12

VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant
x x = constant
(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z
xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/
/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\
: (0, 0, 0)
I

y

Z y
Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1
(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z
x 2 + y2
The circle
= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
the plane z
=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +
=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1
Geometric Interpretations of Equations
In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
S.

= 0, 2 x + y2
2

z = 0
=

4. x = I, Y = 0
z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0
X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0
19.
a.

y
= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.
Xl

0 '" Y s 1
1

x2

+ y2 + z2
+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1
Z

+ y2 + z2 >
+ y2 :s
1,
Z

10. x 2

11.
12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2
C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0
b. x
=
S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4
b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s
z = 0
Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y
b. z =

x 2,
y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,
X

no restriction onx

=2

662
Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

Distance and Spheres in Space
The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2
IPIA 12
Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore


EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is
IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f
= =
Z

+
25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+
I"::j

V45

6.708.

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
(x - xof
Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

62. 41. y. P I (3. -2) In Exercises 25-34. 25. +(y . (1. I) parallel to the L b.Vz)' + . Had we wanted the spheres left out.4. (0. 5). -2). 4. 3. The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. 0).Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. -1. Show that the point p(3.5).2. I. z-axis Center 51. I). y-axis c. 0). 0) 66. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. 0. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. Radius 31. 2. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. (Closed means the spheres are to be included.+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b. 2 units from the point (0. 0. open means endpoints left out. -1. 4. 3). 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. 0. The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. -I.2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b. I) 40. 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. -3).664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. + + +++ 9 58. 2. -7. xz-plane c. y-axis c. yz-plane b. 0. 0). z) to the 39. 0) x-axis at (3. Closed sets include boundaries. 5. at 1Ire saroe time. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. The circle of radius I centered at (-3. The plaoe througb the point (3. yz-plane c. The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40. open sets leave them out) a. x 2 y2 z2 4x . (x . 3. -2) 26. 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . 0) P2(4. xz-plane 28. 65. x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47. (3. and (2.5) 53. 3. 63. The plaoe througb the point (3. yz-plane c. and z = 2 +++ 56. b.4. Pl(l.4z = 0 35. 0. (-I.-t) x2 54. 45.0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58. -2. yz-plane b. xy-plane c. P2(0. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. 4) P2(2. 64. 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59. -5). I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. xz-plaoe c. -1. The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I.3) andB(4. 0). Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. (0. -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0.3) 52.7) b. xz-plane 61.2)' = 8 48. 43. y = 2. z-axis at (0. -I. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33. PI(O. Distance In Exercises 41-46. 42. (0. 0. z-axis 60. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. z) to the 37. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. PI(I. I). B(I. 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. 2. I) and. x-axis b. 0. The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. y. -I. P2(2. y-axis b. I). Pl( -I. 0. 3. 2) and the xy-plane. 1.2. 5).3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. I. The line through the point (I. 4. thepoint(O. P 2(2. ++ + 57. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0. 30. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. . 5). The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I. 7. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2. y-axis at (0. The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0. 1. z-axis 27. 0) c. yz-plane b. P I (5. I. and C(3. 0.t. 55. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. 3. -2. 0.

a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I. displacement. and point in the same direction (Fignre 12. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes.) y AB is called a vector.12. lV. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength. PQ . To describe a body's velocity. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. We can specify v by writing the PQ.7). length.!.9) regardless of the initial point. or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12. y FIGURE 12. are parallel. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is.10). vectors are usually written in lowercase. for example ii. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space. boldface letters. FIGURE 12. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen. We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. To describe a body's displacement. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. and w. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters. andF. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length. For example. In textbooks. To record mass. To describe a force.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12. or time.2 Vectors 665 12.10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction. it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length. or velocity. to denote a force vector. We need more information to describe a force. FIGURE 12. ii. we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure.8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space. for example u. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space. for example. we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going. They therefore represeot the same vector. In handwritten form. displacement. such as F. v. Figure 12.

y" Z2 .Yl). V3). 0).Zl are the components of PQ. This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction. and U3 = V3. then Xl + VI = X2. In particular. 2.(-3) = -2. v.Xl = -5 .). 1) and terminal point Q( -5.3.X"Y2 .4 = -2.666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2.Yll' + (Z2 . and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2.y"Z2 . Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical. 4.zll' (see Figure 12. v. The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv. 0) or 0 = (0. So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers. where the initial point is P(x"y" Z.Zl). Thus. With this understanding.10). Z2). In summary. Thus (u" U2.) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 . 0. then the component form of v is v = (V" V2). V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2.Yl = 2 . denoted by the symbollvl orllvll. and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2). If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2. bers If v = (V" V2.) when v is in standard position. There is no third component for planar vectors.) and the terminal point is Q(X2. Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 .)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 . 2). the standard position vector v = (v" V2.Y2.X" Y2 . EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( . Yl + V2 = Y2. if v = (X2 .Yl.' PQ is the nonnegative number X. then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2.Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ. v. and V3 are the components ofv. U3) and (v" V2.X" V2 = Y2 .X" Y2 .Y2) as points in the plane. . then v = (X2 .Y2. VI = X2 . V2 = Y2 .10). then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v. The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations. V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. V3) of real numbers. given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2. and V3 = Z2 . Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates. Z2). The numV2. we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector).

---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12... The component form of PQ is v = (-2.12a.14 lb. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors.12. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar.. Addition: Let u = (u" U2.. The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components..I = I.. whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2).. I).. The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12. or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication. negative. (b) The parallelogram law of .11)...2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 . where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other... DEFINmONS scalar.12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ . . (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn. What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a. b). A scalar is simply a real number.?) "" 14. Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. given by FIGURE 12. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. U3) and v = (v" V2. Scalars can be positive. (u" U2) and (Vb V2). • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication. -2. y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3. ku3) + V2.. . U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors.12 vector addition.11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2.

