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SOUTHEAST ASIA

An Introduction to our Common Challenges and Opportunities

One Vision, One Identity, One Sharing and Caring Community.


The ASEAN Slogan

An SS2 Synthesis and Final Project by Martin Benedict Perez, Social Sciences, Philippine Science High School

PART ONE THE


PART TWO A

MODEL ASEAN

A simulation of the modern interaction of states, regions, and international organizations

HISTORY OF SOUTHEAST ASIA

A synthesis of our course as seen through the story of the Southeast Asian region

1. Ancient Roots 2. Colonies and Crosses 3. Struggle For Modernity PART THREE NATIONALISM

AND GLOBALISM

A look at the challenges and opportunities that beset the 21st century

PART ONE THE

MODEL ASEAN

A simulation of the modern interaction of states, regions, and international organizations

This project is inspired by the Model United Nations.

3 THINGS TO REMEMBER GOING FORWARD

The Model ASEAN is about the world today.

It is also your final stage to show me what you can do. And above all, it is about working together.

From the East-West Debates

From the Middle East Summit

You define the problem.


You pick your side. You debate as much or as little as you want.

You define your goals, individually and as a class. You are not playing a game.
You will focus on cooperation.

You will all role play.

By the end of the activity, the class will


1. Write, draft, and vote on three primary ASEAN resolutions for each of the main issue areas:

Peace, order, and security Climate change and resource management Economic and social development

2. Address the problems and concerns of the member states through various mechanisms provided by the ASEAN Charter.

3. Provide an appropriate response to dialogue partners and international organizations while pursuing the interests of the ASEAN.

PEACE, ORDER & SECURITY Border conflicts


Neoimperialism Terrorism Ongoing wars Insurgencies

CLIMATE CHANGE & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

POVERTY ALLEVIATION & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Global warming
Food security Biodiversity Deforestation Illegal mining

Education
Healthcare Government inefficiency Dwindling life expectancies Human rights

Secessionist movements
Organized crime Black markets

Foreign ownership of natural resources Investment in green technology

Plight of refugees

Human capital flight


Piracy

Maritime piracy

ASEAN +3

Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Japan, South Korea (n=13)
United States of America, European Union, Australia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste, North Korea (n=9) Asian Development Bank (ADB), Freedom House, Human Rights Watch, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), World Bank (WB), World Food Programme (WFP), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) (n=9, randomized) Secretary-General, Deputy Secretary-General (n=2)

DIALOGUE PARTNERS INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

THE ASEAN

Feb 14 to 18

Lectures on Southeast Asia Readings: Chapter 26 and 34 FIRST DRAFTS of your paper requirements are welcome during this week. Ill e-mail you feedback and possible revisions on your work so you can get the highest score possible. Meeting with Sec-Gens, Deputies and Chairmen: CA, CH, JM (Wed 12-1240) / IL, DA (Thurs 1120-12)

DOCUMENTS NOW ONLINE


The Model ASEAN Protocol and Guidelines The Model ASEAN Speech Guide The ASEAN Charter Country Briefing Template Working Paper Template

Feb 21 to 24

1st meeting: Long Test #2 Study: ASEAN Charter, Map of SEAsia, chapters from

The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia


2nd meeting: Model ASEAN Orientation by Sec-Gen, Deputy and ASEAN Chair 3rd meeting (if available): Pre-ASEAN Caucus Time DEADLINE (Feb 24): Country Briefing for ASEAN+3 and Dialogue Partners, ASEAN Briefing for Sec-Gen and Deputy, Draft 1 of the Working Paper for International Organizations Feb 28 to March 4 Mar 7 to 11 1st meeting: Start of Model ASEAN activities (Model ASEAN will consume all 3 meetings this week) March 7 to 9: Exam week Coverage for SS2: Middle East and Southeast Asia Lectures and Presentations (50-points Multiple Choice) March 10/11: Final Day for Model ASEAN March 15 Synthesis Paper due

Project Guides
Just visit: The Model ASEAN Resource Center @ sirmartin.wordpress.com

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CLASS STANDING
LONG TEST COMPONENT
LT #1: Middle East Summit DONE

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LT #2: The Model ASEAN

Week of February 21

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PROJECT: The Model ASEAN Starting February 28


Quizzes Participation and Recitation Throughout the Quarter Throughout the Quarter

