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**VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
**

OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

**Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
**

To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant

x x = constant

(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z

xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/

/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\

: (0, 0, 0)

I

y

Z y

Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1

(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z

x 2 + y2

The circle

= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

**FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
**

the plane z

=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +

=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

•

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1

Geometric Interpretations of Equations

In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

**Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
**

In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

**space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
**

S.

= 0, 2 x + y2

2

z = 0

=

4. x = I, Y = 0

z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0

X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0

19.

a.

y

= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.

Xl

0 '" Y s 1

1

x2

+ y2 + z2

+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1

Z

+ y2 + z2 >

+ y2 :s

1,

Z

10. x 2

11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2

C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0

b. x

=

S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4

b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s

z = 0

Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y

b. z =

x 2,

y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,

X

no restriction onx

=2

662

Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

**Distance and Spheres in Space
**

The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

**The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
**

IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give

IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So

IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

IPIA 12

Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

**IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
**

=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore

•

EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is

IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f

= =

Z

+

25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+

I"::j

V45

6.708.

•

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

**The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
**

(x - xof

Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

-2. 3.Vz)' + . 3.2. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. -3). 55. 0. The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0.4. -1. y. 4. 41.2. y = 2. + + +++ 9 58. 5).3) 52.664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. x-axis b. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. ++ + 57. z-axis Center 51.+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. P 2(2. 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. and C(3. x 2 y2 z2 4x . 45. The circle of radius I centered at (-3. 0. 63. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33.Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. xz-plaoe c. z) to the 37. -2. 1. 0.2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b. 0) 66. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. z) to the 39. Distance In Exercises 41-46. 3. x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47. Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. 0. 25. yz-plane c. 7. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. y. -5). open sets leave them out) a.3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. 0). 4. I. 62. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres. I). 0). -7. I. 3. (-I. 0. -2). -2) 26. Closed sets include boundaries. 0. 0). (Closed means the spheres are to be included.2)' = 8 48. I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b. y-axis c. P2(0. I) parallel to the L b.5) 53. P I (3. (3. (0. 5). 5). I). -1. xz-plane 61. I. 2 units from the point (0. z-axis 27. B(I.-t) x2 54. xy-plane c. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. 65. xz-plane c.3) andB(4. The plaoe througb the point (3. +(y . The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. The line through the point (I. (x . yz-plane b.4z = 0 35. 43. 4. 3. P2(2. z-axis at (0. -I. 4) P2(2. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. -I. 0. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. 0) P2(4. xz-plane 28. thepoint(O. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2. . I) 40. P I (5. b. 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59. open means endpoints left out.0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58. The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. 2. 64. The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin. -1. Radius 31. y-axis b. Pl( -I. y-axis c. (1.5). Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0. 0. yz-plane b. The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. 5. I) and. yz-plane b. Had we wanted the spheres left out. and (2. 1. I). 42. PI(O. 0). 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. Show that the point p(3. Pl(l. 0) x-axis at (3. y-axis at (0. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. 0. -2) In Exercises 25-34. The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I.t. 30. I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . (0. -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0. at 1Ire saroe time. and z = 2 +++ 56. -I. 2. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. 2. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. 2) and the xy-plane. 3). yz-plane c. The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a.4. z-axis 60. 0.7) b. The plaoe througb the point (3. (0. 0) c. PI(I. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40.

10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin. In textbooks.) y AB is called a vector. ii. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle. to denote a force vector. They therefore represeot the same vector. for example u. y FIGURE 12. length. or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12. andF. such as F. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length. lV.9) regardless of the initial point. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is. To describe a body's displacement. v. displacement. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength.7). We need more information to describe a force. To describe a body's velocity. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length.!. We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. We can specify v by writing the PQ.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space. and w. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object. In handwritten form. To describe a force. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen. for example ii.2 Vectors 665 12. displacement. To record mass. we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space. vectors are usually written in lowercase. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force. boldface letters. or time.12. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit. For example.10). and point in the same direction (Fignre 12."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I. Figure 12. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v. or velocity.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. PQ . it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. for example. we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13. are parallel.8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space.

Thus (u" U2.Yl.Y2. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2). then Xl + VI = X2.X" V2 = Y2 . V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2.666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2. In summary.Yl). 0). and V3 are the components ofv. the standard position vector v = (v" V2. With this understanding. denoted by the symbollvl orllvll. There is no third component for planar vectors.' PQ is the nonnegative number X. VI = X2 . and U3 = V3.X" Y2 .10). U3) and (v" V2. V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2. v. Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2. EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( . V2 = Y2 . Thus. 1) and terminal point Q( -5.) when v is in standard position. If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2. we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector). V3) of real numbers. bers If v = (V" V2. and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. Yl + V2 = Y2.Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ. Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 . where the initial point is P(x"y" Z.10). if v = (X2 .(-3) = -2. V3).3.y"Z2 .y" Z2 . v.Y2) as points in the plane. So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers.zll' (see Figure 12. In particular. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv. 2). 0. Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates.) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 . 4.Zl).Yll' + (Z2 . then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2. then the component form of v is v = (V" V2).X"Y2 . The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations. Z2). This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction.Zl are the components of PQ.Y2.4 = -2.Yl = 2 .X" Y2 . and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2.) and the terminal point is Q(X2.)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 .). Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical. v. 0) or 0 = (0. The numV2. Z2). and V3 = Z2 . .Xl = -5 . then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v. 2. then v = (X2 .

b).---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12.?) "" 14. U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors. A scalar is simply a real number.. (b) The parallelogram law of . • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication. ku3) + V2.... The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12.11). whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2).I = I.12 vector addition. given by FIGURE 12. I).. . (u" U2) and (Vb V2). Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. Addition: Let u = (u" U2.. DEFINmONS scalar.12.. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication... (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn. -2. negative.. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar..11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(.14 lb.2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 . U3) and v = (v" V2.12a. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2. y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3. The component form of PQ is v = (-2. .. What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a..12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ . where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other. Scalars can be positive. The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components.

