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Student: DIVY S. OLMEDO Subject: EDUC 601 - Research and Methodology Professor: Dr.

Elpidio Melgo Module 1 The Nature and Uses of Research 1. How do you define research?

Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that links an individuals speculation with reality. In other words, research is the systematic study of trend or event which involves careful collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of quantitative data or facts that relates mans thinking with reality. (Calmorin, 2007) Explaining this definition in my own words and using my previous experience as a researcher, research is a scientific endeavor which has for it objects the validation or debunking of an existing knowledge. In its essence is the employment of scientific procedures in order to explain or investigate a specific phenomenon and to explain reality and ultimately, advance or propose a set of solutions for the particular problem identified. 2. Why is research important to mankind? For various reasons listed as follows: Research improves quality of life. Research improves instruction Research improves students achievements Research improves teachers competence Research satisfies mans needs Research provides scientific basis to formulate a set of austerity measures for the country Research reduces the burden of work Research has deep-seated psychological aspects. Research improves the exportation of food products. Research response to the economic recovery and Research trains graduates to become responsive to the economic development of the country and compete globally.

In sum, research finds it paramount importance to the individual, community, society and to the humanity in general. Humanity is in constant search for better solutions to our pressing problems such as: socio-political and economic; environmental; moral, psychological and spiritual, etc.all for the realization of an improved quality of human existence. Research, thought time and ages, has proven to provide us with the empirical basis of how these multifarious problems are to be addressed. Hence, it (research) is a very useful and significant tool that apprises us with our past, the inadequacies of the present and the promises of the future. Sans research, humanitys existence will be dictated not by the principles of predictability but by random. 3. What are the purposes and goals of research? Primarily, research is undertaken for the following reasons:

To explore some possible solutions to existing problems either in any fields of education, biology, or social sciences. To validate or debunk an existing knowledge or tenets. It is undertaken to improve an existing product or service. It aims to seek new knowledge, truth, laws or principles. It provides information in the form of verifiable data. It seeks to expand the knowledge-base of a given institution or a particular community. It aims to contribute to the progress and development of humanity. A nation, city, any organization or institution could become progressive because of research. Hence, research plays an important role in every human endeavor and therefore must be a salient part of organizational structure of any institution. How do you characterize a good research?

4.

Since research is defined as a scientific investigation of a given phenomenon, it follows a set of logical principles for it to be characterized as having the qualities of a good research. These are as follows:

4.1 It should be systematic, hence, must conform to an orderly and sequential procedure that leads to
the discovery of truth, solution of a problem, or whatever is aimed to be discovered.

4.2 It is controlled in the sense that

all variables except those that are tested or being experimented upon are kept constant (not allowed to change or vary) so that the changes made on the subjects of the study can be attributed only to the experimental variable. This is especially true in an experimental research.

4.3 It should be empirical such that all the procedures employed and the data gathered are perceived
in the same manner by all observers. Hence, objectivity must define from the first down to the last and final step in the research spectrum.

4.4 It is analytical since it greatly involves a critical analysis of all the data used so that there is no error
in their interpretation. Logic and analysis are very important especially in the treatment and interpretation of data.

4.5 It

employs hypothesis in order to guide the investigation process. In experimental studies, hypotheses are expressly stated but in descriptive studies, the specific sub-problems or specific question serve as the hypothesis and the hypotheses are tested and not proved.

4.6 It employs quantitative or statistical methods as data are transformed into numerical measures and
are treated statistically to determine their significance or usefulness. Numbers have meanings and it is only when data are given its quantitative interpretation that researchs objectivity and validity are strengthened.

4.7 Generally,

it is an original work as the researcher could claim intellectual property rights over his/her work, and is entitled to protection from plagiarism and other forms of intellectual piracy. Notwithstanding that the research conducted is on a novel topic or a challenge or improvement to existing ones, a researcher could rightfully claim intellectual ownership and exclusivity over his/her work and must be properly acknowledged by subsequent researchers should his/her work will be used in future academic studies. is undertaken by an expert who uses valid and carefully designed procedures, valid datagathering instruments, and valid data. He subjects his data to expert scrutiny, and is open to constructive criticisms with the end in view of improving his/her work. A neophyte on research could still be an expert once s/he carefully designs his/her research and engages on the entire scientific processes involve in the course of the research undertaking. A researcher who knows his/her topic by heart and becomes a fierceful advocate of its validity and relevance is akin to an expert. It is accurate investigation, observation and description, hence, every research activity must be done accurately so that the findings will lead to the formulation of scientific generalizations. All conclusions are based on actual and hard evidence.

4.8 It

4.9

4.10 It requires an effort making capacity and the courage to end what had been started, hence, no research can be conducted without the exertion of much effort. No one without any effort-making capacity can conduct a research because research involves much work, time, resources and all the positive virtues i.e. patience, discipline, time management, etc. 5. How are research and problem-solving differentiated?

The basic distinction between research and problem solving puts emphasis on the element of problem solving as central to the problem solving approach, while only incidental to the research method. Obviously, in the former, solutions to problems are what is sought; hence, by necessary implication, a particular problem or set of specific problems always exist. After these problems are addressed, that marks the end of it. On the other hand, research does not almost always involve a problem. In numerous instances, it is undertaken with the objective of answering a question or a query, but does not necessarily propose a set of solutions. Hence, contribution to general knowledge is what is sought in this respect. Another distinction is that research is broader in scope and more rigorous as compared to problem solving which is oftentimes limited and less rigorous. And the most important distinction is that, research, has a wider application as it concerns recurring phenomena, hence, generalizations are formulated. 6. How is research classified according to the following 6.1 According to Purpose

a Predictive or prognostic research - has the purpose of determining the future operation of the variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better. Predictive research proposes to give the result from one specific educational practice or pattern and seeks to establish a close statistical connection between characteristics of students and prediction of educational outcome.

