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**VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
**

OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

**Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
**

To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant

x x = constant

(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z

xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/

/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\

: (0, 0, 0)

I

y

Z y

Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1

(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z

x 2 + y2

The circle

= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

**FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
**

the plane z

=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +

=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

•

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1

Geometric Interpretations of Equations

In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

**Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
**

In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

**space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
**

S.

= 0, 2 x + y2

2

z = 0

=

4. x = I, Y = 0

z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0

X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0

19.

a.

y

= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.

Xl

0 '" Y s 1

1

x2

+ y2 + z2

+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1

Z

+ y2 + z2 >

+ y2 :s

1,

Z

10. x 2

11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2

C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0

b. x

=

S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4

b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s

z = 0

Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y

b. z =

x 2,

y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,

X

no restriction onx

=2

662

Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

**Distance and Spheres in Space
**

The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

**The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
**

IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give

IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So

IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

IPIA 12

Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

**IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
**

=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore

•

EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is

IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f

= =

Z

+

25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+

I"::j

V45

6.708.

•

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

**The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
**

(x - xof

Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

I). The plaoe througb the point (3.Vz)' + . Pl( -I. xz-plane c. b.4. I. 2. open sets leave them out) a. 3. The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. y-axis b. P2(2. -2. 43. 2 units from the point (0. +(y . I. 62. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. -I. 0) P2(4. 0) c. 3. Closed sets include boundaries. I).5) 53. 2. 4. The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I. 45. 0) x-axis at (3.4. xy-plane c. z) to the 39. -2).0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58. 4. 4. 0. 42. 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. 64. Radius 31. yz-plane b. -3). The line through the point (I. 55. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. P2(0. 0) 66. and (2. 7. P 2(2. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2. I) parallel to the L b. (0. Pl(l. Show that the point p(3. -2) In Exercises 25-34. open means endpoints left out. 2. 3. y-axis c. The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I. 2) and the xy-plane. Had we wanted the spheres left out. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. x-axis b. (0. y = 2. 0. 4) P2(2.t. 0. 0. and C(3. -I. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. -1. at 1Ire saroe time. PI(O. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40. P I (5. . The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0.664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. 3). -5). 5). -2) 26. I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. 63. B(I. xz-plane 61. z-axis 60.2.3) 52. yz-plane b. y. yz-plane b. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. I). I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b. 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0.2)' = 8 48. yz-plane c.-t) x2 54.2. (x . 5). 30. PI(I. x 2 y2 z2 4x . 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. 1. I. 65.4z = 0 35.3) andB(4. ++ + 57. Distance In Exercises 41-46. 0). -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0. x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47.3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. xz-plaoe c. (0. 41. (3. z-axis 27. -1. (Closed means the spheres are to be included. 0). The plaoe througb the point (3. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33. 5). I) and. 25. 0.+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. The circle of radius I centered at (-3. 0). -1. 1. z-axis at (0. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. 0. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. thepoint(O. 0). -2. 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59. (-I. 0. y. The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres. -7. (1. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. -I.2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b. 3. y-axis c. 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. 0. z) to the 37. 5. P I (3.7) b.5). and z = 2 +++ 56. 3. xz-plane 28. + + +++ 9 58. 0. I) 40. z-axis Center 51. yz-plane c. The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a.Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin. 0. Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. y-axis at (0.

8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space. To describe a body's velocity. lV. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction. displacement. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13. for example ii. for example.10). are parallel. a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object. we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going. we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure.12. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length. FIGURE 12.!. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength.9) regardless of the initial point. and point in the same direction (Fignre 12.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes. PQ . for example u. or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12. displacement. andF. They therefore represeot the same vector. To record mass. In textbooks. We need more information to describe a force. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length. or velocity.) y AB is called a vector. Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters. Figure 12."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. v. it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. To describe a body's displacement. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12. vectors are usually written in lowercase. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space. length. to denote a force vector. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. and w. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen. For example. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. ii. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle. such as F. In handwritten form. y FIGURE 12. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF.7). To describe a force. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is. We can specify v by writing the PQ.10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin. or time. boldface letters. FIGURE 12.2 Vectors 665 12.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space.

With this understanding. and V3 are the components ofv. the standard position vector v = (v" V2. then the component form of v is v = (V" V2). we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector). The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations. There is no third component for planar vectors. v. EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( .Yl. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2). 0. denoted by the symbollvl orllvll. and U3 = V3. 0) or 0 = (0. 2). Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 .) and the terminal point is Q(X2.666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2. The numV2. The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv. if v = (X2 .) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 .10).Yl). given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2. Z2).y"Z2 . then Xl + VI = X2. V3) of real numbers. Thus.Yll' + (Z2 . and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. 2. 4. This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction. Yl + V2 = Y2. In particular. and V3 = Z2 .Y2.Zl).Y2) as points in the plane. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. then v = (X2 . V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2. where the initial point is P(x"y" Z. then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2. VI = X2 . Thus (u" U2.)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 . and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2. V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v.Xl = -5 . v.). Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates. bers If v = (V" V2.X" Y2 .10). V3). Z2).4 = -2. Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2. 0). V2 = Y2 . U3) and (v" V2.) when v is in standard position. If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2.Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ. In summary.X" Y2 .X"Y2 . 1) and terminal point Q( -5. So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers.Yl = 2 .Y2.Zl are the components of PQ.X" V2 = Y2 .zll' (see Figure 12. v.3.y" Z2 . .(-3) = -2. Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical.' PQ is the nonnegative number X.

y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3.. or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors. U3) and v = (v" V2. Scalars can be positive... Addition: Let u = (u" U2. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar.---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12. ..12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ .. where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other. I).I = I. given by FIGURE 12. (u" U2) and (Vb V2). -2. (b) The parallelogram law of .11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication.14 lb.11).. A scalar is simply a real number. ku3) + V2.. The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12..12 vector addition..?) "" 14. DEFINmONS scalar. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2. What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a. .12a. The component form of PQ is v = (-2. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. b)...2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 . U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors. • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12. (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn. whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2).12.. The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components.. negative.

