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) and Mr. Tuffield (U. Krumbacha PeriodikalMagazines Letectvi+Kosmonautika (monografie: Josef Krybus .) a lng. Balousovi. Jan © BfL Y. M. Jaroslav Janecka. J.. Vlastimil MACE. Rajlichovi (HUACR).Vydall Published by Miroslav BlLY Kocianova 1588 155 00 Praha 5 Ceska republika I Czech Republic Tato publikace je venovana parnatce plk. CZ ISBN 80-86524 . Zitkovi (Daewoo Avia. Ing.o. Fortova (Walter.karton C.s. 468.Avia B-35 & B-135. . Pavel SUCHY. Miroslav © ANTOS. Special thanks are due to Mrs. 1943 Technicke muzeum v Brne . PrameoylBibliography: Daewoo Avia. chemical. S. 471 . Francev a J. a. Skramoussky. Balous. Pelr © BILY. P.Kucera Preklad Titulni strana Zadnf strana obalky Barevne kresby Vykresy/Drawings Kresby/Line drawings ~wo~ g~ Avia B·35 came too late to become one of the potential defenders of Czechoslovakia. Avia. a. P. Skramousskemu. Jan MACE. J.K. s. s. Martin KUCERA. Praha 10.zprava MNO 0 prototypovych zkouskach . ing. without prior written permission of the publishers or authors.dl na to.). aby se stain jednim z mOZlljch obrdncu piedem "prodamfho" Ceskos[ovellska. Miroslav © ANTOS.: podnikovy archiv . Aerosvjal (Bulharsko) © Miroslav SOy.Kbely Dekuji vsem.MB) © Bily . Petr © BrLY.) Avia 8-35 zacata vznikat pft1is po.5 . Francevovi a J. Marcela Vsechna prava vyhrazena .. zakladateli t. L.AU Rights Reserved. a.kniha leta..Bernad . Thffieldovi (U. Cenker (NTM Praha). 2003 1_ vydanilFirst edition Tisk/Printed by: JDS s. M. VI. clanky Male letectvo).eteckeho muzea v Praze This publication is dedicated to the memory of Col. Miroslav © BiLA. M.protokol FVA 0 prototypovych zkouskach . U Pekaren 1. 470. (Author's collection) ~Q~~~ © © © © © VELEK.English proof reading) and Mr. (Sbirka autora . a. a. electrical. mechanical. Cenkerovi (NTM Praha). optical.) a pamim M. VI. I would like to thank to all individuals who helped to create this publication. RajIich (HUACR).s. Zvhistni dfk patrf pani L. ktefi pomohli vytvofit tuto publikaci. Fortove (Walter. Narodnl technicke muzeum v Praze: . VL Zitek (Daewoo Avia.bilancnl zprava fy. VI. No part of this publication may be reproduced nor copied in any form electronic.r. the founder of Aeronautic Museum in Prague .'(. Praha. Jaroslava Janecky.poznamky J.K. a country thrown to the wolves in Munich. photocopying or otherwise.03 .

dvouplosniku. In fact. Internationally. a move towards the monoplane design was taking place in the thirties. indigenous.Avia BH-3 pod vojenskyrn oznacenirn B-3. ale jen posledni tfi se dockaly ornezeneho zavedeni. BH-IO and BH-li training and liaison aircraft of the same layout. However. there was a difference in tbe approach individual nations adopted to the development. ale mimo Ceskoslovensko. let se do vyzbroje cs. ktere na zacatku 2. March of 1939. vojenski letectvo vbrzku ziska letoun evropske urovne.8-35/8-135 Miroslav Bf Y V historii ceskoslovenskehc vojenskeho letectva byla tovarna moine srovnavat napfiklad s vyznamem spolecnosn Hawker Bristol ve Velke Britanii. only the last three having seen a limited service utilisation. there had been numerous earlier attempts at monoplane design. as a type they did not prove overly popular and after the BH-19 their influence slowly waned. In the early nineteen twenties tbe Czechoslovak Air Force fielded under the B-3 designation their first. ie prtivi vznikd neco noveho a dosud nevidaneho IUl ceskoslovenske letecke seine. 3 . Pate jeste nasledovaly typy BH-8 (B-17). Prestoze aZ do poloviny 30. Heinkel a Messerschrnitt v Nemecku nebo Dewoitine a Marcel Bloch ve Francii. ale na jaie 1939 vyhasla. Polikarpovovi a jeho typu 1-16. overshadowed in due course by the fame that their biplane successors enjoyed. Despite the fact that until the mid-thirties the biplane configuration dominated the sky. The hope of the Czechoslovak Air Force getting soon at least a European-class fighter waned in the shameful LSth. It was followed by the BH-B (B-17) fighter and by the BH-9. jak bude vypadat a jakyrn srnerern se bude Avia zavedenym vyrobcem. vojenskeho letectva na kratkou dobu dostal prvni dolnoplosnlk domaci konstrukce . Jeji vyznam v Ceskoslovensku v obdobi pfed 2. svetove valky tvofily pater stihacfch letectev valclcich statu. Nadeje. Rozdil vsak by] v pnstupu jednotlivych statu k vyvoji a modernizaci svych letectev. low-wing fighter monoplane ~ the Avia BH-3. Its importance on the domestic scene could be likened to the position of the Hawker or Bristol companies in Great Britain. let. V race 1937 jiz bylo ve vetSine pripadu zrejrne. to such names as Heinkel or Messerschrnitt in Germany and Dewoitine or Bloch in France. ie is. Zacatkern 20. Prototyp vzletl v roce 1933 a jen dva roky na to se postupne objevily typy. N.ui maketa stlhadho letounu Avia B-35 byla pfedzvistf. especially for fighters. and upgrading of their respective air forces. let oblohu temef vyhradne ovladaIy d vouplosne letouny pokusy 0 jednoplosne konstrukce jiz existovaly. As might be expected. Spolu s dalsirn dolnoplcsnlkem BH-19 koncila kariera techto typu jako cvicnych stroju ve stinu slavy hlavnlho proudu . svetovou valkou je ci az In the history of the Czechoslovak Air Force the Avia factory brand is definitely a household name. under the military designation B-3. zejmena v oblasti stihacich letadeJ. but this was [0 be a trend that would avoid Czechoslovakia. Obrat nastal v prvni polovine 30. BH-9 a BH-ll. the kudos for introducing the first liz dreve. Prvenstvi v zavedeni jednoplosneho stihaciho letounu patfi v tomto pfipade sovetskernu konstrukterovi N. • The wooden mock-up of the Avia B-35 fighter was a portent of the fact that something new and so far unseen brews 011 the Czechoslovak aviation scene.

now proposed on 5th February 1937 the A-7 (sometimes designated A·I07). The immediate impetus for activating the Czechoslovak aviation.298. consequently decreasing the all-up weight of the machine. Jednim z takovych dalstch pokusu 0 zavedeni jednoplosniku byl realizovany projekt A-102D. ktera mela byt celokovova na zemi stavitelna. as the primary research organisation.k tornuto tematu zustaly ve stadiu navrhu . It was to be aircraft such as the 1-16 that would provide the backbone of the fighter arms. not so conspicuous. prim ami vyzkurn zabyvajlct se vyvojem novych technologii a jejich vyufitfm v leteckem prumyslu v CSR prakticky neexistoval. Vojensky Ietecky ustav studijni). wheels with brakes.vicemistny lehky bombardovaci denni i nocni. vrtule.3 (B8·3) fighter.·Kc (bez zahmutl ceny podvozku.e. Polikarpov with his 1-16 type. Unfortunately the distrust towards the monoplane layout persisted. It requested proposals for four categories of aircraft: Type I .tfimisrny pozorovacl dennl i nocnf. prepared in accordance with the abovementioned request for proposals in the Type I category. The landmark projects 1936 was a turning point in the attitude of the MNO towards the modernisation of the Air Force. Typ 111. The prototype of this aircraft flew for the first time in 1933. During its deliberations with regards to the project. lllJ3. dodavajici MNO pfevazne dvournistne pozorovacf a bornbardovacf typy. The price of the prototype was 2.36. the undercarriage. The Aero aircraft factory of Prague-Vysocany. generalni stab ceskosloveoske armady v te dobe zastaval ponekud odlisne nazory na obranu zeme a tak vetsi cast prostredkc srnerovala do budovani pozemnich sil a vystavby pohranicniho opevneni. in the opening phases of WW II. With this in mind.298. allowing for a smaller quantity of fuel to be carried. the strategic defence thinking of the General Staff of the Czechoslovak. The utilisation of a large-calibre machine gun (cannon) was mooted. kol s brzdami. to keep pace with the surrounding world. Pfispevky ostatnich tovaren . Novinky z tero oblasti se tal do ceskoslovenskych konstrukcnich kancelafi dostavaly se zpozdenim.the Aviation and technology research institute). ze nektere spolecnosri se presto pokusily i bez prime podpory MNO a dosavadnich vysledku dornactho vyzkumu drzet krok s okolnim svetem. Konstrukce letounu mela byt celokovova vcetne potahu pfevazujtclch casH (pouze kormidla potazena platnem). Mimoto. Despite the existence of the VTLU (vyzkumny technicky a letecky ustav . which were funded by a substantial share of the defence budget. kde videla prednost v moznosti zmensen] palivovych naddl a tudlz celkove hmotnosti pro dany ucel. The Type I is our proposal of interest. mnozt vyrobci se chopili jedinecne pfilezitosti vyzkouset sve novinky na spanelskem bojisti. despite a lack of direct support from the MNO tMininerstvo ruirodni obrany . some two years ahead of those of the other major nations. vyzbroje a vystroje . into military service was the A-lOID project of the Aero concern presented to the MNO tested in 1934. Nas zajima Typ 1. Popudem k aktivitam ceskoslovenskych Ieteckych tovaren byl program stavby prototype. albeit some proceeded up to the scale model and full-size mock-up phases.single-seat fighter. air-cooled. Navic. as it materialised only in the Avia B~35/135.j.i kdyz nicmene nektere pokrocily do stadia rozmerovych maker Cl pohledovych modele. StllUldAvia B·3 (BH·3). 4 . Type II .vyvoj moderniho stihacibo letounu ubirat. IIII. The reasoning behind this line of thought was that lower fuel requirements represented an advantage in the event of war. Typ IV .36. that normally supplied the MNO with designs in the heavier two-seat observation and light bomber categories. Ackoliv v Ceskoslovenske repubJice existoval VlLO (Vojensky technicky a letecky ustav. News of the latest developments in the aviation industry abroad was reaching the nation's design offices with a delay that later developed into a technology gap which could not be bridged at will. when problems with fuel sources could reasonably be expected.to melo zajistit MNO). N. Zlomove projekty Pavel Kucera Rok 1936 by} zlomovym v aktivitach MNO srnerem k rnodernizaci letectva. operational career of the Avia monoplanes. Letoun Aero A~7 mel mit novy dvourady dvanactivalcovy invertni motor Walter Sagitta I-MR 0 330 kW (450 k). it is perhaps not surprising that many manufacturers seized upon the unique opportunity provided by the Spanish Civil. vypracovany leteckyrn odborem MNO v lednu 1936 a vydanym pod c. which were to be provided by the MNO.multi-place day/night tight bomber. Pozadoval navrhyctyt kategorii letounu: Typ I . dfive VLOS . The Aero A-7 was to be powered by the new Walter Sagitta 1MR. V projektovych uvahach davala firma pfednost mene vykonnemu rnotoru s mensi spottebou. Typ II . actual research into the new enabling technologies and their utilisation within the aviation industry was virtually non-existent in Czechoslovakia at this time. war to test their aircraft in combat. Besides this. The other companies' submissions to this proposal remained mostly at the proposal stage. unora 1937 s nabfdkou stihaciho letounu A-7 (nekde oznacovaneho A-I07) vypracovanou die uvedenych smernic za prototypovou cenu 2. ktery Aero zkouselo v race 1934. Bohuzel zde stale panovala neduvera k letounum teto koncepce umocnena nedobrymi zkusenostmi s dolnoplosnyrni Avierni. By 1937 it was generally clear. Ve zdnvodneul figurovaly celkove njiSi palivove naroky v pffpade valecnebo konfliktu.jednornistny stihaci. Armed Forces was geared towards the ground forces and the belt of border fortifications. oslovila MNO dne 5. Type three-seat day/night observation aircraft and Type IV .. of the waning nations. apparently fed by the recollections of the. prepared by the Aviation department of the MNO in January 1936 and issued under the filing number 23308 duv. as to the shape and direction that the modem fighter aircraft would take. kdy se dal ocekavat problem s palivovyrni tezsi zdroji. One of these laudable attempts to introduce the monoplane. the company opted far a low powered engine with low fuel consumption. • Avia 8. It is worth noting.Ministry of National Defence) and the lack of a domestic research effort and data.000. propeller and equipment. again.dvournfstny snhact a bitevni. vzduchem chlazeny. that some companies attempted. Za zminku ale stoji skutecnost. i. to m- Vysocanska lerecka rovarna Aero. 23·308 duv. companies was the prototype construction programme.two-seat fighter/attack aircraft. modem fighter monoplane into routine air force service belongs to the Soviet Union and its designer N. inverted V-12 engine of 330 kW (450 HP).000 Kc without the Governmeot furnished items. letoun mel mit hydraulicky zatahovacl podvozek s pneurnatickymi brzdami. at' least in theory. (in the majority of cases). Pocitalo se s umlstenim hruborazneho knlometu ve hftdeli vrtule. ktery bezesporu zhmotn ila at ex isrence letounu Avia B-3 SIB-I3 5. ktere jiz pozdeji nebylo mozne dostihnour. however.

30 nad motorem a v poufiti sestl zavesnikii pro male. six wing-racks for small bombs (20 kg) and one fuselage bomb rack (2 x 50 kg or lxlOO kg) or a smoke canister could be carried.National Technical Museum. Vyzbroj. Jaroslav Slechta was the chief designer and creative spirit of the aviation division of Ceskornoravska Kolben-Danek (CKD). LetOUD mel mit radios t anici a veskerc pfistrojove vybaveni pro letanl ve doe i VDOCi.Narodn( technicke muzeum. (P. The machine was to be fitted with a radio set and complete day/night night instrumentation. mela spocivar v montazi dalsich dvou kulo- meta VZ. Besides the aforementio- Drevenj model letounu Aero . ground adjustable propeller. Letadlove oddeleni Ceskornoravske Kolben-Danek. lng. 5 . vedle zmlneneho kulometu. (P'lotO: NTM . the exception being the fabric covered control surfaces. oznaceny v typove posloupnosti E-52. also the flaps were to be hydraulically driven. (Foto: NTM .A-7 ureeny pro tunelove zkollsky. Kucery) Period pictures of the wooden mock-up of the Praga E-52 fighter. Praha) A wooden wind-tunnel model of the Aero A-7.hydraulicky mely byt ovladany i vztlakove klapky. fire through the hollow shaft of the three-bladed. with surfaces from of the sheet light sheet alloy. vedene po konstrukcni strance invencnim duchem inzenyra Jaroslava Slechty. pumy (20 kg) na kfidle a jednoho podtrupoveho zavesniku pro pumy (2 x 50 kg nebo 1 x 100 kg) ci dymovnici. all metal. The aircraft was to be fitted with a hydraulically retractable undercarriage with pneumatic wheel brakes. mel byt vybaven dvojid pomerne slabsicb moroni Renault 0 vykonu 2 x 162 kW (220 k). there was a provision for tbe installation of another pair of MGs vz: 30 above the engine. The aircraft featured an all-metal airframe. zilo v te dobe ne zcela konvencnimi konstrukcemi s kratkou trupovou gondolou a dvojici ocasnich nosniku. vhodne komponovanymi zvlaste pfi dvoumotorovem usporadani. Kucera's Collection) ned machine gun. Prague) Dobove sn(mky dfevene makety stihacih» letounu Praga E-52. (Sb{rka P. Realizovanym prototypem by] Typ ill v podobe znameho E-Sl. Stihaci letoun.

107) fighter Rozpeti kfidla f Wingspan (m) Celkova delka letounu / o veral 1 length (m) N osna plocha f Wing area (rn") Hmotnost prazdneho letounu bez vystroje (kg) Empty weight (without equipment) Hmotnost letova f Take off weight (kg) Rychlost vodorovna maximalnl ve 3700 m (kmfh) Maximum horizontal airspeed at 3700 m Cesrovni rychlost ve 3700 m na 7110 vykonu (kmlh) Cruising speed at 3." With the advantage of hindsight the decision of the MNO to proceed with the "grown-up" type of fighter design from Avia was the absolutely correct one at this time.30 941 1434 490 .4 m.40 7. • It produced some far from ordinary layouts for its aircraft. vyska 2.95 m. was designated E-52 and was to be powered by a pair of Renault engines of L62 kW (220 HP) each. delka 8.fedpokladane . The assumed performance figures have not survived. The design is noteworthy on account of the proximity of the engines' thrust lines. Only the dimensional data for this aircraft is known .. including that of the pilot's cockpir. In the background further similar mockups of other company projects are visible. situation.430 4 min 40 s 8800 Dole: Ndkresy obou popsanjch projektU pro porOVltan( ve stejnim meHtku. Pictures from the CKD factory in Prague-Karlin show a fullscale mock-up of wood and paper on plywood bulkheads. Both proposals represented a "lightweight fighter" concept.95 m.. Bottom: Line drawings show both projects in the same scale a 2 3 4 5 ..0 In. The fighter. "lehky stihaci letoun ' .60 11. • P. jehoz nizka efektivnost je dostatecne znama napffklad z realizace francouzskych typu Caudron. The Lockheed P-38 Lightning came soon afterwards . an extreme. V tomto uhlu pohledu se jevi rozhodnuti MNO pro typ z Avie v dane chvlli jako naprosto spravne.4 m and a height of 2. potazena papirem . ci Oba navrhy pfedstavovaly vzhledem ke svemu obdobnernu vykonovemu vybaveni tzv. "blind alley" concept. next in the type line. V navrhu letounu vynika blizko t os obou pohonnych jednotek. Lockheed P-38 Lightning prise! brzy pote.000 m Dostup prakticky f Service ceiling (rn) 8.Znarny jsou pouze zakladnl rozmery .rozpeti 11. zhotovena z Ian 11a pfeklizkovych pfepafkach. A case in point was the Praga E-51 prototype built according to the Type III requirement. Predpokladane vykonove parametry se nedochoNa snirncich z tovarnt haly CKD v Fraze Karline je parma rnaketa ve skurecne velikosti.extrern.arametlry stfhaefho letounu A-7 (A-107) The presumed performance parameters oftbeA·7 (A. length of 8. whose fallacy was epitomised by the failure of the French Caudron series of "racers turned fighters.wingspan of 11. often featuring tbe short fuselage pod and twin boom layout that was especiaJly advantageous when two engines were called for. valy.0 rn.500 420 . It erved the purpose of assessing the aircraft's dimensions.700 m and 70 % power Vystup do vysky 4000 m f Time to 4. Slouzila k rozmerovemu posouzenit vcetne usazeni pilora. (asymmetric thrust). apparently facilitating handling in the engine out. V pozadi jsou videt dalsl takto zhmotnene projekty tovarny.P02 6 A-107 JP02 E-52 . 1I nadiiujici eliminaci pfipadne asymetrie pfi rozdilech vykonf vysazeni..

Since joi~ ning the company. the MNO issued on 22nd May 1936 a purchase order no. ktery se od sveho pftchodu do tovarny venoval pouze vojenskym rypum a mel za sebou uvedeui typu 8·534 do seriove vyroby. se oddal s mimoradnou peclivosti. Pranrisek Novotny. Konstrukcni prace na novem projektu fidi! sefkonstrukter Avie Ing. 8320-ll. Based on this. 18 konfiguraci umisreni ocasnich ploch ph ruznych delkach trupu. a proven aircraft manufac- namicke koncepce noveho letounu. j.naky pfipom{naj{d nektere zahraniifni typy Ii doby. ktera v te dobe V CSR pusobila jako osvedceny vyrobce srihacich letadel. 3 krat model kiidla rurer having supplied a substantial proportion of the machines serving with the Czechoslovak fighter arm.jak velkou POZOr1Jost konstrukcnt tjm novemu letounu venoval. 12 kra: se zkousel model trupu s rozdilnyrni prechody mezi kfldlem a trupem. v tomto pflpade dolnoplosneho.aerodynamically state-of art and its layout bore a general resemblance to several machines oj the period. once it had assessed the proposals supplied. (Sbirka autora) The exquisite lines of the future fighter's mock-up had shown the anention and effort the design team devoted to the new machine.l36 for two 8·35 aircraft prototypes. for a detailed proposal. Navrh byl aerodynamieky fistj a nesl l. on the new project was given to Avia's chief designer lng. He devoted himselfto the draft and detailed aerodynamic design of the new low-wing monoplane fighter with the utmost diligence. Extraordinarily comprehensive aerodynamic model rests in [he VTLU wind tunnel at Prague-Letaany resulted in some twenty-two modifications to the chin liquid radiator in- Velmije. kvetna 1936 objednavkuc. the MNO asked Avia. The task of managing the design work.Vitezstvf A vie Jak jiz bylo receno. 7 . The design was . Navrhu a propracovani celkove aerody- Victory for the Avia As written in the preceding text. po posouzenl dodanych navrhu MNO oslovilo tovamu Avia. Na zAklade jejiho souhlasneho postoje MNO vydalo dne 22./36 na dva prototypy letounu B·35. Frantisek Novotny. 8320-11. Neobycejne rozsahle modelove zkousky v aerodynamickern tunelu VTLD zahrnovaly 22 rOznychliprav chladice vody.mne kfivky makety budouci stt'lUlckyprozrazovaly. Novotny had exclusively worked on military aircraft projects having been responsible for bringing theB·534 to the series producr:ion.

The fighter even had the undercarriage "vanished" in a retracted position and its refined shape could easily compete with the best that other European manufacturers could offer. Fedotov. The engine was still in the development stage at this time. a fixed undercarriage leg and with the wheel well for the planned retractable undercarriage. kolern nejz vzduch proudil uzkou sterbinou. Szabo and Doktor. Maketa letounu B-35 postavena ve skutecne velikosti byla pro navstevniky Narodni letecke vystavy v Praze roku 1937 pfekvapenim. protoze vlastni mechanismus zatahovaciho podvozku nebyl jeste k dispozici. Podobna situace potkala i zatahovaci podvozek. Celkem 104 zkousek. It turned a two-bladed airscrew and had Makela noveho letounu Avi. pancerove pfeklizky ktera se pouzivala ve Francii. Vsimnete si velkiho chladice vody pod motorem. Letoun. Albeit the information panel listed the Hispano Suiza HS-12-1000Y of 736 kW (1. Vyraznym prvkem byl velky chladic vody pod motorem. bench testing only taking place after the German occupation of the rest of a mutilated Czechoslovakia. Ackoliv iidaje na informacni tabuli uvadely jako planovanou pobonnou jednotku motor Hispano Suiza 12 Y-lOOOC 0 vykonu 736 kW (1000 k) a rychlost az 570 km/h. jehoz propracovane rvary rnohly snadno konkurovat ostatnim evropskym vyrobcum. The group of static load experts consisted of the engineers messrs. Motor sam teprve prochazel vyvojem a na brzde se zkousel mnohem pozdeji. Jindfich Simnnek. regular series-built AviafHS 12Ydrs engine of only 633 kW (860 HP) output was used. Doktor vedl zkuseny lng.8-35 was displayed on a boldly arched tubular stand in the very heart of the Avia exhibition compound. located in the chin under the engine. Predevsirn byl pouzit bezny seriovy motor HS 12Ydrs 0 vykonu 632. za okupace.5 kW (860 k) s dvoulistou vrtuli a pod film zaveseny tunelovy chladie. Altogether it took some lO4 wind tunnel tests. twelve shapes of the wing/fuselage fillets. (Author's Collection) 8 . Ing. Jednalo se 0 pfeklizku s vnej~i stra- az stallation. Note the large water radiator under the engine. intake to the large liquid radiator. Behern zkousek se totif ukazalo. mel dokonce podvozek v zatazene poloze. ktere byly na ceskoslovenske stfhacce poprve pouziry prave u tohoto typu. The full-scale B-35 mock-up was to prove a big surprise to the visitors of the National Air Exhibition in Prague. a number of design changes from the original plans took place.. log. During the actual construction of the first prototype.000 HP) as the planned powerplant and a maximum speed of 570 km/h. Klein. three wing models and twelve variations of the flaps. the B-35 having been the first instance that this device was used on a Czechoslovak fighter. Vefejnost tak mela moznost shlednout novy samonosny dolnokfidly jednoplosnik s eliptickym kfidlem a zakrytyrn pilotnun prostorem. A further twenty-six tests were done to ascertain stability with and without full power applied.a 12 krat rozne provedeni vztlakovych klapek. Klein. three tests on a section of the wing were conducted to prove the aircraft's behaviour with. Fedotov. Szabo a lng. Pod vrtulovyrn kuzelern se tak objevil pomerne velky obdelnikovy vstupni otvor ktery ale letounu nijak na krase neubral. slot-type. Kolektiv statiku ve slozeni lng. Jindfich Shnunek. the reality was somewhat less impressive. Tbe public could see for the first time the mock-up of a shapely new low-winged fighter with an elliptical wing and enclosed cockpit. A noteworthy feature was the narrow. commencing in late 1937. Dam odchylkou byl pevny kapotovany podvozek. ze libivy uzkY vstup vzduchu vymodelovany na makete nevyhovuje. the considerably less powerful. 3 zkousky S usekem kiidla s pevnou podvozkovou nohou a usek s vytezem pro planovany zatahovaci podvozek aj. Konstrukci Ietounu ovlivnilo pouZiti tzv.a B-35 byla na vjstave umistena na efektnim ocelovem oblouku v samem stiedu expozice spolecnosti Avia. First and foremost. led by the very experienced Ing. Dalsich 26 zkousek bylo zamereno na overeru stability s plynem a bez plynu. The same fate beset too the retractable undercarriage. Behem stavby prvniho prototypu zahajene koncern roku 1937 doslo k nejedne kon trukcni zmene oproti puvodnirn zamerum. znstalo jen u planu. eighteen configurations of the empennage at various lengths of the fuselage. (Sb{rka autora) • The mock-up of the lIew Avia .

Hmo tnost pilota byla kompemovtz. (NTM Prague) 9 . (NTM Praha) The fuselage with horizontal tail during the specific torsional stiffness test. • The static strength test of the fuselage and the seat attachment points. (NTM Prague) Pevnostni zkouska trupu Detail sedadla pllota a kola vyskove1w nastaveni: Tato sestava byla pouiiia v B-35.kroutici moment 1962 Nm (200 kgm). the background the Avia. (NTM Prague) pro pristani na tfi body 11=6.1 a pravdepodobni take v R-35.la pytlem pisku. The torque applied was 1962 Nm (200 kgm). • Detail oj the pilot's seat and the elevator trim wheel.2. (NTMPraha) The three-point-landinginduced-stress test of the fuselage at the 11=6. (NTM Prague) Pevnostni zkouska trupu a zaveseni sedadla. The mass oj pilot was simulated by a bag of sand. This layout was used in the 8-35. Vpozad{ jsou videt ocasni plochy letounu Avia B-71 (SR-2). Ill.1 and probably 8-35.Trup s vodorovnymi ocasnimi plochami pn zkouice memeho krouceni trupu . B-71 (licence-built Tupolev SB-2).2.

.trup. POllzite kaseinove klizeni dfevenych nosniku bylo nedostatecne a pfi prvnich dvou Iarnacich zkouskach nastala porucha nosniku v kliteni jiz ph n=lO. Ridici plochy mely kOVOVOll kostru a plateny potah jako typ 8-534. takze jejich vysledky nernely B-35 primy dopad. pH ktere se zjiSfovala tuhost kf{dla na krtu. (NTM Prague) plechern 0 sile 0. pf(pad letu (2.• The strength test oj the wing for the 1" case of flight 0" test). The wing covering ruptured as n=I1. (NTM Praha) One of the many strength. • Wing with the cut-out for the wheel well ready for the strength test for the 3'd case of flight. pfipad letu. ocas- za kabinou jako potah preklizku (nebo platno pres dfevene late jako u B-534) byla nakonec pouzita karoserie z elektronovych plecha vyztuzena podelnyrni a pffcnymi profily.. krome kDdla.. tests of the airframeconcerned the torsional strength of the wing. piipad letu (1.8. Potah prask!uzpfi n=. zkouika).2 mm a slouzila jako potahovy material khdla a pevnych casH ocasnich ploch. Oproti puvodniruu zameru pouzlt pro zadni casti trupu sestav . Teprve v tomto pfipade byl splnen predepsany merene 13 nasobek a na- na prvnl prototyp vsak uskutecnily at v srpnu a v zMi. The picture shows a test at the wing-tip. Na snimku je zachyce/~a zkouska provddena Ita konei kf{dla.Pohled na poruchu po odstraneni ncikladu.i zkousce pro 1.. Kostra byla at za kabinu zakryra odntmatelnynou potazenou hlinlkovyrn Pevnostni z/collska lafdla pro 1.8. stejne jako konee trupu v oblasti. prasklj potah ph rt=l1. zkousek jednotlivjch skupin draku byla take zkouika. Pro tfeti zkousku by to vyrobeno nove ktfdlo s nosniky klizenyrni kauritem.:8. Intenzivnl pevnostni zkousky zacaly v cervenci 1938. (NTM Prague) Kffdlo s vyfezem pro zatahovaci podvozek: pripravcne k pevnostni ikouSce pro 3. Trup mel typickou pfihradovou kostru. (NTM Prague) mi elektronovymi panely. tkouska). 10 . sesroubovanou a snytovanou z ocelovych trubek. The wing covering ruptured as early as at n. klapky. The picture shows the rupture after the load was removed. (NTM Prague) Kffdlo po pevllostn. The wing after the strength test of the 1'1 ease of flight (2"d test). vet~ina nieh ploch. Posledni zkousky se 1 dohotoven a pfipravovan na velky den. kfidelka a motorove Ioze uspokojive prosla. ocasnt plochy. Ten jit byl z velke casn hodnoty vykazaly dokonce n:=: 4.Jednou z mnoha pevnostmch.

. this time the spars were glued with kaurite resin.1.~. but the wing started to play up. vertical fin and horizontal stabiliser skinning. Podle starSCchinformaci by tato last trupu meLa byt casti potaiena platnem: Ze snimku je zrejme.e. For the third load testing a new wing was manufactured. riveted and bolted together from steel tubes. Another difference was the fixed undercarriage.\ t-. According to the previoltsly published information this part of the fuselage was fabric covered. ploch prvniho prototypu 8-35. \ 1\ 1\ ) \ ! I a regular "wide mouthed" liquid cooled radiator in the chin. The intense load tests began in July 1938. similar to the ones used on the Avia B-534. (Author s Collection) 11 . Vsimflete si viditelnych rozhrani mezi panely zadnt trupu. as the mechanism for the planned retracting undercarriage was not yet available. The casein glue used for the main spars was not strong enough. This truss was covered right behind the COCkpitwith detachable elektron panels.2 moo thick aluminium sheeting bonded to its external surface was used for the wing. bot it successfully held until 14. the empennage. reinforced on the inside with longitudinal and cross stiffeners and stringers .8 mvk). but of detachable light alloy panels. The fuselage was of the characteristic Warren truss structure. Not only did the wing stand up well to the prescribed load of n=13.88 (n=14. the fuselage behind the cockpit hood was not covered in plywood or in fabric doped taut over the wooden formers (as used on the B-534).~ ~ . which. plywood with 0. (Sbfrka autora) A close-up oj the first prototype's B-35. as was the tail section around the empennage. did not diminish tbe elegance of the fighter. I I I . Fotografie letounu po havani tojell potvrzuji. rulerons and engine bearers passed the tests with satisfactory results. Detailni zaber ocasnich.i. Contrary to the original plans and popular belief. This prototype was nearing completion and being readied for its big day. The aerodynamic controls were of metal internal structure and fabric covering. and during the first two load tests the spars glued with the casein failed at n=lO well below the specified load of n=14. Tbese last tests took place only in August and September and did not influence the design parameters of the first prototype of the B-35. hOWD on the mock-up proved inefficient in tests.hybovYch kiivek. . jl . Note the visible dividing lines between the panels in the rear fuselage. \ . ie toma tak nebylo. Most of the assemblies . Nahore: Nakres kfidla s vyrezem pro zataho vaci podvozek a diagram pru. The original cleaner-looking narrow-slit arrangement . -~--\ . Following the French experience with "armoured plywood". • Ndkre« kitdla s vjfezem pro zatahovact podvozek a diagram pruhybovych kiivek: (NTM Praha) Above: A drawing of wing with the retractable undercarriage wheel-well cut-out and the diagram of the bending curves. But this picture and the photos from the crash prove otherwise. however. the ten fuselage assemblies. flaps.1.

7 YetSinu letu vsak letoun odletal s dfevenou vrtuli Avia 232A (c. Prvnf prototyp. Ilejvyraznijsizminou by/ tvar a typ chladiCe vody pod motorem. Jan Arnbrus . ktery se nechal slyset. zko IIsky..Letov Hd 43 (konstruktera Ing.The first prototype of the B~35. Osmnacr minut trvajici zalet odstartoval dlouhou serii lerovych zkousek.. vystupujici pod krycirn jrneuern Toman). zahajili Dalecky s Kosarem predavani prototypu do VTLD predvadecfmi lety. prvni let s pouzirim kovove dvouliste vrtu Ie M -100 z letounu Avia Bw J. prave on uskutecnil 13. kratce po poledni.Prim { prototyp stihaciho letounu B~35. zan 1938 v 9:54 hod. Marese.1 s dvoulistou. stejne dobry dojem a miru ohodnoeeni zanedlouho potvrdili i jim. Ministerstvu narodni obrany (. protoze byl ve vsech beznych rezimech letu vyborne ovladatelny. . Po eely fijen pak prototyp B-35. uskutecnil svuj prvni let 28. mohly konecne pfijit na fadu skutecne letove zkousky. Compared to the wooden mock-up it differed in many respects.Vsichni zucastneni piloti byli s lerounem velmi spokojeni. The undercarriage notwithstanding. chIadic !lody water radiator regulacn( klapka flow control flap vzj14kovci klapka landing flap usel take rnjr. 11.MNO) doporuci seriovou vyrobu. Zde je nutne pnpomenout. 2432). nasledujicf lety patfily pilotum Jako prvn.. Protoze letoun nevykazoval zadne vyrazne negativni chovani. Proti dfevene makete se letoun v mnohem liiil.nu 1938 na tovdrnim letdti v Praze ~ Cakovidch. JeSte ten sarny den Dalecky vzletl dvakrat. Hochfelda). Karel Mares (pozdeji zoamy velitel 311. Nadseni nejvlce vyzafovalo z pplk. predevsim d1ev~ne konstrukce nosnikn krtdla. the most notable change was the shape and type of the chill radiator. (licencnf SB. listopadu 1938. Takove zavery po prvnim uspesnem letu se obvykle pfijimajf s jistou reservou. Mirno jine. One 7. photographed in October 1938 at the factory airfield in Prague-Cakovice.1 Po vsech uepfijemnostech spojenych s fesenim odpovidajici stowr anMny (pouUji) antenna.2). po nero si Ietoun vyzkoVTUJ. bombardovaci perute RAF. kapitan Gavelcik a stabm kapitan Sernerad. kovovou vrtuli M~100 fotografovany v n. kdy byla pouzita jina kovova vrtule . 10. ktere se soustfedily na zkousenl ruznych k rnefeni vYkomi s nirni dosazenych.i za fizeni usedl sefpilot pplk.1 with the two-blade metal M~100 propeller. Jak se ale pozdeji ukazalo. Sest kontrolnlch a poznavacich leni za VTLU odletali piloti major ze chladic oleje oil radiator piivod vzduchu ke kompresoru supercharger air duct water radiator air inlet Arnbrus. V tovame 12 . Vyjimkou byly dva Iety z 3.1 absolvoval tovarm letove typu vrtuli a ze vystfelne kamily kulometu machinegun troughs ventilaee kabillY cockpit air vent vice net polovinu letu tento mesic odletal pilot Oldfich Kosar. Pomineme-lipodvozek. mast (late) ___ pevnosti. (Author' Collection) Avia 8-35. pilotovany setpilotem Avie Rudolfem Daleckyrn.

