12

VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE
OVERVIEW To apply calculus in many real-world situations and in higher mathematics, we need a mathematical description of three-dimensional space. In this chapter we introduce three-dimensional coordinate systems and vectors. Building on what we already know about coordinates in the xy-plane, we establish coordinates in space by adding a third axis that measures distance above and below the xy-plane. Vectors are used to study the analytic geometry of space, where they give simple ways to describe lines, planes, surfaces, and curves in space. We use these geometric ideas later in the book to study motion in space and the calculus of functions of several variables, with their many important applications in science, engineering, economics, and higher mathematics.

12.1

Three-DimensionaL Coordinate Systems
To locate a point in space, we use three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, arranged as in Figure 12.1. The axes shown there make a right-handed coordinate frame. When you hold your right hand so that the fingers curl from the positive x-axis toward the positive y-axis, your thumb points along the positive z-axis. So when you look down on the xy-plane from the positive direction of the z-axis, positive angles in the plane are measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and around the positive z-axis. (In a left-handed coordinate frame, the z-axis would point downward in Figure 12.1 and angles in the plane would be positive when measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. Right-handed and left-handed coordinate frames are not equivalent.) The Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) of a point P in space are the values at which the planes through P perpendicular to the axes cut the axes. Cartesian coordinates for space are also called rectangular coordinates because the axes that define them meet at right angles. Points on the x-axis have y- and z-coordinates equal to zero. That is, they have coordinates of the form (x, 0,0). Similarly, points on the y-axis have coordinates of the form (O,y, 0), and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z). The planes determined by the coordinates axes are the xy-plane, whose standard equation is z = 0; the yz-plane, whose standard equation is x = 0; and the xz-plane, whose standard equation is y = O. They meet at the origin (0, 0, 0) (Figure 12.2). The origin is also identified by simply 0 or sometimes the letter O. The three coordinate planes x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 divide space into eight cells called octants. The octant in which the point coordinates are all positive is called the first octant; there is no convention for numbering the other seven octants. The points in a plane perpendicular to the x-axis all have the same x-coordinate, this being the number at which that plane cuts the x-axis. The y- and z-coordinates can be any numbers. Similarly, the points in a plane perpendicular to the y-axis have a common y-coordinate and the points in a plane perpendicular to the z-axis have a common z-coordinate. To write equations for these planes, we name the common coordinate's value. The plane x = 2 is the plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 2. The plane y = 3 is the plane perpendicular to the y-axis

z

z = constant

I

(O,y,z)

(x, 0, z)

0 ___ 1

P(x,y,z)

- - - __ (O, y,O)

------'y

y = constant
x x = constant
(x, y, 0)

FIGURE 12.1 The Cartesian coordinate system is right-handed.

660

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

661

z
xz-plane: y = 0

xy-plane: z = 0 - - - -- ____

\

/
/ /

//

___ yz-plane: x

=

0

:\
: (0, 0, 0)
I

y

Z y
Line x = 2, y = 3

(0,3,0)

x

FIGURE 12.2 The planes x = O, y = O,andz = space into eight octants.

°

divide

FIGURE 12.3 The planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5 determine three lines through the point (2,3,5).

at y = 3. The plane z = 5 is the plane perpendicular to the z-axis at z = 5. Figure 12.3 shows the planes x = 2, y = 3, and z = 5, together with their intersection point (2, 3, 5). The planes x = 2 and y = 3 in Figure 12.3 intersect in a line parallel to the z-axis. This line is described by the pair of equations x = 2, y = 3. A point (x, y, z) lies on the line if and only if x = 2 and y = 3. Similarly, the line of intersection of the planes y = 3 and z = 5 is described by the equation pair y = 3, z = 5 . This line runs parallel to the x-axis. The line of intersection of the planes x = 2 and z = 5, parallel to the y-axis, is described by the equation pair x = 2, z = 5 . In the following examples, we match coordinate equations and inequalities with the sets of points they define in space.

EXAMPLE 1
(a) z

°

We interpret these equations and inequalities geometrically. The half-space consisting of the points on and above the xy-plane.

