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Design of Composite Beams

Continuous beams
Hogging moments and moment redistribution: Basic behaviour, concepts and codified design

Chiew Sing-Ping
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Composite construction

Long span composite floor system

Full integration with building services.

Composite construction
Greater stiffness and higher load carrying capacities. Fast erection of structural members. Reduce height of a structure and offer further savings in associated features through integration with building services. Good inherent fire resistance in slabs and columns. Steel deckings as permanent formwork provide additional safety features during construction.

Be

Transverse reinforcement

Transverse reinforcement

Composite beam with solid concrete slab


Be
Ds D p Transverse reinforcement

Dp Profiled deckling

Ds

Profiled deckling D

Beam span perpendicular to slab span Beam span parallel to slab span
B

Composite beam with composite slab using profiled steel deckings


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Scope
Composite beams under hogging moments. Continuous composite beams with moment re-distribution. Understanding on structural behaviour of composite beams. Design of composite beams to codified methods.

Modern design codes


British Standards Institution. BS5950: Structural use of steelwork in building. Part 3 Section 3.1: Code of practice for design of composite beams. British Standards Institution. BS EN1994-1-1 Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Standards Australia. Composite Structures. Part 1: Simply Supported Beams. Australian Standard AS2327.1 1996.

Modern design standards


Buildings Department, Government of Hong Kong SAR Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Steel 2005 Chapter 10: Composite construction.
Composite slabs Composite beams Composite columns Shear connection

Harmonized design BS 5400: Part 5, BS 5950: Parts 1 to 8, and EC3 & 4: Parts 1.1 & 1.2.

Composite beams with profiled steel deckings

Deck perpendicular to secondary beam

Deck parallel to primary beam

Current design methodology


Prescriptive design approach
Moment capacities according plastic stress blocks. Sagging moment capacities with full or partial shear connection. Hogging moment capacities with full shear connection. Minimum degree of shear connection. Rigid shear connectors with a elastro-plastic load slippage curve. Prescribed percentage of moment re-distribution.

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Prescriptive design approach


- Simplified load slippage curve
R-72

PK
Shear force, Fs

Assume ductile behaviour

Fs s

Slippage, S

Assume a rigid plastic load-slippage curve of shear connectors.

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Basic resistances against hogging moment


Rr Rft Rwt Rq

Rwb Rfb

Forces:
Rr = Tensile resistance of reinforcement Rs = Tensile resistance in the steel section Rq = Shear resistance in the shear connectors

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Prescriptive design approach - Plastic section analysis


0.87 fy P.N.A 0.87 fy 0.87 fy

Rr
P.N.A

Rr
P.N.A

Rr

Rs

py

(c) yp in steel web (a) yp outside steel (b) yp in steel flange section (unlikely in practice) Various degree of shear connection Assume a rigid plastic load-slippage curve of shear connectors.
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Development of moment resistance along beam span


Tensile force

Rigid shear connectors

Sufficient shear connectors provided for full strength mobilization

Compressive force
0.87 fy P.N.A P.N.A P.N.A py (a) yp in steel flange

(b) yp in steel web

(c) yp in steel web (free end)


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Full shear connection

Hogging moment resistance


Hogging moment applied in a composite section where the steel section has two equal flanges and a compact web. 3 cases to be considered for hogging moments [Case 5a ] Plastic neutral axis in web [Case 6ai] Plastic neutral axis in steel flange [Case 6aii] Plastic neutral axis outside steel section

Composite beams subjected to hogging moments should have full shear connection.

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Hogging moment resistance


The plastic moment capacity is expressed in terms of the resistance of the various elements of the beams as follows: Resistance of Steel Beam: Resistance of Steel Flange: Resistance of Clear Web Depth: Resistance of Reinforcement: Plastic moment resistance of steel beam: Plastic moment resistance of composite beam:
Be Ds T D t d T B
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Rs = A py Rf = B T py Rv = d t py Rr = 0.87 fy Ar Ms = py Sx or 1.2py Zx Mc
Ar Dr Dp

Hogging moment resistance


[Case 5a] Plastic neutral axis in steel web : Rr < Rw Typical design
M = M
2 D Rr d + Rr + Dr Rv 4 2

P.N.A

[Case 6ai] Plastic neutral axis in steel flange : Rr Rw

(R R r ) T D + Rr Dr s M c = Rs 2 4 Rf
2

P.N.A

[Case 6aii] Plastic neutral axis outside steel section : Rr Rs


M
c

D = Rs + Dr 2

P.N.A

Dr = Distance from top of steel section to centroid of reinforcement

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Section classification in composite cross-sections


In general, the moment capacities of composite cross-sections are limited by local buckling in the steel web or in the steel compression flange. For composite cross-sections of either class 1 plastic or class 2 compact, the moment capacities of composite beams are determined with rigid plastic theory, i.e. rectangular stress blocks. The section classification of a composite cross-section is often similar to that of the steel beam.

