12

VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant
x x = constant
(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z
xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/
/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\
: (0, 0, 0)
I

y

Z y
Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1
(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z
x 2 + y2
The circle
= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
the plane z
=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +
=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1
Geometric Interpretations of Equations
In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
S.

= 0, 2 x + y2
2

z = 0
=

4. x = I, Y = 0
z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0
X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0
19.
a.

y
= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.
Xl

0 '" Y s 1
1

x2

+ y2 + z2
+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1
Z

+ y2 + z2 >
+ y2 :s
1,
Z

10. x 2

11.
12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2
C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0
b. x
=
S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4
b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s
z = 0
Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y
b. z =

x 2,
y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,
X

no restriction onx

=2

662
Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

Distance and Spheres in Space
The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2
IPIA 12
Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore


EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is
IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f
= =
Z

+
25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+
I"::j

V45

6.708.

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
(x - xof
Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

P I (5. 55. 0). -5). 3. Pl( -I. y-axis at (0. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. and C(3. Pl(l. I). x 2 y2 z2 4x . -I. 0). Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a. (-I. PI(I. 0. P2(0. -3). 0. y-axis c. yz-plane b. Distance In Exercises 41-46. 2) and the xy-plane. -I. 0. yz-plane b.5). x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47. 3). 5). 0.2)' = 8 48. 2. xz-plane 61. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. I) 40. 0.4z = 0 35. PI(O. 2. 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . 1. I) parallel to the L b.4. The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. xz-plane 28. at 1Ire saroe time. 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. 25. xz-plaoe c. (0. z) to the 37. 63. 4. z-axis 60. The circle of radius I centered at (-3. + + +++ 9 58. z-axis 27. x-axis b. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. z-axis at (0. Radius 31. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. 0. B(I. 0). The plaoe througb the point (3. 4. +(y . -2). yz-plane c. I. The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I. (1. z) to the 39. -2) 26.2. open means endpoints left out. 0) x-axis at (3. (3. Had we wanted the spheres left out.2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b.2. 7. The line through the point (I. I. The plaoe througb the point (3. xz-plane c. 4) P2(2.664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres.4. 42.Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. 43. and z = 2 +++ 56. 2. I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b.7) b. The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin. y-axis b. 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. -7. I) and. -I. -2. y.3) 52. 5). 0) P2(4. ++ + 57. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. 5. 3. 0). 62. open sets leave them out) a. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. . 0. 2 units from the point (0. 64. P2(2. The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I. I. 0.-t) x2 54. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40. I). 1. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. yz-plane b. yz-plane c. The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0. b. P I (3. -1. (x . thepoint(O. y-axis c. (0. 0. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2.3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. 3.+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. -2.t. 41. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. Show that the point p(3. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33. 0) 66. -1. 30. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59.3) andB(4. 4. Closed sets include boundaries. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. (0. Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. P 2(2.5) 53. 5).Vz)' + . 65. (Closed means the spheres are to be included. 3. y = 2. 3. and (2.0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58. 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. I). 0. -2) In Exercises 25-34. y. 45. xy-plane c. -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0. z-axis Center 51. 0) c. -1.

To describe a body's displacement."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force. we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going.!. We need more information to describe a force. They therefore represeot the same vector. PQ . or velocity. to denote a force vector. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13. we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF. ii. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is. length. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v.8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space. and w. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. y FIGURE 12.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space. Figure 12. FIGURE 12. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length. To describe a force. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit. We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. To describe a body's velocity.2 Vectors 665 12. To record mass. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle. or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length. vectors are usually written in lowercase. are parallel. FIGURE 12. it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. lV. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space. For example. such as F.7). displacement. or time. v. for example ii.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12. We can specify v by writing the PQ. Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters.10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. for example. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength. displacement. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. boldface letters. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen. In textbooks. for example u.12. a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object.10). andF. In handwritten form.9) regardless of the initial point. and point in the same direction (Fignre 12.) y AB is called a vector. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction.

2). There is no third component for planar vectors.Y2. V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2.Y2. v. U3) and (v" V2. Z2). Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical.Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ. This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction. 2. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. V3) of real numbers.' PQ is the nonnegative number X.)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 . Yl + V2 = Y2.Xl = -5 .666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2.X" Y2 . Z2).Yl). Thus. So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers.Y2) as points in the plane. where the initial point is P(x"y" Z.y" Z2 .) when v is in standard position. and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2.X" V2 = Y2 .Yl = 2 . 4. If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2).Zl). we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector). Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates.) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 . Thus (u" U2.). bers If v = (V" V2. 0) or 0 = (0.10). v. and V3 are the components ofv. In particular. EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( . The numV2. The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations. V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. and U3 = V3. Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2.4 = -2.3.) and the terminal point is Q(X2. .X"Y2 . then v = (X2 . denoted by the symbollvl orllvll. and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2.Yl.(-3) = -2.Yll' + (Z2 .10). 0).y"Z2 . v. With this understanding. given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2.X" Y2 . 1) and terminal point Q( -5. then Xl + VI = X2. then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v. 0. then the component form of v is v = (V" V2). the standard position vector v = (v" V2.zll' (see Figure 12. Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 . In summary.Zl are the components of PQ. V3). The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv. V2 = Y2 . if v = (X2 . and V3 = Z2 . VI = X2 .

. ku3) + V2. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar. negative. Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2. Addition: Let u = (u" U2..12 vector addition.. U3) and v = (v" V2. U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors. DEFINmONS scalar..?) "" 14.11).. where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other. A scalar is simply a real number. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication. The component form of PQ is v = (-2. whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2). or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication. The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12.11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(. What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a. .. I)..12.I = I.12a... y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3...14 lb.2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 . The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. (u" U2) and (Vb V2).---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12.. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors. (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn. Scalars can be positive.. -2. (b) The parallelogram law of . given by FIGURE 12. b).12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ ..

