12

VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant
x x = constant
(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z
xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/
/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\
: (0, 0, 0)
I

y

Z y
Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1
(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z
x 2 + y2
The circle
= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
the plane z
=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +
=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1
Geometric Interpretations of Equations
In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
S.

= 0, 2 x + y2
2

z = 0
=

4. x = I, Y = 0
z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0
X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0
19.
a.

y
= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.
Xl

0 '" Y s 1
1

x2

+ y2 + z2
+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1
Z

+ y2 + z2 >
+ y2 :s
1,
Z

10. x 2

11.
12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2
C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0
b. x
=
S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4
b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s
z = 0
Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y
b. z =

x 2,
y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,
X

no restriction onx

=2

662
Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

Distance and Spheres in Space
The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2
IPIA 12
Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore


EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is
IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f
= =
Z

+
25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+
I"::j

V45

6.708.

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
(x - xof
Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

(3.2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b. 2. z-axis 60. 0). 4) P2(2. xz-plane c. (-I. thepoint(O.3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. 41.Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. P 2(2. 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. Had we wanted the spheres left out. 0) 66. -I. z-axis Center 51. 0). The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I. ++ + 57. I) and. P I (3.4z = 0 35. I). The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin.+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. PI(I. The plaoe througb the point (3. 64.5) 53. 65. -2) 26. 0) c. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. 1. 7. Radius 31.664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. 0. b. The plaoe througb the point (3. + + +++ 9 58.2)' = 8 48.7) b. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. 62. Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. 0) P2(4. 0.-t) x2 54. -3). z) to the 37. 2 units from the point (0. yz-plane b. I.3) andB(4. -1. I). 5). 0. z-axis at (0. -2. and z = 2 +++ 56. 1. and (2. The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. -I. x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47. x-axis b. -1. (x . -1. -7. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. -2). The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. Show that the point p(3. 0. y. 0. z-axis 27. . at 1Ire saroe time. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40. yz-plane b. P2(0. I. 0. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33. 5. 0. (0. 3. xy-plane c. -2. -5).5). yz-plane c. 5). 4. P I (5. Distance In Exercises 41-46.4. I) 40. (1. 4. 55.2. -2) In Exercises 25-34. The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0.t. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. 3). open means endpoints left out. y = 2. 4. 42. 0). I. PI(O. Pl(l. y-axis c. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. Closed sets include boundaries. x 2 y2 z2 4x . 3. yz-plane b. 2.Vz)' + . y-axis at (0. (Closed means the spheres are to be included. The circle of radius I centered at (-3. 2. 63. y. B(I. -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0. I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b. 5). 0). 0. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres. 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59. z) to the 39. P2(2. -I. The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I. (0.0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58.4. 45. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. xz-plaoe c. 30. 0. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0. yz-plane c. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. I) parallel to the L b. open sets leave them out) a. The line through the point (I. 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . +(y . 2) and the xy-plane. 0) x-axis at (3. y-axis c. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. (0. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2. 0. Pl( -I. The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a. I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. xz-plane 61. 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. 3.2. and C(3. 3. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. 3. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. y-axis b.3) 52. 25. xz-plane 28. 43. I).

and w.12. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force. lV. In handwritten form. for example. To describe a body's velocity. length.9) regardless of the initial point. To describe a force. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle.) y AB is called a vector. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is. boldface letters. FIGURE 12.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space. we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space. We need more information to describe a force. we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going.2 Vectors 665 12. it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. are parallel. y FIGURE 12. vectors are usually written in lowercase.!.8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space. v.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes. FIGURE 12. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13. They therefore represeot the same vector. In textbooks. ii. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. such as F. a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I.10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. To describe a body's displacement. To record mass.10). for example ii. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength. and point in the same direction (Fignre 12. or time. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit. andF.7). displacement. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen. for example u. PQ . Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters. or velocity. or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12. We can specify v by writing the PQ. displacement. to denote a force vector. Figure 12. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v. For example.

Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates. then the component form of v is v = (V" V2). Z2). Yl + V2 = Y2. then Xl + VI = X2. and U3 = V3. 0. The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv.X" Y2 .Y2. and V3 are the components ofv. we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector). In particular. In summary.Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ. The numV2. v. bers If v = (V" V2.(-3) = -2. Z2). If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2. With this understanding. 4. So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers. V3) of real numbers.Y2) as points in the plane.Zl are the components of PQ.Yll' + (Z2 .). U3) and (v" V2. Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical.y"Z2 . V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations.Xl = -5 .10). EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( . .666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2. given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2.4 = -2. 1) and terminal point Q( -5. V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2. denoted by the symbollvl orllvll.Yl = 2 . Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2. where the initial point is P(x"y" Z. 0) or 0 = (0.) when v is in standard position. Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 .) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 . Thus.Zl). VI = X2 .X" Y2 . and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2. if v = (X2 . and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2.) and the terminal point is Q(X2. and V3 = Z2 . This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. 2.Yl. Thus (u" U2.' PQ is the nonnegative number X. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2). v. then v = (X2 .Yl).X" V2 = Y2 . v.y" Z2 .3. 0).)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 . then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v. the standard position vector v = (v" V2. There is no third component for planar vectors.X"Y2 .zll' (see Figure 12.10). 2).Y2. V2 = Y2 . V3).

U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors.. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors. Addition: Let u = (u" U2...I = I. ku3) + V2.. given by FIGURE 12. U3) and v = (v" V2.12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ .12 vector addition. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. I). whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2). A scalar is simply a real number.. b).. where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other. . (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn.. or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication. The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12. • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12.. y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3.12. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2.. (u" U2) and (Vb V2). .. (b) The parallelogram law of . Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. Scalars can be positive.---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12...14 lb.. -2. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar. negative. DEFINmONS scalar.11).2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 . The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components.?) "" 14.12a. What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication.11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(. The component form of PQ is v = (-2.