Properties orVeetor Operations Let u.6.2) = WVU." V2.v. + U" V2 + U2. The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction. U3 + V3) (v. gives u. V3) (u.1) and v = (4. .3. U3) v + u.v" U2 . if k < 0.27. In physics.3.2) (h) u . u + 0 = u 5. (b)u . where the smn. accelerations. w be vectors and a." U2. Figure 12.7. Comparing the lengths of u and ku. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u.V2. Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1. U3) + (v." U2. 4.7.0) = (-2.14b shows the difference u . (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar. is the diagonal of the parallelogram. I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u. 1. Find the components of (h) u .13 Scalar multiples ofu. So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces.2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul.-4. The difference u .u+v=v+u 3.0) = (-5.v) to v gives u (Figure 12." V2.v = u + (-v). then (a) u . Note that (u .14a). b be scalars. .)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u. we see that lkul = V(ku. and so on. 8. V3).3.0) = (10. (a + b)u = au + bu 2. For instance.(4. to establish Property 1. so adding the vector (u . // FIGURE 12. Ifu = (u" U2.vas the smn u + (-v).V3). 6.7. U3) and v = (v" V2.21. we have u +v = = = = = (u.1 .14 (a)Thevector u . called the resultant vector. v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1.668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition). a(bu) = (ab)u 9. Figure 12. forces add vectorially as do velocities.3 -7.0) = (-1 .4.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v). = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic.v (e) + 3v I!ul. U3 .1) (e) FIGURE 12. V3 + U3) (v. is obtained hy adding the two force vectors. If k > 0. for example. v.v = (u.2 + ui + u.0). 1) + 3(4.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u.1) . when added to v. V3) + (u. then ku has the same direction as u.v) + v = u. + v" U2 + V2. Ou = 0 7.v= (-1.2) + (12.

Aoy vector v = (Vh V2. we say they are coplanar vectors. For example.2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane. 1) + V3k. Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector.15).4j is a velocity vector. and k = (0. express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion.Y2. 0. The standard unit vectors are i = (1. 0) + (0. 1.5 J · . Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P.0.P2 by its length: P-. V3) = (VI> 0. 0. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v. 1) to We divide P-. 0).15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 . v. 0) = Vii + (0. The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3.P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 . and u + v are always coplanar.0). V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2.4.1).(l. Z2) is x (Figure 12.I)k = 2i + 2j 1= .(Xh Yh z.12.0. FIGURE 12. 0) = vl(l.xl)i (Z2 . and V3 the k-<omponent.O)j + (0 ./>2 (X2 . 2.0.1.P2. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3.YI)j + That is.P2 IP-. • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i .k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P.1n component form.0.0) + V3(0. Wheneverv oF O. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5. V2.0). 5 = 5' . the vectors u. called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv.ZI)k. We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v.) to P2(X2.itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-. the vector from P. V2 the j-component. V3) + v2j + V2(0. j = (0.

4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 . Direction of motion • (speed) In summary.1 is a unit vector in the direction of v. Y2. IfvoF 0. 4.k = 6__.0) andP2(7. we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features. I . Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction.ti). Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I. I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i . 1. To see why. The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2. EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i .670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi . Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2. Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 . Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3. • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry.16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. For example. • ._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ).k . the equation v = Ivll.16) that o FIGURE 12. then 1. -2.1 expresses v as its length times its direction.k. the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging. 2. length and direction. observe (Figure 12. by writing v = Iv II.

and its new clirection is about _ 6. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°. It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°. u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°.4 tan-I '" 6.18a. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind. Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north. The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v. ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°. acquires a new ground speed and direction.17). flying due east at 500 mph in still air. then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12. as shown in Figure 12. we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0. then the component forms of u and v are u = (500.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538.17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538.4 mph. because of the wind. Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object. The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and . IF2Isin400).67N.18 in Example 9. Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation. the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75. The airplane holds its compass heading due east but. The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea.12. .5° north of east. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0. FIGURE 12. encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east.50 Figure 12.75.2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation. What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12.18b).35\1'3). 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. ° _ cos 40° sm40 .0) Therefore. The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57. 70 sin 60°) = (35. N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner.75). +v = = (535.

head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector.0. express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k.0.v d. The vector from the point A = (2. f"md the compooent form of the vector. 0. I) andB is the point (-10.vifu = (I. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction.18 N. u .76). Vii + c. u . is the point (I. 3) to the origin where A=(I.08. 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b.u+v+w 17. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b. and .2u-3v 7.5).5k 29. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1. -8.3) andB is the point( -1. 2u . letu = (3.0). where P = (1. u . The sum of AB and C = (-1.27.3).v 6. 0) and P2 is the point (. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15. 7. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I.P2 if P. The force vectors are then F.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30.2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!. x-axis 14.5) 21.08. 9.u+v+w d.2) and v = (1. P-. 9. copy vectors U. v. = (-33. The vector PQ.3) 11. I.8. -2) and v = (-2.andD = (-2. -2u 8. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0.P2 if P. • Exercises 12. -I) and v = (2. whereR = (2. u +v 4 5. 5u . v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k .3.3) 22. -2) 18. I) AB ifA is the point (1. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16.. -2v 4.w oP c. -I) and P2 is the point (2.9i-2j+6k 20. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector. AB ifA is the point (-7.. 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24. -I) 10.B=(2.3) and Q = (2. 2.u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22._I_j __I_k 26.47.-I). 3. The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS.2) 13.672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43. 1.24) and F2 = (33. 25. P-. is the point (5. cD. 2. 5) 19.4.v 24. -I) andS = (-4.2i+j-2k 27.1. _I_i . 12. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16.0. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30.

