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1. Figure below shows a cross section of the spinal cord.

Name the parts of the


spinal cord labelled as P, Q, R and S.

2. Figure below shows two types of neurones.

(a) Identify P and Q.

P :____________________________ Q :___________________________

(b) Label P with the following terms :

Receptor cell cell body axon

© Label Q with the following terms :

Dendrite synaptic terminals myelin sheath


(d) Show the direction of flow of an impulse in P and Q during the transmission of an
impulse from a receptor.

3. Figure below shows a schematic diagram of a synapse.

(a) (i) What is the role of mitochondria in a synapse?

____________________________________________________

(ii) State two neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with


the decrease in secretion of neurotransmitters.

____________________________________________________

(b) Describe the transmission of information across a synapse.

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________
4. Match the following hormones to their functions.

Hormone Function
Antidiuretic hormone Stimulate development of male secondary sexual
(ADH) characteristics and spermatogenesis.

Insulin Stimulates development of the uterine lining and


formation of the placenta.

Androgens Decreases blood glucose levels and promotes


conversion of glucose to glycogen.

Prolactin Stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys.

Growth hormone Stimulates milk production and secretion from


mammary glands.

Progesterone Stimulates growth, protein synthesis and fat


metabolism.

5.

Figure above shows the position of the major endocrine organs in the human
body. Label the main glands of the endocrine system.
Islet cells in
pancreas stimulated
to secrete insulin

Blood glucose A B C
rises

Normal blood Normal blood


glucose level glucose level

Blood glucose
drops D E

Islet cells in
pancreas stimulated
to secrete glucagon

6. The schematic diagram above shows the regulation of blood glucose level. Choose
the correct answers for the empty boxes labelled as A, B, C, D and E.

Insulin also stimulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen in liver and muscle cells,
for storage.

Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen to glucose.

Glucagon also promotes lipid breakdown, which releases fatty acids that can be
metabolized for energy.

The adipose cells use the breakdown of glucose to form fats.

Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose by liver, muscle and adipose cells, for
respiration.
P

7. The figure above shows a part of nephron. Name the processes that occur in parts
P, Q and R

P :________________________________________

Q :________________________________________

R :________________________________________

8. The figure below shows the structure of a synapse.


(a) Name the parts labelled P-U.

P : ____________________________________

Q : ____________________________________

R : ____________________________________

S : ____________________________________

T : ____________________________________

U : ____________________________________

(b) Name the chemical substances found in Q

__________________________________________________________________

© State the importance of organelle R existing in large number in structure P.

__________________________________________________________________

(d) Describe briefly how a nerve impulse crosses a synaptic cleft.

__________________________________________________________________

(e) Explain why a nerve impulse is transmitted in only one direction from one neurone
to the next neurone.

__________________________________________________________________

9. Figure below shows the position of some endocrine glands in a human body.
(a) Name the endocrine glands labelled L, M, N and O.

L : _______________________________________

M : _______________________________________

N : _______________________________________

O : _______________________________________

(b) Name an endocrine gland in the human male that controls his sexual
characteristics.

__________________________________________________________________

© (i) Name the main gland in the body that controls the activities of many other
endocrine glands.

__________________________________________________________

(ii) Name a hormone that is produced by the main gland that controls the
secretion of gland M.

__________________________________________________________
(d) (i) Name a hormone that is secreted by gland M.

__________________________________________________________

(ii) State two functions of this hormone.

__________________________________________________________

(e) Explain what would happen if a diet for a young child is deficient in iodine.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

10. Figure below show the structure of a kidney nephron.


(a) Formation of urine involves three main processes. Name these processes.

(i) ___________________________________________

(ii) ___________________________________________

(iii) ___________________________________________

(b) (i) Name the process that occurs between the glomerulus and the Bowman’s
capsule.

__________________________________________________________

(ii) Describe briefly how this process occurs.

__________________________________________________________

© (i) Name two blood components found in the glomerulus but not in the
filtrate.

__________________________________________________________

(ii) Suggest a reason for the component difference in © (i).

__________________________________________________________

(d) Why is there a difference in the chemical composition of the filtrate in the
Bowman’s capsule and the filtrate in the loop of Henle? Explain your answer.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

(e) Name the organ in the human body where urea is produced.

__________________________________________________________________
11. Figure 7(a) shows a reflex arc and Figure 7(b) shows the regulation of glucose in
the blood. Both figures illustrate coordination systems in the human body.

(i) Describe the reflex action in Figure 7(a)


(ii) Compare the coordination system shown in Figure 7(a) and 7(b).