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Controller vs Flash Present and Future

About Phison

Phison Introduction
NAND Flash Application Solution Provider Controller IC Design & System Integration Established in November 2000

Location: Jhunan Kuan-Yuan Science Park, Taiwan Employees: 390 (200 engineers) Managements Experience in NAND Industry > 11 Years

Product Overview
USB SD/MMC CF/PATA SATA

PCIe

Reader

Embedded

Smartcard microSD

Phison designs controllers for all NAND Flash applications

NAND Industry Supply Chain


A D B E C
NAND Market
NAND Flash Manufacturers

Somebody

WHO?

X V

Y W

End Market (Brand)


Brand names who need constant product updates to the market

What It Takes from Raw NAND to Retail

NAND Buying Power Controller R&D Market Partnership Expertise Awareness with NAND Makers Production Skill & Capacity System Level Design

Who can deliver all?

Somebody

Product Level Design (ID, Housing)

NO OWN BRAND

New Product Innovation Wafer Level Packaging & Testing

Phisons Core Value = A Solution Provider


Phison Knows What You Need from raw NAND to retail We have everything necessary to help Brand Names quickly launch products Hassle-free one-stop shopping Offer a variety of services and maintain flexibility in our business NO OWN BRAND for finished product to avoid competition

Turnkey

OEM / ODM System Integration IC Design

Phison is the Somebody

Company Milestone
Year
05.2001 04.2002 09.2004 10.2004 12.2004 11.2005 01.2006 05.2006 09.2006 01.2007 06.2007 07.2007 01.2008 06.2008

Achievement
Announced the World's first single-chip USB Flash Drive controller (PS1001) and singlePen DriveTM in May Invested by Toshiba Corporation and M-Systems Released SD/MMC card controller Delivered all-in-1 portable multimedia storage solution, MMV-2.0 all- inMMVhttp://www.mmv-club.com http://www.mmvPublicly listed on Taiwan's Over-The-Counter Market Over- TheRanked 12th in "2004 Deloitte Technology Fast 500 Asia Pacific" Won Grand Prize of ASPA (Asian Science Park Association) Awards 2005 Controller IC shipment in 2005 - 23.3 million units Founded Open NAND Flash Interface (ONFI) with Intel, Micron, Sony, Hynix and ST PS2230 officially certified by U3 - Only U3 controller in market (outside founders SanDisk and M-Systems) Controller IC shipment in 2006 - 78.8 million units Became contributor of Non-Volatile Memory Host Controller Interface (NVMHCI) Nonworking group chaired by Intel (Turbo Memory definition group) Rank 2nd in "2007 Info Tech 100 Taiwan" list released by bi-weekly "Business Next" Controller IC shipment in 2007 141.6 million units Invested by Kingston Technology and Hynix Semiconductor

Revenue
Unit: US$m
700 600 500 400 300 200
119 192 74 4 2001 25 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1H 378 305 630

100 0

Phison USB World No. 1


USB Flash Controller Market Share 2007
(Revenue in Millions of Dollars)

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Suppliers Phison Silicon Motion SanDisk Skymedi Sony Alcor Micro Toshiba Others Total

2007 MS 2007 Revenue 35.4% 23.2% 15.0% 9.0% 7.4% 3.2% 3.1% 3.7% 100% $32.3 $21.1 $13.6 $8.2 $6.7 $2.9 $2.8 $3.4 $91.1

* Source: iSuppli Corp. | May 2008

NAND Flash: Fastest Growing Market in Semiconductor History

History of NAND Flash Applications


Year 1997 Application Voice Recorder (2MB) DSC CompactFlash Card SmartMedia (2~4MB)

1999

2001~2002 2004~2005 2006~2007 2008 2009~2011

USB Flash Drive (Phison) MP3 Player Mobile Phone microSD (256MB~2GB) SSD (>64GB)

Growth of NAND Flash industry is driven by demand for storage from consumers

Rapid Evolution of NAND Flash


Resolution (nm) 200 NAND 100 80 60 40 * Source: MemCon 2007

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

- 70/60nm (2006) - 50nm (2007-2008) - 40nm (2008-2009) - 30nm (>2009)

Process improvement

- MLC: Now over 90% market share

From SLC to MLC

Market Dynamics Changing x3 and x4


100%

x4
80% 60%

MLC
40% 20%

Now Nov 08

x3

SLC
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

0%

2000

Source : Hynix Marketing

- SLC: x1 - MLC: x2, x3, x4

More bits per cell

- 2KB/page (< 2006) - 4KB/page (2007) - 8KB/page (> 2008)

Increase in page size

Need to squeeze out more capacity yet lower the cost!