-3. a> 0 TI 1 . find 35' a.) 43. fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF. aod b.TI _I_i 4. 0) P. and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here. and w = i . where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w. 2 b. 5) 37. v = i + j. Try to do the calculations without writiog. fmdA. i _. j +1 k 777 46. .2.TIl .3). 1j + i 5 5 k d.P. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. ZI) to P.2 31.(2. and the y-axis points north. Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. a. (Continuation of Example 8. Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI.6. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. b. 42. -2. 0) 39.j. the direction of p-. At what point is the tree located? b. = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2. Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i . Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a. I. 40' c'IT d.(1/2)j . It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. is 100 N. 7 b. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. 4. Linear combination Let u = i . aod w = i + j. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33. If the magoi1ude of vector F. 1.i 5 3. PI(O.(4. 48.2k aodB is the point (5. (See Exercise 41.12. P I (3. are both 75 N. If AB 40. Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. 44. Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB. Try to do the calculations without writiog. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. 7 . 5) 36. then angles a and fJ are equal. B. 49.. 32. 4) P. the Theory and Applications 41. Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east.(x"y" z.(1/2)k. IfAB P. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i . a 35.. Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest. -2) fl = i + 4j . Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38. 51. Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF.) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45.7) P. Find a. a.6). assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north. -2.5k. 50. Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh. the midpoint ofline segment PI P. 4. 3. v = 2i + 3j. Write U = UI + U2.(2.(2.2j. 34. PI(I. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47. 5.fmdB. 0. At what point is the telephone pole? plane. Length Direction -j a. Medians of a triangle Suppose that A. where it stops to rest 00 a tree. PI( -I. 5) 38.. Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. v2 13 _li . V3 "2 1 -k c. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N.

we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O. 3.2. The angle 0 is the angle between u and v. B(l. A(4.19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12. After investigating the dot product. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c. Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle.2). Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar.1. and C(-1.m. 0) 52. where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. Suppose that A. b. I.19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!. 56. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 . .20).-1. 2.obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction.3). 12. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied. V3) is given by oFIGURE 12. Figure 12. 1f (Figure 12. Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. 0 . If they do lie along the same line. C(I.20 The angle between u and v.. U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2. 3) · c. the midpoints of the opposite sides. A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product. v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) . If the vectors do not lie along the same line. the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them. 0) M 55. In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components. this point is the center of mass.674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion. not necessarily planar.-1). v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v.. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon.. the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. Show thatAa + Bb + Co o. B. (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. and c are.. Before proving Theorem 1. Section 6.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path. Let ABCD be a general. not a vector. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. B(2.6. Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j.19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement. quadrilateral in space.

3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul. V2.' + vl + vi (V(U1 .21.V1)2 + (U2 .v. we have V V U2 V2 0 . V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1.-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 .21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u .U3 . we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 .v.SO FIGURE 12. 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 . Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8). U2)' (Vl.V2.21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 .Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T. not just for rmding the angle between two vectors.-1)'(-6. V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2.' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v.' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u . lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv. We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane).2. Section 1.V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore.V2)' + (U3 .C:I'I:I)' .U2 .Iw1 2 . U3) and v = (Vl. + ul + ul)' = u.vd + (U3 .)2 + (U2 .V3)2)' (U1 . the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul.thecomponentformofwis(U1 .cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) .-2.3) to the triangle in Figure 12.12.V3).v. U2. - • In the notation of the dot prodoct.Vl.

+ (-2)(6) = O.22 The 1riangle in Example 3. = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2). y B(3. we have v'13 '" 78. The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12.6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) .2j . If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0. (b) u = 3i . + (-2). -2) and v = (4.1 0 = 1f/2.3). We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 .C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1. and C = (5. Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal. Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2. <a> u = (3.2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors. = (-5. Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB.5).22). O).B = (3. then cos () = 0 and () = cos. - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O.676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i . - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors. Then applying the angle formula.36 radians.5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0. -2) and cE = (-2.10 or 1. eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2).6 . DEFINITION ifu'v = O.4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2). The converse is also true.76radians.2) (Figure 12. = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos. we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O. calculate their dot product.

The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov. U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3. The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force. v. If Ii is obtuse. 1.0. u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. cos Ii < 0 and proj. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute.v) ( Ivl2 V.24). -vi proj. here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3.25). u ("the vector projection ofu onto v").u = (lui cos Ii) v proj. U3) = (O)(Ul) = o.24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u. O) • (UI. V2 + W2. U'U = lul 2 5..v) v ( Ivl Ivl u. U'V = V'U 2. U2. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar.0·u=0. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI. For instance. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu.23 u onto v. u. then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12. (v + w) = (UIo U2. FIGURE 12. In both cases. u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl.. FIGURE 12. The notation for this vector is proj.3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1. HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition.12. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars). R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. Ivl . posed in the opening to this section.u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'.23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS. then 1.

We demonstrate this in the next example.2J .2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI. EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv.2k 6-6-4. Ivl2 UOT. The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = . To summarize.I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i . EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv.2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors.t j . .3j and .2j . Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i . (uov)v.2j . uov -1(i .tk) 2 .2k) = .!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O. which is the direction of v). . onto v = i . oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v). proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (.

which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D. lO J . u (which has the same direction as v).26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 .u + . F = = 5 .3j) 1+9 = -. . F·D. 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u . So the equation . If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12.. the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd. That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion.!. Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6.3j) = -TO' 1 . u = pro).andO = 60°.u) = (u.pro).v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors. (u .12.26). DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D. If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction. • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space. u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj. then PQ FIGURE 12.6 --- vi + 9 v'W.. + 3 .6 (i .proj.3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj. EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons).. the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D. (i 10 .(u. IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m.v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u .

3k.4). and c are the d. v = 2i + 10j . '11') .V2 are orthogonal. the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1.B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" . 7. B = (2. the vector projy u. 6. O). Angle Between Vectors 12. v & v = direction cosines ofv. v = 5j . I). Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction. 18. b. cA A y 19. {3.2k v=-i+j+k 10. 13. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a. 4. .2k.680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12.B = (0. lvi. Show that and CB are urthogona1. a :s. 16. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian. Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector. TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. b. 14. = (:n.B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. v = lOi + 11j . u=i+v2j-v2k. In the accompanying figore.3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8. and C = (I. Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular.2j + k. u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. These cosines are called c.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT). u = -2i + 4j . Showthat cos a = u. 9. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I.v=-i+j. v = 2i . fmd L V' a. Sums IUld dilJerence. lui a Fr' cos.7j. 1. I). Unit vectors are built from direction cosine. and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. u 2i + u Wj = (:n. Is this mere coincidence. -2). andD = (4. u=2i+j.Theory and Examples 17.0). it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . 11. u = V3i . u = 2i .4j + Vsk. 3. the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v. 5.3). C = (3. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j . 15.11k. Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB. Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. then a.Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k.

Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. show by direct O.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O.2). 23. How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds.2j Work 41. tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. v v 2i + 3j 3i . a.f'mdv·ut.2). 10). if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0. 33. (This fact is often exploited by carpenters. Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9. Then sketch the line. -7). use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v.S lb.3j 35. 3). I) (distance in meters). P(O. Copy the axes and vector shown here. 29. calculation that (u . Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. A force F 2i + j . I). 32. use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal. 34. P(-2. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is. y 60' magnitude f"". Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v. JustifY your answer. v -2i + j 36. When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl.P(-1.proj. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v. Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I.canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v. Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals.P(2.1). Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity. Under what circumstances. CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication. show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v. 21.e 27. Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. v 2i . Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line. Give reasons for your answer. Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2. Then shade in the points (x. 24. does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42. In Exercises 33-36.j.148 N (13S. 37.) 22. Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here. In Exercises 37-40. P( -2.j -i . u) • projy u 30. Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2. b. 25.375 Ib). At this level of effort.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line. 39.3 The Dot Product 681 20. P(I. if any.12. L2 L2 reasons for your answer. . we can cancel the u and conclude that V2. P(ll. 26. if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O. 40. P(I. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx .3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i . U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines. Then sketch the line.2j 38. -2). about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43. lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44. v v i .

Ifu and v are not parallel. -V3x+2 50. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule.4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero. TIris way. x 1. (ru) X (sv) 3.27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. 45. the cross product is a vector. We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. If one or both of u and v are zero. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components. In space. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product. 46. u X (v 4.V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. (rs)(u X v) 2. the second of the two vector multiplication methods.(u'v)w . and w are any vectors and r. 49. v. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12. we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. V3y 3 1 (1 . and applies only to vectors in space. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n. 12x + 5y 1. we also define u X v to be zero. when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. Properties of the Cross Product If u. 2x .682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47. they determine a plane. Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows. u X (v X w) (u'w)v . 48. We study the cross product in this section. s are scalars. Unlike the dot product. then 1. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition). we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting.27). v X u O.2y 12. V3x . The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6. The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product.y x + V3y -2.

Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. (See Additioual Exercise 17. Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height. Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3.12. and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 . j.28). notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results. your thumb points the opposite way. cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w). but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k .28 v XU. + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8. j.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v.U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. As a rule.) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i. and k. the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system.30). Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector. for example. Property 5 is a detmition. j. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12. Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12. we find (Figure 12. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember.29 The pairwise cross products ofi.29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o. Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i.4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12.

3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i.2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k. Taking values from Examples 2 and 3..) PQ = PR = . and R( -1.lbl b'l Ct C3 . -I.l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I .0). 0). 1.. Q. -1. PQ X PR = (2 . So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form.2). . then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad . k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i .comlthomas.2) (Figure 12.I). _a. • . Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k.18 + 10 = 2 (For more information.6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j .1. see the Web site at www..l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 . and R( -I. • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I. 1.k (-I ..lbl b'l + a. + 1(6 + 4) = 10 . -1).2) (Figure 12.. ":/ :. we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I..(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k. // .3) .. Q(2.31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2).be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) . I.- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I. . andR is .... Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P. The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2.. ------ O.0). -I). Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane.. Q(2.. or 3v'2..I.O)k = i + 2j . ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3). FIGURE 12.684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant. Q(2. its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane.31).aw. andR(-I. I v'2' + v'2 k..(.O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I.31). In terms of components.. 1.10k • = -5(1 . Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors. I. -1.

Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel. .4 ft-lb (Example 5). Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12. we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI. V2. height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12. Ifthe force F in Figure 12.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped. The bar rotates counterclockwise around P. or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n. v.94) 56. FIGURE 12. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12. meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle.33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu. and w (in that order). the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants. v.32). The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r. torque exerted by F at P is about 56. and w (Figure 12.32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base .32 is parallel to the wrench.4 ft-Ib. If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8.33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0. V3). The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector).32. then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F. This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well. ii:---- or Ir X F I. FIGURE 12.12. we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate. In the notation of Figure 12. Component of F perpendicular to r. the torque produced is zero. The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application.34).

u = i . u=2i-2j -k. u = j + 2k. The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. 4. 1. u = i . v= j v= j + k 10. 12. v = i + 2j i X j. u=2i-2j+4k.686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram. (u X v). v = 9. v. -4 • Exercises 12. v j Xk 13. (u X v)·w = u'(v X w). v. u = -8i . we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v. v=O 2i. u = = 8.4k. v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu.k. Since the dot product is commutative.2j . u = ti - t j + k. u = 2i .4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. w is also called the hox product ofu. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin. v=i-k 2. Because of this geometry. -1 3 =-23. v = i . = 7j . u = i + j. Using the rule for calculating determinants. we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= . and w.k.j. By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u.4k.2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed. and w. The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k.u=i+j-k. v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14. S. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7.j . v= j v= i -3j = 11. v. u = i.k. v = -i + j 3. s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j . u 6. u = 2i + 3j. 14. we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value.

