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**VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
**

OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

**Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
**

To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant

x x = constant

(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z

xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/

/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\

: (0, 0, 0)

I

y

Z y

Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1

(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z

x 2 + y2

The circle

= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

**FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
**

the plane z

=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +

=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

•

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1

Geometric Interpretations of Equations

In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

**Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
**

In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

**space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
**

S.

= 0, 2 x + y2

2

z = 0

=

4. x = I, Y = 0

z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0

X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0

19.

a.

y

= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.

Xl

0 '" Y s 1

1

x2

+ y2 + z2

+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1

Z

+ y2 + z2 >

+ y2 :s

1,

Z

10. x 2

11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2

C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0

b. x

=

S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4

b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s

z = 0

Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y

b. z =

x 2,

y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,

X

no restriction onx

=2

662

Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

**Distance and Spheres in Space
**

The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

**The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
**

IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give

IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So

IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

IPIA 12

Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

**IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
**

=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore

•

EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is

IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f

= =

Z

+

25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+

I"::j

V45

6.708.

•

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

**The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
**

(x - xof

Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

y. P2(0. The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I. yz-plane b. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. (1. -I. 0.5) 53. I) and. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. -7. -3). . y = 2.Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. 43.7) b. 7. 4) P2(2.2. 64. 2. 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. 0. 0) x-axis at (3. 0. The plaoe througb the point (3. The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I. thepoint(O. z) to the 37. I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. +(y . Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. z-axis 27. I). 65. z-axis at (0. -2). 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59. 3. The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. 63. -I. 62. 0). 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . 0). Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33. Closed sets include boundaries. y. B(I. 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. xz-plaoe c. Show that the point p(3.2. 1. z) to the 39. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. Had we wanted the spheres left out.3) 52. y-axis b. I). -1. (0. xy-plane c. P2(2. -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0. I) parallel to the L b. 5). 0. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. 0) c. 2. The plaoe througb the point (3. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. and C(3. 5. -2) In Exercises 25-34. I. yz-plane b. yz-plane c. x-axis b. -2. The line through the point (I. y-axis c. x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47.Vz)' + . -1. I. -5).+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. Distance In Exercises 41-46. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. Pl(l. 2) and the xy-plane. 0. 0. z-axis Center 51.4z = 0 35. 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. y-axis c. (-I. and z = 2 +++ 56. 45.-t) x2 54. 0. 0) P2(4. The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0. y-axis at (0. ++ + 57. P I (5. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. 0. I). 2 units from the point (0. + + +++ 9 58. -I.2)' = 8 48. 5). I) 40.2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b.0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58. 0) 66. 1.3) andB(4. yz-plane b. (0. and (2. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres. xz-plane 61. 0. 5). Radius 31. (x . The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a. 3. PI(O. 0. The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin. open means endpoints left out.4.4. PI(I. 2. Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. at 1Ire saroe time. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. open sets leave them out) a. -1. 25. P I (3. (0. xz-plane 28. 3. 4. 3. 3. The circle of radius I centered at (-3.t. Pl( -I. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. P 2(2. x 2 y2 z2 4x . xz-plane c. -2. 0). 4.5). 4. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2. 0). 41. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. -2) 26. 3). The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. (Closed means the spheres are to be included. (3.3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. I. I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b. 42. b. 55. 30.664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. z-axis 60. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. yz-plane c.

we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going.7)."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit.9) regardless of the initial point. To describe a body's displacement. Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters. They therefore represeot the same vector. FIGURE 12. for example. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF.12. or time. are parallel.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space. For example. to denote a force vector. a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12.10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin. We can specify v by writing the PQ. To describe a force. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force. and point in the same direction (Fignre 12. for example ii. vectors are usually written in lowercase. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle. boldface letters. for example u.8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space. Figure 12. FIGURE 12. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. In textbooks. PQ . ii. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction.2 Vectors 665 12. In handwritten form. andF. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space.10). we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is. it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. y FIGURE 12. or velocity. or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length. displacement. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. such as F. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length. To record mass.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13. To describe a body's velocity. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v. and w. v.) y AB is called a vector. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength. lV. We need more information to describe a force. length. displacement.!.

4 = -2. we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector). 0).10).3. and U3 = V3.Y2. v. V3). VI = X2 .) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 .X"Y2 . and V3 are the components ofv.y" Z2 . 2. then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v. There is no third component for planar vectors. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2).Y2) as points in the plane.)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 . U3) and (v" V2.Zl are the components of PQ. EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( .) when v is in standard position.). the standard position vector v = (v" V2. The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations. In summary. 2).10).X" V2 = Y2 .X" Y2 .Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ. Thus.666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2. Z2). Thus (u" U2. Yl + V2 = Y2.Y2. Z2).) and the terminal point is Q(X2. given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2.y"Z2 . then the component form of v is v = (V" V2).' PQ is the nonnegative number X. then v = (X2 . denoted by the symbollvl orllvll. V2 = Y2 . if v = (X2 .Xl = -5 .X" Y2 . where the initial point is P(x"y" Z. . and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. then Xl + VI = X2. 0) or 0 = (0. This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction.Yl = 2 . Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates. v.Yl. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2. V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2.(-3) = -2.zll' (see Figure 12. bers If v = (V" V2. 1) and terminal point Q( -5. The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv.Zl). Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2. then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2. With this understanding. V3) of real numbers.Yl). and V3 = Z2 . v. 4. 0. So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers. and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2. Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical. The numV2. Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 . V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. In particular.Yll' + (Z2 .

12 vector addition. (b) The parallelogram law of . What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a. • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12. The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12. Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. given by FIGURE 12..12a.I = I. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors. DEFINmONS scalar. y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2.. or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication.12.12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ ..---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12. b). .. I). . Scalars can be positive... ku3) + V2... whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2). where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other...2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 . U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors. A scalar is simply a real number. The component form of PQ is v = (-2. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar. negative.?) "" 14.. (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn..11). (u" U2) and (Vb V2). The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components. -2.11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(. Addition: Let u = (u" U2. U3) and v = (v" V2.14 lb..