. v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1.v) + v = u.13 Scalar multiples ofu. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar. Comparing the lengths of u and ku. is the diagonal of the parallelogram. Figure 12.14a). Properties orVeetor Operations Let u.7. The difference u .v" U2 .6. so adding the vector (u . Find the components of (h) u . + U" V2 + U2. called the resultant vector.v= (-1. // FIGURE 12.0) = (-2. for example.2) + (12.21. I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l.v) to v gives u (Figure 12.1) (e) FIGURE 12. we have u +v = = = = = (u. = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic. If k > 0." V2.2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul. Figure 12.v = (u. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u.(4. The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction.0) = (10. to establish Property 1. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u. V3). (b)u . accelerations.3.3 -7. V3) + (u. when added to v. 4." V2. V3 + U3) (v. Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1.27. a(bu) = (ab)u 9. then ku has the same direction as u. is obtained hy adding the two force vectors. 1. forces add vectorially as do velocities.V3). we see that lkul = V(ku.1) .7.0) = (-5. v.1) and v = (4. where the smn.-4. (a + b)u = au + bu 2.14b shows the difference u . gives u. So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces. V3) (u.3.v = u + (-v).vas the smn u + (-v). . Ifu = (u" U2. 8. U3) and v = (v" V2. b be scalars. and so on.14 (a)Thevector u .1 .4. 1) + 3(4. U3 + V3) (v. 6. u + 0 = u 5." U2. U3) + (v.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u. U3) v + u.v (e) + 3v I!ul.2) (h) u ." U2. then (a) u . In physics. w be vectors and a. For instance.2 + ui + u.2) = WVU.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v). if k < 0.7.V2. Ou = 0 7. + v" U2 + V2.668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition).v. U3 .)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u. Note that (u .0).u+v=v+u 3.3.0) = (-1 .

For example. 1) to We divide P-.O)j + (0 .I)k = 2i + 2j 1= .1n component form. 0). express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion. 1) + V3k.0).) to P2(X2.15).P2 by its length: P-.5 J · . We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v. 5 = 5' .P2. the vectors u./>2 (X2 . v. V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2. j = (0.1.(Xh Yh z. V2. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v.Y2. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3.YI)j + That is. V3) + v2j + V2(0.xl)i (Z2 .k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P. 0. FIGURE 12. 0) = Vii + (0. and V3 the k-<omponent.P2 IP-. Aoy vector v = (Vh V2. The standard unit vectors are i = (1. V2 the j-component.0.2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane. 2. Z2) is x (Figure 12. Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector. the vector from P.4j is a velocity vector. 1. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5.1). • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i .0. 0.4.ZI)k. V3) = (VI> 0.0.12. and k = (0.P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 . The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3. 0) + (0. Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P. 0) = vl(l.0) + V3(0.itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-.15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 . and u + v are always coplanar. called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv.0).(l.0. we say they are coplanar vectors. Wheneverv oF O.

Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction. Direction of motion • (speed) In summary. EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i .k. 4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 . Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 . length and direction.k = 6__. 1. IfvoF 0.670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi .16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. then 1. we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features. Y2. Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2. -2. To see why.k . • . 4. observe (Figure 12. Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ). The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2. 2. • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry. I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i .1 is a unit vector in the direction of v.1 expresses v as its length times its direction. I . Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3.16) that o FIGURE 12. the equation v = Ivll. For example.0) andP2(7. by writing v = Iv II.ti). the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging.

Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation. then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12.4 mph. we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0. IF2Isin400). N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner.4 tan-I '" 6. acquires a new ground speed and direction. It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°. Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind. ° _ cos 40° sm40 . Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°.35\1'3). The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons. . The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0. 70 sin 60°) = (35.50 Figure 12.67N. because of the wind.12. encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east. FIGURE 12. +v = = (535. What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12. as shown in Figure 12.17). flying due east at 500 mph in still air. then the component forms of u and v are u = (500. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and . the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75.2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation.0) Therefore.17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538.18a.18b). The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538. ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°.5° north of east.75).18 in Example 9. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea.75. u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°. The airplane holds its compass heading due east but. The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8. 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. and its new clirection is about _ 6.

4. Vii + c.u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22.18 N.u+v+w 17. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction. 7. -8. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30.0. cD.3) andB is the point( -1. u +v 4 5. P-.47. and . 0. 25._I_j __I_k 26. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I.3) 22.andD = (-2. 5u . The force vectors are then F.. -2) 18.5).76).2u-3v 7. I. u . 9. 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b. -I) andS = (-4. -2v 4. u . head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector. The sum of AB and C = (-1. copy vectors U.3). = (-33.-I). The vector from the point A = (2.2) and v = (1. 3. 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24. The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS.08. 9. 2.0. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15.vifu = (I.u+v+w d. 5) 19. P-.08.672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0. -2) and v = (-2.2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!..3. letu = (3. x-axis 14. AB ifA is the point (-7. 2u .0).5) 21. u . -I) 10. 12.w oP c. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1.v 6.27. where P = (1. is the point (I. I) AB ifA is the point (1.0. • Exercises 12.2i+j-2k 27. _I_i . -I) and v = (2. 2.24) and F2 = (33.2) 13. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b.9i-2j+6k 20. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16.5k 29. whereR = (2. The vector PQ. 0) and P2 is the point (. v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k .P2 if P.v 24. I) andB is the point (-10.1. express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k. 1.3) and Q = (2. -2u 8. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector. 3) to the origin where A=(I. v.v d. is the point (5.P2 if P. -I) and P2 is the point (2.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30.B=(2. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16.8. f"md the compooent form of the vector.3) 11.

the direction of p-. (Continuation of Example 8.TIl . PI(O. V3 "2 1 -k c. is 100 N.6.) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47. a. v2 13 _li . Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. If the magoi1ude of vector F. 3. Write U = UI + U2.P. b. the midpoint ofline segment PI P.(1/2)j . j +1 k 777 46. i _. aod b. a> 0 TI 1 . v = 2i + 3j. Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east. It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. ZI) to P.2.-3. At what point is the tree located? b. fmdA. At what point is the telephone pole? plane.) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45. a 35. B. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N.fmdB. Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. 5) 37. Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i . where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w.12. 51. then angles a and fJ are equal. Try to do the calculations without writiog. IfAB P. .j. Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. 5. aod w = i + j. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI.(4. and the y-axis points north. Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. 50. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl.. Length Direction -j a. 34. the Theory and Applications 41. 42.7) P.2k aodB is the point (5. PI(I. = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2.(2. -2. find 35' a.(2. If AB 40. 40' c'IT d. I.(1/2)k. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest.. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33. 5) 38.(2.) 43. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i . 0) P. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Try to do the calculations without writiog. Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. 32. 48. are both 75 N. v = i + j. -2.5k. 2 b. 4) P. 4.. Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh. 44. 0) 39.6). -2) fl = i + 4j . assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north.TI _I_i 4. 0.(x"y" z.i 5 3. 4. 1. P I (3. Medians of a triangle Suppose that A. Linear combination Let u = i . 49.2j. 5) 36.2 31. where it stops to rest 00 a tree. and w = i . Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw. PI( -I. (See Exercise 41. 7 . Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF. and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. Find a. Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB. a. 1j + i 5 5 k d. 7 b. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.3). fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF.