Directive research - determines what should be done based on the findings. This is to remedy an unsatisfactory condition if there is any. c Illuminative research - is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variable being investigated, as for example, interaction of the components of educational system and aims to show the connections among 6.2 According to goal 6.2.1 Basic or pure research - is done for the development of theories or principles. It is conducted for the intellectual pleasure of learning. Much of this kind of research has been done in psychology and sociology.

6.2.2 Applied

research- is the application of the results of pure research. This is testing the efficacy of theories and principles. For instance, a principle says that praise reinforces learning. To determine if this is true, one conducts an experiment in which there are two classes. In class, he uses praises but in the other class there is no praise at all.

6.3 According to the levels of investigation

6.3.1 In exploratory research, the researcher studies the variables pertinent to a specific situation. 6.3.2 In descriptive research, the researcher studies the relationship of the variables. 6.3.3 In
experimental research, the experimenter studies the effects of the variables on each other.

6.4 According to the types of analysis

6.4.1 In the analytic approach, the researcher attempts to identify and isolate the components of
the research situation.

6.4.2 The holistic

approach begins with the total situation, focusing attention on the system first and then on its internal relationship.

6.5 According to scope - Under

this category is action research. This type of research is done on a very limited scope to solve a particular problem which is not so big. It is almost problem-solving.

6.6 According to choice of answers to problem

6.7

In evaluation research, all possible courses of action arte specified and identified and the researcher tries to find the most advantageous. 6.8 In developmental research, the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable instrument or process than has been available. 6.7 According to statistical content 6.7.1 Qualitative or statistical research is one in which inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the study. Inferential statistics such as correlation, chi-square, analysis of variance, etc. are used to test the hypothesis. This type of research usually includes comparison studies, cause-and-effect relationships etc.

6.7.2

Non-quantitative research. This is research in which the use of quantity or statistics is practically nil. This is especially true in anthropological studies where description is usually used. Descriptive data are gathered rather qualitative data.

6.8

According to time element

6.8.1 Historical research describes what was.

6.8.2 Descriptive research describes what is. 6.8.3 Experimental research describes what will be.
7 What are some hindrances to research? Why are they called hindrances? The following are some of the hindrances to scientific inquiry. They are mostly errors in personal judgment.

1.

Tradition This is accepting that customs, beliefs, practices and superstitions are true and parts of the daily lives of men. No effort is exerted to find out whether they are true or not. This contradicts the basic principles in researchscientific, empirical and logical.

2.

Authority- This is accepting without question, an opinion about a certain subject which is given by someone who is considered an authority on the subject. The pronouncements of these persons with big names are oftentimes treated as a gospel truth not because they are true or facts, but because the persons making the statements are prominent or influential in the school, community, organization, etc. They are believed without scientific inquiry about the truth of their pronouncements.

3.

Inaccurate observation - This is describing wrongly what is actually observed by the five senses This hinders research as collected data from observations become inaccurate, and inaccurate data leads to inaccurate conclusions and generalizations.

4.

Overgeneralization - This is establishing a pattern out of a few instances. Also referred to as hasty generalization since from few samples or observations, one easily draw out generalizations that do not necessarily holds true to all similar circumstances.

5.

Selective observation - This is persisting to believe an observed pattern from an overgeneralization and ignoring other pertinent patterns. The researcher only selects what s/he desires to observe from a wide instances, hence, disregarding what could be as important and essential as that what s/he selected.

6.

Made-up information - This is making up information to explain away confusion. Instead of endeavoring to look for a viable explanation of what seems to be a vague or ambiguous information, resort is to formulate own conjectures and surmises to clear up ambiguities. This seriously hampers the validity of the data and information gathered which could also result to an inaccurate findings and conclusions. The abovementioned factors are collectively referred to as hindering factors in order to come up with a scientific, valid and accurate research. Hindering factors in the sense that their presence in any part of the research process violates certain research principles which would result to a distortion of data and information and ultimately, to the interpretation of these data and the effective drawing of conclusions and generalizations.

Why should the scientific method of research be followed? What are the steps in the scientific method? Explain.

The scientific method of research should be adopted because research is a serious endeavor which affects not only the credibility of the one conducting the research but the larger community as well that would eventually benefit or affected by the research output. And as what is emphasized, research attempts to comprehensively study a problem or set of problems or seeks to answer a query which has for its object the formulation of corresponding solutions to a problem or set of problems or to formulate an intelligent answers to a question or questions which have greater significance and of general application; hence, the research process must abide to established scientific methods in order to stand careful scrutiny once its validity is challenged. The following are the scientific methods involve in research: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Determining (recognizing) the problem Forming a hypothesis Doing the library search Designing the study Developing the instruments for collecting data Collecting the data Analyzing the data Determining implications and conclusions from the findings, and Making the recommendations for further research

A researcher who wishes to embark on a research must undergo the intricacies of these nine steps and also when writing his/her research report. There are no short cuts nor so-called easy roads to take. If the research aims to contributing to the development and expansion of knowledge and would opt to propose solutions to the diverse problems of an organization, a society or community, it must show deference to clearly established scientific methods and principles for it to be highly valid and deserving of scrutiny and consideration.