(b) x = -3

(c) z = 0, x

0, y 0, z

°

The plane perpendicular to the x-axis at x = - 3 . This plane lies parallel to the yz-plane and 3 units behind it. The second quadrant of the xy-plane. The first octant. The slab between the planes y = -1 and y = 1 (planes included). The line in which the planes y = - 2 and z = 2 intersect. Alternatively, the line through the point (0, -2, 2) parallel to the x-axis. _

z
x 2 + y2
The circle
= 4,

z= 3

(d) x O,y (e) -1 y

°

1

/

(f) y = - 2, z = 2

EXAMPLE 2

What points P(x, y, z) satisfy the equations and z = 3?

x

FIGURE 12.4 The circle x 2
the plane z
=

+ y2

=

4 in

3 (Example 2).

Solution The points lie in the horizontal plane z = 3 and, in this plane, make up the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 .We call this set of points "the circle x 2 + y2 = 4 in the plane z = 3" or, _ more simply, "the circlex 2 + y2 = 4, z = 3" (Figure 12.4).

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

663

quadratic as a squared linear expression. Then, from the equation in standard form, read off the center and radius. For the sphere here, we have

(X2

+ 3x +

G Y)

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 3x - 4z + I = 0 (X 2 + 3x) + y2 + (Z2 - 4z) = -I

+ y2 + (Z2 - 4z +

(-;4 y) -I +
=

+

3)2 9 21 (x+ 2 +y2+(z-2)2=-1+ 4 +4=4'

(-;4Y

From this standard form, we read that Xo = -3/2, Yo = 0, Zo = 2, and a = v21/2. The centeris (-3/2,0,2). The radius isv21/2. • EXAMPLE 5 Here are some geometric interpretations of inequalities and equations involving spheres. (a) x 2 + y2 + z2 < 4 The interior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. (h) x 2 + y2 + z2 :5 4 The solid ball bounded by the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Alternatively, the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 together with its interior. 2 + y2 + z2 > 4 (e) x The exterior of the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4. 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, z :5 0 (d) x The lower hemisphere cut from the sphere x 2 +

y2

+ z2

= 4 by the xy-plane (the plane

z = 0) .

Just as polar coordinates give another way to locate points in the xy-plane (Section 11.3), alternative coordinate systems, different from the Cartesian coordinate system developed here, exist for three-dimensional space. We examine two of these coordinate systems in Section 15.7.

Exercises 12.1
Geometric Interpretations of Equations
In Exercises 1-16, give a geometric description of the set of points in

Geometric Interpretations of Inequalities and Equations
In Exercises 17-24, describe the sets of points in space whose coordinates satisfY the given inequalities or combinatioos of equatioos aod inequalities.

space whose coordinates satisfY the given pairs of equations. 1. x = 2, Y = 3 2. x = -1, z = 0 3. y
S.

= 0, 2 x + y2
2

z = 0
=

4. x = I, Y = 0
z = 0

17. a. x -2 0

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

b. x

0, y

0,

Z

= 0

4,

6. xl

7.

+z 2 =4, y=O 9. x 2 + y2 + z2 = I, x = 0
X

+ y2 = 4, z = 8. y2 + z2 = I, x =

18.•. 0 '" x '" 1 c. 0 x 1, 0
19.
a.

y
= 0

1,

b. 0 '" x '" I, 0 z 1 b.
Xl

0 '" Y s 1
1

x2

+ y2 + z2
+ y2 :s 1,

:s 1
Z

+ y2 + z2 >
+ y2 :s
1,
Z

10. x 2

11.
12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

+ y2 + z2 = 25, Y = -4 x 2 + y2 + (z + 3)' = 25, z = 0 x 2 + (y - 1)2 + z2 = 4, Y = 0 x 2 + y2 = 4, z = Y x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4, Y = x Y = x 2, z = 0 z = y2, X = 1

20. a. x 2
C. x 2

b. x 2

=3

+ y2:5

1,

norestrictiononz I, z 0
b. x
=
S

21. a. 1 :sx 2 +y2+z2 :S4
b. x 2

+ y2 + z2 :s
z = 0
Z

22. a. x = y,

y,

no restriction on z

23. a. y
b. z =

x 2,
y3,

0

b. x

y2,

0

S Z

s 2

24. a. z = 1 - y,
X

no restriction onx

=2

662
Z

Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space

Distance and Spheres in Space
The formula for the distance between two points in the xy-plane extends to points in space.