called the resultant vector.)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u.V3). (a + b)u = au + bu 2. a(bu) = (ab)u 9. v.V2.(4.7. to establish Property 1.v (e) + 3v I!ul. then ku has the same direction as u. Ifu = (u" U2. 6.v" U2 . U3 .13 Scalar multiples ofu. for example.v) + v = u." U2.1) .0) = (-1 . V3). Properties orVeetor Operations Let u. b be scalars. Find the components of (h) u .6. .2 + ui + u. we see that lkul = V(ku. In physics.v. Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1.27. So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces. = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic. u + 0 = u 5. U3) and v = (v" V2. If k > 0. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u.1) (e) FIGURE 12." V2. Comparing the lengths of u and ku. + U" V2 + U2.0). where the smn. Ou = 0 7. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u. w be vectors and a. 1) + 3(4.v) to v gives u (Figure 12.2) (h) u . forces add vectorially as do velocities. 1.v = u + (-v). V3) (u. is the diagonal of the parallelogram.7.2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul.3 -7.0) = (10.vas the smn u + (-v). 8.14a).3. V3 + U3) (v. The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar. 4. + v" U2 + V2.0) = (-5." U2.4.3.14b shows the difference u . so adding the vector (u ." V2.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v). if k < 0. v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1.1 .21.14 (a)Thevector u . and so on. For instance.1) and v = (4. I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l. .0) = (-2.668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition). V3) + (u. U3 + V3) (v. // FIGURE 12.-4.v= (-1.v = (u. U3) + (v.u+v=v+u 3. accelerations. Figure 12. Note that (u .3. is obtained hy adding the two force vectors. then (a) u .2) = WVU.2) + (12.7. U3) v + u. we have u +v = = = = = (u. Figure 12. (b)u . The difference u . when added to v. gives u.

0. V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2.xl)i (Z2 . • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i .0).(l.P2 IP-.YI)j + That is. the vector from P. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5. V2. Wheneverv oF O. v. V3) + v2j + V2(0.1n component form. 0) + (0.15). and V3 the k-<omponent.(Xh Yh z.O)j + (0 .P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 .12. and u + v are always coplanar.5 J · .0) + V3(0. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3. The standard unit vectors are i = (1. 1) + V3k.0. 1) to We divide P-.I)k = 2i + 2j 1= .P2 by its length: P-.2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane.Y2.itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-. Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P. The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3. 0) = vl(l. For example.15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 . We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v. Z2) is x (Figure 12.ZI)k.0. 0. express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion.P2.k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P.0.1.0). 5 = 5' . V3) = (VI> 0. 2.0. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v. called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv. we say they are coplanar vectors. and k = (0. the vectors u. 0) = Vii + (0.4j is a velocity vector.1).4. Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector. j = (0. V2 the j-component. Aoy vector v = (Vh V2. 1. FIGURE 12./>2 (X2 .) to P2(X2. 0).

Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3. Y2._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ).16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. 2. then 1. Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 . EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i . To see why. For example.0) andP2(7.k. -2. 4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 . Direction of motion • (speed) In summary. the equation v = Ivll. IfvoF 0. length and direction. Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2. • . Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction. I . by writing v = Iv II. I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i . we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features. The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2.670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi .ti).1 expresses v as its length times its direction.k . the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging.k = 6__.16) that o FIGURE 12. Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I. observe (Figure 12. 1.1 is a unit vector in the direction of v. 4. • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry.

the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75. What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12.12.75.17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538. ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8. The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12.0) Therefore. +v = = (535. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea. ° _ cos 40° sm40 . The airplane holds its compass heading due east but. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and .18 in Example 9. because of the wind.50 Figure 12. Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation.67N. IF2Isin400).2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°.18a. The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v. as shown in Figure 12.35\1'3). and its new clirection is about _ 6. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind. then the component forms of u and v are u = (500.17).75). Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north. Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object.18b). FIGURE 12. flying due east at 500 mph in still air. The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57.5° north of east.4 mph.4 tan-I '" 6. The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons. acquires a new ground speed and direction. . we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0. encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east. 70 sin 60°) = (35. It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0. then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538. N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner. 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°.

-8.2i+j-2k 27. 9. 5) 19.3) 22. 2. cD._I_j __I_k 26. The sum of AB and C = (-1. 12.08.2) 13. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30.0. 9.3). x-axis 14. The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30.0).0. The vector from the point A = (2.24) and F2 = (33. is the point (5. 3) to the origin where A=(I.0. where P = (1. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I. v. whereR = (2. -2v 4.3) and Q = (2. -I) 10. • Exercises 12. _I_i .672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43. 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24. 0. -2) and v = (-2.2u-3v 7.P2 if P.08. letu = (3.5) 21.9i-2j+6k 20. 1.v 6.B=(2. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector. 0) and P2 is the point (.8.3) andB is the point( -1. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16. head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector. Vii + c.-I).76).1. 7.3.3) 11. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b. P-. -2u 8. P-. 5u .2) and v = (1. = (-33. -I) and v = (2. 2u . -I) andS = (-4. AB ifA is the point (-7.. u +v 4 5.P2 if P. 2. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction. 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b. I) andB is the point (-10.5k 29. 3. u .18 N. express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k.vifu = (I. v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k .v 24.w oP c.5). I) AB ifA is the point (1. I. u . and .. The vector PQ.27. u .4.andD = (-2. -I) and P2 is the point (2. The force vectors are then F. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0. f"md the compooent form of the vector.u+v+w d.v d. copy vectors U. is the point (I. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1.u+v+w 17. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15.2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!.u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22. -2) 18. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16. 25.47.

) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45. Try to do the calculations without writiog. PI( -I. If the magoi1ude of vector F. b. 1.TIl . 32.. . aod b.2 31. is 100 N. Linear combination Let u = i . Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east. IfAB P. (Continuation of Example 8.(2. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. and w = i . assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north. 7 . Try to do the calculations without writiog.6).(4. i _.3).i 5 3.(2. Medians of a triangle Suppose that A. the midpoint ofline segment PI P.(1/2)j .(2. a> 0 TI 1 . where it stops to rest 00 a tree. I. At what point is the telephone pole? plane. P I (3. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl. 3.TI _I_i 4.5k. and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here. 34. a 35. 40' c'IT d. 51. 44.. It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. 5) 36. PI(O. 7 b. 5. PI(I. 0) 39. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest. Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. At what point is the tree located? b. Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh. -2. If AB 40. are both 75 N. find 35' a. Write U = UI + U2. j +1 k 777 46. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33. a. 5) 38. Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47. = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2. 48.2j. 50. aod w = i + j. Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. -2. 0) P.(x"y" z. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i . 1j + i 5 5 k d.) 43. 2 b. 4) P. (See Exercise 41.(1/2)k.) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. the direction of p-. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w. ZI) to P. -2) fl = i + 4j .2k aodB is the point (5. Find a. B. a. 5) 37. 0. 49. V3 "2 1 -k c. 4.2. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.12.j. and the y-axis points north. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. v = 2i + 3j. v = i + j. Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB.fmdB.. Length Direction -j a. 42. then angles a and fJ are equal. v2 13 _li . Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure.6.-3. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N. the Theory and Applications 41.7) P. Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw. Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east. Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF. fmdA.P. fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF. 4. Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i . Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure.

obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction..3). U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2.2)... After investigating the dot product. Suppose that A. Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a. and c are. A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product.19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement. ..-1. not necessarily planar. In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components. Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. 3) · c. B.20 The angle between u and v. 0 . 2. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv. If they do lie along the same line. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle. 0) 52. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!. 12.19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2. Show thatAa + Bb + Co o. quadrilateral in space.1. A(4. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other. the midpoints of the opposite sides. 56.-1). Before proving Theorem 1.19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon. Figure 12. B(l. the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them. v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied. this point is the center of mass. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 . The angle 0 is the angle between u and v. not a vector.6. B(2.674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. 3. 0) M 55. Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar. the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions.2. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion. Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j. Section 6. If the vectors do not lie along the same line. b.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path. V3) is given by oFIGURE 12.20). C(I. (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. I. Let ABCD be a general. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c.m. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v. we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12. where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. 1f (Figure 12. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. and C(-1. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) .

-1)'(-6.' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u .v. 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 .-2. U2. V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1. lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv.4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul.V3).vd + (U3 .12.C:I'I:I)' .Iw1 2 .v.V3)2)' (U1 .v.' + vl + vi (V(U1 . V2.V2)' + (U3 .SO FIGURE 12. we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 .V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore. Section 1.Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T.cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) .-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 . U2)' (Vl. - • In the notation of the dot prodoct. Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8).2. + ul + ul)' = u. We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane). V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2.21.V1)2 + (U2 . the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.3) to the triangle in Figure 12.U2 . not just for rmding the angle between two vectors. U3) and v = (Vl.3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul.thecomponentformofwis(U1 .U3 .21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 . we have V V U2 V2 0 .' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v.V2.Vl.21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u .)2 + (U2 .

2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k. Then applying the angle formula. The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12. Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB. -2) and cE = (-2. we have v'13 '" 78. - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors. = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos. calculate their dot product.22 The 1riangle in Example 3.22). Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal. -2) and v = (4. + (-2)(6) = O.2) (Figure 12. Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2. If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0.6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) .2j . The converse is also true.76radians.3).4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2). (b) u = 3i . then cos () = 0 and () = cos.5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0. <a> u = (3. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors.36 radians. y B(3. = (-5.C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1.5). and C = (5.6 . we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O.10 or 1. We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 . + (-2). DEFINITION ifu'v = O. = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2). - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well.676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i . eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2).B = (3.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O.1 0 = 1f/2. O).

U3) = (O)(Ul) = o. In both cases. U2.0. cos Ii < 0 and proj. (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. Ivl . then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12. HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition.24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u. R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. For instance.. v..u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu. FIGURE 12. here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar.12. U'U = lul 2 5. then 1.23 u onto v.v) v ( Ivl Ivl u. The notation for this vector is proj. 1. u. U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3. O) • (UI. (v + w) = (UIo U2. V2 + W2. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI. -vi proj.v) ( Ivl2 V.u = (lui cos Ii) v proj. posed in the opening to this section. u ("the vector projection ofu onto v").0·u=0. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12. FIGURE 12. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars). u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl.3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. U'V = V'U 2.23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS.25).24). The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force. u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov. If Ii is obtuse.

2k 6-6-4.2j . .3j and . (uov)v.tk) 2 . which is the direction of v). oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v).2k) = .2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI. proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (.!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I .2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors. To summarize.2J . . onto v = i .I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i . EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv. We demonstrate this in the next example.t j . Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i .2j .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O. uov -1(i . Ivl2 UOT. The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = . EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv.

v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u . EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons).andO = 60°. which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D.3j) = -TO' 1 . the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D..26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I. Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6. • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space. we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd. then PQ FIGURE 12. (u .6 --- vi + 9 v'W.u) = (u. u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj. So the equation .u + .3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj..!. That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion. the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 . 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u . (i 10 . If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12.pro). lO J .v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors. + 3 .12. DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D.3j) 1+9 = -. u (which has the same direction as v). IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m.26). F = = 5 .6 (i .proj. .. u = pro). F·D.(u.

u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. = (:n.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT).Theory and Examples 17. the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1. B = (2.3k. '11') . Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction. a :s. v = 2i + 10j .7j.V2 are orthogonal. and c are the d. v = 5j . 1. In the accompanying figore. Showthat cos a = u.4j + Vsk. b.11k. {3. C = (3. u = V3i . Sums IUld dilJerence. it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . 14.Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a. 18. TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular.2k.2j + k. u = 2i . Is this mere coincidence. u=2i+j.3). v = lOi + 11j .B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" . 5.2k v=-i+j+k 10. u = -2i + 4j . 6. u=i+v2j-v2k. Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector. Show that and CB are urthogona1. I).B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. 4.0). Unit vectors are built from direction cosine. fmd L V' a.v=-i+j. 13. the vector projy u. v = 2i . I).3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian. Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB. and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. then a. lvi. 11.680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. and C = (I. 3. -2). the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j . v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k. or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. 7. v & v = direction cosines ofv. lui a Fr' cos.B = (0. u 2i + u Wj = (:n. These cosines are called c. 15. 9.4). . Angle Between Vectors 12. andD = (4. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I. O). cA A y 19. b. 16.