8. vcetne pfedvadecich a kontroJnieh letu ph ptedavant. vrr. Den pred odletem do VTLU. 13 . pfeletem na vlastnt letiste ustavu. 1938. 10 pozadovanou kan6novou verzi HS 12Yers vyr. surname 20 h 2J min behem 58 letu. (Sbtrka autora) Nahofe a dole: Na oboa snimctch je mimo jille dobie videt umisa karburdtoru v leve pakn otevtnini kabiny callopy j"ilial opening . 11. C. 49 a jeste ryz den jej Kosaf zaletal.c prevzal Avii B-3S. 11. Letoun tak byl tent pfivodu vzchuchu ke kompresoru ntibe'1.1 oficialne 9. prosel nezbytnym vazenirn a zjistovanim te:li~te. C. vcetne motoroveho kanonu HS 404 raze 20 mm.ochranny pylon turnover bar prvni protoryp naletal. byl v letounu nahrazen stavajici motor HS 12Ydrs vyr. Pravdepodobne az zde letoun dostal vojenskou vystroj a vyzbroj.nehrane kitdla.lever Above and below: On both pictures the dllctfor the compressor and carburettor air in the port wing leading edge.

l na spodni strane kiidla. The shape of the water radiator air intake is very clearly visible. On the smaller picture the machine with the M·I00 propeller is shown. Na menstm snimku uprostied je pro srovniini letaun s vrtuli M 100. • After the metal propellers were tested. as is the national insignia on the wing underside. Velmi dobie je videt tvar vstupu vzduchu k chladici vody.U!ely umoiiiuje pozorovat pHcf s chladicem a reguUlcni klapkou z netypickeha uhlu. A balance tab is visible near the wing-tip. Pied koncem kHdla je videt vyvaiovaci ploika a umistenl vjsostnych Zllak. (Author's collection) 14 . the machine was again fitted with the Avia 232 propeller. (Sbtrka autora) A staged promotional photo shows well the nose with the radiator and flow control flap from an unusual angle.Po odzkousenf kovovjch vrtuli letoun dostal opet puvodn{ drevenou vrtuli Avia 232. (NTM Prague) pozicn( svetlo position light kovova konstrukce metal structure sn(matelmf panely detachable panels pozicn{ svetlo position light ostmho"e kola tail wheel ~ vyvaiovad ploska • pouee vprava trim tab • at starboard only Fotograjie z p6zo win ( pro propagacni .

. Both pictures convey the strength of the impact.1 prototype on 22nd November 1938 near Hloubettn. zkazu Kavalec.1 dne 22. KavaJec podcenil vlastnosti noveho stroje. 11. 11.. a 22. jej Dalecky preletl zpet do VTLO v Lettianech.. Vzletova hrnornosr s kompletnirn vojenskym vybavenim. Do tovarny se letoun dostal jeste jednou a naposledy 16. vCetne podelnych a pffCnjch vYztuh. Narazem byl stroj znicen a v jeho troskach zahynul i pilot. (Author's collection) pfed zahajenirn protorypovych zkousek uveden odpovidal podminkarn MNO.5 3". (now part of Prague). 11. especially its shapely transition between the cockpit and the rear fuselage. • The crash of the 8-35. The bottom picture shows clearly the metal skin panels of the rear fuselage. jak by! ndraz sUny. including the longitudinal and transverse stiffeners (Author's collection) 15 . Vlevo nahoie je na ohnutim plechu ctistecne vide! oznacen! na trupu . Pro pilota zvykleho letat stroje B-534 byly nektere schop- Havdrie B-3S. zejmena elegantni piechod mezi kabinou pilota a zadni casti trupu. Z obou snimkli je videt. nun pore intenzivne letal pilot VTLO eela}' Arnost do stavu. ktery prototypu B-3S. Behem prudkeho prechodu do zatacky stroj sklouzl po kridle a zntil se na zem. Noteworthy is also the relatively small radius oj the wing-fuselage fillet. Vzhledem ke skutecnosti.Pii pohledu 114 letoun od zadu vyniknou jeho jemne tvary. • The view from the rear shows to advantage the fine lines of the aeroplane. 1938 u Hloubetina (dnes soucdst Prahy). pfi zjistovarn rychlosti ve standardni vysce 460 m.1 nosti noveho dolnoplosneho stroje zcela odlisne. ale jiz 19. Ve dnech 21. 11. 1938. 11. Pozorovatele jiste zaujme pomerne maly piechodovy radius mezi kitdlem a trupem. bez pumovych zttvesniku a pumoveho shazovadla dosahla 2360 kg. prave cet. Na spodnim snimku jsou zretel'le videt ko vove casti potahu zadnt casti trupu. ze v rnaterske rovarne bylo s Ietounem jiz odletano vice nez 58 leta bez mirnofadnych udalosti. (Sbtrka au/ora) At top left the bent skin panel carries the Us 3" fuselage marking. Dne 22. pfi ctvrtem preletu nad rychlostni trikilometrovou zakl ad nou .

vcetne ocenenl lepslho vyhledu z kabiny nez u B-534. zvolna. prudsim pfidanfrn se letoun odklanel ze smeru. S.12 a jednim z hlavnich pozadavku bylo pouZiti dvou kulometu vz. K ptek:vapeni vSech se zjistil0.e v ostatnich letovych rezimech bylletoun veLmi dobi'e ovladatelny. se letoun choval jako stabilni a dobre ovladatelny. Tento fakt ve svem z. dalSi pokles rychlosti mel za nasledek rychly pad na jedno ci druhe kffdlo. Nasledujici valecne roky prokazaly. Zduraznen muze byl klidny klouzavy i strernhlavy let. Protoie podohne situovane snimky jsou dale pouzity take li ndsledujtcicb chladice vody jsou z tohoto tihlu.000. (Sbtrka autora) prototypri. a protoze po prohlidce havarovaneho stroje nebyla zjistena zavada. Take vysouvani a zasouvani klapek pomoci rue nib 0 hydraulickeho cerpadla bylo zdlouhave . misto stavajiciho umlsteni vlevo pod palubnj deskou. ve kterem se MNO nachazelo. ze vykony jsou velmi dobre a blizi se vykonurn nejlepsich zahranicnich Ietounu. Procesni ffzenl spojene se ztratou prvniho prototypu se protah10 az do cervna 1939. kterymi prototyp ptekvapil. Stroje mely nest oznaceni Bp3S. S tim lze jen tezko souhlasit. 30 v kombinaci s kan6nem HS 404 raze 20 mrn (se 60 naboji).-. Krome kladnych hodnoceni tjkajicich se chovani letounu na zemi.rii. Hodnoceni po 30 zkusebnich letech v celkove delce 4 hod a 18 minut vskutku velrni povzbuzujici.vyvojove neperspektivni" z duvodu pouzite trubkove konstrukce trupu a dreveneho kftdla.stroje nepochybne zpusobila chyba pilotaze. jak by se dalo ocekavat. Zpusoh umisteni a tvar polohovych. vsak v radove slu!M mohlo pusobit problemy rnene zkusenym pilotum. zavesnfky. bez rnoznosti pfistupu a kontroly. Odpoved' pfisla v podobe pfedbezneho posudku 0 proto typovych zkouskach s datem 22.pfi zamfreni a stfelbe. Jakovleva. Krome toho se podil v budoucnu deficitnich materialu pohyboval na minimalni potrebe. Podle dostupnych pramenu dalo MNO v kvetnu 1939 fume Avia pffkaz k vyrobe 10 letounu B-35. Pfistani s klapkami i bez nich bylo snadne a zvladnutelne i "siabsim pilotem '. C02 u prototypu neni at tak neobvykle. I pres omezene moznosti motoru. svetel se u nasledujicich letounu taki zmellil. Samostatn9m bodem bylo nutne resent vytapent kabiny. Povolenirn i'izeni neptechazel do vyvrtky.1 nemel VTLU namitek prori zahajeni seriove vyroby v pfipade udeleni objednavky na letouny tohoto typu. napf. behem nenOl. Neklidnym se letoun staval pfi zavrenem plynu pfi rychlosti kolern 160 km/h. ze prototyp B~35. Ty se dotykaly predevsim umisteni nekterych ovladacich prvku v kabine pilota v porovnani se stavajicim standardnim typem B-534.790. Podle nazoru nekterych historiku bylletoun . dobie viditelne. ze se zrodil stihacl letoun hodny pozornosti i dalsiho vyvoje. Vlastnosti nesporne dobre zejmena v boji .e ph plnem bojovern zanzem (munice.) by se pravdepodobne tyro pararnetry zhorsily. priznala firme Avia jako naruadu castku Kc. To. Pfi ptedavam letounu do VTLU Dalecky ale pokusne proved) tfi otocky vyvrtky v pravo i vleyo. bylo umlsteru elektronovych nadrzi uzavfenych v kfidle. Jako pftklad poslouzit konstrukce sovetskych stihaclch letounu konstrukcni kancelare A. 11. Vzhledem k celkovyrn velmi dobryrn vlastnostem i vykonum prototypu B-35. Stranou pozornosti nernohou zustat ani samotne vykony prototypu. ktere k p. Zjistene zavady byly ale zastineny prekvapive dobryrni vlastnosoni. pumy aj. Delka dojezdu se pohybovala okolo 244 m. Navzdory tern to slabinam byla 21. jako je vyvrtka. vzesly z VTLU i kriticke pfipomlnky.pilot musel jit na pfistani z vetSi vzdalenosti. Jen ph vzletu se doporucovalo pfidavat plyn se ukazalo. MNO kde potvrdilo. pomod plosek oa kormidlech snadno vyvaZitelny. Vzhledem k postaveni. Hurricane (Hawker).za letu obtizne dostupny a k nastaveni jednotlivych poloh bylo zapotfebi znacne sUy.1 pfevzalo k vykonani zkousek. plynove paky a provedeni tabla superboostu. V zaveru zpravy se konstatovalo. Podobna doporuceni se tykala i ovladani benzinoveho kohoutu. prumerna delka rozjezdu bez lclapek byla na hranici 187 m. Neill ale jasne. Vseobecne obavany rnanevr. V zajmu jednotnosti umistenl ovladacich prvki't bylo take doporuceno urnistit paku klapky vodnfho chlacice jako u B-534. U budoucich stroju se proto uvazovalo 0 zvetseni sfly na ridici pace.idel" letoun snahu dostat se z vyvrtky sam. Nutno poznamenat ze behern tovamlch zkousek s kovovou vrtuli M-IOO Dalecky dosahl dokonce rychlosti 485 kmIh. Tak. ale nabiral rychlost a mel schopnost se sam vyrovnat. Vy~e uvedene vlastnosti nebyly jedinymi. i.. Je pochopitelne. Navzdory tragicke hava. prosince 1938. . Kritizovan byl hlavne rozdelovaci kohout k ovladani pfistavacich klapek . zda s terniro fakty pocitali i odpovedni pracovnici MNO.lverecnem hodnoceni vnimali i odpovedni cinitele VTLU a pouzitl kovove vrtule bylo pro dalsi zkousky uprednostneno. ze po "puStenf korm. Pro vyrobce a MNO vsak byl dulezity posudek VTLU. 1. lso the location and A shape of the navigation lights changed with the subsequent aeroplanes. Odstranitelnost techto nekolika zavad nebyla zvlast slozira.6. prihledneme-li k pomerne malemu vykonu pouzite pohonne jednotky a navie zatizenemu pevnym podvozkem. V te dobe jiZ probibala likvidace ceskoslovenskeho MNO. co se Iibilo zkusebnlm pilotum. 1938 v typove vysce 4000 m namerena maximalni rychlost 471 km/h. tento pffkaz jiz dam: vyvoj typu neovlivnil. Nevybovujicl vsak vznikl velmi obratny stroj.3 az B-3S. Spolu s citlivou a jemnou funkci konnidel tak podJe nazorn vetsiny piiotU rna 16 . ze letouny podobne konstrukce jsou naopak stejne hodnotne a navic snadno opravitelne v polnich podminkach. they showed to advantage the development of the radiator shapes . promeny tvaru As the photographs of the subsequent prototypes were taken from near-identical aspects.fipadu zaujalo konetne stanovisko ve zprave ze dne 17. Navic obe nadrze se uzaviraly a orevlraIy soucasne bez jakehokoliv zalozniho mnozstvi paliva. za poufitf superboostu as kJapkami vysunutymi na 10° se draha zkratila na III m. VTLO pozadoval zkraceni teto doby alespoii na polovinu. 1939. nebyl v te dobe vyzkouseny.

17 .

ale pravdapodobne tmavst odstln.Avia 8 . Nejvetsi podll horruch ploch byl nastrlkan pfskovou barvou (FS 16160). koncem fijna 1938. The plan view with colour patches shows the machine as it looked once the wing roundels were added and with the VTUJ marking (83) on fuselage. Podobne jako tomu bylo u pozsrnnt techniky i v tomto pi'fpade doslo na pouziti nspravldelnych polf. nez jakY byl pouiity na pozemnf technice. zpusobsrn byly kaaerodynarnlcke kryty Poznamka: Pfiblizny odstfn podle Federal 8tandardu 595a.. 18 .. tzn. Letoun mel zpocatku vysostne znaky jen na smerovern korrnidle. Note: The approximate colour hues according to the Federal Standard 595a. kdy letectvo hleda10 novy vhodny zpusob karnuftovanl. An interestingcamoufIage layout was used on the streamlined undercarriage spats. Zbyvajicf dva barevne odstiny pati'ily tmave hnede (F8 30040) a trnave zelene barvs (FS 34095). 35. na krldlech byly doplneny pravdepodobne ai po zkouskach s kovovou vrtulf. Zajfrnavyrn muflovane podvozku.1 Zbarvenf prvniho prototypu neirnodernejsfho ceskoslovenskeho stihaciho letounu Avia B-35.1 bylo do jiste mfry ovlivneno dobou. Pudorys s rozlozenfrn barevnych poll piedstavuie letoun po doplneni vysosmych znaku na krfdle a s oznacenlm Vyzkumneho ustavu (s 3).

The colour demarcation line was wavy.Colouring of the first prototype of the most advanced of Czechoslovak fighter aircraft. The national insiqnla was originally on the rudder only. the wing cockades were added probably after the tests with the metal propeller.1 zobrazen v podobe. the Avia 8-35.e. The remaining two colours were dark brown (FS 30040) and dark green (FS 34097). This page shows the 8-35. AFV's and other land equipment. ale take nepravidelne ve tvaru vlnovky. i. applied also on the fuselage lower sides. not straight. kdyz letal ve Vyzkumnem ustavu (VTLU) s bflym trupovym oznacernm "s 3" az do okarnziku havarle. Rozhrani mezi hornfmi a spodnfmi plochami nebylo rovne. The largest proportion of the upper surfaces was in the sand (light ochre) colour (FS 16160) probably of a darker shade than the one used on the cars.1 was to a certain extent influenced by the period of Czechoslovak Air Force's seeking of a new suitable camouflage method. Spodni plochy byly nastrfkane svstlesedou barvou (FS16376). also here the irregular colour patches were utilised. Similarly to the land forces' equipment. vprecu az pod vrtulovy kuzel. Na teto strance je prototyp 8-35. in late October 1938. ktera prechazela at na boky trupu. The undersides were sprayed in light grey colour (FS16376). the division line on the nose being up to the propeller spinner.1 prototype in the livery it carried during the VTLU institute test period until it crashed. 19 .

The electron sheet wing fuel tanks were found to alJ of these flights were 'flown by the (est pilot Oldfich Kosaf. the other test least a halving of the lime required. 311 (Czechoslovak) Sq..he display and check would undoubtedly hold good for the aircraft as a gun platform flights. Judging from the fact that the machine had been flown at the factory on 58 occasions without incident. taken from [J1e B-71 (licence-built Tupolev SB-2) tanks also opened and closed simultaneously. being enclosed in the wings without access and flew.1 20 . requiring the night. vember 1938. "Ctllith'll' l'emat16~PJPpeilj~iJ'w. It was recommended that during and Kosar performed demonstration flights as the start of the protake-off the throttle. After an of the problems caused by the structural strength calFor the manufacturer and the Czechoslovak. Yet in due course. respectively.''''i\H' uf. to elirninacedures for the hand over of the prototype to the VTLU. Hurricane. The take-off weight of the itself once the controls were released! B~3S. are usually repilot to make a longer landing approach. These virtues first prototype new altogether. amongst others. easiThe machine returned to the factory for the last time on the ly trimmed.mIh achieved by the aircraft at the rated Kavalec underestimated these differences and while abruptly tranaltitude of 4. chier with the throttle closed at around 160 km/h. but accelerated and displayed a tendency to come with this new engine 00 the same day by Kosar.lrGinpRI eJ"u!Hhe· B-.\> . The VTL. flying the fourth in a series ofmaximum speed tests. It is noteworthy that more than half of cockpit heating. finding to everyone's The aircraft was therefore put into the condition required by the surprise that the machine tended to start the recovery procedure by MoD before the prototype tests began. check and familiarisation flights for the VTLU. the first flight with the M-IOO two bladed therefore inaccessible for the purpose of monitoring checks. The criticism primarily concerned the flap control valve. tbe aircraft would not a motor-cannon HS 12Ycrs. instead of its existing position under the instrument panel tory flight test programme. with a roll to the side. Jan Ambrus taking the controls on the followground and including virtues sucb as a much better view from the ft. 21 minutes during the course of 58 test during aiming and firing in combat. The machi485 km/h. took place on the morning of 28th September 1938 at 09:54. especially for the wooden wing spars. with the wooden Avia 232A (s/n 2432) propeller. the aeroplane being test flown enter a spin. The machine became twitflights. flown by Avia's chief test pilot Rudolf Dashape of a preliminary assessment of the prototype tests. singly good behaviour of the aircraft. the control handle for the l. Dalecky flaps. the unfortunate pilot loosing his life in the crash.ioIs@"iH. Maj. a generally feared manoeuvre. The first to have a go on the machine was Lt. however.. including the tested at this time. and by use of the in-flight adjustable tabs. such as the Avia B-534. however. The Ambrus." easily handled landings without On 7th November 1938. The responsible personnel of the VTLU appreciated Avia B-3S. For a pilot used to the behavistick control forces was mooted for the series built machines. Sgt. machine. Col. These faults however were easy to remedy."" ~~ .e. For the sake of unification of pilots would confirm an equally favourable impression and assessthe placement of the controls. end of the report the performance was judged as being very good. test pilot Dalecky experimentally executed Lhree turns weighed and the position of its centre of gravity established. and required too much craft to the Ministry of National Defence (Minislerslvo ndrodni strength to set the Hap positions. He be unsatisfactory. cooling duct had to be moved to a position similar to that on the For the whole of October the B-3S. It was probably here totype displayed.1 prototype with all of its military equipment. less experienced. was replaced with On release of the controls during the stall. sirioning to a turn apparently stalled the wing. RAF. MoD). fighter. as wen as those using flaps. 20mrn calibre HS 404 cannon. taking the The first prototype.1 officially on 9th These features were not the only pleasant surprise that the proNovember with a fen). Yet these few shortcomings were easily eclipsed by the surpriThe exceptions to the rule were the two flights of 3rd November..:o.1 prototype passed the facB-534. maximum speed of 47L k. Dalecky took off on a further two occasions that day. What the expeback to the VTLD in Letriany by Dalecky. Elation exuded from Lt. especially considering the limited power of the totally clifferent to those with which they were familiar. ved. who stated tbat he would recommend series production of the airwhich was not easily accessible in flight. the existing HS 12Ydrs. Col. on 8th Noction of speed brought with it a swift stall. The flight lasting eighteen minutes was the first in the long line of approaching that of the best foreign machines. in the very early afternoon. This combined with the sensitive and fine controls 16th November. Semerad flew six of the aircraft'S steady behaviour in the glide and dive was emphasized. flight. assessments regarding the behaviour of the new machine on the Karel Mares.iquid ment of the aircraft.. some 20 hours. Tbe VTLU took over the Avia 8-35.. slipping in the turn Dalecky flew the machine during the factory tests at a speed of and impacting into tile ground with considerable force. The report confirmed that. compared to the existing standard on the B~S34 res. ordinary service pilots.ry:'h!t15p -Wili"f th'e"P~Cot§l{plf. s/n 49. te the slipstream induced veering-off of the runway centreline.!'5'3zJ. to their airfield. As the machine did not show any markedly adverse behaviour. the cause of Kavalec's demise could apparently be put down to pilot error. including t. a further reduThe day before the official hand-over to the VTLO. flown with the Letov Hd 43 propeller. Besides the positive quent flights. They mainly concerned the placement of the controls in the common flight regimes. Tbe metal propeller.• ~ . level by itself. At the factory the its stability and controllability being noteworthy. Cpt.D asked for at garded with a certain reserve.~gre v~. at the very beginning of a test programme. the actual flight-testing could take place at last.mg m~11 . On 22nd engine. With the M· 100 metal propeller fitted.'lh~1Jiu1'i&i:llarln~PJj'o{. later one of the commanders. Karel Mapilot's cockpit. such as the Hawker rest flights. It was also the VTLO. was not that the machine received its military equipment. our of biplanes. Therefore the increase of finding that it required much effort. MoD the VTLU's culations.. Arnost Kavalee flew the aircraft. The majority of the flights were provided. of a spin to the right and left..'''&. which displayed excellent controllability in all of the too. in the other flight regimes the aircraft's controls were bomb racks and bomb release gear was 2. On 21st and 22nd rienced test pilots liked.. Maj. at these weak points the date of 21st November 1938 witnessed a a standard altitude of 460 m over a 3km measuring base. However. throttvarious types of propellers and on the measurement of the perforle and supercharger boost actuator. Also extension and retraction of obrany = MNO. allied to the added drag of the fixed undercarriage..: ne was destroyed. had been resolassessment was of paramounr importance. but without Also. flown. i. Gavelclk and Staff Cpt.000 rn. which concentrated 00 the testing of to the left Similar requirements beset the fuel cut-off valve. Despite November. At the lecky. The spin. Such conclusions after the maiden the flaps using a hydraulic hand pump was slow. with no fuel reserve bomber on 13th October 1938.360 kg. The response dated 22nd December 1938 arrived. some of the characterisAlso the performance figures for the prototype could not be left tics that the new low-winged monoplane possessed proved to be without comment. finely harmonised. should only be advanced gradually. even a "less experienced pilot. could become a handful for the November the VTLU pilot Sgt. This assessment after the [list 30 test flights of 4 hours and 18 permission was given for the VTLU pilots to carry Oil! the subseminutes duration was very encouraging. during the hand-over procedure to engine-mounted. s/n 10. A separate issue was that of rnance achieved with these. but as early as the 19th November it was ferried made the machine very controllable and nimble.

Tachometer 21. and it took a final position on the matter in its report of 17th June 1939. According to some historians the machine "lacked true development potential" on account of its mixed metal tube fuselage and wooden wing structure. It is not clear. Thanks to the excellent overall flying characteristics and performance parameters of the B-35. Rychlorner . S. Velkj cifernik vlevo pod piistrojovoa deskou nepatiil iOOnemu z palubnfch pristroju. Despite the limited engine power the average length of the take-off run was below 190 m without flaps.Engine priming fuel pump 4. Opakovani kulometu . however. Variornetr .Compass A. bomb racks. Tlakomer oleje a pal iva .Oil and water temperature gauge 16.g. Otvor pro umely horizont .Ammunition counter 11. ale meficimu pnstroji. Rucni palivove cerpadlo .Oi I and fuel pressure gauge 15. According to the available sources the MoD ordered the Avia Company. the metal propeller becoming the favoured choice for the subsequent tests. Poeltae nabojn . Nastfikovaci pumpa .Opening for artificial horizon Hlavnl pflstrojova deska 8-35.1} the first prototype. Pfepinac magnet . it awarded the Avia company compensation to the tune of 1.Machine gun charging 6. it was apparent that a fighter certainly worth further attention and development had been created. This is hardly a defendable opinion. Palivomer . using the "superboost" and 10° of naps the length of the take off run was shortened to 111 metres. Tlakomer brzd .Magneto switch 17.1. (Author's collection) 21 .Brake pressure gauge 5.Ammunition counter 10. Tlakomer dychace . It confirmed in this report that it had taken over the B-35.92mm vz. to start manufacturing a series of ten B-35 machines.Pitch trim indicator 13.Rate of climb indicator 3.3 to 8-35. despite the tragic crash.790.Flap position indicator 12. and as there was no fault found with the crashed machine. Tahlo basictho pnstro]e Fire extinguisher control 7. At this time the dissolution of the Czechoslovak MNO (MoD) was ion full swing. They were to bear the serials B-35.Machine gun charging 19.. as the subsequent wartime years showed that machines of a similar structure held their vaJue in the most austere of conditions and were easily repairable in the field.Hand fuel pump 8. Fuel gauge 9. 1930 machine guns and a 20mm HS-404 cannon with 60 r. vykonu rnotoru .000 Kc. Opakovani kulometu . Ukazatel vztlakovych klapek . firing though the propeller hub.12. Vyskomer . Kompas . Ukazatel vyvazen! .Supercharger pressure gauge 20.·Of course these parameters would deteriorate once full combat equipment (ammunition.Oxygen breather pressure gauge 14. Yakovlev design bureau's family of fighters. Poehae nabojti . The large dial below left beneath the instrument panel was not a part of the standard fit. Pfida vne rnazani rnotoru .Lu bricati on boost control 18. one of the main requirements was that they were to be armed with a pair of synchronised 7. the order would not influence the subsequent development of the type. mass-produced for the Soviet VVS.1 (reconstructed) 23 24 1 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Jedinj zmfmj pohled do kubiny prvniho prototypu 8-35. bombs) was taken on board. Tahlo max. Owing to the position the MNO held at this time.Altimeter 24. in May 1939. Besides this the mixed structure saved on strategic materials. it was a part of the test equipment. The landing roll was around 244 m. whether the MoD (MNO) personnel responsible considered these facts at the time.this fact. (Sbtrka autora) The sole known photo of the cockpit of the B-35.1 prototype the VTU) had no objections against the beginning of series production in the event of an order being placed for the type. Tlakorner kompresoru .p.Maximum engine output knob 22.Air speed indicator 23. 2. Teplomer oleje a vody . A case in point is the 1.1 (rekonstrukce) Main instrument panel of the 8-35. a not uncommon OCCUITence with prototypes at this time. So. Otackomer .1 prototype for tests. Litigation relating to the loss of the first prototype dragged on until June 1939.

Bez natsru zustaly z pochopitelnych duvodu jenom plechy s otvory pro vYfuky.1. The second prototype.. the Avia 8-35.. 1939.2 jif nabyl tak pestry [ako na B~35. 3. 22 .2 was much less colourful than the 8-35. The national blue border six positions least until insignia with narrow were placed in usual and stayed there at 22nd March 1939. Galy I. Vysostne znaky s uzkym modrym lemovanfrn byly urnisteny na obvyklych mfstech a vydrzely zde jests minimalne do 22. 2 Nater druheho prototypu Avia 8~35.1.etoun byl nastifkan pouze sWbrosedou barvou. It was sprayed in silvery grey overall.Avia 8-35 . Only the panels with openings for the exhaust stubs were understandably left bare .

Nezbytnyrn doplnkem tohoto obdobl byl hakovy kflz na smerovern kormidle. I An inevitable adornment was the "crooked cross of Germany" as W. For the whole subsequent test flight period the B-35. Jedinou . the black swasti ka on the rudder. 23 .Po cele nasledujcl obdobi zkousek letal 8-35. Churchill put it.2 flew in the same colour livery.barevnou" zrnenou byly nove vysostne znaky v podobs nsrneckych kffzu. The sole "colour" change was the black of the "beam crosses" (Balkenkreuze) placed on the wing roughly over the original Czechoslovak roundels.2 ve stejnem nateru. na kfrdle umlstene pFiblizne v mfstech puvodnfch ceskoslovenskych vysostnych znaku.

. 21 .. B-35. Pilot Pilot Typ zkousky Type of the test Cas Duration of flight Minut Minutes 2029 28.1 1938 Zari / September Let az -.1 " " M-100 M-IOO M-I00 (z B-71) 13.1 B-35. motoru Engine nr. Oalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletavaci zaletavaci pplk.10. Listopad / November 03..1 ero c.1 B-35. 07.10.10. 10 " -. 2432) C."-" " " " 11.lO Av.1 B-35. Datum Dale Flight nr. Ambrus zaletavaci zkusebnt zkusebni zaletavaci rychlost vyska 09:54-10:12 11:46-12: 15 14:38-15:02 16:14-16:32 16:40-16:59 12:06-12:26 13:34-14:08 16:50-17:10 18 29 24 18 J9 20 34 20 29.1 B-35.c.ro e. 10..-_. 21 .1 Av. 10. 07.AVIA 8-35.11.1O -------- e..10.1O e.10. 05.to Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Kosar Kosar Dalecky Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosat Ko~af Kosar Dalecky Kosar Dalecky zaletavaci vyska rychlost predvadeci vyska zaletavacl zaletavacl zaletavaci rychlost zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavacl zjiSiovAni obratek akrobacie akrobacie ptedvadeci 14:40-15:08 14:45-15:38 11:54-12:36 16:10-16:2.10. 2432 Dalecky Dalecky Dale cky Dalecky DalecJcy Dalecky vyska zaletavacl vyska vyska vyska 11:42-12:29 14:58-15:21 ?? 47 23 ?? 10:08."--- ---.10.11:01 11:48-12:30 53 rychlost 42 24 . C. 18.D. Vrtule Propeller nr.1 Av..1:36 12:12-12:58 14:38..1 e.10. 2 merenl startu a pfistani ---'_ "--~--.1 8-35.. 10 DaleckY RIjen I October 01.. 10.11.-_ _ . "--" 14:08-14:40 14:56-15:17 11:45-12:05 11:04-1.1 C. 10 c."--. B-35."-" Av.1 Av.1 11:15-11:55 14:20-14:37 14:38-14:53 15:14-16:18 08:24-09:05 09:54-10:05 10:06-10: 10 11:26-11:56 13:56-14: 14 11:56-12:14 28 53 42 11 40 17 15 64 4] 11 4 30 18 18 32 21 20 32 46 32 47 17.10... lYpe Typ C. 14. -.ro M-IOO M-100 M-IOO M-IOO M-I00 232A 232A 232A ------------- c.9..ro Dalecky Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosar Kosaf rychlost vyska zaletavaci rychlost e. zkus.1 8-35.10.. 13. 10 e.. C. 11. 18.ro eio C. 10. B-35.I5: 10 10:54-11 :41 11:14-11:20 11:22-11:26 11:27-11:30 1l:32-11:35 11:38-11 :42 11:44-11:47 11:56-11:59 12:00-12:03 12:05-12:08 12:10-12: 14 12:16-12:21 6 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 Kosat Kosaf Dalecky Dalecky DaleckY Dalecky Dalecky ---- -_-.1 B-35.1 B-35.1 8-35. 07. B-35. Mares mjr.1 B-35.3 'V' c.ro c. -.9.1 B-35. (Hd 43) 232A (c. B-35. B-35..1 B-35. .. -.--- _. 20.1 8-35.1 B-35. zkus..I0 H. 04._ ---.10.1 B-35.10."-----."-----. 8-35.

35-2 B-35.02. poznavaci skpt.67 . 18. ? c. Ambrus kpt. 10 Avia Dalecky zaletavani 10:58-11:07 9 1939 Leden I January 3 15 16 05.1O c. ? c.11. 09.1 Dalecky Kosaf mjr. Ol. Kavalec zahynul letoun znicen pfi havarii. ro e.67 c. 23.2 B-35.2 B-35.03. Datum 07. ? C. 30.ro e. 02. 02.01. 09.2 B-35.03.1938 Listopad I November Let c.-. Ol. Dalecky vyska rycblost 11:23-11 :35 11:40-11:55 13: 10-13:25 13:50-14:03 10:50-11 :25 11:55-12:35 13:45-14:25 12 15 15 13 35 40 40 Unor I February 32 33 34 38 39 59 60 82 83 92 93 104 01.12. Semerad predvadeci akrobacie kontrolni kontrolni 11 52 20 9 9 6 poznavaci poznavaci poznavaci 11 9 19 11 6 _2 08.2 B-35.03. 2432 Kosar zaletavacl Celkem: 20 hod 21 min letovych.02. 22.01.2 8-35.2 C. 03.1 B-35. Typ C.1O Vrtule 232A (c.1 B-35.2 B-35. 30.--" " 232Af2432 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti rychlost vyska vyska rychlost zaletnuti 232A12432 M-100 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletnuti zaletnuti M-lOO 232B " " B-35. 03.02.2 B-35.2 B. 6 hod 3 min zkusebnich c.02.03. 23. 30.02.2 c.ro c.49 12.2 8-35. 17 19 26 27 31. 23.2 B-35. 2432) Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 12:46-12:57 13:48-14:40 15:20-15:40 15:41-15:50 15:52-16:01 16:02-16:08 16:10-16:21 16:22-16:31 14:36-14:55 09:30-09:41 13:21-13:27 14:06-14:15 Minut 8-35.11. 11. Ga velcfk prelet do VTLU C. B-35.2 8-35. Gave)cfk skpt. 02.2 B-35. ro eio c.67 c.io c.1 B-35. ? 10:06-10:57 11:50-12:23 14:06-14:50 16:00-16:28 09:20-09:31 14:52-15:00 10:00-10:25 14:10-14:20 15: 10-15:21 51 33 44 28 11 8 25 10 11 25 .02.2 B-35. 31.03.2 C.1O c. 22.67 c. ? c. 2432 C. 15. 02.2 B-35. 02. Semerad C.1 c. 01. Gaveleik prelet do tovarny c. 02.2 B-35. motoru c. 02. 17.49 prelet do Letnan cet.ro c. ? M-l00 " " Av (232A)? Av Av C. 09.67 c. 21.1O e.2 B-35.2 B-35.2 B-35.03.2 e. 8-35.2 8-35. 16.03. Prosinec I December 30. 16.2 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletnuti predvadeci 1L:55-12:05 13:30-14:10 16:45-16:20 13:55-14:30 15:25-16:00 15:45-15:58 16:00-16:15 14:10-14:30 10:50-11: 15 13:50-14:05 13: 15-13:28 14:40-14:50 10 40 35 35 35 13 15 20 25 15 13 10 Bulharum --~~------.2 B-35. ? e. Ambrus mjr.67 Hd43 " " ~.2 8-35.02.ro 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B 232B Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Da1ecky Dalecky Dalecky zaletnuti zaletavaci zaletnutl zaletnuti rychlost .67 c.1 B-35. 01.67 c.03. 17. B-35. Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vyska rychlost vyska rychlost 220 221 224 225 Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky pfelet do Letrian zpet 226 Hd43 Hd43 zaletavaci " zkusebni kpt. 8-35.49 C.02.1O e. 11.03. Ol. Gavelcfk kpt. Ol. 2432 Dalecky c.1O e.49 kpt. 2432 kpr.ro e. ll. B-35.01..---- Bfezen I March 139 140 141 142 02. 11.2 B-35.2 B-35. 17..