V3). when added to v. is obtained hy adding the two force vectors. to establish Property 1. we see that lkul = V(ku.4. 1.v = (u. I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l.0) = (-1 .2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul. a(bu) = (ab)u 9. V3 + U3) (v.v) to v gives u (Figure 12. we have u +v = = = = = (u.3 -7.-4. is the diagonal of the parallelogram.)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u. 4. 6. accelerations.21. U3 . U3) and v = (v" V2.3. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar. In physics.14 (a)Thevector u . v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1.3.0).6. Note that (u . Find the components of (h) u .13 Scalar multiples ofu.2) + (12. Ifu = (u" U2.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u. where the smn.v" U2 . 8. . V3) (u. If k > 0. V3) + (u. (b)u . U3 + V3) (v.1) .v) + v = u.7. = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic.2) = WVU.1 . U3) + (v. (a + b)u = au + bu 2. called the resultant vector.vas the smn u + (-v). Comparing the lengths of u and ku. The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction. Figure 12. b be scalars.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v).7. w be vectors and a.7.1) (e) FIGURE 12. So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces.1) and v = (4. . if k < 0. // FIGURE 12. then (a) u .14b shows the difference u . U3) v + u.(4. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u. Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1.2) (h) u . 1) + 3(4. so adding the vector (u . and so on. + v" U2 + V2.V2. then ku has the same direction as u.v = u + (-v).v (e) + 3v I!ul. for example.0) = (10. forces add vectorially as do velocities. v." U2. + U" V2 + U2.14a). For instance. Properties orVeetor Operations Let u.27. Ou = 0 7.3. gives u. Figure 12.v." V2.V3)." U2." V2.v= (-1.668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition).2 + ui + u.0) = (-5.u+v=v+u 3. The difference u .0) = (-2. u + 0 = u 5.

1) + V3k. FIGURE 12.P2. 1) to We divide P-.P2 IP-. For example. we say they are coplanar vectors.0. 0).Y2. V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2. 0.k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P. 0.0. the vector from P. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3. 0) = Vii + (0. called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv.4j is a velocity vector. 1.12. 0) + (0.1.0). and u + v are always coplanar. V2. 2. express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion.ZI)k. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v. 0) = vl(l.itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-. Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector. The standard unit vectors are i = (1. Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P. V3) + v2j + V2(0./>2 (X2 .2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane. V3) = (VI> 0. Z2) is x (Figure 12. and V3 the k-<omponent.4.) to P2(X2. j = (0.O)j + (0 .P2 by its length: P-. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5. and k = (0.5 J · .1n component form.0. • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i . 5 = 5' . The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3.xl)i (Z2 . We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v. v. Wheneverv oF O.15). Aoy vector v = (Vh V2.YI)j + That is. V2 the j-component.0).P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 .(l.I)k = 2i + 2j 1= .1). the vectors u.0) + V3(0.0.(Xh Yh z.15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 .

-2. we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features.1 expresses v as its length times its direction. • . Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction. the equation v = Ivll.k . For example. Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2.670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi . the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging. IfvoF 0. EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i . Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 .k = 6__.0) andP2(7. length and direction. Direction of motion • (speed) In summary. Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I. To see why.k. then 1. by writing v = Iv II. 1. I ._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ). Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3. observe (Figure 12. 4.16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. 4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 . I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i . The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2.ti).16) that o FIGURE 12. 2. Y2. • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry.1 is a unit vector in the direction of v.

Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object. .67N. The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v.17). 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. as shown in Figure 12.4 tan-I '" 6.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and . ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°.75). The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0. What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12. N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner. The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57.2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation. then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind. The airplane holds its compass heading due east but. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°. acquires a new ground speed and direction. because of the wind. we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0.0) Therefore.18b).18 in Example 9.35\1'3). and its new clirection is about _ 6. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea.4 mph.5° north of east. Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north. 70 sin 60°) = (35. u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°. Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation. +v = = (535. ° _ cos 40° sm40 . It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°. encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east.50 Figure 12.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8.75.12. the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75. The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12. then the component forms of u and v are u = (500. IF2Isin400). flying due east at 500 mph in still air. FIGURE 12.18a.17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538.

-2u 8.2i+j-2k 27. x-axis 14. The sum of AB and C = (-1.2) and v = (1.. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0._I_j __I_k 26. I) AB ifA is the point (1.5). 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24. -2) 18.3) andB is the point( -1. • Exercises 12.2u-3v 7.u+v+w d.18 N. 3) to the origin where A=(I. 1. 7.P2 if P. 0) and P2 is the point (.5k 29..08. head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector. is the point (I.andD = (-2.B=(2. 2. 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b. The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS.0.3) and Q = (2. u . -I) and P2 is the point (2. 5u .4. P-. AB ifA is the point (-7. copy vectors U.3) 11. -I) andS = (-4. -I) 10.w oP c. 3. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction.9i-2j+6k 20. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16.76).672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43. -I) and v = (2.47.v 24. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector.5) 21. v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k . express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k.24) and F2 = (33.u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22. The vector PQ.3).vifu = (I. -2v 4. 12. 9.v d.u+v+w 17.0.-I).8. 2. u +v 4 5. whereR = (2. I. _I_i . u .P2 if P. I) andB is the point (-10.27. where P = (1. cD. 25. f"md the compooent form of the vector.1.3. 5) 19.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30. -2) and v = (-2.0. -8. = (-33. 0. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1. is the point (5. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15. u .0). The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b.2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16. 9. P-. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I.08. and . 2u .3) 22. v. Vii + c. letu = (3.2) 13.v 6. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30. The force vectors are then F. The vector from the point A = (2.

Length Direction -j a. 1.(1/2)k. Try to do the calculations without writiog. find 35' a.2 31. Write U = UI + U2. Medians of a triangle Suppose that A. aod b. 34. 32.6. If the magoi1ude of vector F. 44. 5) 36. PI( -I. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest. Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB. and w = i .2j.) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45. 5) 37. Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure.-3.fmdB. 0. At what point is the tree located? b. V3 "2 1 -k c. j +1 k 777 46. v = i + j.. 3. 5) 38.(2. a> 0 TI 1 . and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here.i 5 3.) 43. v = 2i + 3j.TIl . 0) 39. where it stops to rest 00 a tree. 7 b. v2 13 _li . Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh.P. the direction of p-. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i . Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east.. 5. 7 .) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. -2.7) P. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. If AB 40. 40' c'IT d. I. Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east. Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38. (Continuation of Example 8. then angles a and fJ are equal.(2. -2) fl = i + 4j . assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.TI _I_i 4. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI. 4) P. IfAB P. b. Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a. is 100 N. Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw.12.. = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2. where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w.5k. 42.(1/2)j .6). Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. Find a. 50. Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. 0) P. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl. At what point is the telephone pole? plane. the midpoint ofline segment PI P.2. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47. 2 b.3). B. a. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. are both 75 N. a. 49. PI(I. It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. 48. . Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i . a 35.(x"y" z. aod w = i + j. 4.(4. 4. fmdA. Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. PI(O.j. -2. (See Exercise 41.2k aodB is the point (5. Try to do the calculations without writiog. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33. 51. fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF. Linear combination Let u = i . P I (3. 1j + i 5 5 k d. i _.(2. Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF. and the y-axis points north. ZI) to P. the Theory and Applications 41.

