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GenEd 111 "World History Lecture & Chapter Notes: Ch 21: THE HIGH TIDE IMPERIALISM

Motives for imperialism: ECONOMIC Industrial Revolution: Industrialized Countries needed vital raw materials (not produced at Home) A reliable market to sell the goods produced in their factories This was because their own domestic markets could not always absorb all the domestic output **Basically modern imperialism was a direct result of modern industrial economy** OTHER MOTIVES: Economic wealth, national status & Political Power associated with a colonial Empire

The process of Western expansion into Asia & Africa was termed imperialism. Imperialism: The efforts of capitalist states in the West to seize markets, cheap raw materials, and lucrative avenues for investment in the countries beyond Western civilization. Justification: Social Darwinism: was used to justify the take-over of other societies. Only societies that moved aggressively to adapt to changing circumstances would survive and prosper Moral Purpose: Promoting Christianity or to build a better world By 1900 almost all the societies of Africa & Asia were either under full colonial rule or near collapse **Only Japan managed to avoid colonialism & collapse through political & Economic Reform** Tactics (Primary Objective: To exploit the natural resources & to open up markets) After 1800's industrialization demanded more raw material which required more extensive control over colonial territories. They also sought to solidify their hold on them & defend them from outside interests. In order to secure their primary objective, some realized that cooperation with native political elites worked best. Indirect Rule: The policy of allowing native rulers & elites to stay in power and through giving economic rewards or appointing positions of authority those rulers would then impose imperialistic rule. This however was not always feasible, as many resisted being bribed or colonized. When Indirect rule was not possible, the local elites were removed from power and replaced with a new set of officials recruited from the Mother Country. Those societies most likely to resist were those with a long tradition of national cohesion & independence ****Long Tradition + National Independence = More likely Resistance/Rebellion**** French Philosophical schools Pondered Assimilation vs. Association

Assimilation: An effort to transform colonial societies in the Western Image. Association: Collaboration with local elites while leaving local traditions alone.

French Policy in Indochina: Began as Association but switched to Assimilation in order to give back to the natives. However this resulted in resentment by the natives who opposed the destruction of their native traditions. The British, Refused to even consider Assimilation, and treated their people as culturally and racially distinct. Therefore they employed a more Association style control.

India under the British Raj

By the 1800's Britain sought to take full control over India They expanded from the coastal areas to the interior Territories were either ruled first by the East India Company and later by the crown or, Ruled indirectly through local Maharajas and Rajas.

Pro's of British Control Brought stability to a society that had been at civil war. An honest & efficient government Heightened Education (new school system established, British Civil Service Exam introduced) Girls were also taught. Brought an end to some inhumane Indian Traditions (widows could remarry) Railroads, Telegraph & postal service were introduced A main highway from calcutta to Delhi Con's of British Control The British Raj Economic cost: The introduction of manufactured goods (textiles) put Bengali women out of work and severely damaged the local textile industry Zamindar system: Enacted in Rural areas, created a Zamindar or a land gentry who in turn increased agricultural taxes and made the peasants "land tenants" or they forfeited their land Introduced Democratic Institutions or Values that were generally not followed. The presence of British goods, prevented the emergence of vital commercial and manufacturing operations by natives. Psychological effects: The contempt for Indian Tradition by the British hurt Pride, also created confusion in Natives who wondered where their loyalties lay.

Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia

In 1800 only 2 societies in Southeast Asia were under colonial rule: 1. The Spanish Philippines 2. The Dutch East Indies By 1900 Nearly the entire area was under colonial rule Britain 1819 Britain Colonized Singapore 1826 Britain attacked Burma and established control

France In 1857, France offered protection to Vietnam. Later they colonized it By 1900, France had seized Cambodia & Laos creating the French-ruled Indochinese Union **Vietnam + Cambodia + Laos = French-ruled Indochinese Union**

** Thailand: Was agreed upon by France & England to be left alone establishing it as a Independent Buffer zone**

United States After the spanish-American war in 1898, Naval Commander Dewey defeated the Spanish navy President William Mckinley decided the moral thing to do in the region was colonize the Philippines **prevented Japan from acquiring it and was convenient jumping off point to China** Guerrilla forces under Emilio Aguinaldo fought back against the U.S.A. but the bulk of the resistance collapsed in 1901.

Nature of Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia

Indirect Rule was the norm. It reduced the cost of training European administrators and had a less corrosive impact on the local culture.

