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2, 2012

D. Srinivasa Reddy1, Dr. M. V. Subba Reddy2 and Dr. B. Jaya Rami Reddy3

1 Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool-518002, India Professor & Dean, Department of CSE, Sri Venkatesa Perumal Engineering &Technology, Puttur-517583, India Corresponding author: drmvsr1979@gmail.com 3 Principal & professor, Department of Civil, YSREC of Yogi Vemana University,Proddator, Kadapa-516360, India 2

Abstract

Mesh editing is used to compactly store or transmit geometric models. Geometric regularity implies that triangles are similar to each other in terms of shape and size and vertices are close to the centroid of their neighbours. Such meshes can be obtained by mapping the original objects and then remeshing with regular sampling patterns. Geometry editing operations commonly use mesh encodings and decoding, which capture the shape properties of the models. Given modified positions for a set of anchor vertices, the encoding is used to compute the positions for the rest of the mesh vertices, preserving the model shape as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a new shape preserving and rotation invariant mesh encoding. We use this encoding for a variety of mesh editing applications: deformation, morphing, blending and motion reconstruction from Motion capture data. The editing algorithms based on our encoding and decoding mechanism generate natural looking models that preserve the shape properties of the input.

Keywords: mesh editing, rotation invariant shape representation, local shape representation , shape preservation, multiresolution, shape blending and morphing, Motion capture data reconstruction. 1. Introduction

We propose an extension to geometry coordinates called mesh encoding. Like the geometry coordinates, mesh encoding is based on a set of angles and lengths describing the position of a vertex with respect to its neighbor. However, in contrast to geometry, it uses a different local frame definition, leading to a closed form formulation. This enables us to achieve much better results in terms of stability, speed, and shape preservation compared to geometry coordinates. Here, we also propose a new application namely the realistic reconstruction of the animated geometry of the human form based on motion capture marker information alone. With the improvement and declining costs of motion capture technology, modern computer graphics increasingly uses it as a major source of data for character animation. [1]Motion capture data provides trajectories for character animation by tracing the motion of a set of markers on moving subjects. Standard techniques for motion data reconstruction from such data require global knowledge of the model structure, such as a skeleton. Skeletons are difficult and quite time consuming to construct. We propose the first, to our knowledge, automated technique that can realistically reconstruct character animation based on Motion capture data alone (Figure 5(b).

2. Related work

Earlier mesh editing techniques [2, 3] often used hierarchical mesh encodings. The idea is to decompose the mesh into two or more levels of detail, such that each level is encoded with respect to the previous one. The editing is performed on the coarsest level and then propagated to higher levels. [2] Proposes such an encoding for meshes with subdivision connectivity. [4] Develop an encoding where a vertex is encoded as a distance in the normal direction, from the average of the neighbor vertices. This provides a rotation-invariant representation of details. However, most existing meshes can't be encoded using such a representation since the vertices are typically not positioned strictly above the average of the neighbors. Thus, this method requires quality remeshing and a variety of heuristics to treat vertices that even after remeshing do not satisfy the positioning requirement. [3, 5] use a different remeshing technique to obtain a similar type of encoding.[6, 7] propose a volumetric detail encoding, providing more natural behaviour at the expense of a more involved reconstruction

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.2, 2012 operator. In order to use the encoding for editing purposes, most of these methods use a smooth base mesh as the coarsest level of the hierarchy. Thus, the general editing problem is reduced to the challenge of editing the smooth base mesh. Recent methods, such as [7], propose linear techniques for modifying the base mesh. However, since simple linear formulations are unable to distinguish between rotational and other linear transformations [8] the editing can lead to undesired artifacts. A skeleton based encoding is an encoding where the position of each vertex is defined with respect to the links of the models skeleton. This encoding can facilitate simple editing operations [9]. The laplacian coordinates [10, 11, and 12] provide a local encoding which can be computed for any mesh. He [13] proposes to split the editing problem into two separate linear systems. This work builds upon the work of [14] who introduced Geometry coordinates a rotation invariant local mesh representation based on mesh weighting [15] of neighbor vertices combined with a normal distance encoding. The authors fail to provide a closed form formulation for obtaining Euclidean coordinates from the encoding, leading to visible artifacts near anchor vertices (Figure 4 (d)). The method is also quite time consuming with deformation operations on 50K vertices taking 2 to 3 minutes to compute. Like the geometry coordinates, our mesh encoding is based on a set of angles and lengths describing the position of a vertex with respect to its neighbors. However, in contrast to [14,15], by using a different local frame, we develop a closed form decoding formulation. Thus we do not encounter any of the drawbacks mentioned above.