3).) 22. a. How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds. if any. 29. Copy the axes and vector shown here. Then sketch the line. 32. y 60' magnitude f"". 25.P(2. P(-2.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line.12. P(ll. about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity. we can cancel the u and conclude that V2.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O.canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v.2). calculation that (u . CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication. 21. b. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx . Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here. lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44. In Exercises 37-40. 37. . U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. -7). 33. P(O. 26. P(I. Under what circumstances.e 27. P( -2. Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines. use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v. Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2. tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v. Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I. use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v. Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. Then shade in the points (x.3 The Dot Product 681 20. show by direct O. A force F 2i + j . Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O. Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line.148 N (13S. At this level of effort. show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v. (This fact is often exploited by carpenters. P(I. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. 39.1).j.proj. Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is. does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42. Then sketch the line. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal. u) • projy u 30. I) (distance in meters). In Exercises 33-36.f'mdv·ut.2). L2 L2 reasons for your answer. Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v.2j Work 41. Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl.S lb. v v i . Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals.P(-1. if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0.j -i . v 2i . 23.3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i . v -2i + j 36. 10). Give reasons for your answer. -2).375 Ib). 34.2j 38. 24. JustifY your answer. v v 2i + 3j 3i . Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9. Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2. 40.3j 35. I).

the second of the two vector multiplication methods. The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space. 46. x 1. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. Unlike the dot product. u X (v X w) (u'w)v . we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12.V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. 12x + 5y 1. We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. (rs)(u X v) 2. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. TIris way. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12. 2x . -V3x+2 50. we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting. 48. and applies only to vectors in space. V3x . v X u O. We study the cross product in this section. u X (v 4. v. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition). s are scalars. If one or both of u and v are zero. Properties of the Cross Product If u. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6. V3y 3 1 (1 . they determine a plane. we also define u X v to be zero. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. then 1.4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. Ifu and v are not parallel. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components.2y 12. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. In space. (ru) X (sv) 3.27). and w are any vectors and r. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n. The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product. the cross product is a vector.y x + V3y -2. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero.(u'v)w .27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v. Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows.682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47. 49. 45.

the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i. but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k .) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i. j. Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. Property 5 is a detmition. notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u. Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height. + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results. and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 . Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3.29 The pairwise cross products ofi.28 v XU. we find (Figure 12. your thumb points the opposite way. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12.12. (See Additioual Exercise 17.U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k.30).4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12. cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w). j. Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12. and k.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v.29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o.28). for example. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember. \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system. As a rule. j.

I. In terms of components. • .(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k. then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad . Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane. I v'2' + v'2 k. Q(2. • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I. So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form. PQ X PR = (2 . The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this. ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3).k (-I . _a.l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 . ":/ :. -1). ------ O.6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j .aw. andR is ..1.l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I . 1.lbl b'l + a...2) (Figure 12. see the Web site at www.31). -I.. .2). and R( -I.31). + 1(6 + 4) = 10 .3) .. I... Taking values from Examples 2 and 3.(.684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant. Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P. andR(-I. and R( -1.- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I. Q(2. Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors.0). or 3v'2.. its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane.O)k = i + 2j .. 1. 0)...10k • = -5(1 .18 + 10 = 2 (For more information. Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k.) PQ = PR = . 1.31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2). I. Q. -I).2) (Figure 12.O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I. -1." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2.3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i.comlthomas.I). FIGURE 12.lbl b'l Ct C3 . -1.2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k. // . .. we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I... k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i .0).. Q(2.be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) ..

Ifthe force F in Figure 12. meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle. Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12. The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector). The bar rotates counterclockwise around P.32.94) 56. The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r. the torque produced is zero. we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12. we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate.34). If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8.4 ft-Ib. The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base . torque exerted by F at P is about 56.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped. v.32 is parallel to the wrench. and w (Figure 12. or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n. V2.33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0. . then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F. The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application.33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you. Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants.12. and w (in that order). Component of F perpendicular to r. ii:---- or Ir X F I. FIGURE 12.4 ft-lb (Example 5). v. the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81. In the notation of Figure 12.32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. V3). This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well. height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu.32). FIGURE 12.

v j Xk 13. we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= . Since the dot product is commutative.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j . u = i.k. v= j v= i -3j = 11. The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. v = i + 2j i X j. v.j . (u X v). u=2i-2j -k. w is also called the hox product ofu.4k. By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u. u = = 8. we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v. 14. we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value. s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7.j.686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram. -4 • Exercises 12. v=O 2i.2j . u = ti - t j + k. 12. = 7j .4k. v. v = i . u = i . 4. v = 9. and w. u = i + j. 1. Using the rule for calculating determinants.k.4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. -1 3 =-23. v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14. u 6. u = 2i . u = j + 2k. and w.2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed. u = 2i + 3j. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin. u=2i-2j+4k. u = i . v= j v= j + k 10. v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu. Because of this geometry. v = -i + j 3. (u X v)·w = u'(v X w). v. The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k. u = -8i .u=i+j-k. v=i-k 2. S.k.

Iu I B(l. A( -5.2). -I) p • p 36. 18. 45. I) Q(O. u 19. U'U = lul 2 g. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. u'n = lui e.0). Which of the following are always true.O. A( -1. -I) .2. 3) C(I. h. R(3.uXv=vXu f. andR. I) C(6.k. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28. 17.2). 4).0).O). I).4. Q(2. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. I) Q(3. P(2. A( -I. P( -2. and which are not always a. What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31. Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0. The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22. -I. A(O. 38. A(1. A(I. A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d. -1. Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P. v. and w. 25. -5). C(3.et n = 5i . then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. 0). I. -2) 29. 40.5) 37.0. reasons for your answers. -I). R(3. D(O. 1.0). -I).5k. 2.u·v=v·n b. Which of the following are always true.O. R(O. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23.3). Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40. I. -1.4).k w 2k -i + 2j . In Exercises 25 and 26. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u. A vector orthognoal to u and v c. v. and which do not? Give reasons for your answers. (uXv)'v=O C(3. and w. A(O. Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV.12.2. C(5. I. A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30. R( -1. 2). B(O. B(2.j + k. ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers. B(0. 2i 20. B(7.2i+j 22. B(O. and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers. (uXn)·n=O h.3) D( -4. u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g. 0). e. fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io. h.3).uXO=OXn=O d. a.w = -15i + 3j . (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f. A(O. I) 16. v.3). and w e. a. -4). C( -1.4) C(O. A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. I).5) D(4. -I).3). 44. 2) = y. -I). w = i + k. I. to describe the followiog. Which vectors. 24. I). 1. 0). 0. Q(2.0). C(7. B( -I. Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e.3). 27. B(3. 0). 7.. v = -i + j + k. v = j . B(I.uXv=-(vXu) C(3. 8). 3.-:-. A(1. B(l. -2) C( -2. Answer in foot- pounds. a. Parallel and perpendieular vectors I. D(2. 2. 0. (-u) X v = -(u X v) d. I). Q. verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. What are the degener- ate cases? 33. I). -I. u'(v'w) 32. Whieh vectors. true? Give reasons for your answers.2. B(3. 47. 0. v. if aoy. -I). use dot product and cross product notatioo. A(O.- C(2. C(9.0). B(IO.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18. -1. A( -6. whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w. u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47.0) D(O. Which of the followiog make sense. 35. I). 0 e.-I) 42. B( -2.O.. ifaoy. P(1. (uXv)'w b.2).ct u = i + 2j . Given nonzero vectors u. 34. 15.k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b.3k. -2). a.O). -I. 41. aod IFI = 301b.'/Tj + ('/T/2)k.i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i . A( -6.i-j+k 21. Let u.0). u X (v X w) d. 46. -I). 39. 43. and w be vectors. D(2. -2. I) C(2. 26. 0. I). r = -('/T/2)i . as appropriate. A(I. Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j). P(I.

