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N J Vijay Prasad Corp HSE ONGC





Satellite Fields Bombay High Neelam & Heera

Bassein Mumbai


Krishna Godavari Basin

Onshore Operations

ONGC Operational Locations

Brief on sequence of Well Completion

Running the Production Casing String

A hole is drilled for the production casing and the casing is run in the hole and cemented into place. The production casing string is usually run to the total depth of the well. A cement plug is also left in the production casing.

Installing Casing Hanger & Tubing Spool

The production casing is suspended from the elevators at the rig floor, the BOP is picked up, and the production casing hanger is installed. The tubing spool is then installed in the same way as the casing spool. After the spool has been installed, the seals and connections are tested, and the BOP system is reinstalled.

Running the Production Tubing

The production tubing is installed inside the production casing. Unlike casing, the production tubing is not cemented in the well so it may be removed later, if required.

A down hole packer assembly (a type of seal assembly) is also run on the tubing & installed in the production casing to seal the reservoir from all strings of pipe, except the production tubing.

Installing the Tubing Hanger

The tubing hanger is installed on the tubing at the rig floor, then lowered into the bowl of the tubing spool. The packer seals are tested, and a backpressure valve is installed in the tubing hanger so that the BOP can be removed safely. After the valve has been installed the BOP is removed. .

Installing the Christmas Tree

The production Christmas tree, sometimes called the flow assembly, controls the flow of the well. It is made up of a seal flange, or tubing head adapter, a series of valves, and a choke. The valves are stacked vertically and horizontally to provide backup should a valve fail. Each Christmas tree has at least one actuated surface safety valve to shut down the well in an emergency and prevent damage to equipment downstream. The Christmas tree is connected to a flow line, which transports the wells fluid or gas. The Christmas tree is oriented properly, picked up, lowered over the neck of the tubing hanger, and connected to the tubing spool. The connections and seals are tested, and the well is now ready for production testing.


REMEMBER.. No job is so important & No service is so urgent that we cannot take time to perform our work safely.

Safety in Production Testing

Control Measures:
Engineering isolation of source, lockout procedure, design, process or procedural changes, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution Administrative personnel management, monitoring & limiting worker exposure, measuring performance, training and education, housekeeping and maintenance, purchasing PPE body protection from exposure Impact fall protection.

Well Production Testing

Hermetical testing of Csg. Head, Casing, Well Head & X-mass tree assly. Perforation of Casing Activation of Well Pay Zone Testing to ascertain the flow rate of fluids
Single zone Testing Multi Zone Testing

Well Abandonment

Production Testing

Hermetical Test
Operation: Types of Test: Hazard : Hydraulic Pressure Test of Production Casing/ Liner to verify the integrity of the well from bottom to head 1)Negative Test 2) Positive Test Casing damage & Hanger Top Leakages may result in channeling behind casing, & may cause uncontrolled flow Blow out/ Fire

Consequence: Safety Measures:

The casing head and casing shall be pressure tested separately to the maximum pressure expected in the formations subject to the rating of the casing/ liner assembly. The annular space between two consecutive casings should be connected to a valve. Ensure that It SHALL NOT be plugged. The valves shall be tested to working pressure only and all the lines being subjected to pressure are to be properly secured/anchored. Pressure gauges with suitable cocks should be installed for release of pressure during the test. Every well heads assembly shall be provided with suitable arrangement for recording tubing and annulus pressure. Well Head assembly should be pressure tested to 1-1/2 times the working pressure before installation.

Operation: The casing in the well is perforated by firing explosive charges at appropriate horizon by means of a perforation gun or other charges, so that oil under reservoir pressure can flow through the perforations into the well and then to surface

Perforation Methods: 1)Gun Conveyed 2) Through tubing 3) TCP Hazard :If formation fluids entering the well are not kept under control may cause loss of well control. Hazards due to use of explosives and danger of fire. Consequence: Blow out/ Fire/ Surface Explosive damage Safety Measures:
1. Transport,

Handling and Use of Explosives:

Explosives should be handled by persons authorized for the purpose. The persons should undergo an instruction programme in handling and use of explosive, before they are so authorized. Explosives should be primed at well site only but not be primed under conditions of lightning and thunder. The explosives should be suitable for the temperature conditions expected at the bottom of the hole. Precaution against sources of stray current be taken.

