry the Avia 8-35. The fighter showed its paces and capabilities for ten minutes. flown by Rudolf Dalecky. A clay that was to have little effect on the test-flying program- 34 . and especially on 2nd March 1939. The undercarriage remained fixed. Only the external shape was changed somewhat. tasked with finding. Diky teto udalost. as the intended retractable one was still unavailable. Ko- me saf bad perished on 20th December 1938 in the crash of the Avia B-534.555.35. Hd 43 and M-IOO propellers respectively fitted. A major change took place with the cockpit canopy which became much narrower than that of its predecessor. the other performance figures were virtually unaltered from those of the first prototype. Over the following four months he nevertheless remained the sole test pilot for the programme. The propeller was the Avia 232B two-bladed..2 was fitted for te t purposes with the Avia 232A. As for the first prototype. while the wing structure remained the same. These performance tests only confirmed the previously incomplete results of measurements taken while using the metal propellers. per the Avia B-534. but from lst to 3rd of February the machine underwent tests comparing its performance with the Letov Hd 43 fitted. bandaged. similar tests were conducted with the metal M-lOO propeller. as the construction of the second one was in its final stages at the Avia factory. 232B. In the front fuselage there was a cowling panel fitted on top similar in shape. The results were not too long in coming. as this engine was ill the workshops at moment of crash. the month of February would witness a visit from a Bulgarian military delegation. mrlzeme videt tento letoun i JOt druhe strany". as his COlleague O. The original all-metal fuselage formers were replaced with fabric-covered narrow wooden strips making up the external streamlined shell. uitable aircraft types for their Air Force.2 The ignominious end to the fir ( prototype did not result in the cancellation of the type. It differed from the first machine by having the area of the ailerons reduced and the flaps enlarged. [he B-3S. This slimming down was of cour e carried back to the rear fuselage top decking. 67. 5. During February. On the 23rd February in the early afternoon. 10 from its predecessor.

• The final fate Ita of the machine notwithstanding. who on 19th April took the B-35. the Avia B-35.2 up for a flight. brand new B-35.2. From November the testflying programme was tasked to Zemanek only. The reason why it was not repaired have been the fact that a week before this accident the first flight of a completely different. would see the first liquidation of an already mutilated Czechoslovakia. again driving a three-bladed Hamilton propeller. which earlier bad been shorn of its natural border of mountains and its mall-made ring of concrete fortifications by the Munich Agreement. Popganchev. 429/1433). 96 training airplane.2 prototype spent its time in the development workshops. From this date on the prototype only flew with metal propellers.3 prototype took place. although an experienced pilot. Only a few days later. bent propeller. the testing process was intenupted fOT the visit of Generalluftzeugmeister Ernst Udet and his entourage. The latter. (Sbtrka autora) mu nahradit. (Author's coll. 35 . The damage to the aircraft was not too extensive. the 28th May was to see the final flight of the Avia B-35. 0 konstrukci vztlakoAt'IlZ vych klapek.) me would. The fittings protruding from the wing centre seclion bottom surface were the bomb rack anchor points. Karl Francke. However. (Author's collection) se potom s letounem stalo cokoli.PoskOZ8n{ letounu skutecfie nebylo tak vaine a vetsinu poskoze"ych casti by bylo mottle bez preble- letoun patrnl ut splnil vie.3 (later renamed B-135. On 2nd November 1939 he flew the B-35. nonetheless. the subsequent test took place almost exclusively on the factory airfield at Cakovice. followed the following day by Cpt.2 prototype. It received a "fresh" Avia engine (no. Atanasov. proving also the speed and altitude performance of the prototype. During tbe following five months the B-35. This phase of testing took place with the Bulgarian test pilots again present On 27th May the first Bulgarian to have a go on the machine was Lt. Yet the machine probably fulfilled all tbe requirements and the repair eventually did not take place. jeho poloha je zdrojem cennjm informaci napi. on 23rd March. co S8 od nij ocekdvalo a k oprave nedoilo. Despite this. Dalecky flew the prototype to Leti'iany for testing purposes. as the previous measurements had proved that they improved its performance. Alas for the Avia Company. managed to "stumble" during a landing and nosed tbe aircraft over. Ale The damage was minor and majority of parts were easily replaceable. according to the memories of the Avia staff present he was elated by the flying qualities of the machine.only a broken undercarriage leg.2 for the first time fitted with the three-bladed Hamilton Standard variable pitch propeller. This day of infamy. Kovan( vystu- pajle( z povrchu stiedni elisti kiidla bylo pfipravou montat pumovych' zavesrziku. slightly disfigured vertical tail and a dented water radiator air intake duct fairing to show. With the establishment of the so-called "Protektorat Bohmen und Miihren" the Avia Company became subject to the control of the Reich's ministry of aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium RLM) and as such. here the design team transformed the experience gained during the development of this prototype to the final shape of the nascent fighter. The machine having stood idle was flown again on 21st May 1940.1). this would be the last fighter aircraft they were to design. One of the members of the party was the German test pilot Ing. seal the de facto fate of a nation. the fateful 15th March 1939. Then the tests were interrupted as a major portion of the technical capacity of the factory was taken up by preparations for production of the Arado AI. From 2nd May 1939 until the 14th August Rudolf Dalecky and the new factory pilot Frantisek Zemanek took it in turn to fly the Avia B-3S. Up to 22nd November the test flights were flown to check the behaviour of the type in various flight regimes. Thanks to the well-conceived tubular umover structure behind the seat the hapless pilot escaped unhurt. its precarious predicament gives a fine view of the flap design. the machine ending up on its back.

Nasledujici den odpoledne s letounern provedl dam dva lety. Prototyp B-35. ledinou vaznou novinku predstavovala mala bocni dvifka pod kabinou na levern baku trupu. pohanejict drevenou dvoulistou vrtuIi Avia 232. tzn. Prostredni nadri se pouzivala jako zaloznf a tim byl splnen jeden z rady pozadavku VTLO. Konstrukce trupu zustala ve srovnani s druhym protorypern beze zrnen. Krome zatahovactho podvozku stroj zfskfll i novy piekryt kabiny. kteremu se jinak obtizne]! nastupovalo a vystupovalo z kabiny. pnpravy se prornitly zejmena v konstrukci chUuJil vody water radiator mime zmenseni kfidelek.jiz byla v pokroeilern stavu. Doslo take na opetovne vystfe/ne kandly krokem pfi konstrukci bylo vyfeseni problernaticke demontaze palivovych nadal Z kfidla. jako tornu by to u typu Meserschmitt Bf 109 nebo Supermarine Spitfire.3 pDf/zen] pravdipodobni krdtce po zdleiu: Novy letoun se svym vzhledem pnblfiil ke svi koneene podohe. Jejich zavedeni bylo odpovedi na kritiku prilis uzkeho trupu ve vysce ramen pilota.8-135. Besides the retractable undercarriage iJ got also a narrower cockpit canopy.3 alias 8-135.3 prototype was taken shortly after the maiden flight. zaletal tovarni pilot Dalecky 20. Vzhledern k tornu. Zasadnlm celodreveneho kfidla. Podvozkove nohy se zatahovaly smerem ke koncum kfidel. 36 kulometii chladic oleje oil radiator novj tvar flew shape . klapky ziskaly na rozpen.1 . (Author's collection) Avia 8-35. The new machine looked much more like the series-built fighters. s platenym potahem zadni casti trupu za kabinou. ze se podarilo uspokojive vyfesit pevnost kfidla v oblasti ulozeni podvozku (behem zkousek na Iarnaci stolici se objevovaly trhliny v plechovern potahu kndla). lelikoz se planovala seriova vyroba.3 s motorern Avia 12Ycrs. ale posledni pro tento rok. letoun mohl dostat pine zatazitelny podvozek francouzske finny Messier S olejopneurnatickyrni tlumici a s koly Dunlop. • The factory photo of the B-35. ktere v teto faz: vyvoje ziskalo rovnou nabeznou hranu kvnli zjednoduseni vyroby. Nove se prostrednl m'tdrZ vyjrnula po odstraneni kryctho panelu na spodni strane khdla a pore byto mozne vyjmout obe postranni nadrze.B-35.Tovdrni sntmek prototypu B-35.3 .3 ejektorove vjfuky exhaust ejector stubs Zatimco se nemecka administrativa zabydlovala ve vsech ffdicich strukturach nove vznikleho protektoraru Cechy a Morava. stavba tfetiho prototypu . cervna 1939 tesne pled polednem.

the 8-35.2 nove ostruhove kolo se zajisten{m ~ new Jail wheel with lock the second prototype.3 (below) had a slightly modified water radiator air intake.2. By comparison with ostruhove kolo jako u B~35. & B-13S.1 3 B-13S. shown right.2 tail wheel as on the B·35. the B-35.2 (vpravo) lze odhalit mime upravenj tvar vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiCi vody u B-35.. (Author's collection) 37 .B-35 .2 & serfe Porovndntm s druhjm prototypem B-35.3 (dole).

1.ete casteene porovnat i vyvoj nekterjch vnitinicl: detailu. Za sedadlem je zpfistupllen prostor radiove soupravy a zavazadlovy prostor.) • Below: Below: Comparative picture.2 B-135 serie boc". Pod timto uhlem pohledu jsou pekne videl takfka vtechny vnljSt upravy. kteri prototyp 8·35. This angle of view shows almost all external modificadims. including the gun troughs that were absent on the B-35.) A somewhat "skinned" machine provides for a partial comparison of development of certain internal detail. B-135.2 prototype.2 nemil. mrll.3 B-135. (Author's collection) 38 . (Author's collection) Vyvoj prekrytu pilotnfho prostoru Cockpit canopy development B-35. (Sbtrka autora. veetnl vystfelnych kandltl. Behind the pilot's seal the compartment for the radio set and the baggage compartment.' vstUplI( tlvirka Dole: Srovndvact sntmek.Ukcizka eastecnl "odstrojeniho" letounu. Podle tohoto snimku. (Sbtrka autora.2 8-35.

cervence 1939. Prague) 39 . kde na pralli Bulharu as pozehnanim nemeckeho vedeni pokracoval dalSi v)rvoj.s.s. Prague) Kratce po zaletani byl letoun opatten kovovou dvoulistou vrtuIi Letov Hd 43 a odeslan do Belgie na II. company archive. na rozdtl od ostatnfch leskoswvenskjch konstrllkc. (Walter a. Zde byl pochopitelne vystavovan jako vyrobek protektoraru. V Bruselu by/ letoun by/ vfsostlieho nebo firemniho oznacen(m. resp. ale prekvapive bez svastik nebo jine nemecke "parady". differing thusly from all other Czechoslovak machines all display. a. Po skonceni aerosalonu byl letoun prevezen do tovarny. company archive.s.. mezinarodnt aerosalon v Bruselu (Salon de I'Aeronautique) zahajeny 8. The sole exception was the information/data panel under the nose. nemeckeho leteckeho prumyslu tReichsverhand der Deutschen Lufifahrt-lndustrie). Bottom: A view of the Protectorate Bohemia/Moravia display stand in Brussels. archiv Walter.940. s vjjimkou (Podn.~bezjakehokoliv illjormacnlho panelu podpffdf. Dole: Pohled na protektordtnt stdnek v Bruselu. Praha) Rigbt and centre: IIIBrussels the prototype was shown without any fwtional insignia or company logo.Vpravo a uprostred: vystaven. Zastupci bulharskeho letectva se v te dobe jiz seznarnovali nejen s technickou dokumentaci ale i s technologit vyroby. (Walter a. Do listopadu 1939 pak letal jiz jen druhy prototyp a letove zkousky typu byly obnoveny at v kvetnu J.

ktery stroj pfedvedl skoro ve vsech rezimech letu. ktery diky odolnosti konstrukce neztratil duveru k novernu stroji. tervna 1940 pravdepodobni v dflnach VTLD. Oba talc meli moznost porovnar chovanl stroje. pfisli spolecnou praci ovefit zastupci ceskeho i bulharskeho tyrnu. Snimek cea mezi 14. 1940 ctrnacriminutovym zaletavanlm. Na levem snimku je cdstellli vUilt puvodnftyp otejoveho chladice. 6. Motor tohoto staronoveho stroje zustal zachovan. shows the machine with the Bulgarian representatives. protoie letoun majeste plivodllf kryci piechy podvozkovych kol.1. (Sbirka M.6. Temef pet hodin trva- v jicl exhibici Zemanka. Na letiste vyzkumneho ustavu si 14. 1940 mel Z~ ell nejen provefit hodnoty spocitane a namerene Avii.Staronovy prototyp 8-35.1 byla provedena 21. as the original undercarriage wheel doors prove. V teto fazi zkousek mel letoun stale puvodnl typ podvozku a kol. jen drevenou vrtuli nahradila dvoulista kovova Hd 43. Na pozdeji vyrobellych siriovych strojich bylo lvetien( teto casti krytu asi jell polovicllt. Bay) 40 . Popgancev. Atanasov (na 33 min) a po nem i kpt. • The "new old" 8-35. sledoval i zkuseny a nebojacny kPL Popgancev. nynf oznacenym jako B-135.3 se do vzduchu znovu dostal pod oznacenim Avid B-135. opet obnoveny letove zkousky. already in the German markings.3 byly s letounern.3 prototype took to air again as the B-135. taken some time between 14th and 20th June 1940. Po Zemankovi usedl do kabiny par. Na snimku je spoilt se zdstuci bulharskeho letectva. ktery v podstare predstavoval podobu seriovych stfhacek. cervna probehlo mefenl (?rychlosti?) Ilprava krytu podvozkoveho kola prototypu B-135. Pouze kryt kol byl ve vyzkumnem ustavu mime zvetsen a je~te pfed odletem do tovarny 21. 5. The photo. ale ul v nemeckem markingu. ale take predvesr sve vykony zastupcurn bulharskeho letectva. (Author's collection) Po jedenacti mestclch od zaletani 8-35.1.1. Pfelet do Leti'ian 10. a 20. Novy program letovych zkousek zahajll pilot Zemanek 21. cervnem 1940. Pfidany dll je velmi dohre rozpoznatelny.

6.1 & -. ackoliv je v tovarru knize tern u B-135. The later series-built machines had this addition only half-size. 11. Pro uplnost stoji za to zmlnit skutecnost. 6.1) telescopic gun sight (B-135. vielne kryctct« plechii. 6. podvozku. Na snimku je zachycen na ploie leliste VTLU s civilnt pozndvact znackou D-IBPP. 6. The picture at left partly . (NTM Prague) Bottom left: Modification o/the wheel cover on the B-135. Na domaci pude tovamiho letiste pak 24. pouze sest letu provedl pilot VTLU Spumy. The undercarriage was completely replaced at the time. behern svych "pobytiI" ze B-13S. 21. 1940 a program zkousek v celkovem rozsahu 47 letu v trvani 23 h 07 min zde nasledujici den take zakoncil.1 uveden motor c. 74.. bearing the civilian D-IBPP registration. Krome toho byla technicka kapacita tovarny zatizena i vyrobou letoumi B-7l. including the wheel and leg covers. (NTM Praha) • The B-135. zahynul zkuseny Ze- Celni stitek .2 v Letiianech leta! s jinym. 18. V teto Jdzijiz doilo na kompletni vjmenu. (mora 1941. Nasledujicich devet mesicu se letoun do vzduchu nedostal.Prototyp B-135.2. Do Leti'ian se vratil jeste jednou 25. 6. probably in the VTLU workshops. Zkusebni pUoti si ale rozhodne neodpocinuli protoze v tomto obdobi presedali z jednoho Arada Ar 96 do druheho.llmlfQvac novy podvozek (pouze B-135. nahrazen motorem Avia 12 Ycrs c.. dokoneil tovami prototypove zkousky. The picture shows the machine at the VTLU airfield. Prakticky cely program odletal pilot Zemanek. 6.1 011ly) o chladiC oleje s hladkjm povrchem oil radiator with smooth surface air scoop 41 .2.1 prototype carried Oil the tests marked as the B-135.1 pokracoval ve ZkOllSkdch pod oznacentm Avia 8-135. PIne disky kol byly pro point podntmky take praktiftijsi.213. Podle zaznamu 0 zkouskach vedenych touto institucf byl 11. shows the original type oj the oil cooler. The added section is clearly discemible. Ph havarii stroje B-71. 1433..2 teleskopickj 1. (Author's collection) po tete uprave..1 took place on 21st June 1940. 25.Windshield ejektorove vyfuky exhaust ejector stubs 8-135.

(Author's collection) manek a tak by1 novy letovy program sveten do rukou jednoho z nejzkusenejslch piloru Avie .2 probihala v Avii aZ od 7. 1686/41. ze prototyp se navenek li~i1 pfedevsim zmenou podvozku. Ve skutecnosti se jednalo 0 dva samostatne lety.2 pochazi z 3. Mimo jine uvadi.Petra Sirokeho. 74. painted in the RLM 02 light grey-green overall) Letov factory buildings are visible in the background. (Sbirka autora)» The Avia B~135. V pozadi jsou vide: budovy Letova.zkousku dospelosti''. Pravdepodobne po preletu do vyzkurnneho usravu 6. cervna. Posledni zaznam 0 pnlhodinovem letu B-1 35. cervna. Na letiianskern letisti si stroj odletal svoji skutecnou . dubna 1941.Prototyp Avia B-135. Na snimku je zachycen na plose letiste VTLU ve svetiem nateru barvoa RLM 02 s civilni poznavact znackou D-IBPP. rnisto kol Dunlop byla pouzita kola a brzdy Argus 650 x 180 na hlavnim podvozku a 290 x 110 U ostruhy. stndali piloti VTLO Brazda a Biciste. ze prototyp nese 2 kulomery srfHejici okruhern vrtule a jeden "velkorazny kulomet" v ose vrtule. se za ffzenfrn. rovnez s motorem c. na 1850 mm. Do tovarny se Siroky s letounern vratil 26. Prvni 42 . kvetna letoun dostal na trup a kndlo nemeckou civllnt poznavaci znacku D-IBPP.j. z nichz posledni by! 24. Z tohoto abdobi pochazi i podrobna prototypova zprava VTLU (FVA) c.2.2 prototype at the VTLU airfield. brezna 1941 do 21. Rozpeti kfidelek se zmensilo at. Tovarni cast zkousek s letounem oznacenym B-135. Ze zpravy a z fotografil je patrne. Rozchod podvozku se zversil na 2500 mID. cervence 1941. Puvodni typ Messier by1 nahrazen vlastnim systemem tovarny Avia. Behern 58 uskutecnenych zkusebnich a mericich letu.

3. B-135. (NTM Prague) byl bezny zalet. ale v podstaille tmavsim nateru tmave zelenou barvou. zaobleno .2 (D-IBPP) hlavi vlevo nahoie.2..2 menilo nejen vnitin: vybavent. ph druhem Siroky opet zjistoval rychlostni rnoznosti stroje a ve stremhlavem letu dosahl rychlosti 715 km/h po ztrate vysky 1945 mew.. Vlevo dole: Celni pohled na B-135. 5.2 ve VTLU existuji vsak take zaznamy 0 zkouskach letounu oznaceneho B. 1941 !). Vyvoj pfivodu vzduchu ke kompresoru a olejoveho chladice Supercharger air inlet and oil radiator development . I pfi reto rychJosti bylo Ifzenl stroje lehee zvladnutelne a pilot nezaznarnenal zadue vibrace. Ty casove zapadaji do obdobi zkousek stroje B-135.rounded B-135.1.L35. Pro porvrzeni existence dalsiho prototypu jsou tyro utrzky bohuzel nedostatecnym dukazern a podrobnejsl hmatatelne informace 0 aktivite tovarny Avia ve spojitosti S timto prototypem v tomto obdobi se nedochovaly. Na fotografii je stejnj letoun.3 & B-135. 5.2 (casove vyrazne oddelene). 22. (NTM Praha) • During the tests not only the internal equipment was changed.3. but in a considerably darker paint scheme of dark green overall.1 a B-135.2 8-35. (NTM Praha) zobrazeny v za- Bottom left: A head-Oil view on the 8-135. .2 (rninimalne 21. . This photo shows the same machine. Z obdobi pobytu stroje B-13S. a 23. . 5.V prilbihu zkousek se na letounu B-135.1 ~~of-~:---~- zebrovany povrch corrugated surface hltulkf povrch smooth surface © Miroslav SiLY 43 .2 & serie B-35.2 (D-IBPP) shown also in the head of page (NTM Prague) B-35. ale i zbarveni.1 Ackoliv se do toboto data v knize letu objevuje pouze oznaceni B-135.. but also tile colouring.1.

