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# Quadratic Equations: If f(a) = 0 and f(x) is a quadratic equation in the form x2 + bx + c = 0, (x a) is a factor of the equation.

n. (x + d)(x + e) = x2 + (d+e)x + de = 0 Given ax+bx+c=0, the product of the roots = c/a and the sum of the roots = -b/a (a + b)2 = a2 + 2 ab + b2 (a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab + b2 (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a - b)3 = a3 - 3a2b + 3 ab2 - b3 (a2 - b2) = (a - b) (a + b) (a3 - b3) = (a - b) (a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3) = (a + b) (a2 - ab + b2) Rules for a^n - b^n: --> Always divisible by (a-b) --> Divisible by (a+b), when n is EVEN --> NOT Divisible by (a+b), when n is ODD Rules for a^n + b^n: --> NEVER divisible by (a-b) --> Divisible by (a+b), when n is ODD --> NOT Divisible by (a+b), when n is EVEN Arithmetic / Properties of Numbers Even/odd (e/o) identities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. e +/- e = e e +/- o = o o +/- e = o o +/- o = e exe=e e x o = e (also: o x e = e) oxo=o 1)The sum of an even number of consecutive integers is never a multiple of the number of terms. 2) The sum of an odd number of consecutive integers is always a multiple of the number of terms Squaring or cubing a negative fraction makes it bigger than the original number Squaring or cubing a positive fraction makes it smaller than the original number

When we add the same positive integer to the numerator and the denominator of a positive fraction, the fraction increases if it is less than 1 (but remains less than 1) and decreases if it is more than 1 (but remains more than 1). That is, we can say, that the fraction is pulled toward 1 in both the cases. Remainder of (n/9) = Remainder of [(sum of digits in n) / 9] Remainder of (n/3) = Remainder of [(sum of digits in n) / 3] xy = yx, only valid for numbers 2 & 4

If both x and y are multiples of m, then both x + y and x - y will be multiples of m. For eg., if both x and y are multiples of 11, then both x + y and x - y will be multiples of 11. XY = (LCF of X & Y) * (HCM of X & Y) Terminating Decimal: Any number divided by 2, 4 or 5 must be a terminating decimal. If number A is a two-digit positive integer and number B is a two-digit positive integer formed by reversing the digits of A, then Sum of A and B is always divisible by 11 Difference of A and B is always divisible by 9 Inequality: If both sides of an inequality are multiplied or divided by a negative number, then the inequality sign must be flipped If IxI< y, then either +x< y or -x< y If x > y, then (1/x) < (1/y), (if x and y share the same sign) If x2 is greater than y2, then x is greater than y and -x is less than -y Decimal conversions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1/2 = .5 1/3 = .33, 2/3 = .67 1/4 = .25, 3/4 = .75 1/5 = .2, 2/5 = .4, 3/5 = .6, 4/5 = .8 1/9 = .11 (repeating), 2/9 = .22 (repeating), etc. It's handy to know 6ths, 7ths, and 8ths, but they require more memorization and don't come up as often.

## Percent conversions: 1. 37% = 0.37 = 37/100 2. 0.2% = 0.002 = 0.2/100 = 2/1000

Simple Interest Total amount = p + prt = p(1+rt) Compound Interest Total amount = p(1+r/n)nt , P is the principal, r is the annual interest rate, n is the number of times the compounding occurs annually, t is the number of years. Exponents: (note: x^y = "x raised to the y power") x-y = 1/xy 2. (xy)(xz) = x(y+z) 3. (xy)z = xyz 4. x1/2 = x.
1.

5. x-1/2 = 1/x. 6. (x)n = (xn) Radicals (roots): 1. 2. 3. 4. 2 = approximately 1.4 3 = approximately 1.7 Know the square of every integer up to 13. (xy) = x times y

Geometry: Area: 1. Triangle: 1/2* base* height [1/2 bh] {equilateral triangle, area = (3/4)x2, where x is the side} 2. Rectangle: length * width [lw] 3. Circle: * radius2 [r2] Circumference: 1. Circle: 2r 2. All other figures: the sum of the lengths of all sides Triangles: Any angle bisector of any angle between 2 sides of a triangle divides the Area of the triangle into the ratio of sides . Area of any triangle is 1/2 *(Product of any 2 sides of the triangle) * (Sine of Angle between those 2 sides) ...hence maximum area would be when the angle between the sides is equal to 90 degrees. For three sides of a triangle, a, b & c, c is always less than (a+b) and always greater than (a-b). If the sum of two angles is equal to the third angle, then the triangle is a right anged triangle. Perpendiculars on the sides of equilateral triangles intersect each other in the ratio 2:1.

If an equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle the perpendiculars intersect each other ot the center of the circle.

For a triangle with given area, perimeter is minimum for an equilateral triangle. In an equilateral triangle, all the angles are equal to 60 degrees.