Britain used a combination of indirect and direct rule in some of its colonies. In the Dutch East Indies, Britain relied on indirect (native rulers) to gather taxes from the people, while establishing direct rule over crucial commercial centers of Singapore and Malecca. They also allowed Muslim Rulers to maintain princely powers in the interior peninsula. Indirect rule was not always possible like in BURMA which required direct rule due to opposition.

Despite the growth of an urban economy, the vast majority of people in the colonial societies continued to farm the land. Many natives continued to live by subsistence agriculture, but colonial policy emphasized Cash Crops to export leading to the new form of Plantation Agriculture: Plantation Agriculture: cash crop emphasis which transformed peasants into wage laborers on plantations. The wages were kept at poverty level to maintain competitive edge. Many plantation workers were Shanghaied Population explosions were occurring in colonies where medicine was modernized and death rates declined as a result of colonial rule. This led to a migration from rural farmlands, to urban factory based cities.

Colonial Rule in Africa 1795: Dutch stopped trafficking slaves, 1803: Danes stopped. It was later made illegal in Britain, the USA (1863) & most nations. The End of slavery resulted in the beginning of interest in other African trade.

The "legitimate trade" was focused on natural resource resulting in an INCREASE in: Export: Peanuts, Timber, Hides, Palm oil (west Africa) Import: textile goods, other manufactured products Britain: Early 19th century, established settlements along the Gold Coast & Sierra Leone (agriculture plantations to feed freed slaves) United States: Sets up haven for freed slaves in Liberia. French: set up plantation near Cape Verde for growing Peanuts Informal Empire British annexed the Gold Coast in 1874 after they attempted to organize opposition. At the same time Britain extended an informal protectorate over the Niger Delta

France attempted to gain control over Egypt, but Britain halted their advancements. By 1854 France contracted the building of the Suez Canal by Ferdinand de Lessps. Later on Army revolts against foreign influence resulted in Britain establishing a Informal Protectorate over Egypt lasting until WWI France seized control of Algiers and imposed a Protectorate on Tunisia. In 1911-12 Italy took control of Tripoli & Cyrenaica (Libya)

Dr. Livingstone (missionary) **The most renowned missionary was the Scottish Doctor David Livingstone who arrived in Africa in 1841** He discovered Victoria Falls Was a passionate abolitionist. He did more for the cause than any other figure of his generation, and helped end The Slave market at Zanzibar in 1873. Died before the abolishment from illness and was brought from central Africa to the coast for burial. Introduced the "Three C's": Christianity, Commerce & civilization

The Boers: Afrikaans-speaking farmers, descended from the original Dutch settlers of Cape Colony (south Africa). They began migrating eastward then intensified during the Napoleonic wars the huge migration was called The Great Trek of the Mid-1830's Not sympathetic to the rights of local African people, they believed in White Superiority The Boers formed there own independent republics: The Orange Free State The South African Republic (Transvaal) The Zulus: Bantu people (natives) led a series of wars with the Europeans that ended with the Shaka (leader) being overthrown. The mid 1880's was the beginning of a scramble for seizing territory in Africa. The Major European Players were: Belgium France Germany Britain

Portugal Italy - (later-on)

What sparked this sudden imperialist scramble? The intensified rivalries among the European states that led them to engage in emperialist takeovers out of fear that if they did not, another stat might do so, leaving them at a disadvantage. Also the Missionary Factor: European missionary intersts lobbied with their governments for colonial takeovers to facilitate their efforts to convert the African population. What facilitated their takeovers? New technology (superior firearms) Quinine (partial immunity to malaria) Europeans mortality in Africa lowered making it more hospitable

The Berlin Conference: European conference that decided that future annexations of African territories would not be given international recognition until effective occupation was demonstrated. NO AFRICAN DELIGATES WERE PRESENT AT THE CONFERENCE. The conference reduced tensions among European Nations Indirect rule was the norm. European's felt African's were inferior to the point that they were incapable of adopting European customs and institutions. A dual legal system was instituted that applied African law to Africans & European law to Europeans. In East Africa, Britain made use of fertile land by reserving it for European settlers The white settlers 1% had an enormous impact on kenya's political development. Dominant status France: Used Direct Rule, where Africans were to adopt French customs

Sepoy Rebellion of 1857: Native Indian troops were used by the British to protect their interests. The rebellion broke out because, the British adopted new cartridges covered in ANIMAL FAT, which one must bite off to use, going against both Hindu & Muslim prohibitions on animal/pork consumption.