Avia B-35.3
alias B-135.1 to B-135.3
While the German administration spread throughout all of the governmental structures of the newly created "Protectorate" of Bohemia and Moravia, the third prototype of the aircraft ~ the B-35.3 - was in an advanced slate of construction. As the structural issues concerning the wheel weU area of the wing, (cracks had appeared in the sheet metal covering of the wing during loading t.ests), had now been fully resolved, the aircraft

major novelty was the small cockpit access door on the port fuselage side. This was introduced as a reaction to the criticism of the fuselage as being too narrow at the pilot's shoulder level; until introduction of the doors, entry and egress of the cockpit was somewhat difficult. The B-3S.3 prototype with the Avia 12Ycrs engine, driving the wooden two-bladed Avia 232 propeller, was test-flown by the factory test pilot Dalecky on 20111 June 1939, shortly before noon. During the following day, in the afternoon, two further flights were made; alas these were to be the final ones for that year. Shortly after the maiden flight the machine was fitted with the Letov Hd 43, a metal two-bladed propeller, and sent to Belgium for the lInd Salon de l'Aeronautique, the event taking place in




__ -


- ~.


could be fitted with afuJly retractable oleo-pneumatically damped. undercarriage supplied by the French Messier company, with Dunlop wheels. The ule legs retracted towards [he wing tips (as with the Supermarine Spitfire and Messerschmitt Bf 109 types). As series production was planned, the changes primarily concerned the wooden wing, which at this stage of its development was given a straight leading edge, apparently to facilitate production. The span and area of the ailerons was again slightly decreased, the flaps growing in span. A substantial design issue was also tackled at this time: the questionable removal of the wing fuel tanks. The new design as adopted bad a centreline access panel beneath the central tank, which, once removed, made a place for the removal of both of the lateral wing tanks. The centreline tank was used as a reserve, thus fulfilling one of the requirements of the VTLO (Vojens/"'1 technicky a letecky ustav - Military technical and aviation institute), Compared to the second prototype, the fuselage design remained unchanged, i.e. with fabric covering aft of the cockpit. The only

Brussels, beginning on 8111 July 1939. The aircraft was presented as a product of the "Protectorate" industry, i.e. the German aeronautic industry tReichsverband del' Deutschen Luftfahrt-Industriei, but surprisingly it did not carry any markings such as the swastika, or any other "adornments" of the German Nazi Party or state. Once the "Salon" was over, the aircraft was transported to the factory, where, based on the requirements of the Bulgarians and with the blessing of the German management, its development continued. The Bulgarian Air Force representatives were at this time acquainting themselves not only with the technical documentation, but also with the production technology and process. By November 1939 only the second prototype was flying and test flying with the third prototype was only resumed in May 1940. Eleven months after the maiden flight of the B-35.3, the test flying with the aircraft, now marked B-135.1, was resumed. Pilot Zemanek started the new test programme on 215t May 1940 wi th a brief flight lasting fourteen-minutes. The aircraft flew with its original engine, new number and with the aforementioned metal lWO-


bladed Hd 43 propeller replacing the earlier wooden one. The ferry flight to Letriany on 101h June 1940 was used to prove not only the values calculated and measured by the manufacturer, but 'also to show the Avia to the Bulgarian Air Force representatives. On 14'" June 1940 representatives of both the Czech and Bulgarian teams came to the Military technical and aviation institute to

Tenia vjkres je puvodn[m tovdmim vykresem. Ostatni pfipojene vjkresy vzn'ikly rovnez na ;fikladl tovdrnich. vjkresu u/otenje" v Ndrodntm technickem muzeu. Vjkresy byly kopirovdny a studovany pouhyeh ne'1colikmalo misleu pied jejieh teZkym poskozentm, ktere utrpily pfi katastro/alni po vodni v liti 2002. (NTM Praha)




This drawing is original factory drawing. Other attached drawings are as well based 011 factory drawings preserved in National Technical Museum. The drawings were copied and researched just few months before originals were heavily damaged during katastrophic summer flooding, 2002. (NTM Prague)
see the results of their joint effort. The exhibition by the test pilot Zemanek lasted for almost five hours, as he demonstrated the machine in almost all of its possible flight regimes. The display was intently watched by amongst others the experienced and gallant Cpt. Popganchev, whose confidence in the stout structure of the machine had been reinforced by his previous experience with Avia's product on 28<hMay. After Zemanek, Lt. Atanasov took over the controls for some 33 minutes, then Cpt. Popganchev. Both pilots had the opportunity to confirm for themselves the behaviour of the machine, which by now had the characteristics of a series-built aircraft. In this phase of its test programme, the machine was fitted with

its Original undercarriage and wheels. SUbsequent modifications saw only a slight enlargement of the wheel covers and on 21"" June 1940, before the return ferry flight to the manufacturer, speed tests were undertaken to verify the results of this modification. Factory prototype testing of the aircraft was finally concluded on its home turf, the Avia Company airfield, on 24tb June 1940. The machine returned to Lernany on the following day and on 26th June 1940 concluded its test programme there, which had consisted in total of 47 flights, of 23 hours 07 minutes duration. The company test pilot Zemanek bad flown virtually the entire programme, with only six flights being performed with a VTLO pilot, Spumy, at the controls. For the sake of completeness, it is worth mentioning that despite the fact that the factory flight logbook lists engine no. 74 as powering the B-13S.1 airframe, during the "stints" at Letnany the aircraft flew with other power plants. According to the records of the VTLU, the Avia12Ycrs engine no. 1433 replaced the original one during testin g on the days of 11111, 16'h, 21" and 25'h June. The aircraft did not fly again duri.ng the following nine months. However the test pilots did not remain idle during this period, mounting one newly made Arado Ar 96 after another. Besides this aircraft, the capacity of the factory was utilised to build the B-71 bomber ..On the 11 Febru ary 1941 the crash of the B -71.213 took the life of the experienced pilot Zemanek and so the new fighter programme was given over to tbe care of Petr Siroky, (of pre-war aerobaric fame), one of the most experienced pilots that Avia had. Factory testing took place from 7111 March to 21" April 1941 with the machine re-designated as the B-135.2, again with engine no, 74. The aircraft was marked with the German registration D-IBPP on the wing and fuselage sides, probably following its ferry flight to the VTLO on 6'" May. At Letilany airfield the machine flew its real "final exams" ..During the 58 flights, flown for the purpose of testing and measuring its flight performance, (completed by 24111 June), the aircraft was flown by the VTLO pilots Brazda and HiCi~te. Siroky returned with the Avia to the factory on 261ll June. The detailed report of the VTLU (PVA - Flugversuchsanstalt Prag) no. 1686/41 from this period, states, amongst other things, that the prototype carried two (synchronised) machine guns firing through the propeller disc and one "large calibre machine gun" firing though the propeller hub, From the report and from photographs of the aircraft, it is apparent that the prototype differed externally from its original guise, especially in respect of changes made to the undercarriage. The original Messier units were replaced by the proprietary Avia system, the Dunlop wheels and brakes were replaced with those of Argus manufacture, sized 650 x 180 mm on the main undercarriage and 290 x 110 mm On the tail unit. The undercarriage track increased to 2,500 nun. The aileron span was reduced to 1,850 mm, The last recorded flighr of the Avia B-135.2 bears the date of 3nl July 1941. In fact there were two separate flights on this date. The first one was a normal initial testflight, during the second one, Siroky tested the diving capabilities of the machine, reaching a speed of 715 kmIh while losing 1,945 m altitude in the dive. Even at this speed the controls were easily handled and the pilot did not observe any vibration. Up to this point, only the designations B-13S.1 and B-135.2 ap~ pear in the flight logbook (but notably separated time-wise). However, from the period of testing of the B-13S.2 there also appears, in the VTLU records of tests, a machine designated B-135.3. The references to it fall into the time frame of tests on the B-135.2 (at least on 21", 22"d and 23m of May 1941 !). These fragments, however, do not'prove in themselves the existence of another prototype and further tangible information on the activity of the Avia Company regarding this prototype is lacking.


Letove charakteristiky


Flight Characteristics

Ing. Pavel KUCERA
Jak pnblizit letove vlastnosti a skutecne vykony tohoto v ceskoslovenskych dornacich podminkach vyjimecneho, ba v retrospektivnlm pohledu ptimo rnagickeho letounu B.35 ci jeho odnoze B.135, je nejlepe pfimo citovat ze zkusebnich zprav, Nezavisle zkousky na sklonku tficatych let provadel tehdejsi vojensky technicky letecky ustav (VTLU) v Leti'ianech. Dochovaly se zpravy z pozdejsi etapy zkousek prototypu B.135.1, jii z doby okupace. Ustav tehdy jiz nesl nazev Flugtechnische versuchsanstali (PVA) For best describing of real flight characteristics of this quite exceptional in Czechoslovakian industry, or even magical B.135 aircraft it is necessary to quote flight test reports. Objective flight tests on the eve of the war were carried out by Military Technical Aviation Institute (VTLU) at the time, in Prague Letnany. Reports from prototype B.135.1 testing, from time of German occupation survived. German name for in titurion was changed to Flugtechnische versuchsanstait (FVA) Prag. Fir. t report on proving te ts of B.135.1 is numbered plement to item nr. 163J/40, dated 14 June 1940. Weighing results are as follows: 4, as sup-

Prag. Prvni zprava

0 vzorovych zkouskach letounu B.135.1 rna C. 4 (poradi FVA) jako pfiloha k c.]. 1631/40 ze 14. cervna 1940. Nejprve uvadi vysledky vazenl Ietounu:

Prazdny letoun / Empty aircraft
(bez pohybliveho PalivofFuel OlejlLubricant zatizeni / without removable load)

1905,5 kg 234,0 kg 24,0 kg

Hmotnost vystroje a pilota byla nahrazena zatizenim (pytle s olovem)
Pilot and his accessories was replaced by load (bags with lead): Pilot / Pilot Padak / Chute 2 kulomety vz.30 /2:<: machine guns vz.30 500 naboju 1 500 projectiles 1 cHic 1 Aimer 1 kan6nl Gun 1 zasobnfk pro 60 naboju 1 Ammunition magazine (60 projectiles) 80 kg 10 kg 24 kg 17 kg 0,35 kg 43 kg 25,7 kg 24,5 kg 225 kg

Radiovystroj 1 Radioequipment Celkem 1 Total
Dalsi vystroj byla nahrazena

cca 1 approx.

hmotnosti meficich pfistroju I Further equipment of measuring instruments.

was replaced by tbe weight

Celkova hmotnost (pfictenim vystroje Hmotnost letounu Hmotnost letounu

letounu 1 Total aircraft weight 1 adding accessories) zvazenim I Aircraft weight as result of weighing die lldaju fy Avia / Aircraft weight according Avia data

2416,9 kg 24210 kg 2422,0 kg

pani do vysky 4500 rn, s horizontalnlrn Ietern na ploy plyn a sestupem (ubytek paliva 105 kg) cinil 550 kID (1 hod 08 min). Vodorovny usek probihal ve standardni vysce 4640 m ph rychlosti 507 kmlhod otackach 2400 lImin a tlaku dmychadla 825 mm Hg. Pfi letu s cestovnl rychlosti ve vodorovnem useku (ubytek paliva 84 kg) byl zjisten dolet 800 km (2 hod 13 min). Pritom vodorovny usek probihal ve standardni vysce 4715 m pfi rychlosti 393 kmJhod, 1930 ot/min a tlaku dmychad1a 715 mm Hg.

Nasledujl namerene vykonove pararnetry. Mefem spotreby se provadelo z vystupn do urcite vy§e (4500 m) a po sestupu byl zjisten vazentm ubytek paliva. Dolet vcetne stou-

Measured performance parameters are as follows. Fuel consumption measurement resulted from climbing up to specific height (4,500 m) and after descent fuel consumed was calculated from aircraft weighing. Range inclucting climbing up to 4,500 m with horizontal leg with throttle fuUy open, and descent (total fuel consumed 105 kg) was 550 km (within 1 hr 08 min). Horizontal leg was performed in standard height of 4,640 m at 507 kmfbr speed, with engine on 2,400 rpm and compressor presure 825 mm Hg. In flight with cruise speed in horizontal leg (84 kg fuel consumed) the range was found 800 km (2 hrs 13 min). Horizontal leg was established in standard level of 4,715 m at 393 km/hr speed, 1,930 rpm and compressor pressure of 7] 5 mm Hg. Takeoff and landing length was measured Takeoff length and time measured three times: 243 m (14.1 235 m (14.2 237 rn (13.4 338 m (17.3 309 ill (17.5 292 TIl (16.1

Delka vzleru a pfistani se mefila trikrat: delky a doby vzletu -


243 III (14,1 s) 235 m (14,2 s) 237 ill (13,4 s) 338m(17,3s) 309 m (17,5 s) 292 m (16,1 s)

Meren! delky a doby pfistani s klapkami

Landing length and time with flaps

sec) sec) sec) sec) sec) sec)


Control inputs as essed as normal. Time to perform flat eight was around 34 sec at altitude 500 m using full throttle. turns. During landing run the aircraft wa easily controllable without the tendency to go out.Namefene hodnoty minimalnich rychlosti ve standardni vysce cca 820 m Cinily pri zatazenych klapkach a podvozku (cisty Ietoun) 197 kmlhod pti vysunutych klapkach a podvozku 174 km/hod.g. only longitudinal dynamic stability with free controls was assesed. Stall enter was possible at 140 to 150 km/hr of indicated airspeed. Pouziti korrnidel posouzeno jako norrnalnl. with elevator quickly positioned back to neutral and make it free. with trimming by trim tab appropriate to flight regime. Vzhledem k rychlostnirn vlastnostem letounu (sic) by to nutno s konnidly pracovat jemne.580 m to levelling at 1030 m. Aviation Institute pilot Spumy summarized his findings in flight characteristics in final report: "During longitudinal stability evaluation." Dale se tzv kontrolni pilot FVA zameril na ptfcnou stabilitu. pri nizsfch otackach byl rovnez mene stabilni (naklanel se vlevo). Toto mereru bylo provedeno tiro zpusobem. v assessing combat manoeuvrability oddile hodnoceni Behem bojove obratnosti bodnotil phases of takeoff. in most cases with overturning to the right wing. Increased engine rpms caused decreased stability with tendency to bank light. Brzdeni bylo mozne ihned po dosednnu aniz by hrozilo pfevraceni letounu.25 dilku/unit 2. At aircraft weight of 2421 kg and c. Turns were performed easily to both sides. Test flight of dive speed was carried out from entry at 4. zatackam. Pojizdeni za vetru bylo bez obtfzi. Let stremhlav by! proveden z vysky 4580 m do vysky vybrani 1030 m. the danger of overturning. Zatacky na obe trany se s letounern provadely snadno pfi vsech rychlostech a ruznem naklonu. Uvedeni do padu by to moine pfi indikovane rychlosti 140 az vzleru pojiideni jako az 47 . Dosednuti bylo vzhledern k dobremu odperovani hladke. from the reason of urgency. All aerobatic and combat manoeuvers were carried out normaIy. even with sidewind. Pro pfistaru uvadel nejvhodnejsi rychlost klouzani asi 170 180 krn/h podle udaje palubniho rychlomeru. for all speeds and various bank angle. During takeoff he assessed ground handling as very comfortable due to tailwheel and efficient wheelbrakes. ze letoun byl opatren osrrubovym velmi dobre koleckern a ueinnymi brzdarni. With ailerons free above for lateral tability applied.25 dilku/unit 1 dilek/unit a pristavactch klapkach pfi rychlosti 221 km/h At gliding fligbt with undercarriage retracted and landing flaps up. PerforIn the part ztho tvrzent pro pncnou stabilitu. Ph vaze Ietounu 2421 kg a centrazi 625 mm za nabeznou hranou Id'idla bylo provedeno meren! podelne dynamicke tabiliry pro nasledujlct rezimy letu. with easily held direction. Pfi volnych kfidelkach podlehala vlivu predcho- All practically dynamically used sustained horizontal stable with controls left free. After stabilizing the aircraft at flight phase the pilot made input by elevator for 20 krnJhr speed change. vlastnlrn bojovyrn obranim a k padum a vyvrtkam. longitudinal dynamic stability was measured for foUowiug flight phases in all of which the aircraft is dynamically stable: i letove vlast- nosti . Pilot Ostavu Spumy hodnotil ve svem posudku Minimum speed measured at standard bight of 820 m with flaps and undercarriage retracted was 197 km/hr. Aircraft with engine at 1800 rpm at altitude of 1000 m in sustained horizontal flight experienced good lateral stability. Takeoff was standard. Ph vyssfch otackach byla pozorovarelna snizena srabilita (letoun mel tendenci klonit se vpravo). ktere se vsechny jevily jako podelne dynarnicky stabilni: Rezim letu Flight regime Ve stoupani ph rychlosti In climbing at airspeed Pro vodorovnou maximalnl rychlost At horizontal maximum speed of Pro vodorovnou cestovni rychlost At horizontal cruise speed of Pro minimalni vodorovnou rychlost Ar minimum horizontal speed of Pro klouzavy let pfi zatazenem podvozku :Rychlost (vi ) Airspeed 231 kmlh 425 km/h 372 kmfh 221 kmIb 2500m 2570m 2220 m Po!ohavyvazovaci plosky Trhn tab marked on 3. Ve vybehu byl Ietoun dobre ovladatelny bez snahy utikat do stran. se pilot vyslovovaJ ke vzletu. Directional stability was found acceptable with firmly held ailerons. During speed loss. Touchdown was smooth due to acceptable oleo damping. letoun bylo mozno snadno drzet ve srneru. For landing best recommended speed was approx 170 to 180 km/hr according flight deck airspeed indicator. at airspeed of 202kmlh 0. Maximum attained speed according KoUsrnan airspeed indicator was approx 695 km/hr.5 dilku/unit Vsechny prakticky pouzivane ustalene pnmocare rezimy lew se jevi tedy podelne dynamicky stabilni s volnym kormidlem. with flaps and undercarriage extended was 174 km/hr. Letoun se ph otackach kolem L800 ot/rnin ve vysce 1000 m pri plimocarem ustalenern letu jevil pficn~ stabilni. positioned 625 rnm behind wing leading edge. Doba potrebna pro provedeni jedne osmicky byla asi 34 sec ve vy§ce 500 m na plny plyn.z jeho pisemneho vyjadren: citujeme: "V ramci ovefeni podelne stability byla vzhledem k pilnosti zkousek zjHtena pouze dynamicka podelna stabilita s volnyrn korrnidlem ph vyvazeni vyvaZovaci ploskou pro pfislusny rezim Ietu. landing. ze po usraleni letounu v prtslusnem rezimu letu pilot porusi let vychylenim vyskoveho korrnidla a zmenl rychlost asi 020 km!h a uvede vyskove kormid10 rychle zpet a tam pusti. lower rprns caused also decreased stability with tendency to bank left. Vzlet byl normalni. Braking was possible just after touchdown without. pfistani. Maximalni dosazena rychlost dle udaje palubniho rychlorneru Kollsman byla asi 695 kmlh. With speedy character of the aircraft in mind the control lrnputs had to be performed precisely. at airspeed of Pro klouzavy let s vysunutyrn podvozkem a pristavacich klapkach ph rychlosti At gliding flight with undercarriage extended and landing flaps down. S letounem bylo mozno normalne provadet veskerou akrobacii a bojove obraty. Smerova stabilita byla dle pilota vyhovujlci pri pevne drzenych kridelkach. the aircraft had no tendency to enter the spin." flights are a sesed as Lateral stability was assessed further by PVA evaluation pilot. the pilot evaluated stall and spins. combat manoeuvers.75 dilku/unir 1. vzhledem k tomu.

Pilot poznatky shrnul v konstatovani. formed on vital ubPevno: tni zkousassemblies of B-35 ky s drakem letounu airframe. ktera je smlse. which are B-135 provedeny neaccording factory rebyly. One copy of the type test report was saved in the National Technical Museum archives pany used estabPfi konstrukci letounu. jeho mechanismu. with the exception of Byly vsak provedeny wing. with casti ocasnich ploch which it is perfectly familiar and used them mostly on their previdtevene. that potential faults a zvlastntho skoleni obsluhujicfho personalu. Ndrodniho steel tubes joined by o pevnosutich zkousbolts and nuts fabric kach zaslany BAL technickeho muzea v Praze. fadove 300 m na jednu otocku. svymi vykony (8 vodorovnou rychlosti vYSSl nez 500 krn/h). zavady. Dne 29. kvetna of wood. nebor doba po kterou byl letoun B-135 v provozu By its overal concept as cantilever monoplane. Stress testing was pertypove zkousky u byvaleho II. Avia comfirmy Avie.horizontal speed over 500 km/hr. event. It can be assumed. Pokud jej pilot uvedI do vyvrtky vlevo. trup spojovany srouby a nyty je z ocelovych trubek s potaous products. budou jen Such were the findings of official protocol. je uloien. Da se predpokladat. on B-135 popevnostni zkousky sessing large lower s vetsinou soucasti skin cutout for retracdraku letounu B-35. In overall FVAjudgement it was stated: Avia B-135 aircraft is derived from B-35 prototype. twisting. Da se vsak z podobnosti 6 min and by its flying characteristics with given engine now konstrukce letounu di'ivejsimi vyrobky fy. by its perforu FVA. B-135 matches the parameters of s vyhradou zatahovacfho podvozku resp. po nekolika malo otockach (dve at tfi) nabyl rychlosti a sam se vyrovnal. the pilot input was necessary to stop it. but equivalent to speedy character of the aircraft. Besides the assessment of qualities of the fighter the document contains also lished and proven production methods na (kfidlo a pevne the photos relevant to the tested aircraft.135 aircraft by itis flight characteristics meets the needs for fighter aircraft very well. casern During performance evaluation by factory pilot Zemanek on vystupu do 5000 m (kolem 6 min) a vlastnostrni pfi danem moto11<b June. If the spin was entered intentionaly to the right. odboru VTLU v Praze Letnanech. fuselage of 1940 byly protokoly Ieden z exempldid zprcivy 0 typollych zkouikdch. pilot Spumy and Ing. Toto kl'idlo stress tests were sent s vyrezem vsak bylo to BAL in Avia on vyzkouseno. nit be assessed because FVA testing was relatively short. Pokud jde 0 moznost during operation will be of negligible character.150 kmIh vetsinou vpravo (tedy s prepadnuttrn na prave kfidlo). Records on vozek. ze fighter aircraft of producers outside of Protectorate. time to 5000 m around tujl az po delsfrn pouzivani v provozu. being easily and safely handled in all positions. Altitude loss during the spin was assessed as considerable. belonging to those less powerfull. the B. tento dokument obsahuje take fotografie vztahujici se ke zkousenema letounu. ohyb i krouceni. ming mild stalled tum it regained the speed establishing the glide flight. Avia predpokladat. Institute personalities Ing. But this wing zasrupca tovarny jsou with cutout was testu obou typu stejne ed for bending and s vyjimkou kftdla. byJa pomerne kratka a provozni zavady se prakticky vyskymance . Byl-Ii letoun zasahem pilota priveden do vyvrtky vpravo. nema FVA podkJady pro posouzeni v tomto smeru. Krome vlastniho hodnoceni typu B~135. Letoun Avia B 135 je odvozen od prototypu letounu B-35. Ph ztrate rychlosti nemel letoun snahu prepadnout do vyvrtky. nor byl vyroben v race 1938 a s nimz byly provedeny castecne protowas performed stress analysis revision. 1940. ktere se behem provozu vyskytnou. nybrZ mimym souvratem nabyl rychlosti (sic) a sam presel do klouzaveho letu. It can be Osetrovant a obsluha letounu B-135 je v provozu pomeme however supposed for similarity with earlier Avia products. ani nebyla propresentatives identivedena kontrola jeho cal on both types pevnostnich vypoctli. If the spin was entered to the left.in Prague. Btlj) covered). VesIn aircraft structukere zkousene castl re. Pilot summarized his findings. Z. being 300 tll per one tum. not causing the need of special equipment end special training for servicing personnel. Duda. s nimiz je dokonale obeznamena a ktere vesrnes Serviceability of B-135 during operation is quite easy and simpouzivala pfi svych dosavadnich vyrobcich. Ztrata vysky ph vyvrtce byla shledana jako znacna. June 1940. ve sbirkdch. Baj) and materials. se 48 . bylo tfeba zasa hu pilota k zastaveni vyvrtky. (Foto: M. undersigned by podruznejsiho vyznamu. except snadna a jednoducha a nevyzaduje zadnych specielnfch zanzeru retractable undercarriage and its mechanism. which is of mixed vyhovely tehdejsim character (wing and pevnostnim predplfixed empenage part sum. vyskytu zavad v provozu. metod a materialu. a to na May 29. ze po strance letovych vlastnosn letoun vyhovuje velmi dobre. jezto je ve vsech polohach snadno a bezpecne ovladatelny. (Photo: M. All tested ktere u letounu B-135 parts complied with rna v potahu vyfez stress specification of pro zatahovaci podthe time. ze drak letounu je vyrobne vhodny zvlas[ pro stavbu ve sttedne velple. krery Static stress tests on B-135 airframe were not performed. the airframe is suitable for mass hem platenyrn). pouzila tovarna Avia bezne zavedenych vyrobnich production within mid-scale and large-scale batches (series). avsak umerna rychlostnim vlastnostem letounu. which was built in 1938 and which went through partial prototype testing at V celkovem posudku se pravt: former 2nd branch of VTLO in Prague Letnany. table undercarriage ktere podle vyjadteni bay. Failure occurence during operation couldkych seriich. after few turn (u ually two or three) the aircraft recovered itself. at takeoff weight of 2421 kg with Avia 12Ycrs engine of ru dnes jiz kategorie motorn 0 porneme mensl vykonnosti. Ruzha in Celkovym provedenim v podobe samonosneho jednoplosniku.