If the vectors do not lie along the same line. (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon. this point is the center of mass. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!... and c are. Figure 12. Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar.6. quadrilateral in space. 0) 52. the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them.m. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12. Before proving Theorem 1. 0 . we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components. The angle 0 is the angle between u and v. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c. C(I.674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. I. 56. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion.. Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a. the midpoints of the opposite sides. A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product. B(l. B(2.19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement..2. not necessarily planar. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) .20).1. where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. Let ABCD be a general. 1f (Figure 12. v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12. If they do lie along the same line. 12. 0) M 55. .19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. 3. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv.obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction.2). the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions. Suppose that A. U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2.20 The angle between u and v. and C(-1.-1. Section 6. A(4. v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2.-1). B.3). 3) · c. After investigating the dot product. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other.19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO. not a vector. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied. 2. Show thatAa + Bb + Co o.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle. V3) is given by oFIGURE 12. b. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 . Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I.

V3). 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 . we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 .-2.thecomponentformofwis(U1 .V2)' + (U3 .U2 . U2.V3)2)' (U1 . Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8).4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul.21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u .U3 .Iw1 2 . U3) and v = (Vl.)2 + (U2 .2. we have V V U2 V2 0 .v. We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane).SO FIGURE 12.21.C:I'I:I)' . V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2.Vl.-1)'(-6. not just for rmding the angle between two vectors.21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 . - • In the notation of the dot prodoct.V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore. the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T.V1)2 + (U2 . V2.-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 .cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) . V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1.' + vl + vi (V(U1 .3) to the triangle in Figure 12.' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v.V2.vd + (U3 .' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u .12. lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv. Section 1.v.v. U2)' (Vl.3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul. + ul + ul)' = u.

The converse is also true.4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2).5).76radians. = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O. we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O. O). + (-2)(6) = O. -2) and v = (4.C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1. The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12. eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2). - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors.6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) .B = (3.5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0.676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i .1 0 = 1f/2. If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0. Then applying the angle formula. We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 . Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2.36 radians. Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB.3). (b) u = 3i .2j . and C = (5. = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2). + (-2). <a> u = (3. = (-5. calculate their dot product. then cos () = 0 and () = cos. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors. -2) and cE = (-2.6 .10 or 1. DEFINITION ifu'v = O.2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k. y B(3.22). we have v'13 '" 78.22 The 1riangle in Example 3. - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well.2) (Figure 12. Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal.

u = (lui cos Ii) v proj.3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3..12. If Ii is obtuse. U'V = V'U 2. v. u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl.24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u. U3) = (O)(Ul) = o. then 1.0. u.0·u=0. u ("the vector projection ofu onto v"). u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1. here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3.u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu.23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS.23 u onto v.v) ( Ivl2 V. Ivl .. The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars). -vi proj. V2 + W2.24). For instance. 1. then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar. In both cases. O) • (UI. The notation for this vector is proj. FIGURE 12. U2. cos Ii < 0 and proj.25). (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. FIGURE 12. posed in the opening to this section. R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12. HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition. U'U = lul 2 5. (v + w) = (UIo U2. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute.v) v ( Ivl Ivl u.

To summarize. onto v = i .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O.2J . We demonstrate this in the next example. which is the direction of v). uov -1(i . . The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = . . (uov)v. EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv.2j . oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v).2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI.tk) 2 .3j and . Ivl2 UOT.2k 6-6-4.t j .!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I . Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i . proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (.2k) = .2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors.2j . EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv.I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i .

Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6.6 (i . .u + ..26). the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space. If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction. That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion. (u . F = = 5 . the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D.andO = 60°.!. which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D. u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj.6 --- vi + 9 v'W. then PQ FIGURE 12.3j) 1+9 = -. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 . u (which has the same direction as v).pro).26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I. we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd. If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12. So the equation . IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m. EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons). DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D. u = pro).v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u . + 3 .3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj. lO J .. 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u .3j) = -TO' 1 . (i 10 .u) = (u.(u.proj.. F·D.12.v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors.

and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. These cosines are called c.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT). b. v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k. it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. Is this mere coincidence.7j. 4. v = 2i . = (:n. then a.v=-i+j. the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v. {3. Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I. a :s. Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction.Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. u = 2i . 13. b. 6. Showthat cos a = u. 18. and C = (I. u = -2i + 4j . TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. 11. Unit vectors are built from direction cosine. 1. 14.2j + k. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j .680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12.3k. 9. andD = (4.2k v=-i+j+k 10. cA A y 19. 3. and c are the d.Theory and Examples 17. u 2i + u Wj = (:n.3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8.3).11k.V2 are orthogonal.0). the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian. Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular. 7. u=2i+j. lui a Fr' cos. -2). Angle Between Vectors 12. B = (2. 16. v = 5j . v & v = direction cosines ofv. Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector. fmd L V' a. 5. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a. Show that and CB are urthogona1. C = (3. '11') . Sums IUld dilJerence. 15. In the accompanying figore. v = 2i + 10j .4). u=i+v2j-v2k.B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. . I). Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB. u = V3i . the vector projy u. I). u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. O).B = (0. lvi. v = lOi + 11j .4j + Vsk.B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" .2k.

