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Eye Drops

Eye drops are suspension of drugs or a sterile solution. Eye drops are indicated to produce a local effect directly on the eye. Indication of eyes drop - Burning - Discharge - Excessive watering - Infections - Itchiness - Redness Such symptoms can be caused by a variety of conditions including: - Allergies - Chronic dryness - Eye infections Type of eyes drop 1. Antihistamine eye drops. Drugs that attach to histamine receptors, preventing the chemical histamine from triggering symptoms of an allergic reaction. - Pheniramine (Opcon-A); - Ketotifen (Zaditor); - Patanol (Olopatadine); - Emedastine (Emadine); - Azelastine (Optivar); 2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops. Inhibit the body's ability to produce chemicals called prostaglandins, which are released during an allergic reaction. - Nepafenac (Nevanac) - Acular (Ketorolac) 3. Corticosteroid eye drops. Decreases inflammation during an allergic reaction by mimicking the behavior of cortisol, a hormone in the body that aids proper body function during stressful situations:

- Flomex (Fluorometholone, FML) - Loteflam (Loteprednol etabonate, Lotemax, Alrex) - Pred Forte (Prednisone acetate, EconoPred) 4. Artificial tears/saline solution/ointment eye drops. Lubricate, dilute and wash away offending allergens: - Vision White Petroleum Mineral Oil; - Tears Renewed - Refresh - Liquifilm Tears - Adsorbotear 5. Antibiotic eye drops. Eye drops prescribed to treat bacterial infections: - Cipmox (Ciprofloxacin, Cipro, Ciplox) - Erythromycin (Erycette, Akne-Mycin) - Gentamicin (Garamycin, Genoptic, Cidomycin) - Ocuflox (Ofloxacin, Floxin) - Sulfacetamide (Sulfex, Cetamide) - Tobrex (Tobramycin) - Vigamox (Monofloxacin) - Zymar (Gatafloxin) 6. Antiviral eye drops. Eye drops prescribed to treat herpes eye infections: - Trifluridine (Viroptic) - Trifluorothymidine - Idoxuridine (Herplex Liquifilm) - Adenine arabinoside (Vira-A) 7. Glaucoma eye drops. Eye drops prescribed in the treatment of glaucoma: - Alphagan; - Azopt; - Betagan (Levobunolol, AKBeta); - Betoptic (Betaxolol, Kerlone); - Combigan

- Dorzox (Dorzolamide, Trusopt); - Isopto; - Lumigan; - Latim (Latanoprost, Xalatan); - Metipranolol (OptiPranolol); - Timolol (Cosopt, Timoptic, Blocadren); - Travatan; - Pilagan (Pilocarpine, Pilocar, Carpine); Side effects of eye drops Most side effects related to eye drop use are minor: - Achy eyes; - Blurry vision; - Burning stinging eyes; - Crusting in eyelids eyelashes or corner of eyes; - Darkening of skin around eye lashes; - Dilated pupils; - Drowsiness; - Eye dryness; - Eye puffiness; - Headaches; - Taste of drops in throat; - Tingling sensation in the eye; - Watery eyes. Check prescription according to 7R Right patient Right drug Right dosage Right date/ time Right route Right response Right documentation

Preparation Gather the following equipment prior to administration:


The prescribed ear drops. Some cotton wool or gauze swipes. Chip tray.

Procedure

Perform a clinical hand wash .To minimise the risk of cross infection. Check the name of the patient and hospital number on their identity bracelet against the prescription chart and the bottle(s) of drops. To minimise the risk of drug error. Tilt the head to one side (approximately to 90) making sure the child is comfortable and ensure that the head is supported. To prevent fluid escaping the ear canal. Place the ear drops in the ear canal if necessary squeeze the bottle gently to allow the drops to fall. Keep the head tilted for at least two minutes . To facilitate the action of the drug. If required, repeat for the other ear. If there is any oozing from the ear, dab it dry with the cotton wool or gauze. Dispose used cotton wool or gauze in appropriate waste bin. To comply with hospital policy. Wash hands (Rationale 6). Sign the prescription chart . To maintain an accurate record Record the administration of the drug in the child's daily health care records Note the child's name and the expiry date of the drops on the bottle. To ensure thedrops are 'single patient use' and that they are not used beyond the manufacturer's recommended time period.