14 (a)Thevector u . (a + b)u = au + bu 2. U3) + (v.1) .27." U2.7.1) (e) FIGURE 12. + U" V2 + U2. then ku has the same direction as u. (b)u .2) (h) u . u + 0 = u 5.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u. is the diagonal of the parallelogram. U3) v + u." V2. gives u.2) = WVU. I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l.0) = (-5.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v). v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1.vas the smn u + (-v). Figure 12. Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1.7. a(bu) = (ab)u 9. // FIGURE 12. 1) + 3(4. V3) (u. U3 .v = (u. + v" U2 + V2.2 + ui + u. forces add vectorially as do velocities.1 . we have u +v = = = = = (u. is obtained hy adding the two force vectors.0) = (10.14a).v = u + (-v). If k > 0.21. 8.)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u. v.7. In physics. b be scalars.6. and so on.u+v=v+u 3. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u.v" U2 . V3 + U3) (v.668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition).(4.-4.0). Properties orVeetor Operations Let u. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u. Ou = 0 7.v (e) + 3v I!ul. U3) and v = (v" V2. 4. . The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction.1) and v = (4. = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic. ." V2. The difference u . Find the components of (h) u .3. called the resultant vector.3.v. when added to v. so adding the vector (u .v) to v gives u (Figure 12.v) + v = u.0) = (-1 . for example. Ifu = (u" U2.0) = (-2. Note that (u . For instance.V2.14b shows the difference u . w be vectors and a. we see that lkul = V(ku. then (a) u . V3) + (u.3 -7. Comparing the lengths of u and ku.v= (-1.V3). V3).2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar. 1. where the smn.4. 6.2) + (12. to establish Property 1. if k < 0. accelerations. So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces. U3 + V3) (v.3. Figure 12.13 Scalar multiples ofu." U2.

The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3. express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion.xl)i (Z2 . 0) = Vii + (0. and k = (0. 1) + V3k. the vectors u. and u + v are always coplanar. Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v. V3) + v2j + V2(0. we say they are coplanar vectors.P2 IP-.O)j + (0 .0.0).itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3.ZI)k. 0. 0). Z2) is x (Figure 12.1). Aoy vector v = (Vh V2.(l.0).0. FIGURE 12.1n component form. 1) to We divide P-.0) + V3(0.12. 1. 5 = 5' .(Xh Yh z. 0.1.k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P.P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 . called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv. V3) = (VI> 0.P2. 0) = vl(l.15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 . • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i .0.2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane. the vector from P.Y2.4j is a velocity vector. The standard unit vectors are i = (1.YI)j + That is. V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2.4. Wheneverv oF O.5 J · .15). For example. 0) + (0. V2. 2. j = (0. V2 the j-component.I)k = 2i + 2j 1= . Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector.) to P2(X2.0. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5./>2 (X2 . and V3 the k-<omponent. v. We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v.P2 by its length: P-.

the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging.16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i .k . 4. • . Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction. -2. the equation v = Ivll. 4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 .0) andP2(7. To see why.ti). The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2.k = 6__. by writing v = Iv II. 1.16) that o FIGURE 12.k. we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features. For example.1 is a unit vector in the direction of v. Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2. IfvoF 0. Direction of motion • (speed) In summary. observe (Figure 12.1 expresses v as its length times its direction. • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry. 2. EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i . Y2.670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi . Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I. I . length and direction. then 1. Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3. Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 ._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ).

17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538.18 in Example 9. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and . Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object.2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation.4 tan-I '" 6. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8. FIGURE 12. +v = = (535.75). ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°. ° _ cos 40° sm40 . 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons. The airplane holds its compass heading due east but. acquires a new ground speed and direction.12. IF2Isin400). u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°.5° north of east.17). . encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east. The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v. and its new clirection is about _ 6.18b). What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12. the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind.50 Figure 12.0) Therefore.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538. we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0. as shown in Figure 12. The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12. then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12. Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation. It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°. The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57. flying due east at 500 mph in still air.67N. because of the wind.18a. then the component forms of u and v are u = (500.35\1'3).75. Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0.4 mph. 70 sin 60°) = (35. N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner.

head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector. letu = (3._I_j __I_k 26. 9. The sum of AB and C = (-1.u+v+w d. and . -2) 18.1.672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43. P-. The force vectors are then F. -8.08. • Exercises 12. whereR = (2.w oP c. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I.3) 22. 7. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector.u+v+w 17.24) and F2 = (33.0.andD = (-2. 0. is the point (5. is the point (I. 1. 0) and P2 is the point (. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b.vifu = (I. The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS.0.P2 if P. AB ifA is the point (-7. 5) 19.v 24. 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b. The vector from the point A = (2.3). -I) and P2 is the point (2. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15.2) 13.0).2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!.-I).3. -I) andS = (-4. The vector PQ.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30. copy vectors U. = (-33. v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k .3) 11. P-.. express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k.08. _I_i . I.5k 29. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16.4. 25. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0. x-axis 14.47.2) and v = (1.5).B=(2. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30.2i+j-2k 27. -2) and v = (-2. where P = (1. u . 2.v 6. 3.27.2u-3v 7. 9.0.v d.76). u .3) andB is the point( -1. 2u .u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22. -I) and v = (2.. u +v 4 5. I) andB is the point (-10. -I) 10. Vii + c. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction. I) AB ifA is the point (1. -2v 4. 12. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1. 2.18 N. 5u . 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24.3) and Q = (2. 3) to the origin where A=(I.P2 if P. u . v. f"md the compooent form of the vector.9i-2j+6k 20. -2u 8.5) 21. cD.8.

.. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33.(x"y" z.7) P. At what point is the tree located? b.(1/2)k.TIl .6). 32. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest. 7 b. and w = i .2 31. fmdA. Linear combination Let u = i . Try to do the calculations without writiog. 0. Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw. find 35' a. and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here. Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a. then angles a and fJ are equal.(4. = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2. 5) 38. It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. 42.) 43. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. PI(O. . Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Write U = UI + U2. the Theory and Applications 41. v = 2i + 3j. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north.-3. (See Exercise 41. 5. 49.2. Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i .6. a. is 100 N.(1/2)j . V3 "2 1 -k c. where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w. Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI. 0) P. a> 0 TI 1 . Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB. If AB 40. 50. B. the midpoint ofline segment PI P.3). Find a. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. 1. 4. aod w = i + j. 0) 39. 5) 37. If the magoi1ude of vector F. ZI) to P. 34. b. PI( -I.fmdB. 4) P. Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38. the direction of p-. 5) 36. -2. At what point is the telephone pole? plane. 44.(2.2j. 1j + i 5 5 k d. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.TI _I_i 4.) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. a 35. Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N. Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh. -2) fl = i + 4j . 40' c'IT d. Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. (Continuation of Example 8. Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east. j +1 k 777 46. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i . are both 75 N.i 5 3. Medians of a triangle Suppose that A. Try to do the calculations without writiog. v2 13 _li . P I (3.(2. 7 . Length Direction -j a. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.. PI(I. where it stops to rest 00 a tree. 48. a. Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. and the y-axis points north. -2.12. IfAB P. 2 b. 4. i _.P. 51. 3.j.(2.2k aodB is the point (5. fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF. Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl. aod b. I. v = i + j.) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45.5k.

