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12. Russia was not modernized and was ultimately closed off from the world. 13.

Czar Nicholas II ruled Russia before WWI and he ruled with an autocracy style, maintained by his father Alexander III. 14. The news of the repeated losses of the Russians sparked unrest at home and led to revolt in the midst of the war. 15. The Bolsheviks supported a small number of committed revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for radical change. They took control of the Russian government in November 1917. 16. From 1918 to 1920, civil war waged in Russia. This war was between The Bolsheviks (red army) and the White Army. 17. Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks and Trotsky was his right-hand man. They both led the Bolshevik Army and led them to victory by taking over the Russian government. 18. In March 1918, Germany and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended the war between them. 19. Karl Marx was a revolutionary who believed in the ways of Communism and started the policies of Marxism. 20. Rasputin was a self-proclaimed holy man who befriended the Romanovs and began making political decisions for the family and placing his friends in high-ranking positions. 21. The Romanovs were the last royal family of Russia who were executed a year after the March Revolution. The March Revolution occurred at the Czars Winter Palace on January 22, 1905 when about 200,000 workers and their families approached the palace in a petition. 22. The Duma was Russias first parliament. The Dumas leaders were moderates who wanted Russia to become a constitutional monarchy similar to Britain. 23. Hitler came to power after became the leader of the Nazi party and was appointed chancellor by Conservative leaders. Stalin rose to power after Lenin died and Trotsky was forced into exile in 1929. Mussolini founded the Fascist Party in 1919 and won support of people of all classes. Fascists marched to Rome and commanded that King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the government. Franco led a revolt in favor of a Fascist government and was a leader. 24. 25. Fascists are people who believe in emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader and communist totalitarians believe in a government that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of public and private life. 26. Characteristics of a totalitarian state is essentially the government controlling everything. 27. The Fascist ruler of Spain was Francisco Franco. Francos forces were called Nationalists who were the Fascist government supporters who were fighting against the Republicans who were supporters of Spains elected government. 28. The Spanish artist Pablo Picasso painted Guernica shortly after Nazi planes destroyed the ancient Basque cite of Guernica in 1937. 29. Collectivization was the policy of the government receiving food from hundreds of families that worked on farms. The Five-Year Plans set impossibly high quotas, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. The Great Purge was a campaign of terror launched by Stalin to eliminate anyone who threatened his power.

30. Kulaks were a class of wealthy peasants. The government decided to eliminate them for they resisted the collectivization.