Challenges with New Generation MLC & x3


NAND Process ECC required Erase Cycle Data Retention 70/60nm 1-bit 100K 10 yrs SLC 50nm 1-bit 100K 10 yrs 40/30nm 4-bit TBD 10 yrs 70/60nm 4-bit 10K 10 yrs MLC 50nm 4~8 bit 5K~10K 10 yrs 40/30nm 12~24 bit or more 3K~5K 5 yrs

Stress by extended read/write, reduced endurance More prone to errors, disturbance Increase in power consumption More burden on controllers! NAND supplier roadmaps have hinted maintaining performance and reliability specifications is a big challenge

Trend for MLC & x3: Managed NAND


In addition, as flash process shrinks below 30nm with more bits per cell, NAND gets more difficult to manage for host Controller + NAND in a single package (with raw NAND interface) will prevail in a few years time

Hynix HBA NAND (Controller + x3) Toshiba LBA NAND (Controller + MLC)

Requires close technical collaboration controller and semiconductor companies

Trend for SLC: DDR Interface for Performance


SLC will only remain in high-performance SSD market and wireless (replacing NOR)
- ONFI 2.0 (Double data rate signaling, source synchronous clocks) - Toggle Mode
ONFI Interface Rate Roadmap Legacy ONFI 2.0 ONFI 3.0 (TBD) 50MB/s 133MB/s 400MB/s

Two high-speed I/F under definition in JEDEC

Controller: Powering NAND Applications

Controller: Making All the Possibilities


USB Flash Drive Memory Card

PATA SSD Module SATA SSD 2.5

PCI Express Card

Controller may be just 1% on the BOM cost, but there will be NO product without a good controller

Product Update Cycle: HDD vs NAND


For Hard Disk

Consumer Electronics

Consumer Electronics

40 GB

80 GB

No firmware/software changes required Product-level testing and validation focus

Product Update Cycle: HDD vs NAND


For NAND
Consumer Electronics Consumer Electronics

B 4G

B 16 G

- Change device ID table to support new flash - Performance tuning - More capable ECC and NAND management may be necessary

Firmware/software changes required for host processor

Complete re-test of firmware and/or software Impact product development schedule

Controllers Solves System Integration Problems


Controller shortens product development cycle and prepares for future memory changes

- NAND transition invisible to host - Address integration issues from different NAND

- Hundreds of engineers working on enabling NAND - Relief constraints from NAND vendor

Controller manufacturers collaborate closely with flash makers for latest updates

Because of controllers, NAND makers can be more aggressive to adopt new features and technology

Seamless Integration!

Need Better Controllers to Compensate NAND.


- Ensure all blocks are evenly written to extend MLC life cycle - 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit or more - Smart replacement of bad blocks from spare - Crucial for embedded applications - Mapping between host and NAND flash

Solid wear leveling scheme Extensive ECC coverage

Stronger bad block management Data integrity assurance Managed programming

Yet, performance and reliability cannot be sacrificed. Must still keep up with mass market expectations

Wear Leveling: Dynamic vs Static


Others: Dynamic wear leveling only (Partial) Continuous programming in fixed area causes reliability to decrease

Phison: Dynamic & Static wear leveling (Universal) WL takes place across all blocks in a disk = Prolonged NAND life cycle Erase count difference between blocks < 200
Phison SSD controller applies GLOBAL wear leveling and moves block across the entire SSD for best results (not just within a NAND die)

Phison Solution with MLC: Life Cycle Simulation


Target life endurance: > 3 years Volume of data transferred by user (based on top laptop makers estimation): = 125MB/hr * 10hr/day * 365days/year * 3 years = 1330GB Sample: 4GB MLC (assuming 5K erase cycles max) Test Date: Aug 25 ~ Sep 5 Total 382 cycles were run = 1529GB After 15 days, average erase count = 900 << 5K!!!
1000 Total Erase Count 800 600 400 200 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Block Number

Phison Global Wear Leveling


SLC EOL 100K Erase Count

100K

ERASE COUNT

5K 0

MLC EOL 5K Erase Count

Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 X GB

Block N

Burn-in test ~900 Erase Count

The top notebook and PC makers are very encouraged by this simulation result!