1.20 The angle between u and v. Figure 12. and C(-1. After investigating the dot product. . 0) 52. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!. B. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. Let ABCD be a general. Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar. 3) · c. 1f (Figure 12. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle. the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v.-1). where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. 12. 3. If the vectors do not lie along the same line. the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them... V3) is given by oFIGURE 12.m.3).. Suppose that A. U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2. b. this point is the center of mass.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other.19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov.2). quadrilateral in space. we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O.obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction. v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2. and c are. Before proving Theorem 1. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. Section 6.. 0) M 55.2. Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 . B(2. C(I. Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12. (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied.674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. the midpoints of the opposite sides.20).19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path. A(4. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv. The angle 0 is the angle between u and v. I. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) . Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j. B(l.6. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12.19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement. In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components. Show thatAa + Bb + Co o. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon.-1. 0 . 2. not a vector. not necessarily planar. A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product. If they do lie along the same line. 56.

We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane). the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.' + vl + vi (V(U1 . we have V V U2 V2 0 .21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u . we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 .v. - • In the notation of the dot prodoct.V2.Iw1 2 .3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul.3) to the triangle in Figure 12. V2.-2.thecomponentformofwis(U1 .21. U2)' (Vl. lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv. 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 .cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) . not just for rmding the angle between two vectors.12. Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8).' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v.C:I'I:I)' .U3 .SO FIGURE 12.U2 .v.V2)' + (U3 . U2.4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul.V1)2 + (U2 .' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u .-1)'(-6.V3).V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore.V3)2)' (U1 .2. + ul + ul)' = u.Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T.)2 + (U2 . V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2. V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1.Vl.vd + (U3 .21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 . Section 1.v.-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 . U3) and v = (Vl.

= (-5.2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k. - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well. Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal. (b) u = 3i .22).22 The 1riangle in Example 3. - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors.36 radians. The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12.C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1. If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors. O). = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2). calculate their dot product. = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos.76radians. We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 . Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2. DEFINITION ifu'v = O.2j .3).6 . Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O. The converse is also true.676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i . y B(3. we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O.4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2). -2) and cE = (-2. + (-2). eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2). -2) and v = (4.5).6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) .5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0. then cos () = 0 and () = cos. we have v'13 '" 78.10 or 1. + (-2)(6) = O. <a> u = (3.2) (Figure 12.1 0 = 1f/2. Then applying the angle formula.B = (3. and C = (5.

u = (lui cos Ii) v proj. FIGURE 12. Ivl . R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI.12.0·u=0. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12. The notation for this vector is proj. If Ii is obtuse. V2 + W2. u. FIGURE 12. U3) = (O)(Ul) = o. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov.3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. O) • (UI. The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. 1. U2. u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. (v + w) = (UIo U2. cos Ii < 0 and proj.23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS. here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3. u ("the vector projection ofu onto v"). HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1.25). In both cases. -vi proj. (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute. The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force. U'U = lul 2 5. U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3. then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12.v) ( Ivl2 V.24). v.v) v ( Ivl Ivl u. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars).. posed in the opening to this section.u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'..0. For instance. U'V = V'U 2.23 u onto v.24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u. then 1. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu.

We demonstrate this in the next example. proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (. (uov)v.2j .2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI. Ivl2 UOT.3j and . .2k 6-6-4. . To summarize.2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors.I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i .t j .2k) = . EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv.!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I . oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v). EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv. uov -1(i .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O.tk) 2 . onto v = i . which is the direction of v). Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i . The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = .2J .2j .

u) = (u.andO = 60°.. 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u .26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I.!.6 --- vi + 9 v'W.v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u . u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj. + 3 . DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D. then PQ FIGURE 12.(u. which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D. Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6.12. IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m.3j) 1+9 = -. That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion.3j) = -TO' 1 . we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd.v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors.u + . If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12. F = = 5 . (u . u = pro). . the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D.pro). F·D.3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj. So the equation .. (i 10 .. • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space.proj. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 . u (which has the same direction as v).6 (i .26). the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). lO J . If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction. EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons).

lvi. a :s. {3. then a. and C = (I. = (:n. Unit vectors are built from direction cosine. the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1. the vector projy u. I). v = 5j . 5. Showthat cos a = u. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j . v = lOi + 11j .2k.B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" . 13. u = 2i . u = -2i + 4j . cA A y 19. and c are the d.v=-i+j.4j + Vsk. u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. 15.4).680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12.Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. 7. Show that and CB are urthogona1.Theory and Examples 17.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT).2k v=-i+j+k 10. v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k. u 2i + u Wj = (:n.3). Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular. b.B = (0. 18. Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian. v & v = direction cosines ofv. 14. u=i+v2j-v2k.11k. I). Angle Between Vectors 12.2j + k. lui a Fr' cos.B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. b.V2 are orthogonal. Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector. 3. u = V3i . 9. Sums IUld dilJerence. -2). 1. the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v. These cosines are called c. '11') .0). TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a. C = (3. and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. . v = 2i + 10j . 4. O). andD = (4. v = 2i . 16. fmd L V' a. u=2i+j. 11. 6. In the accompanying figore. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I. Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB.3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8. it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . B = (2.3k. or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. Is this mere coincidence.7j. Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction.