4. Figure 12. V3).v" U2 ." V2.0) = (-5.3 -7." U2. // FIGURE 12.(4. + U" V2 + U2.v) to v gives u (Figure 12. where the smn.v (e) + 3v I!ul. accelerations. The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u. (a + b)u = au + bu 2.V3).7. if k < 0. when added to v. For instance.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v).v = (u.3.2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u. is the diagonal of the parallelogram.1 ." U2.1) and v = (4. 8. for example. is obtained hy adding the two force vectors. u + 0 = u 5." V2. then ku has the same direction as u. . U3 + V3) (v. + v" U2 + V2. 1. Properties orVeetor Operations Let u.0) = (-1 .7. b be scalars. Comparing the lengths of u and ku. U3 . then (a) u .v = u + (-v). 1) + 3(4.u+v=v+u 3.v= (-1. Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1. If k > 0.0) = (10.-4. The difference u .vas the smn u + (-v).7.2) (h) u . Ou = 0 7. we have u +v = = = = = (u. to establish Property 1. Ifu = (u" U2.3. Note that (u . w be vectors and a. (b)u . = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic. U3) v + u. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar. called the resultant vector. So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u. v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1. 4. and so on. Find the components of (h) u .668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition).13 Scalar multiples ofu.6. V3 + U3) (v.21. U3) and v = (v" V2. Figure 12.14a).3. In physics.V2.2 + ui + u. v.v. forces add vectorially as do velocities. V3) + (u.1) (e) FIGURE 12.14 (a)Thevector u . so adding the vector (u .v) + v = u.0). U3) + (v.0) = (-2. V3) (u. 6.14b shows the difference u .1) .2) = WVU.2) + (12.)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u. . I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l. gives u. we see that lkul = V(ku.27. a(bu) = (ab)u 9.

15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 .P2. V3) = (VI> 0.1n component form.1). For example. The standard unit vectors are i = (1. 5 = 5' .(Xh Yh z.) to P2(X2.(l. and V3 the k-<omponent.0. we say they are coplanar vectors.2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane.4j is a velocity vector./>2 (X2 . 0) + (0.15). Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P.P2 IP-. FIGURE 12. 1.4. j = (0. We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v. 0) = vl(l. 1) + V3k. • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i .I)k = 2i + 2j 1= .0. Wheneverv oF O.0) + V3(0. 0). v. Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector. the vector from P.P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 .12.0).P2 by its length: P-.1. V2 the j-component. and u + v are always coplanar. 0. express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion.itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-.ZI)k.0. the vectors u. 0) = Vii + (0. called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv.xl)i (Z2 .k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P. V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2. 2.0). 0. Z2) is x (Figure 12.Y2. The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v. and k = (0. V3) + v2j + V2(0. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3.YI)j + That is. Aoy vector v = (Vh V2.0. 1) to We divide P-. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5.O)j + (0 .5 J · . V2.

Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2. Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction. • . the equation v = Ivll.ti). Direction of motion • (speed) In summary. then 1. IfvoF 0. -2. 4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 . the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging. I . Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 .k = 6__.k .670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi . 1. For example.16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I. I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i . • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry.1 is a unit vector in the direction of v. by writing v = Iv II. The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2. EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i . Y2.k. Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3. 4.16) that o FIGURE 12. observe (Figure 12.1 expresses v as its length times its direction. length and direction. To see why. we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features. 2._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ).0) andP2(7.

acquires a new ground speed and direction.0) Therefore. we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0. FIGURE 12. and its new clirection is about _ 6. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind.18a. The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57. the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and . What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12.18b). +v = = (535.75.67N. flying due east at 500 mph in still air.5° north of east.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8. It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°. encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east. Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north.4 tan-I '" 6.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538. 70 sin 60°) = (35.75).50 Figure 12. . The airplane holds its compass heading due east but.2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation. The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v. ° _ cos 40° sm40 . ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°. u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°. Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°. IF2Isin400). because of the wind. as shown in Figure 12.17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538.12.18 in Example 9.35\1'3). The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12. 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner.4 mph. The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons. then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12.17). then the component forms of u and v are u = (500. Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea.

-2) 18. The sum of AB and C = (-1. -8. The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS. -I) and v = (2.9i-2j+6k 20. is the point (5. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1.672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43. express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30. copy vectors U. 2u .27. and .08.P2 if P.B=(2. cD.24) and F2 = (33. 5u .2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!.2u-3v 7. Vii + c.vifu = (I.0. The vector from the point A = (2. I) andB is the point (-10.2) and v = (1. u . 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b. -2v 4. 3) to the origin where A=(I.3) 22. = (-33.u+v+w 17. 9. I. -I) 10. v. 2. 12. v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k .0. 7. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16.-I). The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15.5) 21. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b. where P = (1. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16. _I_i . 0) and P2 is the point (.8. 2. u +v 4 5. 25.. 9. -2) and v = (-2.3.3) 11. P-.3) andB is the point( -1. 5) 19. u .3). • Exercises 12. I) AB ifA is the point (1. letu = (3. u . 3. -I) and P2 is the point (2. is the point (I.4. -I) andS = (-4.47. The vector PQ._I_j __I_k 26.0. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I. 0. head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0.0). -2u 8.3) and Q = (2..u+v+w d. The force vectors are then F.2) 13. P-. f"md the compooent form of the vector.76).1.08.w oP c.18 N. 1. 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24.v 6.andD = (-2.P2 if P. x-axis 14. whereR = (2.v 24.5).5k 29.v d. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector. AB ifA is the point (-7.u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22.2i+j-2k 27.

7 . Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a.7) P. a 35. the Theory and Applications 41. 50. 5) 38. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N.TIl . 51. a. If the magoi1ude of vector F. -2) fl = i + 4j . i _. B. . 5) 36.2 31. Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38. ZI) to P. Find a. (Continuation of Example 8. 4.fmdB. 0) P. IfAB P. 2 b.(x"y" z.) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i .j. I. 44. 7 b.6. Write U = UI + U2. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47.(2. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given.(1/2)k. a. 5. Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw. -2. Try to do the calculations without writiog. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl. 32. Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east. assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest. Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF. 4) P. Linear combination Let u = i . Medians of a triangle Suppose that A. -2. 48.6). find 35' a. j +1 k 777 46. PI( -I.P. 0.(2. where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w.12. 4. It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. Try to do the calculations without writiog..i 5 3. is 100 N. = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2.2k aodB is the point (5. a> 0 TI 1 . Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. v = 2i + 3j. the direction of p-.(4. fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF. 3. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. 40' c'IT d.5k. At what point is the tree located? b. 5) 37.-3. 1j + i 5 5 k d. and the y-axis points north.2j. Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB. V3 "2 1 -k c..) 43. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. 34. If AB 40..3). Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. PI(I. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI. Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. At what point is the telephone pole? plane. 1. 49. v2 13 _li . and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here. then angles a and fJ are equal. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. and w = i . aod b. the midpoint ofline segment PI P. 42. PI(O. v = i + j. 0) 39. fmdA. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33. Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh.(2.TI _I_i 4. (See Exercise 41.(1/2)j . are both 75 N.) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. P I (3.2. Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east. b. Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i . aod w = i + j. where it stops to rest 00 a tree. Length Direction -j a.