3. Algorithm

Figure 1. Mesh encoding: The 3D mesh is shown in black, the normal ni is shown as a vertical vector, the projected mesh in the local projection plane is shown in gray. Given a mesh model and Motion capture data, the sole input required from the user is a correspondence between markers in the Motion capture data and vertices on the model (Figure 5(a)). The correspondence provides the positions for a subset of the model's vertices for each frame in the animation sequence. Our goal is to find the positions for the remaining vertices in a manner that best preserves the shape of the source model. Model editing addresses a similar problem where the surface of the model is modified in response to some control mechanism, preserving the shape of the surface as much as possible. Recent methods for model editing, e.g. [11, 9], require both the positions of the control vertices and their orientations, which are not available in the Motion capture data. We introduce a new method for motion reconstruction using an editing approach that does not require orientation information. Given the positions defined by the Motion capture data for a subset of vertices we use a new local shape representation to compute the positions for the remaining vertices. Our geometry representation stores the position of each vertex, with respect to its neighbors in the mesh, using a local projection plane, similar to [14]. Given a mesh with vertices V and edges E the projection plane corresponding to the mesh vertex vi V is defined in terms of a normal ni and an offset di from the origin. We define a projection plane normal (Figure 1) as Ni = k=1 m (vjk+1l)*(vjkl) / k=1 m (vjk+1l)*(vjkl) where v j1, . . . , v jm are the neighbor vertices of vi, and l=1/m (I,j ) Evj in other words, We use an area averaged normal to a local Laplacian mesh as the normal of the projection plane. This enables us to achieve much better results in terms of stability and shape preservation compared to [14], where the normal estimate was based on the current position of vi. The local representation of each vertex with respect to its neighbors consists of: a set of mesh coordinates wi j, describing the vertex position in the projection plane relative to its neighbors; and, an offset hi, describing the vertex offset above the projection plane. Unlike [14], we use a normal formulation based solely on

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.2, 2012 the neighbor vertex positions v j. Therefore, we are able to obtain an explicit formula for reconstructing vi by vi = Fi(V ) = wi j(v j (di + v j. ni)ni) + hini, which leads to a closed form global reconstruction formulation : arg min G(V ) =1/2 vi (vi Fi(V ))2. We solve this minimization problem using the Gauss-Newton method. To enable near real time performance, we incorporate a multiresolution structure into the reconstruction procedure (Figure 2), interleaving it with the numerical minimization. The multi-resolution hierarchy is constructed using a simplification procedure that removes the nonmarker vertices one by one, until only a base mesh connecting the markers remains. The simplification is performed using a sequence of half-edge collapse operations. A mesh hierarchy is constructed, keeping track of all the individual edge collapse operations. Before each collapsed vertex is removed, the mesh encoding of the vertex in the current mesh is computed and stored for reconstruction purposes. The mesh is reconstructed by first placing the marker vertices at the specified locations (e.g., Figure 2 (c)). The subsequent reconstruction involves two major operations: vertex split and optimization.

Figure 2(a). Deformation using mesh encoding and decoding: Original model. Note the smoothing effect on the legs and the wings.

Figure 2(b). Deformation using mesh encoding and decoding: Final mesh. Note the smoothing effect on the legs and the wings.

Figure 2(c). Deformation using mesh encoding and decoding: Base meshes (anchors and fixed parts) with modified anchors. Note the smoothing effect on the legs and the wings.

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Figure 2(d). Deformation using mesh encoding and decoding: Intermediate mesh after edge- splits. Note the smoothing effect on the legs and the wings.

Figure 2(e). Deformation using mesh encoding and decoding: Intermediate mesh after relaxation. Note the smoothing effect on the legs and the wings.

Figure 3(a). Comparison of deformations performed with and without multiresolution: original model.

Figure 3(b). Comparison of deformations performed with and without multiresolution: deformation with multiresolution.