use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v. v -2i + j 36.f'mdv·ut. Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9. tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. if any. Then shade in the points (x. does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42. show by direct O.3 The Dot Product 681 20. y 60' magnitude f"". Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines. if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0.) 22.P(2. . At this level of effort. -2). show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v. Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals. P(-2. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v.375 Ib).canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v. P(O.S lb. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here. a. P(I. In Exercises 37-40.P(-1. When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx .j -i . Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl. 40. 24. Then sketch the line. if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O. CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication.3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i . P(I. Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2.2j Work 41. Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I. use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v.2). Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line. Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. v v i . v 2i . -7). 25. Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is.j. Then sketch the line.3j 35. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity.148 N (13S. P( -2.1).e 27. 23. How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds. 26. (This fact is often exploited by carpenters.proj. Copy the axes and vector shown here. 33. u) • projy u 30. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. we can cancel the u and conclude that V2. A force F 2i + j . b. I) (distance in meters). 10).2). Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2. v v 2i + 3j 3i .2j 38. 32. Under what circumstances. I). Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. Give reasons for your answer. 29.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line. 37. 3). 21.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O. U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. 39. lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44. 34. L2 L2 reasons for your answer. Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v.12. P(ll. In Exercises 33-36. calculation that (u . JustifY your answer. about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal.

x 1. If one or both of u and v are zero. (ru) X (sv) 3. Unlike the dot product. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components. V3x . then 1. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product. u X (v X w) (u'w)v . the cross product is a vector. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. 48.(u'v)w .4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. We study the cross product in this section. -V3x+2 50. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule.682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47. we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting. TIris way. we also define u X v to be zero.27). The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition). The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product. Properties of the Cross Product If u.y x + V3y -2. and applies only to vectors in space. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n. 45. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. In space. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero. when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. and w are any vectors and r. u X (v 4. the second of the two vector multiplication methods. s are scalars. we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space.V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. 12x + 5y 1. Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows. they determine a plane. 46. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12.2y 12. v X u O. 49. Ifu and v are not parallel. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12. 2x .27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v. V3y 3 1 (1 . v. (rs)(u X v) 2.

Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i. Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height. Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12.4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12. we find (Figure 12.28).29 The pairwise cross products ofi.28 v XU. your thumb points the opposite way. but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k . Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember. notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u. + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. for example.12.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v.) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i. Property 5 is a detmition. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results. j. j. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 . j.30).U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k. \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system. Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3. As a rule. cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w).29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o. and k. (See Additioual Exercise 17.

. Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P. Q(2.(. Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors.684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant. or 3v'2.6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j .k (-I .l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I .2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k.3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i.31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2). 0). Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane.2). its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane.. then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad . FIGURE 12.2) (Figure 12. see the Web site at www.. Q.I).lbl b'l Ct C3 ..18 + 10 = 2 (For more information. _a.. 1.. andR(-I.0)...aw.." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2. -1.comlthomas..O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I. ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3). I.I. -1. ":/ :. Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k. -1). we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I. I v'2' + v'2 k.3) .(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k. andR is .2) (Figure 12. 1. In terms of components. -I). The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this. and R( -I. • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I. // ..1.. ..10k • = -5(1 .O)k = i + 2j . I.be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) . So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form. -I.31). Q(2.31). + 1(6 + 4) = 10 . Taking values from Examples 2 and 3. PQ X PR = (2 .) PQ = PR = . k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i . • ..0).l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 .lbl b'l + a. ------ O.. and R( -1.. .- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I. Q(2. 1.

33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0. FIGURE 12.32 is parallel to the wrench. height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12.32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. The bar rotates counterclockwise around P. V2. torque exerted by F at P is about 56. Component of F perpendicular to r.33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you. or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n. v. the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u. The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application. If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque. meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants.34). Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12. V3). we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate.4 ft-Ib.32. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81. and w (in that order). This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well.94) 56. The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base . the torque produced is zero. v. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12.12. and w (Figure 12. . Ifthe force F in Figure 12. The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu. Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel. In the notation of Figure 12.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped. FIGURE 12. then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F. we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8.32). The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector).4 ft-lb (Example 5). ii:---- or Ir X F I.

4k. 14. v = 9. v.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j . and w. v= j v= i -3j = 11. we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v. u=2i-2j -k. u = i . The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k. By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u. u = 2i + 3j. = 7j . u = j + 2k.k. v=i-k 2. v= j v= j + k 10. v j Xk 13.u=i+j-k. Using the rule for calculating determinants. v=O 2i. u = i + j. we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= . u = 2i . we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value. S. u = -8i . v. Because of this geometry. u = ti - t j + k. u = i. -4 • Exercises 12. 1. u=2i-2j+4k. v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu.2j . 12.k. (u X v)·w = u'(v X w). v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14. v = -i + j 3. and w. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin.4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. Since the dot product is commutative.k. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7.4k. u = i . u = = 8. 4. (u X v).686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram. -1 3 =-23.2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed.j . v = i + 2j i X j. s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u.j. The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. v. u 6. w is also called the hox product ofu. v = i .

3). aod IFI = 301b. 3) C(I. A( -5. Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j). u 19. v = j . P(1. A(1. verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. and w. Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV. I. if aoy.'/Tj + ('/T/2)k. 2). B(7. 1.5) 37. and w be vectors. B(3. P( -2. -I) . w = i + k. B(l.O. I. 0. B(2. B(0. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u. 3.4. andR. A(O. use dot product and cross product notatioo. 2i 20. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. -5). I). 2. R(3. a. -I). The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22. P(I. A( -6.k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b. 15. A(O. I). are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers.-I) 42.5) D(4. v = -i + j + k. A(I. 41. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. 0. -I). -1. B(3. What are the degener- ate cases? 33. 8). a.4) C(O. are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e. Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40. -I.2.0) D(O.O). Which of the following are always true. Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P.2). 47. v. a. u'(v'w) 32. true? Give reasons for your answers.3). B( -I. I) C(2. 46. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23.0). A vector orthognoal to u and v c. and w. to describe the followiog.2.i-j+k 21. D(2. -I). and which do not? Give reasons for your answers. Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases. I).uXv=vXu f. -I.3).2. (uXn)·n=O h. ifaoy. Given nonzero vectors u. 1. (-u) X v = -(u X v) d.3). (uXv)'w b. r = -('/T/2)i .i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i .O. B( -2. -I). (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. I) C(6. and which are not always a.2). I) Q(O. Which vectors. -I. 24. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. -2) 29. e. I) 16. 35.4). I. A(O. In Exercises 25 and 26.3). (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f. 7. B(I.12. B(O. B(IO. 43. -2. Q(2. Whieh vectors. 0). 25.2). 18. P(2. R(3. Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0.et n = 5i . Parallel and perpendieular vectors I.k. I). 34.uXO=OXn=O d. 4). I). -I) p • p 36..O.uXv=-(vXu) C(3. C(5.w = -15i + 3j . D(O. Answer in foot- pounds. D(2. 44. A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30.-:-.0). (uXv)'v=O C(3.5k. -I). I) Q(3.j + k. Iu I B(l. as appropriate. reasons for your answers. Let u. 2.u·v=v·n b. 26. C( -1.0).3k. I). A(I. -4).0). v.k w 2k -i + 2j . What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31. 27. C(7. C(3. A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d. h. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28. A(1. A( -6. -2). u X (v X w) d. C(9. and w e. A( -I.. U'U = lul 2 g. u'n = lui e. I. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. a. 0. u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g.ct u = i + 2j . -I). v. I). and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers. 17.0). A(O. 0 e. 0). A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f. A( -1. -1. 45. 40. 2) = y.0.3) D( -4. 0. 0). B(O. Which of the followiog make sense. u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47. -1.0).O). fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io. 38. whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w. Q(2. 0). -2) C( -2. R(O.2i+j 22.- C(2. 39. Which of the following are always true. R( -1. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18. v. h. Q.