0). Which of the following are always true.O). I. andR. -I). The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22.2).w = -15i + 3j . A( -1. A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f.3).O. I). B(l. Iu I B(l. -2. (uXv)'v=O C(3.0). u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47. u X (v X w) d. Given nonzero vectors u. B(IO.O. 15. A( -6. (uXn)·n=O h. are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers. P(1.4). -I) .-:-.k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b. 47. to describe the followiog.k w 2k -i + 2j . 46. I. Let u. and w e.0). Q(2.2. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23. (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f.5) 37. v = j . -I). reasons for your answers. -2). are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e. w = i + k. Parallel and perpendieular vectors I. 7. a.i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i . Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases.et n = 5i . and w. e. 34. D(2. B( -2.'/Tj + ('/T/2)k. Answer in foot- pounds.2.4. 3. 0. -I). -1.5) D(4. A( -I. U'U = lul 2 g. R(O. 38.0) D(O. and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers. ifaoy. v. B(3. -I) p • p 36. D(O.uXv=-(vXu) C(3. aod IFI = 301b. Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P. 4). u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g. I). In Exercises 25 and 26.3k.2).i-j+k 21. and which do not? Give reasons for your answers. 2). 44. 25. B(O. 0). B(O. 0). u'n = lui e. 0. 41. C(5. I). whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w.0). Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j).2). -1. A vector orthognoal to u and v c. P(I. I).0. A( -6. (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u. B(I. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28.ct u = i + 2j . r = -('/T/2)i .3). A(1. -I). 35. B( -I. What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31. (uXv)'w b.12. B(0. A(O. C(9. 3) C(I.O). B(3. D(2. I) C(6. 2) = y. 26. 17. I) 16. A(I. a. 0). Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40. -I. A(I. 2. v. Which vectors.O. A( -5. v.5k. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. R( -1.-I) 42. -I). -5). Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0. Q. 24. u 19. u'(v'w) 32. 27. 45. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. Which of the following are always true. 39. as appropriate. Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18.2. I. 2. (-u) X v = -(u X v) d. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. 0. h.3). I) Q(O. a. I). ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. h. 18. A(O.0). B(2. if aoy. 0 e. fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. -2) 29.- C(2. v = -i + j + k.. -I. -4). 40.. I) Q(3. A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d. 2i 20.3) D( -4. Which of the followiog make sense. P(2. A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30. -1. 1. v.0). C(3. use dot product and cross product notatioo. verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. and w be vectors. C(7.uXO=OXn=O d. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. R(3. A(1. R(3. true? Give reasons for your answers. Whieh vectors. P( -2. 0. and w.u·v=v·n b. -I). a. and which are not always a. I. 1. 43.j + k. 8).3). C( -1.2i+j 22.k. A(O. What are the degener- ate cases? 33. A(O.3). -I. Q(2. I) C(2. -2) C( -2. I).4) C(O. I).uXv=vXu f.0). B(7.

PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I. Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2). Then !:. Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt. e2).xo)i FIGURE 12.2). TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0. Thus. and (b" b2). (ai. Yo. xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI. -4. y. y = Yo + IV2. 0. Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O. B(l. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space. Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo. y.. zo). !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x. Explain your work.0).y. C(O. and planes in space. Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. 48. The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line. (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x. - 00 < I < 00 (3) . Yo. These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00. Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane.yoH + (z .!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k. y=YO+IV2. + (y . The expanded form of the equation P-. zo) paralle.YO.P = tv is o y (x . xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv.. Yo.). 12. (b" IJ. 0). a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line. -00 < 1< 00. z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo. line segments.35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-.35).P is a scalar multiple ofv. and D(3. Yo. zo). 00). We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book. In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line. 5). z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12. z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO.. Z = Zo + IV3. and the domain of I is (.is the set of all points P(x.688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. and (q. 49.zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo. (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). 2. 0). a2).5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines. -3.00.

2)j + (4 . 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2. z = -3 + 71. We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41.31. but so can the parameter. We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values. Y = 41.2. We could have chosen Q( I. 0. in this case.4). = = (I .4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3. Q(I. -3) and Q(1. Yo. Yo.2 . 2.12. • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo. -I.4) and vii 2i + 4j .4) parallel to + 4j .31. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t.y. y=2-31.21. -3) at I = 0 and Q(I. -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12. + 71.0.37). The equations x = -3 + 41 3 . "\. we first parametrize the line through the points. To parametrize a line segment joining two points. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment.zo) equal to (-2.0.37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ. and Equations (3) with (xo.4) (Figure 12.36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1.andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I. z = -3 + 71. 4. -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique. y = 2 .(-3»k 4i . zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v.31 3.(-3))i + (-I . -1.5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2.2. The arrows show the direction of increasing t. taking them.-1. • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1.2. + 41. -1. 0:51:5\. on the line passes through P( -3. zo) = (-3. y = -] .1=0 Solution With Po(XO.2k. Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3.y = 2 .YO. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12.2. -3) Y We observe that the point (x. y=2-31. P(-3. from Example 2: x = -3 + 41.31. 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first. Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q. z = 4 . Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change.36). 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21. z = -3 z = 4 + 71. we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction . Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO. -1.3j + 7k is parallel to the line.4) at I = \.z) = (-3 + 41.2k (Figure 12. Rewriting Equation (2).

EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I. which is Ivl FIGURE 12.3)j + (5 . the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion.I. 200v3. What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter.O)k = -2j + 5k .690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words. 1. 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3. we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12. the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO. 200v3). I). Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. When I = 10 sec.I)i + (I .With PS = (I . The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v. 3. 200v3) in space. I.38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8. where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3. Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter. z = 21. In the n. It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft. From Equation (4). the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k).Q1ation of the figure. 200v3.38). EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I.5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. which is the length of the vector r(IO). y = 3 . I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec. I.

Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(. where D . Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo. Thus. y. Simplifying. zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x .zo) Ax + By + Cz = D.Yo)J + (z . This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane. zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x. and z in the equation 5x + 2y . z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12.M I FIGURE 12.zo)kj 0 or A(x . The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D.3. became the coefficients of x.. the dot product n' PoP = o.(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = .P .Axo + l1. 0. This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y . • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J .z = -22.Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k..12.Yo. d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs .o.)'O.7) O. • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space . 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x .Yo) + C(z . we obtain 5x + + 2y .Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o.39). . y.. vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-.39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of...Xo) + B(y . Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO.5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[. A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation.z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22.k.

y = -1 + 2t.6y .0) + 2(y . Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line. Turning this around. The line is x = 3 + 14t.2z = 15 and 2x + y .1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . 0). . We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O. will do as well. 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k. z = 1St. 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection. EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z. we can take any point common to the two planes.40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02. EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x .1). Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3. -1. or 01 = k02 for some scalar k. 0).692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O. 0. The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well.2z = 15 and 2x + y . SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3). SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane. For example. To find a point on the line. and qo. 0.6y . 0. ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction.40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel. B(2.2z = 5. In our case. ° FIGURE 12. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74).2z = 5 intersect. ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect. we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate. SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12. if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it. Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line. 3.0).0) + 6(z . The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line.

/ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I.5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21. The point of intersection is (x. EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I. 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane. Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1. Solution The point y = -21.41). z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I . The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k. 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.1 . • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n.z)lt=-1 = 2. z = 1 +1 + 21.12.1) = (f.O).0.y. -21. .2. (0.0) FIGURE 12. the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane. that is. 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2. intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n.2.0. 1. That is.41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II).