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Figure 3(c). Comparison of deformations performed with and without multiresolution: deformation without multiresolution. Vertex split: Reversing the simplification order, collapsed vertices are added to the mesh one at a time. We use Equation 2 to obtain the position for each new vertex. Note that at the time of insertion, the positions of adjacent vertices in the current mesh are well defined. If the marker positions are unchanged or a rigid transformation of the original position, this placement gives the exact desired position of the vertex in 3D Optimization: If the anchor positions are modified, each split introduces some error. While after each vertex split operation, vi Fi(V ) equals 0 at the inserted vertex vi, this is not necessarily the case for the adjacent vertices. Hence G(V ) (Equation 3) is not optimized. To find the minimizer of G(V ), after performing a sequence of vertex splits, we use a Gauss-Newton minimization procedure combined with line-search. For the models we edited, we found it is sufficient to perform optimization only once during the reconstruction procedure for an intermediate mesh with about 3% of the vertices. Figure 2 shows the reconstruction stages for a deformed feline model. The parts of the model that remain fixed, such as the head, are treated as markers. The error introduced by performing edge-splits alone is clearly visible on the intermediate mesh (Figure 2(d)). For this 100K triangle model the reconstruction took 0.86 seconds. Figure 3 demonstrates the difference between the deformations performed with and without the multiresolution structure. The local details are nicely preserved in both cases. However, due to relaxation of the intermediate mesh, the global shape preservation is significantly better on the model deformed using multiresolution structure (Figure 3 (b)). Not only is the global shape of the wings of the multiresolution example much closer to the shape of the original feline wings, but the deformation itself is evenly spread out over entire wing span. In contrast, the deformation without the multiresolution setup concentrates most of the change at the tips of the wings and as a result they become overstretched. The multiresolution approach makes the shape representation computation slightly more time consuming, but dramatically speeds up the reconstruction. The reconstruction takes less than a second for models of up to 100K faces. In case of Motion capture data reconstruction the representation computation can be done once as a preprocessing step, while reconstruction is performed repeatedly and ideally should be done in real- time. Therefore, the hierarchical approach is very suitable for our scenario.

Figure 4(a). Comparison of deformation methods, with details (zoom in on the tail): Original model. Note that only the last example preserves the original shape of the tail fins.

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Figure 4(b). Comparison of deformation methods, with details (zoom in on the tail): Laplacian coordinates; Note that only the last example preserves the original shape of the tail fins.

Figure 4(c). Comparison of deformation methods, with details (zoom in on the tail): Extended Laplacian coordinates . Note that only the last example preserves the original shape of the tail fins.

Figure 4(d). Comparison of deformation methods, with details (zoom in on the tail): Geometry coordinates. Note that only the last example preserves the original shape of the tail fins.

Figure 4(e). Comparison of deformation methods, with details (zoom in on the tail): Mesh encoding. Note that only the last example preserves the original shape of the tail fins.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.2, 2012 Figure 4 uses a simple example to compare our deformation technique to the deformations generated by several existing techniques. The deformation was performed using one control vertex at the tip of the dolphin's tail. The region of inuenced used in the examples is marked by the blue dots (Figure 4 (a)). In all the examples the control vertices positions are identical and the regions of inuence are the same. As expected, a purely linear deformation technique, such as Laplacian coordinates [10, 12] (Figure 4 (b)), leads to extreme shear when the anchor position undergoes rotational displacement. The method of Sorkine [8] (Figure 4 (c)) significantly reduces the distortion, but still leads to visible shearing artifacts near the tail fins. The Geometry coordinates method; (Figure 4 (d)) causes less shearing, but exhibits discontinuities near the anchor and along the boundaries of the region of inuence. In contrast, our mesh encoding and decoding mechanism produces a smooth and intuitive deformation with no undesirable artifacts (Figure 4 (e)). Table1: general compare of deformation techniques under various types of deformations. Approach Mesh encoding Primo et al. [14] Botsch et al. [ 13] Sorkine et al. [72] Lipman et al. [ 53] Translation + + + + Small rotation + + + + + Large rotation + + + Complexity Non linear Non linear Linear Linear Linear