A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product. Before proving Theorem 1.20). quadrilateral in space. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 . B(2.. In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components. Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I. and C(-1. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. Section 6. 12. A(4. . Figure 12. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c.obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction. I. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon.6.-1. 3. we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O. where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. After investigating the dot product.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path. 0) 52. 2.2. 0 . Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j. not necessarily planar. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!. U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2. b.. (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12. 0) M 55. the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them..19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov. 3) · c. V3) is given by oFIGURE 12. The angle 0 is the angle between u and v. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. 1f (Figure 12.1. B(l.19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO. v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2. Show thatAa + Bb + Co o. C(I. the midpoints of the opposite sides. and c are.m. this point is the center of mass. If the vectors do not lie along the same line.2).3). Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. 56. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. B.. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied. the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv.19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement.674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. Suppose that A. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other. Let ABCD be a general. If they do lie along the same line. Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar. not a vector. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) . v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12.-1).20 The angle between u and v.

U3 . U2)' (Vl.' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u .)2 + (U2 .V2)' + (U3 .SO FIGURE 12.-1)'(-6.v.21. the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.V3).21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 .' + vl + vi (V(U1 .U2 . 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 . V2.3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul.C:I'I:I)' . + ul + ul)' = u.Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T.v.Iw1 2 . - • In the notation of the dot prodoct.4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul.2.-2.Vl.thecomponentformofwis(U1 .V2.3) to the triangle in Figure 12. not just for rmding the angle between two vectors. We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane).' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v. V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1.V1)2 + (U2 . Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8). we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 .V3)2)' (U1 .V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore.v. Section 1.vd + (U3 . we have V V U2 V2 0 . lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv.21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u . V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2. U2.-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 .12. U3) and v = (Vl.cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) .

2j .2) (Figure 12.6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) .10 or 1. (b) u = 3i . - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors. Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB. O). we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O. Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal. Then applying the angle formula. The converse is also true.B = (3.676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i . we have v'13 '" 78. + (-2)(6) = O. If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0. -2) and cE = (-2.4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2). The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12. = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2).2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k.22 The 1riangle in Example 3.5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0.22).C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1.3).1 0 = 1f/2. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors. = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos.5). and C = (5.36 radians. Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2. We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 . y B(3. + (-2). calculate their dot product.76radians. = (-5. eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2). - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well.6 . -2) and v = (4. then cos () = 0 and () = cos.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O. <a> u = (3. DEFINITION ifu'v = O.

23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS. FIGURE 12. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars). U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3. U'V = V'U 2. FIGURE 12.v) v ( Ivl Ivl u. then 1. u. 1.. (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. U3) = (O)(Ul) = o.24). U'U = lul 2 5. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12.u = (lui cos Ii) v proj. V2 + W2.25). Ivl .u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1. cos Ii < 0 and proj.. The notation for this vector is proj. O) • (UI.3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl.v) ( Ivl2 V. If Ii is obtuse. For instance. u ("the vector projection ofu onto v").0·u=0. u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. U2. The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force.12. (v + w) = (UIo U2. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI.24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u.0. -vi proj. HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition. R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. v. here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3.23 u onto v. In both cases. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu. posed in the opening to this section. then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar.

. Ivl2 UOT. Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i . (uov)v.t j .3j and .I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i .2j . onto v = i . uov -1(i .tk) 2 . oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v). which is the direction of v).2J .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O. proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (.2j . EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv. To summarize.2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors.2k 6-6-4. .!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I .2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI. We demonstrate this in the next example. EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv. The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = .2k) = .

the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). lO J .. F·D.3j) 1+9 = -. + 3 . F = = 5 .andO = 60°. . u = pro). then PQ FIGURE 12. Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6.26). That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion.!. So the equation .u + .3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj. 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u . EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons). u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj. IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m. • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space. which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D.6 --- vi + 9 v'W..26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I.3j) = -TO' 1 .12.pro). u (which has the same direction as v).6 (i . we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd. (i 10 . DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D.u) = (u.v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors. If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction.. If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 . (u .proj.(u. the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D.v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u .

TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1. u=i+v2j-v2k. Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular.2k v=-i+j+k 10.4j + Vsk. I). 5. u = V3i . andD = (4.11k.0).3k. = (:n. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I. v = 5j . 9. . 13.V2 are orthogonal. I). Show that and CB are urthogona1. and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. v & v = direction cosines ofv.680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction. 1. Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. Angle Between Vectors 12. In the accompanying figore. Sums IUld dilJerence. v = lOi + 11j .2j + k. 18. -2). 16. 3. and c are the d. or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. v = 2i . 14. 6.Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. 7. '11') . lui a Fr' cos. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian. cA A y 19. Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB.3). b. 11.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT). then a. O).2k. the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v.B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" . and C = (I. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j .B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. the vector projy u. These cosines are called c. v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k.4). b. u = -2i + 4j .v=-i+j. u=2i+j. Is this mere coincidence. v = 2i + 10j . fmd L V' a. C = (3. 4. B = (2.B = (0.Theory and Examples 17. it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . u 2i + u Wj = (:n. Showthat cos a = u. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a.3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8. Unit vectors are built from direction cosine. lvi.7j. a :s. Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector. {3. 15. u = 2i .

