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INB271 / INN271

7KH:HE
Lecture One
Introduction to the Web and the
Internet
1 INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
Teaching Staff
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Unit Coordinator:
Dr Wayne Kelly
3138 9336
w.kelly@qut.edu.au
Office: S Block Level 10 1005
Consultation: by appointment, please phone or email to
arrange a suitable time
y Co-lecturer:
Dr Jinglan Zhang
3138 9353
Jinglan.Zhang@qut.edu.au
Office: Room 411, Level 4, 126 Margaret Street
Consultation: by appointment, please phone or email to
arrange a suitable time

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Unit Details
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Contact:
1.5 hour lecture per week
1.5 hour workshop per week
y Plus:
approximately 9 hours per week of extra work
readings, homework, assignments and revision
y Prerequisites/Assumed Knowledge:
elementary understanding of programming and
databases
y Incompatible with:
ITN/B007
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Rationale
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y The World Wide Web has become the most important computer system.
many applications are written to function over the World Wide Web.
y Software developers need a deep level of understanding of web development.
y All IT professionals need a basic understanding of the web:
network administrators,
database administrators,
enterprise architects,
content managers and
multimedia designers
y The WWW has evolved from the static content to dynamic web services.
all IT professionals need to understand this evolution and to track its future progress so
as to best utilize the web to service their organization's goals.
y While promising to connect the world, the current WWW is plagued by:
security concerns,
poorly designed interfaces (often inaccessible to people with disabilities) and
the difficulty of finding specific information among the avalanche of information available.
y The next generation of IT professionals will be charged with addressing these
challenges.
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Aims
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Understand what the web is, how it works and what it has
to offer.
y Understanding and basic skills in developing dynamic web
apps
appreciation of the variety of implementation technologies available.
y Understanding of how web technologies have evolved
appreciate the necessity for lifelong learning
become an insightful predictor of future developments
y You will appreciate the business or organizational context
skilled in communicating within that environment.
y You will appreciate the social and ethical issues
accessibility, globalization, privacy, and piracy.
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Week by Week Content
y Week 1: The Internet
y Week 2: The Web
y Week 3: HTML
y Week 4: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
y Week 5: Web design
y Week 6: Web forms and client side scripting
y Week 7: Intro to Server side and PHP
assignment 1 due
y Week 8: PHP language basics
mid-semester break
y Week 9: MySQL database access
y Week 10: Data driven web sites
y Week 11: Web app security
y Week 12: Web 2.0 and beyond
y Week 13: Revision
assignment 2 due
Jinglan
Zhang
Wayne
Kelly
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Assessment
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Assignment 1 (Web Design)
Web site design, HTML, CSS and JavaScript
Worth: 25%
Due: week 7
Teams: can be done individually or in pairs
Any queries to Jinglan Zhang
y Assignment 2 (Implement simple data driven web site)
PHP connected to database (MySQL)
Worth: 30%
Due: week 13
Teams: can be done individually or in pairs
Any queries to Wayne Kelly
y Final Written Exam
Theoretical, multiple choice and short answer questions
Worth: 45%
During: exam period
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Textbook
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Just enough Web programming with XHTML,
PHP, and MYSQL
Author: Guy W Lecky-Thompson
Publisher: Cengage Learning, Course Technology PTR
ISBN: 9781598634815, 159863481X
EISBN: 1598636847, 9781598636840

As eBook in QUT Library:
http://site.ebrary.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/lib/qut/doc
Detail.action?docID=10251032