. --. "..67 Hd43 (? C._-.."--_ ....~= ' Dalecky '=-."--..."----.."--B-35.."--....1939 Duben / April Let c..".67 c.. 613 620 621?? 622 8-3S... 16. 05... 10. 11.3:S0-14:52 09:00-09:36 11:35-11. 11.... 08.. . 06."--"~~~ .."----. " _ "~.67 Hd43 Hd 43 -_. 08."----..... 25..2 B-35..67 c. .. as... 06.2 . OS.... mereru startu .. ... 8-3S. e-~= -~ ". Typ B-35.". ' ."--- --.04. . motoru c....2 M-IOO --.. OS... .--. OS.. ".. "..2 B-3S.. B-35.. 16. 10..2 B-3S. --.05."----....2 B~35.. --.05.. 74 C.."--- --. OS.. 30._- . ?l.. ' ~~~--" --... '_ " .05.."--.. "-~ rychlost --. 04... 74 C.. .2 8-35._ "-----..".?) Avia Zemanek Zemanek Dalecky zaletavaci zaletavaci 09:11-10:07 11 :35-12:08 13:47~14:16 56 33 29 Avia zaletavaci Listopad / November 830 831 832 02.. 261 Datum 04."--- M-I00 -- --. 06.. 16.."--_.-zkusebnl c...."--.....2 B-35.. 06.....67 e... B-35..."-. ....2 ..--.. .."."_. 05...--'"----.~ ..2 --.. 05...04.".. 14. --..."-~~ c.."--_ . as.~~ ....06.."---Zemanek vy§ka ."-."--Av Av Av --.. "..04... 16."----.04.2 B-35.... -'.. ".-.--H Zemanek zku~ebni --... 02..... "."----- (3-lista) Zemanek ----.. mefent startu zaletavaci 13:47-13:S2 13:54-13:58 14:00-14:05 14·:07-14:15 10:23-10:40 14: 22-15:0S 08:35-09:12 16: 15-16:47 13:38-14:37 5 8 ]7 33 --. 05. --."----.. --.."~ --.".05.2 Avia (c. 21.. --. ~=-"--~-~~ " . "~~--..2 B-35. . 74 232A 232A 232A M~100 Zemanek Zemanek Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vyska rychlost zaletavaci zaletavaci zaletavacl zaleravacl 07:45--08:20 13:12-14:07 1. 24.. -..67 e.2 ~-."--- zaleravaci --. 16..-. _ ."--- rychlost vyska M-100 M-IOO C.2 C."--Avia (232A?) Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky Francke zaletavaci .05."--Dalecky --."----."--- ]6... 20.."--_ .."--- 37 22 59 vyska Cerven / June 566 567 575 576 01.._ . ...2 B-35. _. B-35.. -~~ --" --..06.67 c.. 16."----.."----.67 Kveten /May 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 02."--~== ."----......05.."----....2 B-35.." --Dalecky meren! starru ... --...2 M-100 -_ -" --- Zemanek -_ ..67 c. --....67 Vrtule Hd43 Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 10:55-11:12 14:00-14:20 13:36-14:02 II:55-12:42 11:55-12~16 Minut 17 20 26 47 21 274 275 276 285 --... ---. 06..04..". 07.05."--- vy§ka ' --....." . . B-3S.."--zkusebni zaletavaci zkusebni 13:00-13:09 13:12-13:15 13:18-13:22 13.3 B-35. OS.. 06.-- --. "--- c..3 B-35.67 c. 06.."----. 06.. ~~~~~~ " ~~~~~~ " . --...."--_. " --Hd 43 Zemanek Zemanek Hlado Dalecky Dalecky Dalecky vy§ka rychlost rychlost --... 11. as.."--.." ----.."--M-IOO --. 31. 11.. 943) --. 08.:24-13:32 13:35-13:39 13:41-13:48 14:02-14:05 14:40-14:48 9 3 4 8 4 7 3 18 14:S0-14:55 14:57-15:00 15:07-15:14 13:45-14:22 1345-1400 1002-1100 1515~lS42 09:05-09:32 10:00-10:50 13:38-13:41 13:42-13:45 5 3 7 37 15 58 27 27 50 3 3 5 4 388 417 433 434 435 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 02..-.."_'-- 10:02-10:14 11:18-11:32 13:50-14:21 12 14 31 26 .. . SIS 516 542 549 56S 24.:53 14:45-15:08 17 :35-17 :S7 15:37-15:50 35 55 62 36 L8 13 22 13 Srpen / August 729 730 731 11..08.... ~-H 16... ". 06..-rychlost --.05."......2 B-35......."."--- --... .67 c..2 Hamilton --..... 19. 21. B-35.3 B-35."---... .

.. Pilot (3-lista) Typ ZkODsky mefeni ."--(3-lista) ~~~. Z{l kabinou se objevil stotdr auteny ." ----.2 B-3S..1 prototype.1.1 (8·135... 22..2 B~3S.429/1433 C..2 B-35. motoru Vrtule Hamilton -~-. 42911433 c... " " ~=~ --- a pfistani 14:23-14:29 14:31-14:35 14:37-14:40 Zemanek --.. --...1" etc... _ .2 8-35.. (Author's Collection) /J -1~7Q. "_ . ie oznacenl typu ve tvaru napr.. B. 16.... -_ .. POZNAMKA: V puvodnfm zaznarnu.. ~ -~~ " . The radio mast appeared behind the cockpit. 11..35-2 uskutecnil 108 Ietn (28 hod 20min) NOTE: The original record in the flight log book the type is entered as 8."-----.. 16.2 _ .."------.35... 16... _ ._ "----- meteni starta a pristaru 14:42-14:46 14:52-14:56 14: 58-15:01 1 J :30-12:03 11: 12-12.429/1433 c..~~ --.2 c..... 11. _ ......2 8-35. This photo was taken probably briefly before the handover to the VTLU. Pro p ublikacnlucely je zpusob oznacenl typ u v pooobe zavedene v cesk€: literature... the form of "8·35.1)."---Hamilton .-.05 B-3S. 11.135·1. .... (3-lisra) (3-lista) (3-lisUi) Zemanek vyska vyska rychlost rychlost 53 37 Zemanek Zemanek 16 Prosinec I December Behem tohoto mesice neletal zadny z prototype B-35 I During this month no B-35 prototype was flown 1940 Kveten I May 283 21.2 8-35.... 22.1939 Listopad I November Let C. "--------.05 27. .._ ...." --.e. 8-35.. 297 304 306 24.--- 870 874 883 21. C. Posledn! intima podoba prototypll 8~35."---Hamilton Hamilton Hamilton .. 11.05 09: 11-09:48 12:19-12:35 3 33 884 II....429/1433 Hamilton " " " " (3~listll) Zemanek Zemanek Atanasov Atanasov Popgancev zaletavact zaletavaci zkusebni " 13:50.."--B-3S. 16.. U..14:45 55 12:16-12:32 14:55~15:07 16 12 12:00~12._... Datum 16. -. 27 .. 17 12:24-12:47* 17 " (* havaroval) 23 B. "..2 B-35. --.2 . . tzn. OS as 307 28<05 28..-.2 B-35.2 B-35..1 or 8.. 11.... II.2 8-35... startn Cas '14:14-14:18 Minut 4 6 4 3 4 4 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 Zemanek . For the sake of simplicity and order we adhere to the way the writing of OUI designations is stabilised in the Czechoslovak (Czech) literature t... Tato fotografle byla poiizena pJ"avdipodoblli krdtce pred pfeddnim do VTLO. v Knizeletu. (Sbirka aurora) The last known configuration of the B·3S.429/1433 c..35·1 nebo 8."--..1.35·1.~ " .. Typ B~35.

bfezna 1939 byly provedeny obdobne zkou ky s kovovou vrtull M-IOO pohanenou motorem c.2 po svern ptedchadci podedil motor Avia 12Ydrs C. Od prvniho Letounu se lisil mime zmensenymi kfidelky. Druhy prototyp vzletl poprve tesne peed koncem roku ]938. 10. protoze zamysleny zatahovaci rnechanizmus stale jdte nebyl k dispozici.lnez u pfedchudce. The variations concern mainly the chin radiator air the bulge on the nose side panel that changed to a depression. prototyp oznaceny B-35. Vyrazna zmena zasahla pfekryt kabiny. (Author's Collection) Avia 8-35. and the completely new cockpit enclosure.2 se od prvniho letounu svymi hlavnimi kiivkami pnlis nelisil.1) oil radiator (as B-35. protoze jeho kolega Oldfich Kosar zahynul 20. B-35. Tyto zkousky jen potvrdily vysledek novy tvar . Avia 232B. ktery v letounn zustal az do srpna.2 zkousely vrrule Avia 232A. V lednu se letalo pouze s drevenou vrtuli Avia 232B. 2. Rozdil» lze spatfit pfedevsim ve tvaru vzduchu pod pf{d~ boule na boku pftde se zmenita v pro lis. V pfedni casti trupu byl horni panel s vystrelnymi kanaly zbrani nahrazen tvarove stejnyrn dilern.piemisteno new shape . 67. do not differ much from the first one's. • The curves of the prototype. Misto puvodni celokovove karoserie bylo zvoleno provedeni pouzite u typu B-534.relocated chlddil vody water radiator novy pfekryt kabillY new cockpit canopy iddne ibrane Il0 machine guns chladii: oleje ctyn (jako B-35. Hd 43 a M-IOO.2. nyni vybaveny dvoulistou drevenou bandazovanou zkusebni vrtull Avia 232B.1) 28 . Upravy se dotkly pouze tvaru kapotovani. Behem (mora a zejmena 2.547 na kbelskem letisti. ktery byl v okamziku havarie v dilnach a tudif neposkozeny. Stejne jako u prveho prototypu se na B-35. Letoun pilotoval opet Rudolf Dalecky.Druhj illpace second intake. letoun uskutecnil srovnavaci zkousky s dvoulistou kovovou vrtuli Letov Hd 43. 30.2. ktery byL mnohem UZS. pficernz konstrukce kfidla zustala zachovana. tzn. a letoun dostal zcela novy piekryt kabiny pilota. designation B-35. Podvozek zustal i v tornto pHpade pevny. proroze v te dobe byl uz v Avii dokoncovan druhy prototyp B-35. prosince 1938 ph havarii letounu Avia Bk-534. k drevene tvarove karoserii Z uzkych lati potazene platnern.2 Neslavny konec prvniho prototypu rozhodne neznarnenal zastaveni vyvoje. Toto zatent se pfeneslo i do hfbetni partie zadni casti trupu. do 3. Nasledujlcf mesice zustal na vsechny zkousky sam. ale bez tech to prolisu. ale zvetsenymi vztlakovymi klapkami. ale od 1. prosince.

v unoru tovarnu navstivila bulharska vojenska delegace. (Author's collection) Rudolf Daleckj v kabine B. protoze letoun zapusobil mirnoradne silnym dojmern. the B-35. V nasledujiclcn dnech bulharsti specialists studovali technickou a vyrobni dokumenraci. One 23.2 prototype. Dole: Celni pohled umoznllje srovndni tvaru vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladili vody s tvarem u B-35. ktera nevestila nic dobreho.S55 (14:26 . The new type of the Pilot tube and the tailwheelfork is readily visible. V houstnouci atmosfefe zacatku roku 1939..Tovdrn! zkuiebni pilot Rudolf Dalecky u prototypu 8-35. The handle of the sliding part of the cockpit transparency and the turnover pylon beneath his head are visible beneath his head. (Sbirka autora) • The factory test pilot Rudolf Dalecky with the 8·35. Osratni vykony zustaly na stejne urovni jako u prvniho prototypu.1. Na snimku je videt novy typ pouzite Pitotovy trubice a vidlice ostruhoveho kola. (NTM Prague) 29 . Vzapet] se predstavil i nejnovejsl Ietoun 8-35.14:37 h). (Author'S collection) pfedchozich nedokoncenych mereni vykonu s kovovyrni vrtulemi. Jejim poslanlm bylo zajistit pro domaci letectvo vhodne typy. Zajeho hlavouje videt ochran3 nj pylon a rukojet posuvneho casu piekrytu kabiny. Zajem bulharskeho vojenskeho Ietectva na sebe oeoechal dlouho cekat. Below: Nose view gives the comparison of chin radiator intakes o/bothprototypes.unora 1939 byl bulharske m'ivsteve pfedveden nejprve leroun Avia Bk-S34.2 cockpit.2 a na pfistich 10 minut poutal pozomost potencialnich zilkazniku.2. Letoun S nimi vykazoval rychlosti aZ 483 kmlh.1 and -.2.2. Rudolf Dalecky in the B-35. 5.

but. Novy kryt kabiny tvar trupu zjemnil. (Author's collection) 30 . (Sbirka autora) zuzil Several pictures that allow to compare the first and second prototype. made the entry and egress much more difficult due to the limited shoulder room.Nikolik snimku dovolujieich dostatecne srovndni s prvnim prototypem. alas. ale toke jej nepf(jemni ve vysce ramen pilota. The new transparency made the fuselage lilies finer.

neji prerusila snad jen navsteva generals Udeta a jeho doprovodu. 1939 probihalo me-reni vykonu pfi ruznych refirnech letu vcetne vyskovych a rychlost- nich leta. Jen 0 nekolik dnn pozdeji. Vzhledem ke skutecnosti. brezen 1939.2 vybavenym tfilistou stavitelnou vrtuli Hamilton. protoze veskera predchozi mefenl prokazala jejich positivni dopad na jeho vykony.jen zlomena podvozkova noha. 4. Poskozeru samotnebo letounu nebylo prflis rozsable . Karl Francke. s Avil B-3S. Teto fazi zkousek byli opel pfitomni bulharstf zkusebni letci. One 2. Atanasov a nasledujici den se k nernu pfidal i kpt. I. ohnura vrrule. Ackoliv se jednalo 0 zkuseneho pilota. Pocinaje 2. 42911433) pohanejfcirn opet tfilistou vrtuli Hamilton.. proc se nepri toupilo k jeho oprave by mohla byr i skutecno t. Jake prvni si letoun 27. (Sbirka all/ora) An interesting detail on all Avias was the fillet between vertical and horizontal tail surface. srpna se ph dalsich zkusebnich letech s B-3S.2 strtdali Dalecky s novyrn tovarnim pilotem sazeni jii oklestene Frantiskem Zemankem. ie v nove vzniklem protektoratu se tovarna Avia dostala pod spravu Risskeho mnisterstva letectvi (Reichsluftfahrtministerium).5. 5. 1939 provedl prvni let s B-35. novy proto- poziClz( svhlo position light ostruhove kola tail wheel nove pozienl svelio new position light typo 31 . Diky prornyslenemu systernu trubkovych vzper za sedadlem nedoslo ke zraneni pilota.Osudny 15. J 1. a ndsledne i seriovycl: letounii.cerstvyrn" motorem (c. Popgancev. Podle vyjadfeni tehdejsich zamestnancu Avie byl Francke lerovyrni vlastnostmi "petatficitky" nadsen. Odpocinury letoun Zemanek znovu zaletal at. Nasledujlclch pet meslcii stravil prorotyp ve vyvojovych dilnach a nabyre zkusenosti konstruktefi prenaseli do rodici se konecne podoby posledni aviacke stihacky. piedevsim kormidlem. Nicmene. 21.zakopnout" a prevratit jej na zada. J 940. (Author's collection jiz s . kvetnern 1939 at do 14. ale plntenj potah fabric covered rear fuselage Zaj(mavym prvkem vsech tft prototypu. tenro proces va1. vyzkousel por. ktery si 19. Od tohoto data prototyp Ieral vyhradne s kovovymi vrtulerni. Pro letoun byl vsak 28. Po te byly zkousky preruseny. mime deformovana kylova ploeba SOP a prornacknuty kryt vzduchoveho kanalu k chladici vody. kteryrn bylo de facto dokonceno obCeskoslovenske republiky v pods tate nepfilis vaine ovlivnil program zkousek. especially the rudder.. 3.e ryden pred havarii uskutecnil svuj prvnf let zcela jiny. II. byiy piechody mezi vodorovnoa a svislou ocasni plochou. pf pfistanl se mu podafilo s Ietounern lehee . Duvodem. Od listopadu se letovernu programu venoval uz jen Zemanek. lednim z clenu by] i znamy nemecky zkusebni pilot Ing.2 zaleral. protoze znacna cast technicke kapacity zavodu se v te dobe pfipravovala na vyrobu cvicnych Ietounu Arado Ar 96. kveten dnern poslednfho lew. 23. nasledujicl zkousky se provadely rakfka vyhradne na tovarnim leristi. Ai do 22. preletl Dalecky Ieroun k vyzkouseni do Letiian.

. V pozadi je zkuiebni pilot Karl Francke (+). Podle knihy letu sem prototyp 8-35. To make the German delegation feel like at home. some subservient soul let the machines "adorned" with Nazi German symbols. celnlho stitku neni nic jineho nei teplomer. Aby se pocetnd delegace citila opravdu .2 preletl rdno 23. held for the Nazi German delegation at the VTLU airfield. Zazvonila) • A display of Czechoslovak aircraft. The windshield carries onl» a thermometer. na ramo. Skupinka ceskoslovellskych lelcit nedobrovolne postdvala na rozbiedlem terenu u sveho sverelJce.jako doma". The delegation was led by the Chief of the Technical Office of the RLM. J. General Luftzeugmeister Ernst Udet (in overcoat with white lapels]. za ceskoslovellskoll stranu jej doprovtizel plk. (J. Fetka (++).Piehlidka ceskoslovenske letecke techniky uspohidand pro nemeckou delegaci na letisti VTLU. (Sbirka autora) A group of Czechoslovak airmen unwillingly steps in the slush» sod near the aircraft. Mimo jine.2 prototype was flown here in the morning of 23rd March 1939. According to the logbook of flights the 8-35. (Author's collection) Delegaci vedl sam Uf Technickeho tiiadu RLM generdlmajor Ernst Udet (btU klopy plnstif). "ifjaky dobrdk "ozdohil" letadla nemeckymi symboly. F etka (++). (Sbirka. Zazvonil collection) 32 . For the Czechoslovak side he was accompanied by Col. 1939. 3.the German test pilot Karl Francke (+) is in the background.

··r:- G r B-B I.. L 33 .

These performance tests only confirmed the previously incomplete results of measurements taken while using the metal propellers. The original all-metal fuselage formers were replaced with fabric-covered narrow wooden strips making up the external streamlined shell. A major change took place with the cockpit canopy which became much narrower than that of its predecessor. This slimming down was of cour e carried back to the rear fuselage top decking. but lacking the gun troughs of the first prototype. The second prototype took off for the first lime on 30th December 1938. as his COlleague O. The propeller was the Avia 232B two-bladed. no. The machine had demonstrated speeds of up to 483 kmfh. uitable aircraft types for their Air Force. bandaged. A clay that was to have little effect on the test-flying program- 34 . During February. (Author's collection) Avia B. Hd 43 and M-IOO propellers respectively fitted. Over the following four months he nevertheless remained the sole test pilot for the programme. The B-35. On the 23rd February in the early afternoon. mrlzeme videt tento letoun i JOt druhe strany". The results were not too long in coming. 232B. wooden test unit. Only the external shape was changed somewhat.2 The ignominious end to the fir ( prototype did not result in the cancellation of the type. 5. as the fighter had left a very favourable and strong impres ion. attracting the interest of the Bulgarian VIPs.35. In the dark days of early 1939. [he B-3S.. Ko- me saf bad perished on 20th December 1938 in the crash of the Avia B-534. It differed from the first machine by having the area of the ailerons reduced and the flaps enlarged. flown by Rudolf Dalecky. (Sbirka autora) The crash of the second prototype on 28th May 1940 brought much less harm both to the man and the machine. Diky teto udalost. 67. driven by the Avia 12 engine. 1940 dopadla pro pilota i pro letadlo podstatne lepe. For the researcher's benefit the crash shows the "other side" of the aircraft to advantage. 10 from its predecessor.Havdrie druheho prototypu 28. as this engine was ill the workshops at moment of crash. and immediately afterwards the latest pride of Czechoslovak aviation industry the Avia 8-35. but from lst to 3rd of February the machine underwent tests comparing its performance with the Letov Hd 43 fitted. as the intended retractable one was still unavailable.2 inherited the Avia 12Ydrs no. the official request from the Bulgarians for data fo. and especially on 2nd March 1939.555. the Bulgarians were first shown the Avia Bk-534. as the construction of the second one was in its final stages at the Avia factory. The fighter showed its paces and capabilities for ten minutes. In the front fuselage there was a cowling panel fitted on top similar in shape. just before the end of the year. not auguring well for the future.2. The undercarriage remained fixed.547 at Kbely airfield. In January 1939 the aircraft was flown only with the 232B fined. thus having escaped any damage. The Bulgarian specialists studied the technical and manufacturing documentation. while the wing structure remained the same. As for the first prototype. per the Avia B-534. tasked with finding.2 was fitted for te t purposes with the Avia 232A. the month of February would witness a visit from a Bulgarian military delegation. the other performance figures were virtually unaltered from those of the first prototype.l1owed soon after the show. similar tests were conducted with the metal M-lOO propeller.

• The final fate Ita of the machine notwithstanding. its precarious predicament gives a fine view of the flap design. the subsequent test took place almost exclusively on the factory airfield at Cakovice. It received a "fresh" Avia engine (no. (Sbtrka autora) mu nahradit. The damage to the aircraft was not too extensive.2 for the first time fitted with the three-bladed Hamilton Standard variable pitch propeller. bent propeller. this would be the last fighter aircraft they were to design. Kovan( vystu- pajle( z povrchu stiedni elisti kiidla bylo pfipravou montat pumovych' zavesrziku. the 28th May was to see the final flight of the Avia B-35. With the establishment of the so-called "Protektorat Bohmen und Miihren" the Avia Company became subject to the control of the Reich's ministry of aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium RLM) and as such. (Author's collection) se potom s letounem stalo cokoli. Only a few days later. Atanasov. The machine having stood idle was flown again on 21st May 1940. The latter. 429/1433). 0 konstrukci vztlakoAt'IlZ vych klapek. From 2nd May 1939 until the 14th August Rudolf Dalecky and the new factory pilot Frantisek Zemanek took it in turn to fly the Avia B-3S. Popganchev. Alas for the Avia Company. slightly disfigured vertical tail and a dented water radiator air intake duct fairing to show. who on 19th April took the B-35. co S8 od nij ocekdvalo a k oprave nedoilo. the fateful 15th March 1939.) me would. Yet the machine probably fulfilled all tbe requirements and the repair eventually did not take place. This day of infamy. would see the first liquidation of an already mutilated Czechoslovakia.3 prototype took place. the machine ending up on its back. 35 . which earlier bad been shorn of its natural border of mountains and its mall-made ring of concrete fortifications by the Munich Agreement. proving also the speed and altitude performance of the prototype. (Author's coll. seal the de facto fate of a nation. The reason why it was not repaired have been the fact that a week before this accident the first flight of a completely different. Thanks to the well-conceived tubular umover structure behind the seat the hapless pilot escaped unhurt. On 2nd November 1939 he flew the B-35. Dalecky flew the prototype to Leti'iany for testing purposes. 96 training airplane.only a broken undercarriage leg.1). the Avia B-35. Karl Francke. One of the members of the party was the German test pilot Ing. Then the tests were interrupted as a major portion of the technical capacity of the factory was taken up by preparations for production of the Arado AI. From this date on the prototype only flew with metal propellers. The fittings protruding from the wing centre seclion bottom surface were the bomb rack anchor points. jeho poloha je zdrojem cennjm informaci napi. During tbe following five months the B-35. From November the testflying programme was tasked to Zemanek only.2 up for a flight. according to the memories of the Avia staff present he was elated by the flying qualities of the machine.3 (later renamed B-135. here the design team transformed the experience gained during the development of this prototype to the final shape of the nascent fighter.2 prototype spent its time in the development workshops. Despite this. followed the following day by Cpt.2. on 23rd March. nonetheless. Up to 22nd November the test flights were flown to check the behaviour of the type in various flight regimes. brand new B-35.PoskOZ8n{ letounu skutecfie nebylo tak vaine a vetsinu poskoze"ych casti by bylo mottle bez preble- letoun patrnl ut splnil vie. However. Ale The damage was minor and majority of parts were easily replaceable. as the previous measurements had proved that they improved its performance. the testing process was intenupted fOT the visit of Generalluftzeugmeister Ernst Udet and his entourage. managed to "stumble" during a landing and nosed tbe aircraft over.2 prototype. again driving a three-bladed Hamilton propeller. although an experienced pilot. This phase of testing took place with the Bulgarian test pilots again present On 27th May the first Bulgarian to have a go on the machine was Lt.

Konstrukce trupu zustala ve srovnani s druhym protorypern beze zrnen. pnpravy se prornitly zejmena v konstrukci chUuJil vody water radiator mime zmenseni kfidelek. Besides the retractable undercarriage iJ got also a narrower cockpit canopy. 36 kulometii chladic oleje oil radiator novj tvar flew shape . ale posledni pro tento rok. ze se podarilo uspokojive vyfesit pevnost kfidla v oblasti ulozeni podvozku (behem zkousek na Iarnaci stolici se objevovaly trhliny v plechovern potahu kndla). jako tornu by to u typu Meserschmitt Bf 109 nebo Supermarine Spitfire. Krome zatahovactho podvozku stroj zfskfll i novy piekryt kabiny. Nove se prostrednl m'tdrZ vyjrnula po odstraneni kryctho panelu na spodni strane khdla a pore byto mozne vyjmout obe postranni nadrze.3 ejektorove vjfuky exhaust ejector stubs Zatimco se nemecka administrativa zabydlovala ve vsech ffdicich strukturach nove vznikleho protektoraru Cechy a Morava. Prototyp B-35. tzn. ledinou vaznou novinku predstavovala mala bocni dvifka pod kabinou na levern baku trupu. (Author's collection) Avia 8-35. letoun mohl dostat pine zatazitelny podvozek francouzske finny Messier S olejopneurnatickyrni tlumici a s koly Dunlop. ktere v teto faz: vyvoje ziskalo rovnou nabeznou hranu kvnli zjednoduseni vyroby. Jejich zavedeni bylo odpovedi na kritiku prilis uzkeho trupu ve vysce ramen pilota. klapky ziskaly na rozpen. The new machine looked much more like the series-built fighters. stavba tfetiho prototypu . Doslo take na opetovne vystfe/ne kandly krokem pfi konstrukci bylo vyfeseni problernaticke demontaze palivovych nadal Z kfidla. kteremu se jinak obtizne]! nastupovalo a vystupovalo z kabiny.3 . Nasledujici den odpoledne s letounern provedl dam dva lety. • The factory photo of the B-35.3 alias 8-135. pohanejict drevenou dvoulistou vrtuIi Avia 232.1 . s platenym potahem zadni casti trupu za kabinou. Zasadnlm celodreveneho kfidla.3 prototype was taken shortly after the maiden flight.3 s motorern Avia 12Ycrs.Tovdrni sntmek prototypu B-35. Podvozkove nohy se zatahovaly smerem ke koncum kfidel. lelikoz se planovala seriova vyroba.B-35.3 pDf/zen] pravdipodobni krdtce po zdleiu: Novy letoun se svym vzhledem pnblfiil ke svi koneene podohe.8-135.jiz byla v pokroeilern stavu. Prostredni nadri se pouzivala jako zaloznf a tim byl splnen jeden z rady pozadavku VTLO. Vzhledern k tornu. cervna 1939 tesne pled polednem. zaletal tovarni pilot Dalecky 20.

2 (vpravo) lze odhalit mime upravenj tvar vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiCi vody u B-35. the 8-35. (Author's collection) 37 .1 3 B-13S.2.3 (below) had a slightly modified water radiator air intake. By comparison with ostruhove kolo jako u B~35.2 nove ostruhove kolo se zajisten{m ~ new Jail wheel with lock the second prototype..B-35 .2 & serfe Porovndntm s druhjm prototypem B-35.3 (dole). shown right.2 tail wheel as on the B·35. & B-13S. the B-35.

(Sbtrka autora.2 B-135 serie boc".ete casteene porovnat i vyvoj nekterjch vnitinicl: detailu. Pod timto uhlem pohledu jsou pekne videl takfka vtechny vnljSt upravy.Ukcizka eastecnl "odstrojeniho" letounu.1. B-135.2 nemil. Podle tohoto snimku.) A somewhat "skinned" machine provides for a partial comparison of development of certain internal detail. Behind the pilot's seal the compartment for the radio set and the baggage compartment.2 8-35. kteri prototyp 8·35. (Author's collection) Vyvoj prekrytu pilotnfho prostoru Cockpit canopy development B-35.3 B-135. including the gun troughs that were absent on the B-35.2 prototype. (Sbtrka autora.' vstUplI( tlvirka Dole: Srovndvact sntmek. mrll. Za sedadlem je zpfistupllen prostor radiove soupravy a zavazadlovy prostor. This angle of view shows almost all external modificadims. (Author's collection) 38 . veetnl vystfelnych kandltl.) • Below: Below: Comparative picture.

company archive. a.s. company archive.. cervence 1939. Zde byl pochopitelne vystavovan jako vyrobek protektoraru. na rozdtl od ostatnfch leskoswvenskjch konstrllkc. Prague) Kratce po zaletani byl letoun opatten kovovou dvoulistou vrtuIi Letov Hd 43 a odeslan do Belgie na II. Praha) Rigbt and centre: IIIBrussels the prototype was shown without any fwtional insignia or company logo. Dole: Pohled na protektordtnt stdnek v Bruselu. differing thusly from all other Czechoslovak machines all display. archiv Walter. mezinarodnt aerosalon v Bruselu (Salon de I'Aeronautique) zahajeny 8.s. kde na pralli Bulharu as pozehnanim nemeckeho vedeni pokracoval dalSi v)rvoj. Prague) 39 . Po skonceni aerosalonu byl letoun prevezen do tovarny.940. ale prekvapive bez svastik nebo jine nemecke "parady". Bottom: A view of the Protectorate Bohemia/Moravia display stand in Brussels. nemeckeho leteckeho prumyslu tReichsverhand der Deutschen Lufifahrt-lndustrie).Vpravo a uprostred: vystaven. resp.~bezjakehokoliv illjormacnlho panelu podpffdf.s. (Walter a. Zastupci bulharskeho letectva se v te dobe jiz seznarnovali nejen s technickou dokumentaci ale i s technologit vyroby. s vjjimkou (Podn. (Walter a. V Bruselu by/ letoun by/ vfsostlieho nebo firemniho oznacen(m. The sole exception was the information/data panel under the nose. Do listopadu 1939 pak letal jiz jen druhy prototyp a letove zkousky typu byly obnoveny at v kvetnu J.

1. cervnem 1940. ale ul v nemeckem markingu. Pouze kryt kol byl ve vyzkumnem ustavu mime zvetsen a je~te pfed odletem do tovarny 21.1.1. opet obnoveny letove zkousky. shows the machine with the Bulgarian representatives.6. Pfelet do Leti'ian 10. Temef pet hodin trva- v jicl exhibici Zemanka. V teto fazi zkousek mel letoun stale puvodnl typ podvozku a kol. pfisli spolecnou praci ovefit zastupci ceskeho i bulharskeho tyrnu. The photo. 6. Oba talc meli moznost porovnar chovanl stroje. jen drevenou vrtuli nahradila dvoulista kovova Hd 43. Po Zemankovi usedl do kabiny par. Pfidany dll je velmi dohre rozpoznatelny. Snimek cea mezi 14.1 byla provedena 21.3 se do vzduchu znovu dostal pod oznacenim Avid B-135. as the original undercarriage wheel doors prove. • The "new old" 8-35. (Author's collection) Po jedenacti mestclch od zaletani 8-35. ktery v podstare predstavoval podobu seriovych stfhacek. 1940 ctrnacriminutovym zaletavanlm. Na levem snimku je cdstellli vUilt puvodnftyp otejoveho chladice. cervna probehlo mefenl (?rychlosti?) Ilprava krytu podvozkoveho kola prototypu B-135. taken some time between 14th and 20th June 1940. ale take predvesr sve vykony zastupcurn bulharskeho letectva. Na snimku je spoilt se zdstuci bulharskeho letectva. 5. a 20. Na pozdeji vyrobellych siriovych strojich bylo lvetien( teto casti krytu asi jell polovicllt. 1940 mel Z~ ell nejen provefit hodnoty spocitane a namerene Avii.Staronovy prototyp 8-35. already in the German markings. Motor tohoto staronoveho stroje zustal zachovan. ktery stroj pfedvedl skoro ve vsech rezimech letu. (Sbirka M. protoie letoun majeste plivodllf kryci piechy podvozkovych kol. Novy program letovych zkousek zahajll pilot Zemanek 21. Na letiste vyzkumneho ustavu si 14. nynf oznacenym jako B-135. Popgancev.3 byly s letounern. Atanasov (na 33 min) a po nem i kpt. Bay) 40 . sledoval i zkuseny a nebojacny kPL Popgancev. ktery diky odolnosti konstrukce neztratil duveru k novernu stroji. tervna 1940 pravdepodobni v dflnach VTLD.3 prototype took to air again as the B-135.