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PERIODIC EXAM
EXAM PROPER
SYNTHESIS PAPER

During Exam Week


After last ASEAN session

Week 1 (31 January to 4 February) Chapter 15: Sec 1 (for refresher), Sec 2 (pre-lecture)
Week 2 (14 to 18 February) Chapter 26: Sec 1 and 2 only Chapter 34: Sec 1 to 4 (whole chapter) Week 3 (21 to 24 February) Long Test #2: Map of Southeast Asia, The ASEAN Charter, Special readings from A Modern History of

Southeast Asia

PART TWO HISTORY OF SOUTHEAST ASIA


A synthesis of our course as seen through the story of the Southeast Asian region

The name Southeast Asia was popularized during World War II when territories south of the Tropic of Cancer were placed under Lord Louis Mountbattens Southeast Asia command.
British scholars then called it Greater India; the French called it LInde Exterieure (Indianized States)

Chinese texts called it Kun Lun or Nan Yang (Little China)

Geographers called it IndoPacificor even Indo-China

Two main geographical regions: peninsular (mainland) and insular (island)

Peninsular Southeast Asia is noted for its diverse mountains and rivers that run north-south.
AGRARIAN KINGDOMS

Along with Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesian island constitute the Malay world.
MARITIME KINGDOMS

While the mainland is ethnically diverse, the ethnicity of insular Southeast Asia is dominantly Malay.

THE INDIANS

THE CHINESE

There are about 2 million Indians in Southeast Asia; the Chinese are about 7 times that. The Chinese are a majority in Singapore and a significant minority in almost every other country.

PART TWO.1 ANCIENT

ROOTS

From early kingdoms to the height of empires

In 1891, Dutch paleoanthropologist Eugene Dubois, discovered fossils that resembled neither man nor ape.
Its closest resemblance would be with Neanderthal which was discovered 40 years prior. Neanderthal first appeared 130,000 years ago. What Dubois didnt realize at the time though was that his find was much older. Java Man is now dated to have lived 500,000 to 1,000,000 years ago.

Like the Philippines, most Southeast Asian nations lack rich, written accounts of their pre-colonial past. Majority of the evidence remains largely archaeological.

Of these Bronze Age cultures, the Dong-Son found in Vietnam is perhaps the most established.

But what they do have is telling: By around 1500BCE, Southeast Asia was in the Bronze Age.

Large-scale penetration of Indian and Chinese influence began about two to three centuries after the first empires in India and China. India was primarily a conduit of trade and cultural exchange. Vaishyas actively traded with early Southeast Asian cities, and Brahmin were called on by kings for political advice and spiritual guidance. Commerce also provided a link for Persians and Arabs to Southeast Asia. China was an imperialist. They were seen as politically superior. Starting during the time of the Han, it sought to weaken the barbarians by extracting tribute and sending their armies on periodic raids. Their on-and-off conquest of Annam (Vietnam) defined that countrys history.
QIN SHIH HUANG DI (221-210BCE)

ASHOKA (276-239BCE)

The Angkor Wat temple complex is perhaps the most iconic image of the Indianization of Southeast Asia. It is a temple dedicated to Vishnu, and an altar to transport the spirit of its king, Suryavarman II, to heaven.

In 111BCE, Annam was conquered by Han armies. They would be under Chinese rule for a thousand years.
As the rest of the region adopted Hinduism and Theravada Buddhism, Vietnam turned Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist. Though they achieved independence from China in 939 as the Tang weakened, their ties remained strong.

While kingdoms on mainland Southeast Asia relied primarily on agriculture, kingdoms and empires in insular Southeast Asia relied on something else.

PART TWO.2 COLONIES

AND CROSSES

The Age of Imperialism comes to Southeast Asia

We likened it to a seismic shift in world history.

We distinguished between two waves: one from 1500s to 1700s, the other from the 1800s to 1900s. We established that there were four forms: the colony, protectorate, concession, and the sphere of influence.
You debated three events and adopted competing perspectives to explore the complexity of the issues during the Age of Imperialism.

We linked the Age of Imperialism with the Rise of Nationalism, particularly in the context of Middle East Conflict.

We saw how nationalism can be a response to imperialism and discussed how nationalist movements can be concerned about economic equity and social justice.
And by touching on the Cold War weve seen the emergence of neo-imperialism.