These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00. - 00 < I < 00 (3) . 49. a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line. 2.688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. Yo. a2).. (b" IJ. Yo. (ai. Yo. Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). -4.). We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book. 0). e2). Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt.5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines. + (y . (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x. 12. -00 < 1< 00. z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO. Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo. !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x. In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line. y. B(l. Z = Zo + IV3.P = tv is o y (x . zo).YO.yoH + (z .35). Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane. The expanded form of the equation P-. 00). Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2). TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0. Yo. Thus.is the set of all points P(x. 48. xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI. y. xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv. Then !:. and the domain of I is (. PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I. and (b" b2).xo)i FIGURE 12. y=YO+IV2. z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo.2). and D(3.zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). and planes in space.00. 0). 5). and (q. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space. Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo. zo).0). y = Yo + IV2. Explain your work.P is a scalar multiple ofv. The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line. C(O. -3.y. Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O.35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-..!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k.. zo) paralle. z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12. line segments. 0.

we first parametrize the line through the points. 0.0.31.21.andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2. and Equations (3) with (xo. The arrows show the direction of increasing t.4) at I = \. -3) Y We observe that the point (x.YO. -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12.37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ. • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1. Q(I. taking them.z) = (-3 + 41. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment. Y = 41. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I.2k. z = -3 z = 4 + 71.36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1. Yo. 0:51:5\.1=0 Solution With Po(XO. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t. Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q. We could have chosen Q( I. zo) = (-3.2k (Figure 12. Yo. -3) at I = 0 and Q(I. z = -3 + 71. Rewriting Equation (2).4). -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. The equations x = -3 + 41 3 .31 3.y = 2 . z = -3 + 71.2.(-3»k 4i . zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v. y = -] . z = 4 .12.31.-1. 4.0. 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2.zo) equal to (-2.2 . = = (I .31.4) and vii 2i + 4j . y=2-31. but so can the parameter. 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21. -1. + 41. y = 2 . 2. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12. We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values. "\. y=2-31.4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3.2)j + (4 .37).36). on the line passes through P( -3. P(-3.2. -1.4) (Figure 12.y. -3) and Q(1. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique.2. To parametrize a line segment joining two points. • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo. -I.2. 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first.3j + 7k is parallel to the line.(-3))i + (-I . We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41. in this case.4) parallel to + 4j . we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction . from Example 2: x = -3 + 41. -1. Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change. + 71.5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2. Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3. Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO.

we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12. 200v3.38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8. I).O)k = -2j + 5k . EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I. 200v3. 3. From Equation (4).With PS = (I . I.Q1ation of the figure. What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter.3)j + (5 . Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter. 1. I. When I = 10 sec. the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO. the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k). The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v.690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words.I)i + (I . z = 21. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3. 200v3) in space. In the n. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3. where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv. 200v3). It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft. Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. y = 3 . 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k.I. the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion. which is Ivl FIGURE 12.5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. which is the length of the vector r(IO). EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I. I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec.38).

This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y .39). Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo. y.)'O. A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation.7) O.(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = .Xo) + B(y .12. y... zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x . the dot product n' PoP = o. 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x . . 0. Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO. zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x...Axo + l1. where D . The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D.39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of. we obtain 5x + + 2y . z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12.Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k.Yo) + C(z ..M I FIGURE 12. Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(.z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22.Yo.Yo)J + (z .3.Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o.z = -22.P . This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane.5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[. became the coefficients of x. vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-.zo)kj 0 or A(x . Thus.o. • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J . d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs .zo) Ax + By + Cz = D. and z in the equation 5x + 2y . • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space . Simplifying.k.

or 01 = k02 for some scalar k. EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x . To find a point on the line. The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well. 0. ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction.2z = 5 intersect.6y .40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . .2z = 15 and 2x + y . For example. Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line. In our case. ° FIGURE 12. Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z.2z = 5. SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane. SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12.2z = 15 and 2x + y .0). we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate.1). 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k. we can take any point common to the two planes. and qo. EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel.1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.0) + 6(z . 3. 0. B(2. -1. 0).692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O.0) + 2(y . Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line. 0). 0. SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3). Turning this around. y = -1 + 2t. ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect. The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane. if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it.40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74). Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3.6y . We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O. z = 1St. The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line. The line is x = 3 + 14t. will do as well.

the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane. then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n. z = 1 +1 + 21.z)lt=-1 = 2. z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I . The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k.0. (0. 1.1 . intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.2.O).41). EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I.0.0) FIGURE 12.5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21. . That is. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1.y. 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane. 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.12. The point of intersection is (x. that is. Solution The point y = -21. Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12.41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II). -21. 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2./ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I.1) = (f. • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n.2.