The Distance Between P1(XhYh Zl) and P 2(X2,Y2, Z2) is
IPI P21 = V(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - YI)2

+

(Z2 - ZI)2

x

FIGURE 12.5 We find the distance between PI and P 2 by applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangles PIAB and PIBP2.

Proof We construct a rectangular box with faces parallel to the coordinate planes and the points PI and P2 at opposite comers of the box (Figure 12.5). If A(X2, YI, zd and B(X2, Y2, Zl) are the vertices of the box indicated in the figure, then the three box edges P I A, AB, and BP2 have lengths

Because triangles PIBP2 and PIAB are both right-angled, two applications of the Pythagorean theorem give
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2

and

(see Figure 12.5). So
IPIP212 = IPIBI 2 + IBP21 2
IPIA 12
Substitute IP]BI 2 = IP]AI 2 + IABI2 .

+

IABI2

+

IBP212

IX2 - xl1 2 + IY2 - YI1 2 + IZ2 - zI1 2
=

(X2 - XI)2

+

(Y2 - Ylf

+

(Z2 - zlf

Therefore


EXAMPLE 3 The distance between P I (2, 1,5) and P2( -2,3,0) is
IPIP21 = V(-2 - 2f
= =
Z

+
25

(3 - 1)2

+

(0 - 5)2

V16

+4+
I"::j

V45

6.708.

Po(Xo, Yo, zo)

P(x,Y,z)

\

al

I

We can use the distance formula to write equations for spheres in space (Figure 12.6). A point P(x, y, z) lies on the sphere of radius a centered at Po(xo,Yo, zo) precisely when IPoPI = a or

-- I f"

I

,,/ 1--

The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and Center (xo,Yo, zo)
(x - xof
Y x

+ (y -

YO)2

+

(z - zO)2

= a2

EXAMPLE 4

Find the center and radius of the sphere x2

FIGURE 12.6 The sphere of radius a centered at the point (xo,Yo, zo).

+ y2 + z2 +

3x - 4z

+ 1 = O.

SoLution We find the center and radius of a sphere the way we find the center and radius of a circle: Complete the squares on the X-, Y-, and z-terms as necessary and write each