1f (Figure 12. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 .2). the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v. quadrilateral in space. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. b.m. Suppose that A.. Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I. In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components..obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction.19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement. V3) is given by oFIGURE 12. the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions. 56. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!. . B(l. where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. not a vector.6. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other. U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2. The angle 0 is the angle between u and v. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path. 0) 52. Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a. A(4.19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO. 2. Let ABCD be a general. 3) · c. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied. Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c. Section 6.1.20). Show thatAa + Bb + Co o. v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12. 0) M 55.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. this point is the center of mass.20 The angle between u and v. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12. 0 . and C(-1..-1.-1). A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon. If the vectors do not lie along the same line. (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. Before proving Theorem 1.19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov. Figure 12. B(2. and c are.2. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) .3)..674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. not necessarily planar. I. B. C(I. 3. After investigating the dot product. the midpoints of the opposite sides. v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2. If they do lie along the same line. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion. 12.

v.3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul. the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 . + ul + ul)' = u.V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore. we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 . U2)' (Vl.cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) .V3).V3)2)' (U1 .V2)' + (U3 .thecomponentformofwis(U1 .21.4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul. 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 . V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1. - • In the notation of the dot prodoct.3) to the triangle in Figure 12. U2. U3) and v = (Vl.U2 .v. V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2. lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv.' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u .U3 . Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8).Iw1 2 .-2. We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane).2.Vl.12.vd + (U3 . V2.-1)'(-6. not just for rmding the angle between two vectors.C:I'I:I)' .' + vl + vi (V(U1 .V2. Section 1.SO FIGURE 12.)2 + (U2 .' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v.v.21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u .V1)2 + (U2 .-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 .Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T. we have V V U2 V2 0 .

Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2.22 The 1riangle in Example 3. then cos () = 0 and () = cos. -2) and cE = (-2. - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors.76radians. O). = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos. Then applying the angle formula.C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1. Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB. Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal. DEFINITION ifu'v = O. - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors.2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k. (b) u = 3i . we have v'13 '" 78. <a> u = (3.6 . + (-2).4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2). If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0. The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12.2j .3). = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2). -2) and v = (4.10 or 1.5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0.22).36 radians. The converse is also true. We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 .6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) . we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O.1 0 = 1f/2. and C = (5. y B(3.5). eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2).676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i .2) (Figure 12.B = (3. + (-2)(6) = O. = (-5. calculate their dot product.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O.

u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl.23 u onto v. U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3. here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3. cos Ii < 0 and proj. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI. FIGURE 12. For instance. then 1. The notation for this vector is proj.3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute. In both cases.0..23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS. O) • (UI.0·u=0.v) ( Ivl2 V. (v + w) = (UIo U2. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1. V2 + W2. 1. Ivl . If Ii is obtuse. (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov. u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. u.u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12.25).12. HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition. The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force. v.24). The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. u ("the vector projection ofu onto v"). R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. U2. then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12.u = (lui cos Ii) v proj..24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu. U'U = lul 2 5. U3) = (O)(Ul) = o. U'V = V'U 2. FIGURE 12. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars). posed in the opening to this section. -vi proj.v) v ( Ivl Ivl u.

proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (.2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors.2j .t j .tk) 2 . To summarize.2k 6-6-4. The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = .2J . Ivl2 UOT.I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i . Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O. oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v). (uov)v. which is the direction of v).2j . .!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I . onto v = i . .3j and .2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI. EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv. EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv. uov -1(i .2k) = . We demonstrate this in the next example.

(i 10 . If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12. u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj.. EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons).!. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 .v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u . (u . lO J . . u (which has the same direction as v).. So the equation .u) = (u. If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction. then PQ FIGURE 12. • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space. 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u . DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D.v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors. which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D. IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m.(u. Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6.12.pro). we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd. + 3 .6 --- vi + 9 v'W.3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj. the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). F·D. F = = 5 . That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion.26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I.3j) 1+9 = -.3j) = -TO' 1 .26).u + . u = pro).andO = 60°..6 (i . the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D.proj.

Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. v = 2i + 10j .B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v. and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. 9. 5. the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1. 14. v = 2i . u=i+v2j-v2k. O). I). v = lOi + 11j . Is this mere coincidence. the vector projy u. These cosines are called c. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j .V2 are orthogonal.3k. lvi.4j + Vsk. In the accompanying figore. 16. b. lui a Fr' cos.4). v & v = direction cosines ofv.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT).2k. and C = (I. = (:n. Angle Between Vectors 12. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a.Theory and Examples 17. u=2i+j. C = (3. Show that and CB are urthogona1. 13.3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8. -2). I). v = 5j . and c are the d.7j. or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. 6. Unit vectors are built from direction cosine. {3. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian. TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. a :s. v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k. Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction.v=-i+j.680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB. u 2i + u Wj = (:n. 11.B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" .B = (0. b. '11') . Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular.Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. u = 2i .11k. u = V3i . Sums IUld dilJerence. 3. cA A y 19. B = (2. it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . 18.2k v=-i+j+k 10. 7.2j + k. fmd L V' a. 4. andD = (4. 1. 15. Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector. then a.0).3). u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. . u = -2i + 4j . Showthat cos a = u. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I.