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Hogging moment resistance


For beam subjected to uniform loads, the total number of shear connectors (Nn) required to develop the negative plastic moment capacity of the section under full shear connection can be determined from the equation:

Nn = Fn / Qn
Nn = Number of shear connectors between points of zero and maximum hogging moment Qn = Shear resistance shear connectors at hogging moment region Fn = Longitudinal compressive force at the point of maximum hogging moment

Fn = Smaller of Rc and Rs
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Effective width of the concrete slab


Effective width, Be ,is calculated as follows: Be = bei
Beam span is perpendicular to slab span be = Lz /8 but not greater than b Beam span is parallel to slab span be = Lz /8 but not greater than 0.8b Beam at edge be = Lz /8 + projection of slab beyond centreline of beam
be1 be2

Lz = distance between points of zero moments b = actual width

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Distance between points of zero moments in continuous beams


0.25(L1 + L2) 0.25(L1+ L2) 1.5L4 but L4 + 0.5L3 L1 0.8L1 L2 0.7L2 L3 0.8L3 - 0.3L4 but 0.7L3 L4

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Practical design procedures


For structural adequacy, the following checks should be satisfied: Ultimate Limit State
Section classification of composite cross-section Moment resistance with full shear connection Shear resistance Shear connection Moment resistance with partial shear connection Transverse reinforcement

Serviceability Limit State


Deflection Serviceability stresses
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Analysis on A Single Span Composite Beam under Hogging Moment

Reference: Loh, H.Y., Uy, B. and Bradford, M.A. The effects of partial shear connection in the hogging moment regions of composite beams. Part 1: Experimental study , Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2004, 60(6), 897-919.

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Single span composite beam under hogging moment


B

600

500

250UB25.7
417 typ

248 120

2500

Beam CB2. py = 400.0 N/mm2, fy = 500 N/mm2, Ar = 1206 mm2, pc = 27.0 N/mm2 and fcu = 33.8 N/mm2.
100 8.0 50 256 5.0 124 8.0 50 8.0 124 8.0 120 52
515

Y16

Section B-B

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Resistances of various elements of the beam


Section properties of steel beam
A = 4304 mm2 , Zx = 291.9 x 103 mm3 , Sx = 362.8 x 103 mm3 Ms = py x Sx or 1.2 x py x Zx = 145.1 kNm or = 140.1 kNm Ms = 140.1 kNm

Resistance of the steel section


Rs = A x py = 4304 x 400 x 10-3 = 1722 kN

Resistance of the reinforcement


Rr = fy x At = 500 x 1206 x 10-3 = 603 kN

Resistance of a shear connector ( hogging moment region )


Rq = 105 x 6 = 630 kN > Rr It is full shear connection.
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Resistances of various elements of the beam


Location of P.N.A
Compression = 320 + 396.8 + 144 + ( 240 y1) x 5 x 400 / 1000 100 Tension = 396.8 + 603 + (y1 8 ) x 5 x 400 / 1000 y1 = 89.25 mm, R4t = 301.5 kN, R4b = 162.5 kN
R1 = 320 kN R2 = 396.8 kN R3 = 144 kN R4t R4b R5 = 396.8kN Rq = 603.0kN y1

Hogging moment resistance

256

P.N.A. 5

95 = ( 320 x 162.75 + 396.8 x 154.75 ) x 10-3 + 124 (144 x 96.75 + 301.5 x 75.38 ) x 10-3 + (162.5 x 40.625 + 396.8 x 85.25 + 603 x 184.25 ) x 10-3 = 301.7 kNm

Self weight of composite beam


= 1.48 (concrete slab) + 0.33 (steel beam) = 1.81 kN/m

Moment due to self-weight


= 1.81 x 2.52 / 8 = 1.41 kNm

Ultimate load to composite beam


= (301.7 1.41 ) x 4 / 2.5 = 480.4 kN
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Resistances of various elements of the beam


Section properties of steel beam
A = 4304 mm2 ,py = 355 N/mm2, Zx = 291.9 x 103 mm3 , Sx = 362.8 x 103 mm3

