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UNHRC UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHT COUNCIL STUDY GUIDE CHAIR: MAHEEN ZUBAIR VICE CHAIR: IDRESS MIR

Contents
Topic A: ......................................................................................................................................................... 4 What corrective measures need to be taken to implement the rights of indigenous peoples? .................. 4 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................. 4 Overview: ...................................................................................................................................................... 4 International conventions and legislature: ................................................................................................... 5 Global collaboration:..................................................................................................................................... 6 Indigenous population 2008 in (Millions): .................................................................................................... 8 Project Flicker: .............................................................................................................................................. 8 TOPIC B:....................................................................................................................................................... 10 How can we prevent imperialistic forces from deterring the..................................................................... 10 Human Rights Charter ................................................................................................................................. 10

Topic A: What corrective measures need to be taken to implement the rights of indigenous peoples?

Introduction: Indigenous also knows as aboriginal peoples were living on their lands before colonizers and settlers from other cultural groups arrived. Due to colonialism, unfair government policies, corporate interests, and cultural imperialism, indigenous peoples live a dominant cultures way of life. Indigenous peoples experience institutional violence, poverty, disease, and marginalization. Centuries of racism and dispossession have denied Indigenous peoples around the world the opportunity to enjoy such basic human rights as the right of selfdetermination, the right to cultural identity, the right to life and the right to health. Moreover, these are people evolved into a political term that refers to ethnic groups with historical ties to groups that existed in a territory prior to colonization or formation of a nation state.

Overview: Surviving the loss of land, resources, livelihoods and culture, many Indigenous peoples struggle today for the basic necessities of life i.e. human rights to food, health, housing, and cultural expression. Indigenous women are also contending with increased incidences of personal violence in their community and in the dominant society. Indigenous youth face many challenges such as the cycle of poverty and unemployment, the allure of drugs, alcohol and gangs, and the balance of traditional and urban cultures. Not all indigenous groups share these characteristics. Some characteristics common across many Indigenous groups include present or historical reliance

upon subsistence-based production (based on pastoral, horticultural and/or hunting and gathering techniques), and a predominantly non-urbanized society. On the other hand, Indigenous societies may also be either settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they are dependent. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

International conventions and legislature: The international community shows increasing concern for the protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. Conventions and legislature of the international community provide a broad framework, statements and declaration regarding the protection of indigenous peoples and their interests, cultures, cultural survival, their way of living and development. The emerging concern for indigenous peoples prompted the United Nations to declare 1993 as the International Year of the World's Indigenous Peoples and the decade from December 1994 as the Indigenous Peoples Decade. The United Nation's 1993 Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples addressed issues such as: 1. The right to participation 2. The right of indigenous peoples to direct their own development 3. The right of indigenous peoples to determine and develop priorities, strategies for the development or use of ancestral territories and resources 4. The right to self-determination. The 1957 International LabourOrganisation (ILO) Convention No. 107, Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries, addresses the right of indigenous peoples to pursue material well-being and spiritual development, and was a first international instrument in specific support of indigenous peoples. Largely because of its view that indigenous peoples should be integrated into the larger society, a view that

subsequently came to be seen by many as inappropriate, Convention No. 107 was followed in 1989 by ILO Convention 169, Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries. Convention No. 169 presents the fundamental concept that the way of life of indigenous and tribal peoples should and will survive, as well as the view that indigenous and tribal peoples and their traditional organizations should be closely involved in the planning and implementation of development projects that affect them. As the most comprehensive and most current international legal instrument to address issues vital to indigenous and tribal peoples, Convention No. 169 includes articles that deal with consultation and participation, social security and health, human development, and the environment. To date, Convention No. 169 has been ratified by only a few countries, and so far by none in the Asian and Pacific Region. Agenda 21 adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 recognizes the actual and potential contribution of indigenous and tribal peoples to sustainable development. The 1992 Convention on Biodiversity calls on contracting parties to respect traditional indigenous knowledge with regard to the preservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action emerging from the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights recognizes the dignity and unique cultural contributions of indigenous peoples, and strongly reaffirms the commitment of the international community to the economic, social, and cultural well-being of indigenous peoples and their enjoyment of the fruits of sustainable development.

Global collaboration:
Amnesty International works with Indigenous Peoples around the globe to advance urgently needed laws and standards to protect their cultures and livelihoods. The most significant of these is the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which was adopted in September 2007 after more than two decades of lobbying by Indigenous Peoples.