MINDFUL of the existence of mutual interests and common problems among countries of South-East Asia and convinced of the need to strengthen further the existing bonds of regional solidarity and cooperation; DESIRING to establish a firm foundation for common action to promote regional cooperation in South-East Asia in the spirit of equality and partnership and thereby contribute towards peace, progress and prosperity in the region; CONSCIOUS that in an increasingly interdependent world, the cherished ideals of peace, freedom, social justice and economic well-being are best attained by fostering good understanding, good neighbourliness and meaningful cooperation among the countries of the region already bound together by ties of history and culture; CONSIDERING that the countries of Southeast Asia share a primary responsibility for strengthening the economic and social stability of the region and ensuring their peaceful and progressive national development, and that they are determined to ensure their stability and security from external interference in any form or manifestation in order to preserve their national identities in accordance with the ideals and aspirations of their peoples;

AFFIRMING that all foreign bases are temporary and remain only with the expressed concurrence of the countries concerned and are not intended to be used directly or indirectly to subvert the national independence and freedom of States in the area or prejudice the orderly processes of their national development;

PEACE, ORDER & SECURITY Border conflicts


Neoimperialism Terrorism Ongoing wars Insurgencies

CLIMATE CHANGE & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

POVERTY ALLEVIATION & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Global warming
Food security Biodiversity Deforestation Illegal mining

Education
Healthcare Government inefficiency Dwindling life expectancies Human rights

Secessionist movements
Organized crime Black markets

Foreign ownership of natural resources Investment in green technology

Plight of refugees

Human capital flight


Piracy

Maritime piracy

1. Colonies were seen as properties with the sole purpose of 'making money'. Asia's share of world GDP: 60% (1800), 20% (1940). In 1925, 51% of all imports to India came from Britain, 22% of India's exports went to Britain.

2. Colonies ran huge monopolies of export crops (ie. opium, tobacco) that did not benefit the colony.
3. Infrastructure development (roads, trains, bridges, buildings) was suited to the needs of the imperialists.

1. Social dislocation occurred. Either people gained new status or the old stratifications were reinforced. Case in point: land privatization and the creation of landed classes and marginalized populations.
2. Education was not made to match those available to the dominators. (Most remained illiterate.) If ever available, public education was seen as a form of cultural imperialism. 3. Overpopulation ran unchecked. Economic development did not keep up with the rising population.

1. Geographic realignment occurred. New borders were created (the countries in the former French Indo-China), unmarked territories are now disputed (Spratly's) and minorities were formed (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia).
2. The entrance of liberal ideas led to nationalist movements, republican governments, and democratic aspirations.

3. A European-style state (with bureaucracy, representation and taxation) was imposed on an Asian culture that is deferent to authority, reliant on familial networks, and the good of the group is placed over the good of the individual.

PART TWO.3 STRUGGLE


Southeast Asia rushes to the 21st century

FOR MODERNITY

WATCH: HANS ROSLING presents ASIAs RISE: HOW AND WHEN?

Inequality. Will the developing world make the


necessary social investments in health, education, and infrastructure to bring their people into prosperity?

Climate change. The developing world will be


important partners in solving climate change but is it fair to make them pay for a problem the industrial countries caused?

War. How will the worlds powers react to a world


where influence and wealth are tilting back towards Asia?

BONUS SLIDES

PART THREE NATIONALISM

& GLOBALISM

An analysis of our coming challenges and opportunities

As presented in The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs (2005)

As presented in The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs (2005)

Observations about modern economic growth: All regions were poor in 1820 All regions experienced economic progress Todays rich regions experienced by the far the greatest economic progress
In investigating the gap between rich and poor then, the question becomes: Why do different parts of the world grow at different rates?

Why do different parts of the world grow at different rates? Here are some possibilities.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Physical geography Government failure Cultural barriers Geopolitics Lack of innovation Demographic trap Poverty trap

I don't really consider this a political issue, I consider it to be a moral issue. - Al Gore

It's difficult to get a man to understand something if his salary depends upon his not understanding it. Upton Sinclair via Al Gore

The current climate crisis is seen mostly as the product of the developed economies. Why should developing countries pay the price for something that isnt their fault?

WATCH: PARAG KHANNA presents THE FUTURE OF COUNTRIES