' . Poznarnka / Note: Autor je specialistou v oblasti aerodynamiky II leteckem priimyslu Author's profession is aerodynamics ill aviation.2. industry Vyvoj tvaru kffdla Wing shape development eliptickd nabezll(i hrana elliptic wing leading edge eliptickd ndbeind hrana elliptic wing leading edge B~35. .- - © Ing. giving even better horizontal speeds.3 & B-135. Pfi vystupu bylo dosazeno vysky 500 m za 44 S. 1000 m za I min 26 s. 943 byla zjistena delka rozjezdu 238 m za 13. dokonce bylo dosazeno vyssfeh vodorovnych rychlosti. the aircraft was bui IL initialy without this specification in mind and so It hadnit COITespond in each items. vydanou 11. 1000 m within I min 26 s. Dalsi overovant ve FYA absolvoval typ B-135 v prvnim pololetl roku 1941. ve 2000 m 473 km/h. as supplement to document number 1686/41 issued 11 June 1941. ze letoun byl postaven die objednavky tehdejsiho Ministerstva narodni obrany pod cislern objednacim 8320dUv. Avia 8-135 aircraft cln 3 was evaluated and the results concluded in PVA report No. Airspeed profile resulted as follows: 456 km/hr at 1000 01. s motorem Avia 12Yers 0 860 k a rtuli Letov Hd 43 C. 473 km/hr at 2000 m.9 S.1 rovnd ndbizna hrana straight wing leading edge 8-135.0 s.. Next phase of B-135 evaluation by FYA followed during the months of first half of 194J. According test program Nr. toun nebyl zpocatku dle techto predpisu staven a nemusi jim ludii ve vsech polozkach odpovidat. Z. maxirnalni rychlost Sz l kmlh rneznl pfipusta 113 rychlost v leru srfemhlav 715 kmfh.m 456 km/h.0 s. Landing Ienth was 313 m within 17. 4000 m za 5 min 35 5. Y prvni casti je podroben revizi pevnostni vypocet ktery se kontroluje die nemeckeho predpisu BYF s kon tatovanlm. 3 aby zaleiirost byla shrnuia zpravou FYA C. 9. that the aircraft was built to former Ministry of Defence order under ordering number 8320di'rv. ve 4000 m 506 kmfh a v 6000 m 499 krn/h Dalst merici Iety tyro vysledky potvrdily. Report was worked out by V. ... za prispeni lng. cervna 1941.. 506 krn/hr at 4000 rnand 499 krn/hr at 6000 rn..5500 m pak za 8 min 40 s. During climbing 500 m altitude was reached in 44 s. Zpravu zpracoval V Kocka a podpisem stvrdil vedouci odoeteni V Smolaf.. 1658/4]. Kocka and confirmed by undersigning by department head V. cervna tovarnim pilotem Zernankern.• _i __ . Pfi meteni vykonu ] I. -. Comprehensive report is written in German and state in introduction. 943 takeoff length of 238 m within 13. maximum airspeed 521 krn/hr and limit dive speed 715 kmlhr. Porud tedy tvrzeni odborniku Ustavu Ing.2 & serie Q ~. Zjistene rychlosti byly v 1. For analysis ca .-1l/36 z 22. ••...-II/36 dated 22 May 1936. Srnolar." '. Dudy a pilota Spur- neho. ph vzletove hrnornosti 2421 kg. First part is dealing with the stress analysis.2 aerodynamicky kryt tdhla kridelek aileron push-rod fairing 8·135 serte rovnti mibeznd hrana straight wing leading edge B-35. B· 135.. jako pnloha k cislu jednacimu 1686/41. aileron push-rod fairing B-3S.9 s was measured. ha 2440 kg. Pro pocetm pripady je uvedena lerova v . kvetna 1936.3..es the night weight quoted is 2440 kg. Hd 43 propeller nr. Ruzhy z cervua 1940. -~. Petr ANTOS 49 .000. delka dojezdu 313 m za 17.9.1. 2000 m in 2 min 47 S. ze le- 860 k. which is revised with respect of B VF speci fication with conclusion.1. Further measuring flights confirmed these results. 4000 m ill 5 min 35 s. ·. 1658/41 se podrobil prezkoumanf letoun Avia B-135 Werk NT. 5500 m in 8 min 40 s.2 o aerodynamicky kryt tdhla kiidelek.vyrovna letoun B-135 stthacim letounum j mirno protektoratnich tovaren. Obsirna zprava je psana v nemcine a v uvodu konstatuje. 2000 m za 2 min 47 s.. Die zkusebniho prograrnu vzoru r.

bezlemu.Avia8 ... Ptsmena poznavacl znackv byla pravdepodobne cerna.2. Pohled na spodni plochy tretfho prototypu 8-135. when it flew. A view of the undersurfaces of the third prototype the 8-135. 135.. ktera v te debs patrllak letounu bezne pouzivanernu odstinu pro vetsinu dennfch stfhacfch Tato cast povrchu letadla sf svou barevnost uchovalal pote. They carried the D-IBPP civilian registration. This part of the surface kept its original colour even afterthe topside colour was changed. ktera zasahovala na bocfch zadnf casti trupu i pod vodorovne ocasnf plochy. The red horizontal stripe across the vertical tail carried the inevitable black swastika. kdyz doslo ke zrnene barvy na zbytku draku. Zakladnim nate rem hornlcn ploch byla barva RLM 02. with a civilian registration D-IBPP. too. with no border . The standard day-fighter underside colour of RLM65 was applied to the Avia's undersides. The third prototype as it looked like in 1941. The registration letters were apparently black. marked 8-135.The undersurfaces were in the light blue-grey RLM 65.2..2. The base colour of the upper surfaces was the RLM 02.2 na kterych byla take umistena civilnf poznavacl znacka O-I. kdyz v roce 1941 letal pod oznacenlm 8-135. which extended to the rear fuselage sides below the hortzontal tail.2 as civilnl poznavacl znackou D-18PP. V csrvenem pruhu na srnerovce nechybelo nezbytne oznacent letadel FUse. 50 .BPP' Na spodnf plochy prlpadta svetle rnodra barva RLM 65. Tretf prototyp v podobs.

Note the irregular and uneven border width. Oznaceni letadel Rise zustalo na svern rnfste. The tail nationality marking (swastika on red stripe) remained in place. givIng rise to the light coloured border to its letters. base RLM 02 shade. that during the final. Vsirnnete sl nepravldelne a nestejne sfFky lemu.Avia 8-135. Foto vlevo: Cast plsmen poznavaci znacky na pravem boku trupu . pricemz civilnf poznavact znacka D-IBPP zustala zachovana.2. the civil registration D-IBPP was probably masked off. (NTM Prague) The date of the upper surface's colour change cannot be tracked with absolute accuracy. Kolem pfsrnen se objevil sveUy lem a Ize S8 domnfvat. jako na obrazku Horn! plochy byly kornpletne pfestffkane tmavs zelenou barvou RLM 71. ze v dobe zavereenych typovych zkoussk vypadal tak. fragment of the letters of the registration on the starboard side of the "dark green" prototype. The picture comes from the type test report. During the process. Photo left: A. Jiste vsak je. (NTM Praha) Datum zrneny barvy hornlch ploch nelze vyslovit s naprostou pfesnostl. The upper surfaces were completely oversprayed in dark green RLM 71 Ounkelqrun. Snfmek pochazi ze zpravy a typovych zkouskach. 51 .trnave zeleneho" prototypu. however. Itis certain. period of the type tests it already looked as shown here. ze se [edna 0 puvodnt nater barvou RLM 02. the colour apparently being the original.

1 and -.2. Dvojice tlakominl vlevo nil desce patiila do okruhu nouzoveho sp0uSten( 'podvozku. (National Technical Museum. the manometers of starboard side 10 the emergency control of flaps circuit.Pilotni prostor stihaciho letounu Avia 8-135. Note the inscription in Bulgarian (Cyrillic) characters on the oxygen breather manometer. tlakomery vpravo k nouzovemu meni klapek. (NTM Praha) The main instrument panel of the B-135. na povrchu kHdla). Vsimnete si po pisek v bullUlritine nil tlakomeru djchale.1 (-2) . Prague) 52 . Do uvedene skupiny samoziejme patiila i pomocnd pffstrojovti deska umCstend na podlaze kabiny pilota (tj. (NTM Praha) The switch box beneath the main instrument panel was a part of the equipment fit in the series-built machines. (NTM Prague) Sedadlo pilota upravene pro ztidovj paddk Pilot's seat with its backrest modified to take the back parachute. (NTM Prague) __.e.1 a -.2 prototype.prototyp The coe kpit of the Avia 8-135. the wing upper surface). The pair of manometers 0" port side of the instrument board belonged to the circuit of the emergency undercarriage extension.1 (-2) fighter prototype Hlavni pf(strojova deska prototypu B-13S.- --- Spinact skf{ifka pod hlavni pnstrOjOVOlldeskou by/a soulasif vybaveni take seriovych letounii. The same applied to the auxiliary instrument hoard on the cockpit floor (i.

Tlakorner kornpresoru ~ Supercharger pressure gauge 20.Oil and fuel pressure gauge 15.Brake pressure gauge 5.Canopy initial opening lever 3.Lubrication boost control 18. Ukazatel vyvazem • Pitch trim indicator 13.The magneto coil 10. Opakovani kulometu .Tlakorner brzd .0 2 9 13 3 7 4 1. Rychlorner . Signalnl pistole . Variometr .istrojova deska Main instrument panel 23 24 25 1 3 5 18 6 17 16 15 14 12 11 1 1. VS'skamer .Oxygen supply cut-off valve 00 the pressure bottle 9.Machine gun charging 6.Radiator airflow control 7.Cannon safety Hlavni pr. Tahlo hasiciho pristroje Fire extinguisher control 7. Nastfikovaci pumpa . Ovladani klapky chladlce . Palivomer ~ Fuel gauge 9..Fuel cut-off valve (?) 5. Opakovant kulomeru ~Machine gun charging 19. Pozarru uzaver paliva (?) . Pojistka kan6nu . Otackomer ~ Tachometer 21. Pfidavne mazanl rnotoru '.Air speed indicator 23. Pocitac naboju. Tlakorner dychace ~ Oxygen breather pressure gauge 14. Rucni pativove cerpadlo ~ Hand fuel pump 8. Kolo vyskoveho nastaveru sedadla pilota The pilot's seat height adjustment handwheel S3 . ~ Ammunition counter 11. Uzaver pfivodu kysliku . Tlakomer oleje a paliva .Engine priming fuel pump 4 .Altimeter 24.Rate of climb indicator 3. Bomb release 8. Vyskova korekce . Tahlo max.Flare pistol 11. UmiH9 borizont ~ Artificial horizon 25. Teplomer oleje a vody ~ Oil and water temperature gauge 16.Pilotni prostor stfhaciho letounu Avia 8-135 (serle) The cockpit of the Avia 8-135 fighter (production) I. Ptynova paka ~ Throttle lever 2. Kompas ~ Compass 2. Kola nastaveni vyskoveho stabilizatoru Horizontal stabilizer adjustment (trim) handwheel 6. vykonu motoru ~ Maximum engine output knob 22. Ukazatel vztlakovych klapek ~ Flap position indicator 12.Ammunition counter 10. Pfepinac magnet ~ Magneto switch 17.Mixture control 4. Otvirani kabiny . PoNtae naboju . Civka magneta . Shoz purn .

The Avia B~135 for Bulgarian Air Force. the seat in dark grey.Rekonstrukce vybavenr kabiny pilota v seriovych letounech Avia B~135 pro bulharsks letectvo. sedadlo trnavesede. (as per Czechoslovak habit). The inner surface of the side panels was light grey. The available information did not suffice to identity and show the colours of many small details. Reconstruction of the cockpit in the series-built machines. VniH'nf strana bocnich plechu byla svetIe seda (die cs. The tubular structures were silvery grey. veetne nimu pi'ekrytu. including the inside faces of the canopy framing. . Drobne detaily nebylo moine z dostupnych podkladO identifikovat a zakreslit. trubkova konstrukce stlfbroseda. zvyklosti).

tactical number "12".".. na kterou pozde] pfibyla nepravidelna pole cernozelene barvy RLM 70. Avia 8-135.12". on wing and horizontal tail complemented by blotches of RLM 70 black green. The upper surfaces were sprayed apparently in RLM 71 dark green. - In Bulgaria a similar "first" belonged to the B-135.. Na spodnfch plochach byla pouzita svetle rnocra barva RLM 65. Pro vrtulovy kuzel platl take RLM 71.:'''''''===~~':~~~~~~~~ neno oznacenl letounu oulharskeno vojenskeho letectva. Petar Manolev. was the first of the "Bulgarian dozen" of machines-test flown in Bohemia.:. The camouflage scheme was the same as with the other Bulgarian machines. White. instructor of the air school of the Dolna Mitropolija..po bulharsku" AV-135-103.10 1.103. jako u vsech ostatnfch bulharskych Aviif. se v cernem provedenf opakovalo na obou polovinach spodnf plochy krfdla. odvozene ze serioveho clsla.. Letters of the registration marking were black.3" na trupu. na kiidlech a vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach doplnene poli RLM 70. a " . Bile takticke CIslo . Hornf plochy byly v barye RLM 71.1 03. . with no borders. s civilni reqlstracnl znaekou O-IWKM. Flight with this Avia AV-135-112. s taktickym cistern . later complemented by irregular blotches of RLM 70 black green on wing and horizontal tail upper surfaces. Pro spodnl plochy plati barva RLM 65. was the last one for 1943 in the logbook of Lt. The upper surfaces were RLM 71 dark green.. The white 3 tactical number on the fuselage was derived form the series number was repeated underneath both wing halves in black. ale jen na kffdlech a vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach.. ss . Undersurfaces were RLM 65. The spinner was in solid RLM 71 dark green.101 with the civilian registration D-IWKM. Bfly. Undersurfaces were RLM 65 light blue-grey.. Zbarvenf stroje byto stejne. designated AV-135-1 03 a la Bulgarian. Pismena registra6nf znacky byla cerna bez lernovanl.:. byla prvnfm v Cechach zaletanyrn strojem z . Letem s Avi! AV-135-112.. uzavrel svuj letovy denfk za rok 1943 porucfk Petar Manolev.. . Horni plochy byly pravdepodobne nastrlkany trnave zelenou barvou RLM 71. green and red horizontal stripes on the rudder were part of the Bulgarian Air Force marking.bulharskeho tuctu".Avia 8-135. V Bulharsku pam podobne prvenstvf stroji s vyrobnlrn cfslern B-135. _ . instruktor letecke skoly z Dolne Mitropolije. zelen a 'cerveriypruh na smerbVem kbrmidle byl soucastf ~~[:e.

..." ~ por...06.... in November and December only the Ar 96 and the B-715... 05.. Cas 16: 10-16:24 IO:21~lO.. ". 05. 25.1 B-135. zai'i ......"... _.:33 15:05-16:00 16:30-16:53 17:30-18:15 13:00-13:10 14:43-15:30 17:18~18:04 09:26-09:30 09:33-09:37 09:39-09:43 12:45-13 :04 15: 12-15:53 16:40-17:27 09:28~09:59 1L:42-12:50 13:30-13:48 15:45-15 :58 16:01-16:25 16:47-17:20 17:43-18:15 09:1O~1O:05 13:23-14:05 15:10-15:50 09:01-09:20 09:22~09:38 10:05-10:32 11:29~12:37 13:47-14:24 14:30~14:55 13:37-14:03 11:25-12:22 15:37-15:50 13:57-14:33 15:03-16:03 10:15-10:22 1453-15:57 17:08-18:03 lO:45~10:50 I3 6 11 32 24 63 55 23 35 10 47 46 4 4 4 19 41 47 31 68 18 13 24 33 32 55 42 40 19 16 27 68 41 25 26 57 13 36 60 7 64 55 5 V obdobi cervenec ~srpen 1940 le1aly pouze Ar 96 a B·71.1 B-13S. 74 B-135. 14.06. In the July. 74 .1 S~135..06. 14........06..1 --..1 Avia c. 74 B-135....---. 24...06.... 01...1 C. .. " ....."--Zemanek Zemanek ---"----.1 1940 Kveten I May Lete...06.... --.." --= Hd43 Hd43 Zemanek --.. 06..."._. 06...._ . 25. 25..-.. .......... 24. 286 289 ~ az -...."." _. 1L 06.1 Avia C...32 15:47-16:05 13:25-14:03 11:14-11:23 10:37-10:47 Minut 14 11 18 38 c....."----.. 05..AVIA 8-135.... pfelet do Leman v9~ka ".06.. _.."--."--- Hd 43 Hd43 Hd43 Zemanek Spumy rychlost 19... --..."----. 74 zaletavani ... 07.. ."--B-135.... Zemanek --.. ".06..... " . B-13S.....06. zaletavani zaletavani ---.". 10. "=~~ 07.... --.1 Avia C.l Hd43 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 376 377 380 381 383 384 poznavaci _.----. 21..._ min. 24."~ ~ --.. vyska .... ".. _ --" Hd43 --...«----- Pilot Zemanek --._ ....06... motoru Avia Vrtule Hd43 --. 12..".. rychlost H B-135 . B-135..1 B-135..."--.05._..06....06.... 06. --- . 06 .. from September to October only the Arados..."--. 13.."---. ~ -.... stabilita zkusebni 19.. ".. 06.. _. 29..".. --.1 B-135. 56 .. Zemanek B-135. 9 10 Cerven I June 315 316 317 328 329 330 331 332 333 338 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 01......... 23.1 Avia C. 21. B~135.06. ......."--.-.. 25...... 06."--zal etav ani zkusebni --- --- " .--- .... 28. 01...... _ .... spotreba . ". B-135. Popkancev ..1 B-135.."----.August 1940 period only the Ar 96 and the 8-71 were flown.1 Spumy Zemanek --......cc . .. 11.06."--Zemanek ."--Hd43 vyvrtlcy zkusebni vyska pfelet do tovarny rychlost vyska pfelet do Letiian vyska rychlost prefer do tovarny Zemanek 09:30-09:43 10:23-10:29 10:56-11 :07 15:54-16:26 07:51-08: 15 10:30-11... 06 .1 B-135.. 20..1 Avia c....."----. --"----. --..3 Typzkousky Datum 21. ....ffjen jen Ar 96. 06..05.11 B-135...... Hd43 Zemanek --...1 --. Atanasov kpt.06... rychlost rychlost let stremhlav osmicky akrobacie poznavacf ~~~-~~ " vyska spotteba --'_ " --14. 74 --.06.1 Avia C. 05..06...."----....".. 06."----.."_ ... "--- 299 302 305 308 " --. 74 B-135...... zaletavani --. Typ S-13s.. .. rychlost starty /pfi stam ~~~--" -. llstopad a prosinee jen Ar 96 a B·71. 74 Hd43 Zemanek . 26. 18... Hd43 Zemanek ~-.

14. 74 Hd43 SirokY pfelet do Leman 11 :55-12:25 20 Cerven I June 1585 26. motoru Avia C.04. 04.2 B-135.2 8- Avia C. 24.03.07."---- ---- " -=-- " " " " Siroky " vyska " Duben I April 830 831 865 16. B-135...2 B-135. 17.2 Avia C.16:22 11 :57-12:28 15:47-16:05 11 :05-11 :20 10:40-10:57 13:35-13:45 10:43-11:15 10:22-11:05 Minut 14 22 31 ]8 15 17 ]0 32 43 . 04.2 B-135.03...1.. 74 " " Hd43 " 232A12432 Hd43 SirokY --- "--- zalet rychlost Siroky Siroky " zkouska drevene vrtule 09:50-10:12 14:27-14:56 13:43-14:16 10:05-10:16 16:00-16:25 22 29 32 11 25 898 899 B-.2 " B-135.35.2 B-1... Datum 07. B-135. 19..2 Avia C. Typ B~135. 74 Hd43 Siroky pftlet z Leman 11:05 Cervenec I July 03. 19.2 B- Brezen I March Let 395 396 489 490 557 577 578 621 622 c. 22.2 B-135.05. 74 Hd43 Siroky 112 bod 15:10-15:44 34 Schema fize" .03.2 Avia C. z tovarni dokumentace vydflne k tomuto typu • Control circuit diagram as in the factory documentation SCH[NA RIZ[N/ 57 . 16.2 B-1. ----. 21.2 B-135. zaletavani zaletavant " " zaletavaru " " " Siroky " " ---. ---. B-135. 14. 18.04. Siroky Siroky " " " " " .2 C.03. 74 Vrtule Hd43 " " Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 13:42~ 13:56 16:00.2 Avia C. 21.35. B-135."-.03.". 74 zaletavani zaletavanl " Kveten I May 1072 B-135.03. 07.

Spolu s draky bylo objednano i 62 motam Avia HS 12 Ycrs. jen "plechy" za motorem a vstupni otvor vzduchu k chladici vody domaly mensicb zmen...ze pro zaletani letounu s c. Tyro stroje.v podstate poslouiila jako vyrobni vtor pro ndsledujici poctem omezenou seriovou vyrobu. Zadni trupu. ktery se jinak venoval zaleturn cvicnych letonnu Arado AI 96B. oznacene cisly 8-135. Od posledrriho prototypu se viditelne lisily zejmena ovalnym tvarem hrdla vstupu vzduchu k chladici vody. (Author's collection) cast Avia B-135 Serle pro Bulharsko Zatimco probihaly posledni protorypove zkousky. kterou Bulharsko objednalo 12 draku letounu B-135 za pevnou dohodnutou cenu 609. The rear fuselage including the tailwheel remained the same. chladic oleje s hladkjm povrchem oil radiator with smooth surface nane bulharskou stranou. Z boka trupu za motorem take zmizely prolisy odvadejici prebytecne teplo od motoru.35. vce/ne ostruhy zus/ala stejnd.30 two machine gun only cz te V obdobi mezi 7.8-135. Na seriovych strojich jiz nebylo pouzito kratke vyfukove potrubi. dubnern at 6.102. Drobne upravy se dotkly bezpro!isu without depression podvozek jako B-I3S.112 a opatrene ci vilni poznavaci znackou. the B-135. Dalsi zajimavosti je i fakt. 'Rzi~tem cele objednavky bylo dodani rnotoru a licence. "C isla" B-13 5 .slightly modified. v Avii se zacalo pracovat na prvni a take posledni serii . Soucasne Avia prodala Bulharsku licencni prava na stavbu 50 draku B~1. z nicnz 50 melo byt dodano po zeleznici a 12 rnotoru vestavenych do draku melo do Bulharska dorazit vzdusnou cestou. ze novy ova lilY tvar new oval shape 58 .2 served in/act as the pattern machine/or the subsequent series production. • The last developed versionofthe prototype.11 0 zaletal tOY ami pilot Kraus.2 undercarriage as B·13S. Predmetem aktivity byla objednavka 1-1191/9.106 a -. ale vnejs.svoji". jake 0<1 prototypech oznacovanych 8-135. -. only the panels behind the engine cowling and the water radiator air intake were . Iijnem 1942 byly v Avii postupne dokonceny a pfedevsim zaletany vsechny letouny B-135 objed- zhotovena.102.2. zaletal v ~t~inou pilot Petr Siroky. -.llO byl pouzit stejny motor s ~islem 21811.Posledni vyvojova varianta prototypu .1 a B-135. 1941 byla objednavka z 90% pouze dva kulomety vz.2 jen nekterych vnitrntch instalaci a pfistrcioveho vybaveni (sntky a popis pi'istroju v bulharstine).stopetarficirek''. vyroba a dodavka 12 draku B-135 predstavovala v podstavedlejsi obchod.000.K za kus.isly 8 .101 B-13 5.. 1 vrtuli mel kazdy ze stroju . 12. however limitedin numbers. 35.i tvar karoserie se [apac vzduchu odSlranen air scoop deleted zrnenil jen velrni neparme. Pro zajimavost Ize uvest. K datu 31.108 a -.2.