213.1 prototype carried Oil the tests marked as the B-135.1 took place on 21st June 1940. (mora 1941.2. Na snimku je zachycen na ploie leliste VTLU s civilnt pozndvact znackou D-IBPP.Prototyp B-135. Pro uplnost stoji za to zmlnit skutecnost. probably in the VTLU workshops. (NTM Prague) Bottom left: Modification o/the wheel cover on the B-135. dokoneil tovami prototypove zkousky. 18. podvozku. Prakticky cely program odletal pilot Zemanek. 6.. shows the original type oj the oil cooler. 6. 74.2 v Letiianech leta! s jinym.. including the wheel and leg covers. PIne disky kol byly pro point podntmky take praktiftijsi. zahynul zkuseny Ze- Celni stitek . Do Leti'ian se vratil jeste jednou 25. Ph havarii stroje B-71.. Na domaci pude tovamiho letiste pak 24.llmlfQvac novy podvozek (pouze B-135..6.1 & -. 1940 a program zkousek v celkovem rozsahu 47 letu v trvani 23 h 07 min zde nasledujici den take zakoncil. pouze sest letu provedl pilot VTLU Spumy.1) telescopic gun sight (B-135. Zkusebni pUoti si ale rozhodne neodpocinuli protoze v tomto obdobi presedali z jednoho Arada Ar 96 do druheho. 6. The added section is clearly discemible. V teto Jdzijiz doilo na kompletni vjmenu. The picture at left partly . behern svych "pobytiI" ze B-13S. 6. 6. Krome toho byla technicka kapacita tovarny zatizena i vyrobou letoumi B-7l. Nasledujicich devet mesicu se letoun do vzduchu nedostal. bearing the civilian D-IBPP registration. (Author's collection) po tete uprave. The picture shows the machine at the VTLU airfield.1 pokracoval ve ZkOllSkdch pod oznacentm Avia 8-135.2. nahrazen motorem Avia 12 Ycrs c. 11. vielne kryctct« plechii. The undercarriage was completely replaced at the time.1 uveden motor c. Podle zaznamu 0 zkouskach vedenych touto institucf byl 11. (NTM Praha) • The B-135. 21. The later series-built machines had this addition only half-size. 25. 1433. ackoliv je v tovarru knize tern u B-135.2 teleskopickj 1.Windshield ejektorove vyfuky exhaust ejector stubs 8-135.1 011ly) o chladiC oleje s hladkjm povrchem oil radiator with smooth surface air scoop 41 .

Posledni zaznam 0 pnlhodinovem letu B-1 35. Pravdepodobne po preletu do vyzkurnneho usravu 6. dubna 1941. (Sbirka autora)» The Avia B~135. 74. se za ffzenfrn. z nichz posledni by! 24. rnisto kol Dunlop byla pouzita kola a brzdy Argus 650 x 180 na hlavnim podvozku a 290 x 110 U ostruhy.2 prototype at the VTLU airfield.j. Behern 58 uskutecnenych zkusebnich a mericich letu.2. Ve skutecnosti se jednalo 0 dva samostatne lety. 1686/41. ze prototyp se navenek li~i1 pfedevsim zmenou podvozku. rovnez s motorem c.2 pochazi z 3. Do tovarny se Siroky s letounern vratil 26. brezna 1941 do 21.Prototyp Avia B-135. Puvodni typ Messier by1 nahrazen vlastnim systemem tovarny Avia. Na snimku je zachycen na plose letiste VTLU ve svetiem nateru barvoa RLM 02 s civilni poznavact znackou D-IBPP. Tovarni cast zkousek s letounem oznacenym B-135. kvetna letoun dostal na trup a kndlo nemeckou civllnt poznavaci znacku D-IBPP.Petra Sirokeho. (Author's collection) manek a tak by1 novy letovy program sveten do rukou jednoho z nejzkusenejslch piloru Avie . na 1850 mm. V pozadi jsou vide: budovy Letova. cervna. Ze zpravy a z fotografil je patrne. Rozchod podvozku se zversil na 2500 mID. Z tohoto abdobi pochazi i podrobna prototypova zprava VTLU (FVA) c. Rozpeti kfidelek se zmensilo at. Prvni 42 . stndali piloti VTLO Brazda a Biciste.2 probihala v Avii aZ od 7. cervence 1941.zkousku dospelosti''. Mimo jine uvadi. painted in the RLM 02 light grey-green overall) Letov factory buildings are visible in the background. Na letiianskern letisti si stroj odletal svoji skutecnou . cervna. ze prototyp nese 2 kulomery srfHejici okruhern vrtule a jeden "velkorazny kulomet" v ose vrtule.

Pro porvrzeni existence dalsiho prototypu jsou tyro utrzky bohuzel nedostatecnym dukazern a podrobnejsl hmatatelne informace 0 aktivite tovarny Avia ve spojitosti S timto prototypem v tomto obdobi se nedochovaly. (NTM Praha) zobrazeny v za- Bottom left: A head-Oil view on the 8-135.2 (D-IBPP) shown also in the head of page (NTM Prague) B-35. .3. This photo shows the same machine.1 ~~of-~:---~- zebrovany povrch corrugated surface hltulkf povrch smooth surface © Miroslav SiLY 43 . (NTM Praha) • During the tests not only the internal equipment was changed. but also tile colouring.L35. I pfi reto rychJosti bylo Ifzenl stroje lehee zvladnutelne a pilot nezaznarnenal zadue vibrace.V prilbihu zkousek se na letounu B-135.1. 1941 !). (NTM Prague) byl bezny zalet. zaobleno .2 ve VTLU existuji vsak take zaznamy 0 zkouskach letounu oznaceneho B. ph druhem Siroky opet zjistoval rychlostni rnoznosti stroje a ve stremhlavem letu dosahl rychlosti 715 km/h po ztrate vysky 1945 mew. Na fotografii je stejnj letoun.2 & serie B-35. 22. ..1 Ackoliv se do toboto data v knize letu objevuje pouze oznaceni B-135. Ty casove zapadaji do obdobi zkousek stroje B-135. a 23.3 & B-135.2 (casove vyrazne oddelene). ale i zbarveni.1.. Vlevo dole: Celni pohled na B-135.2 8-35. but in a considerably darker paint scheme of dark green overall.2 menilo nejen vnitin: vybavent. 5. 5. ale v podstaille tmavsim nateru tmave zelenou barvou.3.2.2 (rninimalne 21.rounded B-135.1 a B-135.2 (D-IBPP) hlavi vlevo nahoie. Z obdobi pobytu stroje B-13S. Vyvoj pfivodu vzduchu ke kompresoru a olejoveho chladice Supercharger air inlet and oil radiator development . . 5. B-135..

Avia B-35.3
alias B-135.1 to B-135.3
While the German administration spread throughout all of the governmental structures of the newly created "Protectorate" of Bohemia and Moravia, the third prototype of the aircraft ~ the B-35.3 - was in an advanced slate of construction. As the structural issues concerning the wheel weU area of the wing, (cracks had appeared in the sheet metal covering of the wing during loading t.ests), had now been fully resolved, the aircraft

major novelty was the small cockpit access door on the port fuselage side. This was introduced as a reaction to the criticism of the fuselage as being too narrow at the pilot's shoulder level; until introduction of the doors, entry and egress of the cockpit was somewhat difficult. The B-3S.3 prototype with the Avia 12Ycrs engine, driving the wooden two-bladed Avia 232 propeller, was test-flown by the factory test pilot Dalecky on 20111 June 1939, shortly before noon. During the following day, in the afternoon, two further flights were made; alas these were to be the final ones for that year. Shortly after the maiden flight the machine was fitted with the Letov Hd 43, a metal two-bladed propeller, and sent to Belgium for the lInd Salon de l'Aeronautique, the event taking place in

..,

-

---~-

__ -

_-.i->:

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1-

could be fitted with afuJly retractable oleo-pneumatically damped. undercarriage supplied by the French Messier company, with Dunlop wheels. The ule legs retracted towards [he wing tips (as with the Supermarine Spitfire and Messerschmitt Bf 109 types). As series production was planned, the changes primarily concerned the wooden wing, which at this stage of its development was given a straight leading edge, apparently to facilitate production. The span and area of the ailerons was again slightly decreased, the flaps growing in span. A substantial design issue was also tackled at this time: the questionable removal of the wing fuel tanks. The new design as adopted bad a centreline access panel beneath the central tank, which, once removed, made a place for the removal of both of the lateral wing tanks. The centreline tank was used as a reserve, thus fulfilling one of the requirements of the VTLO (Vojens/"'1 technicky a letecky ustav - Military technical and aviation institute), Compared to the second prototype, the fuselage design remained unchanged, i.e. with fabric covering aft of the cockpit. The only

Brussels, beginning on 8111 July 1939. The aircraft was presented as a product of the "Protectorate" industry, i.e. the German aeronautic industry tReichsverband del' Deutschen Luftfahrt-Industriei, but surprisingly it did not carry any markings such as the swastika, or any other "adornments" of the German Nazi Party or state. Once the "Salon" was over, the aircraft was transported to the factory, where, based on the requirements of the Bulgarians and with the blessing of the German management, its development continued. The Bulgarian Air Force representatives were at this time acquainting themselves not only with the technical documentation, but also with the production technology and process. By November 1939 only the second prototype was flying and test flying with the third prototype was only resumed in May 1940. Eleven months after the maiden flight of the B-35.3, the test flying with the aircraft, now marked B-135.1, was resumed. Pilot Zemanek started the new test programme on 215t May 1940 wi th a brief flight lasting fourteen-minutes. The aircraft flew with its original engine, new number and with the aforementioned metal lWO-

44

bladed Hd 43 propeller replacing the earlier wooden one. The ferry flight to Letriany on 101h June 1940 was used to prove not only the values calculated and measured by the manufacturer, but 'also to show the Avia to the Bulgarian Air Force representatives. On 14'" June 1940 representatives of both the Czech and Bulgarian teams came to the Military technical and aviation institute to

Tenia vjkres je puvodn[m tovdmim vykresem. Ostatni pfipojene vjkresy vzn'ikly rovnez na ;fikladl tovdrnich. vjkresu u/otenje" v Ndrodntm technickem muzeu. Vjkresy byly kopirovdny a studovany pouhyeh ne'1colikmalo misleu pied jejieh teZkym poskozentm, ktere utrpily pfi katastro/alni po vodni v liti 2002. (NTM Praha)

~__.--------_"~--.-.__....__.

_-

A~135

This drawing is original factory drawing. Other attached drawings are as well based 011 factory drawings preserved in National Technical Museum. The drawings were copied and researched just few months before originals were heavily damaged during katastrophic summer flooding, 2002. (NTM Prague)
see the results of their joint effort. The exhibition by the test pilot Zemanek lasted for almost five hours, as he demonstrated the machine in almost all of its possible flight regimes. The display was intently watched by amongst others the experienced and gallant Cpt. Popganchev, whose confidence in the stout structure of the machine had been reinforced by his previous experience with Avia's product on 28<hMay. After Zemanek, Lt. Atanasov took over the controls for some 33 minutes, then Cpt. Popganchev. Both pilots had the opportunity to confirm for themselves the behaviour of the machine, which by now had the characteristics of a series-built aircraft. In this phase of its test programme, the machine was fitted with

its Original undercarriage and wheels. SUbsequent modifications saw only a slight enlargement of the wheel covers and on 21"" June 1940, before the return ferry flight to the manufacturer, speed tests were undertaken to verify the results of this modification. Factory prototype testing of the aircraft was finally concluded on its home turf, the Avia Company airfield, on 24tb June 1940. The machine returned to Lernany on the following day and on 26th June 1940 concluded its test programme there, which had consisted in total of 47 flights, of 23 hours 07 minutes duration. The company test pilot Zemanek bad flown virtually the entire programme, with only six flights being performed with a VTLO pilot, Spumy, at the controls. For the sake of completeness, it is worth mentioning that despite the fact that the factory flight logbook lists engine no. 74 as powering the B-13S.1 airframe, during the "stints" at Letnany the aircraft flew with other power plants. According to the records of the VTLU, the Avia12Ycrs engine no. 1433 replaced the original one during testin g on the days of 11111, 16'h, 21" and 25'h June. The aircraft did not fly again duri.ng the following nine months. However the test pilots did not remain idle during this period, mounting one newly made Arado Ar 96 after another. Besides this aircraft, the capacity of the factory was utilised to build the B-71 bomber ..On the 11 Febru ary 1941 the crash of the B -71.213 took the life of the experienced pilot Zemanek and so the new fighter programme was given over to tbe care of Petr Siroky, (of pre-war aerobaric fame), one of the most experienced pilots that Avia had. Factory testing took place from 7111 March to 21" April 1941 with the machine re-designated as the B-135.2, again with engine no, 74. The aircraft was marked with the German registration D-IBPP on the wing and fuselage sides, probably following its ferry flight to the VTLO on 6'" May. At Letilany airfield the machine flew its real "final exams" ..During the 58 flights, flown for the purpose of testing and measuring its flight performance, (completed by 24111 June), the aircraft was flown by the VTLO pilots Brazda and HiCi~te. Siroky returned with the Avia to the factory on 261ll June. The detailed report of the VTLU (PVA - Flugversuchsanstalt Prag) no. 1686/41 from this period, states, amongst other things, that the prototype carried two (synchronised) machine guns firing through the propeller disc and one "large calibre machine gun" firing though the propeller hub, From the report and from photographs of the aircraft, it is apparent that the prototype differed externally from its original guise, especially in respect of changes made to the undercarriage. The original Messier units were replaced by the proprietary Avia system, the Dunlop wheels and brakes were replaced with those of Argus manufacture, sized 650 x 180 mm on the main undercarriage and 290 x 110 mm On the tail unit. The undercarriage track increased to 2,500 nun. The aileron span was reduced to 1,850 mm, The last recorded flighr of the Avia B-135.2 bears the date of 3nl July 1941. In fact there were two separate flights on this date. The first one was a normal initial testflight, during the second one, Siroky tested the diving capabilities of the machine, reaching a speed of 715 kmIh while losing 1,945 m altitude in the dive. Even at this speed the controls were easily handled and the pilot did not observe any vibration. Up to this point, only the designations B-13S.1 and B-135.2 ap~ pear in the flight logbook (but notably separated time-wise). However, from the period of testing of the B-13S.2 there also appears, in the VTLU records of tests, a machine designated B-135.3. The references to it fall into the time frame of tests on the B-135.2 (at least on 21", 22"d and 23m of May 1941 !). These fragments, however, do not'prove in themselves the existence of another prototype and further tangible information on the activity of the Avia Company regarding this prototype is lacking.
II;]

45

Letove charakteristiky

.

Flight Characteristics

Ing. Pavel KUCERA
Jak pnblizit letove vlastnosti a skutecne vykony tohoto v ceskoslovenskych dornacich podminkach vyjimecneho, ba v retrospektivnlm pohledu ptimo rnagickeho letounu B.35 ci jeho odnoze B.135, je nejlepe pfimo citovat ze zkusebnich zprav, Nezavisle zkousky na sklonku tficatych let provadel tehdejsi vojensky technicky letecky ustav (VTLU) v Leti'ianech. Dochovaly se zpravy z pozdejsi etapy zkousek prototypu B.135.1, jii z doby okupace. Ustav tehdy jiz nesl nazev Flugtechnische versuchsanstali (PVA) For best describing of real flight characteristics of this quite exceptional in Czechoslovakian industry, or even magical B.135 aircraft it is necessary to quote flight test reports. Objective flight tests on the eve of the war were carried out by Military Technical Aviation Institute (VTLU) at the time, in Prague Letnany. Reports from prototype B.135.1 testing, from time of German occupation survived. German name for in titurion was changed to Flugtechnische versuchsanstait (FVA) Prag. Fir. t report on proving te ts of B.135.1 is numbered plement to item nr. 163J/40, dated 14 June 1940. Weighing results are as follows: 4, as sup-

Prag. Prvni zprava

0 vzorovych zkouskach letounu B.135.1 rna C. 4 (poradi FVA) jako pfiloha k c.]. 1631/40 ze 14. cervna 1940. Nejprve uvadi vysledky vazenl Ietounu:

Prazdny letoun / Empty aircraft
(bez pohybliveho PalivofFuel OlejlLubricant zatizeni / without removable load)

1905,5 kg 234,0 kg 24,0 kg

Hmotnost vystroje a pilota byla nahrazena zatizenim (pytle s olovem)
Pilot and his accessories was replaced by load (bags with lead): Pilot / Pilot Padak / Chute 2 kulomety vz.30 /2:<: machine guns vz.30 500 naboju 1 500 projectiles 1 cHic 1 Aimer 1 kan6nl Gun 1 zasobnfk pro 60 naboju 1 Ammunition magazine (60 projectiles) 80 kg 10 kg 24 kg 17 kg 0,35 kg 43 kg 25,7 kg 24,5 kg 225 kg

Radiovystroj 1 Radioequipment Celkem 1 Total
Dalsi vystroj byla nahrazena

cca 1 approx.

hmotnosti meficich pfistroju I Further equipment of measuring instruments.

was replaced by tbe weight

Celkova hmotnost (pfictenim vystroje Hmotnost letounu Hmotnost letounu

letounu 1 Total aircraft weight 1 adding accessories) zvazenim I Aircraft weight as result of weighing die lldaju fy Avia / Aircraft weight according Avia data

2416,9 kg 24210 kg 2422,0 kg

pani do vysky 4500 rn, s horizontalnlrn Ietern na ploy plyn a sestupem (ubytek paliva 105 kg) cinil 550 kID (1 hod 08 min). Vodorovny usek probihal ve standardni vysce 4640 m ph rychlosti 507 kmlhod otackach 2400 lImin a tlaku dmychadla 825 mm Hg. Pfi letu s cestovnl rychlosti ve vodorovnem useku (ubytek paliva 84 kg) byl zjisten dolet 800 km (2 hod 13 min). Pritom vodorovny usek probihal ve standardni vysce 4715 m pfi rychlosti 393 kmJhod, 1930 ot/min a tlaku dmychad1a 715 mm Hg.

Nasledujl namerene vykonove pararnetry. Mefem spotreby se provadelo z vystupn do urcite vy§e (4500 m) a po sestupu byl zjisten vazentm ubytek paliva. Dolet vcetne stou-

Measured performance parameters are as follows. Fuel consumption measurement resulted from climbing up to specific height (4,500 m) and after descent fuel consumed was calculated from aircraft weighing. Range inclucting climbing up to 4,500 m with horizontal leg with throttle fuUy open, and descent (total fuel consumed 105 kg) was 550 km (within 1 hr 08 min). Horizontal leg was performed in standard height of 4,640 m at 507 kmfbr speed, with engine on 2,400 rpm and compressor presure 825 mm Hg. In flight with cruise speed in horizontal leg (84 kg fuel consumed) the range was found 800 km (2 hrs 13 min). Horizontal leg was established in standard level of 4,715 m at 393 km/hr speed, 1,930 rpm and compressor pressure of 7] 5 mm Hg. Takeoff and landing length was measured Takeoff length and time measured three times: 243 m (14.1 235 m (14.2 237 rn (13.4 338 m (17.3 309 ill (17.5 292 TIl (16.1

Delka vzleru a pfistani se mefila trikrat: delky a doby vzletu -

Mereru

243 III (14,1 s) 235 m (14,2 s) 237 ill (13,4 s) 338m(17,3s) 309 m (17,5 s) 292 m (16,1 s)

Meren! delky a doby pfistani s klapkami

Landing length and time with flaps

sec) sec) sec) sec) sec) sec)

46

At aircraft weight of 2421 kg and c. Takeoff was standard. Maximalni dosazena rychlost dle udaje palubniho rychlorneru Kollsman byla asi 695 kmlh. Ph vaze Ietounu 2421 kg a centrazi 625 mm za nabeznou hranou Id'idla bylo provedeno meren! podelne dynamicke tabiliry pro nasledujlct rezimy letu.75 dilku/unir 1. positioned 625 rnm behind wing leading edge. All aerobatic and combat manoeuvers were carried out normaIy. S letounem bylo mozno normalne provadet veskerou akrobacii a bojove obraty. Pouziti korrnidel posouzeno jako norrnalnl. with flaps and undercarriage extended was 174 km/hr. During landing run the aircraft wa easily controllable without the tendency to go out. Let stremhlav by! proveden z vysky 4580 m do vysky vybrani 1030 m. with trimming by trim tab appropriate to flight regime. Dosednuti bylo vzhledern k dobremu odperovani hladke. Brzdeni bylo mozne ihned po dosednnu aniz by hrozilo pfevraceni letounu. Vzhledem k rychlostnirn vlastnostem letounu (sic) by to nutno s konnidly pracovat jemne.25 dilku/unit 2. Maximum attained speed according KoUsrnan airspeed indicator was approx 695 km/hr. Pfi volnych kfidelkach podlehala vlivu predcho- All practically dynamically used sustained horizontal stable with controls left free.g.580 m to levelling at 1030 m. the aircraft had no tendency to enter the spin. Turns were performed easily to both sides. With speedy character of the aircraft in mind the control lrnputs had to be performed precisely. for all speeds and various bank angle. Vzlet byl normalni. Pojizdeni za vetru bylo bez obtfzi. combat manoeuvers. Stall enter was possible at 140 to 150 km/hr of indicated airspeed. Test flight of dive speed was carried out from entry at 4. During speed loss. PerforIn the part ztho tvrzent pro pncnou stabilitu. lower rprns caused also decreased stability with tendency to bank left. Ph vyssfch otackach byla pozorovarelna snizena srabilita (letoun mel tendenci klonit se vpravo). Toto mereru bylo provedeno tiro zpusobem. ze letoun byl opatren osrrubovym velmi dobre koleckern a ueinnymi brzdarni. turns. Pro pfistaru uvadel nejvhodnejsi rychlost klouzani asi 170 180 krn/h podle udaje palubniho rychlomeru.5 dilku/unit Vsechny prakticky pouzivane ustalene pnmocare rezimy lew se jevi tedy podelne dynamicky stabilni s volnym kormidlem. Pilot Ostavu Spumy hodnotil ve svem posudku Minimum speed measured at standard bight of 820 m with flaps and undercarriage retracted was 197 km/hr. Aircraft with engine at 1800 rpm at altitude of 1000 m in sustained horizontal flight experienced good lateral stability. For landing best recommended speed was approx 170 to 180 km/hr according flight deck airspeed indicator. Touchdown was smooth due to acceptable oleo damping. vlastnlrn bojovyrn obranim a k padum a vyvrtkam. with easily held direction." flights are a sesed as Lateral stability was assessed further by PVA evaluation pilot. se pilot vyslovovaJ ke vzletu.25 dilku/unit 1 dilek/unit a pristavactch klapkach pfi rychlosti 221 km/h At gliding fligbt with undercarriage retracted and landing flaps up. pfistani. Zatacky na obe trany se s letounern provadely snadno pfi vsech rychlostech a ruznem naklonu. the danger of overturning. vzhledem k tomu. During takeoff he assessed ground handling as very comfortable due to tailwheel and efficient wheelbrakes. at airspeed of Pro klouzavy let s vysunutyrn podvozkem a pristavacich klapkach ph rychlosti At gliding flight with undercarriage extended and landing flaps down. Smerova stabilita byla dle pilota vyhovujlci pri pevne drzenych kridelkach. letoun bylo mozno snadno drzet ve srneru. Control inputs as essed as normal. with elevator quickly positioned back to neutral and make it free. Braking was possible just after touchdown without. longitudinal dynamic stability was measured for foUowiug flight phases in all of which the aircraft is dynamically stable: i letove vlast- nosti . the pilot evaluated stall and spins. ze po usraleni letounu v prtslusnem rezimu letu pilot porusi let vychylenim vyskoveho korrnidla a zmenl rychlost asi 020 km!h a uvede vyskove kormid10 rychle zpet a tam pusti. at airspeed of 202kmlh 0.Namefene hodnoty minimalnich rychlosti ve standardni vysce cca 820 m Cinily pri zatazenych klapkach a podvozku (cisty Ietoun) 197 kmlhod pti vysunutych klapkach a podvozku 174 km/hod. With ailerons free above for lateral tability applied. Aviation Institute pilot Spumy summarized his findings in flight characteristics in final report: "During longitudinal stability evaluation. even with sidewind. Letoun se ph otackach kolem L800 ot/rnin ve vysce 1000 m pri plimocarem ustalenern letu jevil pficn~ stabilni. pri nizsfch otackach byl rovnez mene stabilni (naklanel se vlevo). Increased engine rpms caused decreased stability with tendency to bank light. ktere se vsechny jevily jako podelne dynarnicky stabilni: Rezim letu Flight regime Ve stoupani ph rychlosti In climbing at airspeed Pro vodorovnou maximalnl rychlost At horizontal maximum speed of Pro vodorovnou cestovni rychlost At horizontal cruise speed of Pro minimalni vodorovnou rychlost Ar minimum horizontal speed of Pro klouzavy let pfi zatazenem podvozku :Rychlost (vi ) Airspeed 231 kmlh 425 km/h 372 kmfh 221 kmIb 2500m 2570m 2220 m Po!ohavyvazovaci plosky Trhn tab marked on 3. Uvedeni do padu by to moine pfi indikovane rychlosti 140 az vzleru pojiideni jako az 47 . v assessing combat manoeuvrability oddile hodnoceni Behem bojove obratnosti bodnotil phases of takeoff. After stabilizing the aircraft at flight phase the pilot made input by elevator for 20 krnJhr speed change. in most cases with overturning to the right wing. landing. zatackam. Time to perform flat eight was around 34 sec at altitude 500 m using full throttle. Ve vybehu byl Ietoun dobre ovladatelny bez snahy utikat do stran. from the reason of urgency." Dale se tzv kontrolni pilot FVA zameril na ptfcnou stabilitu. Doba potrebna pro provedeni jedne osmicky byla asi 34 sec ve vy§ce 500 m na plny plyn. Directional stability was found acceptable with firmly held ailerons. only longitudinal dynamic stability with free controls was assesed.z jeho pisemneho vyjadren: citujeme: "V ramci ovefeni podelne stability byla vzhledem k pilnosti zkousek zjHtena pouze dynamicka podelna stabilita s volnyrn korrnidlem ph vyvazeni vyvaZovaci ploskou pro pfislusny rezim Ietu.

ming mild stalled tum it regained the speed establishing the glide flight. All tested ktere u letounu B-135 parts complied with rna v potahu vyfez stress specification of pro zatahovaci podthe time. being easily and safely handled in all positions. with casti ocasnich ploch which it is perfectly familiar and used them mostly on their previdtevene. Da se vsak z podobnosti 6 min and by its flying characteristics with given engine now konstrukce letounu di'ivejsimi vyrobky fy.in Prague. pilot Spumy and Ing. ze fighter aircraft of producers outside of Protectorate. It can be Osetrovant a obsluha letounu B-135 je v provozu pomeme however supposed for similarity with earlier Avia products. Toto kl'idlo stress tests were sent s vyrezem vsak bylo to BAL in Avia on vyzkouseno. the airframe is suitable for mass hem platenyrn). Avia predpokladat. nema FVA podkJady pro posouzeni v tomto smeru. byJa pomerne kratka a provozni zavady se prakticky vyskymance . ve sbirkdch. after few turn (u ually two or three) the aircraft recovered itself. fadove 300 m na jednu otocku. ze po strance letovych vlastnosn letoun vyhovuje velmi dobre. that potential faults a zvlastntho skoleni obsluhujicfho personalu. which was built in 1938 and which went through partial prototype testing at V celkovem posudku se pravt: former 2nd branch of VTLO in Prague Letnany. ohyb i krouceni. Pilot poznatky shrnul v konstatovani. nebor doba po kterou byl letoun B-135 v provozu By its overal concept as cantilever monoplane. casern During performance evaluation by factory pilot Zemanek on vystupu do 5000 m (kolem 6 min) a vlastnostrni pfi danem moto11<b June. If the spin was entered intentionaly to the right. Da se predpokladat. kvetna of wood. ani nebyla propresentatives identivedena kontrola jeho cal on both types pevnostnich vypoctli. vyskytu zavad v provozu. by its perforu FVA. In overall FVAjudgement it was stated: Avia B-135 aircraft is derived from B-35 prototype. nit be assessed because FVA testing was relatively short. If the spin was entered to the left. But this wing zasrupca tovarny jsou with cutout was testu obou typu stejne ed for bending and s vyjimkou kftdla. jeho mechanismu. Failure occurence during operation couldkych seriich. ktera je smlse. formed on vital ubPevno: tni zkousassemblies of B-35 ky s drakem letounu airframe.135 aircraft by itis flight characteristics meets the needs for fighter aircraft very well. zavady. Stress testing was pertypove zkousky u byvaleho II. 1940. twisting. trup spojovany srouby a nyty je z ocelovych trubek s potaous products. at takeoff weight of 2421 kg with Avia 12Ycrs engine of ru dnes jiz kategorie motorn 0 porneme mensl vykonnosti. on B-135 popevnostni zkousky sessing large lower s vetsinou soucasti skin cutout for retracdraku letounu B-35. se 48 . nybrZ mimym souvratem nabyl rychlosti (sic) a sam presel do klouzaveho letu. B-135 matches the parameters of s vyhradou zatahovacfho podvozku resp. One copy of the type test report was saved in the National Technical Museum archives pany used estabPfi konstrukci letounu. avsak umerna rychlostnim vlastnostem letounu. with the exception of Byly vsak provedeny wing. which is of mixed vyhovely tehdejsim character (wing and pevnostnim predplfixed empenage part sum. VesIn aircraft structukere zkousene castl re. Pokud jej pilot uvedI do vyvrtky vlevo. Dne 29. Institute personalities Ing. je uloien. Baj) and materials. jezto je ve vsech polohach snadno a bezpecne ovladatelny. which are B-135 provedeny neaccording factory rebyly. undersigned by podruznejsiho vyznamu. s nimiz je dokonale obeznamena a ktere vesrnes Serviceability of B-135 during operation is quite easy and simpouzivala pfi svych dosavadnich vyrobcich. Z. fuselage of 1940 byly protokoly Ieden z exempldid zprcivy 0 typollych zkouikdch. Pilot summarized his findings. time to 5000 m around tujl az po delsfrn pouzivani v provozu. Pokud jde 0 moznost during operation will be of negligible character. being 300 tll per one tum.horizontal speed over 500 km/hr. belonging to those less powerfull. not causing the need of special equipment end special training for servicing personnel. Records on vozek. Ndrodniho steel tubes joined by o pevnosutich zkousbolts and nuts fabric kach zaslany BAL technickeho muzea v Praze. Altitude loss during the spin was assessed as considerable. ktere se behem provozu vyskytnou. (Photo: M. Ruzha in Celkovym provedenim v podobe samonosneho jednoplosniku. tento dokument obsahuje take fotografie vztahujici se ke zkousenema letounu. Btlj) covered). the pilot input was necessary to stop it. June 1940. Ph ztrate rychlosti nemel letoun snahu prepadnout do vyvrtky. bylo tfeba zasa hu pilota k zastaveni vyvrtky. Avia comfirmy Avie. ze drak letounu je vyrobne vhodny zvlas[ pro stavbu ve sttedne velple. odboru VTLU v Praze Letnanech. but equivalent to speedy character of the aircraft. svymi vykony (8 vodorovnou rychlosti vYSSl nez 500 krn/h). nor byl vyroben v race 1938 a s nimz byly provedeny castecne protowas performed stress analysis revision. metod a materialu. except snadna a jednoducha a nevyzaduje zadnych specielnfch zanzeru retractable undercarriage and its mechanism. Byl-Ii letoun zasahem pilota priveden do vyvrtky vpravo. Krome vlastniho hodnoceni typu B~135. Besides the assessment of qualities of the fighter the document contains also lished and proven production methods na (kfidlo a pevne the photos relevant to the tested aircraft. (Foto: M. a to na May 29. Ztrata vysky ph vyvrtce byla shledana jako znacna. pouzila tovarna Avia bezne zavedenych vyrobnich production within mid-scale and large-scale batches (series). event. po nekolika malo otockach (dve at tfi) nabyl rychlosti a sam se vyrovnal. budou jen Such were the findings of official protocol. It can be assumed. Letoun Avia B 135 je odvozen od prototypu letounu B-35. table undercarriage ktere podle vyjadteni bay.150 kmIh vetsinou vpravo (tedy s prepadnuttrn na prave kfidlo). Duda. krery Static stress tests on B-135 airframe were not performed. the B.

industry Vyvoj tvaru kffdla Wing shape development eliptickd nabezll(i hrana elliptic wing leading edge eliptickd ndbeind hrana elliptic wing leading edge B~35." '.-1l/36 z 22.000. -~. 1000 m za I min 26 s.1 rovnd ndbizna hrana straight wing leading edge 8-135. Avia 8-135 aircraft cln 3 was evaluated and the results concluded in PVA report No. ha 2440 kg.2 o aerodynamicky kryt tdhla kiidelek.. kvetna 1936.vyrovna letoun B-135 stthacim letounum j mirno protektoratnich tovaren. aileron push-rod fairing B-3S. Airspeed profile resulted as follows: 456 km/hr at 1000 01.' . 4000 m za 5 min 35 5. Petr ANTOS 49 .0 s. 1658/41 se podrobil prezkoumanf letoun Avia B-135 Werk NT. Z. 4000 m ill 5 min 35 s. Hd 43 propeller nr. First part is dealing with the stress analysis. Comprehensive report is written in German and state in introduction. Pfi vystupu bylo dosazeno vysky 500 m za 44 S. ve 2000 m 473 km/h.2 & serie Q ~. Pro pocetm pripady je uvedena lerova v . which is revised with respect of B VF speci fication with conclusion... Zpravu zpracoval V Kocka a podpisem stvrdil vedouci odoeteni V Smolaf.0 s. as supplement to document number 1686/41 issued 11 June 1941. 943 byla zjistena delka rozjezdu 238 m za 13.. 473 km/hr at 2000 m.9.3. the aircraft was bui IL initialy without this specification in mind and so It hadnit COITespond in each items. ph vzletove hrnornosti 2421 kg. B· 135. vydanou 11. ·. maximum airspeed 521 krn/hr and limit dive speed 715 kmlhr.9 S. ••. . toun nebyl zpocatku dle techto predpisu staven a nemusi jim ludii ve vsech polozkach odpovidat. 2000 m za 2 min 47 s. Landing Ienth was 313 m within 17. 5500 m in 8 min 40 s. ze le- 860 k. Dalsi overovant ve FYA absolvoval typ B-135 v prvnim pololetl roku 1941. For analysis ca . Obsirna zprava je psana v nemcine a v uvodu konstatuje. 1000 m within I min 26 s. 9. Further measuring flights confirmed these results. jako pnloha k cislu jednacimu 1686/41. ve 4000 m 506 kmfh a v 6000 m 499 krn/h Dalst merici Iety tyro vysledky potvrdily. Kocka and confirmed by undersigning by department head V. giving even better horizontal speeds.3 & B-135.1.es the night weight quoted is 2440 kg. Ruzhy z cervua 1940. 506 krn/hr at 4000 rnand 499 krn/hr at 6000 rn. 3 aby zaleiirost byla shrnuia zpravou FYA C. Report was worked out by V.9 s was measured. dokonce bylo dosazeno vyssfeh vodorovnych rychlosti... cervna 1941. During climbing 500 m altitude was reached in 44 s.m 456 km/h. Poznarnka / Note: Autor je specialistou v oblasti aerodynamiky II leteckem priimyslu Author's profession is aerodynamics ill aviation. 943 takeoff length of 238 m within 13.2. maxirnalni rychlost Sz l kmlh rneznl pfipusta 113 rychlost v leru srfemhlav 715 kmfh. Next phase of B-135 evaluation by FYA followed during the months of first half of 194J. delka dojezdu 313 m za 17. Die zkusebniho prograrnu vzoru r.. ze letoun byl postaven die objednavky tehdejsiho Ministerstva narodni obrany pod cislern objednacim 8320dUv.-II/36 dated 22 May 1936.. za prispeni lng. that the aircraft was built to former Ministry of Defence order under ordering number 8320di'rv.- - © Ing. cervna tovarnim pilotem Zernankern. . Dudy a pilota Spur- neho. Porud tedy tvrzeni odborniku Ustavu Ing.5500 m pak za 8 min 40 s. 2000 m in 2 min 47 S. Y prvni casti je podroben revizi pevnostni vypocet ktery se kontroluje die nemeckeho predpisu BYF s kon tatovanlm..1. -. Pfi meteni vykonu ] I.2 aerodynamicky kryt tdhla kridelek aileron push-rod fairing 8·135 serte rovnti mibeznd hrana straight wing leading edge B-35. 1658/4]...• _i __ . Zjistene rychlosti byly v 1. Srnolar. s motorem Avia 12Yers 0 860 k a rtuli Letov Hd 43 C. According test program Nr.