Section classification of steel section


For flange, b / T = 7.75 < 9 => Flange is compact section For web, d / t = 46.4 < 80 => Web is plastic section It is a compact section

Resistance of the steel section


Rs = A x py = 4304 x 355 x 10-3 = 1528 kN or 1.2 x py x Zx Ms = py x Sx = 128.9 kNm or = 124.5 kNm Ms = 124.5 kNm

Resistance of the reinforcement


Rr = 0.87 x fy x At = 0.87 x 460 x 1206 x 10-3 = 482.6 kN

Resistance of a shear connector ( hogging moment region )


Rq = 0.6 x ( 2 x 72 )x 3 = 259.2 kN < Rr It is partial shear connection. ( degree of psc = 0.54 )
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Resistances of various elements of the beam


Location of P.N.A
Compression = 284 + 352.2 + 127.8 + ( 240 y1) x 5 x 355 / 1000 Tension = 352.16 + 259.2 + (y1 8 ) x 5 x 355 / 1000 100 y1 = 167.0 mm, R4t = 129.6 kN, R4b = 282.2 kN
R1 = 284.0 kN R2 = 352.2 kN R3 = 127.8kN R4t R4b R5 = 352.2kN Rq = 259.2kN y1

Hogging moment resistance

256

P.N.A. 5

95 = ( 284 x 85.01 + 352.16 x 77.01) x 10-3 + 124 ( 127.8 x 19.01 + 129.6 x 36.51) x 10-3 + ( 282.2 x 79.49 + 352.16 x 162.99 + 259.2 x 261.99 ) x 10-3 = 206.2 kNm

Self weight of composite beam


= 1.48 (concrete slab) + 0.33 (steel beam) = 1.81 kN/m

Moment due to self-weight


= 1.81 x 2.52 / 8 = 1.41 kNm

Ultimate load to composite beam


= (206.2 1.41 ) x 4 / 2.5 = 327.7 kN
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Design methods for continuous composite beams

Elastic linear analysis gives large hogging moment small sagging moment

However, in composite beams, there are small hogging moment resistances (top reinforcements over supports), but large sagging moment resistances (large concrete flange near mid-span).
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Moment redistribution allowed for improved structural performance


Moment re-distribution

Question: How to evaluate both the hogging and the sagging moments after re-distribution with minimum effort but still recognizing the real behaviour of a composite beam? i.e. a) Cracked section over hogging moment region b) Rotational capacity over supports depending on section classification of composite beams
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Section classification in composite cross-sections


In general, the moment capacities of composite cross-sections are limited by local buckling in the steel web or in the steel compression flange. For composite cross-sections of either class 1 plastic or class 2 compact, the moment capacities of composite beams are determined with rigid plastic theory, i.e. rectangular stress blocks. The section classification of a composite cross-section is often similar to that of the steel beam.

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Section classification in composite cross-sections of continuous beams


The section classification of composite cross-sections governs the maximum moment re-distribution in continuous composite beams. By considering the attachment effect to the steel compression flange of the composite cross-section, it is possible to upgrade the section classification if needed.

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Analysis methods for continuous composite beams


According to the relevant conditions, the moments in continuous composite beams may be determined using any of the following methods: a. Simplified method
Based on certain assumptions, moment coefficients are given according to simplified analysis rules.

b.

Global elastic analysis


Structural analyses on composite beams are required according to different assumptions on members: - Uncracked sections over hogging moment regions - Cracked sections over hogging moment regions

c.

Global plastic analysis


Plastic hinge analyses may be adopted if the composite sections are classified as class 1 plastic or shown to possess sufficient ductility against rotations.
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Simplified method
Simplified method can be employed if the following conditions are satisfied:
The steel beam should be of uniform section with equal flanges and without any haunches. The steel beam should be of the same section in each span. The loading should be uniformly distributed. The unfactored imposed load should not exceed 2.5 times the unfactored dead load. No span should be less than 75% of the longest. End spans should not exceed 115% of the length of the adjacent span. There should not be any cantilevers.