I. 16.0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10. If we take P to be the y-intercept (0.0. .694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts.2z = 5.O)i i .6j . 0).3) and Q(3.0) (0. Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i . The line through (0. 13.0. (1. (0. 18.12. 20.0) 14. The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6.1) . (1.0) 17.2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y . indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization. Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment. The line through P(1.O)k + 3k. 5. The line through the point P(3.3/2) (1. 3. The line through the point (3.3)j + (3 . 3. (1.2j + (1 . 19. 02 = 2i +j . () = = COS-I cos.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2. Find the angle between the planes 3x . 0). 1.1). -7.2k are normals to the planes. The x-axis 12.2k.I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1. 15. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11.6y . (0.0.38 radians. 1. The z-axis 1. The line through 3x + 7y . 9. 0. 2.4. 0). • Exercises 12. The line through (1. (0. The line through P( -2. 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/. 1. 2).1) and Q( -I. -4. 2.I. I) 3. 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13. (1.-1. 0. The line through P(I.3.2.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals. 0.2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 .0) (1.0) (0.0.1) 5. I. then n = = (1 . 0). (1. (0.5z = 21 (2. (0.42). 2. 1. z = 31 7. 0. . The angle between them is FIGURE 12. 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7. -2. The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i .0).20. .1). -2) 4. 1) (3. 0) and Q(1. 0. The line through (2. 1) parallel to the z-axis 8. 0). (2.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1. .1. y = 2 .

-00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38. find the point of intersectino. -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y . y + 21. 1 + ls. y=31. .4s. 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . find the distance from the point to the line. and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines. (0. -2. 2. 46. 44. x + Y = I. Z = z = 2 . and (0. 2. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66. Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2. x = 4t. -I). -00 x=21.5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. Z = 21 z = -3 . I) 24. Y = -21.0. 5).0).2s. Theory and Examples 63. x + 2y + Z = 2. 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s.21.I. Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3. z=l+s. intersect. 39. z = 5t. 38. 5x-2y= 11. = -00 < t< 00 57. Y = 4 + S. Describe the reasooing behind your answer.2z = 2 48. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. (2. z=31. 2x-2y-z=5 SO. z = -48 . I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27. -1. 5x + y-z = 10. 49. 28. 4y = -12.12). and x = • + 2. y=I+5t. If they intersect.2t. x = 5 + t. 2.12.2 = + 2 Vzj . y = 5 = I + 4t. + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65.I. 47. Find a plane throughPo(2. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37.k 22. y = I z = -(1/2) . and (-1. z=I+I. y = 1 T. Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I.3). Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines.2j . fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56. -00 L2:x=2-s. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x . -4. x + y .-1). In Exercises 29 and 30. the flight paths of two planes in the sky). or they are skew (imagine.0. x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23. Y = 3 + 21.2y + 4z = 2. L2:x= I + 4. y=3+2t. y = -I + 41. (0. 41.7) parallel to VI = 2i . 34. 2 Z Z = 1 . 2x + 2y . In Exercises 39-44. or are skew.t. I. find the distance from the point to the plane. z = 1 + I.31. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. x = 2. LI: x = I + 21.1. and x = 2s + 2. Z <. -3. The plane through Po( 0. 0.3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{.2. P2(3.(3. z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52. LI: x = 3 + 21. 5.z= -3 +48. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I.y= I + 2s. 61. y = 31 + 2. -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r. -2. I. x + Y + z = I. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. Is the line x = I . x+y+z=2 56. (0.I) normal to n = 3i . y = = L2: x 1 . z = -1 + s.-1. 36. (1. y = -I . 33. 54. or they inletseet. + 6t. z = 4t 51. Y = 2 + 5t.y + 2z = 7. are parallel. I). Y + t. y = • + 3. 29.3). -I). The plane through A(I. + 6.z = 8? Give reasons for your answer. Z = 5. 0) and the normal vector. for example. 5) normal to nl = i . Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj.4z = -12 55. y = -3. The plane through Po(2.z = 3. tsken two at a time.5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31. (2. Given two lines in space. 1.2j + k.2z = 5 60..3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48. 45. x = 10 y= I +2t.I. and then fmd the plane determined by these lines. 21. 64. T. 62. The plane through (I. -00 30.0 intersect. y=3s. -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59.x=I-I. 67.I. 35. (0. 2x + y . I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j .0. = -2 . (2. 2x . z = 31 meets the coordinste planes.Z = 3. y = 1 + 31. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10. (-1. (0. (2. x +y +Z + 3z = I.4). either they are parallel. -1. -00 00 31. Y = -I + 2. Find a plane through the points PI(I. + I. Describe the reasoning behind your answer. y = -I . x + Y = 2 58.8) 25. z = 31. The plane through (I. y = 2s + 4. z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y . 4.4). -2.x=I+21.(3/2)k. 32.(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. z = -2 .3). Ll:x = = -1 + t. Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4.6.2x+2y+2z=3. 3). (I. (2. fmd the point in which the line meets the plane. 43. 2).4. 42.0). y = 2+ -2 + 2r. z = 4t + 3.I. x = -1 + 31.0). 7). < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r. I.0. 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 . y = -2. x=4-1.\12k. I. Y = 3 .j + 3k. x . In each exercise. 40. lines. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian. -2. 53. + 41. L3: x = 3 + 2r. determine whether the lines. The plane through (2. LI: x = I.3x-6y-2z=3. Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. 4. .

y + C'z = D.0. 2) passes through the plate." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12. 73. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo. Suppose LI and L. Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x.y. Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16. The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I .43). are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer. x02.6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now. Z = 3 + 2t. In solid geometry.. 2. y.43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. (I. The line segment from (1. xo2. 0.y = 2 ... The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. 0. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D. the point Q(xo. We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E. Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo . 0). 74. y. In this section. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 .. Because of this.696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1. 1. How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A. Which planes have an equation of this form? 72. z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO.YI. . 0. L ° z P(O. therefore. 00.YI.x + B.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. Your eye is at (4. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t. we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 . 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI.xo2. Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo. and z. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines. 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane. 2).44). Regardless of the value of z. Zl) as a point on the yz-plane. 2. we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. 69.0).. Conversely.t. and c. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71. Then. the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. Z = 0 (Figure 12. h. and ( -2.z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line.44). 1). where cylinder means circular cylinder. Spheres are quadric surfaces. 70. Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. The point Po(xo.? Give reasons for your answer. we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces. What do you find? 68. but now we allow generating curves of any kind.) 12. z).Xl. any point Q(xo. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12. the generating curves are circles. 0) to (0. for Solution any value of z. What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes. andzi.