(This fact is often exploited by carpenters. Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I. use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v.3 The Dot Product 681 20.1). Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9. 26.3j 35. . Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity. calculation that (u . Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. P( -2. -2).12. Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line. P(I.375 Ib).P(2. 39. v v 2i + 3j 3i . In Exercises 33-36. Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here. v -2i + j 36. Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2. 3). if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0. 25.j -i . if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O.P(-1. P(O.2). about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43. I) (distance in meters). When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. 40. 32. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v. 10). Then sketch the line. we can cancel the u and conclude that V2. P(I.148 N (13S. Copy the axes and vector shown here.f'mdv·ut. Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v. U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. P(ll. b. Then sketch the line.2j 38. 37. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal. L2 L2 reasons for your answer. tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. a.j.) 22. y 60' magnitude f"". does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42. show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v.proj. JustifY your answer. Under what circumstances. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. In Exercises 37-40. if any.canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O.e 27. At this level of effort.S lb. Then shade in the points (x. Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl. v v i . How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds. show by direct O.2j Work 41. v 2i . 24. use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v. 33. 21. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx . A force F 2i + j . -7). 29. I). lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44. P(-2. Give reasons for your answer. Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals. CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication.3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i . Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. u) • projy u 30.2). Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2. Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line. 23. 34.

V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. -V3x+2 50. Properties of the Cross Product If u. We study the cross product in this section. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12. u X (v X w) (u'w)v .27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12. x 1. v X u O. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components.y x + V3y -2. The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition). We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. and w are any vectors and r. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product.2y 12. we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting. In space. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. 12x + 5y 1. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows. Ifu and v are not parallel. 48. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. the second of the two vector multiplication methods. s are scalars.4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. (rs)(u X v) 2. If one or both of u and v are zero. v. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. 46.(u'v)w . Unlike the dot product. u X (v 4. the cross product is a vector. TIris way. and applies only to vectors in space. V3y 3 1 (1 . 45. then 1. (ru) X (sv) 3. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n.27). we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. 49. 2x . V3x . when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. they determine a plane. we also define u X v to be zero. The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6.682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47.

and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 . notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u. and k.U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k. j. \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system. Property 5 is a detmition.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector. your thumb points the opposite way. Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12. the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. As a rule.) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k .4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12.30). + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. (See Additioual Exercise 17. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results.29 The pairwise cross products ofi. Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3. j. we find (Figure 12.29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o. Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3. j. Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i. for example. cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w).12.28). Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12.28 v XU.

// . k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i . andR(-I.. 0).be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) . The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this.31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2). ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3). andR is . I. PQ X PR = (2 .31)..comlthomas. In terms of components..2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k. .I.684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant. see the Web site at www. I.l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I . we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I. -I.0).k (-I ...l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 .O)k = i + 2j .. Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors.O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2. + 1(6 + 4) = 10 .. or 3v'2.2).aw. Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P. Q(2.I). Q.(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k.6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j . -1.2) (Figure 12...10k • = -5(1 .0).2) (Figure 12. ":/ :. Q(2... • . FIGURE 12. ------ O.18 + 10 = 2 (For more information..(. . its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane.- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I.31). • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I. 1. and R( -I. then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad . and R( -1. _a.lbl b'l Ct C3 . I v'2' + v'2 k. So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form.3) . 1.1. -1)..lbl b'l + a. 1... -1. -I)..) PQ = PR = . Taking values from Examples 2 and 3. Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane. Q(2.3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i. Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k.

we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI. If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque. The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r. then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F.12.4 ft-lb (Example 5). The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector). v. we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate. . height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81.34).4 ft-Ib. Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12.33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you. v. ii:---- or Ir X F I. This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well. FIGURE 12. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12. torque exerted by F at P is about 56. V3). and w (Figure 12. and w (in that order). FIGURE 12. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu. Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel.94) 56.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped. meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants. In the notation of Figure 12. The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base .33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0.32). The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application. the torque produced is zero. V2. or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n. the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u.32 is parallel to the wrench.32. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8.32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. Ifthe force F in Figure 12. Component of F perpendicular to r. The bar rotates counterclockwise around P.

v = i + 2j i X j. and w.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j .k. The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k.k. u = ti - t j + k. v=i-k 2. w is also called the hox product ofu. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin. By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u. The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. u = 2i . u = = 8. s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7. we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value. 12.u=i+j-k. v. (u X v). S. u 6. Because of this geometry. u = i. u = 2i + 3j. we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v. u = i . v. u = j + 2k. v = 9. 14.2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed. u = i + j. u = -8i . v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu.j. v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14.686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram. u = i . we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= .4k.4k. v = i . 1.k. v= j v= j + k 10. v=O 2i. Using the rule for calculating determinants. v j Xk 13. v = -i + j 3.j . -4 • Exercises 12. (u X v)·w = u'(v X w). -1 3 =-23. and w. v. 4.2j . u=2i-2j -k. u=2i-2j+4k. = 7j .4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. Since the dot product is commutative. v= j v= i -3j = 11.