(b" IJ.00. line segments. 48..35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-. a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line. Then !:. and (b" b2).. Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane. We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book. 0). xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI.YO. -4. Yo. 00). 49. C(O. Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo.y.. Z = Zo + IV3. Explain your work. (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x. zo) paralle. 0. 12. and planes in space. e2). zo). zo). Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. B(l. a2). 5). In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line. y.is the set of all points P(x.35). Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt. + (y . z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo. and (q. (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O. The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line. PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I.!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k. Yo. TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0.).688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. - 00 < I < 00 (3) . (ai. and D(3.xo)i FIGURE 12. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space. 0). z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12.0). y.P = tv is o y (x . -00 < 1< 00. Thus. These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00. Yo. Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo.P is a scalar multiple ofv. and the domain of I is (. y=YO+IV2. z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO. !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x. Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2). -3. y = Yo + IV2. The expanded form of the equation P-. Yo.2). xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv.5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines.yoH + (z .zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). 2.

0. z = -3 + 71. = = (I .4) and vii 2i + 4j . z = -3 z = 4 + 71. 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21. Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change.y = 2 . and Equations (3) with (xo.y. -3) and Q(1.31. "\. • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo. Q(I. we first parametrize the line through the points.4) parallel to + 4j .12.4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3.2k. taking them. y=2-31.31. P(-3. zo) = (-3. We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values.31 3. -3) Y We observe that the point (x. -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12. y = -] .37). -1. 4. -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique. zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v.4).2. from Example 2: x = -3 + 41. Y = 41.2)j + (4 . y = 2 . -1. + 71.(-3))i + (-I . We could have chosen Q( I. -I. The equations x = -3 + 41 3 . Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3.36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1.4) at I = \. Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12. 2. in this case. on the line passes through P( -3. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I.2.4) (Figure 12.z) = (-3 + 41. Yo. 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2.zo) equal to (-2. -1.37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ.2. we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction .5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2. • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1.2.2k (Figure 12. 0. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment. Yo.3j + 7k is parallel to the line. but so can the parameter.21. z = 4 . z = -3 + 71. y=2-31. To parametrize a line segment joining two points.andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2. We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41. 0:51:5\.-1. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t.1=0 Solution With Po(XO. + 41.0. The arrows show the direction of increasing t.31.(-3»k 4i . Rewriting Equation (2). 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first. -3) at I = 0 and Q(I. Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO.YO.2 .36).

200v3. From Equation (4). What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter. the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO. I. When I = 10 sec. 1. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I. the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k). 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k.I. we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12. I.O)k = -2j + 5k . 3. It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft. which is the length of the vector r(IO). Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion.3)j + (5 . EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I. Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter. 200v3). The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v. which is Ivl FIGURE 12. where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv. 200v3. 200v3) in space.38).5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. In the n. I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec.690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3. z = 21. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3. I).I)i + (I .38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8.Q1ation of the figure. EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I.With PS = (I . y = 3 .

The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D.o.(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = . 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x . where D .P ..39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of. Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO...Xo) + B(y . we obtain 5x + + 2y .k.Yo)J + (z .5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[.z = -22.12. This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y .)'O.zo) Ax + By + Cz = D. zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x. Thus. z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12.7) O.Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k. y. Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(. and z in the equation 5x + 2y .M I FIGURE 12. y.z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22. • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J . A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation. zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x .Axo + l1. Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo. This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane. 0.Yo. . vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-.39). the dot product n' PoP = o. • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space . became the coefficients of x.. Simplifying. d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs .Yo) + C(z .Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o.3.zo)kj 0 or A(x ..

.0). will do as well. 0. The line is x = 3 + 14t. Turning this around.0) + 2(y . 0).40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O. For example. z = 1St. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect. or 01 = k02 for some scalar k. The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well. 0). EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x . if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74).2z = 5 intersect. we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate. The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line. The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane. Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z. y = -1 + 2t. EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . and qo.2z = 15 and 2x + y . SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12. 3.6y . ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction.40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02.2z = 5.6y . two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel.1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. B(2. SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3). 0. To find a point on the line.0) + 6(z . ° FIGURE 12. In our case. -1. Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line.2z = 15 and 2x + y .1). Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3. we can take any point common to the two planes. 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection. 0. Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line. SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane.692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O. 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k.

that is.0. the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane. The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k.0) FIGURE 12.2. 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.2.1 . That is.y.O).41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II)./ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I. .5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21. intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.41). then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n. z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I . EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1. -21. z = 1 +1 + 21. The point of intersection is (x.1) = (f. 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane. Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12. (0.0.12. Solution The point y = -21. 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2.z)lt=-1 = 2. • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n. 1.