International programmes such as (UN-REDD Programme) have undertaken global and regional consultations with indigenous groups to protect their rights. Tebtebba (Indigenous Peoples' International Centre for Policy Research and Education) is an indigenous peoples' organization born out of the need for heightened advocacy to have the rights of indigenous peoples recognized, respected and protected worldwide. The First Nations Carbon Collaborative is comprised of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, Centre for Indigenous Environmental Resources. The collaborative is working together to build capacity within First Nations to access existing and emerging carbon markets. All members of thecollaborative must be acknowledged for their participation in moving this work forward. Among United Nations agencies, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has undertaken a number of programs to address indigenous peoples concerns. In the Bank's region, the goals of UNDP's Highland Peoples Programme takes measure to increase organizational capacities and opportunities among highland communities,participatory planning, development, management and coordination; establish and/or reinforce exchange mechanisms and procedures; and work for the overall development of highland communities in the four countries covered. Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) takes measures to protect and ensure the rights of indigenous people. While IDB does not have a specific policy addressing indigenous peoples, it does address their concerns through its operational activities, an approach IDB considers more relevant to the circumstances of its region. Operational processes relating to involuntary resettlement, poverty reduction, rural development, and environmental and social impact assessment all include specific consideration of indigenous peoples' concerns. In the IDB region, the poorest segments of society often are indigenous peoples, and projects are designed specifically to assist these groups. In the IDB, creation of special funds to support activities such as enterprise development and capacity building provide other avenues for the pursuit of issues relating to indigenous peoples. The representative offices that IDB maintains in its client

countries provide a basis for country-specific consideration of indigenous peoples concerns. Indigenous population 2008 in (Millions): 1. China 105.23 2. South Asia 94.90 3. Southeast Asia 29.84 4. South America 19.53 5. Africa 21.98 6. Central America/Mexico 19.07 7. Arabia 15.41 8. USA/Canada 3.29 9. Japan/Pacific Islands 0.00 10.Australia/New Zealand 0.46 11.Greenland/Scandinavia 0.10 12.Former Soviet Union 0.4 Total 310.2 million (Source: Compiled from IWGIA 2008) Project Flicker: In our committee sessions we will be focusing on thefollowing indivisible, interdependent and interrelated rights of indigenous peoples and how to take corrective actions to implement such changes. The human right to freedom from any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on their indigenous status which has the purpose or effect of impairing the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The human right to freedom from discrimination in access to housing, education, social services, health care or employment. The human right to equal recognition as a person before the law, to equality before the courts, and to equal protection of the law. The human right of indigenous peoples to exist. The human right to freedom from genocide and 'ethnic cleansing'.

The human right to livelihood and work which is freely chosen and to subsistence and access to land to which they have traditionally had access and relied upon for subsistence. The human right to maintain their distinctive spiritual and material relationship with the lands, to own land individually and in community with others, and to transfer land rights according to their own customs. The human right to manage and safeguard the natural resources pertaining to their lands. The human right to freedom of association. The human right to enjoy and develop their own culture and language. The human right to establish and maintain their own schools and other training and educational institutions, and to teach and receive training in their own languages. The human right to full and effective participation in shaping decisions and policies concerning their group and community, at the local, national and international levels, including policies relating to economic and social development. The human right to self-determination and autonomy over all matters internal to the group, including in the fields of culture, religion, and local government. We will hence, set a framework as provided above that would offer greater protection of these vulnerable groups. With our dialogue, we will emphasize their respect for traditional values and beliefs, encouraging the relevance of cultural diversity promoting effective participation and equality of rights in the regions where they exist. Also look into the UN declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples so as to get a deep insight on the protection of their rights taken by the UN which will help us in preparing the draft resolution. Here is the link. (http://www.culturalsurvival.org/undrip)
http://intelligent-internet.info/law/ipr2.html http://www.adb.org/documents/policies/indigenous_peoples/ippp-004.asp http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=FuKQrs0os6EC&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=global+collaboration+o n+indigenous+peoples&source=bl&ots=vqeHEXf2Sy&sig=bbS2PczCWv25CaJDqqR3CFUey0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=tEsET9qxM7KK4gS-

7tGNCA&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=global%20collaboration%20on%20indigenous%20peoples &f=false

TOPIC B:

How can we prevent imperialistic forces from deterring the Human Rights Charter

When we say Imperialism, its simply means the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies. Imperialism has been one of the most strongest forces in the history of mankind giving a different shape to the world, oppressing the indigenous people and destroying the whole civilization. In other words it is basically the process through which dominant politico-economic interests of one nation takes hold of the land, labor, raw materials and markets of another people for their own enrichments. No mere array of facts and figures adduced to illustrate the economic nature of the new Imperialism will suffice to dispel the popular delusion that the use of national force to secure new markets by annexing fresh tracts of territory is a sound and a necessary policy for an advanced industrial country like Great Britain but these arguments are not conclusive. It is open to Imperialists to argue thus: We must have markets for our growing manufactures, we must have new outlets for the investment of our surplus capital and for the energies of the adventurous surplus of our population: such expansion is a necessity of life to a nation with our great and growing powers of production. An ever larger share of our population is devoted to the manufactures and commerce of towns and is dependent for life and work upon food and raw materials from foreign lands. In order to buy and pay for these things we must sell our goods abroad. During the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century we could do so without difficulty by a natural expansion of commerce with continental nations and our colonies, all of which were far behind us in the main arts of manufacture and the carrying trades. So long