show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v. Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line. In Exercises 37-40. P( -2.1). 21. Copy the axes and vector shown here.f'mdv·ut. In Exercises 33-36. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v. P(I.j. P(I. use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v. 40. v v i .2j 38. -7).12. Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. v 2i . (This fact is often exploited by carpenters. we can cancel the u and conclude that V2. use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v. L2 L2 reasons for your answer. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. Then shade in the points (x. b.S lb.P(2.canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v. Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I. 10). calculation that (u . I). about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43.3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i . 26. Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2. U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O. I) (distance in meters). 33. 37.375 Ib). 25. Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is.3j 35. . -2). Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl. Then sketch the line. if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0. v v 2i + 3j 3i . Then sketch the line. CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication. show by direct O.proj.3 The Dot Product 681 20. 39. a. does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42. lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44. At this level of effort. 34. JustifY your answer. 3). Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin.2j Work 41. P(-2. A force F 2i + j . 29. Under what circumstances. 32. 24.j -i . v -2i + j 36. 23. u) • projy u 30. P(O. Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines. if any. Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here.148 N (13S. Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O. Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9.P(-1. y 60' magnitude f"". Give reasons for your answer.e 27.2). tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx . Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v. P(ll. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal. How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds. Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2.) 22.2).

Ifu and v are not parallel. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product. u X (v X w) (u'w)v . Unlike the dot product. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. -V3x+2 50. v X u O.V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. TIris way. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components. x 1.682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47.27).y x + V3y -2. V3y 3 1 (1 . We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero. 49. If one or both of u and v are zero. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule.4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. Properties of the Cross Product If u. we also define u X v to be zero. 46. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12. we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6. We study the cross product in this section. The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition). they determine a plane. v.2y 12. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12. 12x + 5y 1. s are scalars. u X (v 4.27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v. then 1. In space. and applies only to vectors in space. 2x . 48. the second of the two vector multiplication methods. Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows.(u'v)w . the cross product is a vector. V3x . (rs)(u X v) 2. we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting. 45. The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space. and w are any vectors and r. (ru) X (sv) 3. The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product.

j.) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i.29 The pairwise cross products ofi. + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. and k.12. we find (Figure 12. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12. As a rule.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v. cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w).4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember.28 v XU.29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o. Property 5 is a detmition. but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k . for example. the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results. Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3.28). your thumb points the opposite way.30). \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system. j. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8. Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i. (See Additioual Exercise 17. Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 . j.U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k. Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12. Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height. Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3. notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u.

Taking values from Examples 2 and 3.lbl b'l Ct C3 .2) (Figure 12. + 1(6 + 4) = 10 .31). _a..10k • = -5(1 .. -I).3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i.." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2. The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this.aw..l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 .31).(. k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i .18 + 10 = 2 (For more information.684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant. 1.1. Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P... and R( -I.l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I .. I v'2' + v'2 k. and R( -1. In terms of components. 1.- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I... Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors. 1.O)k = i + 2j .(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k. -1. -1. its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane.) PQ = PR = .lbl b'l + a. -I. then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad . ":/ :. FIGURE 12. ------ O..O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I. Q(2. -1). 0). we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I. • .I.2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k. I. // . .. Q. Q(2.. see the Web site at www. Q(2. ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3). Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k.. • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I.0).k (-I .0). PQ X PR = (2 .be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) ..comlthomas. Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane.2).3) .6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j .. or 3v'2.2) (Figure 12.31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2). So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form.. andR is . I. .I). andR(-I.

33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you.32 is parallel to the wrench. we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu.32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. V3). and w (in that order). The bar rotates counterclockwise around P.4 ft-lb (Example 5). Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants. the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u. height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12. . we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate. The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r.94) 56. Component of F perpendicular to r. the torque produced is zero. The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application. In the notation of Figure 12. torque exerted by F at P is about 56.4 ft-Ib. V2.33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0. then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F. or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n.32. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81.12. The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector). ii:---- or Ir X F I. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8. v. This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well. Ifthe force F in Figure 12. If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque.32). The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base . meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle. Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12. v. and w (Figure 12. FIGURE 12. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12.34).

u = i. w is also called the hox product ofu. -4 • Exercises 12. v = i . v. u=2i-2j+4k. v.4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k. v. we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= . s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u. Using the rule for calculating determinants. and w. By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u.j . u = i . S. we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value.4k. v=i-k 2.u=i+j-k. u = -8i . v = -i + j 3. v = 9. The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v. -1 3 =-23. v= j v= j + k 10. v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu.686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram. v j Xk 13. u 6.2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed. u = = 8. 14. u = 2i . u = i + j. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7. and w. Since the dot product is commutative.4k.k. = 7j .k.k. 12. v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14. u=2i-2j -k. v = i + 2j i X j. Because of this geometry. 1. u = i .2j . 4. v= j v= i -3j = 11.j. u = ti - t j + k. u = j + 2k. u = 2i + 3j. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j . (u X v). (u X v)·w = u'(v X w). v=O 2i.

A vector orthognoal to u and v c. v. I). C( -1. P(1. 0). h. and w e. A( -6. andR. 26.'/Tj + ('/T/2)k. 1. Q(2. 47.0). fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io.5) D(4.2i+j 22.0). A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30.0). I).0. B(0. are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers. B(O.2). (uXv)'v=O C(3. Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P. -I). 17. -I).0). U'U = lul 2 g.i-j+k 21. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u. -1. R(3.- C(2.k w 2k -i + 2j .O.. a. Answer in foot- pounds. 0. 45. h. 41. a. v. I) Q(O. A(O. I. -2) 29.3). I) C(6. The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22. A( -5. u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g. I).2. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. Iu I B(l. -I) p • p 36.O.2.ct u = i + 2j .O. 0). verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. B(O. 15. Which vectors. B(I. 25. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23. 2i 20. 7. What are the degener- ate cases? 33. v. A( -6. w = i + k. u 19. A(1. D(2. -I). I) Q(3.2. and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers.k. B( -I. a. B( -2. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer.3). D(O.O). C(3.5k. R( -1. 4).i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i . A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d.. 27. B(3. I). Q. -1.2). -I). r = -('/T/2)i . 46. B(2. 44.uXO=OXn=O d. C(5. I). 34. D(2. I.3) D( -4. 2). B(7. I) 16. and w be vectors.k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b. -2). 40. A(O. 38. 24. ifaoy.uXv=-(vXu) C(3. and w. I. a. -I). and w. 18. B(3.4).w = -15i + 3j . if aoy.3). u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47. Which of the following are always true. Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40.et n = 5i . as appropriate. I). 0.3k. 3) C(I. -I) . 0. (uXn)·n=O h. are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e. v = j .12. -2) C( -2. 2. reasons for your answers. 3. A(1.j + k. and which do not? Give reasons for your answers. A(I. 2) = y. P( -2. 8). u'(v'w) 32. P(I. B(IO.4.-:-. Whieh vectors. Given nonzero vectors u. v = -i + j + k. 0). A(O. (-u) X v = -(u X v) d. Which of the followiog make sense. (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f. I. Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV.u·v=v·n b. A(I. Q(2. A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f. u'n = lui e. A( -I. (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. C(9. Parallel and perpendieular vectors I. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. (uXv)'w b.2). and which are not always a.3).0) D(O. -I.-I) 42. -I). R(3. P(2. Let u.0).O). -4). e. to describe the followiog. Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. true? Give reasons for your answers. Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases. u X (v X w) d. whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w. 0. -I. I). -1. In Exercises 25 and 26.4) C(O.5) 37. 35. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18. 0 e. What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31. use dot product and cross product notatioo. A(O. aod IFI = 301b. 2. -5). 39. C(7.uXv=vXu f. 43.3). R(O.0). then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. -2. v. 1. 0). Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j). A( -1. I) C(2. ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. B(l. -I. Which of the following are always true.

