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Module 3: Communication and Interpersonal Skills

I. Terminology A. Anger B. Aphasia C. Body Language D. Communication E. Defense Mechanism F. Denial G. Dyslexia H. Family I. J. Message Non-verbal communication

K. Personal Space L. Projection M. Rationalization N. Receiver O. Sender P. Verbal Communication Q. Voice Pitch R. Voice Tone


The five basic physical and psychological needs as described by Maslow that must be met in order to survive: A. Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs 1. Building of levels


Levels in Maslows Hierarchs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physiological Security Belonging Esteem Self-actualization


Residents behaviors which may reflect unmet human needs A. Behaviors that demonstrate unmet human needs 1. Physical needs unmet 2. Psychological needs unmet 3. Unmet basic needs may result from illness, disease or injury, but may also contribute to development of illness, etc.


Communication and types of communication A. Communication B. Therapeutic communication C. Two routes of communication


The key steps involved in the communication process and methods used in communication A. Important steps in communication 1. 2. 3. 4. Message Sender Receiver Interpretation

B. Methods used in communicating 1. Verbal 2. Non-verbal a) Conscious and unconscious b) Types: 1) Body language 2) Touch

c) Written 3. Electronic VI. Reasons for communication breakdown B. Reasons for communication breakdown: .1 Verbal barriers .2 Non-verbal barriers .3 Physiological/aging factors .4 Not listening listening is hard work (barriers) )a Lack of concentration )b Selective hearing )c Emotional response to a word or situation VII. Effective communication skills used with residents, families, guests and other health team members A. Communication skills for use with the resident, family or guest 1. Introduce yourself. 2. Call person by formal name or whatever the individual has requested to be called. 3. Explain all tasks to the resident before doing them. 4. Be patient and a good listener. 5. Use short sentences, ask for feedback. 6. Use eye contact. 7. Speak clearly, avoid criticizing. 8. Clarify information or conversation as needed. 9. Be aware of body language. 10.Use words the person understands. 11.Show interest and respect. 12.Use a friendly tone. 13.Be positive. 14.Ensure confidentiality. B. Special Needs: .1 .2 .3 .4 Language/cultural differences Visually impaired Hearing impaired Physically impaired communication (aphasia)

VIII. Progressive measure of conflict resolution A. Definition B. Conflict Myths 1. Conflict is a negative.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Conflict is a contest. The presence of conflict is a sign of poor management. Conflict, if left alone, will take care of itself. Conflict must be resolved.

C. Conflict handling modes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Competing Accommodating Avoiding Collaborating Compromising

D. Areas of Concern 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Attendance Punctuality Safety Professional behavior Attitude Appearance and hygiene Performance

E. Lines of authority 1. Communication approach a) b) c) d) with employee using inquiry and advocacy

Bracket Paraphrase Check perceptions Probe

2. Communications with first line supervisor-objective reporting F. Timely reporting G. Plan of remediation H. Confidentiality J. The 4 Es of constructive feedback 1. Engage 2. Empathize 3. Educate 4. Enlist IX. Touch as a form of communication, including body language and personal space.

A. Cultural beliefs regarding touch B. Body Language C. Personal Space X. XI. Basic psychological defense mechanisms Family communication/interaction patterns and the role of the CNA A. Differing kinds of family structure B. Show respect for all family structures: 1. Listen to family members. 2. Avoid involvement in family matters. 3. Maintain confidentiality of residents condition. 4. Allow family to help with care.




D. Give the family or guest information about the facility 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Telephone Visiting hours Location of refreshments Business office Gift shop Public restrooms Orient to resident activity/appointment area Social services


Socio-cultural factors influencing communication and emotional reactions to illness and disability A. Culture: Characteristics of a group of persons 1. 2. 3. Culture/religious influences Rituals Beliefs about healthcare

B. Emotional reactions to illness and disability: .1 Stress as a result of illness each of us is different .2 Physical loss or disability residents experience many losses .3 Emotional reactions C. CNAs role in helping residents 1. Observe resident for signs of emotional stress.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Be a good listener. Be patient and understanding. Help resident function as independently as possible. Let resident know you care. a. Non-judgmental b. Treat with dignity 6. Show respect for all cultures or belief systems learn about them. 7. Do not get anxious when people are not like us. XIII. Communication patterns among the members of the health care team A. Review organizational chart of nursing unit. 1. a) b) c) d) Describe methods of communicating in nursing: Verbal Non-verbal Written Electronic

2. Legal aspects of communication: )a Must document what has been reported verbally to licensed nurse. )b Must document statements heard from the resident and family that are important. B. Rules for effective communication: 1. Identify yourself in any form of communication.

2. Verbal reports should be: b) Brief c) Organized d) Appropriate 1) Resident dx 2) Allergies 3) Activity 4) Elimination 5) Special Needs 6) Diet 7) V/S 8) Code Status e) Timing f) Place/location 3. Take notes when speaking with anyone on the telephone a) Name of person whom the message is for. b) Ask for correct spelling of callers name. c) Indicate time called.

d) Clarify the message by repeating it and the telephone number to the caller. e) Sign your name and title to the message. 4. Answering the resident call signal a) Go to the resident at once, quietly and in a friendly manner. b) If an intercom is used, call the resident by name, identify yourself and politely inquire as to the residents need. c) Make sure the call light is always in reach of the resident.