Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

Text 1 A great deal of todays office activity involves the use of computers for communicating the written word

in networks or with data banks or with other computers outside the business organization originating the communicating. Until recently this communication ___(1)___ to the typed word. However, todays computer ___(2)___ by the human voice (called voice input) and material ___(3)___ into the computer with oral commands. The voice input is able to tell the computer what to do and how to do it. ___(4)___ the voice input can provide the information that is to be described into a written ___(5)___ a letter, a memorandum, a report, or some form of telecommunication. In other words, with voice activated computer software you will be able to dictate a letter to the computer and tell it what style to use, how many copies to make, and how the letter is to be sent. It may even do the actual transmitting. As voice activation for computers is further developed, effective oral communication will become more and more important. 1. A. is limited B. has been limited C. was limited D. was being limited E. had been limited 2. A. may be activated B. should be activated

C. had better be activated D. must be activated E. would rather be activated 3. A. inserted B. inserting C. to be inserted D. to be inserting E. it is inserting 4. A. nevertheless B. therefore C. furthermore D. however E. in conclusion 5. A. receipt B. bill C. document D. certificate E. order

Text 2 Human memory, formerly believed to be rather inefficient, is really more sophisticated than that of a computer. Researchers approaching the problem from a variety of points of view have all concluded that there is a great deal more stored in our minds than has been generally supposed.

Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian neurosurgeon, proved that by stimulating their brains electrically, he could elicit the total recall of specific events in his subjects lives. Even dreams and other minor events supposedly forgotten for many years suddenly emerged in detail. The memory trace is the term for whatever is the internal representation of the specific information about the event stored in the memory. Assumed to have been made by structural changes in the brain, the memory trace is not subject to direct observation but is rather a theoretical construct that we use to speculate about how information presented at a particular time can cause performance at a later time. Most theories include the strength of the memory trace as a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory. One theory is that the fantastic capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brain cells, stimulated by patterns of activity. Repeated references to the same information support recall. Or, to say that another way, improved performance is the result of strengthening the chemical bonds in the memory. 6. With what topic is the passage mainly concerned? a. Wilder Penfield b. Neurosurgery c. Human memory d. Chemical reactions e. Memory

7. The word formerly in line 1 could best be replaced by _____. a. In the past b. From time to time c. In general d. By chance e. In the future 8. Compared with a computer, human memory is ______. a. More complex b. More limited c. Less dependable d. Less durable e. Not complex 9. According to the passage, researchers have concluded that _____. a. The mind has a much greater capacity for the memory than was previously believed b. The physical basis for memory is clear c. Different points of view are valuable d. Human memory is inefficient e. Human memory is not valuable 10. How did Penfield stimulate dreams and other minor events from the past? a. By surgery b. By electric stimulation c. By repetition d. By chemical stimulation

e. By stimulation Text 3 Although speech is the most advanced form of communication, there are many ways of communicating without using speech. Signals, signs, symbols, and gestures may be found in every known culture. The basic function of a signal to impinge upon the environment in such a way that it attracts, as, for example, the dots and dashes of a telegraph circuit. Coded to refer to speech, the potential for communication is very great. Less adaptable to the codification of words, signs also contain meaning in and of themselves. A stop sign or barber pole conveys meaning quickly and conveniently. Symbols are more difficult to describe than either signals or signs because their intricate relationship with the receivers cultural perceptions. In some cultures, applauding in a theatre provides performers with an auditory symbol of approval. Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain cultural messages. Although signals, signs, symbols, and gestures are very useful, they do have a major disadvantage. They usually do not allow ideas to be shared without the sender being directly adjacent to the receiver. As a result, means of communication intended to be used for long distances and extended periods are based upon speech. Radio, television, and the telephone are only a few. 11. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? a. Signs and signals b. Gestures

c. Communication d. Speech e. Television 12. According to the passage, what is a signal? a. The most difficult form of communication b. A form of communication which may be used across long distances c. A form of communication that interrupts the environment d. The form of communication most related to cultural perceptions e. The form of communication which is not useful 13. The word potential in bold type could be best replaced by which of the following? a. Range b. Advantage c. Organization d. Possibility e. Function 14. Applauding was cited as an example of _____. a. A signal b. A sign c. A symbol d. A gesture e. A communication 15. It may be concluded from this passage that _____. a. Signals, signs, symbols, and gestures are forms of communication

b. Symbols are very easy to define and interpret c. Only some cultures have signals, signs, and symbols d. Waving and handshaking are not related to culture e. Speech is the only way of communicating