The standard day-fighter underside colour of RLM65 was applied to the Avia's undersides. 135. The third prototype as it looked like in 1941.2 as civilnl poznavacl znackou D-18PP. Zakladnim nate rem hornlcn ploch byla barva RLM 02.. when it flew. The red horizontal stripe across the vertical tail carried the inevitable black swastika. The base colour of the upper surfaces was the RLM 02. Tretf prototyp v podobs. 50 .2.. V csrvenem pruhu na srnerovce nechybelo nezbytne oznacent letadel FUse.2. ktera v te debs patrllak letounu bezne pouzivanernu odstinu pro vetsinu dennfch stfhacfch Tato cast povrchu letadla sf svou barevnost uchovalal pote. too. with no border . kdyz doslo ke zrnene barvy na zbytku draku. which extended to the rear fuselage sides below the hortzontal tail. The registration letters were apparently black.2 na kterych byla take umistena civilnf poznavacl znacka O-I. marked 8-135..BPP' Na spodnf plochy prlpadta svetle rnodra barva RLM 65. Pohled na spodni plochy tretfho prototypu 8-135..Avia8 . ktera zasahovala na bocfch zadnf casti trupu i pod vodorovne ocasnf plochy. with a civilian registration D-IBPP. This part of the surface kept its original colour even afterthe topside colour was changed.The undersurfaces were in the light blue-grey RLM 65. A view of the undersurfaces of the third prototype the 8-135. kdyz v roce 1941 letal pod oznacenlm 8-135. Ptsmena poznavacl znackv byla pravdepodobne cerna. They carried the D-IBPP civilian registration. bezlemu.2.

fragment of the letters of the registration on the starboard side of the "dark green" prototype. The upper surfaces were completely oversprayed in dark green RLM 71 Ounkelqrun. the colour apparently being the original. Photo left: A. Kolem pfsrnen se objevil sveUy lem a Ize S8 domnfvat. ze v dobe zavereenych typovych zkoussk vypadal tak. Vsirnnete sl nepravldelne a nestejne sfFky lemu. however. the civil registration D-IBPP was probably masked off. (NTM Praha) Datum zrneny barvy hornlch ploch nelze vyslovit s naprostou pfesnostl. period of the type tests it already looked as shown here. During the process. 51 . pricemz civilnf poznavact znacka D-IBPP zustala zachovana. Note the irregular and uneven border width. The tail nationality marking (swastika on red stripe) remained in place. Itis certain. The picture comes from the type test report. ze se [edna 0 puvodnt nater barvou RLM 02. Snfmek pochazi ze zpravy a typovych zkouskach.Avia 8-135.trnave zeleneho" prototypu. Oznaceni letadel Rise zustalo na svern rnfste. that during the final. jako na obrazku Horn! plochy byly kornpletne pfestffkane tmavs zelenou barvou RLM 71. givIng rise to the light coloured border to its letters.2. Foto vlevo: Cast plsmen poznavaci znacky na pravem boku trupu . Jiste vsak je. base RLM 02 shade. (NTM Prague) The date of the upper surface's colour change cannot be tracked with absolute accuracy.

na povrchu kHdla).2 prototype. The same applied to the auxiliary instrument hoard on the cockpit floor (i.2.1 (-2) .1 and -. tlakomery vpravo k nouzovemu meni klapek. the manometers of starboard side 10 the emergency control of flaps circuit. Prague) 52 . Dvojice tlakominl vlevo nil desce patiila do okruhu nouzoveho sp0uSten( 'podvozku. the wing upper surface).prototyp The coe kpit of the Avia 8-135. The pair of manometers 0" port side of the instrument board belonged to the circuit of the emergency undercarriage extension. Do uvedene skupiny samoziejme patiila i pomocnd pffstrojovti deska umCstend na podlaze kabiny pilota (tj.- --- Spinact skf{ifka pod hlavni pnstrOjOVOlldeskou by/a soulasif vybaveni take seriovych letounii. Note the inscription in Bulgarian (Cyrillic) characters on the oxygen breather manometer.e. (NTM Praha) The switch box beneath the main instrument panel was a part of the equipment fit in the series-built machines. (National Technical Museum.Pilotni prostor stihaciho letounu Avia 8-135. (NTM Praha) The main instrument panel of the B-135. (NTM Prague) __. (NTM Prague) Sedadlo pilota upravene pro ztidovj paddk Pilot's seat with its backrest modified to take the back parachute. Vsimnete si po pisek v bullUlritine nil tlakomeru djchale.1 (-2) fighter prototype Hlavni pf(strojova deska prototypu B-13S.1 a -.

Pocitac naboju. Otackomer ~ Tachometer 21.Rate of climb indicator 3.. Kolo vyskoveho nastaveru sedadla pilota The pilot's seat height adjustment handwheel S3 . Ukazatel vyvazem • Pitch trim indicator 13. Pfepinac magnet ~ Magneto switch 17.Air speed indicator 23.Radiator airflow control 7.Engine priming fuel pump 4 . Opakovani kulometu . Pozarru uzaver paliva (?) . vykonu motoru ~ Maximum engine output knob 22.istrojova deska Main instrument panel 23 24 25 1 3 5 18 6 17 16 15 14 12 11 1 1. Variometr .Cannon safety Hlavni pr. UmiH9 borizont ~ Artificial horizon 25. Opakovant kulomeru ~Machine gun charging 19.Ammunition counter 10. Tlakorner dychace ~ Oxygen breather pressure gauge 14.Pilotni prostor stfhaciho letounu Avia 8-135 (serle) The cockpit of the Avia 8-135 fighter (production) I. Tlakomer oleje a paliva . Bomb release 8.Altimeter 24. Vyskova korekce . Pfidavne mazanl rnotoru '.Oxygen supply cut-off valve 00 the pressure bottle 9. Kompas ~ Compass 2.Lubrication boost control 18. Shoz purn . Ptynova paka ~ Throttle lever 2.Oil and fuel pressure gauge 15. Uzaver pfivodu kysliku . VS'skamer . Civka magneta .0 2 9 13 3 7 4 1. Palivomer ~ Fuel gauge 9. Ovladani klapky chladlce . Rucni pativove cerpadlo ~ Hand fuel pump 8.Canopy initial opening lever 3. Tahlo max. ~ Ammunition counter 11.Flare pistol 11. Nastfikovaci pumpa . PoNtae naboju . Signalnl pistole . Tahlo hasiciho pristroje Fire extinguisher control 7. Teplomer oleje a vody ~ Oil and water temperature gauge 16. Kola nastaveni vyskoveho stabilizatoru Horizontal stabilizer adjustment (trim) handwheel 6. Rychlorner .The magneto coil 10. Ukazatel vztlakovych klapek ~ Flap position indicator 12.Brake pressure gauge 5.Tlakorner brzd .Machine gun charging 6.Fuel cut-off valve (?) 5. Otvirani kabiny .Mixture control 4. Tlakorner kornpresoru ~ Supercharger pressure gauge 20. Pojistka kan6nu .

Drobne detaily nebylo moine z dostupnych podkladO identifikovat a zakreslit. (as per Czechoslovak habit). the seat in dark grey. The inner surface of the side panels was light grey. veetne nimu pi'ekrytu. sedadlo trnavesede. . zvyklosti). The Avia B~135 for Bulgarian Air Force. The tubular structures were silvery grey. VniH'nf strana bocnich plechu byla svetIe seda (die cs. The available information did not suffice to identity and show the colours of many small details. Reconstruction of the cockpit in the series-built machines.Rekonstrukce vybavenr kabiny pilota v seriovych letounech Avia B~135 pro bulharsks letectvo. trubkova konstrukce stlfbroseda. including the inside faces of the canopy framing.

White.. s civilni reqlstracnl znaekou O-IWKM. Avia 8-135. uzavrel svuj letovy denfk za rok 1943 porucfk Petar Manolev. s taktickym cistern . was the first of the "Bulgarian dozen" of machines-test flown in Bohemia. with no borders. Petar Manolev. zelen a 'cerveriypruh na smerbVem kbrmidle byl soucastf ~~[:e.1 03. ss .. The white 3 tactical number on the fuselage was derived form the series number was repeated underneath both wing halves in black. Flight with this Avia AV-135-112. ale jen na kffdlech a vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach... tactical number "12".bulharskeho tuctu". jako u vsech ostatnfch bulharskych Aviif.12".:'''''''===~~':~~~~~~~~ neno oznacenl letounu oulharskeno vojenskeho letectva. Hornf plochy byly v barye RLM 71. . later complemented by irregular blotches of RLM 70 black green on wing and horizontal tail upper surfaces. instruktor letecke skoly z Dolne Mitropolije. The upper surfaces were RLM 71 dark green.. Undersurfaces were RLM 65. on wing and horizontal tail complemented by blotches of RLM 70 black green.10 1. The spinner was in solid RLM 71 dark green..Avia 8-135. designated AV-135-1 03 a la Bulgarian. The camouflage scheme was the same as with the other Bulgarian machines. The upper surfaces were sprayed apparently in RLM 71 dark green.. odvozene ze serioveho clsla.3" na trupu. Letters of the registration marking were black. se v cernem provedenf opakovalo na obou polovinach spodnf plochy krfdla. na kterou pozde] pfibyla nepravidelna pole cernozelene barvy RLM 70. Bfly. was the last one for 1943 in the logbook of Lt. - In Bulgaria a similar "first" belonged to the B-135.. Pro vrtulovy kuzel platl take RLM 71. Undersurfaces were RLM 65 light blue-grey. instructor of the air school of the Dolna Mitropolija. Pismena registra6nf znacky byla cerna bez lernovanl. Na spodnfch plochach byla pouzita svetle rnocra barva RLM 65. Zbarvenf stroje byto stejne.:. Pro spodnl plochy plati barva RLM 65. _ . V Bulharsku pam podobne prvenstvf stroji s vyrobnlrn cfslern B-135.101 with the civilian registration D-IWKM. a " . Letem s Avi! AV-135-112. Bile takticke CIslo .po bulharsku" AV-135-103. Horni plochy byly pravdepodobne nastrlkany trnave zelenou barvou RLM 71.103. byla prvnfm v Cechach zaletanyrn strojem z .". green and red horizontal stripes on the rudder were part of the Bulgarian Air Force marking.. . na kiidlech a vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach doplnene poli RLM 70.:.

. _ . ". 01... " ...."--.. 10. Cas 16: 10-16:24 IO:21~lO. 14.. pfelet do Leman v9~ka "...1 1940 Kveten I May Lete..."----... B-135...."--B-135.06.....1 S~135...«----- Pilot Zemanek --.... 05.. "--- 299 302 305 308 " --... zaletavani --.".._ min.."--Hd43 vyvrtlcy zkusebni vyska pfelet do tovarny rychlost vyska pfelet do Letiian vyska rychlost prefer do tovarny Zemanek 09:30-09:43 10:23-10:29 10:56-11 :07 15:54-16:26 07:51-08: 15 10:30-11..._.... 01.06.."--.1 Avia c... zaletavani zaletavani ---... --"----.. "=~~ 07. 23.." --= Hd43 Hd43 Zemanek --.....1 Avia C. 24.... motoru Avia Vrtule Hd43 --. 07...1 B-13S.. 21. Zemanek B-135... .... . 74 . 14. 74 B-135. " . --...06.."~ ~ --. . .."----.06.1 B-135... 06 ..--- . 13. _ --" Hd43 --..06.1 Avia C...1 B-135."--. stabilita zkusebni 19.... 28... --- .. 05..1 Avia c.".."--.11 B-135."_ ... 20. rychlost rychlost let stremhlav osmicky akrobacie poznavacf ~~~-~~ " vyska spotteba --'_ " --14.. 06.1 Avia C........1 --......."..06. 06. zai'i ....-.:33 15:05-16:00 16:30-16:53 17:30-18:15 13:00-13:10 14:43-15:30 17:18~18:04 09:26-09:30 09:33-09:37 09:39-09:43 12:45-13 :04 15: 12-15:53 16:40-17:27 09:28~09:59 1L:42-12:50 13:30-13:48 15:45-15 :58 16:01-16:25 16:47-17:20 17:43-18:15 09:1O~1O:05 13:23-14:05 15:10-15:50 09:01-09:20 09:22~09:38 10:05-10:32 11:29~12:37 13:47-14:24 14:30~14:55 13:37-14:03 11:25-12:22 15:37-15:50 13:57-14:33 15:03-16:03 10:15-10:22 1453-15:57 17:08-18:03 lO:45~10:50 I3 6 11 32 24 63 55 23 35 10 47 46 4 4 4 19 41 47 31 68 18 13 24 33 32 55 42 40 19 16 27 68 41 25 26 57 13 36 60 7 64 55 5 V obdobi cervenec ~srpen 1940 le1aly pouze Ar 96 a B·71. --.. 11.......06.06.... 74 B-135.."----. _... --. 12. B-135.."----.06..".. 29. from September to October only the Arados. ".. . 74 Hd43 Zemanek .1 Avia C.AVIA 8-135. 24."--Zemanek Zemanek ---"----.............1 C..... 06 ..06.. 24.... 06... vyska .cc . 25.. ". 286 289 ~ az -.._."."--- Hd 43 Hd43 Hd43 Zemanek Spumy rychlost 19."----."---... 74 B-135. _.. 21.06.05.-.. 1L 06.. 25....1 B-135.... B-13S.l Hd43 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 376 377 380 381 383 384 poznavaci _........----.. 06. 25.. _...._ .06...05.1 B-135... 9 10 Cerven I June 315 316 317 328 329 330 331 332 333 338 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 01. ".. 25. Typ S-13s.. spotreba . Atanasov kpt.1 Spumy Zemanek --...... In the July.... 06... B~135...."----. .. 05....... Hd43 Zemanek ~-..ffjen jen Ar 96. ". ." ~ por...1 B-135. Hd43 Zemanek --. 06. rychlost H B-135 .."--Zemanek .. 18.August 1940 period only the Ar 96 and the 8-71 were flown... 74 --. Popkancev ..". 26.06... 56 ... llstopad a prosinee jen Ar 96 a B·71.." _.---....06. in November and December only the Ar 96 and the B-715. 06.. --...1 --.."--zal etav ani zkusebni --- --- " . --.. 74 zaletavani ....... Zemanek --.3 Typzkousky Datum 21.. 05.._ .06.32 15:47-16:05 13:25-14:03 11:14-11:23 10:37-10:47 Minut 14 11 18 38 c.06........ ~ -.. rychlost starty /pfi stam ~~~--" -.06."..

2 B-135. 19.06. ---.2 Avia C.2 B-1.03.2 " B-135.04. z tovarni dokumentace vydflne k tomuto typu • Control circuit diagram as in the factory documentation SCH[NA RIZ[N/ 57 . 16.04.2 B-1.".1. 74 " " Hd43 " 232A12432 Hd43 SirokY --- "--- zalet rychlost Siroky Siroky " zkouska drevene vrtule 09:50-10:12 14:27-14:56 13:43-14:16 10:05-10:16 16:00-16:25 22 29 32 11 25 898 899 B-. 24.04. 74 Hd43 Siroky 112 bod 15:10-15:44 34 Schema fize" .03.2 Avia C. zaletavani zaletavant " " zaletavaru " " " Siroky " " ---.. B-135.35.03..2 B-135. 04. B-135.03. Typ B~135.2 Avia C. 21. 22. 74 zaletavani zaletavanl " Kveten I May 1072 06.03. 74 Hd43 SirokY pfelet do Leman 11 :55-12:25 20 Cerven I June 1585 26.. 14. 74 Vrtule Hd43 " " Pilot Typ zkousky Cas 13:42~ 13:56 16:00. Datum 07.2 C.. 21.03..03. ----. 07.2 B-135. 17.16:22 11 :57-12:28 15:47-16:05 11 :05-11 :20 10:40-10:57 13:35-13:45 10:43-11:15 10:22-11:05 Minut 14 22 31 ]8 15 17 ]0 32 43 .2 Avia C. motoru Avia C. 04.2 B-135.2 8-135.1941 Brezen I March Let 395 396 489 490 557 577 578 621 622 c."-. Siroky Siroky " " " " " . 14.2 B-135. B-135.35. B-135. 18.03.2 B-135..03.2 B-135. 19.2 Avia C. 74 Hd43 Siroky pftlet z Leman 11:05 Cervenec I July 03..."---- ---- " -=-- " " " " Siroky " vyska " Duben I April 830 831 865 16.05.07.35.

30 two machine gun only cz te V obdobi mezi 7. Soucasne Avia prodala Bulharsku licencni prava na stavbu 50 draku B~1. • The last developed versionofthe prototype.102. vyroba a dodavka 12 draku B-135 predstavovala v podstavedlejsi obchod.2. Od posledrriho prototypu se viditelne lisily zejmena ovalnym tvarem hrdla vstupu vzduchu k chladici vody.2.2 jen nekterych vnitrntch instalaci a pfistrcioveho vybaveni (sntky a popis pi'istroju v bulharstine). Na seriovych strojich jiz nebylo pouzito kratke vyfukove potrubi.. Z boka trupu za motorem take zmizely prolisy odvadejici prebytecne teplo od motoru. Tyro stroje. ktery se jinak venoval zaleturn cvicnych letonnu Arado AI 96B. 1941 byla objednavka z 90% pouze dva kulomety vz.35.v podstate poslouiila jako vyrobni vtor pro ndsledujici poctem omezenou seriovou vyrobu. The rear fuselage including the tailwheel remained the same. kterou Bulharsko objednalo 12 draku letounu B-135 za pevnou dohodnutou cenu 609.101 B-13 5.11 0 zaletal tOY ami pilot Kraus.stopetarficirek''. 12.svoji". 'Rzi~tem cele objednavky bylo dodani rnotoru a licence. K datu 31.i tvar karoserie se [apac vzduchu odSlranen air scoop deleted zrnenil jen velrni neparme..2 served in/act as the pattern machine/or the subsequent series production. Dalsi zajimavosti je i fakt. Spolu s draky bylo objednano i 62 motam Avia HS 12 Ycrs. -.8-135. 1 vrtuli mel kazdy ze stroju . the B-135. 35.112 a opatrene ci vilni poznavaci znackou. jen "plechy" za motorem a vstupni otvor vzduchu k chladici vody domaly mensicb zmen.. Iijnem 1942 byly v Avii postupne dokonceny a pfedevsim zaletany vsechny letouny B-135 objed- zhotovena. "C isla" B-13 5 . ze novy ova lilY tvar new oval shape 58 . v Avii se zacalo pracovat na prvni a take posledni serii . (Author's collection) cast Avia B-135 Serle pro Bulharsko Zatimco probihaly posledni protorypove zkousky.slightly modified.000.106 a -.K za kus. Predmetem aktivity byla objednavka 1-1191/9. vce/ne ostruhy zus/ala stejnd.isly 8 . ale vnejs. however limitedin numbers.llO byl pouzit stejny motor s ~islem 21811.108 a -. Zadni trupu.1 a B-135. -.Posledni vyvojova varianta prototypu . Pro zajimavost Ize uvest. chladic oleje s hladkjm povrchem oil radiator with smooth surface nane bulharskou stranou.102.2 undercarriage as B·13S. Drobne upravy se dotkly bezpro!isu without depression podvozek jako B-I3S. jake 0<1 prototypech oznacovanych 8-135. only the panels behind the engine cowling and the water radiator air intake were .ze pro zaletani letounu s c. oznacene cisly 8-135. zaletal v ~t~inou pilot Petr Siroky. z nicnz 50 melo byt dodano po zeleznici a 12 rnotoru vestavenych do draku melo do Bulharska dorazit vzdusnou cestou. dubnern at 6.

At the same time. The cooling air exhaust gill of the engine compartment located on the fuselage sides. It is interesting that for the test flights of the B-135.built mtlChine for the Bulgaria" order in the VTLU logbook. Avia B-135 . Odtud zasilka pokracovala do zavodu DSF iDariavna Samoletna Fabrika . (N7'M. Planovany prelet 12 stroju odpadJ a spolu 5 nim i plano- vana licence.o moine spatfit B-135 na ceske obloze.112. . 21811 was used while the propeller was always the one "belonging' to the given machine. The last test flight of the B-135. In the period of 7th Apri 1 to 6th October 1942. From Plovdiv the shipment continued to the DSF factory (Darzhavna Samoleta Fabrika) near Lovech.101 to 8-135. (NT~ Pt:aha) A record oj one Qj'the test an4 tneDSuring flights o/thejirst serNs .102. the RLM permitted only the delivery of the first 35 engines. This pilot normally devoted his attention to test-flying the Arado Ar 96B training rnachines. The Bulgarian order.111. 12. These machines bore the series numbers B-135. awaiting their transportation order. The planned licence production was therefore cancelled. asked for a series of twelve B-135 airframes at a fixed unit price of 609 000 Czech crowns (Kc).108 and . njna 1942 patril k poslednirn okamzikum kdy je~te byJ. . Together with the airframes. ktere bylo pro Avie docasnou konecnou stanici.ZI! mi1idch ktUpnnilw serioveM klllunu z. testing three types of propeller: the Hd 43. Jeste net byla eels objednavka pfipravena k odeslani.vrtule Hd 43. no. Petr SirokY ill ade 7 flights with it. the remaining twelve were to arrive in Bulgaria by ali. the wooden Avia and the metal French Ratier unit.poslednirn zaletanym strojem nebylo ptekvapive cislo B-135. This decision had a major effect on the situation.Statnt letecka tovarna) u mesta Levee. Posledni zalet cisia ••111" dne 6. its wings in the sides above Bohemia. cervna 1943 hodnoti cely obchod jako ztratovy. haha) 59 . all of the B -1355 made to the Bulgarian order were built and test-flown. disappeared. Pilot Siroky s nim uskutecrrilcelkem 7 vzletu ana letounu byly odzkouseny tfi typy vrtuli . as was the ferry flight. K datu 31. number 119119. keeping the remaining 27 for itself. Ratier. The short exhaust stubs of the B-'135. It is of some interest that the last machine to have been test flown was not the . In February 1943 all twelve crated Avias were sent by rail to Bulgaria. Struha and MUller accompanied the crates at least as far as Plovdiv.110.112 and were given a civilian registration. sixty-two Avia HS 12Ycrs engines were ordered. otherwise the changes to the external shell were minimal. behind the cowling. Even before the first order was ready for shipment. Minor modifications took place to some internal installations and instrumentation (placards and markings in Bulgarian). The factory technicians Messrs.111. By 31st December 1942. Avia sold the licence rights for the construction of 50 Avia B-135 airframes. As of December 31 st.2 prototypes were not used again. The majority of the aircraft were test- Zdvuun jednohtJ . numbers B-13S.110 were test-flown by the factory pilot Antonin Kraus. but the . ninety percent of this production order had been completed. Pnnejmenslm aZ do Plovdivu je doprovazeli tovarni technici Struha a MUller.102.1 and B-13S. V unoru 1943 bylo vsecn 12 letounu odeslano po zeleznici do Bulharska. of this number 50 units were to be brought to Bulgaria by rail.106 and . the same engine. flown by PeU' Siroky.lll on 6th October 1942 was probably the last moment when this type spread.. Toto rozhodnuti zasadne ovlivnilo stay veci.the series for Bulgaria While the final prototype tests were underway. the production of the first (and last) series of B-135 fighters was started. the temporary end-station of the fighters. Bilancni zprava z 15. These machines differed visibly from the Last prototype by the oval shape of the air intake for the water radiator. 194 J. dfevena Avia a kovova fy.112. RLM povolilo pouze dodavku prvnich 35 mown'] a zbyvajicich 27 si ponechaJo pro vlastni potrebu. bullumki objedndvlcy II zkulebnkh ve VTL(J. The focus of the whole order was indeed the licence agreement and the purchase of engines the production and supply of a dozen fighters being a secondary trade case. the test-flown and partially dismantled machines were crated. The Avia factory balance statement of 15th June 1943 assesses the whole business as a net loss. built into the completed aircraft. 1942 byly zaletane a castecne demontovane draky ulozene v ptepravnlch bednach a cekaly na prfkaz k transportu. ale B-135.

..112 Pilot Pilo! pro bulharske letectvo lfor the Bulgarian Air Force Datum Date Typ Type C..07.03 '£-135. "._ u. 8-135.240 Ratier 1146312 --...."...'~~~ ...??-- Siroky ---.09.. Siroky ~ ~ ~~~ " . .. 10.109 21824 21927 21824 21824 241312 241310 241312 241312 Siroky --.."--rychlost SirokY Kraus 241305 zaletavam akrobacie a prelet do Leman zaletavani 09 :50~LO: 5 1 15:45~16:00 14:09-14:35 10: 15-10:50 11:51-12:30 15:25-16:00 14:38-14:47 10:00-10: 15 13:02-13:17 25 15 26 35 39 35 9 15 15 Kveten 746 754 800 \ 06. 21786 21811 21786 21811 --- .A 8-135....09. 10...04 17. --."--. 02.". ~ -.112 --??---??-- --?'1---??-- --'1?---??--.04 25.112 B..(vyska) rychlost 11:25~11 :35 11:20~J 1:50 15:40-16:03 12:33-13:08 Siroky 8 13 13 10 30 23 35 Toto je posledni zaznam v .111 B-135.09. 1580 1590 B-135.."--"-~~ -.. 04 23.4:14 8 3 3 2 H.04 09.. Flight nr.. 10..~ _ ..101 B~135.05...04 21.108 B-135.06.. 07. ... C. 241304 ... vrtule zkouska vrtule 13:45-13:53 15:52-16:05 1O:54-11.:07 _ .106 241308 241309 Siro~y SirokY zal~tavfmi zaletavani 10:46-10:55 10:49-10:55 9 6 Cervenec 1139 1140 U8I I I 82 21.--- zaletavanl 13:50-14:00 zaletavani 15:31-15:44 10:29-10:38 mereni s tartu LO:58-11:01 meteru startCi* *' Ph pristant by..109 B-135.110 21786 21811 241311 241313 Kraus Kraus zaletavant za Ieta van r ]4:15-14:28 LO:03-1 11 0: 13 8 Zan 1.."--21824 --. 05.:09 14:12<1... 10...11l B-135.. 06. -"--241304 241305 241304 ~. Siroky metenj ---"--.... 28.... '£-135.. 08. 05..~~ .06.....101 H-135.. _2]824 241315 dfev..101 B-13S. Siroky ..109 B-135.111 B-135..01 B-135.1.04 B-135.112 B-135..104 21822 21786 21824 --?-241304 27t-1307 Siroky --. 28. _..107 B-135.101 B-135....05. 15.... ... 22.. 01 . 28..111 B-135.. 1462 16...07....09.4:06-14...Ill 8-135."--..07. 21..04 14.. " ---"_'.. B-135....111 21824 --.101 B-135. ~~-. 17.....jen 1557 1558 1564 1574 1579 Ol.05." ." --~-.. S-135. 10.112 8-135. motoru Engine nr.101 B-135..LOl B-135.08. vrtule Propeller nr.08... 17..101 1942 Duben Let c.. B-135.135.111 B-135.l poskozen nosnik ostruhy 10 13 9 3 Srpen 1290 1364 18. Siroky Siroky zaletavam " ~..(vyska) ---" .04 27."--- --??-- Siroky mereni startn 10:37:10:45 14:00-14:03 1.._... az -. _- SirokY . zaletavant zaletavaru vyska --..Knize leru" tykajid se Avie B-135 This is the last record in the "Flight book" about Avia B-135 60 .... 03.102 B-135.448 1460 1461.. Typ zkousky Type of the test Cas Duration of flight Minut Minutes 540 07.04 07.. 17.105 21786 21811 B-135.. 10.'--21824 --.~~- zaletavani pfilet z Letiian zaleravani "~~~ 14:25-14:31 13:53-14:03 14:28-14:38 6 10 10 Cerven 916 983 09."--- zaletavani mefeni starta --."--Ratier 11463/2 _"-.... Siroky .."--Ratier 1146312 Siroky --.AVI.. 10..1.. zaletavani zkouska dt..."...102 21786 --.

. ) 1("' 1 •. I ..AI 91 CI DI E j F j G f HI DJ ~ ~~ -..~ r R-H I-I l' . ~~ 4 l -:-'_ !P02 2 3 s 61 ...

. monoplane bomber. kornise proto rozhodla 0 pokracovani zkousek.md Dipl. The commission looked at both the purchasing of warplanes that were readily available for sale. Protoze ale nasledujtciho mesice vojska Treti fise Pfislusnici bulharske delegate a konstrukteii Avie u prototypu B-135. pokud bude dodavka neprodlena. presented the prototype of the B-35 to the commission.-Eng. on 23rd February. Besides these two types.dushni na Negovo Velichestvo Voyski (VNVV . of any warplanes. tak licence na nekolik typu. modem looking fighter aircraft. chtela nakoupit jak bojove letouny nabizene hoed k pnmemu odprodeji. Bnlhafi pozadal! 0 seznamenf s typem a sefkonsrrukter Avie lng. Everyone liked Dalecky ukazal stroj v letu.1 prototype at the VTLU premises in June 1940. ktere by se vyrabely v Bulharsku.2.71 an-metal. (Author's collection) 62 . • Members of the Bulgarian delegation and the Avia's design team members around the 8-135. as such.The Bulgarian Dozen by DipL.2. Dipl-Eng. Note the telescopic sight protruding from the cockpit windshield. During the following days.. The photo was take briefly after the Bulgarians were given the chance to compare the latest fighter prototype flying abilities with those of the preceding B~35. Pozdeji tehoz dne jim sefpilor Avie Rudolf Bulgarian Interest In February 1939.1 na plede VTLU v cervnu 1940 krdtce polt. Dimitar Anastasov led the commission. they were open to any offer.-Eng. hledajic rychly zpusob jak odstranit kriticky nedostatek pluohodnotnych stroju pro sve ledva dosptvsjicl Ietectva (Vazdusni na Negovo Velicestvo Vojski . Among (he readily available models chosen for purchase were the agile Avia 8-534 biplane fighter and the modern B.Avie B~35. the Avia B-35. In accordance with the request of the Bulgarians. and test pilot Petko Popgantchev. Viimnete si vylnivaj(dho teleskopickeho zamNovace z ceintho . zkusebnimi piloty lng. Frantisek Novotny jim 23. Frantisek Novotny.a tvorena mj.His Majesty's Air Army). unora prorotyp na zemi pfedvedl. kdyz mlli moinost porovnat letove vlastnosti nejnovejStM prototypu s piedchozim strojem 8-35. chief designer of the Avia Company. Dimitarem Anastasovern. the delegation expressed considerable interest in the prototype of a low-wing.st(tku kabiny. vedena Ing. D:ipl.VNVV -Ietectvo jeho velicenstva) byla pripravena vazne posoudir jakoukoliv uabidku vojenskeho letadla. Vsem se pfitailive vyhlizejtc! letoun smisene konstrukce HbH. Petko Popgancevem a Krasto Atanasovem v roli technickych odborniku. Avia's chief test pilot Dalecky demonstrated the machine in flight.Eng. for imrnediate delivery. the Bulgarians thoroughly studied the technical documentation for the fighter aircraft.. Krome techto dvou typn delegace projevila zivy zajem 0 prototyp moderne vyhlifejfciho dolnoplosneho stihacfho stroje .e securing of licensing rights for the indigenous manufacture of several aircraft types. Mezi okamzite dostupne typy vybrane k nakupu patfila obratna Avia B-534 a modern] celokovove jednoplosne bombardery B-71. V prnbehu nasledujlclch dnt Bulhari peclive prostudovali technickou dokumentaci stihaciho typu. Kornise. a Sizeable Bulgarian military delegation visited the Avia Works as part of their search for an immediate solution to the critical equipment needs of the fledgling Va'l. as well as the test pilot Krasryo Atanasov provided its technical expertise.Denes Bernad Bulharsky zajem Kdyz v unoru 1939 navstivila rovarnu Avia pocetna bulharska vojenska delegace. as well as th. Later on in the same day.

