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Introduction

Teacher morale plays a powerful role in the education of our students Teachers are being stretched to the limit. Expectations placed on them seem to be expanding exponentially. Increasingly their role encompasses not only teaching specific content and mentoring students in the love of learning, but functioning as frontline social workers.

Teachers are inspired to do their best when they are satisfied with their work situation. When there is a high job satisfaction among teachers, naturally, high morale is a reflection of what one feels about things. It is a matter of subjective perception rather than the objective fact. It deals with the mental and emotional attitudes of teachers towards their jobs, taking into account the atmosphere in which they work and their individual orientations towards their task. According to Esguerra and Salvador, high morale leads to high productivity, but there exist a number of intervening variables between employees attitude and his productivity. Also morale is dynamic in the sense that it is susceptible to change anytime. Morale is an important factor that influences students academic performance. For students performance does not only depend on what have been learned by them in the four corners of the classroom or from pages of books, but also from the experiences that they had with their lesson or learning process, as the teachers are bridges. When the teachers morale is high, it is expected that teaching performance is also high and this would likely redound to high students academic performance. However, when teachers morale is low, teaching

performance is also low and students academic performance suffers.

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Unfortunately, schools in our nation are facing a critical period with low teacher morale, job-related stress, teachers leaving the profession, and recruitment problems continuing to grow over the last few years. The researcher chooses this topic because of his experience about the rise and fall of his morale while conducting his practice teaching. And also because the researcher noticed some teachers who handle lower section has the problem regarding their self-esteem especially new teachers who experience the rudeness of some students.

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RELATED LITERATURE
According to Burton and Bruenckner, morale is a natural outgrowth of all the factors that contribute to the development of adequate, successful, and satisfying setting of ones work. Castetter explained that to some, morale means the zeal and enthusiasm by which an individual performs his work. Others insist that it is the willingness of a group to work towards a collective purpose. Many said that it is a group phenomenon or the relations among individuals in a group, which results in the willingness to work together for a common end. Davis asserts that the administrator must promote good relationship with his subordinates because morale depends upon the kind and quality of interaction between the management and the subordinates. Furthermore, the morale of the employee greatly affects the quality of his work. According to Herman, that the most effective way to boost employees morale is to provide an optimum working environment in the employees perception, as part of the integrated strategy that inspires people to do their best day in and day out. He identifies the seven key issues in creating such environments: appreciation; social environment; management loyalty; working environment; tactful discipline; and respect; opportunities to grow into job
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Wills identified the following conditions that destroy teachers morale: promotion ranking of positions assignments and other phases of personal management lack of proper and uniform discipline lack of recognition handicaps to the development of initiatives absence of a common social life with the group maladjustment of salaries, and inequality and inaccuracy of efficiency rating

Adams and Dickey offer the following suggestion to foster morale among teacher: respect the opinion of individuals; be friendly and cheerful; demonstrate the our attitude; be courteous; respect a person for what he is not for what he represent; give others part in the formulation of programs and policies; look at a situation from a teachers point of view; develop a feeling of belongingness; learn the existing program as quickly as possible; move slowly when initiating change; recognize meritorious efforts; in launching new phases of a program, get the person concerned to perform work as quickly as possible; protect the group from members who consciously hinder group action.
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Sison stresses that morale is the mental attitude, which makes an individual perform his work willingly and enthusiastically or poorly and reluctantly. Employees morale is an attitude a state of mind, intangible but manifested by the employees manners and reactions to his job, his working conditions, group policies and programs, his fellow workers, his supervisors, his compensation and his opportunities for advancement, and his personal environment. People with low morale manifest low or poor production high rate of absenteeism, high note of grievance, and high rate of turnover. The same author enumerated the following indicators of low morale: customer complaints frequent tardiness frequent sick leaves spoilage of materials due to inattentiveness lost man hours due to long breaks and frequent trips to comfort rooms waste of supplies and materials and rumors, quarrels and fights.