148 N (13S.e 27. about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43. P(I. L2 L2 reasons for your answer. 10). b. 3). Then sketch the line. I) (distance in meters). 39. use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v.3 The Dot Product 681 20.) 22. 24.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O.3j 35.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line. 21. Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9. P(O. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx .2j Work 41. Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals. In Exercises 37-40. Then shade in the points (x. 29. P(I.3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i . Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. v -2i + j 36. Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line.2). Give reasons for your answer. Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I. In Exercises 33-36. . Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal. P(ll. At this level of effort. if any. 32. show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v. lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44. Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v. u) • projy u 30. 23. 26.f'mdv·ut. v v 2i + 3j 3i . a. 25. P( -2. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v.2). Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here. -2). How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds.canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v. use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v.1). Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl. When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. v 2i . 34. CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication. Under what circumstances. P(-2.j. Copy the axes and vector shown here. I). A force F 2i + j .S lb. Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2. Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is. Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2.j -i . y 60' magnitude f"".P(-1. we can cancel the u and conclude that V2. calculation that (u . Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0. JustifY your answer. 40. -7). Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity.2j 38. if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O. Then sketch the line. (This fact is often exploited by carpenters.12. 37.P(2. tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. 33. v v i . U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42.375 Ib). show by direct O.proj.

we also define u X v to be zero. 48.27). the second of the two vector multiplication methods. The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product.2y 12. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n. they determine a plane. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. 45. 49. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12. Unlike the dot product. TIris way. we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. We study the cross product in this section. The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition). and w are any vectors and r. In space. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. -V3x+2 50.(u'v)w . and applies only to vectors in space. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6. V3y 3 1 (1 . V3x . Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows. we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting. x 1. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule. (ru) X (sv) 3. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. u X (v 4.4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12. Ifu and v are not parallel. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product. 2x .27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v.y x + V3y -2. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. s are scalars. then 1. The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space. 46. when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. 12x + 5y 1. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero. v X u O. v. Properties of the Cross Product If u. (rs)(u X v) 2. the cross product is a vector.682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47. u X (v X w) (u'w)v . We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. If one or both of u and v are zero.V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero.

U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 . for example. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12. j. Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3. and k.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v.28). Property 5 is a detmition. Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i. j. \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system.4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12. your thumb points the opposite way. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8.) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i.30). Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember.29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o.12. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector.28 v XU.29 The pairwise cross products ofi. + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. j. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results. the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3. (See Additioual Exercise 17. cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w). notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u. we find (Figure 12. but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k . As a rule. Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12.

. ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3)..- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I.31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2).18 + 10 = 2 (For more information. Q(2.(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k.. PQ X PR = (2 .6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j . 1. // . 0). ":/ :.. we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I. Q(2. Q.O)k = i + 2j ..be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) . or 3v'2. -1.k (-I ..(.0).3) .. -1).aw. Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k. -1." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2. and R( -1. I.10k • = -5(1 . see the Web site at www. The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this. Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane... ------ O. then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad .. • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I.lbl b'l Ct C3 .) PQ = PR = . In terms of components.comlthomas. FIGURE 12.. Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P...684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant.I).I. 1. Taking values from Examples 2 and 3. -I).3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i.31). ..2) (Figure 12. So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form. andR is . -I. andR(-I. + 1(6 + 4) = 10 . . Q(2. and R( -I. I v'2' + v'2 k. its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane. I.2) (Figure 12.2).lbl b'l + a.2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k.l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 . Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors. 1.l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I .O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I.. k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i . • .1.31).0).. _a.

Component of F perpendicular to r. we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI. If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque. Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped.34). and w (in that order). or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n. Ifthe force F in Figure 12. Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12.33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0. ii:---- or Ir X F I.32 is parallel to the wrench. v. The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application. the torque produced is zero. This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well. FIGURE 12.4 ft-Ib. . we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate. FIGURE 12.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants.4 ft-lb (Example 5). V2. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12. V3). The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector). The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r.32).94) 56. height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12. torque exerted by F at P is about 56. meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81. then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F.33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you. The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base .32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8. The bar rotates counterclockwise around P. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu. and w (Figure 12.12. v. In the notation of Figure 12.32. the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u.

The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. v. u = 2i + 3j.k.j.2j . and w. v. v = -i + j 3. u=2i-2j+4k.686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram. we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= . u = i . v = i . = 7j . we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v. v j Xk 13. w is also called the hox product ofu. 14.u=i+j-k. The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j .4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. 4. -4 • Exercises 12. v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu. v. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7. u = i. u = i + j. Because of this geometry. v=O 2i.4k. Since the dot product is commutative. By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u. 12. u = = 8. we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value. (u X v)·w = u'(v X w).4k. 1. u 6. v= j v= j + k 10.j . u = 2i . u = -8i .2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed. Using the rule for calculating determinants. v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14. v= j v= i -3j = 11. S. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin. and w. u=2i-2j -k. u = i . s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u. v = i + 2j i X j.k. -1 3 =-23. u = ti - t j + k. v = 9. (u X v). u = j + 2k. v=i-k 2.k.