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Simplified method
For composite beams with class 1 plastic compression steel flanges in negative moment region:
Double span beam 1.0 0.61

0.56 Triple span beam 0.8

0.75 0.57

0.64 Multi span beam 0.86

0.20

0.80

0.56

0.57 0.57 0.29 0.65 0.5

0.62

0.80

Moment redistribution coefficients to be multiplied by WL/8

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Simplified method
Table of moment coefficients (to be multiplied by WL/8)
Location Number of spans 2 3 or more 2 First internal support 3 or more 3 4 or more 4 or more Classification of compression flange in negative moment region Class 1: plastic Class 2: compact Generally Non-reinforced 0.75 0.80 0.61 0.57 0.56 0.65 0.50 0.79 0.82 0.50 0.48 0.63 0.67 0.42 0.71 0.80 0.71 0.67 0.52 0.65 0.58

Middle of end span

Middle of internal spans Internal supports except the first

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Global elastic analysis


Uncracked section
- The properties of the uncracked section are used throughout, and the analysis is not dependent on the amount of reinforcement over supports. - For equal spans, standard moment coefficients may be used.
EIu EIu

Cracked section
- For a length of 15% of the span on each side of internal supports, the section properties are those of the cracked section under negative moments. - Outside the15% length, the section properties are those of the uncracked section, and will be calculated using the mid-span effective breadth for the concrete flange but ignoring any longitudinal reinforcement.
EIu EIc 0.15L EIu 0.85L
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Re-distribution in global elastic analysis P C L

Before redistribution After redistribution

Mhog

Mhog

: Percentage of moment redistribution

Class of cross-section in hogging moment region Cracked section analysis Uncracked section analysis

Class 1 Plastic 30% 40%

Class 2 Class 3 Compact Semi-compact 20% 30% 10% 20%

Class 4 Slender 0% 10%


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Global plastic analysis


Establish the ultimate load resistance from equilibrium consideration Assume plastic hinges are formed over internal supports and near the mid-span.
P P

From equilibrium
Msag + Mhog / 2 = Mo for continuous beams under point loads.

Mhog Mo Msag Msag

It is important to ensure that the ductility requirements at various cross-sections are met satisfactorily, i.e. section classification of composite cross-sections.

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Analysis of A Double Span Composite Beam with Moment Re-distribution

Reference: Ansourian, P. Experiments on continuous composite beams. Proceeding of Institute of Civil Engineering, Part 2, 1981, 71, 25-51.

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Double span composite beam with a solid concrete slab


A 2250 P 2250 2250 P 2250

IPB200

35 7 3 28 @ 320 c/c A

35 7

Beam CTB4. pyf = 236.0 N/mm2, pyw = 238.0 N/mm2, fy = 430 N/mm2, 27.2 N/mm2 , fcu = 34 N/mm2
800 100 6.5 Art = 804 mm2 Arb = 767 mm2 200 10 200 10

pc =

190

Section A-A

Details of test specimen


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Design to codified method


Design to codified method Section classification of composite cross-section Resistances of various elements of the beam Global elastic analysis Uncracked section analysis Cracked section analysis Global plastic analysis

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Section classification of composite cross-section


Compression steel flange
100 10 6.5 190

py = 235 N/mm2

=> =

275 = 1.08 235

b/T = 100 / 10 = 10 10= 10.8 => The compression steel flange is Class 2 compact, and hence, the composite cross-section is classified as Class 2 compact.

200

In addition, the composite cross-section is upgraded to Class 1 plastic as the compression steel flange is restrained with effective attachment to a solid concrete flange by shear connectors.

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Resistances of various elements of the beam


Section properties of steel beam
A = 5105 mm2 , py = 235 N/mm2, Zx = 369.4 x 103 mm3 , Sx = 407.0 x 103 mm3

Section classification of steel section


For flange, b / T = 10 < 10 => Flange is compact section For web, d / t = 26.2 < 80 => Web is plastic section It is a compact section

Resistance of the steel section


Rs = A x py = 5105 x 235 x 10-3 = 1199.7 kN or 1.2 x py x Zx Ms = py x Sx = 95.6 kNm or = 104.2 kNm Ms = 95.6 kNm

Effective width of the concrete slab


Span coefficient for sagging moment region = 0.8 Bc = 0.8 x 4500 / 4 = 900 mm > 800 mm Be = 800 mm

Resistance of the concrete slab


Rc = 0.45 x fcu x Bc x(Ds Dp)= 0.45 x 30 x 800 x (100 0) x 10-3 = 1080 kN
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Resistances of various elements of the beam


Resistance of the steel flange
Rf = B x T x pyf = 200 x 10 x 235 10-3 = 470.0 kN

Resistance of the steel web


Rw = Rv = Rs 2 Rf = 1199.7 2 x 470 = 259.7 kN

Resistance of the reinforcement


Rrt = 0.87 x fy x Art = 321.8 kN Rrb = 0.87 x fy x Arb = 307.0 kN

Resistance of shear connectors (sagging moment region)

Rq = 7x(0.8x3x72) = 1209.6 kN Min. value of Rs (=1199.7kN) and Rc (=1080kN) It is full shear connection. Rq = (14 - 10 ) x ( 0.6 x 3 x 72 ) = 518.4 kN Sum of (Rrt and Rrb) = 628.8kN It is partial shear connection. (degree of psc = 0.82)
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Resistance of shear connectors (hogging moment region)

Resistances of various elements of the beam


For sagging moment region,
Rc > Rw & Rs > Rc => P.N.A in steel flange.