j + k. C(7. A(1. 0 e.. 3) C(I. 0.k. In Exercises 25 and 26.3). v = -i + j + k.5) D(4.2). R(3.5k.'/Tj + ('/T/2)k. 39. P(1. I) 16. Which of the following are always true. 26. 0). 0. A(O. true? Give reasons for your answers. -I. A( -I. -I) . -5).w = -15i + 3j . B( -I.3). A vector orthognoal to u and v c. C(3. 45.3).k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b. A(I. 47. (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23.et n = 5i . -I). U'U = lul 2 g. are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers. and w e.uXv=vXu f.0) D(O. R( -1. 43. 2) = y. -I.-:-. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV.3). A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j). (uXv)'v=O C(3. (uXv)'w b. -1. 4). A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d. -I). The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22.0). B(I.O). and w be vectors.0). -I). 3. A( -6. 2i 20. -1. -I). (-u) X v = -(u X v) d.0). reasons for your answers. Iu I B(l. A( -6. What are the degener- ate cases? 33. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u. -2) C( -2. 0).12. 8).0. and w. aod IFI = 301b.4) C(O. Answer in foot- pounds.O). 0).4). B(3. 0. R(O. 1. 41. 15. 25. -I) p • p 36. A( -1. I) Q(O. Whieh vectors.3k.uXv=-(vXu) C(3. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer.5) 37. u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47. A( -5. h. h. 27. Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases.4.ct u = i + 2j . C(5. fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io. (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. to describe the followiog. use dot product and cross product notatioo. Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P. Q(2. 24.O. 18. 44. B(IO. v = j . v. I).2). (uXn)·n=O h. B(O. I. r = -('/T/2)i . and w.2i+j 22. Q. A(1. u'n = lui e. Which of the following are always true. a. 34. Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40. u X (v X w) d.- C(2. and which are not always a. I). Let u. I).3) D( -4. verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. 40. I) C(2. I. B(l. u 19. 38.0).i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i . -2). 1. 0). 2.-I) 42. A(O. C( -1. -4). v.3). Which vectors. A(O. v. -2) 29. I). a.0). I. P( -2. B(2. -1. Parallel and perpendieular vectors I.O. and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers. andR. a. B( -2. D(O. a. I). ifaoy. D(2. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. I). R(3. 46. I. e.uXO=OXn=O d. 0. ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. as appropriate. -I).. I). -2.k w 2k -i + 2j . are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e. and which do not? Give reasons for your answers. -I).2. w = i + k. Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0. whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w. 35. A(O. D(2. u'(v'w) 32. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28. Which of the followiog make sense. v.2).i-j+k 21.2.2. A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f. I) C(6. B(O. What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31. A(I.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18. C(9. u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g. 2). 17. 7.O.0). Q(2. B(0.u·v=v·n b. B(3. P(I. -I. Given nonzero vectors u. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. B(7. P(2. I) Q(3. if aoy. 2.

- 00 < I < 00 (3) . These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00.y.).is the set of all points P(x. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space. and planes in space. -3.!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k. !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x. 48.P = tv is o y (x . 12. -4.xo)i FIGURE 12. Yo. Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane. Then !:. + (y . and (q. xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv. 2. z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo. Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O. 00).2).35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-.. zo) paralle. 0). We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book. y = Yo + IV2. Yo. Z = Zo + IV3. a2).5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines.zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo. z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12. and the domain of I is (.35). 49. TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0.0). 0. 5). z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO. C(O.YO. -00 < 1< 00. B(l. a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line. y. xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI.688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. line segments. y=YO+IV2. (ai. Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2).00. Explain your work. y. zo). and (b" b2). (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line. and D(3. (b" IJ. Yo.yoH + (z . Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo. (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x. PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I. e2). zo).. Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt.. Yo.P is a scalar multiple ofv. Thus. The expanded form of the equation P-. In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line. 0).

y.4) (Figure 12. -3) Y We observe that the point (x. We could have chosen Q( I.(-3»k 4i .andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2.37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ. y=2-31.2k. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12. and Equations (3) with (xo.2.2)j + (4 .y = 2 .2 . -1.4) at I = \. The equations x = -3 + 41 3 . 2. 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment. Yo.31. zo) = (-3. 0.1=0 Solution With Po(XO. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t. -1. 0:51:5\. but so can the parameter.2. zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v. z = 4 . -3) and Q(1. Y = 41. z = -3 + 71. 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2. -1. + 71. Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique. we first parametrize the line through the points.z) = (-3 + 41.4) and vii 2i + 4j .YO. "\.31. on the line passes through P( -3.2k (Figure 12. y = 2 .4). in this case.2.3j + 7k is parallel to the line. -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12. y=2-31. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I.21.36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1. = = (I . from Example 2: x = -3 + 41. Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3.37). + 41.36). 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first. -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. 4. P(-3.5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2.31 3. Yo.0. y = -] .12. -I. Rewriting Equation (2). z = -3 z = 4 + 71. we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction . We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values. To parametrize a line segment joining two points.zo) equal to (-2.2. z = -3 + 71. taking them.(-3))i + (-I .-1. We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41.4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3. The arrows show the direction of increasing t. • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1.31. Q(I. Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change. Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO. -3) at I = 0 and Q(I.0.4) parallel to + 4j . • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo.

I. 3. What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3. the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion. where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv.With PS = (I . which is the length of the vector r(IO). Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. 200v3). we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12. 1. which is Ivl FIGURE 12. I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec.I)i + (I . 200v3. the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k).3)j + (5 . 200v3) in space. EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I. z = 21. When I = 10 sec.38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8. I). It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft.Q1ation of the figure. The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v.O)k = -2j + 5k .690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words. I. 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k. EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3.5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I.I. In the n. 200v3.38). From Equation (4). y = 3 . the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO. Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter.

k. • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J .(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = .Yo) + C(z . became the coefficients of x.P .z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22.39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of. . zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x.Axo + l1. zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x .M I FIGURE 12. 0. • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space .3.5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[..Yo..Xo) + B(y . we obtain 5x + + 2y .Yo)J + (z .zo)kj 0 or A(x . This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane.. A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation. The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D.Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k. Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO. the dot product n' PoP = o.7) O.. d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs .39).Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o.12. 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x . Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(. y. Thus. z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12. Simplifying. and z in the equation 5x + 2y .)'O.o. vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-. y.z = -22. This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y . where D . Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo.zo) Ax + By + Cz = D..

0.2z = 5.0) + 6(z . EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . In our case. we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate.40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02. The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane. y = -1 + 2t. For example.2z = 5 intersect. Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line. and qo. We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O. B(2. SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3). z = 1St. -1.1). 0. The line is x = 3 + 14t. SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane.6y . will do as well.0). 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z. Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line. ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction. 0). 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74).692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O. or 01 = k02 for some scalar k. The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line. ° FIGURE 12.0) + 2(y . we can take any point common to the two planes. two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel. if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it.2z = 15 and 2x + y .6y . Turning this around. Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3. To find a point on the line. 0). .1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well.40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). 0. EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x . SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12. 3. ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect.2z = 15 and 2x + y .

That is. Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12.41). EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I.5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21.12. . 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2.0. (0.y.1 . the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane.2. The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k. intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. 1. z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I ./ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I.0.z)lt=-1 = 2.41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II).0) FIGURE 12.O). Solution The point y = -21. then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n. z = 1 +1 + 21. • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n. The point of intersection is (x. 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.2.1) = (f. -21. that is. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1. 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane.