Dipl. They used the available prototype Avia B-35. pozdejf ocenene na 5 %. Petko Popgantchev. Mdne vyznamnejst ticularly emphasised the inclusion in the rear of the cockpit of the turnover bar. bulharske strany. In the meantime. Pornineme-li nektere rnensl upravy a vylepseni. which were badly needed for the expanding Bulgarian air force.-Eng.-Eng. cely dals! mesic s novym prototypem udalosti nepostihly. Ponekud otreseny. Dipl-Eng.1 u~ byla v pcdstate pripravena pro vyrobu a take poslouzila jako predloha pro nadchazejici serii. Ing. Na snimku zleva por. recorded later as only 5%. started to familiarise themselves in the air with the machine. takze letadlo. Later on in the evening following the accident. kpt. which continued throughout the following month with the new prototype. the B-135. The somewhat shaken Bulgarian pilot was able to walk away unhurt from the site of accident. znovu na- B ulbary uf behem rozsahlych letovych zkousek. jiz Bulbar ko planovalo. On the Bulgarian side a commission made up of aviation specialists. welders fitters. Dimitar Anastasov A well a familiarising themselves with the various aspects of the theory of aircraft production. The Czecb personnel at the Avia Works were joined by a sizeable Bulgarian technical delegation . while it was still in full development The work was intense and not without ramifications. kvetna 1940 Petko Popgancev pfistal na pi'Uis vysoke rychlo ti pfi vybehu neudrzel smer a sjel ze zpevneneho pasu do nerovneho terenu. elektrikaru zbrojifu atd. No other significant incidents occurred to the Bulgarians during the extensive test flights. In the meantime. tvofena leteckymi odborniky. Popgantchev reportedly declared that. Dimitar Anastasov. Dimitar Anastasov. B-135. spojili se Bulhafi znovu s tovarnou Avia. This bands-on activity helped them accumulate the necessary experience that would prove vital to the planned fuIJscale production in Bulgaria. Popgantchev praised the sound construction of the Avia prototype. Duda a Pavlicek a zkusebni piloti Dalecky. owing to an excessively high landing speed. aby se dukladne teoreticky reznamili s ruznymi fazemi letecke vyroby kterou ul. Consequently.1 was to become the manufacturing standard and would serve as the model for the forthcoming series production. K ceskemu personalu tovarny se pfipojila velka delegace bulharskych techniku . Petko Popgancev a Ing. konanych po B-135. techniky a piloty. Pavlicek and the te t-pilots Dalecky and later also Zemanek. Novotneho. kdyf sing. V Avii zatim pokracovaly zkousky s akrivnl ucasr.2.a kovozpracovatelu. Dipl. Cesi zvladli. Smolar. the attractive looking. all-metal fighter plane. obchodni jednani se nahle zarazila. pozdeji i Zemanek. utrpelo jen mens! skody. zachranil zrvot. the Bulgarian Ministry of War did not give up its pursuit of the pre-ordered warplanes. They eventually succeeded in persuading the new management of the company to finalise the contract. Na ceske strane se jich zucasrtiovali inzenyfi Ruzha. therefore the commission decided to continue with the test programme. wood and metal workers. Notwithstanding some minor changes and upgrade. The Czech side was represented by Dipl. Popgancev chvalil odolnou stavbu letounu a zvlaste zduraznil prornyslenou konstrukci kozliku za hlavou pilota. as mastered by the Czechs. aby dokoncili jiz dflve zacaty obchod. Nakonec se jim podafilo presvedcit nove vedeni firmy a pfipravili s nim smlouvu. v Letrianech aktivne pomahala ph vyvojovych pracich a tovarnich zkouskach noveho typu letadla. Behem jednoho seznamovaciho Ietu dne 28. Dipl. the Bulgarian technician also took part in the manufacturing proce s of the aircraft. Bulharsri technici pfijeli nejen proto. Pres tuto vyznamnou udalost bulharske ministerstvo valky nevzdalo svlij boj 0 zajisteru objednanych dodavek vojenskych Ietadel. in effect. led by Dipl-Eng. monteru. Pouzili dostupny prototyp B-35. the Bulgarians again contacted the Avia Works in order to resume their negotiations with them. However. Tato zkuseno t z prvni ruky jim pornohla nashromazdit zkusenosti zivotne dulezile pro velkoseriovou vyrobu. ktery mu. Cpt. He par- NejdulezitljU osobnosti bulharske delegace. despite this unpredictable event. Krastyo Atanasov. Ruzha. Pozdeji vecer tehoz dne. Vedl je Ing. Bulgarian pilots including Poruchyk Atanasov and Popgantchev. the process came to an abrupt halt in the next month.1.konstrukteru. Ing. Petko Popgantchev and Ing. Novotny in a Prague restaurant. Bulharska komi e. inadvertently steered the aircraft off the paved landing strip and onto the rough surface of the airfield. engineers and pilots was present at Letriany to actively assist in the design work and factory test of the new aircraft type. Potom co zlskali nezbyrna povoleni v Berllne. During one of these practice flights on 28th May 1940. tak nalehave potrebnych pro rostouct bulharske vojenske letectvo. Krasto Atanasov. but because of its low speed the resulting damage was minimal. svafecu.1. parallel to the development and manufacturing process. the aircraft turned over. After serving several glasses of fine wine. Novotnyrn nebodu zapijeli. Nonetheless. sveho noveho ceskeho pntele. prace log. while wining and dining with. Nastest! jiz jel relativne pomalu.2. After acquiring the necessary permits in Berlin. which the Bulgarian was convinced had saved his life during the accident. Eng. to T. Po nekolika dalsich sklenkach dobreho vina mel Popgancev prohlasit. when the Third Reich occupied Western Czechoslovakia. he had been born again thanks to his new Czech friend. (Sbirka autora) The Bulgarian most important VIPs were (l. the B-135. krere bylo stale jeste ve vyvoji. Zatim se soubezne s vyvojem a vyrobou prototype zacali s le- tounern ve vzduchu seznarnovat porucici Atanasov a Popgancev.-Eng. dfevo. ale ve skutecnosti se rovnez t1castnili samotneho procesu vyroby. ale nezraneny Bulhar e z mists nehody vzdalil pesky.okupovala oklestene zbytky Ceskoslovenska. jak byl (pravem) presvedcen.): U. Duda. 63 . Smolaf. Dimitar Anastasov. (Author's collection) ktere se pfevratilo na zada.including engineers. testing at the Avia Works continued with the active participation of the Bulgarians. Prace probihaly intenzivne a zahrnovaly mnoho oblasti. electrician " and armament specialists. ~e se diky kvali[(! rodil.

Smlouva rovnez zajistovala bulharske strane prava na seriovou vyrobu draku v Bulharsku. vyzbroj a ruzne palubni prtstro- Temer zkompletovanj letoun vjrobn{ho ell'la AV-135-107. (Sbirka M. Note the detail on the windshield top . have been undertaken at the newly erected aircraft factory at Lovech. Prepracovauou smlOUYOU Bulhafi nakoupili 12 modernlzovanych verzi stfhaci B-35 . (M.Statni letecka tovarna) v severobulharskem meste Levee. po uspesnem skonceni vyvojovych. the contract between the Bulgarian Ministry of War and the Avia Works was finally signed. A New Deal In early 1940. B11j) The almost complete machine (series number A V-135-1 0 7). after the successful conclusion of all of the redesign work and detailed testing. Venovat se ji mel nove postaveny vyrobnl zavod DSF (Dariavna pektive rekonstrukcnich depsana smlouva mezi A New Era. The deal called for 50 airframes to be manufactured at DSF from indigenous Samoletna Fabrika . novy obchod . or State Airplane Factory). krere meta Avie vy~ robit v prubehu nasledujicich dvou let. SmJouva pfedpokladala vyrobu 50 drake z vlastnlho materialu v DSF. Pocatkem roku 1940.either a rear-view mirror or an air intake/vent.. Vsimnete si detailu na vrcholu ifebzfho Itftku (pravdepodobni zpetne zrauko nebo ventilace) a pomocne pffstrojove desky na podlaze kabiny.nynl oznacenych B~135. Production would. byla poAvif a bulharskym ministerstvern valky.to be manufactured by Avia during the next two years .The contract also secured for the Bulgarian party the rights to series production of the airframe in Bulgaria. pticemz motory.now designated B-135 . called Darzhavna Samoleta Fabrika (DSF. The reworked contract compelled the Bulgarians to purchase twei ve modernised versions of the B~35 fighter . Bl1j collection) 64 .Nova doba. respraci a podrobnych zkousek. and the auxiliary instrument panel Oil the cockpit floor.

Peknj pohled na last vztlakovjch klapek ana kostru karoserie.e. Snimek je zejmena zajimavy jako doklad existence druhe barvy na hornich plochdcb . The tactical number 3 on the fuselage side was derived from the numbers allotted to machines by Bulgarians. (Sbtrka D. The fuselage of machine no. (8 & 8 collection) 65 . I zde jeuetelne vide/ druhd tmavst kamufldin: barva.3" na trupu vychdzelo Z pfide1e1liho bulharsklho oznacent AV~135-1QJ. resp. Berndda & S. (M. Nice shot 0/ a section of flaps and the structure of the fuselage formers. AV-135-106 with the empennage almost fitted.viz vodorovne ocasni plochy a v pozad{ kiidlo opfeni 0 zed'.Monuii. Bay collection) AV-135-111 s pl'ipojefljrn kfldlem a podvozkem. the "last two" digits: AV-J35-103. Takticke cislo . Botiiakova) The Lovech assembly hall with several Avias in mid-assembly.. Bay collection) Trup stroje s Cislem AV-J35-106 s casteenou mon/aZ{ ocasnicb ploch.see the horizontal tail and the wing leaning against the wall in the background.z poslednlho dvojc{sli. (M.nf hala v Loveci s nikolika casteene smontovanymi Aviemi. BlUko) Left: The first flown Avia B-135 on Bulgarian soil. (Sbirka M. The darker second camouflage colour is clearly visible here. This picture is interesting especially as the proof of existence of the second camouflage colour on the upper surfaces . (B & B collection) Vlevo: Prvni zatitany letoun Avia na bulharskem uzemi. AV:"J35-111 with the wing and undercarriage fitted. too. i.

on flat bed wagon platforms . There was even a Bulgarian name selected for the new fighter. mj. in front of the assembly hall in wyeth. The wooden containers. Emanuel Avia s cfslem . Drevene kontejnery.. including test flying. pouze s nemeckymi napisy. Jejich ukolern bylo pomoci pri konecne montaz. head of the team. the s/n 105. As the cannon were not supplied.Along with the machines and spare parts. V pozadi a vpravo jsou rozmistine pfepravni bedny S oznacentm vyrobce a typu letounu. In the background and at right there are transport crates with the manufacturer's logo and type designation visible. Production of a dozen B~135s by tbe Avia Works. Pttjeli rovnez ceSti odbornici. armament and various flight instruments were to have been supplied by the Czechs. vjrobnl Cislo 105. DAR~lI "Lyastovitza" (Swallow).. Vyroba tuctu Avit B-135 v matefske tovarne v Letrianech trvala do 6. pfed montatl'll halou v Loved. lng. was completed by 6th October 1942. dorazily do bulharske Lovce na plosinovych vag6nech. the complete documentation had been delivered as well. while the power plants. Bohumil Hostalek. Bohumil Hostalek. Avia number "5". including Dipl-Bng. ale zblizka. the opening in. too. at Lovech. labelled only in German. (8 & B collection) je mely byt dodavany ceskou stranou. Po poslednlrn zkusebnim letu byly vyrobene Avie rozebrany a ulozeny do dopravnich beden. Spolu s nimi dorazily i nahradni dHy a uplna dokumentace. vjstrelny otvor ve vrtulovem kuzelu byl zaslepellyzatkou.Pravdepodobne prvni v Bulharsku smontovany letoun Avia B-135. arrived in Bulgaria. Karel Subert a Stanislav Hudomil. the propeller spinner was plugged.DAR~11 Ljastovica (vlastovka). After the final test flight the aircraft were disassembled and crated. (M. • Probably first Avia B-135 assembled in Bulgaria. a technici Anton Vucek.. A group of Czech specialists arrived. Emanuel Us. vedoucl skupiny. Novy letoun zaroven dostal jmeno . a pfi sefizovani techniky behern planovaneho zavadeni seriove vyroby v DSE materials. and technicians Anton Vucek.5". Protoie kan6ny nebyly dodtiny. Blly collection) 66 . this time in close up. ffjna 1942.

jii v Avii. Lis. (M. See the overalls of the (probably) Czechoslovak mechanic and the high boots of (probably) Bulgarian military technician. ale i tvar aerodynamicke krytky tdhla kfidelka a poloha vjsostneho znaku. Karel Subert and Stanislav Hudomil. Podle kombinizy lze usoudit.odstrojenj" bok. was No. They received serial numbers between 1 and 12. The aircraft scheduled for the first flight. ze osoba vlevo je jeden z ceskjch technikii.. Bay collection) 67 . vpravo bulharsky pracovnik: (viz vojenske boty) Joint assembly effort. Vsechno nasvidcllje tomu. By August 1943.3. 5).an registration system. as well as in the setting up of the technology for the planned series production at the DSF. or AV-135-103. all twelve machines were assembled and prepared for their mandatory test flight. but also the streamlined cover of the aileron push-pull rod and position oj the national insignia. (8 & B collection) Jeiti nevybalend svislti ocasni plocha upevllena v drevenim prepravnim rdmu. ie 0 [(Slech bylo rozhodnuto drive a miter byl proveden.Pravdipodobnistejnj letoun (c. according to the Bulgari. Note not only the "open" side. and a four-digit Nomenklaturen Noma (Register Number) 7067. Na snimku je zaj(mavj nejen . All data seem to support the fact that the numbers were approved beforehand and applied in the Avia during painting. The still crated vertical tail in its wooden transport frame. They were [0 assist in the final assembly. The Spo/eCrul mOIlUlZ. Probably also the "5".

the other pilots involved in the test flights were also instructors at the Fighter School: Poruchyk Bogdan Ilyev and Petar Kolev. 2 at Dolna Mitropolia from 10. Manolev's wartime log book relating to the new aircraft is dated torn September. The first entry in Ppor. Interestingly. in this case Lyastovitza .VNVV. The reason why these brand new fighters were assigned to a secondary role as fighter trai- 68 . The initial test flight went without any incidents.anou uddlosti. jak tomu bylo u ostatnich typu. ktef podnikli zkusebni lety. The ground crew helps Cpt. With the reception procedures completed. Podporuchyk Petar Manolev and Dimitar Sotirov. stihact skoly.m. Apart from Atanasov. kde sidlila suhaci skola VNVV. Na spodni strane kitdla je vidlt cemeho cisla .. as did the subsequem ones. Note the bulkiness of the safety andparachute harness. Pozemni personal ponuihd kpt. kdy letel na "stopetatficirce" c.m. Also the differences between the density (or reflectance) of colours on fabric anddetachable metal surfaces are worth modelier's consideration. Prvni zaznam ve valecnem zapisnfku lew ppor . Prvni byla zaletnuta Avie s bulharskym oznacentm AV-J35-I03 a taktickym cislem . a plochou s pkitenym potahem. ze By the 28th August. podporucici Petar Manolev a Nedjo Kolev. do kabiny Avie AV-135~103. nikoliv azbukou a of icialnim nazvem. srpna ji:i by to vsech dvanact letadel zalerano a uJedne prejato zakaznikem.3" cast Preparations prior to the first take-off on Bulgarian soil. take iustruktofi stfhaci skoly porucici Bogdan Ilijev a Petar Kolev. (8 & B Collection) Posledni okamiiky pied dlouho ocektiv. (M.3". Atanasovi. zafi J 943. ktere Ietal. Avie byl pfeletnuty pnrno na zakladnu Dolna Mitropolija. Prvni let probehl bez incidenru a podobne tom. the aircraft type is referred to by the Latin characters (AVIA). proc se zbrusu nove stfhaci stroje octly hned jake druhosledovy material ve stlhact pilot chosen to perform this maiden flight was the highly regarded Kapitan Krasto Atanasov. veliteli. a paddkovjch pdsu. Btlj collection) Do srpna ] 943 bylo vsech dvanact stroju sestaveno a pfipraveno k povinnernu zaletu. to the cockpit of the Avia AV·135·103.as was the case with the other types that Manolev flew. letadlo je v zapisnlkn vedeno jako AVIA latinkou. based at Dolna Mitropoliya.05 a. 28. Jakrnile byly predavaci procedury ukonceny. Pozoruhodne je. Manoleva nese datum to. rather than its Cyrillic Bulgarian nick-name. velitel lstrebitelnata skola (stihaci skola) z Dolni Mitropolije.25 a.. as well as Feldfebel Yordan Ferdinandov and Nedio Kolev. The last moments before the long-awaited event. Commanding Officer of the VNVV's Ittrebitelnata Shkola (Fighter School). Dnvodem. 2 v Dolne Mitropoliji od 10:25 do 11:05. the Avias were ferried directly to the base at Dolna Mirropoliya. Part of the black H3" on the wing undersurface is visible here. all twelve aircraft had been test flown and officially accepted by the VNVV. Commander of the Fighter school. Dostaly Nomenklaturen Numer (nomenklamrnl Cislo) 7067 a seriova ctsla od 1 do 12. Pilotem vybranyrn k vykonant prvniho letu byl uznavany pilot. borne of the Fighter School. Za pozomost jiste stojt i rozd{l v sytosti barvy mezi kovovou plochou odnlmatelmjch pane Ill.1 .u bylo i s nasledujicimi.. when he flew No. Vsimnete si mohutnosti upinactch. to 1. Atanasov.Piiprava pred prvntm startem no bulharske pudi. Krome Atanasova byli dalsimi piloty. kapitan Krasto Atanasov.

Nahofe: Avie se ro7jlidf k prvntmu vzletu z bulharske pudy. Od podobneho okamiiku v Praze zatim obenly cele tii roky. Uprostred: Po odlepeni.... Dole: Vzticnj letovy snimek. Krtuce po vzletu stroj zacal nabirat vysku. Above: Avia rolls to its first take-off in Bulgaria. It took three years since the same event in Prague. Centre: Moments after the lift-off··· Below: A rare in-flight photo. The machine started its climb after the take off

69

skole, byly smisene pocity bulharskych zkusebnich pilotu, ktere novy letoun vyvolaval behern zkousek, Problemy pf vzletu padaly na vrub slabemu motoru, tvrde tlumeni podvozku zpusobovalo silne a nepnjemne chveni be-hem pojizdeni, Jakmile byla Avie ve vzduchu, podavala odpovldajici vykony, nicmene behem akrobacie, pf meznich podrrunkach, kdy se obvykle leta na vysokych nasobcich, drak nevyhovoval, NaptikJad behem cvicneho souboje dvou pim.i B-135 letanych zkusenymi instruktory, kdy Ietouny konaly prudke obraty a prudke stfemhlave lety, doslo u jednoho letounu k trvale deformaci kndla a peruse jeho konstrukce, Roztrhl se jeho potah a pilot, Bogdan Ilijev, se zapotil, nel. Avii pfivedl na zem. Dusledkern bylo vydane omezeni akrobatickych obratu, d1ky kterernu se ale stalo Ietadlo neschopnyrn skutecneho boje, kvuli kteremu bylo porizeno. Navic vyzbroj, sestavajtci z pam kulometu puskove n'lte, byla pravem povazovana za nedostatecnou pro pfipad souboje s modernimi stlhacimi nebo bornbardovacimi letouny USAF nebo sovetskeho letectva. Planovana manta! 20mm rychlopalneho kan6nu stfilejlciho vrtulovou hfideli by vyznamne zvysila palebnou Ilu tohoto stihaciho letounu, ale nikdy k of nedoslo, cimz Avie B-135 zustala nepouzitelna jako ucinny bojovy nastroj. V dusledku toho bylo pfijato rozhodnuti pfesunout dvanact Avii do role cvicneho stlhaciho letounu a pfedat je do stfhaci skoly. Ale ani tam na ne instruktofi zaky radeji nepousteli, nebot Avie povazovali za pffli~ narocne pro nezkuseneho pilota, Proto si na Aviich pfilezirostne letala jen hrstka instruktoru, ktefi si tak udrzovali nalet hodin a letove navyky".

ners, instead of front line duty was because of the mixed opinions formed by the Bulgarian test pilots while testing the aircraft. They had experienced problems during take off, on account of the underpowered engine used by the B-135. Also, as a result of the stiff undercarriage there were strong and unpleasant vibrations while taxiing, Once in the air, the Avia performed adequately; however during aerobatics, in extreme conditions, where high wing loading occurred, the airframe performed poorly. For example, during a mock dogfight between two pairs of B-1358, each flown by a highly skilled instructor, there followed a series of hard turning manoeuvres and steeply angled dives, the wings of one aircraft were deformed and the sheet metal skin cracked giving much cause for concern to the pilot, Bogdan Jlyev, in his attempt to bring it back safely to the ground. As a consequence, restrictions were issued concerning the amount of aerobatics that could be performed; effectively making the aircraft unsuitable for 'live' combat the role for which it wa originally designed. Finally, the armament consisting of only a pair of rifle calibre machine guns was considered inadequate in the event of the aircraft encountering the modern USAAF or VYS fighters and bombers. The planned installation of a centrally mounted 20mm rapid-fire cannon would have greatly improved its firepower; however, this never materialised. rendering (he Avia unusable as an efficient combat tool, As a consequence, the decision was made to relegate the twelve 8-135s to the fighter-training role and transfer them to the Fighter School. Even here, the instructors did not allow the students to fly them, as they considered the type too difficult to be handled by an inexperienced flyer. Thus, only a handful of instructors occasionally flew the aircraft to keep their hand in on the type*.

*) Da!sf let ppor, Petara Manoleva probehl az 25. listopadu. Tentokrat je zrnfnsno cele oznacenl typu AVIA 135, bez zaznarnu jeimo sertoveho cisla. Poslednf Manolevuv let na typu se konal 28. Iistopac u 1943 (stroj 6. 12). PifsHho roku je prvnl zazna m ze 14. (edna (c. 12), potom z 24. Jedna (c. 4), 30. a 31. brezna (c·. 4), 4. a 5. (dvakrat), 15. a 17. dubna - vsechny na c. 4. V kvetnu letel i nekolik bojovych vzletu; pocfnaje 23. (na c. 5), potom 24. a 26. 5. (na c. 6). V oervnu lete! jen stroj C. 6 ve dnech 7. a 22. Poslednf let v kabine Avie 8-135 absolvoval Manolev 6. cervence 1944, kdy vzlett do vzduchu s tim sarnyrn strojem c. 6 a asi na rozlouceni si dal petatficetirnlnutovy let nad Dolnou Mitropoliji.

") Manolev's next flight in the aircraft was performed only on the 25th November. This time the whole aircraft type is mentioned in his logbook: AVIA 135. without the individual serial number being recorded. The last flight flown by Manolev in the aircraft in 1943 was on Nov. 28 (No. 12). In the next year, the first entry on type is dated Jan. 14 (No. 12), then Jan. 24 (No.4). March 30 and 31 (No.4), April 4, 5 (twice), 15, 17 - all on NO.4. In May, he logged a few sorties, starting on the 23rd (No.5), then 24th and 26th (No.6). In June, he flew only No.6 on the 7th and 22nd. His last flight aboard an Avla 8-135 happened on July 6, when he took off in the same No.6 for a 35 min. flight over Dolna Mitropoliya.

70

Piedposledni bulharskd Avie s taktickym l£Slem ,,11" (AV-13S-111). Na predchtizej{c( strdnee je na celn(m pohledu na tentjz letoun dobie videt ovalnj tvar vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiCi kapaliny a celkove zlUen{ teto partie v piednt casti. • The penultimate Bulgarian Avia (tactical number "11", AV-13S·111). On the previous page the head-on view shows to advantage its oval radiator air intake and the general slimming down of the whole chin of a series-production fighter. (M. Baj collection)

Nazor pilota
Takto shmul sve zkusenosti s Avii 8-135 jeden z instruktoru Ietecke skoly, plk, let. v.v. Petar Manolev, kdyf jej v cervnu roku 2000 vyzpovidal Theodor Muchovsky: .Letadlo melo dost slaby motor. Chybifla mu i kyslikovd soustava pro vy§kove lety. V nekierych. fdstech byl velmi podobny Doganu [Avia B-534], nebot vyzbrol, motor a piistroje byly stejne. Vzhledove byl letoun velmi podobny Spitfiru, piedevsim dik» eliptickym kffdlum. Ale v porovnani s touto anglickou stihaikau meta Avia podstatne deiSt rozbsh. pti vzletu. Behem dlouheho rozbenu i dobehu nemel pilot pNjemny pocit. (... ) Ai ve vzducha Avia 8-135 velice pomalu trychlovala - jeji motor byl proste slabY. (... ) V /manevrovem/ boji jsme nemeli pocit jistoty, brdnili jsme se letadlo pFfli,~zateiovat, abychom se vyhnuli nehoddm: Myslim, ie letoun byl dobry pro bojovy vycvik, jako piechodovy typ mezi dvouplosnymi zdkladnimi cvicnymi a plnohodnotnymi bojovymi typy, jako Messerschmitt [Bf l09G] nebo Dewoitine [D.520 J. Ale nakonec jsme stejl'le nenechdvali pilotni iaky tuhle masinu Ietai ze dvou duvodu: Zaprve, vdlecne poiadavky byly velmi ndrocne a my jsme posilali piloty k bojovym letkdm (jaio), jakmile riskali bojove zkusenosti na Doganech. V bojovycli jatech piechdzeli nejprve na Dewoitiny D.520, pozdeji, od roku 1944, ptimo na Messerschmitty Bf 109. Zadruhe, Avie B-135 vyiadovala pritis mnoho letovych hodin na jhrych typech nei. jsme na ni mohli pustit taka. Neodpoustela chyby. Kdybychom je nechali letat na B·135, zakrdtko by je zniCili - bylo jich jen dvandct, letdni s nimi nebylo nic snadneho, a neme1i jsme ndhradni dily. Proto jsme s nimi letali jen my instruktoh. " Dais! pilot, plk, let. v.v. Jordan Ferdinandov, ktery rake Avii B-135 caste letal vzpornlna: "Avia B-135 mlla 6ste tvary a elegantne zaoblend kiidla. Letoun byl lehce ovladatelny, pfi vzletu mel tendenci utikat vlevo, ale snadno se to korigovalo. Letoun mel jednu vadu: pti motorove zkousce na piny plyn se letounu zvedal ocas a hrozilo, ze vrtule

In The Pilots' Opinion
Here is how one of the instructors at the Flying School, retired Col. Petar Manolev, summed up his experiences with the Avia 8-135, when interviewed by Theodor Muchovski in June 2000: "This plane had a somewhat underpowered engine. Also, it had no oxygen system for high altitude flights. In some parts it was very similar to the 'Dogan' [AviaB-534. all notes in square brackets are by D. B.}, as the armament, engine and cockpit instruments were the same. In appearance this aircraft [the B.135} was velY similar to the Spitfire, mainly owing to its elliptical wings. But compared to the English fighter; the Avia required a much longer take offrun to reach the required speed for flight. During both the long take off and landing process, the pilot would experience an unpleasant feeling. (... J In the air; the Avia 8-/35 could not gain high speed quickly enough, as the engine was weak. (. ..) Wefound the plane insecure in combat and we decided not to go 100 far with the wing overloading, to avoid accidents. I think that this plane was good for transition [from primary biplane trainers] to the Dewoitine [D.520] and the Messerschmiu [Bf 109G]. But we never let student pilots actually fly with this machine, for two reasons. Firstly, the wartime [condition) was very 'hot' and we were sending the pilots to the combat yato-s [squadrons] immediately after they had accumulated experience with the 'Dogan '. In the combat yatos, they were transferred to the Dewoitine and, from1944, directly to the Bf 109. Secondly, this plane required many flight hours on. other types, before one should attempt to fly it. it did notforgive any mistakes. If we had let them fly the B-J35, they would have destroyed th.eplanes in no time, as there were only 12 such machines, which were quite difficult to fly and without readily available spare parts. That is why we, the instructors, were the only ones who flew the type. " Another pilot, retired Col. Yordan Ferdinandov, who also often flew the Avia monoplane, recalls: "The Avia B-135 had a clean. shape and nicely rounded wings. The control of the plane was light,' however, at take off it had the tendency to roll to the left, but this could be easily overcome. This

71

. ze sabotdi piispela ke krdtkemu tivotu Avit B-135. maybe it needed a more powerful engine and an improved landing gear.e velke plochy potahu kiidel byly pokryty ko ro. namontovanymi nad motorem. mela dobre piistrojove vybaveni. Proto muselo pri motorove zkouSce sedet na vodorovnem stabilizatoru nekolik muia pozemnihopersonalu. The control commission. the machine would tiltforwards critically. Kdyi letadla dorazila \I bedndch do Bulharska. BtUho The typical armed forces documentary photos of a llew type. protoie Avia byla ph pojif. v kabine jsem se citil stejne pohodlne jako v Messerschmittu Bf 109. Vzpom(ncim si jefte na jednu zajtmavou podrobnost. presto jsem Avii B-135 duveivva!. Kontrolni komise zjisfila. Because of this. causing minor damage. the corrosion soon reap~ peered. Dvl dlouhe podvozkove nohy piinasel» problemy pi] vzletu a piistdni. " ze Note: All notes in square brackets are written by paragraph's author ~DEmesBernad. drieli jsme tuto skutecnost v tajnosti. Protoie jsme nechteli. planovany 20m. mounted over the engine. the damaged surfaces polished. v zdvodecn DSF. Vyhied vpied z ni by! velmi dobry po zaiaieni podvozku se menilo jeji chovdni . situated to the right of the buttonfor the machine guns all the pilot's control column. aby cesti odbornici. becoming lighter and increasing its speed immediately. nedokdzal jsem na phlis krdtke drd.Typicki armadni doku men tarni jotograjie noveho typu. Kdyz jsme pieletdvali sestavene stroje Z tovarny v LavCl do Dolne Mitropolije. during tests. natieli a pote opaitili vrchnim lakem. I. 72 . The button for it. Lovech. " udeii do zeme a letadlo se prevrau. as the airplane could turn over easily when taxiing on rough terrain. byli potresttini. The two main. if only this cannon could have been installed and with some other design improvements. that this airplane would 1101 tolerate mistakes and thus was nor suitable for inexperienced pilots. Tlacitko kanonove spousti.92 rnm.e uirhnout "jedenactku" ad zem! a trefil jsem kupku sena. the plane would have been an excellent weapon. 1 remember another interesting detail. as we didn 't want the Czech specialists.stala se jakoby lehci a okamiite zrychlovola. It had good instruments and 1felt in its cabin as comfortable as in the Bf 109. jsme zkorodovanou vrstvu pecliw! odbrousili smirkovym papirem. We kept this fact secret. that this plane was armed with only MO synchronized 7.n kanon.). (. Ukdzalo se. protoie na strojich. the Bulgarian technicians discovered strange brownish stains 011 the joil that covered the wings. bylo odstraneno a otvor po nem zalepen ovijeci paskou. nasi technici po vybaleni hlavnich d[Ju zjistili na kovovem potahu kitdel hnedave skvmy. established that the wings had been purposely sprayed with acid [i. (Sbtrka M. sttilejici dutou osou vrtule nebyl nikdy namontovdn. umistene vpravo ad spousti kulometu. although chocks were put in front of the wheels. II off the ground in time because the landing strip was too short and J struck a haystack. several men of the ground staff had to sir on the plane j. po1kozeny povrch vylestili. I personally trusted the Avia B-135. tv Dolna Mitropoliya.. Baj collectilm) plane had another inconvenience: when the engine was run at full power on the ground. Pokud by byl tento kan6n namontovdn a doslo k nelaerym vylepsenim konstrukce. I could not lift No. to be persecuted.. Musim zdurazit. Stejne si ale myslim. Zapomnel jsem zminit vYzbroj . But I think this impacted on. I forgot to say. Aerodynamicky byla B~135 velice dobra.T want to emphasize. as during their storage ill the open at Dolna Mitropoliya.. who came hereto help us assemble the airplanes. z. kteii ndm piijeli pomdhat s monuiii techta lelade I. was removed the aperture being covered with a piece of bandage tape. the short flight life of the machine. cot zpusobilo mens! nehodu. At Lovech [at the DSF Works}. The planned 20 mm cannon. was never installed . with the risk ofthe propeller hitting the ground and fuming the aircraft over. letoun by byl vynikajici zbrani. (after we had accepted them from the facto ry [afte r assembiyl}. painted and varnished again.tento letoun byl vyzbrojen jen dvema synchronizevanymi kulomety raze 7. Despite this. It turned out that large areas of the wing surface were corroded.deni po nerovnem terenu ndchylnd k pievrdceni. When we were moving the planes from. Pozn. stojicich v Dolne Mitropoliji venku se koro:e Opel brzo objevila. asi by ale potiebovala silnej!i motor a vylepseny podvozek. The forward view was velY good and after retraction oj the landing gear the machine's behaviour changed. when the engine had to be tested on the ground. V Lovci.: Vsechny vysvettlvky uvedene v hranatych zavorkach doplnil autor kapitoly Denes Bernad. a proto nebylo vhodne pro nezkusene piloty. tohle letadlo neodpoustelo chyby. shooting from the axis of the propeller.e.92 mm machine guns. When the airplanes arrived in their crates and after unpacking of the main parts. (M. sabotaged] back in Czechoslovakia.te kiidia byla jefte v Ceskoslovensku zeimlrne zesabotovdna ~ polita kyselinou. The aerodynamics of this airplane was very successful. undercarriage legs caused dif· ficulties at take off and landing. horizontal stabilizers. the corrosion was carefully removed with soft sandpaper.

te raze Na ro. rendering the fighters unfit for combat. Simultaneously. Later.11 byl nakonec zrusen." were lumped all of the manufacturing units with an aeronautical profile from within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Balous Collection) az 73 . With. Krome motoni meta ceska strana dodat i palubni pfistroje. AU contract work for non-German clients was cancelled. including the large Avia Works. the whole manufacturing process collapsed. V roce 1942 potrebovala TIeti rise.vlastovka byla velky mrtve narozeny ptak. vyzbroj a dalsl slozite dily. This photo taken ill 1945 shows one of them with the new "Allied" national insignia. Behind the engine boxes the other transport crates are visible.Wtsina beden s hlavnimi skupinami d. Za bednami s motory jsou vide! daLStpiepravky.520. takze Avie nebyly schopne bojoveho nasazent.Messerschrnitt Bf 1090. byla v przibe"hu monuiie uskladnena pod sirjm nebem. Majority oj crates with the main components of fighters including the power plants were stored in the open during the assem- bly. aby splnily rychle rostouci pozadavky front. ktere rneli v arzenaIu .1u letadel. nevyjimaje velkou tovarnu Avia. pine zamestnana valkou vsechny kapacity sveho leteckeho prumyslu. probably with wings. . Zaroveii s tim byla hrstka Avii B-135 odsunuta na vedlejsich kolej a predana k vycviku. • Differing in this respect from Avias. To znamenalo podftdit jim vsechny protektoratni tovarny a dilny schopne Ietecke vyroby. Nemec byLy zruseny. The Germans tried to compensate for this loss by offering second-rate material. jmenovite francouzskou Dewoitinu D. This included the Bulgarian order for 50 engines. the handful of Avia B-135s were thus sidelined and relegated to the training role. intended for the DAR-ll airframes manufactured at Lovech. the Third Reich fully involved in a war of attrition. Even the proposed upgrade of the existing B-135s with the engine-mounted 20 nun cannon could not take place. the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) would offer the most potent weapon existing in its arsenal.lement the planned expansion of the VNVV's fightertleet. aby stihaci soucast bulharskeho letectva VNVV mohla zavest planovane rozsffeni. the Czechs also had to supply cockpit instruments. Bez techto zivotne dulefirych polozek objednavky se cela vyroba zhroutila. to imp. Hlavni pncina tohoto selhani muze byt pfictena k (izi realnym panum Vychodnf Evropy doby . Besides the engines. pravdepodobne s kHdly. Jeste pozdeji Nemci (tedy Reichsluftfahrtministerium • RiSske ministersrvo letectvf) nabidli jednu z nejvykonnejsich zbrani.rskjm vjsostnym oznacenim. The 'Lyastuvka' (Swallow) was truly a stillborn bird. Without the availability of these vital items. and the entire DAR-ll project was finally dropped. (M. ktere mely byt zabudovany do draku DAR-ll. vyrobenych v Loveei. namely the French Dewoitine D. the German military would demand tbat all of the available resources of its aviation industry be directed to fulfi Lling the rapidly increasing needs of the Luftwaffe. armament and other sophisticated parts. As part of these "available resources. Nemci za ztratu nabidli druhofady letecky material.Ljastuvka" . vcetnl pohonnych jednotek. Ani k dovyzbrojeni stavajiciho tuctu Avii kan6nem 20 mm nedos10. a completed DAR-II would never roll off the assembly lines of DSFLovech. Vsechny smluvni prace pro jine zakazniky nef.zdil od Avie 8-135 se i starU verze nemeckeh» Messerschmtttu Bf 109£ aktivne zucastnily bojil do konce vtilky. Mrtve narozeny ptak Pres smlou vu uzavrenou mezi ceskou a bulharskou stranou o seriove vyrobe B-135 v Bulharsku nakonec nesjel z montazni linky v DSF v Loveci ani jediny DAR-H. A Stillborn Bird Despite the agreement reached by the Czechs and Bulgarians regarding series production of the B-135 by the latter party. The primary cause of this failure can be attributed to the real masters of the Eastern European region: the Germans. even the older Bulgarian Air Force Messerschmitts Bf 1 09E 's took active part in the combat until the end of war. Cely projekt DAR. Sem zapadla i bulharska objednavka padesati motoru. tbe Messerschmitt Bf 1090. Na snimku z roku 1945 jejeden z nich s novjm bul1uz.Nemcum.520. by 1942.