The line through P(I. 1) (3. -2) 4. 0).O)k + 3k.2. 2. The line through (0.0) (1. 1. indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization. 9.2k. The line through the point P(3. 16.0.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals. The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6.3) and Q(3. 0). .3.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2. (0. 0). 0).1) .O)i i .1.12. Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment. -4. 15. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11.2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 . (0.0. 0. z = 31 7. The line through the point (3. 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/.1).1) and Q( -I. 0.-1. . 0.0) (0. (1.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1. (1. 2).694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts. 0.0).2z = 5. I.3/2) (1. If we take P to be the y-intercept (0. 3.2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y . The x-axis 12. 02 = 2i +j . 1.20. (1.2j + (1 .0. . 13.1). The line through P( -2. -7.3)j + (3 .1) 5. (0. 5. (2. 20. 1) parallel to the z-axis 8. 1. The line through (1.6y . The z-axis 1.0) 17. () = = COS-I cos.38 radians. 19. -2. . (0. 2. I.0) 14. (0.42). 0).4. Find the angle between the planes 3x . 1.6j . The line through (2. 0) and Q(1. • Exercises 12. The line through P(1.I. 3. then n = = (1 . The line through 3x + 7y . 18.I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1. 2. The angle between them is FIGURE 12.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13. 0. I) 3. (1.2k are normals to the planes.5z = 21 (2. 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7. (1.0. The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i . y = 2 .0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10. Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i .0) (0. 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12.

+ 41.3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48.(3. -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r. In each exercise.I.3). .I. x = 10 y= I +2t. -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y .-1. L3: x = 3 + 2r. fmd the point in which the line meets the plane. y = = L2: x 1 .0). -2.y + 2z = 7.5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. 4.2t. 35. z=l+s.3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{. The plane through (I.3). Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66.2j . z = -2 .z = 8? Give reasons for your answer. In Exercises 39-44.3x-6y-2z=3.z= -3 +48. 45. z = 5t.2x+2y+2z=3. Find a plane through the points PI(I. 28. 1. x = 2. y = 5 = I + 4t. 2x + 2y .x=I+21. 4y = -12. LI: x = 3 + 21. 4. tsken two at a time.0. 2x + y . Z = z = 2 . y = -3.2 = + 2 Vzj . are parallel. -00 30. x = 4t. L2:x= I + 4. 38. determine whether the lines. (0. y=31. Is the line x = I . Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2.31. 43. x + y . (0.t. The plane through (I. 2 Z Z = 1 . x + Y + z = I. Y = 3 + 21. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian. the flight paths of two planes in the sky). + 6.12). 5). y = • + 3. and x = • + 2. 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s. P2(3.0). 67. z = -48 . < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r. either they are parallel. 32. 44. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. -1. + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. x = -1 + 31. 3). I. (I.(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. The plane through A(I. Describe the reasoning behind your answer. 29. (0. y = -I + 41. + 6t. Z = 5. Y = 4 + S.6. -00 00 31.4. 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 . -2.2z = 2 48. or are skew. intersect. and (-1. Y = 3 . T.2s. 36. 7). for example.0 intersect. Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3.8) 25. -3. x + Y = 2 58. x .j + 3k. I. LI: x = I. find the point of intersectino.I. Find a plane throughPo(2.0.0.7) parallel to VI = 2i . -2. -1. 64. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. z = 4t + 3. 2x . 0) and the normal vector. y = 2+ -2 + 2r. fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56. 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . LI: x = I + 21. y = I z = -(1/2) . I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27.2y + 4z = 2. 49. = -00 < t< 00 57. z = 31 meets the coordinste planes. z = 4t 51. x=4-1. Y = -I + 2.0). 53. (2. find the distance from the point to the plane. Given two lines in space. x +y +Z + 3z = I. y = 1 T.0. -2.1. I) 24.Z = 3.2z = 5 60. Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj. Y + t. 46. or they inletseet. or they are skew (imagine. (2. y = -2. 40.3). z=31. Z <. z=I+I. y = 1 + 31. -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59. 33.4z = -12 55. 41. Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I. y=I+5t.12. Z = 21 z = -3 . 1 + ls. (0. 2x-2y-z=5 SO. 2. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10. 34.4). x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23. z = 1 + I. x + 2y + Z = 2. Y = -21. and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x . z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52. 5) normal to nl = i . I). -4. I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j . = -2 . In Exercises 29 and 30. (2. y=3+2t. z = -1 + s. and then fmd the plane determined by these lines. 54. (-1.I) normal to n = 3i . and (0. Y = 2 + 5t. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I. Ll:x = = -1 + t. 5x + y-z = 10. 2.x=I-I. 5x-2y= 11. y = -I . . 21. 61. -00 x=21. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37. y = 31 + 2. If they intersect.y= I + 2s. y=3s.-1). Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4. I. -00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38. and x = 2s + 2.k 22.(3/2)k. The plane through (2. 2). The plane through Po( 0. z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y . (0. -I).\12k. 5. y = -I .4s. z = 31. 2. Describe the reasooing behind your answer.5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31. 62. y = 2s + 4. 42. The plane through Po(2. x + Y = I. Theory and Examples 63.I. x+y+z=2 56. 39. (1.4). 0. find the distance from the point to the line.2.. + I.I. x = 5 + t.2j + k. y + 21. Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines.z = 3.21. (2. (2. -00 L2:x=2-s. 47. I. -I). lines.

43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. 2). What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12. and c. but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16. 73. 2) passes through the plate. 0). any point Q(xo.44). xo2. Suppose LI and L. we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces. Then. What do you find? 68. The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I . the generating curves are circles. y. .0.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 .696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b. Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo . We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes. How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A.? Give reasons for your answer. 69.x + B. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71. L ° z P(O.Xl. 1).. therefore. 0.YI. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t.z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo.0). we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. The line segment from (1. 2. where cylinder means circular cylinder. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines. Because of this. for Solution any value of z. Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. Your eye is at (4. Spheres are quadric surfaces. The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 . Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D. 0. Z = 3 + 2t. andzi..6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now. The point Po(xo. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a. 70.44). 74. 0) to (0. and z. (I. the point Q(xo.) 12.y. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing. and ( -2.y + C'z = D. Which planes have an equation of this form? 72. 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI. z). x02.. 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1. z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO. h.43). Zl) as a point on the yz-plane.. In this section. In solid geometry. Z = 0 (Figure 12. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo. the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. y.y = 2 .t." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12.xo2. 2. 00. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12. 0. but now we allow generating curves of any kind.. Regardless of the value of z. Conversely. are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer. 1. Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics. Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line.YI.