In table 1 we compare different mesh editing techniques in terms of general performance under various types of deformations. Note that our goal is to show under which circumstances each individual method fails. The first two deformation techniques we examine are Mesh Encoding and the recently introduced PriMo [19,20 ]. Both are non-linear surface deformation techniques and, as a result, do not suffer from any linearization artifacts. However, non- linear techniques are computationally and implementation-wise more involved than their linear counterparts. Another common approach for mesh deformation is to use physical simulation [16]. The surface is assumed to behave like a physical skin, a thin shell, which stretches and bends as forces are acting on it. Mathematically, this behavior can be captured by an energy functional which penalizes stretch or bending. Physics based methods provide accurate model behavior, but they are often not intuitive to control and are usually relatively slow. He [17] introduced a new method where the optimal surface is the one that minimizes the energy functional while satisfying all the prescribed boundary conditions. The method work fine for pure translations (Table 1), i.e., it yields a smooth deformation and locally rotates the geometric details. However, due to linearization the method has problems with large rotations, such that the deformed surfaces exhibit loss of details especially in the regions with large protruding features. Laplacian surface editing [8] implicitly determines the pervertex rotations, and hence works similarly well for translations and small rotations. Its main drawback is the required linearization of rotations, which yields artifacts for large local rotations. He [13] solves a linear system to preserve the relative orientation of the local frames, which works well for any kind of rotations. However, since this linear system does not consider positional constraints, this method exhibits shearing artifacts under large translations. The following guidelines for picking the 'correct' deformation can be derived from the above discussion: In technical, CAD-like engineering applications required deformations are typically small, since the existing prototype only has to be adjusted slightly, but there are high requirements on surface fairness, boundary continuity and the precise control. For such kind of problems a linearized shell model [18] is a good choice. For applications like character animation that mostly involve large rotations of limbs, methods that are based on local coordinates are clearly the best. If the required rotations are available from, e.g., a sketch interface, the method of [13] might be the better choice. In cases when the rotation information is not available, e.g., Motion capture data, or the application requires both large-scale rotations and translations the non-linear methods are the only choice. Tables 2 and 3 provide statistics and runtime results for the examples described above. All runs were performed on a P4 3GHz machine. We use G(V ) to measure the difference in shape between the original and deformed models. The value of G(V ) for all the models deformed using mesh encoding is less than 1e3 (Tables 2 and 3). We thus have a numerical indicator that our deformation procedure preserves the local shape of the models. In contrast, when using other methods for the dolphin deformation the error is one or more orders of magnitude larger.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.2, 2012 Table 2. Feline deformation statistics (34759 ROI vertices, 9 anchors). G (v) measures the value of the function on the deformed model, given the original mean value encoding. approach geometry encoding and decoding Sheffer el.at[70]] G(V) 0.000232 0.001342 Encoding(sec) 6.65 0.455 Decoding(sec) 0.863 159551

Table 3. Dolphin deformation statistics (1156 ROI vertices, 1 anchor), G (v) measures the value of the function on the deformed model. approach Geometry encoding and decoding Sheffer el.at[70]] Sorkine el.at[72] Alexa et al[4] G(V) 0.000146 0.001061 0.006401 0.011042 Encoding(sec) 0.190 0.052 Decoding(sec) 0.054 16173

Figure 5(a). Reconstruction of fully realistic complex motion from motion capture data: Marker placement on the surface of the model.

Figure 5(b). Reconstruction of fully realistic complex motion from motion capture data: Animation sequence-original motion capture data.

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Figure 6. Reconstruction of more complex sitting motion from motion capture data. (Top) original motion captures data. (Bottom) animation sequence.

4. Conclusion

We introduce a new, robust method for motion reconstruction from Motion capture data based on a novel shape representation. Our representation captures the local shape properties of the model and is invariant under rigid transformations, allowing parts of the model to be bent or to rotate during animation. In contrast to standard methods for motion reconstruction, our technique does not require any additional global knowledge of the model structure such as skeleton. Given the input, our technique provides an effective tool for Motion capture data reconstruction (Figure 5(b).