Velichkov: Vazdushnj na N. bulvdru Ferdinanda 1a Slatinski Redut. ustiedni nadraii a Podunajske nadraii. bombardovala oblast Skobelevova buivdru.m.. made up of 30-35 bombers. zatil svou minutu SUNY. Druhd vlna rovnez zhruba tli letky silnd. about 2 squadrons strong.4\. each flying in a wedgeformation. made up of 35-40 bombers. The second wave.. made up of 35-40 bombers. s cilem rozvrdtit hospodtiistvi a terorizovat obcany.m.SW and released their bomb load in 'carpet bombing' style. came from the North hlavni mesta llvddimi v textu a vybrane uikladny USAAF na jihu Itdlie. The fourth wave.. N. in jour separate waves. Nedelya a na Vojenskou skolu jeho Velicenstva.. Jedinecna "astra"· bojova akce totif dala jediny.000 m (23. came from the South and released their bomb load in the same 'carpet bombing' style over 'Vlizrazdane'Square. piiletela z jihovychodu a shodila pumy kobercovym zpusobem na oblast ndmesti Vazrai. (15th May 1944) "( . tvoierui 30 . Vojski Pffkaz k obrane vlastt. the 30th March 1944. It was done for political effect. Tieti vlna 0 sile asi 35 at 40 stroju ze tii letek v klinovitych formacich.J ' •• . The area covered by the bombs was the Sugar jactory district. made up of 30-35 bombers. V oblasti pokryte pumami leiela tovarna cukrovaru.. came/rom W . v sile asi dvou peruti. .jihozdpadu.. Vozdusni na N. 30. Flight altitude was 6. Letovd hladina dosahovala at 7000 m. about 3 squadrons strong. to disorganise the economy and terrorize the people.. phletela od zdpadu . . Btld) 74 . Jediny sestrel Jeste net tucet bulharskych BR 135 zrnizeJ v zapomnenr. Ctvrtd vlna. formacich. ndmesti St. A unique 'live' combat mission which would yield the sole 'kill' . byt nepotvrzeny sestfel. Vyznaceny jSQU To have a better overaJl view of the events of this particular day. " 1· • • .. col.eny z asi 450 bombarderu (fypy Liberator a Fortress 11) a asi J 50 stihacek (typ« Lightning a Mustang). Flight altitude was 7. made the 12th air attack against our capital. . 15.. 'Ferdinand I' Boulevard and 'Slatinski Redut'. each flying in a wedge formation. J _. each flying in a wedge formation. (Drawing M. The third wave. V.ROMAN A r ".400 m (21. V. ve ctyfech samostatnych vlndcli dvaruicty ndlet na nose hlavni mesto Sofii. The marked cities are the capitals mentioned in the text and some . Sofia. before the "dozen" Bulgarian B-135s would fall into obscurity.". On 30th March 1944...800 m (22. biezna 1944 od 09:45 do 11: 15 hod dopoledne vykonal nephitelsky letecky svaz slof. Velickova: The Sole 'Kill' There was a last glitter however..35 bombardery v klinovitych formacich.000 ft).in the short and un pectacular career of the Czech fighter plane. Ndlet byl podniknut pro politicky vysledek. plk. to 11:15 a. about 3 squadrons strong..Dne 30. we quote the report compiled by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bulgarian Air Defence Forces. Orientacnt mapa jihovychodni Evropy. • An general map of the South-Eastern Europe.. of the USAAF bases in Southern Italy. Letovd vysKa byla 6400 m. kvetna 1944 . piiletela ze severu a shodila pumovy nakLad na ndmesti Svita nedllja a oblast Lozenec... c{raia 30 at 35 born" barderu vtdy ve tiech klinovitych. Pro Ieps! sledovani celkoveho prubehu udalosn toho dne citujeme ze zpravy velitele bulharske protivzdusne obrany.. The firs! wave.J •• .although unconfirmed . 0 site asi 3 letek.300 ft). the Central Railway Station and the Poduene Railway Station...000ft).dane.'"- .. Voyski Order Concerning the Air Defence of the Country. . a mas ive bombing raid of several waves against the Bulgarian capital and surroundings was carried out by theUSAAF. Flight altitude was 6. each flying in a wedge formation. 'St. came from the SW and released their bomb load on 'Skobelev' Boulevard. Prvni vlna... brezna 1944 podnikJo americke letectvo rnasovy bornbardovaci nalet v nekolika vlnach na bulharske hlavni mesto Sofii a okoli. an enemy air formation of about 450 bombers ('Liberator' and 'Fortress fl' type) and about 150 fighters ('Lightning' and 'Mustang=types). from 09:45 a.. Nedeiya' Square and His Majesty's Military School. about 3 squadrons strong. ) On.

. Jordan Ferdin and ov.000 destructive [high explosive] and 30. as it was based far away from Sofia. located at the village of Chibaovtsi could detect effectively no more than one or two groups of enemy aircraft. jak nasi prdtele ze tfi the orlyak in the process of refuelling. ctyr letek. the fighters take off However. Fighter Squadron). rozdeleny na vice maiych. vlna zastihla v li:05 tento orljak uprostied doplnovdni paliva. skupin. As the first three waves flew away to the South and to the West.kpt. By 11:00 a. }.)" Here is how the action of the Bulgarian fighter units were described in connection with the surprise 4th bombing wave: "3/6 Iztrebitelen orlyak (3/6.000 incendiary bombs were dropped. the anti-aircraft defence forces. Therefore it took by surprise the fighte r units. Feldfebel Yordan Ferdinandov and Podporuchyk Petar Manolev along with his wingman. Piistdvaji jeden za druhym.. At the same time. 500 and 1.307 lbs.500 kg (551 lbs. nepiitel jii shodil pumy a odlete1 na jihouipad. z velitelstvi VNW}. Velichkov's report there is no mention tbe 1/6 Iztrebitelen orlyak (116. ) 2/6 lstrebitelen orljak (stihaci letka 2/6) na letisti vraidebna.Dopadlo asi 3000 tfi. vlny na Sofii. Velickova neni ani zmlnky (116 Istrebitelen z letiste 0 stihaci peruti 116 orljak). vzpomina: .3/6 istrebitelen orljak (stihaci letka 3/6) na letisti Boturi!t!' V 11:00 se stfhaci vrdtili l: boje se tieti vlnou bombardera]. About 3. (. .. An Avia and a group of flight instructors during a lull at the Dolna A1itropoliya airfield. This is why these fighters could not engage the enemy. D. Bozhurishte airfield. 500 a 1500 kg. vyzbrojenycn Bf 109 a D.).30. protoie mezi nimi byti i moji byvalt iad Setkali jsme se s americkymi bombardery ze ctvrte vlny. ktera se jako jedina pustila do souboje s neocekavanou ctvrtou vlnou bombarderu USAF. Note the shape of undercarriage doors and nice oval intake of the water radiator. biema 1944 jsme vzletl: ve skupine ctyf Avii 8-135 z letitII Dolna Mitropolija. is mentioned at the end as having contacted the enemy.v. they became scattered into many smaller groups.. vyzbrojene Dewoitinami D-S20. respectively. destroying 3. from Karlovo airfield [a unit which probably did not contact the enemy. before they could reach the necessary flying height. Na snimku stojl za povsimnutt tvar krytU podvozku a pe"knj oval vstupniho otvoru vzduchu k chladiei vody. the fourth wave was not noticed in time. Refuelled and reloaded with ammunition.. (. (. Navic jii mnoho obcant: opustilo kryty (. Yrashdebna airfield. The pilots were the commander of the Fighter School. After bombing. velitel stihaci skoly.B. Stihacky s doplnenou munici a palivem opet vzletajt: Nicmene net nastoupaji potiebnou vyfku. dopliiovdni munice je kryt odloien nad motorem. apparently the four impromptu warriors were the only ones to actually engage in combat with the unex. Only the patrol of four Avia B-135 fighters from the Fighter School at Dolna Mitropoliya. Kapitan Krasfo Atanasov. v. Je zminena jen hlidka Avii B-135 z letecke skoly v Dolne Mitropol. . Proto stihaci nemohli neptitele napadnout. kdyi lere1y nad mesty Vraca a Ferdinand a smlfovaly nad Staru Planinu [pohoti. (. Po bombardovdni kaidd vlna odletela na jihozdpad. 75 . operujici Karlovo [jednotka parmi! nezasfthla do boju pro svou and released their bomb load on the 'Sveta Nedelya' Square and the Lazenet: District. Fighter Squadron).102 lbs. (. 1. Rozhodl jsem se sam [be: povelu.. a very delayed announcementfor the incoming 4th wave of bombers targeting Sofia is received. ktere znicily na 3357 budov. his wingman. Indeed.i. i'izena tamnlmi instruktory.]. and 3..520 vedli tezkY boj s pocetni ptevahou nepiitele. D.pected fourth USAAF bombing wave. tak protichemickou obranu. ). Proto piekvapila jak protivzdusnou obranu.. ktere miiiiy na Sofii ze severordpadu. Fighter Squadron). the fighters had returned [from combating the third bombing wave.]. .357 buildings. Chtll jsem jim pomoci co nejvic. Many citizens had already left the shelters (. takie se neZLl-castnil boje. each wave flew towards the Sw.. Feldfebel Nedio Kolev.. ) 2/6 Irtrebitelen. Pravdepodob"I kvrll. comprised of Dewcitine D.ftivotrhavych a 30000 zdpalnych pum. " Nasleduje popis cmnosti bulharskych stihacich jednotek y souvisJosti s prekvapujicim naletem ctvrte vlny bornbarderu. Petar Manolev a jeho cislo Fw.. nebyla ctvrtd vlna zachycena vcas. ). The typical bomb calibres were 250.. a protoie radiolokacni stanice Freya ve vesnici Cibaavce nemohla uCinnl sledovat vice nei fjve skupiny nepi'dtelskjch letadel. flown by flight instructors. Protoie prvni tii vlny odlete1y na jih a zapad. and also the anti-chemical defences. " Ve zprave plk.iji. the enemy bombers had already dropped their bombs and flown away to the Sw. Typicke rdte pouiirych pum byly 250. Piiletajici 4.5208.. orlyak (2/6. Nedjo Kolev.)" In Col..m. ) The incoming 4th wave of enemy aircraft at 11:05 found Skupina leteckycb instruktoro ve chvilce volna s Avii na letist: Dolna A1tiTopolija.anasov velitelhlidky. . Krasto AtanaSOY. Krasto At. probably due to the ammunition replenishment... ppor. The cowling is set aside on the engine. V Aviich seceli tito piloti . and since the 'Freya' radar station. so it could not enter combat.. jeho dvojka Fw. kiere de'li Bul- PUc let. landing one after the other. V temie okamiiku se otyvd velice opo[dene omdmeni 0 ndletu 4.B. (B & B Collection) vzdalenost od Sofie]. protoie jsme slyseli z radiostanic.

We formed the combat formation during the climb by looking CIt each other. Petar Manolev sl rovnez vzpomina na rotc akci: v .4]. jak smefujf be. bojicn nad hlavnim mestem pfistavaji. Soustiedil jsem palbu na jeden jeho motor a . se podaiilo zapdlit vedlejs! motor: Nad horami stroj za{:al ztrdcet vYSku. the skies of Sofia/acing some 60~70 enemy bombers.. Jordanu Ferdinandovovi. Nekolikrat jsme zautocili. were having a hard time with the numerically superior enemy. Take mne dodalo odvahy. as it started to burn . . Piilepili jsme se na jeden bombarder.Posledni Avia v bulharsk« else1ne fade . armed with Bf 109s and D. Our joy was greatwe had done it. Llberatoru: Odpoved je prostd . Takie v tomto okamiiku piekvapenijsme byli na nebi noel Sofii jen my ctyfi proti nlja.ia in the "Bulgarian" sequence of numbers ~the white "12". in this moment of surprise. On his own initiative. protoie kryt zbralri nebyl zcela uzamknut. ctyrmotorov}'ch bombardera blyskajtcich se ve slunci. a proto jsem dal rozkar k utoku. Zachranili jsme se rychlym protiflako- 76 .zfejmif jsem jej zasahl. We had to do something. protoie jsme nemeli vzdjemne rddiove spojeni. when they were already over the towns of Vratza and Ferdinand and were heading towards Stara Planina [the long mountain that separates Bulgaria into its Northern and Southern parts. Kapitan Atanasov orde red the four of us to take off against the enemy. D. dvou kulometu male raze a napadali jsme neptitele ve stoupdni zezadu a zespoda. mel! jsme potii je znovu dostihnout. Some may ask how we had the courage to attack this well-armed force of 'Liberator' bombers with only our small calibre machine guns. and after the Americans had released their bombs. The heavy machine started to lose height over the mountains.si stielby byl ale Mmer neznateltty. my wingman. which were heading to Sofia from the Nw. Petar Manolev also recalls the same event: "As it was a rule for us to keep four Avia 8-135 fighter trainers combat ready. 4). We had shot down a 'Liberator'! One enemy less! With the last drops offuel we landed at Bozhurishse and reponed the events. Vide1ijsme jeste stihack» od orljaku 2/6 a 3/6. I wanted to help them out as much as I could. jak po tvrdych. We met the American bombers from the 4th wave. Plk. Ndco jsme museli podniknout.ht'/ii .. as there WClS no radio connection between us. Lellli jsme za nimi jihozdpadnim smerem a v oblasti Perniku na 11(1S zacalo pdlit vlasti protiletadlove dl!ostfelectvo. na byvalych hranicicn s Jugoslavii. leader of the patrol. protoie zaca! hoiet. and were hurrying towards their bases to the south they broke their compact formation. J gathered courage from the fact. Flying in the direction of Telish. We 'stuck' to one bomber that was left behind. povaiujici nos za nepititele.B.44. ie tato skupina bombarderu nemelazddny stihaci doprovod.Protoie jsme mlli pravidlo udriovat cryfi cvicne stihaci Avie B-135 v bojove pohotovosti. Memu Cislu. V bojove formaci odstupiiovane doprava jsme s prevysenim asi 800 at lOa m zautocili v prudkem klesdni na Fortressy posledni skupiny. Yraidebna a BozuriSte. also managed to set on fire the nearest engine . there were only the four of us in. at the former frontier with Yugoslavia.. ktery se opozdil. unsuccessfully. A much more interesting detail is the smooth and gloss surface of the wing leading edge oil tank. " Retired Col. I took the decision all by myself [without specific order from the Headquarters of the VNW. Well. (B & B Collection) harsko na jitni a severni cast}. Yordan Ferdinandov. Protoie nase rychlost byla zhruba stejnd jako rychlost bombardera. But near the town oj Radomir.]. a vzapJti jsme stoupali k daili ZleCi. we gained height rapidly. 1000 metra pod ndmi jsme uvideli asi 30 at 40 nepiatelskych. Kapitan ArC/nasov na SVOLI zodpovednost vydal ndm cryfern piika. Behem letu na Telis jsme v mime prave zatdcce rychle nabirali vY:fku.. kde jsme nabrali odvahu napadnout s nasimi kulomery maM rdze desuky dobte vyzbrojenych. " Retired Col. Also. So. jakehokoliv stihaciho doprovoda k Sofii. v.povedlo se.}. ale neusplIne.520s.ne hrane kiidla: The last Av. sestielili jsme Liberatoral 0 jednoho protivnika mene! S poslednimi kapkami paliva jsme piistali na Boiuriiti Cl ohlasili uddlost. byli jsme trvale piipraveni k bojovemu vzleiu. Dosahli jsem 5000 metric v oblasti Biala Slatina. D. The pilot probably just posed for the photo. aby doplnil» palivo a munici no letiitich. we took off with four Ada B-J35s from Dolna Mitropoliya airfield. as some of them were my former students. len nod mestem Radomir. Nekdo se muie zeptat. 50. ke startu proti nepiiteli.kYm 60 af 70 neprdtelskym bombarderum.12u• Pilot se patne jen nechal zvicnit na pamdtku. that this particular bomber group had no fighter escort. Nase radost byla velikd . Behem stoupdni jsme utvoiili bojovou formaci podle vidu. as the machine gun compartment was still unlocked..03. let. we were prepared for a combat mission at any moment. Pdlili jsme dlouhe ddvky z nasich. Vsechny cty'fi letouny hotovostni skupiny vzlelly temef soucasne (Manolev letel v C.E. Ucinek lUI. Mnohem zajt~ mavijSfm detailem je hladkj a lesklj povrcb olejo- ve110 chladice v ndbfi.pod ndmi hoiela Sofie. We attacked a few times. My bullets apparently hit the radial engine. co odhodili pumy. We saw the last fighters of the 2/6 and 316 Orlyaki landing for refuelling and rearming at Yrazhdebna and Bozhurishte airfields after their hot combat over the capital. remembers: "On 30. I concentrated my fire on one of its engines. All four airplanes of the alarm patrol took off almost simultaneously [Manolev flew No. Americane potom. spechali na sve Zlikladny no jihu a rozvolnili sve tlsne formace. as we had heard on the radio that our friends from the three fighter squadrons. Sofia was burning under us. in a right-hand curve. Krast'o Atanasov.1 gave an order for the attack.Ymca a 0 nejakych.

ale rovnei. ruis tavolal a iekl: . Since the USAAF bomber reportedly crashed into the territory of Yugoslavia. seen over the town of Tirana. Velickova.Fortresses 'of the last group. We were near Vratza when we saw a huge group of 'Liberators 'just in front oj us.. ze jsme piipraveni se podelit 0 zodpovednost s Atanasovem. jak zahdjit boj ajak z neho vlleznl vyjlt (. Atanasov thinking of some sort of reprisals for the unauthorized mission. it was difficult to reach them again. Soon. and 5 crewmembers jumped out. ktere se opozdilo za formaci. Albania. The machine turned to the right. enemy bomber regardless of the actual hits observed on the bomber's wings and fuselage. plk. they had no fighter escort. returning to the airfield on conclusion of the engagement. umistend no Ietisti Dolna Mltropolija: Po obdrieni prvni hZdJky 0 piiletajicich.. They took off under his command in the direction of Vratza and Berkovitza. Continuously firing our pair of small-calibre machine guns. ) ". Krasto Atanasov ctyfClenny raj Avif.624-3.OOOm (3. Nasleduje zprava podana plk. nad albanskym rneslem Tirana. }" One can note that the report mentions one USAAF bomber "probably shot down".) The Fighter School. mezi instruktory se 0 tomto bojovem lew rozhoiela vzrusend diskuse. from 10. Ja s mym c{stem jsme byli na konci bojoveho doletu nasich. We auacked the lone airplane a few times. the effect of our shots was negligible. Prvni roj se dostal daleko dopiedu a prondsledoval neptitele. V seznarnu lze nalezt kpt. We made a turn. m.. bfezna 1944 je uvedena nasledujici poznamka: "Poskozen ctyfmotorovy bombarder. ktery podjeho velenim vzletl smerem na Vracu a Berkovicu. 1 bod (.seznam). the right pair of engines started to smoke. vcetne uvedene kofisti Avii. Soon after. as we did not see any enemy airplanes.). Proto byl tento sesttel automaticky zafazen do "pravdepodobnych".' VtC10ly. Pod datem 30. the exact crash site could not be found.. Tento dokurnent fadi piloty VNVV podle bodovaciho systemu+". Velichkov: "(.Vratza. casta nacvicovanym ve skole. od 10:15 do 11:30. zpozorovanych. " Another participant in that day's events.Ie srovndni s bombarderem.. 1944. Letadlo zacalo zatdcet doprava. "My conclusion is the following: each pilot fired all of his rounds. Tam take kpt. Jordan Ferdinandov. . Celkovy seznam "pravdepodobnych" sestrelo toho dne. When we returned to Dolna Mitropoliya.]. Pozdeji byl kpt. Avii B-1 35. returned to our airfield. jimz se oteviely paddky. Ctyri paoli prav&fpodobn€ sesiielili jeden l1epi':dtels/c. We saved ourselves with a quick anti-flak manoeuvre repeated often at the school. home of 3/6 Orlyak. we dived on the . There. ze skutecne cislo je pet sestreln. K doplneni celkoveho obrazu onoho pornerne velice rusneho dne. where Tiro's Communist partisans operated. Yrdtili jsme se na Dolnu Mitropoliji a v 11: 30 piisuiii s poslednimi kapkami paliva.. jeuplny uredni seznarn vsech sestfehi ziskanych bulharskyrni stihacimi piloty proti nepnteli. Zde se setkali se skupi!lOU nephitelskych. .m.) in the area of Biola Slatina. However. from 800-1. Kapitan Krasto Atanasov. ale protoie jsme Iadnd nepidtelskd letadla nevideli. Dalsi soudoby dokument. I didn. in the area of Trun and Breznik. Nechtll jsem se k rozkazu vyjadiovat. Flying Fortressu*. ztrdcelo vyJku a vyskdkalo z nl) pet clem:t posddky. Yordao Ferdinandov says: "We were fiying towards Sofia and from a long distance we saw the smoke over the city. We landed there at 11:30 a. Atanasov. Rozka.] "Muj zaver je ndsledujici: kazdy z pilotu vystiile! munici.281 ft. Since our speed was almost identical to the bombers'. vydany jako Rozkaz c. pote se vrdtili. ze zprava hovof a jednom "pravdepodobne sestfelenern" bornbarderu USAAF." [According to hi. Z tohoto seznamu by vyplyvalo.Fortressu ". In a 'right-side-step' style combat formation. log book. The first pair had gone for ahead. ktere uvadi rozkaz plk.30 a. 1decided. Manolev's flight lasted 75 minutes. but we could not shoot down an. Pobl~f. protoie jsme prave piedvedli pilotnini idkum.• oemohlo byr nalezeno pfesne rnisto dopadu. Nedlouho po tom letoun spadl na zem v oblasti Trunu a Bremiku. we were attacked by our ownflak. even when compared to a bomber. Kapitan Atanasov reported (he shoot down of a 'Fortress'. the airplane fell to the ground. ktery ocekdval n. Kapt. what are we going to do with that combat [light?' I remember Petar Manolev saying. The four [pilots} probably shot down one enemy bomber. Fortunately.000 m (2. Aianasov za svu] rozkaz kritizovdn. vzpomina: "Leteli jsme k Sofii a jii z ddlky jsme vidlli koui nad mestem. Zaidceli jsme. chasing the enemy. Nekolikrd: jsme na osamele letadlo iautocili a brio se ndm podaiilo zapdli: oba motory na pravem kitdle. as we had just shown. in the region of Pernik. because of the ineffectiveness of our small-calibre armament..e letadlo od 30 I. ). kiere jsme taznamenali. but I had my own doubts thinking about the difference in the armament.000 m ( 16. immediately climbing for a second tum.) above the enemy.v. I made a sign to the commander. As for my pair. we discovered about 30-40 four-engined bombers. eita devet letadel. each of us attacked the enemy from down-behind. rozhltieli jsme se. (. When the Headquarters of the Vazdushni Voyski asked/or the names of the four pilots. Later on. " Doklady arnerickeho letectva uvadejf. About }. z.. proto jsem rozhodl 0 ndvratu a signalitoval jsem to svemu cislu.15 a. retired Col. . based at Dolna Mitropoliya airfield: upon receiving the first announcement about the incoming enemy bombers. byl napadnout letadlo. They engaged it and chased it EO wards Radomii.V bombarder: (. as we were mistakenly identified as enemy planes. kde mel svou zakladnu 3/6 Orljak. opening their parachutes. that we were nearing the end oj the Avia 8-135~' combat radius therefore I signalled to my wingman to return to base . bombarderis. to our studentfighters how to enter a combat and how to get out of it wll'h a . formed a 'jour' of 'Avias'. their airframes shining in the sun. We reached 5.Dolna Mitropoliya. ale nephitelsky bombarder jsme bel ohledu na mnoistvi zdsahtl na trupu a kiidlech. Vracy jsme piimo pied sebou spatiili obrovskou skupinu Liberdtoru. looked around and.ym manevrem. loosing height. " Prvnl roj muse] ptistat se zbyrkem pali va na zakladne Bozuriste.v. Velickovem: "Stihaci Skala. Zautocili na ne a prondsledovali je k Radomiru. se pozdeji ukazalo. sestavil velitel fkoly kpt. Atanasov ohlasil sesttel . Chasing the enemy to the Sw. heading towards Sofia. using up the last drops of fuel. [Podle Manolevova zapisniku trval let 75 minut. ale mel jsem sve pochyby kvuli rozdtlu ve vyzbroji \. let v. to 11. Aranasova s celkem peti body za vitezstvt. Tbe first pair were Iater compelled to land at the Bozhurishte base. the C/O of the School. without any fighter escort. Here they met a group of enemy bombers. Kdyz velitelstvi VNVV poiadalo 0 jmena dotcenych ctyf pilotu. nepidtelskycb bombarderech. nebyli schopni sestielit kvtdi neucinnosti kulometu mate rdie. Atanasov was criticised for his decision. This automatically Jed to tbe claim being confirmed only 77 . '1 want to comment on the order. Protoze se arnericky bombarder udajne zfitil 11a uzemi Jugoslavie.Co s tim bojovym letem udeldme?' Pamatuji si jak Petar Manolev iekl. Signalizoval jsem veliteli. that we were ready to share the responsibility with Alanasov. ze toho dne byly nad Bulharskem a Jugoslavii ztraceny ctyfi ctyfrnotorove bombardery (viz tabulka .. a lively discussion about the combat took place among all of the instructors. Nastesti nemlli stihact doprovod. The order was to attack the airplane that is left behind by the formation. Kdyt jsme se vrdtili na Dolnu Mitrapoliji. pochvdlen zzr bojovy uspech. 78/28. tfi sesttelene nepfatelske letouny. called us and said: 'And now.) under us.ejake tresty za nepovoleny bojovy let.m.4000 ft. but also commended for his victory. kde operovali Titovi komunistieti partyzani . 12. " Dalsi ucastnik tohoto boje. bombardo- Continuing with the report filed by Col. ()" . as they had had used up all of their fuel. vraceli jsme se k nasemu letisti. in the mountains.281 ft. " Vsimneme si.

podobny systsrnu pouzlvaoernu skYm letectvem rumun-. is the complete.list). 1944). . Photo credit: Denes Berndd & Stephan Boshniakov collection are marked as (B & B collection) VysvelUvky: . Gordon: The Complete Book of Fighters. in a forgotten corner of Dolna Mitropoliya airfield.135'.. but to complete the overall picture of this rather busy day.8~135 by! jeden z nich.e oben Avii . 21. Smithmark Pu bl . Notes: ") during the war. Nicrnene v oblasti. 1994 Sblrky a n1znii cisla Krile (Bulgaria). Tills could raise the possibility of one of them being the actual victim of the Avia B-135. U) This was a typical Bulgarian system. USAAF documents reveal that. 1947) Borislavov. two 'points' for every 2-engined aircraft being confirmed shot down. an block B-17F. Bibliografie I Bibliography: Zapisnlk letu Petara Manoleva (od 19. Smutny konec je neminul v roce 1946. cJSerial 42-5251 42-31683 42-31851 42-30465 J ednotkalU nit 450th BO 2ndBO 2ndBO* 30Ist BO Cas/Time 08:49 10:01 10:01 12:45 * srazka s druhou B -17 I crashed with fellow B -17 as 'probable victory'. brezen 1944 (listings for March 30. jeden a zadny bod. It was last seen over Central Yugoslavia at 12:45 hrs. a 'Flying Portress'" . 4-engined bombers lost over Bulgaria/Yugoslavia (see table . Sofia. cervn3 1947) I Log book Petar Manolev (from OCI. The document ranks the VNVV pilots according to the point system**. Williamem C.'. 1996 Cakov. 78/28.O} Toto byl typicky bulharsky system. when the last survi ving aircraft were used as targets during air-to-ground shooting practice. bylo v boji poskozeno vic bombarderu USAAF. ffj na 1939 do 18. 2.. 19. was nicknamed "Vagabond". Stephan Boshniakov..8S).vaci skupiny (419. it was later found that the real number was in fact. Za kazdy letoun poskozeny v boji mohly 'bYt poole stejnano klfce udelovany dva. five . with the influx of new Soviet technology after the Bulgarian about-face of September 8. Millerem.AAF on 30th Ma. In this list. 12. Miller.. Sofia. S wanbcrough. By the end of 1944. Doslov Tento boj ctyrclenneho bulharskeho roje a osameleho americkeho bombarderu by! skutecnou labuti pisni Avie B~135. New York. All ten crew members became POWs (Prisoners of War). Koncem roku 1944. which did return to their base in Italy. depending on the degree of damage reported as being inflicted. on that day. s dodavkami nove sovetske techniky po bulharskern veletoci a zmene stran. Theodoru Muchovskemu a Petaru Manolevovi za Iaskavou pomoc. However. while 1 'point' was awarded for every single·engined aircraft being confirmed as shot down. For 30th March 1944.The day's total number of 'probable' victory claims .. somewhat similar to the system used by the Rumanian Air Force from 1944 onwards: 3 'points' were awarded for every tour-enqined aircraft being confirmed shot down.Jzdstelstvo 'Ikar Press' . Autor dekuje panum Stephanu Boshniakovi. 1999 Green. there were four.including the reported victim of the Avias. Balgarska Aviacija. the littleflown Avias were effectively withdrawn from service and stored in the open. 1939 to 1une 18. Theodor Muchovski and Petar Manolev for their kind assistance. na ktere si del a] narok kapitan A tanasov. Vsech deset clenu posadky padlo do zajen. bf'l!zna 1943 uv:adene l1SAAF Looses stated by '(JS. od roku 1944 . byly malo zname Avie prakticky stazeny ze sluiby a ponechany pod ~:irYm nebem v zastrcenern koute leti~te Dolna Mitropolija. Naposled byJa videna nad stfednl Jugoslavii ve 12:45. 1944. Nov. For every enemy aircraft damaged in air combat.) bshern valky nazyvall bulharstl letol [menern .. issued as Order No. bombardovact letky). kdyf poslednl pretivsi kusy poslouzily jake cllove pfi nacviku letecke stfelby na pozemni cfle.. and Dec. Bulgarian airmen referred 10 every 4-engined USAAF aircraft as a 'Fortress' -or 'Flying Fortress' sometimes including the twinengined North American B·25 Mitchell and Martin 8·26 Marauder. i. dva body za kazdy ovei'eny sestfel dvournotoroveho letadla a jaden bod za overeny sestrel [ednomotoraku.. William.)". v zavislostl na ohlasene mfre pcskozenl protivnfkova stroje.. by1 nejspfs onim. there were a few other USAAF bornbers damaged in combat over the area where the Bulgarian patrol clashed with the intruders. Rumen: Samoletite na Balgaria.Kirilov. Ivan. jjz neby10 dana dozit dlouheho veku. it would appear that the aircraft of the 30 I sr SO (419th . ktere se ale na zakladnu v Italii vratily. official list of all victories obtained by tbe Bulgarian fighter pilots against their adversary. TIl body byly za ka1dy oveFeny sestrel elyrrnotoroveho Ietadla. . the following note is given: "Damag ed a 4 -eng ined bomber . Anomer contemporary document.was nine. >I< Epilogue This melee involving the four-aircraft Bulgarian patrol and a cut off USAAF bomber was actually the swansong of the short-lived Avia 8-135. zan 1944. To by mobIo znamenat. Their sad end came in 1946. Cvetan: Koj koj je. 1 or 0 'points' could also be awarded. Izdatetstvo 'Litera Prima. Skrzydlata Polska (Poland) a Letectvt+Kosmoneutrka (Czechoslovakia) 78 . pilotovane ppor. * * *' * The Author wishes to thank Messrs. From the list. via Josef Pregosi Periodlka I Magazines 'L'Avia B. was most likely the one claimed by Kapitan Atanasov. The aircraft. In the order of Col. nekdy lam zahrnovali i dvcurnotorove North American B-25 Mitchell a Martin B·26 Marauder. . 1994 USAAF MACR (Missing Air Crew Report) seznamy pro 30. Ztrity ze dne 30. one can find Kapitan Atanasov with a total of five victory points . Avions (France) Nos. kde se bulharsky roj potykal se ctyrmotorovym vetrelcem . piloted by 1st Lieutenant William C.Fortress" nebo "Flying Fortress" vsechny ctyrmotorove amertcko lstouny.tch 19:43 Typfl'ype B~24 B-17 B-17 B-17 VYr.and 22. Velichkov only three enemy aircraft are mentioned as shot down. Byla to B-17F. pojmenovana "Vagabond".J point (. k nemuz doslo 8.