. and (0.. y. Any curve h(y. 0).. Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z . For instance..rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x. FIGURE 12. and E are oonstmJ. The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses. xOl.' .--.z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey. EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12. .. We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface... For example.. Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids. and then give II. O. .z) = c. any curve f(x.. ± b... ± c)..45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes.. r . D. . . when z = o. C.. I I -- \ . As Example 1 suggests." where A..ts. We fucus on the special equation .(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz ... Quadric Surfaces A quadric I. and z. The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids..6 Cylinder. and hyperboloid. r1 " .:'. 0. 1 _ . It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a... paraboloids.y) = c. z) = c. elliptical cones. . (0. any curve g(x.. : f . I . S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types.1"".E. In a similar way.lo .12. 0). The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis.. y ''f FIGURE 12... z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x. .. z).y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x. " >t-:.45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a.. We call it "the cylinder y _ xl. The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared. B.. / c /' . the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 . and Iz I :s c. Iy I :S h...44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO...

46). The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward.7. If all three are equal.1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces. c > o. To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis. The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 . y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a . IZo I < c. the cross-section is a hyperbola. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2). the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion. Part of the hyperbola y 2 . --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1).46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) . the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass. If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0. If any two of the semiaxes a.. If Zo is negative. but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation). Near the origin.X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----.(zoic) ) + b (1 .(zoic) ) = 1.(x 2/a 2) = z/c. EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12. We will say more about saddle points in Section 14. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface. . the parabola opens upward from the origin. b the parabola z = . To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas. _ Table 12.698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo. b. and c are equal. the surface is a sphere.c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0..2 a (1 . is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas.y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12.

• ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" .. 'Ibe p.."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ . 'Ibe e1Hpee - .6 Cylinder. HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' .. Tho PEIobolu _ ._1 . . .'..cV'i f . ."pImo " . .nbolu _ .1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces ../ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET .. .... and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12.>0 . . . . -T'---- .12. ill Ibo ". .. +.

4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36.y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30. 9 4 by the plane z . . 21. x _ y 2_ z 2 7. L . etc. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a . 25. with semiaxesa andbis7rab. L h• . 9.4.'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33. b.) b. Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a).4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34. x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3.z 2 +x:1.z :1=1 29.x:1+ y 2. match the equation with the surface it defines. d. . Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44. 14. X=z2_ y :1 11. ellipsoid.x2 +2z 2 _ S 9. 40. 4x:1 + = 9y2 28.y 2 _ 1 10.c as a function of c. x 2 +z2 _ 1 41. z= 1 +y2_X:1 35. x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I)..x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8. x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39. k.z=y2-1 16. 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y .(.t2 ELUPSOIDS 17. 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18.1: 2 _ y2 12.y=I-:x 2 -z2 26. Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+. z = _(X2 + y2) 43.c? . and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. 4x:1 20.z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4.. 4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES . . z=x:1+4y:1 23. of the cross-section cut from. Also. (y'/4) .y:1+ z 2=X 2 6..700 Chapter 12: Vector. y 31. L Express the area. (The area of an ellipse . z = _4. Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37. CYUNDERS 13.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24. f• . the ellipsoid . 9x:1 . . z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . c.6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12. 1. ..1. identify each surface by type (paraboloid. X2 +y2=4 15.x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45.t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19. 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5. X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n. 9.b .y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44. J. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42.

15. and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9.Chapter 12 46. 1. -3 -2 -2 -1 c. How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58. When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. cones. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. line segments. Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar. 49. 14. paraboloids. and planes in space? Give examples. you can. and its end radii are both r.y2. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. 3. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples. j. First. 1. 57. 7. a. -2 2 1 2.25 54. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular. 8. z = x 2 52. What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. How do you find equations for lines. 2. 9 . How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. -2 d. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h.5 2.= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. h > o. -3 h. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. 48. suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h. 17. z = y2. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. 16. c. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10. where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . 53. Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ . 11. z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. . Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. 5x 2 z2 . rotate the surface into different viewing positions. 13. z = 1 . -1 47. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples. The barrel is 2h units high. What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates. Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h. Find a formula for the barrel's volume. How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. and which are not? Give examples. Then check two things. by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. x x -0. its midsection radius is R.= a b2 c 3. 51. y y y y 2 y y 50.3y2 56. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples. Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second.

Z = 31. The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i . The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42. 40. fmd proj. 2i . -1.0. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. v2i + v2j 10. 44. . Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3. Planes. I) 18. u=i-j. In Exercises 21 and 22.3). Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . V'u.andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3. and the vector projection ofo onto v.andR. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. 1. -I). 13. 28. z = I + 41. 3) parallel to the vector v = . and u X v as vectors at the origin. !flvl = 2. 31. i + 2j . 19. Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k.j + 4k. In Esercises 17 and 18. v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39. lui. 5. For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j . 5v 2S. 34. 12. fmd the distance from the point to the plane. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. 2. 2. Lines.2.0. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c.y + 2z = -8 intersect.k 15.3i + 7k.fmd Iv .5k and v = -4i . 9.3. P. and w.3u-4v 3.j 11. v=2i+j+k. P(i. 32. the angle between v and u. x = -t. 0). Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22. 37. w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8.2). let u = (-3. In Esercises 33 and 34.Y . fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14.21.0). u=i. 29.2wl· 24. 43. -i . (6. U'v. y = 31. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20. u X v. Y = t. u.I. 16.y = 6 .5y + 2z = 6..8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21.3j + 3y +Z = 2 35. In Exercises 29 and 30. 1.4. v.u=i+j-k.2. (2. 41. v. Q(O. 21. 0) and Q(I. -2. (0. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x . 0. x = 2 + I. In Exercises 37 and 38. -2u 2.Q.6. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x . -5). Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I. y = -I . 10). P(i. -6). 0. Iwl = 3. R(O. 33. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20.etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2. I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6. Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x . . R( -1.j 8. The veetor obtained by rotating (0. 36. I). 1. (3. y = 2 + I.u+v 4. fmd the component form of the vector. 17. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k. Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4.u=i+j. x . v=i+j 23. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u. z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes.0). The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7. fmd the distance from the point to the line.1) Iv X u I. v X u.y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude. 38. v=j. fmd lvi. Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1. Q(2.4) and v = (2. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26. w=-i-2j+3k 26. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2. and Distances 27. Velocity vector v = (etcost . the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv.

