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Unit 1: ENERGY

Stop Monkey-N-ing around and Go Green already! P.S. Im Mookie the Monkey

What is ENERGY? Energy is the ability to do


Work
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Work occurs when a force causes an object to move in the same direction as the force.
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FORMS OF ENERGY
Both basic states of energy, Kinetic and potential, can exist in many forms!

THERMAL (HEAT) The total Kinetic energy of the particles in matter. (molecular motion)
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SOUND A type of mechanical energy. It is the energy produced when objects vibrate . Ex: tuning fork, bell
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MECHANICAL
Energy with which moving objects perform work. Ex: Wind, flowing water, using a hammer
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ELECTRICITY
A form of energy produced by the movement of electrons
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CHEMICAL
Energy STORED in chemical bonds that can be released. Ex: food, fossil fuels, battery acid

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STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: Stored energy due to a change in the shape of an object. Ex: A stretched rubber ban d
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STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY:

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LIGHT
A form of radiant energy that moves in a wave . Ex: lamp, stars
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SOLAR ENERGY
All forms of energy that come from the SUN .

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NUCLEAR

nucleus

Energy STORED in the (center) of an atom.


Ex: nuclear bombs
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Heat energy STORED within the Earth . Ex: Volcanic eruptions, geysers

GEOTHERMAL (HEAT)

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All forms of energy can be classified as Kinetic or potential. The two basic states of energy. So, whats the difference?
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Going from potential energy...

to kinetic energy

rgy

Kinetc energy

Maximum potential energy,


minimum kin(}tfc energy

Maximum kinetic energy, m:inmum pot<!ntial en<.'rgy

POTENTIAL ENERGY

1) Potential energy is stored energy due to and objects


Position
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POTENTIAL ENERGY
An object that is lifted from its position on Earth has gravitational potential Energy which depends on height and mass
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2)

POTENTIAL ENERGY

3) Massive objects have more potential energy than less massive objects
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POTENTIAL ENERGY 4) An object at a higher elevation will have more potential energy than an object at a lower elevation
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KINETIC ENERGY

1) Kinetic is energy of

Motion
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KINETIC ENERGY

2) Kinetic depends on the MASS and the SPEED of an object.


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KINETIC ENERGY 3) Faster objects have More kinetic energy than slower objects.
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REVIEW QUESTONS:

WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST KINETIC ENERGY?

D C

WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST POTENTIAL ENERGY?


A

B D C

ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS

Do you remember the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY?


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Law of Conservation of ENERGY: (same for mass) Cant be made Mass/ NRG Mass/ NRG Cant be destroyed

Mass/ Energy can only Change form!!!

DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY, THE OTHER IS Gaining ENERGY:
THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY

DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY THE OTHER IS GAINING ENERGY:
THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY

DURING ENERGY CHANGES THE TOTAL ENERGY REMAINS THE SAME ENERGY ALWAYS FLOWS FROM

HIGH TO LOW (source to sink)

TOT E

ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM

ICE

THE FINGER TO THE ICE

THE LIQUID LOSES ENERGY AS THE ICE GAINS ENERGY

WHEN WILL THE EXCHANGE OF ENERGY STOP? WHEN EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED THE LIQUID AND THE ICE REACH THE SAME TEMPERATURE

UNUSABLE ENERGY:
Very often during the energy transformation process, some heat energy is produced due to friction. This is wasted energy and is lost to the environment.
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ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS

Example: A television changes electrical NRG into light and sound NRG

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ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS
r ,

Chern

Do Now: Focused Free Write


What is different about how each of the three popcorns? How were they made? Explain!

et o so _ner Trans er

Energy moves from regions of concentration to concentrations of energy.

high low

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To

Source sink

There are 3 methods of Energy Transfer Radiation ConDuction ConVection

ConDuction

Direct contact
(touch) Molecule To Molecule

Explanation of Transfer

-Conduction is a form of heat transfer by direct contact of molecules


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Best Medium for energy transfer

-Conduction occurs fastest in solids

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metals are the best conductors of he heat energy.

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Examples

Touching a hot surface Electricity

0' '' "

'

C:

'

'

.,.

on

ec 1on

Explanation of Transfer

Energy transfer Due to Density differences

-Convection is a form of heat transfer that occurs by up and down motions of a fluid due to differences in density
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Best Medium for energy transfer

-occurs ONLY in which are liquids and gases!

fluids

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Examples

Hot air or water rising Volcanoes Lava lamp

Inferred Properties of Earth's Interior

... convection
,

3.3-5.5

: \. .:
"

------
9.9-12.1

Qio

..tf-"
Cl.)

((;

------

Radiatio

Explanation of Transfer

Electromagnetic (EM) waves that move Through a vacuum (empty space)

-radiation is the transfer of heat in waves .