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Sison also mentioned some morale destroys, such as; too much display of authority poorly maintained equipment belittling management practices hasty and unfair discharges favoritism and nepotism display of anger by supervisors religious and fraternal preferences wage discriminations agitation and rumor carelessness unfulfilled promises jealousy dishonestly and evidence of prejudice

On the other hand, sison enumerated the factors that build morale, such as: square dealing with workers setting of good example recognizing ability or giving credits

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planning department works keeping tools in condition encouraging suggestions safe working condition good keeping posted promotion program encouraging loyalty encouraging cooperative spirit equitable wage program maintaining discipline giving clear instructions keeping promises avoiding mixed responsibilities maintaining leadership

According to Coverdale, morale is a reflection of what one feels about things. It is a matter of subjective perception rather than objective fact. It concerns the mental and

emotional attitude of teachers toward their jobs, taking into account the atmosphere in which they work and their individual orientation toward their task. Naylor (2001) have found three key sources that cause stress for educators: Increasing difficulty and complexity of teaching and relating to students, the volume of work during a teachers day and the expectations that teachers will address a range of tasks and issues, and
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lack of time, resources, support, and respect. He found that the results of dealing with these stressors include on family life and relationship. Fanning (1997) has stated that similar stressors for teacher when he conducted a quantitative survey. He found a relationship between stress and the number of disruptive students in the classroom, Fanning found no relationship between stress and gender or ethnic group. He found no correlations between stress and class size. Harris (1999) also studied stress levels in schools and their effects on teacher and the school environment. This research revealed that teachers stress is a multifaceted problem and principal leadership style is one contributing factor. Doyle (2002) found that school systems reduce stress level by fostering a customer focus approach with students and parents. This study also revealed that because teacher were generally satisfied and had low levels of work-related stress, they were better able to focus their attention on students. Davis and Wilson (2000) researched the effects of leadership on the teachers quality of life at work. They revealed the more principal engaged in behaviors that were personally empowering, the more teachers saw that they had choices they could make in completing their work, and the greater impact they perceived they were achieving through their efforts. These intrinsic rewards were found to be more beneficial for motivating teacher, affecting climate and reducing stress. Davis and Wilson revealed that teacher motivation had a moderately strong association with both teacher hob satisfaction and hob stress. Painter (2004) states teachers have a significantly higher preference for moral motivators when compared to intrinsic and extrinsic motivators.

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There are both internal and external reactions to low morale. Briggs and Richardson (1992, Internal Reactions to Low Morale) stated that the internal characteristics were confusion, insecurity, frustration, lack of confidence, fear of supervision and an attitude of futility. As a result of low morale, the educators would resist change, and the school would have a high rate of teacher absenteeism. And (1992, External Reactions to Low Morale,) low morale is associated with an individuals attitudes, self-esteem, and self-concept. They also state that these internal feelings may result in external reactions. In this study, Briggs and Richardson also address the possible external reactions to or effects of low morale. They stated that these reactions refer to relationships with other teachers and administrators. These external reactions could result from some internal feelings of educators, such as insecurity, frustrations, and lack of confidence. According to the subjects in this study, educators with low morale would be engaged in backbiting (the slandering of an absent party), open hostility, bickering, communicating resentments, forming cliques, and generally showing a lack of consideration for others. In addition, the educators recognized that a number of teachers would react to low morale by resigning their positions, thus causing high teacher turnover. Hunter-Boykin and Evans (1995) stated that high morale doesnt always contribute to high productivity. It doesnt always follow that happy teachers are necessarily the most productive. They go on to say that high morale includes low turnover, less absenteeism, and a better academic environment for instruction. According to them, principals are the ones who are primarily responsible for motivating toward achieving their organizational goals, Acknowledging and supporting teachers begins at the campus level. Principals have the ability
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to improve teacher morale by listening to them and supporting them. Involving teachers in decision-making processes validates the teachers and as a result has a positive effect on morale levels with the teachers and among the entire staff. Bentley and Rempel (1980) stated that the professional interest and enthusiasm that a person displays toward the achievement of individual and group goals in a given hob situation. They discuss morale as being the interaction between individual needs and the organizations goal. Thus, a high morale would result only when the process of achieving the organizations goals also reaches the individuals needs. Morale is an internal feeling a person possesses free from the perceived reality of others. Morale is not an observable trait; rather it is an internal feeling or set of thoughts. Washington and Watson (1976) portray morale as the feeling a worker has about his or her job in relationship to the importance of that job to the organization as a whole working unit. Evans (1997) defined morale as a state of mind that is derived by individuals anticipation of satisfaction for those needs that they perceive as important factors affecting their work environment. Lumsden (1998) and Ellenberg (1972) indicated that morale plays a positive role in improving academic achievement among students. More specifically, miller (1981) wrote that teacher morale can have a positive effect on pupil attitudes and learning, improving the climate and morale also makes teaching more pleasant, but also learning more pleasant for students. This creates an environment that is more conducive to learning.