0) and Q(1.12.0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10. The z-axis 1.38 radians. (1. The line through P(1. -2) 4. (1.3) and Q(3. The line through (1.3)j + (3 . (0.0.O)i i . The line through (0. The line through 3x + 7y . The line through P( -2.I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1. Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment.0.1).I.0) 17.3/2) (1. (0.42).4.6y . 20. (1. -2. . 1. Find the angle between the planes 3x . (2.5z = 21 (2.2. 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/.0) (1. The line through the point P(3. (0. 0. then n = = (1 . 0. z = 31 7. () = = COS-I cos.20.2z = 5. 0).0. 02 = 2i +j .1) and Q( -I. . (1. 15. (0. If we take P to be the y-intercept (0.1) . The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6. The angle between them is FIGURE 12. The line through the point (3.2j + (1 . .1. 1. 18. 19. (0. 1) (3. Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i .2k are normals to the planes. 16.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1.0) (0. 0). 3. 13. I.2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 .0) (0. 2. . -7. The line through P(I.6j .2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y . 2). 0). I.0. 1.1).1) 5.O)k + 3k. The line through (2. 2.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2.0) 14.3. The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i . -4. 0.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13. 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12.694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts. indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization. (1.0).2k. 0). 1) parallel to the z-axis 8. 2. 0. 0. 3. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11. I) 3. 9. • Exercises 12. 1. y = 2 .-1.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals. 5. 0). The x-axis 12. 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7.

+ 6. I). 4y = -12.0). I. Z = z = 2 . z = 31. 49. Y = 3 . Find the points in which the line x = I + 21.1. y = -2. (0.I. 2x-2y-z=5 SO. -00 30. 5. 33. x + Y = I. Given two lines in space. 41.2j + k. (-1.k 22.12). z = 5t. 28. (I. .j + 3k. -4. y=3+2t. Y = -I + 2. y = -3. T. 2. = -2 . -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y .4). 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s. Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2.(3. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66. -00 L2:x=2-s. y + 21.I. The plane through Po(2. Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. 1.3). -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37.(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. x = 10 y= I +2t.I. 2x + 2y . 67. Theory and Examples 63. y = = L2: x 1 . -2. 5) normal to nl = i . Describe the reasooing behind your answer. y = 1 T. -3.6. -1. y = -I . P2(3. y = 31 + 2. The plane through (2. L2:x= I + 4. 46. x=4-1. (2. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10. LI: x = I + 21.4.2. 40. x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23. In each exercise.5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31. x = 5 + t. 39.2x+2y+2z=3. y = 2+ -2 + 2r. Y = 4 + S. I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j .4z = -12 55. 0) and the normal vector. LI: x = I. Z <. x + Y = 2 58. -2. 2. Y = -21.t. I) 24. 54.8) 25. Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj. y = -I + 41. In Exercises 29 and 30. -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r. 35.31. Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4. 36. 34. 38.2t. I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27.2z = 5 60. (1. and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines. 44. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I. The plane through A(I.21. 62. . The plane through Po( 0. Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3. (2.I. -00 00 31. = -00 < t< 00 57. z = -1 + s. z=31. and x = • + 2.y + 2z = 7.-1. In Exercises 39-44. 21. or they are skew (imagine. + 41. find the distance from the point to the line.2j . (2. and (0. x + 2y + Z = 2. z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52. are parallel. 61. for example. intersect. x . Z = 21 z = -3 .3). 5x-2y= 11.I) normal to n = 3i . or they inletseet. Is the line x = I . z = -2 . y = 2s + 4. and then fmd the plane determined by these lines.5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. Y = 2 + 5t.z = 3.2z = 2 48. -2.0 intersect. z = 4t 51. fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56. I. 5x + y-z = 10.2 = + 2 Vzj . either they are parallel.2y + 4z = 2. L3: x = 3 + 2r. + 6t. Y + t. the flight paths of two planes in the sky). -1. (0.x=I+21.\12k.z = 8? Give reasons for your answer. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x . x + y .2s. or are skew.3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48. y = -I .x=I-I. Find a plane through the points PI(I. y = 5 = I + 4t. y = 1 + 31.0. y=I+5t. 0. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian.I.y= I + 2s.3).0. 45. x +y +Z + 3z = I.12. 2x + y . 2). (0. 4.3x-6y-2z=3. Ll:x = = -1 + t. 53. 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . 2. (2. I. 32. z = 31 meets the coordinste planes. -I). z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y . Describe the reasoning behind your answer.. Find a plane throughPo(2. find the distance from the point to the plane. z=l+s.0). -00 x=21.0. y=3s. 3). < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r.(3/2)k. -00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38. The plane through (I. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. 1 + ls.Z = 3. y = • + 3. x = -1 + 31. If they intersect. 29. Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines. 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 .0). tsken two at a time. + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65. z=I+I. 4. I. lines.-1). 5). and x = 2s + 2. z = 1 + I. Y = 3 + 21. z = -48 . y=31. Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I. find the point of intersectino. determine whether the lines. x = 2. y = I z = -(1/2) . 2 Z Z = 1 . 42. (2. -I). LI: x = 3 + 21. fmd the point in which the line meets the plane.3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. x + Y + z = I. (0.4s. 2x . x = 4t. 47.z= -3 +48. 43.7) parallel to VI = 2i . The plane through (I. Z = 5. z = 4t + 3. x+y+z=2 56.4). (0. -2. + I. 7). and (-1.0. 64.

The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I . Which planes have an equation of this form? 72. y..y + C'z = D.0). How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A. 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a. z). In solid geometry.x + B.t.43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo..xo2. Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. xo2. and ( -2. L ° z P(O. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12. 2. we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. 69. 2) passes through the plate. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes. 2). Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics.. 00. the point Q(xo. Z = 0 (Figure 12. Then. andzi. therefore. Z = 3 + 2t. 0) to (0.YI. Regardless of the value of z. In this section.) 12. 0.y. 70. 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI. any point Q(xo. and z. We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1.. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines.Xl. but now we allow generating curves of any kind. are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer.6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now.44). . x02. h. 0. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing. (I. The point Po(xo.y = 2 . 1.696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b.? Give reasons for your answer. What do you find? 68..0.44). y. z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO. Spheres are quadric surfaces. Conversely. Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line. 0). Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo . The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t. where cylinder means circular cylinder. for Solution any value of z. 2.43)." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12.YI. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 . we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 .z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D. 0. Your eye is at (4. the generating curves are circles. The line segment from (1. but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. Zl) as a point on the yz-plane. 74. 1). Suppose LI and L. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71. we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo. and c. What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes. Because of this. 73. Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x.