The line through P(1. 2.2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y . I. 0. -7. I) 3. 19.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2. (0.5z = 21 (2. The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6. 1) parallel to the z-axis 8. 0).42).1.4. . The line through the point (3. (0. 2. 15.2j + (1 . Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment. Find the angle between the planes 3x .-1. 2. (1.0). The line through P( -2. (1.3)j + (3 . (1.694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts. • Exercises 12. 0. The line through (0.0) (0.38 radians. -2. 1) (3. 3. (0.2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 .1) and Q( -I. 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals. -4.1) 5. 0). 13. 0). The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i .0.12.1). 2). (2.2k.20.1) . 02 = 2i +j .2z = 5.0) (0. 0. 0.0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10.O)k + 3k. then n = = (1 .3/2) (1. I. 5. 1. (1. 1.0.3) and Q(3. z = 31 7.2.O)i i . Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i . 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7.1).3.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1. The z-axis 1. 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12.I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1. The line through (1. The angle between them is FIGURE 12. . indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization. () = = COS-I cos. (0. 16. 0). (0. 0). . The x-axis 12. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11.0) (1. 0.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13.0) 14. The line through the point P(3. 0) and Q(1.6j .0. y = 2 . 1. -2) 4.6y . 9.I.0. . 1. 3. The line through 3x + 7y . If we take P to be the y-intercept (0. 18.0) 17.2k are normals to the planes. 20. The line through (2. (1. The line through P(I.

x = 10 y= I +2t. 2x + 2y . x = -1 + 31. Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I. Y = -I + 2. 49. z=I+I. z = -1 + s.0. -I).5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31. y = 2s + 4. LI: x = I. y = -I + 41. 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 . Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3. -1.0 intersect. for example. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37.x=I-I. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian. 2. 4. 2. 7).(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. 5) normal to nl = i . + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65. y = • + 3.I. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10. -3. (2. x + Y = 2 58. 53. y = -I . (2. -4. y = 2+ -2 + 2r.(3. + 6t. 34. 5x + y-z = 10. Find a plane throughPo(2. Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. x = 4t.3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{. and then fmd the plane determined by these lines.3). Y = 3 + 21. Y = 2 + 5t. and x = • + 2.7) parallel to VI = 2i . y = 1 + 31. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I. + I.2t. x + 2y + Z = 2.3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48. z = 5t.I.4).6.3). 4. 21. + 6. 61. x + y . T.8) 25. 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . 1. LI: x = 3 + 21.2. 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s. (0. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. (2. -2. Y = 4 + S. y=3+2t. 2.y= I + 2s. or are skew. Ll:x = = -1 + t. 2 Z Z = 1 . y = -3. (0. -2. (2. -I). intersect.2z = 2 48. find the distance from the point to the plane. < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r. 2x + y . fmd the point in which the line meets the plane. 0) and the normal vector. In Exercises 39-44.\12k. 40. The plane through (2. -00 00 31. I. z = 1 + I. z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52.Z = 3. tsken two at a time. y = 5 = I + 4t. Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines. the flight paths of two planes in the sky). x . Given two lines in space. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66. x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x . z = 4t 51. 5). find the distance from the point to the line. y=I+5t. (I. I. . and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines. 1 + ls. 33. (0. = -2 .4s.j + 3k. x = 2. + 41. -00 L2:x=2-s. Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj.0. y = -I . x+y+z=2 56. fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56. (2. Z <. x + Y + z = I.2z = 5 60. lines. -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y . L2:x= I + 4.I) normal to n = 3i . x = 5 + t. y = I z = -(1/2) . The plane through Po(2.0). z = -48 . Z = 5. x + Y = I.. In each exercise. 29. 38. z=l+s. 43. -00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38. either they are parallel. (-1. Y + t.1. I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27. or they are skew (imagine.0. y = 1 T.4). 42. -2. y + 21.I. and (-1. P2(3. Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2. y=3s. x=4-1. 2). 54. Z = 21 z = -3 . The plane through A(I. 28. determine whether the lines. are parallel.I.I. 46. 41.-1. z = -2 . The plane through (I. 4y = -12. 67. y = -2. 5x-2y= 11. I. y = = L2: x 1 . Describe the reasooing behind your answer. 36. Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4. The plane through Po( 0.0).21. . 64. 2x . I.2j .12).4z = -12 55. In Exercises 29 and 30.4. -00 30.(3/2)k. I) 24. I). L3: x = 3 + 2r.0. y = 31 + 2.2s. and x = 2s + 2. and (0. = -00 < t< 00 57.2j + k. 44. z = 31.z = 3. Is the line x = I . (1. 3). y=31. 39.z = 8? Give reasons for your answer. x +y +Z + 3z = I. -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59. Find a plane through the points PI(I. or they inletseet.k 22. -1. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. z = 31 meets the coordinste planes.31. 47. z = 4t + 3. (0. (0. LI: x = I + 21. -2. The plane through (I. 62.x=I+21. Describe the reasoning behind your answer. -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r.2y + 4z = 2. z=31. Theory and Examples 63.3).5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. Y = 3 . -00 x=21. Z = z = 2 . 32.-1). 35.2x+2y+2z=3.0). If they intersect.t. find the point of intersectino. 5. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y . 45.z= -3 +48. 2x-2y-z=5 SO.12. 0.3x-6y-2z=3. Y = -21.2 = + 2 Vzj . I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j .y + 2z = 7.

Zl) as a point on the yz-plane... The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I . z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO.? Give reasons for your answer.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. Conversely. 69. Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. 2). 70. Then.. Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. Suppose LI and L. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing. we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces. the generating curves are circles. and z. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12. 1). y. . In this section.696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b. 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71. The line segment from (1. Regardless of the value of z.xo2.44). What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes.44). 0. 0) to (0. Because of this. and c.y.y + C'z = D.43).YI. 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI. y. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line. but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16. the point Q(xo. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1.43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. 2) passes through the plate. 0. therefore. the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. L ° z P(O. Z = 0 (Figure 12. How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A. We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E. z). Spheres are quadric surfaces. andzi.0). for Solution any value of z. Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 . Your eye is at (4. 2. x02. Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x. and ( -2. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo.y = 2 .t. (I. we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. xo2. 0. The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. 2. Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo ." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12. any point Q(xo. h. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t.. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines. are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer. Which planes have an equation of this form? 72.z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12.YI.. but now we allow generating curves of any kind. The point Po(xo. 74. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D. 00.) 12. we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 . where cylinder means circular cylinder. 73. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo. 0).6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now.x + B.0.Xl. 1. What do you find? 68. In solid geometry. Z = 3 + 2t.