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Wentworth (1990) stated that Low staff morale results from professional lives that have little meaning; from frustration and the inability to change what is happening. Wentworth (1990) listed the following as the essential factors that determine teachers morale: Input into decision-making that directly affects curriculum, instruction, and school

climate. Recognition and appreciation of teacher and student achievement. A school climate that reflects a feeling of unity, pride, cooperation, acceptance of

differences, and security. Good communication. Opportunities for meaningful professional growth. Clear, shared goals. Strong supportive leadership. Quality time for collegial interaction: planning, educational dialog, decision-making,

problem solving. Well-maintained physical environment. Good human relations, both within school and between school and community. Encouragement and reward for risk taking, innovating, and good teaching. Attention to professional needs such as salary, benefits, etc. Attention to personal needs such as stress management, good health and social

interaction.

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Lester (1990) stated that clearly, the principal is the key figure in raising teacher morale and commitment. Liu and Meyer (2005) list student discipline as the number one factor leading to a low teacher morale and salary as the number two factor. Houchard (2005) analyzed the effect teacher morale has on student achievement measured by the North Carolina End of Course Test scores. He found that teacher morale was positively correlated to these test scores. Black (2001) agreed that morale serves as a powerful force and a vital aspect in the success of any human enterprise. According to black (2001), research supports that when teachers feel good about their work, student achievement rises. When teacher morale is high, student achievement is high; when teacher morale is low, student achievement is low. She emphasized that it is critical that school leader give teachers a voice in their day to day responsibilities, a strong support system and a sense that their work is significant. Principals can also strengthen teacher morale by actively standing behind teachers. Effective principals serve as guardians of teachers' instructional time, "assist teachers with student discipline matters, allow teachers to develop discipline codes, and support teachers' authority in enforcing policy" (Blase and Kirby 1992).

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SYNTHESIS
In this term paper, Burton, Bruenckner, Sison stated that morale is a natural outgrowth of all the factors that contribute to the development of adequate, successful and satisfying setting of ones work. And also the mental attitude, which makes an individual perform work willingly and enthusiastically or poorly and reluctantly. It is also a reflection of what ones feels about things and a matter of subjective perception rather than objective fact. Coverdale also stated that it concerns the mental and emotional attitude of a teacher towards their jobs and taking into account the atmosphere in which they work and their individual orientation toward their task. Teachers morale can affect many factors in student learning process. When teachers morale is low, teaching performance is also low and students academic performance suffers. Sison stated that a teacher with low morale manifest low or poor production, high rate of absenteeism, high note of grievance, and a high rate of turnover. There are both internal and external reactions to low morale. Briggs and Richardson stated that the internal characteristics were confusion, insecurity, frustration, lack of confidence, fear of supervision and an attitude of futility. As a result of low morale, the educators would resist change, and the school would have a high rate of teacher absenteeism. And External Reactions to Low Morale is associated with an individuals attitudes, self-esteem, and self-concept. They also state that these internal feelings may result in external reactions. These external reactions could result from some internal feelings of educators, such as insecurity, frustrations, and lack of confidence.
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High morale of a teacher of course makes a good result. When the teachers morale is high, it is expected that teaching performance is also high and this would likely redound to high students academic performance. Black (2001) agreed that if the teacher feels good about their work, students achievement rises. When morale is high, student achievement is high. Morale plays a positive role in improving academic achievement among students. More specifically, teacher morale can have a positive effect on pupil attitudes and learning, improving the climate and morale also makes teaching more pleasant, but also learning more pleasant for students. This creates an environment that is more conducive to learning. But high morale doesnt always contribute to high productivity. It doesnt always follow that happy teachers are necessarily the most productive. They go on to say that high morale includes low turnover, less absenteeism, and a better academic environment for instruction. Sison enumerate the seven indicators of a person who has a low morale: 1. Customer complaints. 2. Frequent tardiness. 3. Frequent sick leaves. 4. Spoilage of materials due to inattentiveness. 5. Lost man hours due to long breaks and frequent trips to comfort rooms. 6. Waste of supplies and materials. 7. Rumors, quarrels and fights. There are some factors that may destroy morale of a teacher or a person. Liu and Meyer list, student discipline as the number one factor leading to a low teacher morale and salary as the number two factor.