Struha and MUller accompanied the crates at least as far as Plovdiv. By 31st December 1942.poslednirn zaletanym strojem nebylo ptekvapive cislo B-135. but the .106 and . . numbers B-13S. V unoru 1943 bylo vsecn 12 letounu odeslano po zeleznici do Bulharska. of this number 50 units were to be brought to Bulgaria by rail. Jeste net byla eels objednavka pfipravena k odeslani.108 and . Posledni zalet cisia ••111" dne 6. behind the cowling. Planovany prelet 12 stroju odpadJ a spolu 5 nim i plano- vana licence. ale B-135.111.112. testing three types of propeller: the Hd 43. At the same time. Pnnejmenslm aZ do Plovdivu je doprovazeli tovarni technici Struha a MUller. These machines bore the series numbers B-135. The last test flight of the B-135. This pilot normally devoted his attention to test-flying the Arado Ar 96B training rnachines.2 prototypes were not used again.110. The planned licence production was therefore cancelled. keeping the remaining 27 for itself.vrtule Hd 43. Pilot Siroky s nim uskutecrrilcelkem 7 vzletu ana letounu byly odzkouseny tfi typy vrtuli . awaiting their transportation order. all of the B -1355 made to the Bulgarian order were built and test-flown. 194 J. flown by PeU' Siroky. cervna 1943 hodnoti cely obchod jako ztratovy. the wooden Avia and the metal French Ratier unit. The focus of the whole order was indeed the licence agreement and the purchase of engines the production and supply of a dozen fighters being a secondary trade case.112 and were given a civilian registration.102. The Avia factory balance statement of 15th June 1943 assesses the whole business as a net loss. This decision had a major effect on the situation. (N7'M. 1942 byly zaletane a castecne demontovane draky ulozene v ptepravnlch bednach a cekaly na prfkaz k transportu. the remaining twelve were to arrive in Bulgaria by ali. Together with the airframes.110 were test-flown by the factory pilot Antonin Kraus. haha) 59 . In February 1943 all twelve crated Avias were sent by rail to Bulgaria. These machines differed visibly from the Last prototype by the oval shape of the air intake for the water radiator. disappeared. dfevena Avia a kovova fy. number 119119. The Bulgarian order. otherwise the changes to the external shell were minimal. It is of some interest that the last machine to have been test flown was not the . Minor modifications took place to some internal installations and instrumentation (placards and markings in Bulgarian).built mtlChine for the Bulgaria" order in the VTLU logbook. Avia B-135 . the RLM permitted only the delivery of the first 35 engines.o moine spatfit B-135 na ceske obloze. built into the completed aircraft. the temporary end-station of the fighters.102.112. no.1 and B-13S. bullumki objedndvlcy II zkulebnkh ve VTL(J. as was the ferry flight. Ratier. sixty-two Avia HS 12Ycrs engines were ordered. In the period of 7th Apri 1 to 6th October 1942.. K datu 31. the same engine. RLM povolilo pouze dodavku prvnich 35 mown'] a zbyvajicich 27 si ponechaJo pro vlastni potrebu. As of December 31 st. The majority of the aircraft were test- Zdvuun jednohtJ . From Plovdiv the shipment continued to the DSF factory (Darzhavna Samoleta Fabrika) near Lovech. The short exhaust stubs of the B-'135. ninety percent of this production order had been completed. Toto rozhodnuti zasadne ovlivnilo stay veci.lll on 6th October 1942 was probably the last moment when this type spread.Statnt letecka tovarna) u mesta Levee. Avia sold the licence rights for the construction of 50 Avia B-135 airframes. Petr SirokY ill ade 7 flights with it. 12. 21811 was used while the propeller was always the one "belonging' to the given machine. (NT~ Pt:aha) A record oj one Qj'the test an4 tneDSuring flights o/thejirst serNs . asked for a series of twelve B-135 airframes at a fixed unit price of 609 000 Czech crowns (Kc). its wings in the sides above Bohemia.ZI! mi1idch ktUpnnilw serioveM klllunu z. njna 1942 patril k poslednirn okamzikum kdy je~te byJ. Even before the first order was ready for shipment. The cooling air exhaust gill of the engine compartment located on the fuselage sides.the series for Bulgaria While the final prototype tests were underway. Odtud zasilka pokracovala do zavodu DSF iDariavna Samoletna Fabrika . .111. the test-flown and partially dismantled machines were crated.101 to 8-135. Bilancni zprava z 15. It is interesting that for the test flights of the B-135. ktere bylo pro Avie docasnou konecnou stanici. the production of the first (and last) series of B-135 fighters was started. The factory technicians Messrs.

.... 1462 16.105 21786 21811 B-135.04 17.....~~ . az -.135.111 B-135. ~~-. 06.102 B-135...--- zaletavanl 13:50-14:00 zaletavani 15:31-15:44 10:29-10:38 mereni s tartu LO:58-11:01 meteru startCi* *' Ph pristant by..06.07.. .:07 _ . vrtule zkouska vrtule 13:45-13:53 15:52-16:05 1O:54-11.110 21786 21811 241311 241313 Kraus Kraus zaletavant za Ieta van r ]4:15-14:28 LO:03-1 11 0: 13 8 Zan 1.05.04 25..Ill 8-135.109 B-135.. B-135..4:06-14..101 B-13S. Siroky .." .._.LOl B-135....... 241304 .l poskozen nosnik ostruhy 10 13 9 3 Srpen 1290 1364 18..'~~~ .. S-135... zaletavant zaletavaru vyska --.101 B~135..05.. 21786 21811 21786 21811 --- .1....AVI.......107 B-135.. 21.240 Ratier 1146312 --.101 1942 Duben Let c. _2]824 241315 dfev. 01 . Siroky . vrtule Propeller nr. 07.09. -"--241304 241305 241304 ~.~~- zaletavani pfilet z Letiian zaleravani "~~~ 14:25-14:31 13:53-14:03 14:28-14:38 6 10 10 Cerven 916 983 09."--..1.112 B..."--rychlost SirokY Kraus 241305 zaletavam akrobacie a prelet do Leman zaletavani 09 :50~LO: 5 1 15:45~16:00 14:09-14:35 10: 15-10:50 11:51-12:30 15:25-16:00 14:38-14:47 10:00-10: 15 13:02-13:17 25 15 26 35 39 35 9 15 15 Kveten 746 754 800 \ 06... "...108 B-135. 10.112 B-135.01 B-135. 22.... 15.106 241308 241309 Siro~y SirokY zal~tavfmi zaletavani 10:46-10:55 10:49-10:55 9 6 Cervenec 1139 1140 U8I I I 82 21.. C.4:14 8 3 3 2 H._ u... 10..05. Siroky Siroky zaletavam " ~. 17.109 21824 21927 21824 21824 241312 241310 241312 241312 Siroky --.(vyska) ---" .101 B-135. _..101 B-135..:09 14:12<1.111 B-135.. 28..112 8-135...09.112 --??---??-- --?'1---??-- --'1?---??--..".."--Ratier 1146312 Siroky --.11l B-135.. 10.04 09. 10."--"-~~ -. 17.... 02.jen 1557 1558 1564 1574 1579 Ol. ~ -..09."--- --??-- Siroky mereni startn 10:37:10:45 14:00-14:03 1.04 14. 8-135... " ---"_'.101 B-135.??-- Siroky ---..... Siroky ~ ~ ~~~ " . 10.". 08. _- SirokY .08... Typ zkousky Type of the test Cas Duration of flight Minut Minutes 540 07.111 21824 --.. Siroky metenj ---"--.112 Pilot Pilo! pro bulharske letectvo lfor the Bulgarian Air Force Datum Date Typ Type C..". zaletavani zkouska dt.. B-135.08. 03. 10.'--21824 --.... '£-135."--21824 --.102 21786 --.111 B-135.....07.101 H-135." --~-...."--Ratier 11463/2 _"-."--. 05.109 B-135.. ..04 B-135. Flight nr. 28. 04 23.06..448 1460 1461..111 B-135."--- zaletavani mefeni starta --...Knize leru" tykajid se Avie B-135 This is the last record in the "Flight book" about Avia B-135 60 .104 21822 21786 21824 --?-241304 27t-1307 Siroky --...A 8-135.. motoru Engine nr. ..04 27... --...04 07...04 21....~ _ . 05. 28.09. 17. 10..... 1580 1590 B-135..(vyska) rychlost 11:25~11 :35 11:20~J 1:50 15:40-16:03 12:33-13:08 Siroky 8 13 13 10 30 23 35 Toto je posledni zaznam v .03 '£-135...07.

.~ r R-H I-I l' . ~~ 4 l -:-'_ !P02 2 3 s 61 .. I ..AI 91 CI DI E j F j G f HI DJ ~ ~~ -. ) 1("' 1 •...

presented the prototype of the B-35 to the commission.71 an-metal. the delegation expressed considerable interest in the prototype of a low-wing.The Bulgarian Dozen by DipL. the Avia B-35.2. they were open to any offer. monoplane bomber. Viimnete si vylnivaj(dho teleskopickeho zamNovace z ceintho .. unora prorotyp na zemi pfedvedl.Eng.md Dipl. .a tvorena mj. a Sizeable Bulgarian military delegation visited the Avia Works as part of their search for an immediate solution to the critical equipment needs of the fledgling Va'l. ktere by se vyrabely v Bulharsku. on 23rd February.. pokud bude dodavka neprodlena. The photo was take briefly after the Bulgarians were given the chance to compare the latest fighter prototype flying abilities with those of the preceding B~35.Denes Bernad Bulharsky zajem Kdyz v unoru 1939 navstivila rovarnu Avia pocetna bulharska vojenska delegace. chief designer of the Avia Company. the Bulgarians thoroughly studied the technical documentation for the fighter aircraft. Dimitar Anastasov led the commission. as well as the test pilot Krasryo Atanasov provided its technical expertise. D:ipl.dushni na Negovo Velichestvo Voyski (VNVV . Frantisek Novotny. (Author's collection) 62 . and test pilot Petko Popgantchev. Dimitarem Anastasovern. Vsem se pfitailive vyhlizejtc! letoun smisene konstrukce HbH. • Members of the Bulgarian delegation and the Avia's design team members around the 8-135. Among (he readily available models chosen for purchase were the agile Avia 8-534 biplane fighter and the modern B. of any warplanes. zkusebnimi piloty lng.st(tku kabiny. Everyone liked Dalecky ukazal stroj v letu. hledajic rychly zpusob jak odstranit kriticky nedostatek pluohodnotnych stroju pro sve ledva dosptvsjicl Ietectva (Vazdusni na Negovo Velicestvo Vojski . chtela nakoupit jak bojove letouny nabizene hoed k pnmemu odprodeji. In accordance with the request of the Bulgarians. Pozdeji tehoz dne jim sefpilor Avie Rudolf Bulgarian Interest In February 1939.Avie B~35. Mezi okamzite dostupne typy vybrane k nakupu patfila obratna Avia B-534 a modern] celokovove jednoplosne bombardery B-71. as well as th.His Majesty's Air Army).e securing of licensing rights for the indigenous manufacture of several aircraft types. kornise proto rozhodla 0 pokracovani zkousek. for imrnediate delivery.1 na plede VTLU v cervnu 1940 krdtce polt. Besides these two types. vedena Ing. Kornise. Bnlhafi pozadal! 0 seznamenf s typem a sefkonsrrukter Avie lng. Avia's chief test pilot Dalecky demonstrated the machine in flight. The commission looked at both the purchasing of warplanes that were readily available for sale. Frantisek Novotny jim 23. Later on in the same day. V prnbehu nasledujlclch dnt Bulhari peclive prostudovali technickou dokumentaci stihaciho typu. kdyz mlli moinost porovnat letove vlastnosti nejnovejStM prototypu s piedchozim strojem 8-35. Note the telescopic sight protruding from the cockpit windshield.-Eng. tak licence na nekolik typu.2.VNVV -Ietectvo jeho velicenstva) byla pripravena vazne posoudir jakoukoliv uabidku vojenskeho letadla. Protoze ale nasledujtciho mesice vojska Treti fise Pfislusnici bulharske delegate a konstrukteii Avie u prototypu B-135. During the following days. modem looking fighter aircraft. as such. Petko Popgancevem a Krasto Atanasovem v roli technickych odborniku.-Eng. Krome techto dvou typn delegace projevila zivy zajem 0 prototyp moderne vyhlifejfciho dolnoplosneho stihacfho stroje . Dipl-Eng.1 prototype at the VTLU premises in June 1940.

Dipl. During one of these practice flights on 28th May 1940. After acquiring the necessary permits in Berlin. tak nalehave potrebnych pro rostouct bulharske vojenske letectvo. Potom co zlskali nezbyrna povoleni v Berllne. K ceskemu personalu tovarny se pfipojila velka delegace bulharskych techniku . The somewhat shaken Bulgarian pilot was able to walk away unhurt from the site of accident. which the Bulgarian was convinced had saved his life during the accident. ale nezraneny Bulhar e z mists nehody vzdalil pesky. Dipl. Novotnyrn nebodu zapijeli. zachranil zrvot. aby dokoncili jiz dflve zacaty obchod. Dimitar Anastasov. Cesi zvladli. On the Bulgarian side a commission made up of aviation specialists. pozdeji i Zemanek. Vedl je Ing.1. Duda a Pavlicek a zkusebni piloti Dalecky. Novotneho. Ing. takze letadlo. In the meantime. Nonetheless. spojili se Bulhafi znovu s tovarnou Avia. Krastyo Atanasov. obchodni jednani se nahle zarazila. Eng. No other significant incidents occurred to the Bulgarians during the extensive test flights. Nakonec se jim podafilo presvedcit nove vedeni firmy a pfipravili s nim smlouvu. wood and metal workers. Smolaf. Petko Popgantchev. Bulharska komi e. all-metal fighter plane.-Eng. Tato zkuseno t z prvni ruky jim pornohla nashromazdit zkusenosti zivotne dulezile pro velkoseriovou vyrobu. The Czech side was represented by Dipl. elektrikaru zbrojifu atd. Popgantchev praised the sound construction of the Avia prototype. utrpelo jen mens! skody. to T. the attractive looking. the aircraft turned over. despite this unpredictable event. the B-135. Na ceske strane se jich zucasrtiovali inzenyfi Ruzha. krere bylo stale jeste ve vyvoji. Ponekud otreseny. Nastest! jiz jel relativne pomalu.2. started to familiarise themselves in the air with the machine. Zatim se soubezne s vyvojem a vyrobou prototype zacali s le- tounern ve vzduchu seznarnovat porucici Atanasov a Popgancev. Duda. He par- NejdulezitljU osobnosti bulharske delegace. the Bulgarian Ministry of War did not give up its pursuit of the pre-ordered warplanes. Dipl-Eng. Pavlicek and the te t-pilots Dalecky and later also Zemanek. engineers and pilots was present at Letriany to actively assist in the design work and factory test of the new aircraft type. Later on in the evening following the accident. (Sbirka autora) The Bulgarian most important VIPs were (l. Bulgarian pilots including Poruchyk Atanasov and Popgantchev. ~e se diky kvali[(! rodil. Ing. Pozdeji vecer tehoz dne. when the Third Reich occupied Western Czechoslovakia. which were badly needed for the expanding Bulgarian air force. Smolar. owing to an excessively high landing speed. Notwithstanding some minor changes and upgrade. jiz Bulbar ko planovalo. V Avii zatim pokracovaly zkousky s akrivnl ucasr. monteru. They eventually succeeded in persuading the new management of the company to finalise the contract. Novotny in a Prague restaurant. the Bulgarians again contacted the Avia Works in order to resume their negotiations with them. dfevo. sveho noveho ceskeho pntele. 63 . Pornineme-li nektere rnensl upravy a vylepseni. cely dals! mesic s novym prototypem udalosti nepostihly. the Bulgarian technician also took part in the manufacturing proce s of the aircraft. therefore the commission decided to continue with the test programme. Dimitar Anastasov. recorded later as only 5%. the process came to an abrupt halt in the next month. which continued throughout the following month with the new prototype. The Czecb personnel at the Avia Works were joined by a sizeable Bulgarian technical delegation .a kovozpracovatelu. in effect. (Author's collection) ktere se pfevratilo na zada. he had been born again thanks to his new Czech friend. znovu na- B ulbary uf behem rozsahlych letovych zkousek.1 was to become the manufacturing standard and would serve as the model for the forthcoming series production. bulharske strany. kvetna 1940 Petko Popgancev pfistal na pi'Uis vysoke rychlo ti pfi vybehu neudrzel smer a sjel ze zpevneneho pasu do nerovneho terenu. They used the available prototype Avia B-35.okupovala oklestene zbytky Ceskoslovenska.1. Pouzili dostupny prototyp B-35. Popgantchev reportedly declared that.2. parallel to the development and manufacturing process. Dimitar Anastasov. kdyf sing. while wining and dining with. Cpt. ktery mu. as mastered by the Czechs. Consequently. Bulharsri technici pfijeli nejen proto.1 u~ byla v pcdstate pripravena pro vyrobu a take poslouzila jako predloha pro nadchazejici serii. but because of its low speed the resulting damage was minimal. Po nekolika dalsich sklenkach dobreho vina mel Popgancev prohlasit. Na snimku zleva por. techniky a piloty. Prace probihaly intenzivne a zahrnovaly mnoho oblasti. Dimitar Anastasov A well a familiarising themselves with the various aspects of the theory of aircraft production. konanych po B-135.): U. svafecu. Behem jednoho seznamovaciho Ietu dne 28. testing at the Avia Works continued with the active participation of the Bulgarians. welders fitters. ale ve skutecnosti se rovnez t1castnili samotneho procesu vyroby. In the meantime. After serving several glasses of fine wine. However. inadvertently steered the aircraft off the paved landing strip and onto the rough surface of the airfield. B-135. tvofena leteckymi odborniky. v Letrianech aktivne pomahala ph vyvojovych pracich a tovarnich zkouskach noveho typu letadla. This bands-on activity helped them accumulate the necessary experience that would prove vital to the planned fuIJscale production in Bulgaria. Petko Popgancev a Ing. electrician " and armament specialists. the B-135. Krasto Atanasov. led by Dipl-Eng. Dipl.including engineers. Ruzha. jak byl (pravem) presvedcen. prace log. Popgancev chvalil odolnou stavbu letounu a zvlaste zduraznil prornyslenou konstrukci kozliku za hlavou pilota. kpt. Petko Popgantchev and Ing.-Eng. pozdejf ocenene na 5 %.-Eng. aby se dukladne teoreticky reznamili s ruznymi fazemi letecke vyroby kterou ul. while it was still in full development The work was intense and not without ramifications. Pres tuto vyznamnou udalost bulharske ministerstvo valky nevzdalo svlij boj 0 zajisteru objednanych dodavek vojenskych Ietadel.konstrukteru. Mdne vyznamnejst ticularly emphasised the inclusion in the rear of the cockpit of the turnover bar.

The reworked contract compelled the Bulgarians to purchase twei ve modernised versions of the B~35 fighter . Vsimnete si detailu na vrcholu ifebzfho Itftku (pravdepodobni zpetne zrauko nebo ventilace) a pomocne pffstrojove desky na podlaze kabiny. krere meta Avie vy~ robit v prubehu nasledujicich dvou let. vyzbroj a ruzne palubni prtstro- Temer zkompletovanj letoun vjrobn{ho ell'la AV-135-107.now designated B-135 .nynl oznacenych B~135. Pocatkem roku 1940. novy obchod . Bl1j collection) 64 . or State Airplane Factory). respraci a podrobnych zkousek. A New Deal In early 1940. Production would. after the successful conclusion of all of the redesign work and detailed testing. Venovat se ji mel nove postaveny vyrobnl zavod DSF (Dariavna pektive rekonstrukcnich depsana smlouva mezi A New Era.either a rear-view mirror or an air intake/vent. SmJouva pfedpokladala vyrobu 50 drake z vlastnlho materialu v DSF. The deal called for 50 airframes to be manufactured at DSF from indigenous Samoletna Fabrika .Statni letecka tovarna) v severobulharskem meste Levee. called Darzhavna Samoleta Fabrika (DSF.Nova doba. Prepracovauou smlOUYOU Bulhafi nakoupili 12 modernlzovanych verzi stfhaci B-35 . (Sbirka M.The contract also secured for the Bulgarian party the rights to series production of the airframe in Bulgaria. have been undertaken at the newly erected aircraft factory at Lovech. po uspesnem skonceni vyvojovych. pticemz motory. Smlouva rovnez zajistovala bulharske strane prava na seriovou vyrobu draku v Bulharsku. (M. B11j) The almost complete machine (series number A V-135-1 0 7).to be manufactured by Avia during the next two years . Note the detail on the windshield top . and the auxiliary instrument panel Oil the cockpit floor. the contract between the Bulgarian Ministry of War and the Avia Works was finally signed.. byla poAvif a bulharskym ministerstvern valky.

Monuii. (Sbtrka D.e. Peknj pohled na last vztlakovjch klapek ana kostru karoserie. This picture is interesting especially as the proof of existence of the second camouflage colour on the upper surfaces . (Sbirka M. I zde jeuetelne vide/ druhd tmavst kamufldin: barva. Berndda & S. i. Nice shot 0/ a section of flaps and the structure of the fuselage formers. The darker second camouflage colour is clearly visible here. Bay collection) Trup stroje s Cislem AV-J35-106 s casteenou mon/aZ{ ocasnicb ploch. AV:"J35-111 with the wing and undercarriage fitted. AV-135-106 with the empennage almost fitted. resp. Takticke cislo .. the "last two" digits: AV-J35-103.3" na trupu vychdzelo Z pfide1e1liho bulharsklho oznacent AV~135-1QJ.nf hala v Loveci s nikolika casteene smontovanymi Aviemi.see the horizontal tail and the wing leaning against the wall in the background.viz vodorovne ocasni plochy a v pozad{ kiidlo opfeni 0 zed'. (B & B collection) Vlevo: Prvni zatitany letoun Avia na bulharskem uzemi. (8 & 8 collection) 65 . BlUko) Left: The first flown Avia B-135 on Bulgarian soil. (M. (M. Botiiakova) The Lovech assembly hall with several Avias in mid-assembly.z poslednlho dvojc{sli. The tactical number 3 on the fuselage side was derived from the numbers allotted to machines by Bulgarians. Bay collection) AV-135-111 s pl'ipojefljrn kfldlem a podvozkem. The fuselage of machine no. too. Snimek je zejmena zajimavy jako doklad existence druhe barvy na hornich plochdcb .