YO. -00 < 1< 00. PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I. 2. Yo. Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo. The expanded form of the equation P-. xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv. 5). C(O. and (q. zo). Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt. Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane. 49..35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-. z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo. zo).zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). and the domain of I is (.688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. -3. + (y . Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2). Yo. zo) paralle. (b" IJ. and (b" b2).xo)i FIGURE 12. Explain your work. and D(3. z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12. and planes in space.0). a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line.35). !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x.00. Yo. Then !:. (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO. The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line.5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines. These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00. 0). (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x. 0. e2). y. Thus. a2). line segments.P = tv is o y (x .!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k. 12. y. (ai. Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo. xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI.yoH + (z . Z = Zo + IV3.is the set of all points P(x. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space. In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line. 48.y.). y=YO+IV2.2). TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0. We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book. B(l.. 00). y = Yo + IV2.. -4. 0).P is a scalar multiple ofv. - 00 < I < 00 (3) . Yo. Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O.

from Example 2: x = -3 + 41. We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I.YO.0. + 41. 0:51:5\. y = 2 .0. taking them. -1.37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ.1=0 Solution With Po(XO.2. Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO. Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change.-1. y=2-31. zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v.21. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique.31 3.2.2k (Figure 12. Y = 41.y = 2 .37). + 71. -1.5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2.andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2.z) = (-3 + 41.4) (Figure 12. The arrows show the direction of increasing t. but so can the parameter.12. Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q. -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. and Equations (3) with (xo. We could have chosen Q( I.4) and vii 2i + 4j . we first parametrize the line through the points.31. zo) = (-3. -3) and Q(1.(-3))i + (-I . Yo. y=2-31. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t.zo) equal to (-2.2 . -3) at I = 0 and Q(I.y. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment.4) at I = \. Q(I. • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1.(-3»k 4i . The equations x = -3 + 41 3 . 0. -1.2k.2.31. z = -3 + 71. in this case.4) parallel to + 4j . 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first. z = -3 z = 4 + 71.4). -3) Y We observe that the point (x.2. 4. -I. = = (I . z = -3 + 71. To parametrize a line segment joining two points. P(-3. z = 4 . -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12. Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3. y = -] .36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1. Rewriting Equation (2). 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2. "\. We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values.36). Yo.2)j + (4 . • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo. on the line passes through P( -3.3j + 7k is parallel to the line. 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21.31.4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3. 2. we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction .

5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. z = 21.With PS = (I .38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8. we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12. It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft. I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec. The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v.O)k = -2j + 5k . 200v3) in space. I. What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter. 200v3. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3. Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter. 200v3. where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv. When I = 10 sec.38). Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. 1. I. which is Ivl FIGURE 12. the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion. EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I. 3. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3.3)j + (5 . the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO. y = 3 . 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k. From Equation (4). EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I.Q1ation of the figure.I. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I. In the n. the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k). which is the length of the vector r(IO).I)i + (I . 200v3). I).690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words.

zo)kj 0 or A(x . .Yo)J + (z .7) O. where D .(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = . • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space . y.. zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x. the dot product n' PoP = o. This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane.3.5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[. 0. Thus.z = -22. zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x . This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y .M I FIGURE 12... y.39). d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs .o.Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k. and z in the equation 5x + 2y .z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22.. we obtain 5x + + 2y . z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12..Yo. Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(.12. Simplifying.P .Yo) + C(z . Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo.k.)'O. became the coefficients of x.Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o. Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO. vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-. A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation. • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J .39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of. The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D.zo) Ax + By + Cz = D. 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x .Xo) + B(y .Axo + l1.

SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12. 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . In our case.2z = 5. The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane.692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O. will do as well. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74).6y . 0.2z = 15 and 2x + y .0) + 6(z . The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line. 0. y = -1 + 2t. 0. B(2. 0). we can take any point common to the two planes. Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3. Turning this around.1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect. The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well. Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line. 3. and qo.40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel. SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3). SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane.0). . To find a point on the line. ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction. z = 1St. ° FIGURE 12. EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k. The line is x = 3 + 14t.1). -1.0) + 2(y . We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O.40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02.6y . 0). Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z. EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x . if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it. we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate. Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line.2z = 15 and 2x + y .2z = 5 intersect. For example. or 01 = k02 for some scalar k.

1 . (0. The point of intersection is (x. . The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k.2. 1. the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane.y.1) = (f. Solution The point y = -21.0. z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I . 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane. then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n.O). that is.0) FIGURE 12. Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12. 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. z = 1 +1 + 21. 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1. -21.2. intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I. • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n.5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21.12.z)lt=-1 = 2./ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I.41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II).41). That is.0.