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Naylor found out the three key sources that causes stress for educators; on the top is the increasing difficulty and complexity of teaching and relating students, next is the volume of work during a teachers day and the expectations that teachers will address a range of tasks and issues, and the lack of time, resources, support, and respect. Fanning stated that theres a relation of teachers morale in the number of disruptive students in the classroom. Stress also affects morale. It can "result in emotional and physical fatigue and a reduction in work motivation, involvement, and satisfaction" (Stenlund). Feeling overly stressed can result in erosion of one's idealism, sense of purpose, and enthusiasm. Wills identified the following conditions that destroy teachers morale: promotion discrimination, ranking of positions, assignments and other phases of personal management, lack of proper and uniform discipline, lack of recognition, handicaps to the development of initiatives, absence of a common social life with the group, maladjustment of salaries, and , efficiency rating. While Sison stated some morale destroyers such as; too much display of authority, poorly maintained equipment, belittling management practices, hasty and unfair discharges, favoritism and nepotism, display of anger by supervisors, religious and fraternal preference, wage discriminations, agitation and rumor, carelessness, unfulfilled promises, jealousy, dishonestly, and evidence of prejudice. There are also some factors that build morale to the teachers. Davis asserts that the administrator must promote good relationship with his subordinates because morale depends upon the kind and quality of interaction between the management and the subordinates. And Herman suggest the seven key issues in creating good environment to inspires people to do

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their best day in and day out; on the top is appreciation, followed by social environment, management loyalty, working environment, tactful discipline, respect, and the opportunities to grow into job. Sison listed some factors that build morale to the teacher such as; square dealing with workers, setting of good example, recognizing ability or giving credits, keeping tools in condition, encouraging suggestions, safe working condition, good keeping, posted promotion program, encouraging loyalty, encouraging cooperative spirit, equitable wage program, maintaining discipline, giving clear instructions, keeping promises, avoiding mixed responsibilities, maintaining leadership. Low morale of teachers due to stress may reduce by fostering a customer focus approach with students and parents also because of the satisfaction acquired by teachers and low levels of work-related stress; they were better able to focus their attention on students. Leadership of the principal also may affect the teachers quality of life at work. A healthy school environment and high teacher morale tend to be related. A principal's ability to create a positive school climate and culture can affect teacher morale. As Adams (1992) states, "Principals, who control many of the contingencies in the work environment and are the source of much reinforcement for teaching behavior, are the keys to improving the morale and selfesteem of teachers." The more the principal engaged in behaviors that were personally empowering, the more teachers saw that they had choices they could make in completing their work, and the greater impact they perceived they were achieving through their efforts. Intrinsic rewards were found to be more beneficial for motivating teacher. Also principal has
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the ability to improve teacher morale by listening to them and supporting them. Involving teachers in decision making processes validates the teachers and as a results, positive effect on morale levels with the teachers and among the entire staff. Lester stated that clearly, the principal is the key figure in raising teacher morale and commitment. Parental support may also affect teachers morale, teachers in any school setting who
receive a great deal of parental support are more satisfied than teachers who do not." A weak relationship was found between teacher satisfaction and salary and benefits (National Center for Education Statistics).

Berman advises teachers to consider what is uplifting and energizing for them and then work toward integrating those things more fully into their lives. She suggests breaking out of routines and doing the unusual, planning for next steps in professional development, developing a network of individuals to dialogue with, and investing fully in tasks at hand as routes to replenishment.

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REACTION/COMMENTS
Teaching is a socially responsible occupation which is highly accountable, bureaucratic, demanding, intellectually, emotionally, physically, intensive and unrelenting. Many factors can cause low morale in teachers. These include lack of training, lack of experience, disrespect of the students for the teacher or adults in general, disrespect from the administration and for the community, as well as other reasons.