C(5.3).5) D(4. Parallel and perpendieular vectors I. -4). (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f. 45. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. A(1. 43. A( -5. r = -('/T/2)i .O). C(9. A(1. A(I. 0. B(I. and w be vectors. I) C(6.u·v=v·n b. I). B(O.O. w = i + k. verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. 1. (-u) X v = -(u X v) d.i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i . I). B(0. A(O.et n = 5i . B(7.0).'/Tj + ('/T/2)k.4. 1. Q.0). (uXn)·n=O h. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer.uXv=-(vXu) C(3. 40. I). B(3. I. What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31. -I).2). -I).0). 0). A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30.0. a. 0). Whieh vectors. -5). Which of the following are always true. ifaoy.O. a.2). A( -1.2). 4). (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. A vector orthognoal to u and v c. true? Give reasons for your answers.0). C(7. Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0.4). 0). D(2. A(O.w = -15i + 3j . Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases. 44. A(I.ct u = i + 2j . a.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18. 35.k w 2k -i + 2j .3k. A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d. 18. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. D(2. and which do not? Give reasons for your answers.-I) 42. u'(v'w) 32. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u.. 0. fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io. u'n = lui e. use dot product and cross product notatioo. 2) = y.-:-. I. v. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. 0 e.12. I). u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g. Which of the followiog make sense. In Exercises 25 and 26. as appropriate. 0). 2. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23.O. u 19. I). Iu I B(l. B(3.3). -I.4) C(O. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. u X (v X w) d. I) C(2. 17. -I. 41. -2) C( -2.k. 46. B(IO. whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w. Given nonzero vectors u. aod IFI = 301b. Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40. -I) p • p 36. v..2. 25. A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f. andR. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28. Q(2.j + k. 3) C(I.0). I). D(O. h. C( -1. Which vectors.2.uXv=vXu f.5k. are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e.0) D(O. 47. and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers. 3. -I). I) Q(O. B(O.3). v = -i + j + k. 39. -1.k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b. if aoy. (uXv)'w b. I) 16. A(O. Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j). -I. 27. 0. -2). Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV. Let u.3). A( -6. -1. a. R(3.0).3) D( -4. are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers. P(1. 26.5) 37. -2. R(O. U'U = lul 2 g. 8).2. v. What are the degener- ate cases? 33.- C(2.3). 34. -I). -2) 29. I. -I) . A(O.2i+j 22. and w. A( -6. -I). and w. -1. v = j . The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22. R(3. Q(2. B(l. 24. P( -2. I) Q(3. reasons for your answers. 0. A( -I. C(3. P(2. B( -2.O). e. h. 2i 20. 2). 15. to describe the followiog. and which are not always a. Answer in foot- pounds. 38. I). Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P. R( -1. P(I. and w e. v. B( -I. B(2.i-j+k 21. (uXv)'v=O C(3.uXO=OXn=O d. -I). u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47. 7. ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. I. 2. Which of the following are always true.

. y=YO+IV2. a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line.688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. Thus. 0). 12.is the set of all points P(x. PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I. The expanded form of the equation P-.5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines. In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line. (ai.YO.). z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO. !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x. Yo. z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12. -3. e2). The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line. 0). We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book.P is a scalar multiple ofv. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space.!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k. Then !:.zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). y = Yo + IV2.35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-. Explain your work. line segments. xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI.2). Z = Zo + IV3. Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2). + (y . Yo. TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0. zo) paralle. (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x. zo). Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O. Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt.35). 00). Yo.P = tv is o y (x . 0. B(l. Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv. a2). y. Yo. zo).0). 5). 2. Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo.. These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00. - 00 < I < 00 (3) . and D(3.00. -00 < 1< 00. and (q. Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane. z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo.yoH + (z . and planes in space. C(O. 49.xo)i FIGURE 12. (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). y. 48.. and (b" b2).y. (b" IJ. Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo. and the domain of I is (. -4.

-3) Y We observe that the point (x.21. We could have chosen Q( I. z = -3 + 71. Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO.2.31. 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21. zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v.4) and vii 2i + 4j .4) parallel to + 4j .y.y = 2 .2.4) at I = \. Yo.36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1. on the line passes through P( -3. + 71. We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values. To parametrize a line segment joining two points.0. but so can the parameter.4) (Figure 12. -1.2.2k (Figure 12. -3) and Q(1. y=2-31. 2. Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q. "\.(-3))i + (-I .andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2. Yo. Q(I. Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3. 0:51:5\.4). -3) at I = 0 and Q(I.31 3.YO.1=0 Solution With Po(XO. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique.2. 4. z = -3 + 71. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I.(-3»k 4i . z = 4 . -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. from Example 2: x = -3 + 41. • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1. • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment. 0.12. Rewriting Equation (2).37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ. z = -3 z = 4 + 71. Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change.3j + 7k is parallel to the line. The arrows show the direction of increasing t. -1. in this case. + 41. we first parametrize the line through the points. taking them.2)j + (4 . -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12. we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction . The equations x = -3 + 41 3 . 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first.31.31. 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2.zo) equal to (-2. = = (I . -1. zo) = (-3.2 .0. Y = 41.5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2.2k.37). P(-3. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t.4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3. y = 2 .z) = (-3 + 41. and Equations (3) with (xo. y = -] . We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41. y=2-31.36). -I.-1. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12.

690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words. EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I. From Equation (4).3)j + (5 .O)k = -2j + 5k . 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k. 3. y = 3 . 200v3) in space. 200v3).5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I. What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter. It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft.I)i + (I . I). I. EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I. 200v3. Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. I. Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter. In the n. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3. 1. When I = 10 sec.With PS = (I . the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion. the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k). 200v3. we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12. the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO.38). I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3.I. which is Ivl FIGURE 12.Q1ation of the figure. which is the length of the vector r(IO). where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv. z = 21. The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v.38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8.

0. . zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x .Yo) + C(z .zo) Ax + By + Cz = D.M I FIGURE 12.Yo)J + (z .39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of.o. where D .z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22. vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-.12. zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x. and z in the equation 5x + 2y . 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x .. Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(.5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[.Axo + l1. y.P . • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space . y.Xo) + B(y . • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J .. became the coefficients of x...7) O. Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo. This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y . The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D. we obtain 5x + + 2y .39).z = -22.k. z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12. d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs . Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO. Thus.zo)kj 0 or A(x .Yo.Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o.3. A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation. the dot product n' PoP = o.. Simplifying.)'O. This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane.(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = .Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k.

2z = 15 and 2x + y . EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x . Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line.1). SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane. or 01 = k02 for some scalar k. 0). 0. Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74). Turning this around. ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect.6y .0). 0). The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane.40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). . We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O.2z = 5 intersect. For example.1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection.692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O. To find a point on the line. ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction. z = 1St. -1. The line is x = 3 + 14t. ° FIGURE 12. The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line. two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well.2z = 5.0) + 2(y . 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k. will do as well.6y . 0. 0. 3. Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line.40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02. and qo.0) + 6(z . EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . y = -1 + 2t. B(2. we can take any point common to the two planes. Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z. In our case. we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate. SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12. if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it.2z = 15 and 2x + y . SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3).

z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I . Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12. 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane.z)lt=-1 = 2.1 .2. then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n./ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I.41). • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n.41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II).1) = (f. 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1. that is.0) FIGURE 12. 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. The point of intersection is (x. -21. (0.2.y.0. . EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I.O).12. 1. the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane.5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21. That is. The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k. Solution The point y = -21. intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.0. z = 1 +1 + 21.