O. 0. For example. We fucus on the special equation . . : f . . We call it "the cylinder y _ xl.. As Example 1 suggests. and hyperboloid. any curve f(x. Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z ....:'... y ''f FIGURE 12..' . 0). when z = o. y.. . The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids.. FIGURE 12. In a similar way. D. z)..z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey. " >t-:.. We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface. the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane. ± b. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 . I . and then give II. The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis. 0).y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x. ± c).. Iy I :S h. paraboloids. S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types.z) = c.... any curve g(x.45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a..y) = c. and Iz I :s c. r1 " .lo ..ts. z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x. z) = c. . Any curve h(y.E.... For instance. . Quadric Surfaces A quadric I. and E are oonstmJ.. I I -- \ . It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a. . and (0. 1 _ . Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids.rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x. . and z.. (0. r . The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared. xOl. elliptical cones... The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses. C... / c /' .." where A.6 Cylinder.44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO.. B.1"".12.(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz .45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes.--. EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12...

but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation). is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2. The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 . Part of the hyperbola y 2 . The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward.7.y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12.c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0. If all three are equal. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas.(zoic) ) = 1.(zoic) ) + b (1 . _ Table 12.X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----. the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion. Near the origin. To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum. . the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass. b. b the parabola z = .1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces. and c are equal.46). IZo I < c. EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2). We will say more about saddle points in Section 14. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface. c > o.(x 2/a 2) = z/c. If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0. To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum.46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) . the cross-section is a hyperbola. the surface is a sphere. If Zo is negative..698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo.. y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a . The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas.2 a (1 . --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1). If any two of the semiaxes a. the parabola opens upward from the origin. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis.

. -T'---- .12. . ./ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET ."pImo " . . . +. ...nbolu _ . Tho PEIobolu _ . 'Ibe e1Hpee - . and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12.6 Cylinder.'. 'Ibe p... .. ..1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces . HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' . .. • ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" ....>0 ."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ ._1 . ill Ibo ".cV'i f .

Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+. (The area of an ellipse .b .z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4.y 2 _ 1 10. 14. the ellipsoid . f• . 4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES . CYUNDERS 13. x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3. L h• . ellipsoid. 9 4 by the plane z . z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . z=x:1+4y:1 23.. 40.'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27. (y'/4) .y=I-:x 2 -z2 26.y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44. 9. 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y .1. x 2 +z2 _ 1 41. and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12.y:1+ z 2=X 2 6. X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n.c as a function of c. x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2. with semiaxesa andbis7rab. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a . 1. 4x:1 20.x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8. z= 1 +y2_X:1 35. . Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a).x:1+ y 2. x _ y 2_ z 2 7.. 21. 9x:1 . L . b. Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44.(. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33. 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5. L Express the area. 25.c? . match the equation with the surface it defines.z :1=1 29.6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12.) b. of the cross-section cut from.. . c. etc. . 4x:1 + = 9y2 28. 4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36.z 2 +x:1.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24. . d.z=y2-1 16. 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18. X=z2_ y :1 11..x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42.t2 ELUPSOIDS 17. Also. J. z = _(X2 + y2) 43.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I).t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19.y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30.4. identify each surface by type (paraboloid. k. X2 +y2=4 15.4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34.700 Chapter 12: Vector.1: 2 _ y2 12. . 9. z = _4. y 31.x2 +2z 2 _ S 9. x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39. Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37.

How do you find equations for lines. suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. The barrel is 2h units high. how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5. 14. Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10. . Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h.25 54. 13. Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ . Then check two things. What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates. its midsection radius is R. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples. you can. 3. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. rotate the surface into different viewing positions. and planes in space? Give examples. 8. and its end radii are both r. by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. line segments. 9 .= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. 7. 2.3y2 56. What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. -2 d. suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h. 11. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. -3 -2 -2 -1 c. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. c. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples. 53. -1 47. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar. Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12. paraboloids.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. z = 1 . 48. What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids. How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. x x -0.Chapter 12 46. cones. Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph. 1. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. 51. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. j.5 2. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples. -2 2 1 2. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. z = y2. h > o. where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2. and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). 5x 2 z2 . z = x 2 52. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . -3 h. How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. a. 1. and which are not? Give examples. 16. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a. Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h.y2. 49. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h.= a b2 c 3. 57. z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. 15. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular. Find a formula for the barrel's volume. y y y y 2 y y 50. When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. First. 17.

-1. y = -I . !flvl = 2. Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20.0. z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k. u.3).Q.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x . and Distances 27. P(i. z = I + 41. u X v. 40. (6. fmd proj. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26.j 8. The veetor obtained by rotating (0.6. 0) and Q(I. Planes. 1. 0). The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos.y + 2z = -8 intersect. Iwl = 3. x . Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k. I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6. -2. fmd the distance from the point to the line. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. Q(2.y = 6 . Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1. Q(O.I.andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3. fmd lvi. (2. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2. Velocity vector v = (etcost . and the vector projection ofo onto v. the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv. R( -1. Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4. -6).3i + 7k. fmd the component form of the vector. v. For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j .8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21. 31. 12. 5. x = -t.4. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c.21. 2.5k and v = -4i . In Exercises 29 and 30. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. I). (0.andR. -I). In Esercises 17 and 18. U'v. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. 9. Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I.0. Z = 31. 33. Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. v=i+j 23. 36.3j + 3y +Z = 2 35.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane. Lines. P(i. -i .2. 43. 0. The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7. fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14. 1. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30.3.0).4) and v = (2. v2i + v2j 10. v. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude. lui. w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8. 10). v X u. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42.y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions. 5v 2S. The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i .u=i+j. 44. 29. P. and w. 32. y = 2 + I.etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2. V'u.2. the angle between v and u. (3.j + 4k. In Exercises 37 and 38. 0. let u = (-3. v=j. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21.Y . Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x . Y = t.u+v 4. y = 31.1) Iv X u I. 19.2).u=i+j-k. 34.2wl· 24. 13. 37. In Esercises 33 and 34.k 15. 41. 3) parallel to the vector v = .j 11. 21. 17. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x . i + 2j . fmd the distance from the point to the plane.5y + 2z = 6. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3. 1. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u. In Exercises 21 and 22.fmd Iv . . and u X v as vectors at the origin. x = 2 + I. I) 18. -5). u=i-j.0). u=i. 16. v=2i+j+k. -2u 2. 2i .3u-4v 3. 28. R(O.. Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . 38. . w=-i-2j+3k 26. v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39. 2.