0. 0). The z-axis 1. The line through P(1. (1. -7. (1. (0.1) 5.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13.0) (0. • Exercises 12.3) and Q(3.O)k + 3k. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11.42).1) . -2) 4. 0. The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i .0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10.1). Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment. Find the angle between the planes 3x . 2. .6y . 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/.0) 14.6j . The line through the point (3.38 radians. The line through (1.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1.20.I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1.694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts. 20. 2). (0. (1. (1. Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i .2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 .0) (0. 1.2k.O)i i .0). (0. 0. -2. 0). The line through P( -2. 1) (3. The line through P(I.2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y .1. 9. 1. 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12. 0). 0). 15.1) and Q( -I.4. . 0) and Q(1. z = 31 7. (0.3. (2. 2. indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization.3/2) (1.0) 17. 19. The line through 3x + 7y . The angle between them is FIGURE 12. 2. 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7. -4. The line through the point P(3. .2z = 5. (0. 13.0. 02 = 2i +j . 1) parallel to the z-axis 8. 0.2k are normals to the planes. 0).0) (1. . then n = = (1 . 5.I. The line through (0.2. I) 3.5z = 21 (2. 1. (1.12.0. 3. 18. 1. () = = COS-I cos. I. The line through (2. The x-axis 12.0. I. The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2.0. 16.3)j + (3 . 3.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals.-1.1). 0. If we take P to be the y-intercept (0. y = 2 .2j + (1 .

(I. < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r. z = -2 .3x-6y-2z=3. y = 1 + 31. The plane through Po(2. z=31. 61. -00 x=21. y = 31 + 2. . y = 2+ -2 + 2r. = -2 . 67. find the point of intersectino. tsken two at a time. Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj. . 43. x = 4t. 21. 49. 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s. -4. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. 46. -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r. or they inletseet. z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y .2s.t. L2:x= I + 4.31.\12k.y + 2z = 7. Y = -I + 2.12). x=4-1. x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23.3). 39. -I). The plane through (2.j + 3k.-1. (0. y + 21. 2. x = 2. z = 5t.x=I+21. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x .0). and (0. Z = 5. y=I+5t. The plane through (I. and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines. y=3s. -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59. Is the line x = I . 44. intersect. or are skew. Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3. (2.2z = 2 48. fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56.0. Z <. If they intersect.2j + k. x = 10 y= I +2t.12. and x = 2s + 2. z = 31. 7). 54. I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27. L3: x = 3 + 2r. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10.I. + 41. Describe the reasoning behind your answer. (2. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian. determine whether the lines. -1.I.0. 2. Find a plane through the points PI(I. 5).-1). 2). y = -I . LI: x = 3 + 21. find the distance from the point to the line. y = 2s + 4. The plane through (I. z = 4t + 3. I. 5) normal to nl = i . fmd the point in which the line meets the plane.7) parallel to VI = 2i .2 = + 2 Vzj . z = -1 + s. 0. -2.(3. 35. z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52. 42. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I. Theory and Examples 63. -00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38. 33. x + Y + z = I. In each exercise. y=31. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. 64. Y = 2 + 5t.1. 3). 32. z = 4t 51.Z = 3.k 22. either they are parallel. and (-1. -3.0). 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 . -2.3). 4y = -12.(3/2)k. 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . 41. y = -I . P2(3. Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2.3). x +y +Z + 3z = I. (1.2x+2y+2z=3. (0. = -00 < t< 00 57. -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y . In Exercises 39-44.3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48. I. In Exercises 29 and 30. (2. The plane through Po( 0.2y + 4z = 2. and x = • + 2.x=I-I. x = 5 + t.4z = -12 55.3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{. -I). 0) and the normal vector. the flight paths of two planes in the sky). + I. z=l+s. 38. 5. 1.4s. 2 Z Z = 1 . Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines. z = -48 . 5x-2y= 11.4).6. + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65. 29. 5x + y-z = 10. x + y . + 6t.z = 8? Give reasons for your answer.I.2t.2.I.4. I.2j . Find a plane throughPo(2.21. y = = L2: x 1 . LI: x = I + 21.2z = 5 60. Y + t.8) 25. -1. or they are skew (imagine. -2.(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. (2. 53. Y = 3 + 21. lines. Y = -21. y=3+2t. are parallel. and then fmd the plane determined by these lines. x = -1 + 31. T. z = 1 + I. I). + 6. 2x + 2y . Given two lines in space. 28. I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j . 2x + y . (2. x + Y = I. -00 30. y = 1 T. Z = 21 z = -3 . (0. (0. y = • + 3.5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. find the distance from the point to the plane. 62. I) 24. 2x-2y-z=5 SO.0.0 intersect. y = 5 = I + 4t. x+y+z=2 56. z = 31 meets the coordinste planes. for example. Y = 3 . (0.z= -3 +48. 1 + ls. -00 00 31. 2. 40. 4.5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31. Ll:x = = -1 + t. x + Y = 2 58. Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. 47. 45. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66.4). Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4. z=I+I. x + 2y + Z = 2. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. Z = z = 2 . 36. 4. I.z = 3.y= I + 2s.. -00 L2:x=2-s. 2x . y = -I + 41. x . Y = 4 + S. y = I z = -(1/2) .0). Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I.I) normal to n = 3i . 34. y = -2. -2. The plane through A(I. y = -3.I. LI: x = I.0. Describe the reasooing behind your answer. (-1.

Zl) as a point on the yz-plane.xo2. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line.696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b. and c. we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 . andzi.. We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E. are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. Suppose LI and L. 0) to (0. 00.YI...YI.44). 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI. What do you find? 68. Then. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines.43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. 0).0. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12. but now we allow generating curves of any kind. 74. 69. Z = 3 + 2t.? Give reasons for your answer. 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane. y. and z. z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO. xo2. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t. 70. 0. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a. 2). 0. How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A.y + C'z = D. therefore. The point Po(xo. the point Q(xo. The line segment from (1. Conversely.) 12. Which planes have an equation of this form? 72." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12. 2. The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I . for Solution any value of z. Your eye is at (4. Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1.44).6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now. The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. 1.. z). x02. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D.t.43). but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo. and ( -2. 2. (I. we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. 73. In this section. we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing.z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes. any point Q(xo. Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo .Xl. where cylinder means circular cylinder. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 .y = 2 . Spheres are quadric surfaces.x + B. h. L ° z P(O. Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics. Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. In solid geometry. the generating curves are circles.0). .y. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12. 0.. Regardless of the value of z. Because of this. 1). y. 2) passes through the plate. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71. What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes. Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. Z = 0 (Figure 12. the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo.

