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Two-Way Between Groups ANOVA/ 3-Way/4-Way ANOVA for unrelated/uncorrelated /independent scores (DR SEE KIN HAI)
1. 2-Way or 3-Way or 4-Way ANOVA operates in the same manner as 1-Way ANOVA by examining more independent variables. Each independent variable may have 2 or more levels. Example independent variables A, B and C. We will have : Main effects for A, B and C 2-Way Interactions for AB, AC and BC 3-Way Interactions for ABC 2. Assumptions to carry out the 2 - Way ANOVA: (a) Population from the samples must be normally distributed. (b) The scores from each group should have homogeneous variances. 3. The example here shows you a 2-way ANOVA using a 2x3 factorial design with A and B affecting the academic results of students. Main effects A (i) High Achiever (ii) Low Achiever B (i) High Achiever (ii) Medium Achiever and (iii) Low Achiever Interacting effects: A x B (having 6 data cells as follows) on the academic results (i) AH BH (ii) AH BM (iii) AH BL (iv) AL BH (v) AL BM (vi) AL BL So you have a 2 x 3 factorial design with six data cells (2 x 3 =6) EXAMPLE. A teacher wished to determine the effects of Attitude (1= Low achiever, 2=High achiever) and Motivation (1= Low achiever 1, 2= Medium achiever and 3=High achiever) on 18 Year 11 students mathematics achievement. A quasi-experimental research design has been chosen for the study. By using the intact classes, she administered 2 questionnaires on the Attitude towards mathematics and Motivation to the students. A test (Maximum mark of 30) was given to the students to get their scores. The following table shows the scores for the 18 students. High Attitude High 26 27 30 16 14 18 20 16 22 13 10 11 16 12 17 8 9 7 Motivation Medium Low

Low

## Three research questions have been formulated:

2 1. Does attitude influence the performance of students? 2. Does motivation influence the performance of students? 3. Does the influence of attitude on students performance depend on the different levels of motivation? Research Questions 1 and 2: Use the main effects of Attitude and Motivation. Research Question 3: Use the interactions of the 2 independent variables (influence of Attitude and Motivation) on students mathematics performance. Run a Two-way unrelated/uncorrelated Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 1. Set up your Variables in the [Variable View] and then enter the data as in the [Data View] below.

Motivation: 1= Low Achiever, 2= Medium Achiever 3= High Achiever Attitude: 1=Low Achiever, 2= High Achiever

2. Select [Analyze] then [General Linear Mode] and [Univariate] to open the dialogue box.

3 3. Move [Mathematics Score] into the [Dependent Variable] box and {Attitude] and [Motivation] into the [Fixed Factors] box, then click on [Options] to open the sub-dialogue box.

4 4. Select [Descriptive statistics], [Estimates of effect size], [Observed power] and [Homogeneity tests] then [Continue] and in the previous screen which reappears select [Plots]. To open the sub-dialogue box below.

Move [Attitude] into [Horizontal Axis] and [Motivation] into [Separate Lines] then [Add] then [Continue] and [OK] in the previous screen.

## Interpreting the output

This table gives the means, SD and N for Attitude and Motivation. The total mean academic score for Motivation to Low attitude achiever =11.78

The mean for Low motivation is given against the total Attitude = 11.50

5 This table gives the Levenes test to see if the variances are equal. As p = 0.445 which is > 0.05 therefore, the variances are similar. However, if p < 0.05 and is significant, the scores must be transformed to e.g.log scale (or any different transformation of scores) to make the variances similar by trial and error

Attitude: F-ratio =76.19 is significant. We can conclude that the mean academic score of High Attitude is significantly higher than the Low Attitude achiever (as we have H and L means only). Motivation: F =35.083 is significant. Shows that the means of H, M and L achievers are sig different with each other. To see H or M or L means differ use 1-way multiple comparison tests. (see L20) Interaction F = 1.94 between Attitude and Motivation is not sig. We conclude that there was no sig interaction.