1). .I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1. y = 2 .0. () = = COS-I cos.42).1) . -7.2j + (1 . 2.3)j + (3 .2k. The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i . . z = 31 7. 0).1. -2) 4.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals. (1. The x-axis 12. The line through the point P(3. 2.I.2. 0.3.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13. The line through 3x + 7y . I.694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts.0) (1.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2. (2.2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 .6y . Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i .2z = 5. (0. 19. 1) parallel to the z-axis 8. -4.O)k + 3k. 20. 2. 0). 2). indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization. 3.0. 9. (0. (1. The line through P(1. 18. Find the angle between the planes 3x .3/2) (1.3) and Q(3. (0. -2. .1) and Q( -I.5z = 21 (2.12. 5.0. 0. Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment. then n = = (1 . . (0.0).O)i i . The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11. 1. 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/.0) 14.2k are normals to the planes. The line through (2. (1. The z-axis 1.1) 5. 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12. 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7. The line through (0.0) 17.1).4. 1) (3.0) (0. 3.-1. 1. The line through the point (3.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1. 16. • Exercises 12.0.38 radians. 0).6j . The line through P( -2.2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y .20. 1. I. 15. The line through P(I. If we take P to be the y-intercept (0. (0. 0. The angle between them is FIGURE 12. 1. 0).0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10. (1. 0). (1. 0. 13. 0. 02 = 2i +j . The line through (1. 0) and Q(1. I) 3.0) (0.

Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4.2t. or they inletseet. z = 31 meets the coordinste planes. I.(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. (0. -2.3). 61.4). y = -I .(3. y = 31 + 2.0. 36.y= I + 2s. 4y = -12.12).I) normal to n = 3i .8) 25. 2x + 2y . -00 x=21. y = I z = -(1/2) . or they are skew (imagine. (0. I. Find a plane throughPo(2. determine whether the lines.2y + 4z = 2. fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56. 35. 4. tsken two at a time. .j + 3k. 3).2 = + 2 Vzj . 0) and the normal vector. (I. x=4-1.x=I-I. -00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38. (2. + 41. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian. 2 Z Z = 1 . either they are parallel. The plane through Po( 0. z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52.0. In each exercise. L2:x= I + 4. z=l+s. y = • + 3. + 6t. Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3. (2. Z = 21 z = -3 .k 22. 40.3). The plane through A(I. y = = L2: x 1 . 62.I. fmd the point in which the line meets the plane.-1). 2). -2. y = 2s + 4. 39.7) parallel to VI = 2i .5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31.I. L3: x = 3 + 2r. -I).1. 2. or are skew. Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2. < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r. (1. x = 4t. The plane through Po(2. I). Find a plane through the points PI(I. Y = 3 + 21.t. z = 31. y = -I .2s. Ll:x = = -1 + t. 1 + ls. z = -48 . x + Y + z = I. z = -1 + s. Y = -21. LI: x = I + 21. 34.2x+2y+2z=3. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. and x = • + 2.12. 0.2j . x + 2y + Z = 2. z = 4t 51.0 intersect. z=I+I. T. 29. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x . x + y . 44. -1. 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 .0). 45.-1. Y + t.0. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10. x = -1 + 31. I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j . x+y+z=2 56.5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. Y = -I + 2.3). (2. 5). = -2 .Z = 3. Y = 4 + S. P2(3.z = 8? Give reasons for your answer. I. 46. 2x + y . 5x + y-z = 10. x +y +Z + 3z = I.I. find the point of intersectino. z = 4t + 3. Y = 3 .0. are parallel.4s. + 6. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. -00 30. In Exercises 39-44. x = 2. (2. find the distance from the point to the line. y = 2+ -2 + 2r. 28. -2. Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj.2. y = -3. 41.3x-6y-2z=3. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66. -00 00 31. y = -I + 41. for example. 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s. y + 21. 42. z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y . In Exercises 29 and 30. -2. 47.2z = 5 60. 21. The plane through (2. 1. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37. + I.y + 2z = 7. y=3+2t. If they intersect.4). (0. -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59. 38. x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23. 43.6. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I.3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48. (0.0).\12k. (0.0). 2x . . = -00 < t< 00 57. (2. Z <.21.x=I+21. The plane through (I. 2x-2y-z=5 SO. x = 10 y= I +2t. y = 1 + 31. z = -2 .4z = -12 55. 67.2j + k. the flight paths of two planes in the sky). y=3s. -1. 49. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. x . y = -2. y = 5 = I + 4t. x + Y = I. Describe the reasooing behind your answer. LI: x = 3 + 21. y=I+5t. Theory and Examples 63. 4. + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65. I. 5) normal to nl = i . LI: x = I. Z = 5. Is the line x = I . -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r. x = 5 + t. I) 24. 32. 33. 7). and then fmd the plane determined by these lines. 2. Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. 5.3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{. 54. z = 1 + I. lines. -3. (-1. 2. y=31. Given two lines in space. -I).. Z = z = 2 . and (0. y = 1 T. intersect. The plane through (I.I. x + Y = 2 58.I. Y = 2 + 5t. Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines.4. and x = 2s + 2. and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines. 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y . and (-1.z= -3 +48.(3/2)k.2z = 2 48. Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I. find the distance from the point to the plane. 5x-2y= 11. 64.31. -4. Describe the reasoning behind your answer. I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27. -00 L2:x=2-s. z = 5t.z = 3. z=31. 53.

x02. Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics. L ° z P(O. Then.0. but now we allow generating curves of any kind. Which planes have an equation of this form? 72. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines.YI. z). we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces. 00. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1. 1. What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes. y. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 .6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now. xo2. In this section. 0. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t.Xl. In solid geometry.43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo . Your eye is at (4. and c.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. 2) passes through the plate.? Give reasons for your answer. andzi. What do you find? 68. 73. for Solution any value of z. 1). (I. the generating curves are circles.. Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. 74. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12. 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI.xo2. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a.y. 70. and ( -2. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo. 2. Regardless of the value of z. 0. The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I .0). 0) to (0. h. we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. 2).YI. Spheres are quadric surfaces. The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. therefore. 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane.. Suppose LI and L. How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A. Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x.y + C'z = D. We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E. are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer. . Z = 3 + 2t. 69.44). Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. The point Po(xo.43). the point Q(xo. any point Q(xo. where cylinder means circular cylinder. Conversely. y. The line segment from (1..." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71. we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 ..) 12.x + B. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D.y = 2 . 2.t. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing. Zl) as a point on the yz-plane. z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO.44).z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. Z = 0 (Figure 12. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes.696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b. Because of this. but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16. 0). the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. 0. and z.