Perforation contd
Safety Measures:
2. To Prevent Blow-out:
A double ram preventer, should be installed and tested to the expected bottom hole pressures. A master gate valve with tubing head & a short length of tubing should be pre-assembled and kept ready at the site so that it can be used in case of activity in the well is noticed after perforation. While perforation through tubing - a wire line blowout preventer should also be installed so that the well can be closed with the perforation wire line tool in the hole, Before commencement of perforation operations, it should be ensured that :
The well is filled with mud or other suitable fluid to an over balance of the expected bottom hole pressure. In case of through - tubing perforation, a lubricator, duly pressure tested, is installed, with a valve to release pressure before disconnection. The Insulation resistance of the electro-logging cable is not less than one mega ohm. After every check, the cable should be shorted to release residual electric charges. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURE is clearly understood by all concerned for

prompt action, in any eventuality.

Perforation contd
General Dos & Donts:
Perforation should not be carried out during night hours or under conditions of thunder, lightning, high rains. At the well site, all operations not directly connected with perforation, should be kept suspended till the perforation job is satisfactorily completed. All equipment incl. rig used for perforation should be efficiently earthed and electric bonding should be established between the equipment and well head before connecting explosive charges. Persons not directly connected with perforation job should remain at a safe distance not less than 30mts from the well. An area within 30 mts of the well should be demarcated as danger zone in which no smoking or open fire should be permitted and all electric installations should be de-energised. Effective means of communications between the derrick floor and perforation unit should be provided. Adequate fittings of flow lines and tanks should be provided, to safely collect the well produce, before the production casing is perforated. Adequate number of self contained portable hand lamps of approved type should be kept available for use in emergency.

Well Activation
Operation: After a well is perforated it is to be activated to induce flow of formation fluids into the well by
Displacement with lighter fluid Compressor / Nitrogen application Swabbing Aerisation Acidization

Hazard :

Loss of Well control.

Consequence: Gas kick/Blow out / Fire/ Acid Injury Safety Measures:

General Common Precautions

An area within 30 meters of the well should be treated danger zone in which no smoking or open flame should be permitted and all electrical equipments should be de-energised. Diesel engines if in use, should be located outside the danger zone on the upwind side. Adequate fire fighting system shall be made available

Well Activation - Swabbing

Operation: Swabbing tool comprising of rubber swab cups and a valve opening upwards is lowered on a sand line through tubing into the well to bring out water below swab tool to the surface for providing drawdown to the formation. Hazard : Loss of Well control due to gas kick Consequence: Blow out due to gas kick / Fire (as gas is liberated during the
operation particularly at the point where the swab rod leaves the valves assembly)

Safety Measures:
swabbing should not be attempted in gas wells When swabbing is done through the Christmas tree assembly wire line blow out prevent or and an oil saver should be used at the top to control the flow of fluids. The control wheel should be provided with protective screen for safe operation and clear instructions should be pasted for its correct operation. The valve assembly and flow lines should be checked carefully for any leakage. The swab rod should be run in or pulled out at a steady rate so as to avoid pressure surges. When the swab is being run in or pulled out, all persons should remain at a safe distance from the well head because any interruption may throw slack on the line and cause serious injury to persons. Suitable roller guides should be provided to ensure that the wire rope, coils or uncoils on the winch drum uniformly without any overlap.

Well Activation Air/Nitrogen application

Operation: Air or Nitrogen is injected into the annular space, the water in the annular space is U tubed in the tubing from where an equivalent quantity of water is displaced at the surface, there by reducing its head Hazard : Loss of well control Consequence: Blow out / Fire Safety Measures: 1) The compressor and its supply line should be provided with the following equipment. Pressure gauge, to indicate the pressure at each stage of compression. Self recording pressure gauge, at the final stage of compression, to indicate if back pressure from the well is acting against the compressor. Pressure release safety valve should be installed directly on the out let of each stage of compression. 2) The discharge line of the compressor should be provided with a gate valve and also a non return valve upstream to prevent back flow of fluids from the well into the compressor. A pressure gauge should also be provided on the discharge line. The line should be securely anchored to the ground 3) The safety valve of the compressor is in good working order : it should be set to open at a pressure not exceeding 10% of the maximum allowable working pressure. 4) If there is any indication of flow of fluids, the compressor should be stopped and the well should be allowed to flow through a proper choke to ensure controlled flow of fluids. 5) The annular pressure should be reduced gradually through a bean otherwise a large volume of formation fluids may enter the well and gush out of it.