5. References

[1] Pierre Alliez and Craig Gotsman. Recent advances in compression of 3D meshes. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Multiresolution in Geometric Modeling2003 [2] Denis Zorin, Peter Schr oder, and Wim Sweldens. Interactive multiresolution mesh editing. In SIGGRAPH '97: Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 259-268, New York, NY, USA, 1997. ACM Press/AddisonWesley Publishing Co. [3] Leif Kobbelt, Jens Vorsatz, and Hans-Peter Seidel. Multiresolution hierarchies on unstructured triangle meshes. Computational Geometry, 14(1-3):5-24, 1999. [4] Igor Guskov, Wim Sweldens, and Peter Schr oder. Multiresolution signal processing for meshes. In Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 325-334. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1999. [5] Leif Kobbelt, Swen Campagna, Jens Vorsatz, and Hans-Peter Seidel. Interactive multiresolution modeling on arbitrary meshes. Computer Graphics, 32(Annual Conference Series):105-114, 1998. [6] Stephan Bischof and Leif Kobbelt. Sub-voxel topology control for level-set surfaces. Computer Graphics Forum, 22(3):273-280, 2003. [7] Stephan Bischof and Leif Kobbelt. A remeshing approach to multiresolution modeling. In Symposium on Geometry Processing, pages 189-196, 2004. [8] Olga Sorkine, Yaron Lipman, Daniel Cohen-Or, Marc Alexa, Christian R l, and oss HansPeter Seidel. Laplacian surface editing. In Proceedings of the Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on Geometry processing, pages 179-188. Eurographics Association, 2004. [9] Shin Yoshizawa, Alexander G. Belyaev, and Hans-Peter Seidel. Free-form skeleton- driven

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.2, 2012 mesh deformations. In Proceedings of the eighth ACM symposium on Solid modeling and applications, pages 247-253. ACM Press, 2003. [10] Marc Alexa. Local control for mesh morphing. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Shape Modeling & Applications, pages 209-215. IEEE Computer Soci- ety, 2001. [11] Yizhou Yu, Kun Zhou, Dong Xu, Xiaohan Shi, Hujun Bao, Baining Guo, and Heung- Yeung Shum. Mesh editing with Poisson-based gradient field manipulation. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23(3):644-651, 2004. [12] Kun Zhou, Jin Huang, John Snyder, Xinguo Liu, Hujun Bao, Baining Guo, and HeungYeung Shum. Large mesh deformation using the volumetric graph Laplacian. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 24(3):496-503, 2005. [13] Yaron Lipman, Olga Sorkine, David Levin, and Daniel Cohen-Or. Linear rotation- invariant coordinates for meshes. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005, page accepted for publication. ACM Press, 2005. [14] Alla Shefer and Vladislav Kraevoy. Geometry coordinates for morphing and deformation. In 3DPVT '04: Proceedings of the 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Trans- mission, 2nd International Symposium on (3DPVT'04), pages 68-75. IEEE Computer Society, 2004. [15] Michael S. Floater. Mean value coordinates. Computer Aided Geometric Design, 20(1):1927, 2003. [16] K. Hormann. Barycentric coordinates for arbitrary polygons in the plane. Technical report, Clausthal University of Technology, September 2004. [17] William H. Press, Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, and William T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) and New York, 2nd edition, 1992. [18] P. Lindstrom and G. Turk. Fast and memory efficient polygonal simplification. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization, pages 279-286, October 1998 [19] Marc Alexa. Recent advances in mesh morphing. Computer Graphics Forum, 21(2):173196, 2002 [20] Henning Biermann, Ioana Martin, Fausto Bernardini, and Denis Zorin. Cut-and-paste editing of multiresolution surfaces. In SIGGRAPH '02: Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 312-321. ACM Press,2002

Authors Profile

D. Srinivasa Reddy received his M.Tech(CSE)degree from Acharya Nagarjuna University in 2008. This author is received best teacher award and good knowledge of academic, industry, administrative and R&D domains.

Dr. M. V. Subba Reddy is working as Professor & Dean of Computer Science and Engineering at Sri Venkatesa Peruimal College of Engineering & Technology, Puttur,India. He received his M. Tech (CSE) from JNTU, Anantapur and Ph.D degree from Sri Venkateswara University, India in 2005. He is awardee of CSIR Research Associate Fellow Ship. A life member of WAIRCO, IMES, IACSIT, IAENG. He is also life member of Fluid Mechanics ans Fluid Power, India. He published more than 35 research articles in International and National Journals. He is also guided Three M. Phil. & Five M. Techs.

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Dr. B. Jayarami Reddy is working as Principal at YSR Engineering College of Yogi Vemana University Proddatur. He received his M.Tech (CSE) degree and Ph. D (Civil Engineering) degree from JNTU Hyderabad, India in 2005. He published several papers in International and National Journals/Conferences

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