FIGURE 12.' .y) = c. I I -- \ . 0. The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses..1"".... / c /' ... Iy I :S h. paraboloids. : f . z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x. and E are oonstmJ. Any curve h(y. elliptical cones. (0.. ..E. xOl... and z. ± b. As Example 1 suggests. y.y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x. We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface.(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz . .45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes. . and Iz I :s c. We fucus on the special equation .rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x.. and then give II.44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO. .--. S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types. y ''f FIGURE 12. The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids. 0). Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids. . We call it "the cylinder y _ xl.. The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis.. D. 1 _ . . when z = o...lo . I . Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z . O.. For example. and hyperboloid. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 .6 Cylinder... r1 " .z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey.z) = c.:'. ± c). For instance.45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a. any curve g(x.12..... .. Quadric Surfaces A quadric I. z).. B..... EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12. the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane. The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared. In a similar way. 0)." where A. " >t-:.ts... and (0. r . C. any curve f(x. z) = c. It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a.

Part of the hyperbola y 2 . If any two of the semiaxes a. b the parabola z = . The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward. . the parabola opens upward from the origin.. Near the origin. The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 . EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12.2 a (1 . but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation). c > o. To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum.(zoic) ) + b (1 . the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion. If all three are equal.7. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface.(x 2/a 2) = z/c. To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum.46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) ..1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces. and c are equal.(zoic) ) = 1. the cross-section is a hyperbola. If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0.X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----.46). IZo I < c. the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass.c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0. the surface is a sphere. If Zo is negative. --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1). y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a .y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12. We will say more about saddle points in Section 14. b.698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo. _ Table 12. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas. is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2).

.... 'Ibe e1Hpee - .. HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' . ._1 ."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ . +. . 'Ibe p./ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET . -T'---- .. . . .. .nbolu _ .>0 . Tho PEIobolu _ . ... ill Ibo ". • ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" ."pImo " . .6 Cylinder..1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces . and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12.'..12.cV'i f .

4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES .z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33. x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39. 4x:1 20. 21.z 2 +x:1.y 2 _ 1 10.6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42.x2 +2z 2 _ S 9. 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18.. c. 14. Also.t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19. J. 9.(.x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8. d. X2 +y2=4 15. with semiaxesa andbis7rab.b . Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I).t2 ELUPSOIDS 17. and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12.y:1+ z 2=X 2 6. match the equation with the surface it defines.4.. f• . . L h• . z=x:1+4y:1 23. 25. x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2. etc. 4x:1 + = 9y2 28.y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44.1: 2 _ y2 12.z=y2-1 16. (The area of an ellipse . x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3. 9x:1 . identify each surface by type (paraboloid. b.x:1+ y 2. . the ellipsoid . . L Express the area. z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . of the cross-section cut from. x 2 +z2 _ 1 41. Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37.y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30.x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45. . X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n. y 31.) b.'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27. 40. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a .. 4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36. z = _(X2 + y2) 43. 9. X=z2_ y :1 11. L .z :1=1 29. z= 1 +y2_X:1 35. 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y .c? . ellipsoid. 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5. (y'/4) .y=I-:x 2 -z2 26. Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44. 1.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24. k.c as a function of c.1. z = _4. 9 4 by the plane z . CYUNDERS 13.700 Chapter 12: Vector. .4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34.. x _ y 2_ z 2 7. Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a).

Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h. how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. 9 . When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9. How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. 57. How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. c. and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids. When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. line segments. y y y y 2 y y 50. -3 h. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar. . z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. z = x 2 52.y2. What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates. 11. you can. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . Find a formula for the barrel's volume. and planes in space? Give examples. 49. How do you find equations for lines. -3 -2 -2 -1 c. paraboloids. z = y2. 7. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples. suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h. suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. 51. How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. its midsection radius is R. and which are not? Give examples. 2. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2. 5x 2 z2 . -2 d. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10.3y2 56. 13. Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph. -1 47. 17. The barrel is 2h units high. 1. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ .5 2.Chapter 12 46. 1.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. x x -0. and its end radii are both r. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples.= a b2 c 3. First. 15. Then check two things. -2 2 1 2. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples. by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. j. Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12. a.25 54. 16. h > o. z = 1 . Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h. How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. rotate the surface into different viewing positions. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular. 14. 48. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). 53. 8. cones.= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. 3. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a.

u X v. 19. -2u 2. fmd lvi. 32. and w. 1. 3) parallel to the vector v = . (6. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. 29.8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21. x .j 8. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20.Y . u. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1.andR. -5).0. Planes. v=2i+j+k. v. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30. (3. The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k. v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39. Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22.4) and v = (2. I). 0).Q. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2. and u X v as vectors at the origin.4. fmd the component form of the vector.k 15.j 11. 36. 9. 37.3u-4v 3. 21. 0.y = 6 .j + 4k. y = 31.2. fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14. 41. 16. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. In Exercises 37 and 38. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane.u=i+j-k. In Exercises 29 and 30.2). .3).andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3. 10). x = -t. I) 18. Z = 31.2wl· 24.0. lui. Velocity vector v = (etcost .y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions.u+v 4.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26. v=j. y = -I . Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I. !flvl = 2. 28. In Esercises 17 and 18. U'v. v2i + v2j 10. The veetor obtained by rotating (0. u=i. w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8.. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3. Y = t. For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j . I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6. The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos. Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k. 38. 0. 2. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. 44. i + 2j .y + 2z = -8 intersect. . v.6. 34. Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. 13. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20.u=i+j.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. and the vector projection ofo onto v. and Distances 27.0).I. The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i .fmd Iv . z = I + 41. the angle between v and u. 12. -6).3i + 7k. (0.1) Iv X u I.2. P(i. fmd the distance from the point to the plane. Iwl = 3.3j + 3y +Z = 2 35. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. R(O. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u.3. 2i . Q(2. -I). 0) and Q(I. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x . Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4.0).5k and v = -4i . fmd the distance from the point to the line. R( -1. Q(O. y = 2 + I. 17. In Exercises 21 and 22. 5v 2S. 40. -i . 33. P. v=i+j 23. In Esercises 33 and 34. Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1. let u = (-3. 43. (2. P(i. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42. Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x .5y + 2z = 6. the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x .etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2. Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . fmd proj. 1. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c. v X u. -1. 1. x = 2 + I. 31. V'u.21. u=i-j. z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes. 2. w=-i-2j+3k 26. 5. Lines. -2.