y ''f FIGURE 12. . : f . z) = c. z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x. B. paraboloids." where A.y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x.z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey. Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z . y. " >t-:.. We call it "the cylinder y _ xl. and hyperboloid.. . The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis..(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz .. when z = o.. / c /' ... Iy I :S h. r .45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a. 1 _ . r1 " .... . any curve f(x. The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids. elliptical cones. .. 0). For example. We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface. EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12. ± c).' ..y) = c. and (0.45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes.6 Cylinder. For instance.. FIGURE 12. Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids. I . 0... D. and Iz I :s c.:'.. S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types. Quadric Surfaces A quadric I.12.. and E are oonstmJ. The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared.--. It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a...z) = c. z). any curve g(x. 0). and z.. .. ± b.. In a similar way. .1"". .E.. the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane. The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses. I I -- \ .... O... As Example 1 suggests.lo . (0. Any curve h(y..44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO. We fucus on the special equation . and then give II. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 . C..ts. xOl.rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x.

(x 2/a 2) = z/c.y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12. EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12.(zoic) ) + b (1 . If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0. the surface is a sphere. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas.X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----. is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface.(zoic) ) = 1. We will say more about saddle points in Section 14. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis.46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) . and c are equal.. the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass. If Zo is negative. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas.. . If all three are equal. Part of the hyperbola y 2 . IZo I < c. --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1). The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 . The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward. but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation).c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0. the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion. the cross-section is a hyperbola. _ Table 12.46).7. If any two of the semiaxes a. c > o. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2). b.1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces.2 a (1 .698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo. To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum. Near the origin. the parabola opens upward from the origin. b the parabola z = . y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a . To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum.

ill Ibo ". -T'---- . . • ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" ...>0 .. ...1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces ."pImo " .'.. +.6 Cylinder. . ./ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET .cV'i f .. 'Ibe p."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ . 'Ibe e1Hpee - ._1 . . .12. Tho PEIobolu _ .... . HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' . .nbolu _ . and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12. .

b. 4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES .z 2 +x:1.x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45. .z :1=1 29. X=z2_ y :1 11. x _ y 2_ z 2 7. 4x:1 + = 9y2 28. 9x:1 . 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y . Also. match the equation with the surface it defines. L Express the area. 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5.. J. identify each surface by type (paraboloid.6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12. 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18. 4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36. CYUNDERS 13. 14. x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3. z= 1 +y2_X:1 35. f• . 4x:1 20. z = _(X2 + y2) 43.1.z=y2-1 16.700 Chapter 12: Vector. (The area of an ellipse . z = _4. z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . X2 +y2=4 15.b . etc.1: 2 _ y2 12..(.. of the cross-section cut from.c as a function of c.) b.y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44.t2 ELUPSOIDS 17. 9. k. z=x:1+4y:1 23. Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44. 21. y 31. X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n. . x 2 +z2 _ 1 41. 9. Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+.x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8.4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34.t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I).z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4. 25.4. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33.x:1+ y 2.y:1+ z 2=X 2 6. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42. x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2.y 2 _ 1 10. .x2 +2z 2 _ S 9. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a . . Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a). 40. 1. with semiaxesa andbis7rab. L h• . x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39..c? .y=I-:x 2 -z2 26. d.y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30. 9 4 by the plane z . Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24.'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27. (y'/4) . and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. c. ellipsoid. the ellipsoid . . L .

16. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples. Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. The barrel is 2h units high.y2.Chapter 12 46. -2 2 1 2. 3. How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. z = x 2 52. you can. Then check two things. How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. 48. What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples. Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h. z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. How do you find equations for lines. 8. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h. 49. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a. How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. 1.= a b2 c 3. where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2. When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12. 53. 14. 5x 2 z2 . how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5.25 54. line segments. What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids. z = y2. What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates.= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. 11.5 2. z = 1 . c. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). -3 h. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. rotate the surface into different viewing positions. 57. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. and its end radii are both r. 15.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58. 1. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . -3 -2 -2 -1 c. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar. 2. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ . . j. When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9. and planes in space? Give examples. suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. 51. x x -0. Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h. First. 7. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. 13. and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). and which are not? Give examples. y y y y 2 y y 50. cones. paraboloids. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. 17. its midsection radius is R.3y2 56. 9 . What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h. h > o. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples. How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second. Find a formula for the barrel's volume. a. -2 d. -1 47.

z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes. Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. R( -1. 32. 16. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x .u+v 4.3). Velocity vector v = (etcost . P(i.I. w=-i-2j+3k 26. 37. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c.6. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30. x . For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j .1) Iv X u I. 1. (2. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u. 9. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. 33. R(O. 3) parallel to the vector v = . 10). Q(2.. w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8. and u X v as vectors at the origin. -1. 17. 21. -2. 0) and Q(I. 2. .4. the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv. 0. 29. v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39.andR. I) 18. -I). In Exercises 21 and 22.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26. 34. Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x . 2i . In Exercises 29 and 30.Y . 36. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2.u=i+j. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3.3u-4v 3. Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4. fmd the component form of the vector. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane. u.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14. V'u.2wl· 24. U'v.j + 4k. y = 2 + I. 28. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. u X v. 44. -2u 2. 43.j 8. 13. 19. v=j. x = -t. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1. (0. and the vector projection ofo onto v.j 11. 5v 2S. y = 31. I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6. i + 2j .andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3. let u = (-3. The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42. x = 2 + I.etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2. -i . 1.k 15. The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i . v=2i+j+k. 5. 40.y + 2z = -8 intersect. !flvl = 2.y = 6 . 38. I). (3. and Distances 27. fmd the distance from the point to the line. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. -5). Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I. fmd the distance from the point to the plane. In Esercises 17 and 18. v=i+j 23. Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22.2. v. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude. In Exercises 37 and 38. The veetor obtained by rotating (0. .u=i+j-k. -6). 2. Iwl = 3. P(i. 12. Z = 31.2). Lines. u=i. 1. 41. 0). The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos. v. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20.3. P. v X u. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20. Y = t. v2i + v2j 10.21. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. Planes. Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k. and w. the angle between v and u.5k and v = -4i . fmd lvi. Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . In Esercises 33 and 34.3i + 7k. 0. fmd proj.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x . Q(O. Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1. (6. z = I + 41. 31. y = -I .Q.4) and v = (2.fmd Iv .0). u=i-j.0).0.0.3j + 3y +Z = 2 35.y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions. lui.5y + 2z = 6.8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21.2.

