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RUN -ONS as a Is two or more sentences that are unintentionally capitalized and punctuated if they were one.

Use punctuation, conjunctions or other means to join or separate the parts of run-on sentence.

Kinds of Run-on 1. Fused Sentence - consists of two or more sentences that are not separated or joined by any punctuation at all. 2. Comma Splice - consists of two or more separated only by commas instead of by commas and conjunctions. examples: Fused Sentence: T he waves lashed the shore the beach houses were wa shed away. Comma Splice: In the morning the house was cold, however the sun soo n warmed it up. * Like fragments, Run-ons are usually the result of carelessness and haste. To avoid them, reread your work, aloud if necessary, listening for the natural stop s that will tell you where one sentence ends and another begins. If you find Ru n-on in your writing, correct them either by adding punctuation and conjunctions or by rewriting. FOUR WAYS TO CORRECT RUN-ONS: With End Marks and Capitals: Run-on: Elizabeth turned at the sudden noise a bird crushed into the picture win dow. Sentence: Elizabeth turned at the sudden noise. A bird crushed into the picture window. Run-on: I baked the cake this morning, I have not frosted it yet. Sentence: I baked the cake this morning, but I have not frosted it yet. With Semicolons: Run-on: The stallion kept trying to jump the fence, however he failed each time. Sentence: The stallion kept trying to jump the fence; however, he failed each ti me. By rewriting: Run-on: My aunt stayed with us for a week, my cousins came too. Sentence: My aunt and cousins stayed with us for a week. (Simple sentence with compound subject) When my aunt stayed with us for a week, my cousins came too. (Complex sentence beginning with subordinate clause) MISPLACED AND DANGLING MODIFIERS MISPLACED MODIFIERS - When a modifier is placed too far from the word it should modify, the meaning of a sentence can become confused. - A misplaced modifier seems to modify the wrong word in t he sentence. -Any phrase or clause that acts as an adjective or ad

verb can unintentionally be misplaced in

a sentence.

MISPLACED MODIFIERS: He told us how to cut wood THROUGH WRITTEN DIRECTIONS. I saw a blue heron trimming its feathers WHILE DRIVING T HE RESERVIOR. *In the first example, the misplaced prepositinal phrase seem to modify CUT rath er than TOLD. In the second, the misplaced elliptical clause seems to mod ify TRIMMING rather than SAW. *To correct such sentence errors, simply move the phrase or clause that is mispl aced closer to the wrod that ir should logically modify. Some additiona l rewording may be necessary. CORRECTED SENTENCES: THROUGH WRITTEN DIRECTIONS, he told us how to cut woods. WHILE DRIVING THE RESERVIOR, I saw a blue heron trimmi ng its feathers. DANGLING MODIFIERS - A sentence's meaning can become especially confused when th e word that a phrase or clause logically modifies is missing en tirely from the sentence. Such modifiers are said to dangle. - Seems to modify the wrong word or no word at all because the word that it should modify has been omitted from the sentence. *Fix a dangling participial phrase by adding the word the phrase should modify, usually right after or before the phrase. DANGLING PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: PLAYING FOOTBALL ALL AFTERNOON, my homework remain ed unfinished. CORRECTED SENTENCE: PLAYING FOOTBALL ALL AFTERNOON, I left my homework remaine d unfinished.

RECOGNIZING THE CORRECT USE OF PARALELLISM PARALELL GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES can be two or more words of the same part of spe ech, two or more phrases of the same type, or two or more clauses of the sam e type. Sometimes, for emphasis, two or more sentences will follow the same pattern. -- it is the placement of equal ideas in words, phrases or clauses of simi lar types. Examples: Parallel words: I FELT feverish, achy and nauseated. Parallel Phrases: MY GOALS ARE making the soccer team, earning good grades, a nd getting a good job. Parallel Clauses That we were disorganized, AND that we were rushed QUIC KLY BECAME APPARENT. Parallel sentences: I came. I saw. I conquered. CORRECTING FAULTY PARALLELISM Faulty Parallelism occurs when a writer fails to use equal grammatical structure s to express related ideas.