.. The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared. and (0. We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface. 1 _ .. paraboloids. (0.lo . I . when z = o.. The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids. y ''f FIGURE 12.. For example.. elliptical cones. O.z) = c... The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses..45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a.. xOl. z).z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey.ts.. z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x.. y... We call it "the cylinder y _ xl.6 Cylinder. .44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO. . : f ." where A. and z. 0). We fucus on the special equation . B.. S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types. r .. and Iz I :s c. .y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x.rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x. FIGURE 12. It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a.. 0). 0.12.. ± c).. I I -- \ . " >t-:.. / c /' .:'. the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane... and then give II. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 . Any curve h(y.. EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12.45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes. .. Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids. Quadric Surfaces A quadric I. As Example 1 suggests. and E are oonstmJ. and hyperboloid.1"". Iy I :S h.' . any curve g(x.. z) = c.y) = c.... C. In a similar way. any curve f(x. ± b. . For instance. Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z .(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz . D.E. The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis. r1 " . .--.. ..

the surface is a sphere. y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a . EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface.(zoic) ) = 1. Near the origin. . If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0. _ Table 12.y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12.c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0.698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo. If Zo is negative. c > o. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas. the cross-section is a hyperbola. The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward. the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion. If any two of the semiaxes a.46).2 a (1 . To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum.7. b the parabola z = . and c are equal.46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) .X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----.. Part of the hyperbola y 2 . The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 .(zoic) ) + b (1 . the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass. To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2). b. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis. the parabola opens upward from the origin. If all three are equal. is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2. IZo I < c. --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1).. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas.(x 2/a 2) = z/c. but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation). We will say more about saddle points in Section 14.1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces.

Tho PEIobolu _ . ../ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET . . ..>0 ... +.1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces .12. 'Ibe e1Hpee - . and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12. .nbolu _ .. HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' .._1 . ."pImo " . -T'---- . 'Ibe p. . ... . • ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" .'.cV'i f . .. ill Ibo "..6 Cylinder."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ .

z= 1 +y2_X:1 35. 9. L h• . x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39.1: 2 _ y2 12. 9 4 by the plane z . x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2. with semiaxesa andbis7rab.(. the ellipsoid . Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+. 1.t2 ELUPSOIDS 17. etc. z = _(X2 + y2) 43. 4x:1 20.y 2 _ 1 10. .x:1+ y 2.) b. Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37. CYUNDERS 13. 4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24. x 2 +z2 _ 1 41. 9. X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n. L Express the area.700 Chapter 12: Vector.z :1=1 29. b. 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y .'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27. c. z = _4.4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34.b .x2 +2z 2 _ S 9.t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19. identify each surface by type (paraboloid. .c? . 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18. 21.4. x _ y 2_ z 2 7. k.c as a function of c.y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30. 40.z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a . Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44.y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44.x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45. Also.. x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3. J. and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . . . z=x:1+4y:1 23. of the cross-section cut from.z 2 +x:1. X=z2_ y :1 11. (The area of an ellipse . 14.z=y2-1 16. . 4x:1 + = 9y2 28. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33. Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a).y:1+ z 2=X 2 6. X2 +y2=4 15.y=I-:x 2 -z2 26. ellipsoid. L . y 31.. 4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES . f• .x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8. 25.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I).6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12. 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5. d. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42.. (y'/4) .. 9x:1 . match the equation with the surface it defines.1.

line segments. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58. When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. and which are not? Give examples. When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9. x x -0. First. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples. h > o. a. 51. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar.= a b2 c 3. y y y y 2 y y 50. where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2.5 2. j. you can. How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. Find a formula for the barrel's volume. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. z = x 2 52. z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. -3 h. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates. How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. 5x 2 z2 . How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. 13. 1. Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h. 15.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. -2 d. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. its midsection radius is R. suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h. and its end radii are both r. -2 2 1 2. 11. 14. 2. and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular.= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . 49. 57. The barrel is 2h units high. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. z = y2. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5. paraboloids. How do you find equations for lines. Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h.25 54. 3. 1. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples.y2. 7. 8. 17. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples.Chapter 12 46. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h. z = 1 . cones. 48. c. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. 16. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph.3y2 56. rotate the surface into different viewing positions. Then check two things. . -1 47. Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ . and planes in space? Give examples. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. 9 . -3 -2 -2 -1 c. 53. What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids. Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12. Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second.

3). 31. Lines. u=i. 34.8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21. 2. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3. Velocity vector v = (etcost .fmd Iv . and u X v as vectors at the origin. I) 18.21. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1. 2i . The veetor obtained by rotating (0.Y .u+v 4. v. y = -I .5y + 2z = 6. -I).2. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c. . Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1. (6. (3. -5). w=-i-2j+3k 26. Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. 40. the angle between v and u.I. 37. fmd proj. Planes. and w. In Exercises 21 and 22. and the vector projection ofo onto v. 5v 2S. 41. U'v.6.4) and v = (2. 1. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u. Q(2. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20. i + 2j . Y = t. 0). 44. 38. 9. -1. let u = (-3.0.andR. fmd the distance from the point to the line.2wl· 24. V'u. In Exercises 29 and 30. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42. x . 10). I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6.etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2.j 8. P(i.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x . y = 2 + I. -i . R( -1.Q. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14. P. I). Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4. 16. Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I. u. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude. In Exercises 37 and 38. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane. The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7.u=i+j. 1. y = 31. 0) and Q(I. For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j . 19. Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x . w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8. 12.j 11.0. u X v. fmd the distance from the point to the plane. v. Iwl = 3. .k 15.3i + 7k.y + 2z = -8 intersect. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k. v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39. x = -t. Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes.4. !flvl = 2. x = 2 + I.2. (0. v2i + v2j 10. In Esercises 33 and 34. v=2i+j+k. 0.y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions. -6).3j + 3y +Z = 2 35. -2. Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k. and Distances 27. 36. -2u 2. 1.u=i+j-k.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26. 13. 29. 28. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30. v=j. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x . P(i. lui.0). 32.5k and v = -4i . 21. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20. Z = 31.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. R(O. u=i-j. v X u. 43. fmd the component form of the vector.andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3. Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22. z = I + 41. (2.y = 6 . 5. 0. v=i+j 23. fmd lvi. In Esercises 17 and 18. 17.j + 4k. The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos. 3) parallel to the vector v = .0).2).. The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i .3u-4v 3. Q(O.3.1) Iv X u I. the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv. 33. 2.