. The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared. 0). any curve g(x. paraboloids. . I . I I -- \ . Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids. Iy I :S h.. and Iz I :s c.y) = c.. 0)... : f . B. In a similar way. We call it "the cylinder y _ xl.45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a.E.... y ''f FIGURE 12. 1 _ . For example. . C. r1 " .45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes. elliptical cones.:'..lo .. FIGURE 12. Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z . and hyperboloid.. .ts..(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz .z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey.. z). D.z) = c. and (0.1"". xOl. r .' . when z = o.." where A.. The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis. O.12... the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane.. / c /' . The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses. any curve f(x.y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x. We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface. For instance.44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO.. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 .. and then give II.rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x. . ± c). (0. and z. Any curve h(y.6 Cylinder.. S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types. 0.. .. . z) = c. z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x. As Example 1 suggests. " >t-:.... y. ± b. It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a.--... We fucus on the special equation .. Quadric Surfaces A quadric I. . and E are oonstmJ. The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids. EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12..

7.46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) . the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass.X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----. The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward. IZo I < c.. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface.(zoic) ) = 1. _ Table 12. Part of the hyperbola y 2 . Near the origin..698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo. the parabola opens upward from the origin. To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2).46). and c are equal. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas. If Zo is negative. the surface is a sphere.c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0. c > o. EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12. The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 . y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a . If any two of the semiaxes a.(zoic) ) + b (1 . but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation). If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0. .(x 2/a 2) = z/c. the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas. b the parabola z = .2 a (1 . is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2.y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12. To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis. If all three are equal.1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces. b. We will say more about saddle points in Section 14. the cross-section is a hyperbola. --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1).

. . • ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" .. Tho PEIobolu _ .12. +..cV'i f .'.nbolu _ . ill Ibo ".>0 ."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ .6 Cylinder. and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12./ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET . . ._1 . 'Ibe p. ... ."pImo " ..1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces . . .. . 'Ibe e1Hpee - . . HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' .. -T'---- ...

. . X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n.x2 +2z 2 _ S 9. Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a). 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a .1. b.4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42. (The area of an ellipse . 9 4 by the plane z . the ellipsoid .t2 ELUPSOIDS 17.c? .y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44. ellipsoid. 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y .y:1+ z 2=X 2 6. Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44.x:1+ y 2. (y'/4) . 40. 9x:1 .z 2 +x:1. L . X2 +y2=4 15. 21. and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12.y 2 _ 1 10. x _ y 2_ z 2 7. x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2. f• . x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3. z = _(X2 + y2) 43.. 4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES .z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4. .. etc. Also. 25.y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30. 9. z = _4. c.b . z= 1 +y2_X:1 35.) b. CYUNDERS 13. 4x:1 20.c as a function of c.6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12.z :1=1 29.1: 2 _ y2 12.'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24. d. identify each surface by type (paraboloid. k. x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39. with semiaxesa andbis7rab. y 31. z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . X=z2_ y :1 11.z=y2-1 16. .. 4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36. J.(. 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18. . 14. match the equation with the surface it defines.4.x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8.x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45. L h• . L Express the area.t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19. 1. of the cross-section cut from. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33. x 2 +z2 _ 1 41.y=I-:x 2 -z2 26. Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I). 4x:1 + = 9y2 28. z=x:1+4y:1 23.. Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37.700 Chapter 12: Vector. 9.

and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph. 14. What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids. 49. suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. The barrel is 2h units high. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58.5 2. -2 d. 1. line segments. 3. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). How do you find equations for lines. 13. you can. rotate the surface into different viewing positions. How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. -3 -2 -2 -1 c. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular. 51. 1. 2. paraboloids. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ . z = y2.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. Then check two things. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples. Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h. x x -0. What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates. j.= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. 9 . 5x 2 z2 . where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2. its midsection radius is R. Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h. -1 47. and which are not? Give examples. 48. z = 1 .3y2 56. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. -2 2 1 2. Find a formula for the barrel's volume. When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar. and planes in space? Give examples. First. 7. c.Chapter 12 46. How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h.y2. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . 15. What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. 11. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10. how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5. a. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples. y y y y 2 y y 50. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. 16. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. 8. Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. h > o. 17. 57. How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. and its end radii are both r. . Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12. cones.25 54.= a b2 c 3. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a. What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. 53. -3 h. How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. z = x 2 52.

Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k. z = I + 41. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u. For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j .4) and v = (2. 2.2wl· 24. x = -t.1) Iv X u I. -2u 2. !flvl = 2. the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude. In Exercises 21 and 22. 5v 2S. P(i. 19. P(i. v.6. let u = (-3. 17. I). fmd the distance from the point to the line. 16. v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39. 38. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42.0). In Esercises 17 and 18.4. 37.fmd Iv . 13.y + 2z = -8 intersect.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x . I) 18.0). v X u.j 11. The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7. (2. u=i-j. . u.y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions. Z = 31. 36. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. 41. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane. 31. 5. y = 2 + I. and w.3). v2i + v2j 10.3j + 3y +Z = 2 35. 43. R(O.2. Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1.j + 4k. Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . In Esercises 33 and 34. Q(O. The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i .u=i+j. fmd lvi. 0. I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6. 34. . 12. The veetor obtained by rotating (0.Q. lui. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20. 1. 3) parallel to the vector v = . y = -I . the angle between v and u.5k and v = -4i . Iwl = 3.2. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. u=i. -5). R( -1. In Exercises 37 and 38.andR. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c. 21. v=2i+j+k. fmd the distance from the point to the plane. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k. 1.u=i+j-k. 2.3u-4v 3. -i . fmd the component form of the vector.5y + 2z = 6. and Distances 27.Y . y = 31. Y = t. -6). fmd proj. The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos. Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x . Velocity vector v = (etcost . v=i+j 23. 1. V'u.etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2. 28. -1. 29.u+v 4. Q(2. and u X v as vectors at the origin. 44. Planes. U'v. 32.andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3. In Exercises 29 and 30. (6. Lines. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x . -2. -I).j 8.0. 0). x . (3.3. (0.21.k 15. 10). P. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3. x = 2 + I. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1. i + 2j . w=-i-2j+3k 26.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26. and the vector projection ofo onto v. Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I.. v=j.8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21. 40. Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. 0. 9.2).y = 6 .I. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21.0. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22. z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes. u X v.3i + 7k. w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. 0) and Q(I. 33. Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4. v. fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14. 2i .