as England held a virtual monopoly of the world markets for certain important classes of manufactured goods, Imperialism was unnecessary. After 1870 this manufacturing and trading supremacy was greatly impaired: other nations especially Germany, the United States and Belgium advanced with great rapidity , their competition made it more and more difficult to dispose of the full surplus of our manufactures at a profit. The encroachments made by these nations upon our old markets, even in our own possessions made it most urgent that we should take energetic means to secure new markets. These new markets had to lie in hitherto undeveloped countries chiefly in the tropics where vast populations lived capable of growing economic needs which our manufacturers and merchants could supply. Our rivals were seizing and annexing territories for similar purposes and when they had annexed them, closed them to our trade The diplomacy and the arms of Great Britain had to be used in order to compel the owners of the new markets to deal with us: and experience showed that the safest means of securing and developing such markets is by establishing 'protectorates' or by annexation. It was this sudden demand for foreign markets for manufactures and for investments which was avowedly responsible for the adoption of Imperialism as a political policy. They needed Imperialism because they desired to use the public resources of their country to find profitable employment for their capital which otherwise would be superfluous. Every improvement of methods of production, every concentration of ownership and control seems to accentuate the tendency". As one nation after another enters the machine economy and adopts advanced industrial methods, it becomes more difficult for its manufacturers, merchants and financiers to dispose profitably of their economic resources and they are tempted more and more to use their Governments in order to secure for their particular use some distant undeveloped country by annexation and protection. It is the economic condition of affairs that forms the root of Imperialism. If the consuming public in a country raised its standard of consumption to keep pace with every rise of productive powers, there could be no excess of goods or capital clamorous to use Imperialism in order to find markets: foreign trade would indeed exist. Everywhere the issue of quantitative versus qualitative growth comes up. This is the entire issue of empire as people limited in number and energy and in the land they occupy have the choice of improving to the utmost political and economic management of their own land, confining themselves to such accessions of territory as are justified by the most economical disposition of a growing population or they may go along like the slovenly farmer to spread their power and energy over the whole earth tempted by the speculative value or the quick profits of some new market or else by mere greed of territorial acquisition and ignoring the political and economic wastes and risks involved by this imperial career. A nation may either follow the example of Denmark or Switzerland, put brains into agriculture, develop a finely varied system of

public education, general and technical, apply the ripest science to its special manufacturing industries and support in progressive comfort and character a considerable population upon a strictly limited area or it may like Great Britain, neglect its agriculture and allowing its lands to go out of cultivation and its population to grow up in towns, fall behind other nations in its methods of education and in the capacity of adapting to its uses the latest scientific knowledge. In order that it may squander its pecuniary and military resources in forcing bad markets and finding speculative fields of investment in distant corners of the earth, adding millions of square miles and of unassailable population to the area of the Empire. It is idle to attack Imperialism or Militarism as political expedients or policies unless the axe is laid at the economic root of the tree and the classes for whose interest Imperialism works are shorn of the surplus revenues which seek this outlet. it is always a question when one speaks of imperialism, of the assertion of an aggressiveness whose real basis does not lie in the aims followed at the moment but an aggressiveness in itself and actually history shows us people and classes, who desire expansion for the sake of expanding, war for the sake of fighting, domination for the sake of dominating. It values conquest not so much because of the advantages it brings, which are often more than doubtful because it is conquest, success, activity. From the History 3 things can be concluded 1. the undoubted fact that object-less tendencies toward forceful expansion without definite limits of purpose, nonrational and irrational, purely instinctive inclinations to war and conquest play a great role in the history of humanity. As paradoxical as it sounds, innumerable wars perhaps the majority of all wars have been waged without sufficient reason. 2. the explanation of the functional need, this will to war, lies in the necessities of a situation in which peoples and classes must become fighters or go under and in the fact that the physical dispositions and social structure acquired in the past, once existent and consolidated, maintain themselves and continue to work after they have lost their meaning and their function of preserving life. 3. the existence of supporting elements which ease the continued life of these dispositions structures can be divided into groups. Martial dispositions are especially furthered by the groups ruling the internal relationships of interests and with martial dispositions are allied influences of all those who individually stand to gain, either economically or socially by martial policy. In the respected Committee the delegates must have a good know how of the topic with respect to the ideology and stance of the country assigned to them. He/She should be well aware of all sorts of Imperialism that has been taken place & are potential threat to the world. There are 3 important points

upon which the whole topic circulates, related Caucus and resolution would come from. 1. Are the imperialistic forces getting more powerful then the UN? 2. Does the UN need to make further amendments in its charter in order to implement them? 3. Are the strong allies of UN indirectly the biggest violators of Human Rights? The delegates should have a framework of how to prevent such imperialistic forces from violation keeping in mind the stance of their country on the issue. In order to have stronghold of their country in the committee session, the delegate should go through the Universal Periodic Review of their respected country. Also be well versed with the UN universal declaration of Human Rights http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ Look in the UN Charter - http://www.hrweb.org/legal/unchartr.html Remember your country stance & position while going through the above stated websites, it'll help you decide what your direction should be in the Committee. For further information join our Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/CBMUN.UNHRC The page is being updated since a month on daily basis with articles & issues the delegates should be aware about and are important to be discussed in the respected sessions. Indirectly it is an extension of the study guide, so I would prefer you go through it well. Feel free to ask questions on the page and no stress, Once you start working on it you'll feel the charm.