Pttjeli rovnez ceSti odbornici... vjrobnl Cislo 105. Production of a dozen B~135s by tbe Avia Works. lng. pouze s nemeckymi napisy. Avia number "5". the opening in. Emanuel Avia s cfslem .Along with the machines and spare parts. the propeller spinner was plugged. the s/n 105. Emanuel Us. at Lovech. In the background and at right there are transport crates with the manufacturer's logo and type designation visible. dorazily do bulharske Lovce na plosinovych vag6nech. labelled only in German. DAR~lI "Lyastovitza" (Swallow).Pravdepodobne prvni v Bulharsku smontovany letoun Avia B-135.5". (8 & B collection) je mely byt dodavany ceskou stranou. including test flying. ale zblizka. Novy letoun zaroven dostal jmeno . vedoucl skupiny. Protoie kan6ny nebyly dodtiny. including Dipl-Bng. vjstrelny otvor ve vrtulovem kuzelu byl zaslepellyzatkou. ffjna 1942. (M. mj. this time in close up. too. Jejich ukolern bylo pomoci pri konecne montaz. Bohumil Hostalek. A group of Czech specialists arrived. There was even a Bulgarian name selected for the new fighter. while the power plants. and technicians Anton Vucek. on flat bed wagon platforms . As the cannon were not supplied. was completed by 6th October 1942. Karel Subert a Stanislav Hudomil. The wooden containers. • Probably first Avia B-135 assembled in Bulgaria. armament and various flight instruments were to have been supplied by the Czechs. arrived in Bulgaria. Drevene kontejnery. Spolu s nimi dorazily i nahradni dHy a uplna dokumentace. Po poslednlrn zkusebnim letu byly vyrobene Avie rozebrany a ulozeny do dopravnich beden. a technici Anton Vucek. After the final test flight the aircraft were disassembled and crated. Blly collection) 66 . head of the team. V pozadi a vpravo jsou rozmistine pfepravni bedny S oznacentm vyrobce a typu letounu.DAR~11 Ljastovica (vlastovka). in front of the assembly hall in wyeth. Vyroba tuctu Avit B-135 v matefske tovarne v Letrianech trvala do 6. the complete documentation had been delivered as well. pfed montatl'll halou v Loved. a pfi sefizovani techniky behern planovaneho zavadeni seriove vyroby v DSE materials. Bohumil Hostalek..

but also the streamlined cover of the aileron push-pull rod and position oj the national insignia. Podle kombinizy lze usoudit. vpravo bulharsky pracovnik: (viz vojenske boty) Joint assembly effort. The Spo/eCrul mOIlUlZ. ze osoba vlevo je jeden z ceskjch technikii. ale i tvar aerodynamicke krytky tdhla kfidelka a poloha vjsostneho znaku. See the overalls of the (probably) Czechoslovak mechanic and the high boots of (probably) Bulgarian military technician. was No.. The aircraft scheduled for the first flight. or AV-135-103. and a four-digit Nomenklaturen Noma (Register Number) 7067. (8 & B collection) Jeiti nevybalend svislti ocasni plocha upevllena v drevenim prepravnim rdmu. all twelve machines were assembled and prepared for their mandatory test flight. (M. Note not only the "open" side. jii v Avii. Probably also the "5". They received serial numbers between 1 and 12.an registration system. The still crated vertical tail in its wooden transport frame. Vsechno nasvidcllje tomu. according to the Bulgari. Na snimku je zaj(mavj nejen .Pravdipodobnistejnj letoun (c. Karel Subert and Stanislav Hudomil. By August 1943. as well as in the setting up of the technology for the planned series production at the DSF. ie 0 [(Slech bylo rozhodnuto drive a miter byl proveden. They were [0 assist in the final assembly.odstrojenj" bok. All data seem to support the fact that the numbers were approved beforehand and applied in the Avia during painting. Bay collection) 67 . Lis.3. 5).

the Avias were ferried directly to the base at Dolna Mirropoliya. kapitan Krasto Atanasov. proc se zbrusu nove stfhaci stroje octly hned jake druhosledovy material ve stlhact pilot chosen to perform this maiden flight was the highly regarded Kapitan Krasto Atanasov. Podporuchyk Petar Manolev and Dimitar Sotirov. Apart from Atanasov. the aircraft type is referred to by the Latin characters (AVIA). 2 at Dolna Mitropolia from 10. ktef podnikli zkusebni lety. Krome Atanasova byli dalsimi piloty. The initial test flight went without any incidents. a paddkovjch pdsu.. ze By the 28th August.VNVV. veliteli. Atanasov. nikoliv azbukou a of icialnim nazvem. as did the subsequem ones. Commander of the Fighter school. zafi J 943. kde sidlila suhaci skola VNVV. 2 v Dolne Mitropoliji od 10:25 do 11:05. in this case Lyastovitza .Piiprava pred prvntm startem no bulharske pudi.05 a. (8 & B Collection) Posledni okamiiky pied dlouho ocektiv. rather than its Cyrillic Bulgarian nick-name. Dostaly Nomenklaturen Numer (nomenklamrnl Cislo) 7067 a seriova ctsla od 1 do 12. Atanasovi. srpna ji:i by to vsech dvanact letadel zalerano a uJedne prejato zakaznikem. (M.3" cast Preparations prior to the first take-off on Bulgarian soil. Manolev's wartime log book relating to the new aircraft is dated torn September. when he flew No. all twelve aircraft had been test flown and officially accepted by the VNVV. With the reception procedures completed. Note the bulkiness of the safety andparachute harness. Za pozomost jiste stojt i rozd{l v sytosti barvy mezi kovovou plochou odnlmatelmjch pane Ill. Jakrnile byly predavaci procedury ukonceny. Prvni byla zaletnuta Avie s bulharskym oznacentm AV-J35-I03 a taktickym cislem .25 a. Part of the black H3" on the wing undersurface is visible here. Interestingly. Prvni let probehl bez incidenru a podobne tom. 28. The last moments before the long-awaited event. Prvni zaznam ve valecnem zapisnfku lew ppor .m. jak tomu bylo u ostatnich typu.u bylo i s nasledujicimi. kdy letel na "stopetatficirce" c. The first entry in Ppor. Pozemni personal ponuihd kpt. The ground crew helps Cpt. Also the differences between the density (or reflectance) of colours on fabric anddetachable metal surfaces are worth modelier's consideration..as was the case with the other types that Manolev flew. Commanding Officer of the VNVV's Ittrebitelnata Shkola (Fighter School). Pozoruhodne je. letadlo je v zapisnlkn vedeno jako AVIA latinkou. based at Dolna Mitropoliya. borne of the Fighter School. take iustruktofi stfhaci skoly porucici Bogdan Ilijev a Petar Kolev. the other pilots involved in the test flights were also instructors at the Fighter School: Poruchyk Bogdan Ilyev and Petar Kolev. to the cockpit of the Avia AV·135·103. Dnvodem. The reason why these brand new fighters were assigned to a secondary role as fighter trai- 68 .3".m. Btlj collection) Do srpna ] 943 bylo vsech dvanact stroju sestaveno a pfipraveno k povinnernu zaletu. a plochou s pkitenym potahem. velitel lstrebitelnata skola (stihaci skola) z Dolni Mitropolije.. Pilotem vybranyrn k vykonant prvniho letu byl uznavany pilot. Avie byl pfeletnuty pnrno na zakladnu Dolna Mitropolija. as well as Feldfebel Yordan Ferdinandov and Nedio Kolev. podporucici Petar Manolev a Nedjo Kolev.1 . Manoleva nese datum to. Na spodni strane kitdla je vidlt cemeho cisla . do kabiny Avie AV-135~103. to 1. Vsimnete si mohutnosti upinactch. ktere Ietal. stihact skoly.anou uddlosti.

Nahofe: Avie se ro7jlidf k prvntmu vzletu z bulharske pudy. Od podobneho okamiiku v Praze zatim obenly cele tii roky. Uprostred: Po odlepeni.... Dole: Vzticnj letovy snimek. Krtuce po vzletu stroj zacal nabirat vysku. Above: Avia rolls to its first take-off in Bulgaria. It took three years since the same event in Prague. Centre: Moments after the lift-off··· Below: A rare in-flight photo. The machine started its climb after the take off


skole, byly smisene pocity bulharskych zkusebnich pilotu, ktere novy letoun vyvolaval behern zkousek, Problemy pf vzletu padaly na vrub slabemu motoru, tvrde tlumeni podvozku zpusobovalo silne a nepnjemne chveni be-hem pojizdeni, Jakmile byla Avie ve vzduchu, podavala odpovldajici vykony, nicmene behem akrobacie, pf meznich podrrunkach, kdy se obvykle leta na vysokych nasobcich, drak nevyhovoval, NaptikJad behem cvicneho souboje dvou pim.i B-135 letanych zkusenymi instruktory, kdy Ietouny konaly prudke obraty a prudke stfemhlave lety, doslo u jednoho letounu k trvale deformaci kndla a peruse jeho konstrukce, Roztrhl se jeho potah a pilot, Bogdan Ilijev, se zapotil, nel. Avii pfivedl na zem. Dusledkern bylo vydane omezeni akrobatickych obratu, d1ky kterernu se ale stalo Ietadlo neschopnyrn skutecneho boje, kvuli kteremu bylo porizeno. Navic vyzbroj, sestavajtci z pam kulometu puskove n'lte, byla pravem povazovana za nedostatecnou pro pfipad souboje s modernimi stlhacimi nebo bornbardovacimi letouny USAF nebo sovetskeho letectva. Planovana manta! 20mm rychlopalneho kan6nu stfilejlciho vrtulovou hfideli by vyznamne zvysila palebnou Ilu tohoto stihaciho letounu, ale nikdy k of nedoslo, cimz Avie B-135 zustala nepouzitelna jako ucinny bojovy nastroj. V dusledku toho bylo pfijato rozhodnuti pfesunout dvanact Avii do role cvicneho stlhaciho letounu a pfedat je do stfhaci skoly. Ale ani tam na ne instruktofi zaky radeji nepousteli, nebot Avie povazovali za pffli~ narocne pro nezkuseneho pilota, Proto si na Aviich pfilezirostne letala jen hrstka instruktoru, ktefi si tak udrzovali nalet hodin a letove navyky".

ners, instead of front line duty was because of the mixed opinions formed by the Bulgarian test pilots while testing the aircraft. They had experienced problems during take off, on account of the underpowered engine used by the B-135. Also, as a result of the stiff undercarriage there were strong and unpleasant vibrations while taxiing, Once in the air, the Avia performed adequately; however during aerobatics, in extreme conditions, where high wing loading occurred, the airframe performed poorly. For example, during a mock dogfight between two pairs of B-1358, each flown by a highly skilled instructor, there followed a series of hard turning manoeuvres and steeply angled dives, the wings of one aircraft were deformed and the sheet metal skin cracked giving much cause for concern to the pilot, Bogdan Jlyev, in his attempt to bring it back safely to the ground. As a consequence, restrictions were issued concerning the amount of aerobatics that could be performed; effectively making the aircraft unsuitable for 'live' combat the role for which it wa originally designed. Finally, the armament consisting of only a pair of rifle calibre machine guns was considered inadequate in the event of the aircraft encountering the modern USAAF or VYS fighters and bombers. The planned installation of a centrally mounted 20mm rapid-fire cannon would have greatly improved its firepower; however, this never materialised. rendering (he Avia unusable as an efficient combat tool, As a consequence, the decision was made to relegate the twelve 8-135s to the fighter-training role and transfer them to the Fighter School. Even here, the instructors did not allow the students to fly them, as they considered the type too difficult to be handled by an inexperienced flyer. Thus, only a handful of instructors occasionally flew the aircraft to keep their hand in on the type*.

*) Da!sf let ppor, Petara Manoleva probehl az 25. listopadu. Tentokrat je zrnfnsno cele oznacenl typu AVIA 135, bez zaznarnu jeimo sertoveho cisla. Poslednf Manolevuv let na typu se konal 28. Iistopac u 1943 (stroj 6. 12). PifsHho roku je prvnl zazna m ze 14. (edna (c. 12), potom z 24. Jedna (c. 4), 30. a 31. brezna (c·. 4), 4. a 5. (dvakrat), 15. a 17. dubna - vsechny na c. 4. V kvetnu letel i nekolik bojovych vzletu; pocfnaje 23. (na c. 5), potom 24. a 26. 5. (na c. 6). V oervnu lete! jen stroj C. 6 ve dnech 7. a 22. Poslednf let v kabine Avie 8-135 absolvoval Manolev 6. cervence 1944, kdy vzlett do vzduchu s tim sarnyrn strojem c. 6 a asi na rozlouceni si dal petatficetirnlnutovy let nad Dolnou Mitropoliji.

") Manolev's next flight in the aircraft was performed only on the 25th November. This time the whole aircraft type is mentioned in his logbook: AVIA 135. without the individual serial number being recorded. The last flight flown by Manolev in the aircraft in 1943 was on Nov. 28 (No. 12). In the next year, the first entry on type is dated Jan. 14 (No. 12), then Jan. 24 (No.4). March 30 and 31 (No.4), April 4, 5 (twice), 15, 17 - all on NO.4. In May, he logged a few sorties, starting on the 23rd (No.5), then 24th and 26th (No.6). In June, he flew only No.6 on the 7th and 22nd. His last flight aboard an Avla 8-135 happened on July 6, when he took off in the same No.6 for a 35 min. flight over Dolna Mitropoliya.


Piedposledni bulharskd Avie s taktickym l£Slem ,,11" (AV-13S-111). Na predchtizej{c( strdnee je na celn(m pohledu na tentjz letoun dobie videt ovalnj tvar vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiCi kapaliny a celkove zlUen{ teto partie v piednt casti. • The penultimate Bulgarian Avia (tactical number "11", AV-13S·111). On the previous page the head-on view shows to advantage its oval radiator air intake and the general slimming down of the whole chin of a series-production fighter. (M. Baj collection)

Nazor pilota
Takto shmul sve zkusenosti s Avii 8-135 jeden z instruktoru Ietecke skoly, plk, let. v.v. Petar Manolev, kdyf jej v cervnu roku 2000 vyzpovidal Theodor Muchovsky: .Letadlo melo dost slaby motor. Chybifla mu i kyslikovd soustava pro vy§kove lety. V nekierych. fdstech byl velmi podobny Doganu [Avia B-534], nebot vyzbrol, motor a piistroje byly stejne. Vzhledove byl letoun velmi podobny Spitfiru, piedevsim dik» eliptickym kffdlum. Ale v porovnani s touto anglickou stihaikau meta Avia podstatne deiSt rozbsh. pti vzletu. Behem dlouheho rozbenu i dobehu nemel pilot pNjemny pocit. (... ) Ai ve vzducha Avia 8-135 velice pomalu trychlovala - jeji motor byl proste slabY. (... ) V /manevrovem/ boji jsme nemeli pocit jistoty, brdnili jsme se letadlo pFfli,~zateiovat, abychom se vyhnuli nehoddm: Myslim, ie letoun byl dobry pro bojovy vycvik, jako piechodovy typ mezi dvouplosnymi zdkladnimi cvicnymi a plnohodnotnymi bojovymi typy, jako Messerschmitt [Bf l09G] nebo Dewoitine [D.520 J. Ale nakonec jsme stejl'le nenechdvali pilotni iaky tuhle masinu Ietai ze dvou duvodu: Zaprve, vdlecne poiadavky byly velmi ndrocne a my jsme posilali piloty k bojovym letkdm (jaio), jakmile riskali bojove zkusenosti na Doganech. V bojovycli jatech piechdzeli nejprve na Dewoitiny D.520, pozdeji, od roku 1944, ptimo na Messerschmitty Bf 109. Zadruhe, Avie B-135 vyiadovala pritis mnoho letovych hodin na jhrych typech nei. jsme na ni mohli pustit taka. Neodpoustela chyby. Kdybychom je nechali letat na B·135, zakrdtko by je zniCili - bylo jich jen dvandct, letdni s nimi nebylo nic snadneho, a neme1i jsme ndhradni dily. Proto jsme s nimi letali jen my instruktoh. " Dais! pilot, plk, let. v.v. Jordan Ferdinandov, ktery rake Avii B-135 caste letal vzpornlna: "Avia B-135 mlla 6ste tvary a elegantne zaoblend kiidla. Letoun byl lehce ovladatelny, pfi vzletu mel tendenci utikat vlevo, ale snadno se to korigovalo. Letoun mel jednu vadu: pti motorove zkousce na piny plyn se letounu zvedal ocas a hrozilo, ze vrtule

In The Pilots' Opinion
Here is how one of the instructors at the Flying School, retired Col. Petar Manolev, summed up his experiences with the Avia 8-135, when interviewed by Theodor Muchovski in June 2000: "This plane had a somewhat underpowered engine. Also, it had no oxygen system for high altitude flights. In some parts it was very similar to the 'Dogan' [AviaB-534. all notes in square brackets are by D. B.}, as the armament, engine and cockpit instruments were the same. In appearance this aircraft [the B.135} was velY similar to the Spitfire, mainly owing to its elliptical wings. But compared to the English fighter; the Avia required a much longer take offrun to reach the required speed for flight. During both the long take off and landing process, the pilot would experience an unpleasant feeling. (... J In the air; the Avia 8-/35 could not gain high speed quickly enough, as the engine was weak. (. ..) Wefound the plane insecure in combat and we decided not to go 100 far with the wing overloading, to avoid accidents. I think that this plane was good for transition [from primary biplane trainers] to the Dewoitine [D.520] and the Messerschmiu [Bf 109G]. But we never let student pilots actually fly with this machine, for two reasons. Firstly, the wartime [condition) was very 'hot' and we were sending the pilots to the combat yato-s [squadrons] immediately after they had accumulated experience with the 'Dogan '. In the combat yatos, they were transferred to the Dewoitine and, from1944, directly to the Bf 109. Secondly, this plane required many flight hours on. other types, before one should attempt to fly it. it did notforgive any mistakes. If we had let them fly the B-J35, they would have destroyed th.eplanes in no time, as there were only 12 such machines, which were quite difficult to fly and without readily available spare parts. That is why we, the instructors, were the only ones who flew the type. " Another pilot, retired Col. Yordan Ferdinandov, who also often flew the Avia monoplane, recalls: "The Avia B-135 had a clean. shape and nicely rounded wings. The control of the plane was light,' however, at take off it had the tendency to roll to the left, but this could be easily overcome. This


Zapomnel jsem zminit vYzbroj .te kiidia byla jefte v Ceskoslovensku zeimlrne zesabotovdna ~ polita kyselinou. was never installed . stojicich v Dolne Mitropoliji venku se koro:e Opel brzo objevila. " udeii do zeme a letadlo se prevrau. mounted over the engine.stala se jakoby lehci a okamiite zrychlovola. The button for it. po1kozeny povrch vylestili.tento letoun byl vyzbrojen jen dvema synchronizevanymi kulomety raze 7. 1 remember another interesting detail. presto jsem Avii B-135 duveivva!. Aerodynamicky byla B~135 velice dobra. byli potresttini.. (. tv Dolna Mitropoliya. painted and varnished again. maybe it needed a more powerful engine and an improved landing gear. natieli a pote opaitili vrchnim lakem. the damaged surfaces polished. When the airplanes arrived in their crates and after unpacking of the main parts. a proto nebylo vhodne pro nezkusene piloty. It had good instruments and 1felt in its cabin as comfortable as in the Bf 109. namontovanymi nad motorem. Pozn. Kdyz jsme pieletdvali sestavene stroje Z tovarny v LavCl do Dolne Mitropolije. that this plane was armed with only MO synchronized 7. Kontrolni komise zjisfila. sabotaged] back in Czechoslovakia. v zdvodecn DSF. Pokud by byl tento kan6n namontovdn a doslo k nelaerym vylepsenim konstrukce. if only this cannon could have been installed and with some other design improvements. sttilejici dutou osou vrtule nebyl nikdy namontovdn. Lovech.e. the Bulgarian technicians discovered strange brownish stains 011 the joil that covered the wings. horizontal stabilizers. aby cesti odbornici. Musim zdurazit. But I think this impacted on.: Vsechny vysvettlvky uvedene v hranatych zavorkach doplnil autor kapitoly Denes Bernad. Vyhied vpied z ni by! velmi dobry po zaiaieni podvozku se menilo jeji chovdni . The aerodynamics of this airplane was very successful. as we didn 't want the Czech specialists.T want to emphasize. who came hereto help us assemble the airplanes.e uirhnout "jedenactku" ad zem! a trefil jsem kupku sena. V Lovci. The two main. Stejne si ale myslim. situated to the right of the buttonfor the machine guns all the pilot's control column. that this airplane would 1101 tolerate mistakes and thus was nor suitable for inexperienced pilots. letoun by byl vynikajici zbrani. causing minor damage.e velke plochy potahu kiidel byly pokryty ko ro. undercarriage legs caused dif· ficulties at take off and landing.. z. I. When we were moving the planes from. (after we had accepted them from the facto ry [afte r assembiyl}. " ze Note: All notes in square brackets are written by paragraph's author ~DEmesBernad.92 mm machine guns. the corrosion soon reap~ peered.92 rnm. Vzpom(ncim si jefte na jednu zajtmavou podrobnost. (M. jsme zkorodovanou vrstvu pecliw! odbrousili smirkovym papirem. Kdyi letadla dorazila \I bedndch do Bulharska. cot zpusobilo mens! nehodu. several men of the ground staff had to sir on the plane j. (Sbtrka M. nasi technici po vybaleni hlavnich d[Ju zjistili na kovovem potahu kitdel hnedave skvmy. established that the wings had been purposely sprayed with acid [i. The control commission. with the risk ofthe propeller hitting the ground and fuming the aircraft over. as the airplane could turn over easily when taxiing on rough terrain. v kabine jsem se citil stejne pohodlne jako v Messerschmittu Bf 109. Protoie jsme nechteli. to be persecuted.Typicki armadni doku men tarni jotograjie noveho typu. the corrosion was carefully removed with soft sandpaper. Because of this. asi by ale potiebovala silnej!i motor a vylepseny podvozek.deni po nerovnem terenu ndchylnd k pievrdceni. nedokdzal jsem na phlis krdtke drd. Proto muselo pri motorove zkouSce sedet na vodorovnem stabilizatoru nekolik muia pozemnihopersonalu. BtUho The typical armed forces documentary photos of a llew type. Dvl dlouhe podvozkove nohy piinasel» problemy pi] vzletu a piistdni. the plane would have been an excellent weapon. during tests. planovany 20m.). although chocks were put in front of the wheels. Despite this. kteii ndm piijeli pomdhat s monuiii techta lelade I. The planned 20 mm cannon. bylo odstraneno a otvor po nem zalepen ovijeci paskou. the short flight life of the machine. II off the ground in time because the landing strip was too short and J struck a haystack. as during their storage ill the open at Dolna Mitropoliya. The forward view was velY good and after retraction oj the landing gear the machine's behaviour changed. becoming lighter and increasing its speed immediately. 72 . protoie Avia byla ph pojif. . drieli jsme tuto skutecnost v tajnosti. was removed the aperture being covered with a piece of bandage tape. tohle letadlo neodpoustelo chyby. ze sabotdi piispela ke krdtkemu tivotu Avit B-135.n kanon. At Lovech [at the DSF Works}. Ukdzalo se. I forgot to say. the machine would tiltforwards critically. I could not lift No. umistene vpravo ad spousti kulometu. shooting from the axis of the propeller.. We kept this fact secret. mela dobre piistrojove vybaveni. Baj collectilm) plane had another inconvenience: when the engine was run at full power on the ground. protoie na strojich. I personally trusted the Avia B-135. when the engine had to be tested on the ground. It turned out that large areas of the wing surface were corroded. Tlacitko kanonove spousti.