0). -13/'. I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76.z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x . Find the distance from the point P(I.y .2-3t b. C(l. The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2. Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A .z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc. 0).2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x . FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines.-1) and B(-I.3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. 56. I) normal ttl the plane 2x . 0) to the plane through A(O. -1) 55. 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70.i. o. I.6y + 10z . y .2i + 3j + kandv . B(I. the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y . the cosine of the interior angle atB. Find the point in which the line through p(3. "'" C(2. 71. 48.I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D. 51. y B(l. 3). 2. d. x 2 + (y . ""'D(2. 2.j + 2k. x-axis? 57. z = _(x 2 + y2) 71.4 and orthogonaltot+J+k. -13/'. (2i . Find an equation for the plane through A(-2. 0). 4. The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) .z + I = O.4(1. Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x .0. 2. 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z .I)j + zk) = 0 e. planes. on the three coord. Is v = 2i . 4). z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I .tJ. I. y=2t. Find the coonIin. 64. z .B . b.I. 1) and the line through C(t. o.2. the area of the parallelogram. Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z . «x + 2)1 + (y . Xl+zZ=yl 74. through the points .5y +22' = 6. Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. z=t c.i + j .3-t. -I). -2. Find the distance from the point (2. -I) andD(4. 2) 58. -1). B(2. -1. X2 +y2_z2=4 75.2k. 60.0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y . -I).!e 63. 63.4). The equation.j + k. The line L: e.y .z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x .j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y .3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . y = -2 + 31. 4. L (21 . A(2.Chapter 12 45.4) . 47. andD. f. z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x . Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1.andC .-Ilt. x=3+2t. 5.4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer.atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L.-l. 3.2i .4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69. (Continuatio1l o/Exerci. O)? 67. -3) and B(I. -1. X2 +y2=z2 73. 51.O) and the line L2 through the points C(3.I)j + zk) 6l. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines.O. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x .1) . x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2.2. yl_x2_zl= 1 66. 3) o 54. 0.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D.O. d. the vector projection of BA. Shaw that for every real number k the plane x .z = -4 in a point P. -2).91 Give reasoos for your 61.z . onto iiC.t? 49. Quadric SumCt!!s 59. What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y . Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I.1)2 + z2 = I 68.' P-. 50. Thm project AC onto D. (2i . Q(3. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram. 65. (x + 2) + l1(y 046. e. andR(-2. 2.y. I. 26/') ""'D(16/'. What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn. Is the line x = 1 + 2t.3J + 3k)' b.y + 2z = -2 meets the plane.i . Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. 0.) Find the distance between the line through A(4. 53.2y+ z + 3 + k(2x . 0. 3)paraIleltou . 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76. x .y . Find D). Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L.na. 0.i+ 2j + k. C(I. 2). 2) and B(2.

lands at (446. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1. -----_ B I (l. Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4. a. -1. the submarine was located at (2. whereas ship B is located at (0." If you are installing the plug with a lO. Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram. All coordinates are given in thousands of feet.0) y 5. are traveling together.0) x (0. 5. and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i .(I/3)k. to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I.5-in. z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t.0. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters. from the axis of the spark plug. HI and H 2. 2) z x --- ----. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram. they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle. 3.k. 1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec.0). Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j .6j . and angles a and {3. -\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2. in a negligible amount of time. 13. Due to system malfunctions.704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. 0). How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3. 1.4 N· m). a. 2). Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l. where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires. Two hours later. Y = -3 + 4t. 1) and. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept. Four minutes ago. Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed. H2 stops its flight at (446. x = 6 + 11 Ot. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in. At time t = 0. -1/3).5. As shown here. 3. socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in. ship A is located at (4. Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles. 1. Y = -3 + lOt.) 6. 0). HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. The aircraft is due in 20 min. 0. HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) .J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4. 13.

a. Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P. 13. Yh Zt). a. -I) is equidistant from the two planes.fmdprojpv. b. For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT .D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl .Y 0 and 3x . 9. 8. projp v.Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b. and E is one·third of the way between C and B. 14. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results. Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x . and P3(X3. fmd w in tenns ofv and z. Determinant. Assuming Iv I Iwi. In the fIgure here.z 2x + 3y . If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k. 2. 10. Show that the lines c.z 12. with z orthogonal to the line L.z 0 pass through the center of the sphere.(XhYh z. is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID. P2(X2. D 2 2 B p C 1 b. B.(v·w)u. b3 -d3 15. + by. Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD.Y Y2 .2y + z 3.)I2.I.) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' . Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P. For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7. and Ax + By + Cz D.Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . 2i+ j d. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges. C. 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P.(u·v)w. . This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. 2i b. Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D.k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k . can be defmed informally as follows. (u'w)v . 16. and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. Showthat XI X2 - 12. Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x .Y y. Use vectors to show that the distance from P. What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b. i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i . and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax. . The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector.Y3. (AB X BC) O. i-j+k c. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. u v w A D B a. c. 17. - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a. Prove that four points A. although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v . Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2. The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v. a. and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD . Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x . Determinants and planes 11. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . and z. D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC.Y + 2z -4 if the point (3. Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal. Z2). d. and line. W. Z3).

and d.ci u·r V'WI. Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v. Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line. c. u for every vector u and that U' u . v"r for any four nurohers a. b.W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v .sinAcosB . Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors. 24. Show that w . 25.(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c.0 if and only ifu . u X v .B) . Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w .) Show that dot multipli- 22.s and dot products vectors.Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v. (Hint: Let u .-Iul'u'v X w.ai + bj and + dj. and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line. that is. Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu . Cro. v. 23. show that u . w. then b. Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image. 20.(wxr)_lu. Use vectors to prove that 18. Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite. and r are any 21.(uXv). . Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors. 0 19.cosAsinB.lulvare orthogonal.706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u.O. derive the trigonometric identity sin(A .

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