O)? 67. C(l. C(I.-1) and B(-I.4(1. Is the line x = 1 + 2t.2. «x + 2)1 + (y . Find the point in which the line through p(3. on the three coord. Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. Q(3. y = -2 + 31. Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I. Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. y B(l. the vector projection of BA. x 2 + (y . z = _(x 2 + y2) 71. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram.) Find the distance between the line through A(4.andC . What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn. 2. z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I . Find D). o. 3) o 54. 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70.5y +22' = 6. (x + 2) + l1(y 046. L (21 . 47.2y+ z + 3 + k(2x .0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y .t? 49. x .I)j + zk) 6l. "'" C(2.I. -13/'. z . 3). Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A . B(I.4) . 0. (Continuatio1l o/Exerci. 5. 53. o. I) normal ttl the plane 2x . 51. FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D. 63.2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x . 4). 2) 58. The equation. Find the distance from the point P(I. 56. andD. Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x . Is v = 2i . 51. 1) and the line through C(t. 0. 0).1)2 + z2 = I 68.z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc. ""'D(2. 60. X2 +y2=z2 73. onto iiC. 2) and B(2.3-t.tJ. Quadric SumCt!!s 59.3J + 3k)' b.6y + 10z . b.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D. (2i . -I).z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x . 4. Thm project AC onto D. the area of the parallelogram. 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76. 3.j + k.1) .' P-.j + 2k.y .y .2-3t b. e. Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z .y + 2z = -2 meets the plane. 0) to the plane through A(O. Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1. 0. 4. -2). 50. 71. Find an equation for the plane through A(-2. -3) and B(I. d. 3)paraIleltou .z = -4 in a point P. through the points .i + j . Find the distance from the point (2.z . 2). Find the coonIin. x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2. 64. y .91 Give reasoos for your 61. (2i .z + I = O. x-axis? 57.-l. -1. 48. 2.O. -I) andD(4.i. planes.-Ilt.Chapter 12 45.2.i . the cosine of the interior angle atB. 2.I)j + zk) = 0 e.!e 63.2i + 3j + kandv .2i . The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) . 0). -1). d. the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y . -2.0. 65.I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O.O. z=t c. 26/') ""'D(16/'.j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y . I. 2.z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x . -1. z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x .3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y . x=3+2t. 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z .na. The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines. -I). I. 0.i+ 2j + k.y.4 and orthogonaltot+J+k. X2 +y2_z2=4 75. I. Shaw that for every real number k the plane x .4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer.O) and the line L2 through the points C(3.B . f. Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L. -13/'.y . I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76. A(2.2k.3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. The line L: e. B(2. andR(-2.0). Xl+zZ=yl 74. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x . -1) 55. y=2t.atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L. yl_x2_zl= 1 66.4).4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69.

-\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2.6j . 2). -----_ B I (l.k. Y = -3 + lOt.4 N· m).704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters.(I/3)k. and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i . socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in. a. a. H2 stops its flight at (446. HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. 13. Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram. Two hours later. Four minutes ago. lands at (446. whereas ship B is located at (0. 2) z x --- ----. The aircraft is due in 20 min. to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I. the submarine was located at (2. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram. 1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2. As shown here. All coordinates are given in thousands of feet. x = 6 + 11 Ot.5-in. Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l.) 6.0) y 5. Due to system malfunctions. they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept. are traveling together. 0). 1. Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles. 1) and. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. 0. where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires.5. ship A is located at (4. Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j . HI and H 2. z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t.J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4. -1/3). 3.0) x (0. -1. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle. Y = -3 + 4t. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. 13. in a negligible amount of time. How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3." If you are installing the plug with a lO. 1.0. 0). The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) . 5. Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed.0). and angles a and {3. 3. At time t = 0. HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in. from the axis of the spark plug. Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4.

D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC. 2i+ j d. Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D. and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD . and E is one·third of the way between C and B.Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b. B. . The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v. Use vectors to show that the distance from P. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results. c.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax. and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L. with z orthogonal to the line L.fmdprojpv. i-j+k c.) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' .)I2.2y + z 3. 10. What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b. Z2). a.Y + 2z -4 if the point (3. Z3). 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal. d. a.Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . C. Determinants and planes 11. 2i b. -I) is equidistant from the two planes. 2. . Yh Zt). - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a. projp v. In the fIgure here.(u·v)w.Y 0 and 3x . For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7. D 2 2 B p C 1 b. fmd w in tenns ofv and z.D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl . u v w A D B a. The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector.k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k . 14. b3 -d3 15.z 2x + 3y . (u'w)v . Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2. i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i . Prove that four points A. Showthat XI X2 - 12. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. 16. is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges. and Ax + By + Cz D.z 0 pass through the center of the sphere. W. Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P.Y3. If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k. Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P. Assuming Iv I Iwi. + by. Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x . 8. can be defmed informally as follows. and z. Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x .Y y.z 12. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . Determinant.(v·w)u.Y Y2 . Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD. and line. Show that the lines c. 17. This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. b. P2(X2. 13. and P3(X3.(XhYh z. and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. 9. For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT . Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x .I. a. (AB X BC) O. Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P. although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v .

Cro.Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v. 20. Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations. 25.s and dot products vectors. Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v. Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line.0 if and only ifu .O. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors. Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly.lulvare orthogonal. and r are any 21. Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite. u for every vector u and that U' u . Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w . then b. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu . 24. and d. Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image.B) . v"r for any four nurohers a. b. .sinAcosB . v.-Iul'u'v X w.(uXv). derive the trigonometric identity sin(A .706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u.(wxr)_lu. c. (Hint: Let u .ci u·r V'WI. 23.cosAsinB.) Show that dot multipli- 22.(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c.ai + bj and + dj. 0 19. Show that w .W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v . u X v . Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors. w. that is. and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line. Use vectors to prove that 18. show that u .

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