This table provides the sig levels for Attitude, Motivation and their interaction of Attitude and Motivation is not sig at p = 0.186
Note: Measure of effect size- degree of association between the effect (main effect, interaction and linear contrast) and Dep variable. Or how much of the total variance is explained by each of the Indep variables, the interaction and main effects. Eta Square 2 =0.0099 constitute small effect =0.0588 median effect =0.1379 laarge effect Power= ability to detect an effect if there is any from 0 1 0.95= 5% chance of failing to detect an effect 0.80= acceptable range If power > 0.80 and you do not get a sig diff then you can reasonably conclude that there is none

## The Plot of means for the 6 conditions

It can be seen that the mean score for H attitude with H motivation was the largest and L attitude with L motivation has the lowest academic mean score. You can change the plot by using the [Chart Editor]

To change the different colour lines and style, double click outside this plot to select the [Chart Editor]. Select the line in the legend to be changed

Click on [ ] to select the types of line you like and change colour by selecting the different colour you desire then [ Apply] and [Close] Select the next line to change and repeat the steps above.

## Reporting the output

1. A 2-way unrelated ANOVA showed that significant effects were obtained for the main effects of Attitude ( F2,12 = 76.19, p = 0.001 , with large effect size and observed power) and Motivation ( F2,12 = 35.083, p = 0.001 , with large effect size and observed power) but not for their interaction ( F2,12 = 1.94, p = 0.186 ). 2. As Motivation factor has 3 levels of H, M and L you can use 1-way ANOVA multiple comparison tests to determine the means of which levels differ significantly (see L20). 3. As Attitude has only H and L so you can conclude the High attitude achiever score Significantly higher than the Low achiever in attitude. Three research questions have been formulated: 1. Does attitude influence the performance of students? (Yes significantly) 2. Does motivation influence the performance of students? (Yes significantly) 3. Does the influence of attitude on students performance depend on the different levels of motivation? (No. Not significant interaction). COURSEWORK 1 Use the data below to answer the following research questions. (1=female, 2=male) (section: 3 different academic groups of 1=H, 2=M and 3=L) (Total = Total score)

8 1. Is there a main effect for sex? (Do female and male students differ significantly in the total score in their mathematics, and which group was higher than the other?) 2. Is there a main effect for section? (Do students in the H, M and Low achiever groups differ significantly in their total scores, and which group scored higher than the other? (Use 1way ANOVA multiple comparison tests - see L.20). 3. Is there a sex by section (3 groups) interaction? (Is the influence of the 2 variables idiosyncratic (with a particular trend of behaviour) such that gender has one effect in a particular group but a different effect in another group).

COURSEWORK 2 You, as a teacher wanted to investigate the effectiveness of using 3 different teaching methods (Method 1,2,and 3) on students academic achievement in Geography and the influence of Gender. A quasi-experimental research design has been chosen for this study. By using the intact classes, you have divided the students into three Groups (A, B, C). You have administered a pretest to all the 3 groups. Group A were taught using teaching method 1, Group B with method 2 and Group C with method 3. After few weeks, all the 3 groups sat for the posttest and the scores for the posttest are shown in the Table below. You have formulated 3 research questions as follow: Three research questions have been formulated: 1. 2. Do the methods of teaching influence the performance of students in Geography? Is there a main effect for gender? (Do female and male students differ significantly in their performance in Geography, and which group was higher?)

3. Does the influence of teaching methods on students performance in Geography depend on the gender of students?

Table shows the posttest scores results for the Group A Group B Student Method Scores Student 1 1 60 1 2 1 65 2 3 1 55 3 4 1 50 4

## 9 5 6 7 8 9 10 Group C Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 Method 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 58 62 68 70 52 62 Scores 80 82 80 90 92 98 95 90 95 90 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 82 78 88 74 80 76

Note: For Groups A, B and C. All students from Student 1 to 5 are Male and Student 6 to 10 are Female.