The equation. I.i + j .2y+ z + 3 + k(2x . FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines. Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x . 48.-Ilt. e. -2).4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer.1)2 + z2 = I 68. The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2. the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y . 2.y. 2). x-axis? 57.i . (2i . x 2 + (y .2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x . (2i . (x + 2) + l1(y 046. o.3-t.I)j + zk) = 0 e. the vector projection of BA.1) .4(1. x=3+2t. 50. 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z . z = _(x 2 + y2) 71.O.0).O) and the line L2 through the points C(3. andD. Is v = 2i . What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y . -I) andD(4.andC . Is the line x = 1 + 2t. Quadric SumCt!!s 59. O)? 67.z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc. f.2. I) normal ttl the plane 2x . 2) and B(2. 26/') ""'D(16/'. 56. 0. 51. Q(3. The line L: e.i. Find D).y . C(I. 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76. Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A .B . 53. Xl+zZ=yl 74. Find the distance from the point (2. 0. planes.2-3t b. -1). 71.O. «x + 2)1 + (y . d.3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . the cosine of the interior angle atB.atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L.2i + 3j + kandv . 1) and the line through C(t. Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. on the three coord.Chapter 12 45.-1) and B(-I. 3).j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y .z = -4 in a point P.y .4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69.4). z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I . -13/'. through the points . 51. x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2.4 and orthogonaltot+J+k.3J + 3k)' b. b. B(I. 0). 2. C(l. y . 2. B(2. andR(-2. 4). (Continuatio1l o/Exerci. 60. -1.' P-. -3) and B(I. L (21 .na.2i .0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y . 2) 58.y . 2. The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) . 47. d. the area of the parallelogram. -2. onto iiC. -1) 55.i+ 2j + k. yl_x2_zl= 1 66. z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x . y = -2 + 31. Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z . 4.tJ.z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x . -13/'. I. 5. Shaw that for every real number k the plane x . Find the point in which the line through p(3. Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1. Thm project AC onto D. 3)paraIleltou . Find the coonIin.y + 2z = -2 meets the plane. X2 +y2=z2 73. 0.z + I = O. 4.) Find the distance between the line through A(4.4) . What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn. z .t? 49.2. I.I.2k. y=2t.I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O.z . 3.0. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D.!e 63. Find the distance from the point P(I.-l.91 Give reasoos for your 61. Find an equation for the plane through A(-2. I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76.j + k.3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. x .z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x . -1. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x . -I). o. 3) o 54. 0. X2 +y2_z2=4 75. ""'D(2. 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70. 63. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram. Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L.I)j + zk) 6l. y B(l. 64.j + 2k.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D. Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. 0). 65.6y + 10z . z=t c. "'" C(2. A(2.5y +22' = 6. Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I. 0) to the plane through A(O. -I).

where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires. socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in. -\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2. a. Due to system malfunctions.0) y 5. Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t. 1. 2) z x --- ----.5-in.0) x (0. HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. lands at (446. Y = -3 + lOt. 1. Two hours later.k. a. to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters. x = 6 + 11 Ot. As shown here. HI and H 2. The aircraft is due in 20 min. Four minutes ago. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle.0. Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram." If you are installing the plug with a lO. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1. 0.) 6. Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram. All coordinates are given in thousands of feet. 1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec. Y = -3 + 4t. 3. from the axis of the spark plug. and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i . 1) and. Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j . and angles a and {3.5.4 N· m). How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3. ship A is located at (4. the submarine was located at (2. At time t = 0. -1. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2. The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) . whereas ship B is located at (0. 0). 2). H2 stops its flight at (446. 13. 3. -1/3). -----_ B I (l. 13. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept.(I/3)k.6j . HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph.0). Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles. 5. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in. they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b. 0). in a negligible amount of time. Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed. are traveling together.J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4.704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA.

2y + z 3. and z. Z3). d. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results. can be defmed informally as follows. and Ax + By + Cz D. 8.z 12. 2i b.Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b. 2i+ j d.I. Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x . - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a. a. and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD .)I2. Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P. a. 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k. C. (u'w)v . although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v . u v w A D B a. 13. fmd w in tenns ofv and z. D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC. . Show that the lines c. Determinants and planes 11. D 2 2 B p C 1 b.) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' . + by.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . 14. For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT . Assuming Iv I Iwi. (AB X BC) O. and line. W. In the fIgure here. Yh Zt).Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . 16. 9.Y Y2 . Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal. 17. projp v.(v·w)u. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD. Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2.Y 0 and 3x .(XhYh z. and P3(X3. Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x . Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. Z2). Prove that four points A. For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7.Y + 2z -4 if the point (3. Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P. What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b.z 2x + 3y . and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L. B. c. The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector. This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v. 2. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. Use vectors to show that the distance from P. Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P.k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k . Determinant.fmdprojpv. Showthat XI X2 - 12.(u·v)w. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges. i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i . and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D. Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x . b. b3 -d3 15. and E is one·third of the way between C and B. Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt. i-j+k c. is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID.z 0 pass through the center of the sphere.D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl . with z orthogonal to the line L. 10. a.Y y. -I) is equidistant from the two planes.Y3. . P2(X2.

Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v. derive the trigonometric identity sin(A .(uXv). Show that w . and d. that is. v"r for any four nurohers a. .0 if and only ifu .706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u. and r are any 21. and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line. u for every vector u and that U' u . 23. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu . Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line. Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite.(wxr)_lu.-Iul'u'v X w.B) .ci u·r V'WI. Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w .(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c. Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors. then b.ai + bj and + dj.W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v . Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly.s and dot products vectors. Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors.Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v. w.cosAsinB. 0 19. 20. (Hint: Let u . c.sinAcosB .) Show that dot multipli- 22. Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image. Cro.O. v.lulvare orthogonal. show that u . b. u X v . Use vectors to prove that 18. 25. 24.

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