Well Activation Displacement with lighter fluids

Operation: The kill fluid in the well mud/brine is displaced with lighter fluid, there by reducing hydrostatic head Hazard : Loss of Well control due to under balance (sudden reduction in hydrostatic head)

Consequence: Blow out Safety Measures: Specific gravity of displacing fluid is to be gradually reduced

Pay Zone Testing

Operation: After a well is activated and well starts flowing, pay zones are tested for reservoir studies Hazard : fluid Loss of Well control, Corrosiveness of

Consequence: Blow out / Fire Safety Measures:

1. Always set the test packer in the casing or in the liner, never in the open hole. 2. Perform testing in a liner or casing. 3. Use a test tree in the BOP stack. Include an emergency down-hole shut- off near the formation. 4. Stop the test if any of the following danger signals occur:
a. Pressure approaches the pressure rating of any of the equipment used. b. Equipment becomes overloaded by excessive production. c. Annular pressure indicates communication between the annulus and the test string.

Pay Zone Testing- contd Safety Measures:

5. The separator should be located at a distance of not less than 10 mts from the well head 6.The open pit and flare should be located at a distance not less than 45 mts. 7.Adequate fire fighting arrangement should be made 8.Production Testing surface (PTS) equipment lay out and spacing must be in accordance with classified zone 9.All PTS equipments must be properly grounded 10.The onsite safety meetings with rig crew & test crew must be held to review all operational steps, potential hazards 11.Proper PPE should be ensured

Pay Zone Testing Drill Stem Testing (DST)

Lowered DST tool on the bottom of the drill stem and to the bottom of the hole. Weight is applied to the tool to set a packer. Opening the tool ports allows the formation pressure to be tested. This process enables to determine whether the well can be produced or not

Hazard : 1. Swabbing the hole on the way out with the test tool could cause a kick
2. 3.
to occur, which could result in a blowout leading to injuries and deaths. Being exposed to unexpected release of H2S or other gases or liquids. A packer seat failure or fluid loss to an upper formation could cause a kick that might result in a blowout causing injuries and deaths.

Consequence: Blow out / Fire Safety Measures: 1. Keep a method for filling the hole in place at all times. Before any test starts, the rig
management must ensure that the blow-out prevention system includes a kill system that is capable of pumping fluid into the well below the annular preventer and at least on-set of pipe rams. Run a pump-out-sub or down hole circulating device in the test string to enable the system to be reversed.


Pay Zone Testing Sub Sea Testing

Sub Sea Test tree (SSTT) is a mandatory safety equipment for use during testing on floater rigs which allows the subsurface closure of well, delatching of the string and moving away of the rig from location in case of any emergency such as blowout, adverse weather condition. Once the emergency is over, the testing can be resumed by moving the rig on location and latching the string. Presently, SSTT equipments & services have been hired from M/s Expro. M/s Schlumberger and M/s Halliburton also provide these equipments & services.

High Pressure/ High Temp -

Well Testing

High pressure/temperature well testing presents an additional failure/safety risk if critical factors are not investigated
Fluids used during testing: Down hole fluid has to be of higher specific gravity with minimum solid settlement in static conditions. Sealing Material: Metal to metal seals are highly desirable in high pressure situations or organic polymer material seals. Mechanical stresses on tubular and packer: Tubings with premium connections and high differential pressure packers have to be considered Perforation: Special high temperature charges are to be used and cement bond quality behind the casing must be ascertained before perforation Surface Testing Equipment: All flow lines, choke manifold and line valves should be rated and tested to the same working pressure as the well head equipment Redundancy in safety system must be ensured Killing Operation: Depending upon the severity of operating conditions, dual production/kill string completion hook up may be required to kill the well safely at the conclusion of testing operations.

Well Abandonment
Open hole abandonment: 1st Isolation plug-50mt open hole 50mt csg. Tag & test plug-pipe wt15000ibs/1000psi 2nd Surface plug-100mt inside csg. 200-300 mts Never place two plug simultaneously-in one go.

Well Abandonment-II
Cased hole abandonment: 1st Isolate producing zone- By cement squeeze./plug Cement plug -150mt Tag & test 2nd Surface plug:100mt-plug top-100-200mt below surface. Never place two plug simultaneously-in one go

The difference between being there

and.almost there!

Concern for man and his fate must always form the Chief Interest of all technical endeavours Never forget this in the midst of your diagram, equations and formulas -- Albert Einstein