Nasal Drop
Relieving a blocked nose (nasal congestion) associated with colds, flu,sinusitis and nasal allergies (allergic rhinitis) such as hayfever. Nose drops are used in the decongestion of the nasal passages and in the treatment of sinusitis. The drops can be either an antibiotic or a decongestant.

Type of medication azelastine (Astelin ) beclomethasone (Vancenase ) budesonide (Rhinocort ) cromolyn (NasalCrom ) flunisolide (Nasalide) pratropium bromide (Atrovent Nasal) Purpose To treat Allergic Rhinitis To relief of the symptoms of seasonal or perennial allergic and nonallergic (vasomotor) rhinitis For Nasal Allergy Symptom Controller To indicated for the management of the nasal symptoms of seasonal or perennial rhinitis. For inhibits secretions from the serous and seromucous glands lining the nasal mucosa

Preparing the child and family 1. Inform the child if they are old enough to understand, and their family that you are going to administer the nose drops. 2. Answer any questions they may have about the nose drops. To obtain verbal consent for the procedure and to obtain their co operation if old enough

Administration of nose drops: check prescription Check the nose drops have been prescribed according to 7R Right patient Right drug Right dosage Right date/ time Right route Right response Right documentation

Check the nose drops are prescribed correctly to minimize the risk of drug error. . Ensure that:

the correct nose drops are written on the drug chart the correct route and instruction, ie, one or both nostrils is written on the drug chart the correct strength is stated the number of drops is stated

Administration of nose drops: prepare drug 1. Gather the following equipment in order to prepare to administer the drops:

the correct nose drops some gauze swabs on a chip tray

2. Prior to the procedure wash your hands to minimize the risk of cross infection. 3. Nose drops should be used 2-4 times a day according to what has been prescribed To allay any worries they may have Rationale and to address their information needs Administration of nose drops: the procedure 1. Check the name of the child and hospital number on their identity bracelet matches that on the prescription chart and that their name is also on the bottles of drops to ensure the drops are given to the correct child. 2. Either tilt the childs head backwards, ensuring it is supported, or lie the child flat on their back with the head tilted backwards. 3. Place as many drops as has been prescribed into the nostril if necessary squeeze the bottle gently to allow the drops to fall 4. Keep the head tilted and encourage the child to sniff gently to let the drops penetrate. 5. If required repeat for the other nostril. 6. Wash hands after nose drops have been administered. 7. Sign the childs drug prescription chart to determine responsibility for administration. 8. Record the administration of the drops in the childs daily health care records to maintain an accurate record.

Ear drops
Ear drops are a form of medicine used to treat or prevent ear infections, especially infections of the outer ear and ear canal (otitis externa) Preparing the child and family

Inform the child, if they are old enough to understand, and their family of the need to administer ear drops to obtain verbal consent for the procedure and to obtain their cooperation if old enough. Answer any questions they may have about their ear drops to allay any worries that they may have and to address their information needs.

Check prescription Check the nose drops have been prescribed according to 7R Right patient Right drug Right dosage Right date/ time Right route Right response Right documentation

Ensure that:

The correct route and instruction ie one or both ears is written on the drug chart. The correct strength is stated. The number of drops is stated.

Eardrops are usually administered three or four times a day with as many drops as are prescribed being instilled Preparation Gather the following equipment prior to administration:

The prescribed ear drops. Some cotton wool or gauze swipes. Chip tray.

Procedure

Perform a clinical hand wash to minimize the risk of cross infection. Check the name of the patient and hospital number on their identity bracelet against the prescription chart and the bottle(s) of drops to minimize the risk of drug error. Tilt the head to one side (approximately to 90) making sure the child is comfortable and ensure that the head is supported To prevent fluid escaping the ear canal. Place the ear drops in the ear canal if necessary squeeze the bottle gently to allow the drops to fall. Keep the head tilted for at least two minutes to facilitate the action of the drug. If required, repeat for the other ear. If there is any oozing from the ear, dab it dry with the cotton wool or gauze. Dispose used cotton wool or gauze in appropriate waste bin to comply with hospital policy. Wash hands to minimize the risk of cross infection. Sign the prescription chart .Record the administration of the drug in the child's daily health care records to maintain an accurate record.

Note the child's name and the expiry date of the drops on the bottle to ensure the drops are 'single patient use' and that they are not used beyond the manufacturer's recommended time period.