.. . ...........__ .. . " i : ...._._· .. 4· ..vlns • Biaia Slatina • Dolna Mitropofija / (8-135) smer Jetu roje 8-135 ... pocatecnl kurs skupiny instruktoru s Aviemi initial heading for flight instructor with Avias ') ablast stretu s US bornbardery area of the battl e with th e US bombe rs p Fiblizny srne r letu a merlckych bombard ovacich svazu 30. ... /( : .. .........J. . ......../ . ..._...'_ . './ • Lovec j(radar " " PLOVDIV • oblast dopadu US bornbarderu area of fall of a US bomber " . 4t/1wave 4-... ...~...Tefis----heading or the 8-135 night . A ........... . .. • • ..._. • • .. .~ '.. o .Orlentacnl mapkazapadniho Bulharska s dulezitymi orlentaenlmi body The general map of the Western Bulgaria with the most important orientation points • I .. .--- Vidine ... ·o_. 7 •• /" \ "'.. r-: ~. .. •-...:> ~. brez na 1944 probable direction of flight of the US bomber units on 30th March 1944 79 ... " ".e« .... 9....

The pilot's seat was designed to accommodate a back parachuteo Using a hand wheel on its starboard side. which provided protection for the pilot in the event of a turnover. fining into the sockets of the truss side panels. benztnoveho koboutu a tlacitka odhozu purn byly umistene na leve strane pilotniho prostoru. which were held in curved. attached to a welded steel tube frame. The throttle lever pro upeviiovaci srouby motoru. which were also fitted with inspection covers. a rearward sliding cockpit hood and a fixed rear section. Trup letounu mel phhradovou kostru z ocelovych trubek. ~traIlj pilotnibo prostoru se provadelo kruhovou klapkou ve stitku kabiny. it was height adjustable by 120 nun. Pedaly nozniho fizeni byly take stavitelne. transverse brackets. The surface of the fuselage centre section consisted of a doped linen covering. all made from Plexiglass organic glass held in a steel tube framing. signalnl 80 . in the rear fuselage of the streamlined steel Avia wires. sesroubovane a snytovane Z ocelovych trubek a duralovych nosnfku. bylo uzpusobeno pro zadovy padak. Oblopricne vyztuhy pfedni casti trupu tvofily ocelove trubky. Tfidtlny pfekryt pilotnlho prostoru . ktere se pripeviiovaly na ram svareoy z ocelovych trubek. Rubber shock absorbing mounts for the engine attachment bolts were fitted inside the dural profiles. oblouccich a potazena platnem. The fuselage was a Warren truss steel tube structure. v zadni casti byly pouziry ocelove profilove draty "Avia". Paky ovladanl plynu klapky vodnfho chladice. The three-section cockpit canopy transparency had a fixed windshield. The circular grip of the control column bad a gun trigger button in its centre. Stredni cast trupu byla zhotovena z profilovych latek zasazenych v pficoych The Avia B-135 was a cantilever. low-wing. Na prave trane byla umistena dvoudilna schranka na rnapy. vpravo za 111 packu brzd.Avia B-135 z technickeho pohledu Avia B-135 from technical point of view Avia B-135 by) stihacl samonosny dolnokndly jednoplosnfk smisene konstrukce s klasickymi jednoduchymi ocasnimi plocbami a zatahovacim podvozkem zadoveho typu. Svarovani nebylo z dnvodu snadne vymeny poskozenycb dilu pouzito. K homim podelnikum trupu a ke kovani na prednirn nosniku kndla bylo ctyfmi cepy uchyceno rnotorove loze. single-engined fighter monoplane of mixed structure. ktere byly vzajemne spojeny pomoci stycnfkovych plechu. Na prave strane sedadla byla uvoliiovacl paka postroje. ktere svyrni kulovymi cepy sedely v luikach postranic. joined together by riveted and bolted fishplates. The diagonal braces in the front fuselage were of steel tubes. which were. Casto snimane panely byly upevneny prostlednictvtrn rych lozamku "A via ". A circular flap in the windshield allowed the cockpit to be ventilated with external fresh air. attached with a total of four bolts to the top fuselage longerons and to the brackets on the front wing spar. standardu.celni sutek. ostatnt zajiStenymi srouby. The sliding hood could be locked in any position along the length of its travel. Podobnyrn zpusobem byla snimatelnyrni panely s kontrolnimi otvory zakryta i cast trupu pod ocasnimi plochami. The complete forward fuselage skinning consisted of removable electron sheet panels. K vytapeni kabiny se vyu~ zival regulovatelny prtvod tepleho vzduchu ad vodntho chladice. the remainder with locknut screws. Those panels requiring a more frequent access were attached with Avia quick-release fasteners. The rudder pedals were also adjustable to according to the pilot'S height. The rear fuselage beneath the empennage was covered with similar panels. Behind the cockpit there were tube erected above the basic truss. Pilotni sedadlo. The horizontal diagonal bracing in tbe fuselage truss top and bottom plane panels behind the cockpit was of steel tubes terminated with ball joints. stfedni vzad odsunovatelny a zadni dil byly vyrobeny ze syntetickeho skla znacky "Plexiglas" v trubkovych rarnech. koleckem na prave strane stavitelne v rozsahu 120 mm. stretched over the contour forming wooden strips. nytu a sroubu. The engine bearers were made-up of steel tubes and dural profiles. The cockpit was heated by a regulated flow of hot air taken from the engine's water radiator. Uvnitf duralovych nosnfku byly ulozeny gumove tlurnice vibraci Cela prednt cast trupu az za kabinu pilota byla zakryta odnimatelnymi elekrronovymi panely. Pouract system pasu pilota byl petibodovy s rychlospojem. Kruhove drzadlo fidici paky rnelo ve svem stredu spouse palubnich zbraru. Trubky vztycene nad zakladni kostru za sedadlern pilota tvofily jeho ochranu pfi prevracenl. in easy reach of the pilot's fingers. the brake lever was behind the grip. Vyztuzenl horni a dolnl roviny za pilomim prostorem bylo z trubek. with a retractable tail wheel undercarriage. cs. Posuvnou eft t bylo mozne zaaretovat v jakekoliv poloze.

Pod hlavni deskou carry-through structure with a straight leabyla zavesena pomocna spinae] skfiiika a na ding edge and a semi-elliptical trailing edge. misto pro radiostanici vz. (Author's coil. upevnent kovove karoserie a sntmatelnych. Nadri: hydraullckeho oleje / Hydraulic oil tank. Purnovy zelv8snfk I Bomb rack. Pallvove nadrze I Fuel tanks. This ensured a smooth surface to the Ovladani radiostanice bylo upevneno oa wing and protected the plywood against the leve strane pilotnfho sedadla. Zavazadlovy prostor I Baggage compartment.) 35 radio set and weapons' control buttons. 5. 6. the oxygen bottle was on the port side. the vz. The general stowage trol stick had a ring-shaped handle with compartment.2 mm thick plywood with a 0. fire extinguisher. 8. Svette tenet ~ . Motor HS 12Ycrs / HS 2Ycrs engine. 3. the engine water radiator control flap lever. with protruding controls for the take-off boost. ~Micf paka I Control stick. the so-called armoured plywood. motam. (M.Kostra trupu bulharske Avia 8-135. The lightercoloured. Ruene ovladany hasici pfistroj s dvouLitrovou lahvi smesi to the NACA 23020 at the root. 12. behind the instrument panel. Stlaceny vzduch I Compressed air.'-:tr!!bky~~ !!!!tY£:r . The spars and ribs were glued with Iekamicky byla u seriovych letoumi za Kaurit. panelii: The fuselage load-bearing structure of the Bulgarian Avia B·135. Radiov8 souprava I RfT set. Schranka se stielivem I Ammunition box. weapons' charging and fuel-priming pump. resin. The wing was a one-piece. the fuel cut-off valve and bomb release buttons were located on the port side of the cockpit. all-wood. K oberna blokum motoru byly vyvedeny dve vetve. prtdavneho mazani side COCkpit coaming. 30 machine gun. obsahovala kompletni sadu letovych (pull to add power as with the Austro-Hungarian or French aircraft). the emerHorn ( Hdid ptiky . 2. podlaze panel nouzoveho hydraulickeho Two box spars carried 25 ribs of NACA 23012 section at the tip. Kulomet cz VZ.) the compressed air bottle for the wheel brakes were all behind the pilot's seat. 4. Hlavni pfistrojova deska. t 1. cast casti Legenda k rezu I Cutaway drawing key: 1. side. 81 . 9. thinner-gauge tubes made up the space frame that held the metal fairings and removable skin panels. The main instrument panel consisted of a complete set of flight and engine control instruments.2 nun thick aluminium sheet bonded to its outer vy pros tor. Bilj collection) raketova pistole a 10 raket. odpruzene zavesena. dostupna zvenku. Beneath the main instrument panel the auxiliary switch box was located. 35 a vzduchova lahev brzdoveho systernu. 10. consisting Za sedadlem pilota se nachazel zavazadloof 1. vlevo kysllkova lahev. • Upper part of the conon the floor beneath it.. Chladfc vody I Water radiator. hasiciho pfistroje. The a motorovych pfistroju a vystupovala z nt radio control panel was placed on the port tahla superboostu.kruhove driadlo s gency flap and undercarriage controls were ovkidactmi prvky. nabijeni zbrani a nastfikovacl pumpa. The Avia B-534 fuselage structure for comparison oxygen breather pipe coupling was located on the same side. the plywood was glued with Bakelite sedadlem. This stressed skin wa again covered by a layer of v prave pilotniho prostoru. a flare (rocket) pistol and its ten rounds were both plaKonstrukce trupu letounu Avia B-534 pro porovnani ced on the starboard side of the cockpit. A double map-case. Vystrelny kanal signalnf pistole I Flare pistol1rough. lubrication boost. The complebyl uchycen na trubkove konstrukci trupu te assembly was covered io plywood. changing gradually ovladani klapek a podvozku. Schranka elements. (Mk. Vpravo za palubni deskou bylanapojena hadice dychace.

Ve stredu vyhnvana trubice rychlornerneho systemu fumy Prema. aerodynarnicky i staticky vyvazena a ulozena na kulickovych loziscich. Kostra byla svarena z ocelovych trubek a potazena plarnem. K lepeni nosnfku a zeber se pouztval kaurit. Smerove i vyskove kormidlo bylo aerodynamicky i staticky vyvazeno.2 mm).5 s. Maximalni vychylka srneroveho . (NTM Praha) Compartment behind the pilot seat . 12° dolu. ale plosku vyskoveho kormidla mohl ovladat pilot z kabiny za leru. K fizen! vyskoveho kormidla slouzlt kombinovany nahon . at the right the baggage compartment.23020 a celek potazen pfeklizkou. vpravo schrdnka pro zavazadlo.vlevo jsou drzaky radiosoupravy. Kostry kormidel byJy snytovany Z ocelovych trubek a porazeny platnem.on the left are brackets for RlT set. se ovladaly hydraulickym cerpadlem s nahonem ad motoru v nouzi rucntm cerpadlem. Dva sknnove nosniky byly osazene 25 zebry s profilem NACA 23012 . Veskere Mdiei plochy byly ulozeny v kulickovych lozisctch. Na spodrn strane ktidla by to kovani upraveno k montazi pumovych zavesniku. Vyvazovaci ploska smeroveho kormidla byla stavitelna pouze na zemi.Prostoru za sedadlem . ktera zajistovala kfidlu hladky povrch a zvysovala jeho odolnost proti vnejsim vlivum. Stabilizator a kylova plocha rnely stejnou konstrukci jako ktfdlo. 82 nabezne many praveho kfidla byla elektricky . vyztuzene jednoduchymi zebry. k ffzent srneroveho lana. nahoru. Rizeni bylo tahly. ale rovnou nabeznou hranou. pancerova preklizka (pfeklizka 0 sfle 1. Maxirnalnl vychylka klapek byla 55° overena doba vysunun i zasunuti cinila 7.tahlo a lana. Na tento nosny potah byla naklfzena tzv. Kftdlo se k trupu pripevriovalo pres kovani cryrmi cepy. Ocasnf plochy byly samonosne. pro preklizky bakelir. 16° . Kfidelka byla sterbinova.2 mm S nalepenyrn hlinikovym plechem 0 sfle 0. Krfdlo celodrevene konstrukce bylo sestavene jako prubezne s eliptickym tvarem odtokove hrany. diferencovane.kormidla byla 29° vpravo i vlevo. vodorovne mely elipticky ptidorys. Celoduralove vztlakove klapky. vyskoveho kormidla 28° nahoru a 25° dolu. Signalni svitilna pod sedadlem pilota rnela svirit zasklenym kruhovym otvorem ve spodni st~ne trupu.

Their structure was of welded thin-walled steel tubing with a fabric covering. Otocnou ostruhu s pneumatikou Conti 290 x 110 bylo mozne zaaretovat ve stredru poloze. stiffened by simple ribs. The two-section undercarriage doors were attached La the legs. pedaly nozntho fizenl prave nebo leve kolo Hydraulicky system by! urcen k ovladanl podvozku a vztlakovych klapek a hydraulicke cerpadlo pohanel motor. only the lower half of the tailwheel protruded from the fuselage bottom. sachta nernela zakryu. The swivelling.Snimek B-135. The brake handle on Detail hlavni podvozkove u seriovych. cables actuated the rudder. were pi voted at the rear face of the front spar. The fin and horizontal stabiliser was of a wooden structure. aerodynamically and statically balanced. the undercarriage legs. Dvoudilny kryt zakryval pouze vzperu a jen cast kola.2 in close-up. hinged in ball bearings. [he elevator trim tab couJd be adjusted in flight from (he cockpit. stejne jako pneumatika nolly 8-135. hinged on ball beatings and covered with fabric. 290 x 110 mm railwheel could be locked in a centred position. The Conti 650 x 180 mm air wheels were mounted on stub axles and fitted with Argus disc drum brakes. Sklapela se smerem dozadu. Zatahovani se dele hydraulicky smerem ke koncum kfidel. fitted with "Avia" hydro-pneumatic shock absorbers. and by a hand pump in an emergency. Pokud by doslo The ailerons were slotted. Letrno uchycena kola s phiSti Conti 650 x 180 mm mela pneumaticke kotoucove brzdy Argus. In the foreground the Pitot tube (750 mm long) and a substantial part of the undercarriage leg. Pneumaticke brzdy a intenzita brzdeni se ovladaly packou na fidici pace.2. the elevator travel was 28° up and 25°down. The wheel legs hydraulically retracted outwards. The empennage of cantilever design followed the design of wing. The main wheels had a track of 2. for the attachment of bomb racks. The wing was attached to the fittings of the fuselage centre section structure by four bolts. (NTM Praha) This picture unveils many interesting details. The elevator control circuit utilised push-pull rods and cables. rearward retracting. 12°down. V pfipade poruchy motoru nebo hydraulickeho cerpadla bylo mozne vysunout podvozek pomoci hydraulickeho akumulatoru. There were attachment points on the wing underside. The maximum deflection of the flaps was . 16° up.55°. V popiedi je videi Pitotova trubice (delka 750 mm) a podstatrui cast podvozkove nohy. jen cast ostruhoveho kolecka vystu- povala ze spodnfho obrysu trupu. The aerodynamically and statically balanced elevator and rudder were riveted from steel tubing. Hlavni podvozkove nohy s roz- chodem kol 25] 0 mm byly vybaveny olejopneumatickyrni tlurnici "Avia" a zaveseny na zadni strane pfedniho nosnlku kfidla. On the series-built machines the same unit was used.510 mm. TIle main undercarriage leg of the 8-135. (NTM Prague) Podvozek byl zatahovacl. The push-pull rod/bellcrank controls actuated the ailerons differentially. rowards the wingtips. The light-coloured object in front of the windshield is the hydraulic oil tank. The undercarriage was fully retractable. The split flaps were of an-metal (dural) structure. stroju. The maximum rudder deflection was 29° either side. together with the tyre featuring the transversal tread pattern. which they covered together with the upper half of each wheel. 83 . They were actuated by an engine driven hydraulic pump. ktera byla stejtui jako s pfibzym vzorkem. Svetly objekt pred celllfm stl'tkem je nddri hydraulickiho oleje.2 rozkryJ1a mnoho zajfmavych detaiM. The rudder trim tab was ground-adjustable only.

pracovni tlak byl redukovan na 5. Chlazeni vody zajistoval vostinovy chladic ve tvaru "U" urnisteny pod motorem a pfichyceny na rnotorove Ioze do 4 patek oceIovyrni pasy.a . Bay) u zeme. (Drawing M.mal. ktery slouzil ke zvyseni bodu varu ve vyskach. (M. to give directional control) was provided by the brake pedals.. The hydraulic system that actuated the undercarriage and flaps had a pump driven by. K motorovernu 101i byl pnpevnen 18 srouby. Mosazna vyrovnavaci nadrz vody 0 objemu 12. The network fed Tovdrni sntmek pohonne jednotky . Podtlakovy ventil omezoval tvofeni podtlaku v instalaci prudkyrn ochlazenim vody. Pneumaticky system nouzoveho vysouvani podvozku tvofil sarnostatny okIuh 'napajeny dvema vzducnovyrni Iahvemi.55 MPa (5. The electric network was fed by a 12 Volt accumulator battery of 13 Ah capacity. ktery odebiraJ potrebny vzduch z letistni lahve.__:.: function the undercarriage could be extended using a hydraulic accumulator. Pfedepsana byla Ncid. Polohu podvozku oznamovala svetelna s ignali zace.. Prntokove mnozstvi chladiciho vzduchu pilot rjdil regulacni klapkou za chladicern pomocl trubkovych tahel. Bay collection) Dole: Schema okruhu vodntho okruhu. podvozek bylo moine vysunout pneurnaticky nebo jej mechanicky odjistit a k VYSUDUti doslo.7 litru byla umistena nad reduktorem motoru. Tlakove lahve se plnily na 14 kp/cm'..of . spousteni palubnich zbrani a ukazatele polohy podvozku a pristavacich klapek.:::.4 MPa (14 kp/cm"). Two air bottles fed the pneumatic system for the emergency extension of the undercarriage. V cele instalaci bylo celkern 65 litru.umistene mezi nosniky ve stredni casti kfidla. Po jejicb vycerpani pfepnul na prostfedni. Elektrickou sit zasoboval akumulator 13 Ahl12 V umisteny pod sedadlem na leve strane a generator 300 W Il2 V pohaneny motorem. the operating pressure was reduced to 0.5 kp/cm'. the pressure distribution to either the port or starboard wheel brake (i._. Below: The water cooling circuit diagram. Palivo' nesly tfi nadrze svafene z hlinikovebo plechu .-. Pohonnou jednotku ptedstavoval vodou chlazeny dvanacti- valec do "V". Another independent compressed air circuit actuated tbe wheel brakes. a pneumatic emergency lowering was possibJe. Plnici hrdlo pro vsechny ti:i nadrze bylo na prostredni (zalozni) nadrfi opatrene take vypoustecim ventilem. Baj collection) The factory photo of the power plant the licence-built Hispano Suiza HS 12fcrs. (M.licencne vyrdbineho motoru Hispano Suiza Hs 12fcrs.dve postranni s objemem po 125 1 a jedna 0 120 I . fI -1L__L::' _ .z s vodou / Water tank \ \1- . K sesti karburatorum Solex bylo palivo dopravovano dvema rotacnimi cerpadly AM pohanenymi motorem. signalni svetlornet.J.e. vlastru hmotuosti. Avia HS 12Ycrs s kompresorem a reduktorem 3:2 s rnaxirnalntm vykonern 632 kW (860 k) pfi 2400 ot/min v rypove vyke 4000 m a srartovnim vykonu 588 kW (800 k) pf 2200 or/min the control column actuated the brakes. Jiny sarnostatny pneurnaticky okruh slouzil k ovladani brzdoveho systemu a k odhozu pum.5 kp/cm').~~. Palivove potrubi bylo zbotoveno z ohebnych hadic zn. The storage bottle pressure was 1.k poskozem i rohoto nouzoveho systemu. in the last resort the pilot could unlock the undercarriage and let the gravity to pull down the wheels. case.. Pfipojka byJa umistena na pravern boku trupu za odtokovou hranou kfidla. Mallerit. osvetleni pilotniho prostoru. Ze site byla napajena pozicot svetla.__ vody Water cooler 84 . radiostanice. Dalkovyrn [Izenim Teleflex Kablo pilot ovladal trojcestny palivovy kohout. ktery dovoloval cerpat palivo ze dvou postrannicb nMdl jako celku."'~ . the aircraft's engine. In. Nadrz byla vybavena ptetlakovyrn ventilem.. placed under the seat at the port side and by a 12Voltl300 Watt generator driven by the engine. Motor pohanel na zerni stavitelnou kovovou dvoulistou vrtuli Letov Hd 43. Ke spousteni loufil pneumaticky poustec Viet. If this emergency system was damaged.

the signal beam. The tank was fitted with an overpressure valve. the cockpit lightning. located between the wing spars in the centre section. The cooling system piping was of aluminium and copper tubes. "possibly oft" water was specified for the cooling system. As the photo shows the B-13S.2 prototype. the centra] one. Uvnitf byl elektricky ohfivac oleje rypu eKD 500 W/220 V napajeny z pozernniho zdroje. placed under the engine.7 litres capacity was placed above the propeller gearbox. the pilot remotely controlled the three-way fuel selector valve that enabled to drain both lateral tanks simultaneously.ed with compressed air from an external source of pressure (e. The under-pressure valve prevented the collapse of the cooling system's tubes and vessels during a rapid cooling-down of the liquid. Olejova nadrf 0 objernu 39 litrO vyrobena z mosazneho plechu. Note the two openings in the windshield. v nabezne hrane leve poloviny kfidla. The engine drove a ground-adjustable. the position/navigation lights. It was attached to the engine bearers with 18 bolts. spodni (zaslepenj) pro p16novanj teleskopicky zameroval. The pressure coupling was located on the starboard fuselage side behind the wing trailing edge. the gun firing mechanisms and the undercarriage and flap position indicators. Protoie se jedna o snimek B-135. ale vie ostatni je srovnaielne se seriovymi letouny.2. The complete volume of cooling liquid was 65 litres. The radiator was attached to four brackets on the engine bearers by steel belts. geared (3:2 ratio) liquid-cooled Avia/Hispano-Suiza HS 12Ycrs twelve engine of 632 kW (860 HP) maximum output at 2. The oil tank of 39 litres volume was made of brass sheet. The two lateral ones were of 125 litres capacity each. the radio set. (NTM Prague) 8S . Using the Teleflex Kablo mechanical circuit. he switched to the central (re erve) tank. Potrubi bylo ocelove. (NTM Praha) A close-up of the forward fuselage structure in front of the cockcockpit ventilation. An automatic regulator controlled the oil temperature in the circuit. A brass header tank of 12. which also bad the drain valve. Pozornosti neunikne hl. A If-shaped. The powerplant consisted of a mechanically supercharged. Once they were emptied. Note the smooth oil cooler surfacethe same was used on the series-production machines. The upper one is for clsra "pokud mozno mekka" voda. Fuel was carried in three tanks welded from aluminium sheet. tatoinj byl pouzu pfi seriove stavbi.Detail konstrukce piedn: elisa prupu pted kabinou. Engine starting was by the Viet pneumatic starter. airfield doily). two-bladed Letov Hd 43 metal propeller. The oil piping was made of steel. ktery udrzoval provozni teplotu oleje a teplotu v okrubu ftdil automaticky regulator teploty. it was positioned exposed in the port wing' leading edge root doubling as a radiator.adkj povrch olejoveho chladice. vjfuky maji jeste ndtrubky. but all other details are perfectly like the series-built standard. provided dissipation of engine's waste heat.g. when an equally rapid drop of the internal pressure would occur. honeycomb radiator. The fuel filler for all three tanks led to the central (reserve) tank. had a capacity of 120 litres. Potrubi vodni instalace bylo z hlinikovych a medenych trubek. Six of the Solex carburettors were supplied with fuel via a pair of engine-driven AM rotary pumps. Vsimnete si dVOII otvora v celnim stitku . A treat far the lovers of fine detail. The flexible fuel tubing wa of the Mullerite type. fed from the ground supply. ensuring instant response when ar readiness. (NTM Prague) is for the telescopic gun pit. the exhausts still have the short stubs. It had inside a CKD electric re i tance heater of 500 wattsl 220 Volts. v- Lahiidka pro milovniky detailii.horni je ventilace. plnila diky sve konstrukci a umisteni. zaroveri ulohu chladice. suppli. Pure.400 rpm. increasing the pressure in the system to raise the boiling point of the liquid at higher altitudes. The pilot controlled the volume of the cooling air passing through the honeycomb by actuating the flow control flap through a series of push-pull rods. the lower (plugged) sight.

The armament consisted of a pair of synchronised Strakonice vz. Note the drawings show the right-hand ammunition feed. (Kresba: M. Vyzbroj sestavala ze dvou synchronizovanych kulornetu CZ Strakonice vz: 30 raze 7. Leva schranka byla urcena pro pravy kulornet a pro prazdne dutinky a dinky leveho kulometu. 30 machine guns of 7.sliding removable ammunition belt case held up to 900 rounds altogether.Leteckj' kulomet Cz Strakonice vzor (vz. 30 v provedent pro zPsl4vbu do trupu (nebo kffdla) urleny pro strelbu skrze okruh vrtule: Kresby zobra- The Cz VZOl' (Mark) 30 aircraft mtrohine gun in the version for fixed (/useitlge or wing) installation. The port case fed the belt to the starboard MG and collected the spent cartridges and belt links of Schema uloieni kulometii vz. sny. 2002 ltulomet uteckj zujf zb1'ttif s podtivtinlm ntiboj()viho pdsu zprasa. The cannon was omitted/or clarity. Podtlvac bylo m. Baj) 86 .92 mm © M.92 rum s elektrickyrn natahovanim.owe oJoiit o 180'0 {I um(Jwit tdk pHsun muniee z. The Samek synchronisation head provided the gun synchronisation. Zbrane byly ulozeny v horni casti trupu za motorem a byly nastreleny na vzdalenost 300 m. 30 a schrdnek se stielisem. Two sideways .le'va. ((} become a left hand one. Poloha kanonu neni pro prehlednost zakreslena. cz vz. Synchronizaci zajistovala synchronizacni hlavice Samek.321 in) cali bre. The weapons were located in the upper fuselage behind the engine and were boresighted to converge at 300 m in front of the aeroplane. Dve do stran vysuvne schranky pojrnuly at 900 naboju (2 x 450). it couli/: be turneJl by 180 ikg. It 'Wassynchronised to fire through the propeUer disc. Pro pray)' kulomet je tomu naopak.92 mm calibre cz Strakoniee vz: 30 raze 7. (Drawing M. za motorem. Bl1j) cz cz The diagram of the liZ.92rnm (. 30 machine guns and ammunition boxes arrangement behind the engine.) 30 aircraft machine gun of 7.

Teleskopicky zamifovac firmy Srb a Stys. uzita. Na stejna kovani bylo mozne instalovat ram se sesti zavesniky pro 10 at 20kg pU1l1Y. (Photo M. Beneath the fuselage the racks for either two 50kg or a Single lOOkg bomb were located. To aim the guns the Srb a Stys collimator tube sight was used. vice versa for the starboard case. K zamffeni slouzil opticky zarnerovac Srb a 8tys prochazejlci celnim stitkem kabiny. Ve vetSine pfipadu vsak moznost instalace pumovych zavesu zustala nevy- the port MG. Tento jedinecnj expondt je uloien v depositafi NTM v Praze. 87 . the barrel protruded through the hollow propeller shaft. cannon only or all three weapons together the fourth position was "Safe".o) umozrioval strelbu jen z kulometu nebo kanonu a nebo paIbu vsech zbrani najednou. A close-up of the rear face of the Hispano cannon 20mm. The exhibit is in the Aviation and space museum in Prague . Bt1j) The telescopic gUll sight made by the Srb a Stys company.Kbely. Expondt je umi'sten v Leteckem muzeu v Praze-Kbelicb (hala B). projecting through the windshield. All weapons were fired electro-magnetically. Han "B". It was very similar or the same as the one used on German MG-FF cannon. Pod trupem byly zavesniky pro dve pumy po 50 kg nebo pro jednu a hmotnosti 100 kg. Odhoz pum se pro vadel pneumaticky . The cannon breech was placed between the cylinder banks. Besides the machine guns there was a provision for the installation of a 20mm cannon. The same attachment points allowed for the installation of a frame with six racks for 10 to 20kg bombs. Potrebna tlacftka a pfepinac byly na rnalem panelu na levern boku kabiny. Vsechny zbrane pilot odpaloval elekromagneticky. Zobrazenj typ byi vyzkouien v Avii B -534. Baj) Krome kulometn bylo moine montovat i motorovy kan6n Hispano Suiza HS 404 nebo OerlikonFFS-20 raze 20 mrn s bubnovyrn zasobnfkem na 60 naboju. ammunition drum magazine.Leteckj motor Hispano Suiza 12Ycrs s demontovanymi vdlci umoiiiuje prohlednout si instalaci 20mm kanonu zblizka. BUts( pohled na zadll( stenu zdsobniku 20 mm kanonu.najednou nebo jednotlive. with a 60-round drum magazine. Kan6n se ukladal mezi bloky valcu rnotoru a stfflel dutou vrtulovou hfideli.Zajisten. the so-called "moteur cannon" of the HS 404 or Oerlikon FFS-20 type. This unique exhibit is in the storage of the N1'M in Prague. Tvar uisobnikuje velmi podohl1j nemeckym pro kanony MG-FF. The type shown was tested on the Avia B-534. but it remains unclear whether it was used on the B-135 as well. Bl1j) The Hispano Suiza HS 12Ycrs with cylinders removed hows to advantage the arrangement of the 20mm cannon in close-up. Ctyfpolohovy spinae na fidici pace (ctvrta poloba . (Foto: M. The four-position trigger switch on the control column allowed to fire the MG's' only. They were released in a salvo or individually by a pneumatic system. (Foto: M. uia je shodny s typem pouiitjm v Avii B-135. The necessary selector and release switches were on a small panel on the port side of the cockpit. Most of the time the ability to carry these bomb racks remained unutilised. ale neni zcela jas ne.

. ocasni plochy 2. MikoUis collection via Author) 88 . hloubka kfidla I Wing chord max.0 m. ~ . (D.--------. I Rudder surface 0.36C.-. Vychylka kfidelek prave Aileron deflection right nahoru I up 16°35' dolu / down I.--- H~ rHu variant pumove vYzbroje.6 m Nosna plocha I Wing geometry Plocha ki:idla I Wing surface Plocha kridelek / Surface of ailerons Max. tailplane surface Plocha stabilizatoru 1. 46 .~.082 Plocha vyskoveho konnidla Elevator surface Vychylka v)lskovebo korrn.480 Plocha smeroveho korm.49).117 m leve left 16°00' 11°50' 1 Ocasni plochy I Empenage geometry Plocha vodorov.5 m Vyska I Height 2. / Elevator deflections nahoru I up 27°50' dolu / down 24°50' Vychylka vyvazovaci plosky 11'rim tab deflection nahoru I up 19°30' dohi / down 20°30' Plocha SOP I Vertical tail surface 1 462 Plocha kylovky I Fin surface 0."" '*-J!f 111 \!iJ '*' T-" J/~ rr ~ ~ . 20 kg • 50 kg 100 kg ccO'. (Sbtrka D.Hlavai technicke odaje Main technical data Zakladni rozmery I Basic dimensions Rozpeti I Wingspan 10 85 m Delka / Length 8.152 Horizontal stabilizer surface 1.-.-. .-.15 m" 2.234 Horizontal.l °10' Vychylka pristavactch klapek 55° Landing flaps deflection 17.ky (str.982 Vychylka smeroveho kormidla / Rudder deflection vlevo I left 28°50' vpravo / tight 28°50' m 2 m m Z 2 m 2 ro 2 m 2 Poznamka: Vykonove parametry letounu [sou uvedeny v kapitole Leiove charakter. 1. 46 to 49). Leteckd puma SKODA na ztivesntku Pantof.st. Mikoltise VUI autor) z motnjch n34 S One of the possible bomb armament arrangements the Skoda HE bomb on the Pantof rack. Note: The performance parameters of the fighter are listed in the chapter Flight Characteristics (pp.'U$ Jedna " " ~ I~ ~ \~I __ "'l. - __.

ale jii s ceskoslovenskjmi vjsostnjmi znaky. . Dole: Stejnj letoun. Na nabetnjch hrandcb kiidla je dobre videt nepravidelny prechod (vlnovka) mezi nmerem homicb a spodnich.1 v titbarevnem kamujUizn{m nateru hornfch plocb pied umistenim vjsostnjch Zllaku. ploch.Nahofe: Prvni prototyp B-3S.

Bile 61sl0 .105.RLM 71. Na ki'fdlech ana vodorovnych ocasnfch plochach tento odstfn doplnovele nepravidelna pole cernozelsne barvy RLM 70.5" na trupu bylo odvozene od ssnoveno 6fslaletounu. The undersurfaces were in the RLM 65 light blue as per standard German practice. The white "5" tactical code number on the fuselage was derived from the machine's serial number.. barva RLM 65 podle nsmeokehc standardu. flown on 30th March 1944 by feldfebl Jordan Ferdinandov to attack a formation of American bombers. Stejne 61S10. se kterou 30.1944 Avia B-135.135 ve sluzbach bulharskeho kralovskeho letectva 1943 . ISBN 80-86S24~03-5 9 788086 524030 . se nachazelo na obou polovinach spodnl plochy kfidla.CeskoslovenskY stihaci letoun Avia 8 . Na spednf plochy byla pouzlta svetle madre.1 OS.ale nastrfkane cernou barvou... Trup byl opatren [sdnobarevnyrn natsrem tmave zelenou barvou . on the wing and tail upper surfaces comp:lemented by a disruptive pattern of irregular stripes of RLM 70 black green. The top and side surfaces of the machine were painted in a uniform shade of RLM 71 dark green. The Avia 8-135. 1944 Czechoslovak Avia B~135 fighter in service with the Royal Bulgarian Air Force 1943 . The same number was repeated on the underside of both wings. brezna1944 feldfebl Jordan Ferdinandov zautocH na formaci arnerickych bornbardern.