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-Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light


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Best Medium for energy transfer

No medium needed

Examples
Gamma X-rays UV Visible Infrared Microwave radio

HEAT NOTES

1. HEAT: the energy of moving particles


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HEAT NOTES

2. HOT OBJECTS contain more heat than than cold ones


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HEAT NOTES

3. All objects above Absolute zero contain heat


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HEAT NOTES

4. Heat always flows from hotter objects to cooler objects until the objects reach same temperature.
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HEAT NOTES

5. The greater the difference in temperature between the two objects, the faster heat is transferred.
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HOW IS HEAT TRANSFERRED BETWEEN OBJECTS?

: : Convection : :
I (

,
\

'

.....,_.

'

I I

\I I I I I
I I I

Radiation

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Heat Transfer at
Work
The heated water is less dense and so it rises, moving heat upward by convection. Objects near the burner are heated

by radiation.
The water touching the bottom of the pot heats by conduction. The bottom of the pot touches the burner and is heated by conduction.

Name that type of heat transfer!


Conduction! Radiation!

Convection!
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Heat Transfer across the globe


http://www.classzone.com/ books/earth_science/terc/ content/visualizations/ es1705/es1705page01.cfm

Specific Heat
Quantity of heat needed to raise One gram of any Substance by 1 degree Celsius

Specific Heat The higher the Specific heat The more energy is needed to raise the temperature

Specific Heats of Common Materials


MATERIAL
Liquid water Solid water (ice) Water vapor

SPECIFIC HEAT
(Joules/gram C)

4.18 2.11 2.00 1.01 0.84 0.79 0.45 0.38 0.13

Dry air
Basalt Granite Iron Copper Lead

Measuring Specific Heat


Energy can be measures in many different ways. Typical units include: Joules , Watts , &
calories

The term Joule is named after English Scientist James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that Heat is a type of Energy! 1,000 joules =1 kilojoule = 1 Btu

Do Now!
Read the did you know and complete practice questions 1-10!

1.What substance has the highest specific heat? Use your

Liquid water

Reference Tables

4.18

Joules/gramC

2. Why do metals have low specific heats?

They are solid

3. Why are pans made of


metals with low specific ? heats
Because metals are good Conductors And have low specific heats. Therefore they will heat up quickly and cook your food faster.

4. Which would Take more energy to raise its Temperature, water Or land?

water

5. Which would Heat up and cool off Faster, land or water?

land

Water (liquid) = 4.18 Iron (Fe) = 0.45 Copper (Cu) = 0.38


6. Which of these three substances will heat up fastest? Copper because it has the lowest specific heat

7. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C?
A. B. C. D. 10 10 10 10 grams grams grams grams of of of of granite ice lead iron

8. Which pan would you use if you wanted to cook your food quickly?
copper Cp = 0.38 iron Cp = 0.45

9. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C?
A. granite B. ice C. lead D. iron

10. Calculate how many joules would be required to raise 3 grams of water from 50 C to 65 C.

3 x15x 4.18 = =188.1j

PHASES OF Matter:

Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules.

A) SOLID B) LIQUID

C) GAS

Solid Liquid

Motion (Kinetic energy)

How is it bonded?

Little K.E. Molecules vibrate More K.E. Molecules move freely Most K.E. Molecules move fast

Does it have Volume? A definite shape?

Strong
Not bonded rigidly

yes no no

yes yes no

Gas

Not bonded

What are the changes of phase called?

solid

FREEZING

liquid

MELTING CONDENSATION

liquid

gas

VAPORIZATION

2. ENERGY IS RELEASED (lost)

DURING:

FREEZING
SOLID LIQUID LIQUID GAS

CONDENSATION

from higher K.E. to lower K.E.

3. ENERGY IS ABSORBED (gained)

DURING:

SOLID

MELTING

LIQUID GAS

LIQUID

VAPORIZATION

from lower K.ETo higher K.E.

Energy stored during a phase change is called

Latent heat No change in


temperature
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TAKE OUT YOUR EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLES

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(Earth Science Reference Tables : front page)

Properties of Water

Heating Curve of Water

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VAPORIZATION

STEAM

temp 0C
MELT

CONDENSATION WATER ICE


(Joules)

FREEZE

HEAT ENERGY ADDED

MELTING / FREEZING
SEE EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLE: Energy is absorbed + 334 J/gram

00 C

- 334 J/gram Energy is released

00 C

VAPORIZATION/ CONDENSATION
Energy is absorbed

+2260 J/g

1000 C

Energy is released

-2260 J/g

1000 C

1. Which phase changes release energy? freezing & condensation 2. Which phase changes absorb energy? Vaporization & melting 3. Which phase has the most K.E.? GAS (STEAM)

The Earth is always trying to achieve Equilibrium Energy is constantly being re-distributed flowing from source to sink

The Earth Receives Energy from two sources:

SUN

Radioactive Energy

CORE

All matter radiates some


Electromagnetic Energy

The sun emits energy in ALL wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

Each type of energy differs in its


10-10 10-8

wavelength
10-6 10-4 10-2 10
0

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

A wavelength is the distance


between two crests of the wave.