jmenovite francouzskou Dewoitinu D. vyzbroj a dalsl slozite dily. vcetnl pohonnych jednotek. Simultaneously.1u letadel. aby splnily rychle rostouci pozadavky front. pine zamestnana valkou vsechny kapacity sveho leteckeho prumyslu. • Differing in this respect from Avias. AU contract work for non-German clients was cancelled. Jeste pozdeji Nemci (tedy Reichsluftfahrtministerium • RiSske ministersrvo letectvf) nabidli jednu z nejvykonnejsich zbrani. Sem zapadla i bulharska objednavka padesati motoru. nevyjimaje velkou tovarnu Avia. As part of these "available resources. tbe Messerschmitt Bf 1090." were lumped all of the manufacturing units with an aeronautical profile from within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Na snimku z roku 1945 jejeden z nich s novjm bul1uz. Majority oj crates with the main components of fighters including the power plants were stored in the open during the assem- bly.lement the planned expansion of the VNVV's fightertleet.Wtsina beden s hlavnimi skupinami d.Nemcum. the whole manufacturing process collapsed. rendering the fighters unfit for combat. and the entire DAR-ll project was finally dropped.Ljastuvka" .zdil od Avie 8-135 se i starU verze nemeckeh» Messerschmtttu Bf 109£ aktivne zucastnily bojil do konce vtilky. A Stillborn Bird Despite the agreement reached by the Czechs and Bulgarians regarding series production of the B-135 by the latter party. the handful of Avia B-135s were thus sidelined and relegated to the training role. a completed DAR-II would never roll off the assembly lines of DSFLovech. Without the availability of these vital items. Even the proposed upgrade of the existing B-135s with the engine-mounted 20 nun cannon could not take place. Bez techto zivotne dulefirych polozek objednavky se cela vyroba zhroutila. . by 1942. te raze Na ro. intended for the DAR-ll airframes manufactured at Lovech. the Third Reich fully involved in a war of attrition. To znamenalo podftdit jim vsechny protektoratni tovarny a dilny schopne Ietecke vyroby. The primary cause of this failure can be attributed to the real masters of the Eastern European region: the Germans. the Czechs also had to supply cockpit instruments. Hlavni pncina tohoto selhani muze byt pfictena k (izi realnym panum Vychodnf Evropy doby . Behind the engine boxes the other transport crates are visible. The 'Lyastuvka' (Swallow) was truly a stillborn bird. including the large Avia Works.Messerschrnitt Bf 1090. With.rskjm vjsostnym oznacenim. Besides the engines. Cely projekt DAR. This photo taken ill 1945 shows one of them with the new "Allied" national insignia. Nemec byLy zruseny. the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) would offer the most potent weapon existing in its arsenal. byla v przibe"hu monuiie uskladnena pod sirjm nebem. the German military would demand tbat all of the available resources of its aviation industry be directed to fulfi Lling the rapidly increasing needs of the Luftwaffe. ktere mely byt zabudovany do draku DAR-ll. Mrtve narozeny ptak Pres smlou vu uzavrenou mezi ceskou a bulharskou stranou o seriove vyrobe B-135 v Bulharsku nakonec nesjel z montazni linky v DSF v Loveci ani jediny DAR-H. The Germans tried to compensate for this loss by offering second-rate material. aby stihaci soucast bulharskeho letectva VNVV mohla zavest planovane rozsffeni.11 byl nakonec zrusen.520. armament and other sophisticated parts. pravdepodobne s kHdly. This included the Bulgarian order for 50 engines. (M.520. Nemci za ztratu nabidli druhofady letecky material. V roce 1942 potrebovala TIeti rise. ktere rneli v arzenaIu . even the older Bulgarian Air Force Messerschmitts Bf 1 09E 's took active part in the combat until the end of war. Later. namely the French Dewoitine D. Krome motoni meta ceska strana dodat i palubni pfistroje. Balous Collection) az 73 . takze Avie nebyly schopne bojoveho nasazent. vyrobenych v Loveei. to imp. Vsechny smluvni prace pro jine zakazniky nef. probably with wings. Zaroveii s tim byla hrstka Avii B-135 odsunuta na vedlejsich kolej a predana k vycviku. Ani k dovyzbrojeni stavajiciho tuctu Avii kan6nem 20 mm nedos10. Za bednami s motory jsou vide! daLStpiepravky.vlastovka byla velky mrtve narozeny ptak.

before the "dozen" Bulgarian B-135s would fall into obscurity. Ctvrtd vlna. It was done for political effect. byt nepotvrzeny sestfel. 15. each flying in a wedge formation. 0 site asi 3 letek. we quote the report compiled by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bulgarian Air Defence Forces. the Central Railway Station and the Poduene Railway Station. Tieti vlna 0 sile asi 35 at 40 stroju ze tii letek v klinovitych formacich. V. in jour separate waves. Letovd hladina dosahovala at 7000 m. came from the SW and released their bomb load on 'Skobelev' Boulevard. came from the North hlavni mesta llvddimi v textu a vybrane uikladny USAAF na jihu Itdlie.dane. The firs! wave.. s cilem rozvrdtit hospodtiistvi a terorizovat obcany.000ft). zatil svou minutu SUNY.35 bombardery v klinovitych formacich. from 09:45 a. Druhd vlna rovnez zhruba tli letky silnd.although unconfirmed .SW and released their bomb load in 'carpet bombing' style.in the short and un pectacular career of the Czech fighter plane.. tvoierui 30 . col. made up of 35-40 bombers. kvetna 1944 ..300 ft).". Letovd vysKa byla 6400 m. 30. of the USAAF bases in Southern Italy. On 30th March 1944. Ndlet byl podniknut pro politicky vysledek. about 3 squadrons strong... V oblasti pokryte pumami leiela tovarna cukrovaru.m.. a mas ive bombing raid of several waves against the Bulgarian capital and surroundings was carried out by theUSAAF. to 11:15 a. made the 12th air attack against our capital. The third wave... (15th May 1944) "( . (Drawing M. ndmesti St. made up of 30-35 bombers. Vojski Pffkaz k obrane vlastt. Orientacnt mapa jihovychodni Evropy. came/rom W . brezna 1944 podnikJo americke letectvo rnasovy bornbardovaci nalet v nekolika vlnach na bulharske hlavni mesto Sofii a okoli. 'Ferdinand I' Boulevard and 'Slatinski Redut'.4\. 'St. c{raia 30 at 35 born" barderu vtdy ve tiech klinovitych. made up of 30-35 bombers.J •• . Vyznaceny jSQU To have a better overaJl view of the events of this particular day.. " 1· • • . .Dne 30. Prvni vlna. came from the South and released their bomb load in the same 'carpet bombing' style over 'Vlizrazdane'Square. piiletela z jihovychodu a shodila pumy kobercovym zpusobem na oblast ndmesti Vazrai. Jediny sestrel Jeste net tucet bulharskych BR 135 zrnizeJ v zapomnenr. ) On. Pro Ieps! sledovani celkoveho prubehu udalosn toho dne citujeme ze zpravy velitele bulharske protivzdusne obrany. formacich. The fourth wave.. Velichkov: Vazdushnj na N.400 m (21. Voyski Order Concerning the Air Defence of the Country. plk... Nedeiya' Square and His Majesty's Military School.800 m (22. Sofia. A unique 'live' combat mission which would yield the sole 'kill' . about 2 squadrons strong.. . made up of 35-40 bombers. each flying in a wedge formation. ve ctyfech samostatnych vlndcli dvaruicty ndlet na nose hlavni mesto Sofii.. v sile asi dvou peruti.jihozdpadu.. Flight altitude was 6. • An general map of the South-Eastern Europe. The marked cities are the capitals mentioned in the text and some . .m.. Flight altitude was 6.. phletela od zdpadu . the 30th March 1944.ROMAN A r ". The second wave.'"- . Nedelya a na Vojenskou skolu jeho Velicenstva. piiletela ze severu a shodila pumovy nakLad na ndmesti Svita nedllja a oblast Lozenec.. biezna 1944 od 09:45 do 11: 15 hod dopoledne vykonal nephitelsky letecky svaz slof.. The area covered by the bombs was the Sugar jactory district. Jedinecna "astra"· bojova akce totif dala jediny.eny z asi 450 bombarderu (fypy Liberator a Fortress 11) a asi J 50 stihacek (typ« Lightning a Mustang).. V. each flying in a wedgeformation. each flying in a wedge formation. about 3 squadrons strong. J _. N. Btld) 74 . Flight altitude was 7.. to disorganise the economy and terrorize the people. Velickova: The Sole 'Kill' There was a last glitter however.. bombardovala oblast Skobelevova buivdru. ustiedni nadraii a Podunajske nadraii. .000 m (23.000 ft). an enemy air formation of about 450 bombers ('Liberator' and 'Fortress fl' type) and about 150 fighters ('Lightning' and 'Mustang=types).J ' •• . bulvdru Ferdinanda 1a Slatinski Redut. Vozdusni na N.. about 3 squadrons strong.

vyzbrojene Dewoitinami D-S20.3/6 istrebitelen orljak (stihaci letka 3/6) na letisti Boturi!t!' V 11:00 se stfhaci vrdtili l: boje se tieti vlnou bombardera]. protoie mezi nimi byti i moji byvalt iad Setkali jsme se s americkymi bombardery ze ctvrte vlny. velitel stihaci skoly. dopliiovdni munice je kryt odloien nad motorem. ppor. respectively. (. takie se neZLl-castnil boje. Po bombardovdni kaidd vlna odletela na jihozdpad.. a very delayed announcementfor the incoming 4th wave of bombers targeting Sofia is received. 500 a 1500 kg.i. (. the anti-aircraft defence forces. . ) 2/6 lstrebitelen orljak (stihaci letka 2/6) na letisti vraidebna. Proto piekvapila jak protivzdusnou obranu. Krasto At.357 buildings.000 incendiary bombs were dropped.. The typical bomb calibres were 250. Proto stihaci nemohli neptitele napadnout. operujici Karlovo [jednotka parmi! nezasfthla do boju pro svou and released their bomb load on the 'Sveta Nedelya' Square and the Lazenet: District.B. Velickova neni ani zmlnky (116 Istrebitelen z letiste 0 stihaci peruti 116 orljak)... Yrashdebna airfield. Krasto AtanaSOY.. kiere de'li Bul- PUc let. v. . before they could reach the necessary flying height. D. (B & B Collection) vzdalenost od Sofie]. his wingman. kdyi lere1y nad mesty Vraca a Ferdinand a smlfovaly nad Staru Planinu [pohoti. Chtll jsem jim pomoci co nejvic. i'izena tamnlmi instruktory. Many citizens had already left the shelters (.]. Only the patrol of four Avia B-135 fighters from the Fighter School at Dolna Mitropoliya.5208. and 3. so it could not enter combat. About 3. is mentioned at the end as having contacted the enemy. Feldfebel Yordan Ferdinandov and Podporuchyk Petar Manolev along with his wingman. ctyr letek. the fighters had returned [from combating the third bombing wave. Stihacky s doplnenou munici a palivem opet vzletajt: Nicmene net nastoupaji potiebnou vyfku. Piistdvaji jeden za druhym. Nedjo Kolev. ktere znicily na 3357 budov.. nepiitel jii shodil pumy a odlete1 na jihouipad. tak protichemickou obranu. D.)" In Col. " Ve zprave plk. jeho dvojka Fw.500 kg (551 lbs.iji. (. and since the 'Freya' radar station. ). The pilots were the commander of the Fighter School. }.pected fourth USAAF bombing wave. Je zminena jen hlidka Avii B-135 z letecke skoly v Dolne Mitropol. probably due to the ammunition replenishment. nebyla ctvrtd vlna zachycena vcas. ) The incoming 4th wave of enemy aircraft at 11:05 found Skupina leteckycb instruktoro ve chvilce volna s Avii na letist: Dolna A1tiTopolija.. Velichkov's report there is no mention tbe 1/6 Iztrebitelen orlyak (116. Feldfebel Nedio Kolev. . Protoie prvni tii vlny odlete1y na jih a zapad.307 lbs. z velitelstvi VNW}.)" Here is how the action of the Bulgarian fighter units were described in connection with the surprise 4th bombing wave: "3/6 Iztrebitelen orlyak (3/6. Kapitan Krasfo Atanasov. An Avia and a group of flight instructors during a lull at the Dolna A1itropoliya airfield. Bozhurishte airfield. Therefore it took by surprise the fighte r units. ). rozdeleny na vice maiych. Pravdepodob"I kvrll. 500 and 1.000 destructive [high explosive] and 30..m. Na snimku stojl za povsimnutt tvar krytU podvozku a pe"knj oval vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiei vody. comprised of Dewcitine D. By 11:00 a. V temie okamiiku se otyvd velice opo[dene omdmeni 0 ndletu 4. At the same time. Refuelled and reloaded with ammunition.. ktere miiiiy na Sofii ze severordpadu. the fighters take off However.Dopadlo asi 3000 tfi. biema 1944 jsme vzletl: ve skupine ctyf Avii 8-135 z letitII Dolna Mitropolija. skupin. Jordan Ferdin and ov.. and also the anti-chemical defences. After bombing. flown by flight instructors. (. orlyak (2/6.. destroying 3. they became scattered into many smaller groups. vyzbrojenycn Bf 109 a D.520 vedli tezkY boj s pocetni ptevahou nepiitele. ) 2/6 Irtrebitelen. located at the village of Chibaovtsi could detect effectively no more than one or two groups of enemy aircraft. the fourth wave was not noticed in time.kpt.. " Nasleduje popis cmnosti bulharskych stihacich jednotek y souvisJosti s prekvapujicim naletem ctvrte vlny bornbarderu. Piiletajici 4. landing one after the other. Navic jii mnoho obcant: opustilo kryty (. Fighter Squadron). 75 .B. This is why these fighters could not engage the enemy.anasov velitelhlidky.]. vlny na Sofii. as it was based far away from Sofia. . jak nasi prdtele ze tfi the orlyak in the process of refuelling. apparently the four impromptu warriors were the only ones to actually engage in combat with the unex.). Fighter Squadron). V Aviich seceli tito piloti . vzpomina: . (..v. The cowling is set aside on the engine.. vlna zastihla v li:05 tento orljak uprostied doplnovdni paliva. Indeed. each wave flew towards the Sw. Typicke rdte pouiirych pum byly 250. .30. Rozhodl jsem se sam [be: povelu. the enemy bombers had already dropped their bombs and flown away to the Sw.. 1. ktera se jako jedina pustila do souboje s neocekavanou ctvrtou vlnou bombarderu USAF. Petar Manolev a jeho cislo Fw.ftivotrhavych a 30000 zdpalnych pum.. protoie jsme slyseli z radiostanic. Fighter Squadron). a protoie radiolokacni stanice Freya ve vesnici Cibaavce nemohla uCinnl sledovat vice nei fjve skupiny nepi'dtelskjch letadel.102 lbs. As the first three waves flew away to the South and to the West. from Karlovo airfield [a unit which probably did not contact the enemy. Note the shape of undercarriage doors and nice oval intake of the water radiator.

aby doplnil» palivo a munici no letiitich. jakehokoliv stihaciho doprovoda k Sofii. in a right-hand curve. dvou kulometu male raze a napadali jsme neptitele ve stoupdni zezadu a zespoda. Takie v tomto okamiiku piekvapenijsme byli na nebi noel Sofii jen my ctyfi proti nlja. Jordanu Ferdinandovovi.B. mel! jsme potii je znovu dostihnout. My bullets apparently hit the radial engine.. sestielili jsme Liberatoral 0 jednoho protivnika mene! S poslednimi kapkami paliva jsme piistali na Boiuriiti Cl ohlasili uddlost. as the machine gun compartment was still unlocked. Also. were having a hard time with the numerically superior enemy. when they were already over the towns of Vratza and Ferdinand and were heading towards Stara Planina [the long mountain that separates Bulgaria into its Northern and Southern parts. ktery se opozdil. remembers: "On 30. Plk. se podaiilo zapdlit vedlejs! motor: Nad horami stroj za{:al ztrdcet vYSku. I wanted to help them out as much as I could. as we had heard on the radio that our friends from the three fighter squadrons. . which were heading to Sofia from the Nw. jak smefujf be. A much more interesting detail is the smooth and gloss surface of the wing leading edge oil tank. Pdlili jsme dlouhe ddvky z nasich. Well. at the former frontier with Yugoslavia. " Retired Col. spechali na sve Zlikladny no jihu a rozvolnili sve tlsne formace. Ndco jsme museli podniknout. there were only the four of us in. The pilot probably just posed for the photo. Some may ask how we had the courage to attack this well-armed force of 'Liberator' bombers with only our small calibre machine guns. Behem letu na Telis jsme v mime prave zatdcce rychle nabirali vY:fku. We had to do something. a vzapJti jsme stoupali k daili ZleCi. ie tato skupina bombarderu nemelazddny stihaci doprovod. Zachranili jsme se rychlym protiflako- 76 . Vsechny cty'fi letouny hotovostni skupiny vzlelly temef soucasne (Manolev letel v C.ne hrane kiidla: The last Av. Piilepili jsme se na jeden bombarder. povaiujici nos za nepititele. D.520s. as there WClS no radio connection between us. Behem stoupdni jsme utvoiili bojovou formaci podle vidu. We saw the last fighters of the 2/6 and 316 Orlyaki landing for refuelling and rearming at Yrazhdebna and Bozhurishte airfields after their hot combat over the capital. Lellli jsme za nimi jihozdpadnim smerem a v oblasti Perniku na 11(1S zacalo pdlit vlasti protiletadlove dl!ostfelectvo. (B & B Collection) harsko na jitni a severni cast}. Kapitan ArC/nasov na SVOLI zodpovednost vydal ndm cryfern piika.pod ndmi hoiela Sofie. " Retired Col.. 1000 metra pod ndmi jsme uvideli asi 30 at 40 nepiatelskych. 4). Yraidebna a BozuriSte. Krast'o Atanasov.44. the skies of Sofia/acing some 60~70 enemy bombers. Take mne dodalo odvahy. that this particular bomber group had no fighter escort. let. protoie zaca! hoiet.Posledni Avia v bulharsk« else1ne fade . we were prepared for a combat mission at any moment. We met the American bombers from the 4th wave. On his own initiative.. Our joy was greatwe had done it.zfejmif jsem jej zasahl. Petar Manolev also recalls the same event: "As it was a rule for us to keep four Avia 8-135 fighter trainers combat ready. We attacked a few times. co odhodili pumy..povedlo se. Yordan Ferdinandov.1 gave an order for the attack. ke startu proti nepiiteli. and were hurrying towards their bases to the south they broke their compact formation. Americane potom.si stielby byl ale Mmer neznateltty. So. I took the decision all by myself [without specific order from the Headquarters of the VNW.}. Petar Manolev sl rovnez vzpomina na rotc akci: v .]. Kapitan Atanasov orde red the four of us to take off against the enemy. V bojove formaci odstupiiovane doprava jsme s prevysenim asi 800 at lOa m zautocili v prudkem klesdni na Fortressy posledni skupiny.03.kYm 60 af 70 neprdtelskym bombarderum. ale neusplIne. armed with Bf 109s and D. We had shot down a 'Liberator'! One enemy less! With the last drops offuel we landed at Bozhurishse and reponed the events. Ucinek lUI. We 'stuck' to one bomber that was left behind. a proto jsem dal rozkar k utoku. Mnohem zajt~ mavijSfm detailem je hladkj a lesklj povrcb olejo- ve110 chladice v ndbfi. na byvalych hranicicn s Jugoslavii. 50. protoie jsme nemeli vzdjemne rddiove spojeni. v. Soustiedil jsem palbu na jeden jeho motor a . protoie kryt zbralri nebyl zcela uzamknut. Sofia was burning under us. All four airplanes of the alarm patrol took off almost simultaneously [Manolev flew No. J gathered courage from the fact. ctyrmotorov}'ch bombardera blyskajtcich se ve slunci. Vide1ijsme jeste stihack» od orljaku 2/6 a 3/6. we took off with four Ada B-J35s from Dolna Mitropoliya airfield.Protoie jsme mlli pravidlo udriovat cryfi cvicne stihaci Avie B-135 v bojove pohotovosti. as it started to burn . Memu Cislu. Flying in the direction of Telish. and after the Americans had released their bombs.. unsuccessfully.Ymca a 0 nejakych. Nase radost byla velikd .ia in the "Bulgarian" sequence of numbers ~the white "12". jak po tvrdych. Dosahli jsem 5000 metric v oblasti Biala Slatina. Nekdo se muie zeptat.ht'/ii . leader of the patrol. Llberatoru: Odpoved je prostd .12u• Pilot se patne jen nechal zvicnit na pamdtku. I concentrated my fire on one of its engines. my wingman. also managed to set on fire the nearest engine . But near the town oj Radomir. we gained height rapidly. Protoie nase rychlost byla zhruba stejnd jako rychlost bombardera. The heavy machine started to lose height over the mountains.E. Nekolikrat jsme zautocili. in this moment of surprise. kde jsme nabrali odvahu napadnout s nasimi kulomery maM rdze desuky dobte vyzbrojenych. byli jsme trvale piipraveni k bojovemu vzleiu. len nod mestem Radomir. as some of them were my former students.4]. We formed the combat formation during the climb by looking CIt each other. bojicn nad hlavnim mestem pfistavaji. D.