Future for NAND Controllers: Endless Challenges

Price Trend for Flash Controller


1.20 1.00 0.80
1.00

0.70

US$

0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00


2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
* Based on die form

0.40 0.25 0.15

Price trend for controller is no better than flash. In fact, hardly worth anything

Technical Difficulties & Challenges


The rapid changes in NAND flash (MLC, x3) resulted in evergreater challenges than before

Retail (USB & Memory Cards)


Slower and less-reliable NAND performance? How to equal or better in

- USB: Vista ReadyBoost, SD Card: Class speed - Sequential write: High performance line needs 133X (20MB/s)

- Compatibility must be perfect with host (cameras, phones) - Capacity: 95~96% (2K), 93% (4K), 91% (8K)

Compatibility and other concerns

Embedded Systems & Consumer Products


Reliability and performance concerns
- Is reduced endurance of MLC, x3 sufficient for SSD? - Is MLC, x3 fast enough to compete with HDD?

Business Challenges
Investment on Controller Development
Resource for designing one controller from scratch to MP = US$0.5 ~ 1 million (assuming 30~50 engineers) Assuming successful, how many controllers (@ $0.15) needs to be shipped to cover the cost?

Where is the Demand for SSD Controllers?


Assume the forecast for notebooks sold worldwide - 100~120 million units a year from 2008~2010 - Will SSD really replace HDD (higher density/cost)? If out of all notebooks, 10% uses SSD - Only 12 million units SSD controllers needed per year, worldwide - Shared among numerous controller companies

A Single Mistake is Very Costly


MLC MLC 63 63

(DIGITIMES, 2006/10/26)

Samsung ElectronicsMLCMulti-Level Cell63MLC Samsung Electronics MLC MultiCell63MLC NAND NAND FlashSLCSingle-Level-CellMLC FlashSLCSingle- Level- CellMLC MLC MLC 8299MLC 8299MLC 2 2 NANDFlash NANDFlash NANDFlashSLCMLCMLC NANDFlashSLCMLCMLC MLCMLCSLC MLCMLCSLC MLCSLC MLCSLC NANDFlashSLCNOPNumber of Page4 NANDFlashSLCNOP Page4 SLCNANDFlash44MLCNANDFlash SLCNANDFlash44 MLCNANDFlash NOP1NOP1data loss NOP1NOP1 data loss 263Roadmap 2 63Roadmap NOP2 NOP2 63 63

Patent Strengths for Best Protection


Region Taiwan China USA Others Pending Granted 80 84 71 29 65 42 22 11

Phison Patents
Coverage of Phisons US patents:
- Performance - Reliability - Data integrity

NAND Flash Management

- USB, IDE, SATA, PCIe and Firewire - PCIe patents effectively cover SSD applications

Host Interfaces

High risk for companies without key patents

NAND Flash Partners

Phison Shareholder (45% of NAND market) Supplier, and Customer

Good ties with NAND semiconductor companies Only way to survive in competitive market
Phison also has regular technical communications with other flash makers

This Year is Tough - Memory Market is Tougher

* Source: DigiTimes

Leader in NAND Flash Controller Technology


NAND Flash: The fastest-growing semiconductor market in history During depression, Phison will continue to invest in R&D
- Vertical integration for one-stop service - Better understanding of market

No regular controller design house

- Create fascinating applications based on controller technology - Strong R&D support to penetrate specialized markets

Much more than a memory module company

Strategic alliance with key NAND manufacturers keep Phison strong in the industry Phison technology enables NAND Flash and bring the best products to the market

Thank You Q&A