y . 56. 2) 58. Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A .4). 3. I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76. o.) Find the distance between the line through A(4. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines. planes. 0). 2. I.2i . 64. Find D). Find the coonIin. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram. 5. The line L: e.2. through the points .-1) and B(-I.0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y .atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L.z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D.i .6y + 10z . Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x .j + k.i.4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69. L (21 .2y+ z + 3 + k(2x .3-t. -2). X2 +y2=z2 73. -1. A(2.y. -I) andD(4.z + I = O. Find the point in which the line through p(3. 0) to the plane through A(O. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x . 48.O. What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y . -2. O)? 67.i + j . The equation. 60. Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z . z .0.B . x 2 + (y . 0). Find the distance from the point P(I.j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y . I. (Continuatio1l o/Exerci. «x + 2)1 + (y . The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) . 2.-l. -1) 55. z = _(x 2 + y2) 71. 4. B(2. y .3J + 3k)' b. 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70. yl_x2_zl= 1 66. 3)paraIleltou .andC . -I).0). Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. the vector projection of BA. on the three coord. b. -3) and B(I. 51. Quadric SumCt!!s 59. 0. 4. 3).4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer. C(I. 0.y + 2z = -2 meets the plane.4(1.Chapter 12 45. 2. 53. the cosine of the interior angle atB. 0.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D. B(I. Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I.1) .i+ 2j + k.I.y . Find the distance from the point (2. The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2. the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y . o. 51.3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2. z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I .z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x . y B(l.z . 4). -1). e.' P-. f. z=t c.91 Give reasoos for your 61. y = -2 + 31. (2i .O) and the line L2 through the points C(3.!e 63. Is v = 2i . 2) and B(2. -13/'.2-3t b. x=3+2t.j + 2k.t? 49. 65. -I).3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . 0. andD. Shaw that for every real number k the plane x . (2i . 2). Find an equation for the plane through A(-2. 3) o 54.z = -4 in a point P. 71. C(l.I)j + zk) = 0 e. andR(-2. (x + 2) + l1(y 046. -13/'. x . I. "'" C(2.-Ilt. d. z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x . Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. Q(3. -1. I) normal ttl the plane 2x .tJ. What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn.5y +22' = 6. Xl+zZ=yl 74. FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines.I)j + zk) 6l.z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x . Is the line x = 1 + 2t. ""'D(2. the area of the parallelogram. y=2t.I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O. d.y .1)2 + z2 = I 68.4 and orthogonaltot+J+k.O. 26/') ""'D(16/'. 1) and the line through C(t. 2. 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z .2i + 3j + kandv . 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76. X2 +y2_z2=4 75.4) . Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1.2. onto iiC. Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L. 63. Thm project AC onto D. 47.2k. 50.2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x . x-axis? 57.na.

1. The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) . -\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2. HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. 13. HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph." If you are installing the plug with a lO. Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4. and angles a and {3. How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3. Four minutes ago.0. 1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec. As shown here. H2 stops its flight at (446. where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires.0) x (0.(I/3)k. and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i . to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I.0). 3. x = 6 + 11 Ot. whereas ship B is located at (0. 1) and. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram. Y = -3 + lOt.5. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in. Due to system malfunctions.704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA. HI and H 2. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1. Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l. Y = -3 + 4t.J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4. 3. 2) z x --- ----. 0). in a negligible amount of time. -----_ B I (l. z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t. a. they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b. The aircraft is due in 20 min. a. 2).k.0) y 5. 1.4 N· m). All coordinates are given in thousands of feet. -1/3). Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept. from the axis of the spark plug. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters.5-in. ship A is located at (4. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles. Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j . are traveling together. At time t = 0. 5. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle. Two hours later. 0. 0). -1. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2.) 6. the submarine was located at (2. lands at (446. Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in.6j . 13.

I. Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal.z 2x + 3y . D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC. Determinants and planes 11. This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges.Y3. Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x . a.(XhYh z. Z3). B. and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L. although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v .)I2. i-j+k c. b. 2.z 12. a. + by. Use vectors to show that the distance from P.k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k . In the fIgure here.Y 0 and 3x . The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v. Show that the lines c. can be defmed informally as follows.2y + z 3. What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b. Yh Zt).Y Y2 . (u'w)v . and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD .Y + 2z -4 if the point (3.fmdprojpv. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. Showthat XI X2 - 12. D 2 2 B p C 1 b. The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector.Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b. a. Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x . If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k. d. For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7. Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. and Ax + By + Cz D. b3 -d3 15.Y y. and line. 10. 13.z 0 pass through the center of the sphere. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . Z2). u v w A D B a. Prove that four points A. 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. . c. C.(v·w)u. and z. i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i .(u·v)w. 17. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results.D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl . P2(X2. and P3(X3. Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt. projp v. 2i b. . Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D. Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P. For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT . is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID. 14. 8. 9. Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x . fmd w in tenns ofv and z. (AB X BC) O.Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD. Assuming Iv I Iwi. 16. W.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax. Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P. and E is one·third of the way between C and B. 2i+ j d. Determinant.) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' . -I) is equidistant from the two planes. with z orthogonal to the line L. - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a.

B) . derive the trigonometric identity sin(A .Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v.ai + bj and + dj. v.lulvare orthogonal. u for every vector u and that U' u . Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite.s and dot products vectors. c.-Iul'u'v X w.) Show that dot multipli- 22. and r are any 21.W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v . Cro. 20. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors. u X v . Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image. Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v. show that u . and d. b.0 if and only ifu . Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations.ci u·r V'WI. .706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u. Show that w . that is. w. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu .(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c. then b. 25.O. (Hint: Let u . Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w . Use vectors to prove that 18.sinAcosB .(uXv). v"r for any four nurohers a. 23. and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line. Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line.cosAsinB. 24. Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly. Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors. 0 19.(wxr)_lu.

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