the airplane fell to the ground. even when compared to a bomber.Vratza.m.v. each of us attacked the enemy from down-behind. vraceli jsme se k nasemu letisti. ()" . protoie jsme prave piedvedli pilotnini idkum. Here they met a group of enemy bombers. pochvdlen zzr bojovy uspech. Protoze se arnericky bombarder udajne zfitil 11a uzemi Jugoslavie. ktere uvadi rozkaz plk. kiere jsme taznamenali. Pozdeji byl kpt. Nekolikrd: jsme na osamele letadlo iautocili a brio se ndm podaiilo zapdli: oba motory na pravem kitdle. Kapitan Atanasov reported (he shoot down of a 'Fortress'. tfi sesttelene nepfatelske letouny. byl napadnout letadlo. Proto byl tento sesttel automaticky zafazen do "pravdepodobnych". retired Col. jak zahdjit boj ajak z neho vlleznl vyjlt (. Nedlouho po tom letoun spadl na zem v oblasti Trunu a Bremiku. ale protoie jsme Iadnd nepidtelskd letadla nevideli.624-3.ejake tresty za nepovoleny bojovy let. vydany jako Rozkaz c.ym manevrem. Chasing the enemy to the Sw. ze jsme piipraveni se podelit 0 zodpovednost s Atanasovem. but also commended for his victory. kde operovali Titovi komunistieti partyzani . 1 bod (. Avii B-1 35. vzpomina: "Leteli jsme k Sofii a jii z ddlky jsme vidlli koui nad mestem. that we were ready to share the responsibility with Alanasov. " Prvnl roj muse] ptistat se zbyrkem pali va na zakladne Bozuriste. we discovered about 30-40 four-engined bombers. the right pair of engines started to smoke. Zaidceli jsme. Fortunately. Krasto Atanasov ctyfClenny raj Avif. The machine turned to the right.Fortressu ". ktery ocekdval n. nad albanskym rneslem Tirana. .• oemohlo byr nalezeno pfesne rnisto dopadu. in the mountains.Ie srovndni s bombarderem. mezi instruktory se 0 tomto bojovem lew rozhoiela vzrusend diskuse. but I had my own doubts thinking about the difference in the armament. Kapt. Tam take kpt. ze skutecne cislo je pet sestreln. We saved ourselves with a quick anti-flak manoeuvre repeated often at the school. [Podle Manolevova zapisniku trval let 75 minut. based at Dolna Mitropoliya airfield: upon receiving the first announcement about the incoming enemy bombers. They engaged it and chased it EO wards Radomii. Soon.000 m (2. plk. We reached 5. z. Atanasov was criticised for his decision. chasing the enemy. When we returned to Dolna Mitropoliya. Kdyt jsme se vrdtili na Dolnu Mitrapoliji. . 1944. Zde se setkali se skupi!lOU nephitelskych.v. In a 'right-side-step' style combat formation. because of the ineffectiveness of our small-calibre armament. Ctyri paoli prav&fpodobn€ sesiielili jeden l1epi':dtels/c. Tbe first pair were Iater compelled to land at the Bozhurishte base. The four [pilots} probably shot down one enemy bomber.V bombarder: (. ale rovnei. as they had had used up all of their fuel.Co s tim bojovym letem udeldme?' Pamatuji si jak Petar Manolev iekl.e letadlo od 30 I. Flying Fortressu*. ktere se opozdilo za formaci. Signalizoval jsem veliteli. . '1 want to comment on the order. Kdyz velitelstvi VNVV poiadalo 0 jmena dotcenych ctyf pilotu. from 10.. }" One can note that the report mentions one USAAF bomber "probably shot down". (. I made a sign to the commander.) above the enemy.OOOm (3.. we were attacked by our ownflak. formed a 'jour' of 'Avias'. Yrdtili jsme se na Dolnu Mitropoliji a v 11: 30 piisuiii s poslednimi kapkami paliva. returned to our airfield. but we could not shoot down an." [According to hi. returning to the airfield on conclusion of the engagement. Kapitan Krasto Atanasov. from 800-1. Aianasov za svu] rozkaz kritizovdn. using up the last drops of fuel. jimz se oteviely paddky. Letadlo zacalo zatdcet doprava. heading towards Sofia. We were near Vratza when we saw a huge group of 'Liberators 'just in front oj us.281 ft. bombardo- Continuing with the report filed by Col. kde mel svou zakladnu 3/6 Orljak. Atanasov. Ja s mym c{stem jsme byli na konci bojoveho doletu nasich.). Vracy jsme piimo pied sebou spatiili obrovskou skupinu Liberdtoru. we dived on the . the exact crash site could not be found. "My conclusion is the following: each pilot fired all of his rounds.. " Vsimneme si. as we had just shown. and 5 crewmembers jumped out.' VtC10ly. let v. The order was to attack the airplane that is left behind by the formation. Manolev's flight lasted 75 minutes. Nastesti nemlli stihact doprovod. zpozorovanych. " Dalsi ucastnik tohoto boje. the effect of our shots was negligible. Pod datem 30. 78/28. ) ".) under us. We made a turn. Rozka. 1decided. in the area of Trun and Breznik. it was difficult to reach them again.. as we did not see any enemy airplanes. log book.281 ft. their airframes shining in the sun. ale nephitelsky bombarder jsme bel ohledu na mnoistvi zdsahtl na trupu a kiidlech. nepidtelskycb bombarderech. We landed there at 11:30 a. Atanasov thinking of some sort of reprisals for the unauthorized mission. Jordan Ferdinandov. what are we going to do with that combat [light?' I remember Petar Manolev saying. jeuplny uredni seznarn vsech sestfehi ziskanych bulharskyrni stihacimi piloty proti nepnteli. called us and said: 'And now. ale mel jsem sve pochyby kvuli rozdtlu ve vyzbroji \. K doplneni celkoveho obrazu onoho pornerne velice rusneho dne. pote se vrdtili. loosing height.m. ). Velichkov: "(. Yordao Ferdinandov says: "We were fiying towards Sofia and from a long distance we saw the smoke over the city. Dalsi soudoby dokument.15 a. rozhltieli jsme se. where Tiro's Communist partisans operated. od 10:15 do 11:30. When the Headquarters of the Vazdushni Voyski asked/or the names of the four pilots. 12. Nechtll jsem se k rozkazu vyjadiovat. casta nacvicovanym ve skole. Later on. eita devet letadel.Fortresses 'of the last group. vcetne uvedene kofisti Avii. Pobl~f. that we were nearing the end oj the Avia 8-135~' combat radius therefore I signalled to my wingman to return to base . There. m. looked around and.000 m ( 16. to 11. opening their parachutes. to our studentfighters how to enter a combat and how to get out of it wll'h a . Soon after. As for my pair.) The Fighter School. ztrdcelo vyJku a vyskdkalo z nl) pet clem:t posddky. a lively discussion about the combat took place among all of the instructors. without any fighter escort.. sestavil velitel fkoly kpt.seznam). V seznarnu lze nalezt kpt. Z tohoto seznamu by vyplyvalo. the C/O of the School. ze zprava hovof a jednom "pravdepodobne sestfelenern" bornbarderu USAAF. Since the USAAF bomber reportedly crashed into the territory of Yugoslavia.) in the area of Biola Slatina. they had no fighter escort. Prvni roj se dostal daleko dopiedu a prondsledoval neptitele.4000 ft. We auacked the lone airplane a few times. enemy bomber regardless of the actual hits observed on the bomber's wings and fuselage. Continuously firing our pair of small-calibre machine guns. in the region of Pernik. ze toho dne byly nad Bulharskem a Jugoslavii ztraceny ctyfi ctyfrnotorove bombardery (viz tabulka . However. bombarderis. umistend no Ietisti Dolna Mltropolija: Po obdrieni prvni hZdJky 0 piiletajicich. Nasleduje zprava podana plk. Albania. Zautocili na ne a prondsledovali je k Radomiru. ruis tavolal a iekl: . Since our speed was almost identical to the bombers'. They took off under his command in the direction of Vratza and Berkovitza.. as we were mistakenly identified as enemy planes. I didn. " Doklady arnerickeho letectva uvadejf. Velickova. Atanasov ohlasil sesttel . This automatically Jed to tbe claim being confirmed only 77 . proto jsem rozhodl 0 ndvratu a signalitoval jsem to svemu cislu. immediately climbing for a second tum.. Velickovem: "Stihaci Skala. " Another participant in that day's events.30 a. About }. The first pair had gone for ahead. nebyli schopni sestielit kvtdi neucinnosti kulometu mate rdie. Celkovy seznam "pravdepodobnych" sestrelo toho dne. Aranasova s celkem peti body za vitezstvt. home of 3/6 Orlyak. ktery podjeho velenim vzletl smerem na Vracu a Berkovicu. se pozdeji ukazalo.Dolna Mitropoliya.] "Muj zaver je ndsledujici: kazdy z pilotu vystiile! munici. seen over the town of Tirana...]. bfezna 1944 je uvedena nasledujici poznamka: "Poskozen ctyfmotorovy bombarder. Tento dokurnent fadi piloty VNVV podle bodovaciho systemu+".

on that day. but to complete the overall picture of this rather busy day. Byla to B-17F. i. the littleflown Avias were effectively withdrawn from service and stored in the open. ktere se ale na zakladnu v Italii vratily. * * *' * The Author wishes to thank Messrs. was most likely the one claimed by Kapitan Atanasov. Za kazdy letoun poskozeny v boji mohly 'bYt poole stejnano klfce udelovany dva. with the influx of new Soviet technology after the Bulgarian about-face of September 8. U) This was a typical Bulgarian system. Vsech deset clenu posadky padlo do zajen. From the list. Tills could raise the possibility of one of them being the actual victim of the Avia B-135. TIl body byly za ka1dy oveFeny sestrel elyrrnotoroveho Ietadla. Avions (France) Nos. it was later found that the real number was in fact. >I< Epilogue This melee involving the four-aircraft Bulgarian patrol and a cut off USAAF bomber was actually the swansong of the short-lived Avia 8-135. brezen 1944 (listings for March 30. cervn3 1947) I Log book Petar Manolev (from OCI. when the last survi ving aircraft were used as targets during air-to-ground shooting practice. 21. 1994 Sblrky a n1znii cisla Krile (Bulgaria). To by mobIo znamenat. Millerem. Smutny konec je neminul v roce 1946. 12.AAF on 30th Ma. official list of all victories obtained by tbe Bulgarian fighter pilots against their adversary. Rumen: Samoletite na Balgaria. Miller. k nemuz doslo 8. S wanbcrough. Ivan.. . Their sad end came in 1946.'.was nine. dva body za kazdy ovei'eny sestfel dvournotoroveho letadla a jaden bod za overeny sestrel [ednomotoraku. Williamem C. Theodor Muchovski and Petar Manolev for their kind assistance.Jzdstelstvo 'Ikar Press' . Nov.. 1944). podobny systsrnu pouzlvaoernu skYm letectvem rumun-. 4-engined bombers lost over Bulgaria/Yugoslavia (see table .)". bylo v boji poskozeno vic bombarderu USAAF. jeden a zadny bod. which did return to their base in Italy.J point (. Cvetan: Koj koj je. 1 or 0 'points' could also be awarded. s dodavkami nove sovetske techniky po bulharskern veletoci a zmene stran. It was last seen over Central Yugoslavia at 12:45 hrs. jjz neby10 dana dozit dlouheho veku. a 'Flying Portress'" . However. was nicknamed "Vagabond". Nicrnene v oblasti. The document ranks the VNVV pilots according to the point system**. od roku 1944 . kdyf poslednl pretivsi kusy poslouzily jake cllove pfi nacviku letecke stfelby na pozemni cfle.including the reported victim of the Avias. there were four. it would appear that the aircraft of the 30 I sr SO (419th . while 1 'point' was awarded for every single·engined aircraft being confirmed as shot down. 19. For 30th March 1944.Fortress" nebo "Flying Fortress" vsechny ctyrmotorove amertcko lstouny. Notes: ") during the war.. 2.. Naposled byJa videna nad stfednl Jugoslavii ve 12:45. 1944. For every enemy aircraft damaged in air combat.and 22. 1939 to 1une 18. kde se bulharsky roj potykal se ctyrmotorovym vetrelcem . William.tch 19:43 Typfl'ype B~24 B-17 B-17 B-17 VYr. By the end of 1944. piloted by 1st Lieutenant William C.) bshern valky nazyvall bulharstl letol [menern .135'. Photo credit: Denes Berndd & Stephan Boshniakov collection are marked as (B & B collection) VysvelUvky: . bombardovact letky).8~135 by! jeden z nich.list). cJSerial 42-5251 42-31683 42-31851 42-30465 J ednotkalU nit 450th BO 2ndBO 2ndBO* 30Ist BO Cas/Time 08:49 10:01 10:01 12:45 * srazka s druhou B -17 I crashed with fellow B -17 as 'probable victory'. Anomer contemporary document.. Izdatetstvo 'Litera Prima. 78/28. byly malo zname Avie prakticky stazeny ze sluiby a ponechany pod ~:irYm nebem v zastrcenern koute leti~te Dolna Mitropolija. Sofia. In this list. and Dec. is the complete. All ten crew members became POWs (Prisoners of War). . Smithmark Pu bl . Ztrity ze dne 30. 1999 Green. Skrzydlata Polska (Poland) a Letectvt+Kosmoneutrka (Czechoslovakia) 78 . Theodoru Muchovskemu a Petaru Manolevovi za Iaskavou pomoc. two 'points' for every 2-engined aircraft being confirmed shot down.. via Josef Pregosi Periodlka I Magazines 'L'Avia B.. nekdy lam zahrnovali i dvcurnotorove North American B-25 Mitchell a Martin B·26 Marauder.O} Toto byl typicky bulharsky system. ffj na 1939 do 18. issued as Order No. Gordon: The Complete Book of Fighters. bf'l!zna 1943 uv:adene l1SAAF Looses stated by '(JS.The day's total number of 'probable' victory claims . 1947) Borislavov. v zavislostl na ohlasene mfre pcskozenl protivnfkova stroje. in a forgotten corner of Dolna Mitropoliya airfield. Bulgarian airmen referred 10 every 4-engined USAAF aircraft as a 'Fortress' -or 'Flying Fortress' sometimes including the twinengined North American B·25 Mitchell and Martin 8·26 Marauder. The aircraft. Velichkov only three enemy aircraft are mentioned as shot down. Doslov Tento boj ctyrclenneho bulharskeho roje a osameleho americkeho bombarderu by! skutecnou labuti pisni Avie B~135. depending on the degree of damage reported as being inflicted. one can find Kapitan Atanasov with a total of five victory points .vaci skupiny (419. the following note is given: "Damag ed a 4 -eng ined bomber . five . In the order of Col. New York. pojmenovana "Vagabond". USAAF documents reveal that. there were a few other USAAF bornbers damaged in combat over the area where the Bulgarian patrol clashed with the intruders. Sofia.8S). Stephan Boshniakov. pilotovane ppor.. 1996 Cakov.. an block B-17F. zan 1944. Koncem roku 1944. 1994 USAAF MACR (Missing Air Crew Report) seznamy pro 30. Balgarska Aviacija.e oben Avii .Kirilov. Autor dekuje panum Stephanu Boshniakovi. . by1 nejspfs onim. somewhat similar to the system used by the Rumanian Air Force from 1944 onwards: 3 'points' were awarded for every tour-enqined aircraft being confirmed shot down. Bibliografie I Bibliography: Zapisnlk letu Petara Manoleva (od 19. na ktere si del a] narok kapitan A tanasov.

:> ~...... r-: ~..... o ..../ • Lovec j(radar " " PLOVDIV • oblast dopadu US bornbarderu area of fall of a US bomber " ......_· . ..e« . 4· .. 7 •• /" \ "'... .__ ..._.. •-..... . 4t/1wave 4-........ ... A .... • • ......._.... " "._.. .. . 9..--- Vidine . '. . . ..vlns • Biaia Slatina • Dolna Mitropofija / (8-135) smer Jetu roje 8-135 .Tefis----heading or the 8-135 night ./ . " i : .. ...Orlentacnl mapkazapadniho Bulharska s dulezitymi orlentaenlmi body The general map of the Western Bulgaria with the most important orientation points • I . /( : ..... • • .... pocatecnl kurs skupiny instruktoru s Aviemi initial heading for flight instructor with Avias ') ablast stretu s US bornbardery area of the battl e with th e US bombe rs p Fiblizny srne r letu a merlckych bombard ovacich svazu 30... brez na 1944 probable direction of flight of the US bomber units on 30th March 1944 79 ... ..~.~ '..... ·o_..J. ..'_ . .... ..

Oblopricne vyztuhy pfedni casti trupu tvofily ocelove trubky. Paky ovladanl plynu klapky vodnfho chladice. ktere byly vzajemne spojeny pomoci stycnfkovych plechu. vpravo za 111 packu brzd. Podobnyrn zpusobem byla snimatelnyrni panely s kontrolnimi otvory zakryta i cast trupu pod ocasnimi plochami. bylo uzpusobeno pro zadovy padak. Stredni cast trupu byla zhotovena z profilovych latek zasazenych v pficoych The Avia B-135 was a cantilever. Kruhove drzadlo fidici paky rnelo ve svem stredu spouse palubnich zbraru. which were held in curved. The three-section cockpit canopy transparency had a fixed windshield. Posuvnou eft t bylo mozne zaaretovat v jakekoliv poloze. The rudder pedals were also adjustable to according to the pilot'S height.celni sutek. stfedni vzad odsunovatelny a zadni dil byly vyrobeny ze syntetickeho skla znacky "Plexiglas" v trubkovych rarnech. transverse brackets. The cockpit was heated by a regulated flow of hot air taken from the engine's water radiator. Trubky vztycene nad zakladni kostru za sedadlern pilota tvofily jeho ochranu pfi prevracenl. Rubber shock absorbing mounts for the engine attachment bolts were fitted inside the dural profiles. ostatnt zajiStenymi srouby. The surface of the fuselage centre section consisted of a doped linen covering. The fuselage was a Warren truss steel tube structure. cs. oblouccich a potazena platnem. The diagonal braces in the front fuselage were of steel tubes. ktere svyrni kulovymi cepy sedely v luikach postranic. Behind the cockpit there were tube erected above the basic truss. benztnoveho koboutu a tlacitka odhozu purn byly umistene na leve strane pilotniho prostoru. Svarovani nebylo z dnvodu snadne vymeny poskozenycb dilu pouzito. koleckem na prave strane stavitelne v rozsahu 120 mm. The circular grip of the control column bad a gun trigger button in its centre. sesroubovane a snytovane Z ocelovych trubek a duralovych nosnfku. Na prave trane byla umistena dvoudilna schranka na rnapy. The rear fuselage beneath the empennage was covered with similar panels. with a retractable tail wheel undercarriage. K homim podelnikum trupu a ke kovani na prednirn nosniku kndla bylo ctyfmi cepy uchyceno rnotorove loze. standardu. The engine bearers were made-up of steel tubes and dural profiles. Tfidtlny pfekryt pilotnlho prostoru . Those panels requiring a more frequent access were attached with Avia quick-release fasteners. Pouract system pasu pilota byl petibodovy s rychlospojem. Pedaly nozniho fizeni byly take stavitelne. Na prave strane sedadla byla uvoliiovacl paka postroje. The complete forward fuselage skinning consisted of removable electron sheet panels. the brake lever was behind the grip. The sliding hood could be locked in any position along the length of its travel. a rearward sliding cockpit hood and a fixed rear section. which were also fitted with inspection covers. nytu a sroubu. attached to a welded steel tube frame. attached with a total of four bolts to the top fuselage longerons and to the brackets on the front wing spar. which provided protection for the pilot in the event of a turnover. Vyztuzenl horni a dolnl roviny za pilomim prostorem bylo z trubek. Pilotni sedadlo. single-engined fighter monoplane of mixed structure.Avia B-135 z technickeho pohledu Avia B-135 from technical point of view Avia B-135 by) stihacl samonosny dolnokndly jednoplosnfk smisene konstrukce s klasickymi jednoduchymi ocasnimi plocbami a zatahovacim podvozkem zadoveho typu. stretched over the contour forming wooden strips. which were. Casto snimane panely byly upevneny prostlednictvtrn rych lozamku "A via ". Uvnitf duralovych nosnfku byly ulozeny gumove tlurnice vibraci Cela prednt cast trupu az za kabinu pilota byla zakryta odnimatelnymi elekrronovymi panely. all made from Plexiglass organic glass held in a steel tube framing. in the rear fuselage of the streamlined steel Avia wires. in easy reach of the pilot's fingers. signalnl 80 . v zadni casti byly pouziry ocelove profilove draty "Avia". joined together by riveted and bolted fishplates. ktere se pripeviiovaly na ram svareoy z ocelovych trubek. A circular flap in the windshield allowed the cockpit to be ventilated with external fresh air. Trup letounu mel phhradovou kostru z ocelovych trubek. The pilot's seat was designed to accommodate a back parachuteo Using a hand wheel on its starboard side. The throttle lever pro upeviiovaci srouby motoru. fining into the sockets of the truss side panels. the remainder with locknut screws. it was height adjustable by 120 nun. low-wing. The horizontal diagonal bracing in tbe fuselage truss top and bottom plane panels behind the cockpit was of steel tubes terminated with ball joints. K vytapeni kabiny se vyu~ zival regulovatelny prtvod tepleho vzduchu ad vodntho chladice. ~traIlj pilotnibo prostoru se provadelo kruhovou klapkou ve stitku kabiny.

81 . Motor HS 12Ycrs / HS 2Ycrs engine. The a motorovych pfistroju a vystupovala z nt radio control panel was placed on the port tahla superboostu. prtdavneho mazani side COCkpit coaming. Kulomet cz VZ. 3. (Mk. 4. the so-called armoured plywood. Pallvove nadrze I Fuel tanks. Purnovy zelv8snfk I Bomb rack. (M. A double map-case.Kostra trupu bulharske Avia 8-135. t 1. lubrication boost. Stlaceny vzduch I Compressed air. all-wood. the fuel cut-off valve and bomb release buttons were located on the port side of the cockpit. • Upper part of the conon the floor beneath it. motam. thinner-gauge tubes made up the space frame that held the metal fairings and removable skin panels. Nadri: hydraullckeho oleje / Hydraulic oil tank. The complebyl uchycen na trubkove konstrukci trupu te assembly was covered io plywood. This ensured a smooth surface to the Ovladani radiostanice bylo upevneno oa wing and protected the plywood against the leve strane pilotnfho sedadla.) the compressed air bottle for the wheel brakes were all behind the pilot's seat. changing gradually ovladani klapek a podvozku. 8.'-:tr!!bky~~ !!!!tY£:r . 10. the vz. The lightercoloured.kruhove driadlo s gency flap and undercarriage controls were ovkidactmi prvky. 12.) 35 radio set and weapons' control buttons. 2. side. hasiciho pfistroje. upevnent kovove karoserie a sntmatelnych. The general stowage trol stick had a ring-shaped handle with compartment. 9. dostupna zvenku.. This stressed skin wa again covered by a layer of v prave pilotniho prostoru. Schranka elements. ~Micf paka I Control stick. Vystrelny kanal signalnf pistole I Flare pistol1rough. a flare (rocket) pistol and its ten rounds were both plaKonstrukce trupu letounu Avia B-534 pro porovnani ced on the starboard side of the cockpit. The Avia B-534 fuselage structure for comparison oxygen breather pipe coupling was located on the same side. Vpravo za palubni deskou bylanapojena hadice dychace. odpruzene zavesena. The spars and ribs were glued with Iekamicky byla u seriovych letoumi za Kaurit. (Author's coil. Pod hlavni deskou carry-through structure with a straight leabyla zavesena pomocna spinae] skfiiika a na ding edge and a semi-elliptical trailing edge. behind the instrument panel. Hlavni pfistrojova deska. the engine water radiator control flap lever. with protruding controls for the take-off boost. Zavazadlovy prostor I Baggage compartment. 5. The wing was a one-piece. Bilj collection) raketova pistole a 10 raket. obsahovala kompletni sadu letovych (pull to add power as with the Austro-Hungarian or French aircraft). podlaze panel nouzoveho hydraulickeho Two box spars carried 25 ribs of NACA 23012 section at the tip. the oxygen bottle was on the port side. the emerHorn ( Hdid ptiky . nabijeni zbrani a nastfikovacl pumpa. Chladfc vody I Water radiator. 35 a vzduchova lahev brzdoveho systernu. fire extinguisher. cast casti Legenda k rezu I Cutaway drawing key: 1. weapons' charging and fuel-priming pump. 6. the plywood was glued with Bakelite sedadlem. misto pro radiostanici vz. 30 machine gun. Schranka se stielivem I Ammunition box. Svette tenet ~ . panelii: The fuselage load-bearing structure of the Bulgarian Avia B·135. The main instrument panel consisted of a complete set of flight and engine control instruments. K oberna blokum motoru byly vyvedeny dve vetve.2 mm thick plywood with a 0. Beneath the main instrument panel the auxiliary switch box was located. consisting Za sedadlem pilota se nachazel zavazadloof 1. Ruene ovladany hasici pfistroj s dvouLitrovou lahvi smesi to the NACA 23020 at the root.2 nun thick aluminium sheet bonded to its outer vy pros tor. vlevo kysllkova lahev. Radiov8 souprava I RfT set. resin.