2. o. z = _(x 2 + y2) 71.O. z=t c.z . 3)paraIleltou . Shaw that for every real number k the plane x .2i . y=2t.4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69.z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x . planes. d. 4.B . I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76.O) and the line L2 through the points C(3.3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. f. -2).2i + 3j + kandv . 51. X2 +y2=z2 73. 63. Is v = 2i . andD. o. 2. z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x .y + 2z = -2 meets the plane.y. I. C(I. 0. 51.I)j + zk) = 0 e. -I).4).1)2 + z2 = I 68. on the three coord. y B(l.0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y . (Continuatio1l o/Exerci. -13/'.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D.i. x=3+2t. 71.-1) and B(-I. 0. 0) to the plane through A(O.2k. 0). 64.2-3t b. The equation. -1. 26/') ""'D(16/'. (2i . 0). (x + 2) + l1(y 046. Find D).I)j + zk) 6l. 3) o 54.91 Give reasoos for your 61. onto iiC. C(l.3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . 4. y . -1) 55. the vector projection of BA. -3) and B(I. The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2. -I) andD(4. 2. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram.5y +22' = 6.i+ 2j + k. 5. I. 47. 0.3J + 3k)' b. Find the point in which the line through p(3. Find an equation for the plane through A(-2.j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y .4) . «x + 2)1 + (y . 50. Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1. The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) .Chapter 12 45. 0.z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x .na. the cosine of the interior angle atB. "'" C(2. -1).2. x 2 + (y .atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L.0. 60.t? 49.i + j .i . Is the line x = 1 + 2t.andC . L (21 . Quadric SumCt!!s 59.y .O. (2i . 2).-l.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D.6y + 10z .j + 2k.2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x . the area of the parallelogram. FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines. Find the distance from the point (2. 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70. Thm project AC onto D. y = -2 + 31. What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y .4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer. The line L: e. B(2. 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76. x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2. z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I . 2. 2. 3).I. 2) 58. yl_x2_zl= 1 66. -1. 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z .0). What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn. 56. 2) and B(2.4 and orthogonaltot+J+k. Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A . Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z .I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O. X2 +y2_z2=4 75. 1) and the line through C(t.) Find the distance between the line through A(4. z . x-axis? 57. A(2. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines. e.j + k.1) .!e 63. 4). -I). b. Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x .z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc. Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I. Find the coonIin. Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. Q(3. Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L. Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y .3-t. -2. -13/'.y . d. 3. through the points . O)? 67. I.' P-. x . Xl+zZ=yl 74. Find the distance from the point P(I. I) normal ttl the plane 2x .2y+ z + 3 + k(2x .tJ. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x .-Ilt. ""'D(2.y .4(1.z = -4 in a point P. B(I. andR(-2. 48.z + I = O. 53. 65.

ship A is located at (4. are traveling together. the submarine was located at (2. Due to system malfunctions.0.4 N· m). z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t.0) x (0. -\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in. Two hours later. 1) and. 5. in a negligible amount of time." If you are installing the plug with a lO. x = 6 + 11 Ot.5-in. 0. 0). 2) z x --- ----. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. Four minutes ago. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram. 3. and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i . The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) . HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. a. Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j .0). Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4. H2 stops its flight at (446. Y = -3 + 4t. 2). Y = -3 + lOt. they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b. 1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec. As shown here. whereas ship B is located at (0. where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires. How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3.(I/3)k. and angles a and {3. to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2. lands at (446. 1. Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles. 1. Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l. socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in.5. from the axis of the spark plug. 3. -1. 13. -----_ B I (l.6j .0) y 5. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle.k. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept. At time t = 0. All coordinates are given in thousands of feet. Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1.704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA. 0). 13.J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4.) 6. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. HI and H 2. -1/3). HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph. a. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters. The aircraft is due in 20 min. Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram.

Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2. Assuming Iv I Iwi. Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. 16. and z. The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector. b.z 2x + 3y . b3 -d3 15. Determinant. For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7. + by. - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a. and E is one·third of the way between C and B.z 12.(u·v)w. 17. What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b. Determinants and planes 11. -I) is equidistant from the two planes. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. C. can be defmed informally as follows. projp v. with z orthogonal to the line L. Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x . (AB X BC) O. and line.D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl . Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P.Y 0 and 3x . Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x . Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges. . is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID. If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k.Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b. Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P. 2i b. although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v . 13. 2. 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. Z2).Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . d. a. W. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD.Y y. Show that the lines c. D 2 2 B p C 1 b. u v w A D B a. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x . fmd w in tenns ofv and z. P2(X2.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax.fmdprojpv. c. and P3(X3. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results. .I.(XhYh z.Y3. and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD . and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. 14. (u'w)v .) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' . 9. This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal. i-j+k c. and Ax + By + Cz D. Yh Zt). Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt.Y Y2 . Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D. Use vectors to show that the distance from P. 8. and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L. a.k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k .z 0 pass through the center of the sphere.Y + 2z -4 if the point (3.)I2. For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT . The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v.(v·w)u. 2i+ j d. Showthat XI X2 - 12. Prove that four points A. D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC. i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i . In the fIgure here. Z3). B.2y + z 3. 10. a.

24. 20. v. that is. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu .706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u.-Iul'u'v X w. u for every vector u and that U' u . 23. Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w . show that u . .) Show that dot multipli- 22. Cro. Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image.ci u·r V'WI. u X v .ai + bj and + dj. Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line.B) . Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly. w.O.s and dot products vectors. Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors.sinAcosB . Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v. 0 19.Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v.lulvare orthogonal. and r are any 21. v"r for any four nurohers a. 25. b. Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite. then b.W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v . Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations.(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c. c. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors.(uXv). derive the trigonometric identity sin(A .0 if and only ifu . and d. and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line. Show that w . Use vectors to prove that 18.(wxr)_lu.cosAsinB. (Hint: Let u .

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