- can involve words, phrases and clauses in series as well as in compari son. *Correct a sentence containing a faulty parallelism by rewritingit so that each parallel idea is expressed in the same grammatical structure. examples: noun noun gerund phrase Nonparallel Structure: Strength, agility, and carefully concentrating ma ke a successful wrestler. noun noun noun Corrected Sentence: Strength, agility, and careful concentration make a successful wrestler. Prep phrase Prep phrase Inde pendent Clause Nonparallel Structure: The mouse ran across the floor, under the table, and its hole was the last stop. Prep phrase Prep phrase Pre p phrase Corrected Sentence: The mouse ran across the floor, under the table, and into its hole. noun clause Ind ependent clause Nonparallel Structure: My voice teacher says that I have a very strong voice, but I sing off key. noun clause noun clause Corrected Sentence: My voice teacher says that I have a very strong voice, but that I sing off key. *Coordinating conjunctions such as AND, BUT and OR often connect item in a serie s. When you proofread your work, use them as a signal to check the items they c onnect for parallelism. **Non parallel Words, Phrases and Clauses in comparison - Do not write a compari son that unnecessarily links a phrase with a clause , with another type of phras e, or with another structure altogether. In the following example the phrases a ppear to be similar. Their different functions within the clauses, however, mak e the comparison nonprallel. CORRECTING FAULTY PARALLELISM IN COMPARISONS examples: noun gerund phrase Nonparallel Structure: I prefer concertos to listening to jazz. noun noun Corrected Sentence: I prefer concertos to jazz. prepositional phrase adverb clause Nonparallel Structure: I bought the dress because of its low price rathe r than because it fits well. prepositional phrase prepositional phrase Corrected Sentence: I bought the dress because of its low price rathe r than for its perfect fit. FAULTY COORDINATION When two or more independent clauses are not related or that are of unequal importance are joined by AND, the result is FAULTY COORDINATION.

*To coordinate means to place side by side in equal rank. *Use AND or other coordinating conjunctions only to connect related ideas of equ al importance. Example: I will go, and Mickey will stay. *Sometimes, however, writers carelessly use AND to join independent clauses that either should not be joined or should be joined in another way so that the real relationship between the clauses will be clear. Example: I saw THE WIZARD OF OZ on television, AND the movie was filmed in 1939 . We were bestfriends as children, AND I have not seen her since we gra duated. The best film was shown last night AND it was a documentary in China. *Carelessly stringing together many ideas with AND almost always results in a se ntence that plods along gracelessly. Example of Stringy Sentence: The proctor called the roll AND told us we would b e on our honor, AND then he wrote t he examination question on the board, AND he left the room, AND he did not retur n until it was time to collect the papers. CORRECTING FAULTY COORDINATION *Revise sentences with faulty coordination by putting unrelated ideas into separ ate sentences or by putting a less important subordinate idea into a subordinate clause or a phrase. FIRST METHOD: If the independent clause joined by AND are not closely related, separate them and drop the coordinating conjunction. Example: Faulty Coordination: I saw THE WIZARD OF OZ on television, AND the movie was filmed in 1939. Corrected Sentence: I saw THE WIZARD OF OZ on television. The movie was filmed in 1939. SECOND METHOD: Change an independent clause that is less important into a subor dinate clause. Example: Faulty Coordination: We were bestfriends as children, AND I have not see n her since we graduated. Corrected Sentence: Although we were bestfriends as children, I have not seen her since we graduated. THIRD METHOD: Involves reducing idea to a phrase - that is, changing the compou nd sentence into a simple sentence. A clause that can be reduc ed to a phrase will often begin with a pronoun and a linking verb such as, HE IS or IT WAS. In the example, the second clause has been turned into an appositiv e phrase. Ezample: Faulty Coordination: The best film was shown last, AND it was a document ary about China. Corrected Sentence: The best film, a documentary about China, was shown

last. *Stringy sentences should be broken up and revised using any of the three method s just described. Example of revision of stringy sentence: After the proctor called the roll, he told us we would be in our honor. Then, havi ng written the examination question on the board, he left the room. He did not return until it was time to collect our papers. LEVELS OF USAGE There are two main levels of English usage: STANDARD and NONSTANDARD.

STANDARD ENGLISH - the preferred method of speaking ang writing for the majorit y of educated people. It includes the most widely accepted u ses of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. NONSTANDARD ENGLISH - in contrast is mainly spoken language used by certain soci al, regional, or ethnic groups. It includes grammatical co nstructions, pronunciations and vocabulary that differ from the accepted rules of Standard English. THE VARIETIES OF ENGLISH STANDARD ENGLISH = can be either FORMAL or INFORMAL. Both are considered accept able, but there is aa marked difference between the style and the tone of each . Consider the difference between inviting a respected but unfamiliar person int o your home with "Will you please come in?" and shouting "Come on in!" to a clos e friend. Formal English - The kind of language considered appropriate for any serious wri ting or speaking. It need not be pompous, difficult, or excess ively complicated. Nevertheless, it requires practice before you can use it with clarity and precision. - Uses traditional standards of correctness. It is characteriz ed by complex sentence structures and an extensive vocabulary. Example: The dimensions of a work of art are seldom realized be the author unti l the work is accomplished. It is like a flowering dream. Ideas grow, b udding silently, and there are a thousand of illuminations coming day by day as the work progress. A seed grows in writing as in nature. -Carso n McCullers. Informal English - is the kind of language most educated people use everyday-in news papers, on television, in personal letters, in advertisements, and in caual conversation. Although you need to be able to express your ideas formally, you should also feel comfortable with informal English when a casual, personal tone is appropriate. - is conversational in tone. It uses a small vocabulary than formal English and generally shorter sentences. *Although informal English may include contractions and casual expressions, it u sually does not contain slang or improper grammar. The passage below, the speaker humorously describes living in the White House.