Similar Triangles If the sides are in the ratio a:b, then their areas would be in the ratio a2:b2 and perimeters would be in the ratio a:b Polygon: The sum of interior angles of a polygon is 180(n-2), where n is the number of sides. Right triangles: 1. a^2 + b^2 = c^2, where a and b are two sides of the triangle and c is the hypotenuse (Pythagorean theorem) 2. Common integer solutions to the Pythagorean Theorem, including 3 : 4 : 5, 6 : 8 : 10 (and all other multiples of 3 : 4 : 5), and 5 : 12 : 13 3. The ratio of sides in a triangle with angles 30 : 60 : 90 is x : x3 : 2x (1:3:2) 4. The ratio of sides in a triangle with angles 45 : 45 : 90 is x : x : x2 (1:1:2) Solids: 1. Volume: base area * height 2. Surface area: the sum of the areas of all faces of the solid Coordinate Geometry: 1. Slope of a line = (change in y)/(change in x) 2. Equation of a line: y = mx + b, where m = slope and b = y-intercept (the point at which x = 0) 3. Perpendicular lines will have slopes of m & -1/m (negative reciprocals), if m0 4. For a line segment AB with co-ordinates of A (x1,y1) and B (x2,y2), suppose there is a point O on the line that divides the line in the ratio m:n, then the co-ordinates of that point can be found out by using the Section Formula i.e. X co-ordinate of point O=(m*x2+n*x1)/(m+n) Y co-ordinate of point O=(m*y2+n*y1)/(m+n) Weighted Average: w1/w2 = (A2 Aavg)/(Aavg A1) http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/03/quarter-wit-quarter-wisdom-heavily-weighted-weightedaverages/ Permutation: nPr = n! / (n-r)! n = the number of objects to choose from r = the number of objects selected

Arrangement of n items with some items identical: Number of arrangements = n! / k1! *k2! *k3! (ki stands for the number of the ith type of object. ) Circular Arrangements : Number of arrangements = (n-1)! Combination: nCr = n! / [(n-r)! * r!] GMAT Math's Favorite Numbers: Squares, especially of non-primes. The key numbers here are 16, 36, 64, and 81. Multiples of 12: 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96. Numbers under 100 with several prime factors: 30, 42, 60, 78 (occasionally), and 84. The most important thing you can do is learn to recognize these numbers as fitting into these categories. If you see 84, know that it has 2, 3, and 7 as factorsit's not just some random integer in the 80s. If you see 96, know it's 8*12again, not some number the GMAT randomly tossed out there. 64 is the only number (besides 1) under 100 that is the square of an integer and the cube of an integer. 16 and 81 are the only numbers under 100 (again, besides 1) that are both the square of an integer and the square of a square. 30 and 42 are the smallest integers with at least three prime factors. The only integers with exactly three factors are the squares of prime numbers. Out of three consecutive odd numbers, one has to be a multiple of 3 Any 3 consecutive numbers set having two even numbers would be divisible by 8. Some multiples of 37 111, 222, 333, 444, 555, 666, 777, 999 1Million = 106 1Billion = 109 Factors: To find number of factors: First break the number to all possible prime numbers (along with the powers) Then add one to each power and multiple. N = a^x*b^y*c^z where a, b, c are distinct prime numbers and x, y and z are corresponding powers then, Total number of factors = (x+1)*(y+1)*(z+1) Try the same for 36 = 2^2 * 3^2 Total factors = (2+1)*(2+1) = 9 which are [1,2,3,4,6,9,12,18,36] When odd number n is doubled, 2n has twice as many factors as n.

## When even number is doubled, 2n has 1.5 more factors as n.

For any sum, if the two numbers in that sum have a common factor, that factor will also be a factor of the sum. E.g., 2 + 4 = 6. 2 is a factor of 2 and 2 is a factor of 4. Therefore, 2 will also be a factor of 6. Standard Deviation: sd = Square root of (mean of squares of numbers square of mean of numbers) sd = Square root of (mean of squares of (differences between numbers and avg)) sd = Square root of (Variance) sd will be zero only in two cases: 1) when all the elements in a set are same 2) when there is only one element in the set

The percentages involved in a normal distribution, 34: 14 : 2. (or 68, 95, 99 rule) The percentages correspond to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd standard deviations on each side of the mean. (not tested on Gmat) Median By definition, the median of the combined set (A) must be any value at or between the medians of the two smaller sets (B and C). Average of a set of consecutive integers will be equal to its median Mean of an arithmetic series is equal to its Median

Overlapping Sets Three groups: Total no. of items = (total no. in group A) + (total no. in group B) + (total no. in group C) (no. in only A&B) (no. in only B&C) (no. in on A&C) 2 x (no. in A,B&C) + Not in any group Two groups: Total no. of items = (total no. in group A) + (total no. in group B) (in both group) + Neither

Miscellaneous:

Rate = distance/time Combined work: 1/a + 1/b = 1/t, where a and b are the amount of time it takes two entities working alone to complete a task and t is the amount of time it would take them to complete the task working together. Average = sum of terms / number of terms Probability = number of desired outcomes / number of possible outcomes if a data set can be split into two groups, both of which have at least the ratio a:b for some 2 characteristics, then the entire data set has at least the ratio a:b for those 2 characteristics. in other words, if the ratio of FT to PT employees is at least, say, 3:1 in both divisions, then the overall ratio of FT to PT employees must also be 3:1. here's a corollary: if a data set can be split into two groups, and one of the groups has a ratio HIGHER than the overall ratio for some 2 characteristics, then the other group has a ratio LOWER than the overall ratio for those 2 characteristics - and vice versa. this follows logically from the above statement, because it violates the first result (and common sense) if both divisions' ratios are somehow higher (or both lower) than the overall ratio. Rate Problems: 1/A +1/B = 1/T (A: time taken by 1st machine to do a certain job, B: time taken by 2nd machine to do the same job, T: Time taken for both machines to do the job if they were to work together; Note: A, B & T are times and not rates; they must all refer to the amount of time it takes for the same job) [extended form: 1/A + 1/B + 1/C = 1/T] While solving an algebraic expression with an inequality (> or <) and the quantity you're about to divide/cancel could be negative, you have to consider that possibility that that cancellation would flip the inequality sign. In an evenly spaced series, number of elements = [(an-a1) / d] + 1