Kostry kormidel byJy snytovany Z ocelovych trubek a porazeny platnem.23020 a celek potazen pfeklizkou. 16° .on the left are brackets for RlT set.2 mm S nalepenyrn hlinikovym plechem 0 sfle 0. (NTM Praha) Compartment behind the pilot seat . Rizeni bylo tahly. Stabilizator a kylova plocha rnely stejnou konstrukci jako ktfdlo. Kostra byla svarena z ocelovych trubek a potazena plarnem. Kftdlo se k trupu pripevriovalo pres kovani cryrmi cepy. vyskoveho kormidla 28° nahoru a 25° dolu. Maxirnalnl vychylka klapek byla 55° overena doba vysunun i zasunuti cinila 7. K fizen! vyskoveho kormidla slouzlt kombinovany nahon . ale plosku vyskoveho kormidla mohl ovladat pilot z kabiny za leru.5 s. Celoduralove vztlakove klapky. vpravo schrdnka pro zavazadlo. aerodynarnicky i staticky vyvazena a ulozena na kulickovych loziscich.tahlo a lana. K lepeni nosnfku a zeber se pouztval kaurit. Smerove i vyskove kormidlo bylo aerodynamicky i staticky vyvazeno.Prostoru za sedadlem .2 mm). Maximalni vychylka srneroveho . Veskere Mdiei plochy byly ulozeny v kulickovych lozisctch. se ovladaly hydraulickym cerpadlem s nahonem ad motoru v nouzi rucntm cerpadlem. Kfidelka byla sterbinova. Na tento nosny potah byla naklfzena tzv. k ffzent srneroveho lana. ktera zajistovala kfidlu hladky povrch a zvysovala jeho odolnost proti vnejsim vlivum. diferencovane. 12° dolu. pro preklizky bakelir. Signalni svitilna pod sedadlem pilota rnela svirit zasklenym kruhovym otvorem ve spodni st~ne trupu. vyztuzene jednoduchymi zebry. Na spodrn strane ktidla by to kovani upraveno k montazi pumovych zavesniku.kormidla byla 29° vpravo i vlevo. pancerova preklizka (pfeklizka 0 sfle 1. Dva sknnove nosniky byly osazene 25 zebry s profilem NACA 23012 . 82 nabezne many praveho kfidla byla elektricky . nahoru. at the right the baggage compartment. Ocasnf plochy byly samonosne. Ve stredu vyhnvana trubice rychlornerneho systemu fumy Prema. Vyvazovaci ploska smeroveho kormidla byla stavitelna pouze na zemi.vlevo jsou drzaky radiosoupravy. vodorovne mely elipticky ptidorys. ale rovnou nabeznou hranou. Krfdlo celodrevene konstrukce bylo sestavene jako prubezne s eliptickym tvarem odtokove hrany.

The rudder trim tab was ground-adjustable only. Svetly objekt pred celllfm stl'tkem je nddri hydraulickiho oleje. The light-coloured object in front of the windshield is the hydraulic oil tank. the undercarriage legs. The elevator control circuit utilised push-pull rods and cables. ktera byla stejtui jako s pfibzym vzorkem. together with the tyre featuring the transversal tread pattern. V pfipade poruchy motoru nebo hydraulickeho cerpadla bylo mozne vysunout podvozek pomoci hydraulickeho akumulatoru. 12°down. The Conti 650 x 180 mm air wheels were mounted on stub axles and fitted with Argus disc drum brakes. the elevator travel was 28° up and 25°down. Their structure was of welded thin-walled steel tubing with a fabric covering. The wheel legs hydraulically retracted outwards. There were attachment points on the wing underside. Hlavni podvozkove nohy s roz- chodem kol 25] 0 mm byly vybaveny olejopneumatickyrni tlurnici "Avia" a zaveseny na zadni strane pfedniho nosnlku kfidla.2 in close-up. Dvoudilny kryt zakryval pouze vzperu a jen cast kola. hinged in ball bearings. 16° up. The fin and horizontal stabiliser was of a wooden structure.55°. only the lower half of the tailwheel protruded from the fuselage bottom. fitted with "Avia" hydro-pneumatic shock absorbers. pedaly nozntho fizenl prave nebo leve kolo Hydraulicky system by! urcen k ovladanl podvozku a vztlakovych klapek a hydraulicke cerpadlo pohanel motor. stroju. The wing was attached to the fittings of the fuselage centre section structure by four bolts. Pokud by doslo The ailerons were slotted. The undercarriage was fully retractable. Otocnou ostruhu s pneumatikou Conti 290 x 110 bylo mozne zaaretovat ve stredru poloze. The aerodynamically and statically balanced elevator and rudder were riveted from steel tubing.2 rozkryJ1a mnoho zajfmavych detaiM. hinged on ball beatings and covered with fabric. were pi voted at the rear face of the front spar. (NTM Prague) Podvozek byl zatahovacl. In the foreground the Pitot tube (750 mm long) and a substantial part of the undercarriage leg. The empennage of cantilever design followed the design of wing. [he elevator trim tab couJd be adjusted in flight from (he cockpit. Letrno uchycena kola s phiSti Conti 650 x 180 mm mela pneumaticke kotoucove brzdy Argus.2. 83 . The main wheels had a track of 2. and by a hand pump in an emergency. The swivelling. The push-pull rod/bellcrank controls actuated the ailerons differentially. Zatahovani se dele hydraulicky smerem ke koncum kfidel. for the attachment of bomb racks. (NTM Praha) This picture unveils many interesting details.Snimek B-135. stejne jako pneumatika nolly 8-135. 290 x 110 mm railwheel could be locked in a centred position. Sklapela se smerem dozadu. aerodynamically and statically balanced. The brake handle on Detail hlavni podvozkove u seriovych. which they covered together with the upper half of each wheel.510 mm. jen cast ostruhoveho kolecka vystu- povala ze spodnfho obrysu trupu. They were actuated by an engine driven hydraulic pump. The maximum deflection of the flaps was . On the series-built machines the same unit was used. V popiedi je videi Pitotova trubice (delka 750 mm) a podstatrui cast podvozkove nohy. rowards the wingtips. The split flaps were of an-metal (dural) structure. The maximum rudder deflection was 29° either side. Pneumaticke brzdy a intenzita brzdeni se ovladaly packou na fidici pace. TIle main undercarriage leg of the 8-135. stiffened by simple ribs. sachta nernela zakryu. cables actuated the rudder. The two-section undercarriage doors were attached La the legs. rearward retracting.

case. Ke spousteni loufil pneumaticky poustec Viet. the pressure distribution to either the port or starboard wheel brake (i. Ze site byla napajena pozicot svetla.. pracovni tlak byl redukovan na 5. Below: The water cooling circuit diagram.dve postranni s objemem po 125 1 a jedna 0 120 I . Elektrickou sit zasoboval akumulator 13 Ahl12 V umisteny pod sedadlem na leve strane a generator 300 W Il2 V pohaneny motorem. placed under the seat at the port side and by a 12Voltl300 Watt generator driven by the engine. radiostanice. the operating pressure was reduced to 0.: function the undercarriage could be extended using a hydraulic accumulator. (M. K motorovernu 101i byl pnpevnen 18 srouby. Palivove potrubi bylo zbotoveno z ohebnych hadic zn. Jiny sarnostatny pneurnaticky okruh slouzil k ovladani brzdoveho systemu a k odhozu pum. If this emergency system was damaged. Tlakove lahve se plnily na 14 kp/cm'. Prntokove mnozstvi chladiciho vzduchu pilot rjdil regulacni klapkou za chladicern pomocl trubkovych tahel.. Po jejicb vycerpani pfepnul na prostfedni. Podtlakovy ventil omezoval tvofeni podtlaku v instalaci prudkyrn ochlazenim vody. ktery dovoloval cerpat palivo ze dvou postrannicb nMdl jako celku. fI -1L__L::' _ . a pneumatic emergency lowering was possibJe. Pohonnou jednotku ptedstavoval vodou chlazeny dvanacti- valec do "V". Plnici hrdlo pro vsechny ti:i nadrze bylo na prostredni (zalozni) nadrfi opatrene take vypoustecim ventilem. Pneumaticky system nouzoveho vysouvani podvozku tvofil sarnostatny okIuh 'napajeny dvema vzducnovyrni Iahvemi. Palivo' nesly tfi nadrze svafene z hlinikovebo plechu ."'~ ._.~~.J..-.mal. Polohu podvozku oznamovala svetelna s ignali zace. Pfipojka byJa umistena na pravern boku trupu za odtokovou hranou kfidla. Motor pohanel na zerni stavitelnou kovovou dvoulistou vrtuli Letov Hd 43. Dalkovyrn [Izenim Teleflex Kablo pilot ovladal trojcestny palivovy kohout. Avia HS 12Ycrs s kompresorem a reduktorem 3:2 s rnaxirnalntm vykonern 632 kW (860 k) pfi 2400 ot/min v rypove vyke 4000 m a srartovnim vykonu 588 kW (800 k) pf 2200 or/min the control column actuated the brakes.. to give directional control) was provided by the brake pedals.5 kp/cm'. in the last resort the pilot could unlock the undercarriage and let the gravity to pull down the wheels. V cele instalaci bylo celkern 65 litru. Pfedepsana byla Ncid.z s vodou / Water tank \ \1- . the aircraft's engine.licencne vyrdbineho motoru Hispano Suiza Hs 12fcrs.__:.e. Chlazeni vody zajistoval vostinovy chladic ve tvaru "U" urnisteny pod motorem a pfichyceny na rnotorove Ioze do 4 patek oceIovyrni pasy. osvetleni pilotniho prostoru.umistene mezi nosniky ve stredni casti kfidla.. signalni svetlornet. Mosazna vyrovnavaci nadrz vody 0 objemu 12.a . Nadrz byla vybavena ptetlakovyrn ventilem. The electric network was fed by a 12 Volt accumulator battery of 13 Ah capacity.__ vody Water cooler 84 .:::. The network fed Tovdrni sntmek pohonne jednotky . ktery odebiraJ potrebny vzduch z letistni lahve. In. Another independent compressed air circuit actuated tbe wheel brakes.4 MPa (14 kp/cm"). (M. vlastru hmotuosti. K sesti karburatorum Solex bylo palivo dopravovano dvema rotacnimi cerpadly AM pohanenymi motorem. The hydraulic system that actuated the undercarriage and flaps had a pump driven by.55 MPa (5. ktery slouzil ke zvyseni bodu varu ve vyskach. Two air bottles fed the pneumatic system for the emergency extension of the undercarriage. Bay collection) Dole: Schema okruhu vodntho okruhu. podvozek bylo moine vysunout pneurnaticky nebo jej mechanicky odjistit a k VYSUDUti doslo.5 kp/cm').7 litru byla umistena nad reduktorem motoru. Baj collection) The factory photo of the power plant the licence-built Hispano Suiza HS 12fcrs. The storage bottle pressure was 1.k poskozem i rohoto nouzoveho systemu. Bay) u zeme. (Drawing M. spousteni palubnich zbrani a ukazatele polohy podvozku a pristavacich klapek. Mallerit.of .

The complete volume of cooling liquid was 65 litres. As the photo shows the B-13S. placed under the engine.g. (NTM Praha) A close-up of the forward fuselage structure in front of the cockcockpit ventilation. fed from the ground supply. which also bad the drain valve.2. Note the two openings in the windshield. had a capacity of 120 litres. The pressure coupling was located on the starboard fuselage side behind the wing trailing edge.adkj povrch olejoveho chladice. An automatic regulator controlled the oil temperature in the circuit. Engine starting was by the Viet pneumatic starter. spodni (zaslepenj) pro p16novanj teleskopicky zameroval. ktery udrzoval provozni teplotu oleje a teplotu v okrubu ftdil automaticky regulator teploty. the cockpit lightning. tatoinj byl pouzu pfi seriove stavbi. Olejova nadrf 0 objernu 39 litrO vyrobena z mosazneho plechu. Potrubi vodni instalace bylo z hlinikovych a medenych trubek. Fuel was carried in three tanks welded from aluminium sheet. Once they were emptied. The flexible fuel tubing wa of the Mullerite type. the exhausts still have the short stubs.400 rpm. the signal beam. The radiator was attached to four brackets on the engine bearers by steel belts.ed with compressed air from an external source of pressure (e. v nabezne hrane leve poloviny kfidla. the radio set. The engine drove a ground-adjustable. Potrubi bylo ocelove.horni je ventilace. A treat far the lovers of fine detail. increasing the pressure in the system to raise the boiling point of the liquid at higher altitudes.7 litres capacity was placed above the propeller gearbox. The oil tank of 39 litres volume was made of brass sheet. It was attached to the engine bearers with 18 bolts. Pozornosti neunikne hl. "possibly oft" water was specified for the cooling system. The pilot controlled the volume of the cooling air passing through the honeycomb by actuating the flow control flap through a series of push-pull rods. It had inside a CKD electric re i tance heater of 500 wattsl 220 Volts. The upper one is for clsra "pokud mozno mekka" voda. located between the wing spars in the centre section. ale vie ostatni je srovnaielne se seriovymi letouny. suppli. plnila diky sve konstrukci a umisteni. Six of the Solex carburettors were supplied with fuel via a pair of engine-driven AM rotary pumps. The tank was fitted with an overpressure valve. vjfuky maji jeste ndtrubky. v- Lahiidka pro milovniky detailii. Using the Teleflex Kablo mechanical circuit. The under-pressure valve prevented the collapse of the cooling system's tubes and vessels during a rapid cooling-down of the liquid. The two lateral ones were of 125 litres capacity each.2 prototype. Vsimnete si dVOII otvora v celnim stitku . the lower (plugged) sight. Protoie se jedna o snimek B-135. the gun firing mechanisms and the undercarriage and flap position indicators. the centra] one. it was positioned exposed in the port wing' leading edge root doubling as a radiator. the position/navigation lights. (NTM Prague) 8S . airfield doily). two-bladed Letov Hd 43 metal propeller. The powerplant consisted of a mechanically supercharged. A brass header tank of 12. (NTM Prague) is for the telescopic gun pit. Uvnitf byl elektricky ohfivac oleje rypu eKD 500 W/220 V napajeny z pozernniho zdroje.Detail konstrukce piedn: elisa prupu pted kabinou. honeycomb radiator. the pilot remotely controlled the three-way fuel selector valve that enabled to drain both lateral tanks simultaneously. A If-shaped. Note the smooth oil cooler surfacethe same was used on the series-production machines. provided dissipation of engine's waste heat. Pure. The cooling system piping was of aluminium and copper tubes. he switched to the central (re erve) tank. but all other details are perfectly like the series-built standard. ensuring instant response when ar readiness. The oil piping was made of steel. when an equally rapid drop of the internal pressure would occur. zaroveri ulohu chladice. The fuel filler for all three tanks led to the central (reserve) tank. geared (3:2 ratio) liquid-cooled Avia/Hispano-Suiza HS 12Ycrs twelve engine of 632 kW (860 HP) maximum output at 2.

(Kresba: M.321 in) cali bre. ((} become a left hand one. Vyzbroj sestavala ze dvou synchronizovanych kulornetu CZ Strakonice vz: 30 raze 7. It 'Wassynchronised to fire through the propeUer disc. cz vz.Leteckj' kulomet Cz Strakonice vzor (vz. The armament consisted of a pair of synchronised Strakonice vz. 30 v provedent pro zPsl4vbu do trupu (nebo kffdla) urleny pro strelbu skrze okruh vrtule: Kresby zobra- The Cz VZOl' (Mark) 30 aircraft mtrohine gun in the version for fixed (/useitlge or wing) installation. The port case fed the belt to the starboard MG and collected the spent cartridges and belt links of Schema uloieni kulometii vz. Note the drawings show the right-hand ammunition feed.) 30 aircraft machine gun of 7. (Drawing M. Synchronizaci zajistovala synchronizacni hlavice Samek. Leva schranka byla urcena pro pravy kulornet a pro prazdne dutinky a dinky leveho kulometu. it couli/: be turneJl by 180 ikg.92 mm calibre cz Strakoniee vz: 30 raze 7. 30 machine guns of 7.owe oJoiit o 180'0 {I um(Jwit tdk pHsun muniee z. Pro pray)' kulomet je tomu naopak. Podtlvac bylo m. Baj) 86 .sliding removable ammunition belt case held up to 900 rounds altogether. sny. Bl1j) cz cz The diagram of the liZ.92 mm © M. Poloha kanonu neni pro prehlednost zakreslena. Zbrane byly ulozeny v horni casti trupu za motorem a byly nastreleny na vzdalenost 300 m.le'va. The cannon was omitted/or clarity. Two sideways .92 rum s elektrickyrn natahovanim. The weapons were located in the upper fuselage behind the engine and were boresighted to converge at 300 m in front of the aeroplane. 2002 ltulomet uteckj zujf zb1'ttif s podtivtinlm ntiboj()viho pdsu zprasa. za motorem. The Samek synchronisation head provided the gun synchronisation.92rnm (. Dve do stran vysuvne schranky pojrnuly at 900 naboju (2 x 450). 30 machine guns and ammunition boxes arrangement behind the engine. 30 a schrdnek se stielisem.

Pod trupem byly zavesniky pro dve pumy po 50 kg nebo pro jednu a hmotnosti 100 kg. ale neni zcela jas ne. The cannon breech was placed between the cylinder banks. BUts( pohled na zadll( stenu zdsobniku 20 mm kanonu. A close-up of the rear face of the Hispano cannon 20mm. Potrebna tlacftka a pfepinac byly na rnalem panelu na levern boku kabiny. Na stejna kovani bylo mozne instalovat ram se sesti zavesniky pro 10 at 20kg pU1l1Y. Bl1j) The Hispano Suiza HS 12Ycrs with cylinders removed hows to advantage the arrangement of the 20mm cannon in close-up. (Foto: M. Baj) Krome kulometn bylo moine montovat i motorovy kan6n Hispano Suiza HS 404 nebo OerlikonFFS-20 raze 20 mrn s bubnovyrn zasobnfkem na 60 naboju.Leteckj motor Hispano Suiza 12Ycrs s demontovanymi vdlci umoiiiuje prohlednout si instalaci 20mm kanonu zblizka. ammunition drum magazine. uia je shodny s typem pouiitjm v Avii B-135. Ve vetSine pfipadu vsak moznost instalace pumovych zavesu zustala nevy- the port MG.Kbely. projecting through the windshield. The type shown was tested on the Avia B-534. Odhoz pum se pro vadel pneumaticky . This unique exhibit is in the storage of the N1'M in Prague. Bt1j) The telescopic gUll sight made by the Srb a Stys company. It was very similar or the same as the one used on German MG-FF cannon. All weapons were fired electro-magnetically. The exhibit is in the Aviation and space museum in Prague . Ctyfpolohovy spinae na fidici pace (ctvrta poloba . The necessary selector and release switches were on a small panel on the port side of the cockpit. Most of the time the ability to carry these bomb racks remained unutilised. uzita. Han "B".najednou nebo jednotlive.o) umozrioval strelbu jen z kulometu nebo kanonu a nebo paIbu vsech zbrani najednou. To aim the guns the Srb a Stys collimator tube sight was used.Zajisten. Zobrazenj typ byi vyzkouien v Avii B -534. Vsechny zbrane pilot odpaloval elekromagneticky. They were released in a salvo or individually by a pneumatic system. 87 . the so-called "moteur cannon" of the HS 404 or Oerlikon FFS-20 type. vice versa for the starboard case. Tento jedinecnj expondt je uloien v depositafi NTM v Praze. The four-position trigger switch on the control column allowed to fire the MG's' only. The same attachment points allowed for the installation of a frame with six racks for 10 to 20kg bombs. Beneath the fuselage the racks for either two 50kg or a Single lOOkg bomb were located. Expondt je umi'sten v Leteckem muzeu v Praze-Kbelicb (hala B). Teleskopicky zamifovac firmy Srb a Stys. Tvar uisobnikuje velmi podohl1j nemeckym pro kanony MG-FF. but it remains unclear whether it was used on the B-135 as well. K zamffeni slouzil opticky zarnerovac Srb a 8tys prochazejlci celnim stitkem kabiny. (Photo M. (Foto: M. Besides the machine guns there was a provision for the installation of a 20mm cannon. the barrel protruded through the hollow propeller shaft. cannon only or all three weapons together the fourth position was "Safe". with a 60-round drum magazine. Kan6n se ukladal mezi bloky valcu rnotoru a stfflel dutou vrtulovou hfideli.

-.. Vychylka kfidelek prave Aileron deflection right nahoru I up 16°35' dolu / down I. (D.152 Horizontal stabilizer surface 1. 46 .--------. Mikoltise VUI autor) z motnjch n34 S One of the possible bomb armament arrangements the Skoda HE bomb on the Pantof rack.0 m. hloubka kfidla I Wing chord max. ~ . - __.Hlavai technicke odaje Main technical data Zakladni rozmery I Basic dimensions Rozpeti I Wingspan 10 85 m Delka / Length 8.-. tailplane surface Plocha stabilizatoru 1.-.l °10' Vychylka pristavactch klapek 55° Landing flaps deflection 17.234 Horizontal.49). 46 to 49).ky (str. . Note: The performance parameters of the fighter are listed in the chapter Flight Characteristics (pp. Leteckd puma SKODA na ztivesntku Pantof. 1. (Sbtrka D."" '*-J!f 111 \!iJ '*' T-" J/~ rr ~ ~ .5 m Vyska I Height 2.~.982 Vychylka smeroveho kormidla / Rudder deflection vlevo I left 28°50' vpravo / tight 28°50' m 2 m m Z 2 m 2 ro 2 m 2 Poznamka: Vykonove parametry letounu [sou uvedeny v kapitole Leiove charakter.-.082 Plocha vyskoveho konnidla Elevator surface Vychylka v)lskovebo korrn.--- H~ rHu variant pumove vYzbroje.117 m leve left 16°00' 11°50' 1 Ocasni plochy I Empenage geometry Plocha vodorov. MikoUis collection via Author) 88 . I Rudder surface 0.480 Plocha smeroveho korm. / Elevator deflections nahoru I up 27°50' dolu / down 24°50' Vychylka vyvazovaci plosky 11'rim tab deflection nahoru I up 19°30' dohi / down 20°30' Plocha SOP I Vertical tail surface 1 462 Plocha kylovky I Fin surface 0.36C.'U$ Jedna " " ~ I~ ~ \~I __ "'l.st.6 m Nosna plocha I Wing geometry Plocha ki:idla I Wing surface Plocha kridelek / Surface of ailerons Max. ocasni plochy 2. 20 kg • 50 kg 100 kg ccO'.15 m" 2.

Nahofe: Prvni prototyp B-3S. ploch. . ale jii s ceskoslovenskjmi vjsostnjmi znaky.1 v titbarevnem kamujUizn{m nateru hornfch plocb pied umistenim vjsostnjch Zllaku. Dole: Stejnj letoun. Na nabetnjch hrandcb kiidla je dobre videt nepravidelny prechod (vlnovka) mezi nmerem homicb a spodnich.

on the wing and tail upper surfaces comp:lemented by a disruptive pattern of irregular stripes of RLM 70 black green. se nachazelo na obou polovinach spodnl plochy kfidla.135 ve sluzbach bulharskeho kralovskeho letectva 1943 ..ale nastrfkane cernou barvou. Bile 61sl0 .5" na trupu bylo odvozene od ssnoveno 6fslaletounu. The white "5" tactical code number on the fuselage was derived from the machine's serial number. The top and side surfaces of the machine were painted in a uniform shade of RLM 71 dark green. The same number was repeated on the underside of both wings. Na ki'fdlech ana vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach tento odstfn doplnovele nepravidelna pole cernozelsne barvy RLM 70. The Avia 8-135. ISBN 80-86S24~03-5 9 788086 524030 . The undersurfaces were in the RLM 65 light blue as per standard German practice.1 OS. Na spednf plochy byla pouzlta svetle madre..1944 Avia B-135. Trup byl opatren [sdnobarevnyrn natsrem tmave zelenou barvou . flown on 30th March 1944 by feldfebl Jordan Ferdinandov to attack a formation of American bombers. 1944 Czechoslovak Avia B~135 fighter in service with the Royal Bulgarian Air Force 1943 . Stejne 61S10. se kterou 30.105. brezna1944 feldfebl Jordan Ferdinandov zautocH na formaci arnerickych bornbardern.RLM 71. barva RLM 65 podle nsmeokehc standardu..CeskoslovenskY stihaci letoun Avia 8 .