Notice the loose sentence and the liberal use of contractions. Example: The shades you pull down at night- they are enormous and they have pul leys and ropes. You're like a sailor taking a sail. I'm afraid it will always be a little impossible for the people who live there. It's an office building. -Jacqueline Kennedy NIONSTANDARD ENGLISH = it does not follow all the rules of standard English. Tw o major kinds of nonstandard English are know as DIALECT and SLANG. Dialect - mainly a spoken language whose use is restricted to a specific geograp hical location or to a specific social or ethnic group. It is considered nonsta ndard whenever it differs from the standard usage of edducated speakers. *A nonstandard dialect is a form of English that makes use of words, pronunciati ons, and sentence structures not commonly found in standard English. The excerpt below from "His Grandfather's Old Ram" by Mark Twain contains some u nfamiliar words, but you should understand most of this regional dialect if you read it aloud. Example: Well, as I was a-sayin', he bought that old ram from a feller up in Si skiyou County and fetched him home and turned him loose in the medder, and next morning he went down and look at him, and accident'ly dropped a ten-cent piece i n the grass and stooped down-so-and was a-fumblin' around in the grass to GIT it , and the ram he was a-standin' up the slope taking notice.-Mark Twain Slang - includes words such as GROSS and phrases such as HANG IN THERE that achi eved a widespread but temporary popularity. Slang also includes words used only by a relatively small section of the general population. Truck drivers, for ex ample, might refer to the accelarator as hammer. Slang rarely survives long en ough to become standard English. - a nonstandard form of English that is colorful and expressive but shor t-lived. The following is an excerpt from Babbit, an novel published by SinclairLewis in 1992. Many of the slang expressions are so dated that they may be unfamiliar to you. Notice that the language is extremely conversational. Example: And then most folks are so darned crooked themselves that they expect a fwellow to do a little lying, so if I was fool enough to neve whoo p the ante I'd get the credit for lying anyway! In self-defense I got to toot my own horn, like a lawyer defending a client-his bounden duty,ain't it, to br ing the poor dub's good points?-Sinclair Lewis AMERICAN ENGLISH = In the early seventeenth century, when the first settlers fro m Europe began to colonize the area no known as the United States, English was o nly one of the many languages spoken. In addition to the languages of the Nativ e Americans, the languages of the Dutch, French, Spanish, and African slaveswere also spoken by many early settlers. It was, however, the English who prospered most, and within two centuries their language become dominant. As the language spread, new words and expressions were acquired. These new additions to the la nguage are known Americanisms. AMERICANISM - A word, expression, or meaning that first came into the English la nguage in the area now known as the United States. VERB USAGE

*When you consider the numerous forms and uses of verbs, the many words that can act as verbs, and the likelihood that a sentence will have more than the verb, the chances of misusing verbs are very great. To avoid most errors, therefore, it is important to know the law that govern the verb usage. VERB TENSES - it is the tense of the verb that indicates if something is happeni ng now, was happening at sometime in the past, or will be happening at sometime in the future. *A TENSE is a form of a verb that shows the time of action or a conditi on. THE SIX VERB TENSES * Verbs have six tenses to show the time of action or condition. Each o f the tenses can be formed in at least two ways. *Each tense has a basic and pregressive form. Examples of the Basic forms of the Six Tenses: PRESENT: PAST: FUTURE: PRESENT PERFECT: PAST PERFECT: FUTURE PERFECT: I talk to my counselor regularly. I talked to Robin yesterday. I will talk to my teacher in the morning. I have talked to the new student already. I had talked to mom before dad came home. I will have talked to Carl by then.

*The basic forms are identified simply by their tense names. The progressive fo rms, however, are identified by their tense names plus the word progressive. Examples below illustrates the six progressive forms. Notice that all the forms are end in -ing. Examples of the Progressive forms of the Six Tenses: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: PAST PROGRESSIVE: FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: week. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE : ounced. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: rings. I am talking on the phone now. I was talking to Rita last night. I will be talking to the new manager sometime next I have been talking to my counselor about colleges. I had been talking to Wanda when the news was ann I will have been talking for an hour when the bell