Wavelength

Shorter Wavelength

Longer Wavelength

v v v

Frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time.

The Sun gives off light and heat in the form of and

VISIBLE UV

electromagnetic energy.

However, the short wavelengths (dangerous UV radiation) are mostly GAMMA absorbed by the ozone so they dont OZONE reach earths surface

The Ozone layer is found in the layer of the atmosphere.

stratosphere

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE

gamma, X-RAYS

OZONE

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE

gamma, x-rays,

UV

OZONE

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

This energy is absorbed by Earths surface, which in turn reradiates the energy in the form of heat called radiation

infrared

OZONE

VISIBLE LIGHT : PASSES THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE WITH THE GREATEST INTENSITY

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

10-10

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-2

10

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves


Increasingwavelength

Decreasingwavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

Sun emits all Infrared: Heat energy that Earth re-radiates wavelengths

How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming?

H20

CO2
VAPOR

INFRARED

METHANE GAS

CO2 absorbs infrared

Interactions between Electromagnetic Energy & The Environment:

1. ABSORBTION - UV ABSORBED by
OZONE IN STRATOSPHERE INFRARED ABSORBED BY CO2&H2O vaporoxide methane, nitrous 2. REFLECTION - BY CLOUDS, ICE, SNOW & WATER

3. SCATTERING - BY AEROSOLS,
WATER DROPLETS, ICE CRYSTALS, AIR POLLUTANTS, DUST, POLLEN 4. LIGHT IS BENT AS IT REFRACTION MOVES THROUGH VARIED DENSITIES

5. TRANSMISSION WHEN ENERGY

PASSES THROUGH A MEDIUM

1. ABSORPTION 2. REFLECTION 3.SCATTERING 4. REFRACTION 5. TRANSMISSION

Less than
of the incoming solar radiation is received by the Earths surface

half

Surface properties of the Earth and Absorption of Energy:

Reflection vs. Absorption & Radiation

Color:
Light (white) reflects dark (black) absorbs

Texture:

Rough surface absorbs smooth surface reflects

Absorption
Good absorbers are also good re-radiators. What type of surface is the best absorber? Dark Rough Pavement warms before grassy lawns.

What type of surface is the best reflector of radiation? Light Shiny Flat Snow and Ice reflect insolation and remain cold.

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: LAB


10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10
0

10

10

gamma

X ray
Ultra violet Infrared

Microwaves Radio waves

Decreasing wavelength

Increasing wavelength

visible
Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

Spectroscope Lab

Greenhouse Effect

Short wavelength visible light enters the greenhouse, is absorbed, then re-radiated as longer wavelength infrared (heat). The glass traps the infrared.

What is Global Warming?

increase in An the Earths Average surface air temperature

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

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THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

HEAT IS TRAPPED BY THE GLASS OF THE GREENHOUSE

outgoing is Longer wave Infrared

Incoming is Short wave Ex: Visible light


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Energy absorbed

Short wave radiation like Visible light passes through the glass of a greenhouse and is absorbed by the objects inside the greenhouse.
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These objects

infrared Long Wave Radiation

the energy as

reradiate

_, which get reflected back into the greenhouse and warms the air.

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In Earths atmosphere, there are many gases that act like the glass of a greenhouse and trap long-wave radiation, keeping it in the Earths Atmosphere. These are known as
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Greenhouse Gases!
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Greenhouse Effect
CO2 and H2O absorb infrared that is re -radiated from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, holding that heat in the atmosphere and raising the global temperature.

What are the Greenhouse gases?

H20
METHANE GAS

VAPOR

CO2

INFRARED

Ozone
CFCs

Without some greenhouse gases, the Earth would cold be too for us to survive. But an overload of greenhouse gases creates a problem as well!

How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming?

H20

CO2
VAPOR

INFRARED

METHANE GAS

CO2 absorbs infrared

Greenhouse Effect

What human activities contribute to CO2 production and an increase in the greenhouse effect?
Burning of fossil fuels Global deforestation

If present trends continue possible effects may include Rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps; Increasing frequency and severity of storms and hurricanes; More frequent heat waves and droughts; and Relocation of major crop growing areas.

Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth?

Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth?

WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B?


A) INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET D) INFRARED ENERGY

WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B?


A) INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET D) INFRARED ENERGY

What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE?

An energy resource that is Being used faster than Earth Produces it .


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What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE?

Examples: Fossil Fuels, minerals

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What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE?

To make our nonrenewable resources last longer we can ___ Reduce______ Reuse ______ ___ Recycle____. _
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What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE?

An energy resource that is Earth supplies faster than we use it unlimited.


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What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE?

Examples: Solar, wind, biomass (trees etc..)

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What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE?

A renewable resource produces less pollution (substance that can harm living things and/or the environment
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Look at the pie graph!!!


Only 7% of our energy consumption is from renewable resources!!! Try to make little changes in your life to reduce your dependence on Non-Renewable Resources! What do you plan to do?