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The Internet
(a network of networks)
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Computer Networks
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Network Layers
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Application
Transport
Network
Link
(Network Access)
Network Layers
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Computer networks can be thought of as being made
up of several layers
y Each computer connected to the network has these
layers
y For a message to be sent it must pass down all the
layers on the sending computer
y When a message is received it must go up all these
layers on the receiving computer
y At each layer there is a protocol which defines
message format and information
y What is a protocol? A set of rules governing the
exchange of data between two or more entities.
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Link
(Network Access)
Layer
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Network Links
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visual.merriam-webster.com/.../internet_1.php
Network Access Layer
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y The Network Access Layer is the physical layer and
is associated with computer hardware
Network Interface Cards
y Computer networks can use a large number of
connections and transmission media
Telephone wires
Ethernet (twisted pair) cables
Optic Fibre cables
Satellite communications
Mobile phone networks
Wireless networks
Bluetooth
y At this layer physical addresses identify network
nodes
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Network
Layer
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Network Layer
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y The Network Layer runs a low level protocol called
the Internet Protocol (IP)
y Each computer is assigned a unique IP address
e.g. 131.181.118.220
organizations are assigned a range of IP addresses that they
manage and assign to their computers.
y Sending computer specifies destination IP address
need not be directly connected
message will be routed to destination computer (if possible).
y The Internet is inherently dynamic, unreliable and
connectionless
uses packet switching .

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Packet Switching
y Long messages are broken up into a series of fixed size packets.
y Each packet is routed independently (possibly via different routes)
y The destination computer is responsible for reordering and reassembling
received packets into messages
packets may have been dropped

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Transport
Layer
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Transport Layer
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y At the transport layer, the Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) is the most commonly used
protocol
y TCP handles end to end message transmission
Large messages are split into smaller packets for
transmission
Received packets are ordered and joined into the
original messages
y Unlike the IP layer
The TCP layer adds reliability to communications
TCP allows connections to be made
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Transport Layer
y TCP handles flow control that helps to deal with
network congestion
y TCP checks for any errors that may have
occurred during transmission and asks messages
to be resent
y At the TCP layer each application is assigned a
Port number

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Application
Layer
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Application Layer
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Application layer protocols are the network programs
that we are familiar with
y Common network applications include:
Web Browsers
FTP
Email
Telnet
Bit Torrent
y Each application protocol has unique message
formats that are sent and received to achieve their
tasks
y Each application protocol requires the lower network
layers (TCP, IP, Network Access) to exist to
communicate on the network
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Client Server
y The Client Server paradigm is one way that
applications communicate on the Internet
y In the Client Server operation
There is one server that waits for requests from clients
and responds
There are one or more clients that actively send
requests to the server
Server
Client Client Client
Request
Response
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Client Server
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y Each Application Server listens for messages on a
particular port number
y Some common Application Servers will listen for
messages on well known port numbers
Web Servers: Port 80
FTP: Port 21
Email: Port 25
Telnet: Port 23
y Clients identify the machine they want to connect
to using an IP address
y Clients identify the program they want to
communicate with using a port number
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Example: Sending an Email
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Application Layer
Type your email message into your email application and
"send
Email app saves message into a specific email format
Includes address information (IP address and port number)
y Transport Layer
Breaks email into packets (each with address info)
y Network Layer
Routes packets to destination address (packet switching)
y Link Layer
Packets are transmitted across wire, wireless, satellite etc
depending on how computer is connected
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Example: Receiving an Email
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Link Layer
Receives packets across "wire
y Network Layer
Collects packets for this IP address
y Transport Layer
Assembles packets of message
Determines if there are any errors, and if so requests
retransmission
Sends complete message to specified port
y Application Layer
Email application reads email message from particular
port
Reads email format and displays message


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Domain Names
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y Domain names allow IP addresses to be represented by recognizable
symbolic names.
e.g. 131.181.118.220 www.qut.edu.au
NOTE: This is IPv4 (4 bytes), network routing will be translating to IPv6 (6
bytes) in the next year
y Translation between domain names and IP addresses is accomplished
via a global network of Domain Name Servers (DNS).
y Every domain name ends in a top-level domain (TLD) name, either:
one of a small list of generic names (eg .com, .org, .edu), or
a two-character territory code (eg .au)
y The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
has overall responsibility for managing the DNS.
it administers the root domain, delegating control over each TLD to domain
name registries.

Aside: The most expensive public sale of an Internet domain name to date, according to
DNJournal, is sex.com which was sold in 2010 for $13 million.
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The Web
INB/INN271 - Lecture 1
y The Internet is a large distributed network
y The Internet allows many network applications to
be run
y The main topic of this unit will concentrate on
looking at one particular Internet application
y The web consists mainly of one client server
application
Web Servers
Web Clients

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End of Lecture 1
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Any Questions?