Sagging moment resistance ( full shear connection )


M c = Rs ( Ds + D p ) ( Rs Rc ) 2 T D + Rc = 167.9 kNm Rf 2 2 4

For hogging moment region,


Rr > Rw & Rr < Rs => P.N.A in steel flange.

Hogging moment resistance ( full shear connection ) (Rs Rr )2 T = 143.7 kNm D M c = Rs + Rr Dr 2 4 Rf

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Uncracked and cracked section analyses


Bending moment from linear elastic analysis with prismatic beam
P 0.188PL P

Bending moment after moment redistribution at 40%


P 0.113PL P

0.156PL

0.156PL

0.194PL

0.194PL

Uncracked section
Class 1 plastic composite cross-section

Bending moment from linear elastic analysis with non-prismatic beam


P 0.164PL P

Bending moment after moment redistribution at 30%


P 0.115PL P

0.167PL

0.167PL

0.192PL

0.192PL

Cracked section
Class 1 plastic composite cross-section
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Uncracked section analysis


Bending moment after moment redistribution at 40%
Class 1 plastic composite cross-section P P 0.113PL

0.194PL PS2

0.194PL

137.8 kNm

PS2 = 137.8 / (0.113 x 4.5) = 271.0 kN => 2PS2 = 542.0 kN

236.6 kNm

However, additional check shows that Ms = 0.194 x PS2 x L =0.194 x 271.0 x 4.5 = 236.6 kN > Msag = 164.6 kNm Hence, not good. 40% moment redistribution cannot be attained.
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Cracked section analysis


Bending moment after moment redistribution at 30%
Class 1 plastic composite cross-section P 0.115PL P

0.192PL PS2

0.192PL

137.8 kNm

PS2 = 137.8 / (0.115 x 4.5) = 266.3 kN => 2PS2 = 532.6 kN

230.1 kNm

However, additional check shows that Ms = 0.192 x PS2 x L = 0.192 x 266.3 x 4.5 = 230.1 kN > Msag = 164.6 kNm Hence, not good. 30% moment redistribution cannot be attained.
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Global plastic analysis


Establish the applied load, P, through equilibrium consideration at failure
P P

From equilibrium
Msag + Mhog / 2 = P x L / 4 164.6 + 137.8 / 2 = P x 4.5 / 4 => P = 207.6 kN

137.8 kNm Free moment 164.6 kNm

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Percentage of moment re-distribution


Uncracked section analysis
Bending moment from linear elastic analysis Elastic analysis Bending moment after moment re-distribution

Elastic analysis
Nonlinear analysis

L
175.6 kNm 137.8 kNm

P = 207.6 kN 175.6 kNm


0.188

P = 207.6 kN

0.156

145.7 kNm Mhog,el = 175.6 kNm Msag, el = 145.7 kNm Percentage of moment redistribution = = (175.6 137.8) / 175.6 21.5
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145.7 + 0.5*(175.6 - 137.8) = 164.6 kNm

Percentage of moment re-distribution


Cracked section analysis
Bending moment from linear elastic analysis Elastic analysis Bending moment after moment re-distribution

Elastic analysis
Nonlinear analysis

L
153.2 kNm 137.8 kNm

P = 207.6 kN 153.2 kNm


0.164

P = 207.6 kN

0.167

156.0 kNm Mhog,el = 153.2 kNm Msag,el = 156.0 kNm Percentage of moment redistribution = = (153.2 137.8) / 153.2 10.0
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156.0 + 0.5*(153.2 - 137.8) = 163.7 kNm

Conclusions
In prescriptive codified design approach, the load carrying capacity of a composite beam depends largely on the hogging and the sagging moment capacities as well as the amount of moment redistribution permitted, whenever applicable. The prescriptive design approach is considered to be a good manual design procedure which is simple and conservative. Larger percentage of moment re-distribution in continuous composite beams is permitted according to the proposed model. It should be noted that larger deformation capacity is required in headed shear connectors installed in long span composite beams with deep steel sections.

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