z=t c. 4.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D.2-3t b.!e 63.1)2 + z2 = I 68. Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I.I)j + zk) = 0 e. x . 2). -1) 55. I.0. 2) 58. Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L. Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z . onto iiC. (2i . 0.andC . The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2. Xl+zZ=yl 74.z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x .Chapter 12 45.2k. e. 48.5y +22' = 6. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x . 71. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram. -1. I.' P-. 2.I. 64. L (21 .y . -1). C(l. yl_x2_zl= 1 66. x=3+2t. 5. 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76. I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76.i + j .t? 49. I.3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . 65.0). 0). 3).y .6y + 10z . z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x .i+ 2j + k. The line L: e.0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y .i. y = -2 + 31.2y+ z + 3 + k(2x . Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x .y + 2z = -2 meets the plane.2i .2. O)? 67. 2. 1) and the line through C(t. -2. 3) o 54.4 and orthogonaltot+J+k. ""'D(2. 26/') ""'D(16/'.z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc. 0). 51. The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) . 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines. f.4(1. andD.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D.i . Find the coonIin. b. 0. 2. 0) to the plane through A(O.3J + 3k)' b.z . Thm project AC onto D. y=2t. 2. -I) andD(4. the vector projection of BA. Find the point in which the line through p(3. z = _(x 2 + y2) 71. Is the line x = 1 + 2t. 0. 53. X2 +y2_z2=4 75. 4. -13/'. "'" C(2.-l.91 Give reasoos for your 61. Find the distance from the point (2.-1) and B(-I.atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L.3-t. 4).O. B(I. d. 50. o.tJ. Shaw that for every real number k the plane x . Is v = 2i .4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69.na.O) and the line L2 through the points C(3.2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x . 3)paraIleltou . the cosine of the interior angle atB. (Continuatio1l o/Exerci.j + 2k. -2).y .I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O. 60.1) . Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. x 2 + (y .4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer.O.z + I = O. Find D). 2) and B(2.j + k.B . y .4). I) normal ttl the plane 2x . -I). the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y . o.z = -4 in a point P. Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1. Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. (2i .z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x . 0. Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A . -I). -13/'. z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I . Find the distance from the point P(I. through the points .4) . A(2. 63. on the three coord. X2 +y2=z2 73.j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y . «x + 2)1 + (y . Q(3. Quadric SumCt!!s 59. 3.) Find the distance between the line through A(4. FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines.-Ilt. 51. The equation.I)j + zk) 6l. What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn. x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2. (x + 2) + l1(y 046. 47.2. 56. C(I. What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y . planes. x-axis? 57. B(2. Find an equation for the plane through A(-2. -3) and B(I. 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z . -1. the area of the parallelogram.y.3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. d. z . andR(-2.2i + 3j + kandv . y B(l.

1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec. As shown here." If you are installing the plug with a lO. 5. 0.4 N· m). and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i .0) x (0. HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. 3. Four minutes ago. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph.J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4. Due to system malfunctions.) 6. and angles a and {3. How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3.5. Two hours later. -----_ B I (l. -1. Y = -3 + lOt. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle. 2) z x --- ----. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1. a.(I/3)k.k. 1. At time t = 0. Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j . Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram. they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b.5-in. x = 6 + 11 Ot.0) y 5. -\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2.0. 3. z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t. from the axis of the spark plug. 1. 13. Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4. ship A is located at (4. The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) . 1) and. whereas ship B is located at (0. HI and H 2.704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA. Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles.0). 2). where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires. Y = -3 + 4t. All coordinates are given in thousands of feet. The aircraft is due in 20 min. H2 stops its flight at (446. to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters. 13. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram. 0). are traveling together. lands at (446. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept. -1/3). Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed. Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l. the submarine was located at (2. in a negligible amount of time. 0).6j . socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in. a.

a. . B. Assuming Iv I Iwi. d. 2.z 12. and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. b. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k.k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k . D 2 2 B p C 1 b.)I2.z 0 pass through the center of the sphere. and z. 14. Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x . Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P. 16. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7. - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a. and P3(X3. and Ax + By + Cz D. a. Determinant. 2i b. P2(X2.Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b.fmdprojpv. -I) is equidistant from the two planes. with z orthogonal to the line L. What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b. C. 9.Y y. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results. W. The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v. Yh Zt). Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal. This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector. 10. although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v .Y Y2 . Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x . i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i . Prove that four points A. D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC. Show that the lines c.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax. b3 -d3 15. 8. c. and E is one·third of the way between C and B.Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . In the fIgure here. is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID. Use vectors to show that the distance from P. Determinants and planes 11.(XhYh z.(v·w)u.Y 0 and 3x . Z2). 2i+ j d. Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt. and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD . For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT . Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P.) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' . fmd w in tenns ofv and z. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges. and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L. i-j+k c. projp v. 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x .z 2x + 3y .Y + 2z -4 if the point (3. a. Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD. u v w A D B a.2y + z 3. (AB X BC) O. Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2. Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P. Showthat XI X2 - 12.D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl .(u·v)w. + by. 17. Z3).I. and line. can be defmed informally as follows. (u'w)v . 13.Y3. .

24. v.(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c. w. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors. c. and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line.Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v. derive the trigonometric identity sin(A . . Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image.cosAsinB.ai + bj and + dj. v"r for any four nurohers a.O.sinAcosB . Show that w .ci u·r V'WI.) Show that dot multipli- 22. Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w . that is. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu . Cro. 23. b. Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line. Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly. Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors.B) . u for every vector u and that U' u . and d. then b.(uXv). Use vectors to prove that 18.lulvare orthogonal. Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite.-Iul'u'v X w.s and dot products vectors. show that u .706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u. 25. Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v.(wxr)_lu. and r are any 21. Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations. (Hint: Let u . 20.0 if and only ifu . 0 19.W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v . u X v .

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