When a teacher has low morale, he/she cannot function in an effective manner. When that happens the students suffer and don't learn up to their full potential. Long term this creates a future society that functions at a lower level than the previous generations. I conclude that teachers morale really affects the students academic performance specially those who need the thorough understanding and attention particularly the slow learners. Because of this research paper, I realize how important for the teachers to have a high level of morale every day. Sometimes I just ignore this morale because I believe in the sayings a good speaker made fun of himself, not others so I intend to made fun of myself and put myself to the level of my students. I thought it is okay because all I wanted is to have a happy and alive class while Im teaching and I dont want to have a boring class. Until one day a student of mine told me that it is not appropriate for me to act like that, like a little boy in front of them, and try no watch different student teacher and observe their ways of teaching and also their styles and strategy. I noticed that Im the only one who act like a child but theres a one student teacher that I think has a problem regarding the manners of her student, I never
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noticed that she has a problem on her eye, until she greet me. So I made to the conclusion why her students made fun at her every time she enters to that class and I think the reason of her shyness was her condition. I know it has a big impact regarding her morale. All I did is to talk to her class without her knowing what I did. Even my critic teacher and other classmates didnt know about that. Her class promises that they will treat her as their teacher and their Ate. And I also talked to her and said kamusta ka? Kaya mo yan ikaw pa lam ko strong ka (then smiled at her). I never wanted to be like her; I mean to have an insolent students. Because of that I changed the way I teach and the way I act in front of my students. I didnt care when they told about me, that I changed a lot. I just smiled and stares at them. Im happy with the way I changed because of that I brought my morale back and gather respect from my students. And also my critic teacher noticed that. And she asked me what happened; I just said one of my students gave an advice to act at my age.
As you become more clearly about who you really are, youll be better able to decide what is best for you.
Oprah Winfrey

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Adams, Charles F. "'Finding Psychic Rewards in Today's Schools': A Rebuttal" Clearing House 65, 6 : 343, 346-47. EJ 465 147. Bentley, Ralph R., and Averno M. Rempel (1980). "Manual for the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire". West Lafayette, Indiana: The University Book Store, 1980. Bentley, R. R., & Rempel, A.M. (1972) Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Research Foundation Bentley, R. & Rempel, K. (1970). Parent teacher opinion questionnaire. Journal of Education Administration. 24-39. Berman, Louise M. "The Teacher as Decision Maker." In Teacher Renewal: Professional Issues, Personal Choices, edited by Frances S. Bolin and Judith McConnell Falk. New York, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1987.

Doyle, M.K. (2002). A study of teacher job satisfaction, work-related stress and customer focus in a suburban school district (Doctoral dissertations, Wayne State University, 2004) Dissertation Abstract International, 63, 11. Davis, J. & Wilson, S. (2003), Principal's Efforts to Empower Teachers: Effects on Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction and Stress. Clearing House, 73(6), 349-353.
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Ellenberg, F. C.(1972) 'Factors Affecting Teacher Morale.' "NASSP Bulletin" 56, 12 (December 1972): 76-87. Evans, L. (1997). Understanding teacher morale and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, 831-845. Fanning, C.P. (1997). The relationship between public school elementary teachers and conditions in the classroom (Doctoral Dissertation, University of San Francisco, 1998). Dissertation Abstract International, Volume 59, no. 03. Houchard, M. A. (2005). Principal Leadership, teacher morale, and student achievement in seven schools in Mithcell Country, North Carolina. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City Hunter-Boykin, H. S., Evans, V. (1995) The relationship between high school principals' leadership and teachers' morale. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22(2). 152-162, Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Liu, X.S., & Meyer, J.P. (2005). Teachers perception of their job: A multilevel analysis of the teacher follow-up survey for 1994-95. Teacher College Record. Miller, William C. "Staff Morale, School Climate, and Education Productivity." "Educational Leadership" 38, 6 (March 1981): 483-86. EJ 243 839. National Center for Education Statistics. "Job Satisfaction Among America's Teachers: Effects of Workplace Conditions, Background Characteristics, and Teacher Compensation." Washington, D.C.: Author, July 1997.
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Washington, Roosevelt, and Hoyt F. Watson. (1976) 'Positive Teacher Morale: The Principal's Responsibility.' "NASSP Bulletin" 60, 399 (April 1976): 4-6. EJ 149 639. Wentworth, M. (1990). Developing Staff Morale. The Pratitioner, 16(4).

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