P I (3. The upper hemisphere of the sphere of radius I centered at the origin a. 4. -I. Pl(l.t. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x.-t) x2 54. and (2. y. -2) 26. 0. Had we wanted the spheres left out. I) parallel to the L b. 2. 64. 0. x-axis b. 63. 62. y. 2) and the xy-plane. Find a formula for the distance from the point P(x. (x . The set of points in space that lie 2 units from 1Ire point (0. 0) and lying in the L xy-plane xy-plane 29. The slab bounded by the planes z = 0 and z = I (planes included) 36. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices A( -1. The plaoe througb the point (3. 0) c. 0. 0) Vi4 2 4 9 32. B(I. 0).2) perpendicular to the LX-axis xy-plane b. we would have asked for the open regioo bounded by the spheres. 55.4. xz-plane 28. 0. The half-space consisting of the points 00 and below the xy-plane 38. y-axis c. P2(0.Vz)2 + + {y (z Vz)' 50. 5. (1. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the point (0.5) 53. PI(I. I). -2). 2. xz-plane 61.Vz)' + . yz-plane c. The line through the point (I.3) 52. yz-plane c. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. 3. 0. -1. I.5). x+ &+tY + (z-tY 47. 3. 0). 0). z) to the 37. planey = 2 Find equations for the spheres whose centers aud radii are given in Exercises 51-54. This is analogous to the way we use closed and open to describe intervals: closed means endpoints included. 3. xy-plane c. 0). + + +++ 9 58. The plaoe perpendicular to the L 46. y = 2.2. 4) P2(2. z-axis at (0. and z = 2 +++ 56. 0. at 1Ire saroe time. yz-plane b. The solid cube in the frrst octant bounded by 1Ire coordioate plaoes and 1Ire planes x = 2. (x y2 (x - = = 2 2 = c. (0. 3. (0. Radius 31. The plaoe througb the point (3. The circle in whicb the plane through the point (I.0) 7 Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 55-58. I)' +& tY + + + (z 3)' 25 49. P I (5. I) and lying in a plane parallel to the L xy-plane b. z) to the 39. 3). 2) is equidistant from the points A(2. 7. The circle of radius I centered at (-3. -5). x 2 y2 z2 4x . 0.4z = 0 35. Closed sets include boundaries. (Closed means the spheres are to be included. xz-plaoe c.3) perpendicular to 1Ire z-axis meets the sphere of radius 5 centered at the origin 34. 41. 65. 3. -2.7) b. Pl( -I. 1. The closed regioo bounded by the spheres of radius I and radius 2 centered at the origin. 4. The circle of radius 2 centered at (0. Distance In Exercises 41-46.2)' = 8 48. -2) In Exercises 25-34. +(y . z-axis 60. PI(O. -I) parallel to the LX-axis point (0. and C(3. open means endpoints left out. y-axis c. . -I. y-axis b. I) and. 30. 0. thepoint(O. Find the point equidistant from the points (0. P2(2.2. 0) Sphel'l!s Find the centers and radii of the spheres in Exercises 47-50. I). 5). I. -I) Inequalities to Describe Sets of Points Write inequalities to describe the sets in Exercises 35-40. open sets leave them out) a. 2. 43. 3x + + + 9 y2 z2 - 6y 8z = 0 Y lx 2 2 2y2 2z2 X z = 3y2 3z2 2y - 2z = Theory and Examples 59. 25. I. The set of points in space equidistant from the origin and the 33. Find the point on the sphere x 2 nearest •• thexy-plane. 0. (-I. I). 0) and lying in the L +2)' + +(z . 45. fmd the distsnce between points PI and P2.+ + 3)' (z 5)' = 4 P 2(3. -2. (3. 2 units from the point (0. yz-plane b. -1. y-axis at (0.664 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 44. 0. 0) P2(4. The (a) interior and (b) exterior of the sphere of radius I centered at the point (I. yz-plane b. 1.4. 4. 0) x-axis at (3. b. Show that the point p(3. I) 40. Find an equation for the set of all points equidistant from the planesy = 3 andy = -\. 0) 66. ++ + 57. -7. 42. -1. z-axis Center 51. z-axis 27. 5).3) andB(4. describe the given set with a single equatioo or with a pair of equations. P 2(2. -I. -3). xz-plane c. 5). (0.

We need a way to represent vectors algebraically so that we can be more precise shout the direction of a vector. are parallel. we need only write down a number and name an appropriate unit of measure. (This application of vectors is studied in Chapter 13.9) regardless of the initial point. ii. DEFINmONS The vector represented by the directed line segmen.9 The four arrows io the plane (directed lioe segments) shown here have the same length and direction. We can specify v by writing the PQ. They therefore represeot the same vector. for example. Sometimes we use uppercase boldface letters. To record mass. and w. The arrowhead on the path iodicates the direction of motion of the particle. for example u.10 A vector PQ io standard position has its initial point the origin. we have to know where the body is headed as well as how fast it is going. v.2 Vectors 665 12. it is customary to draw small arrows above the letters. The directed lioe segments PQ and v are parallel and have the same length. PQ . lV.7 The directed line segment B A _______ D C p o (a) two dimensions x o o E F (b) three dllnensions FIGURE 12. aodwewriteAB = cD = OP = EF. a force vector points in the direction in which the force acts and its length is a measure of the force's strength. FIGURE 12. To describe a force. or velocity. FIGURE 12. Let v = There is one directed line segment equal to whose initial point is the origin (Fignre 12. The arrow points in the direction of the action and its length gives the magnitude of the action in terms of a suitably chosen uuit. a velocity vector points in the direction of motion and its length is the speed of the moving object. length.10). y FIGURE 12. boldface letters. Terminal Component Form A quantity such as force.8 displays the velocity vector v at a specific location for a particle moving along a path in the plane or in space. The arrows we use when we draw vectors are understood to represent the same vector if they have the same length. In textbooks.) y AB is called a vector.!. To describe a body's velocity. We need more information to describe a force. Figure 12. displacement. for example ii. displacement.7). or velocity is called a vector and is represented by a directed line segment (Fignre 12.12. andF. we have to say in what direction it moved as well as how far. Two vectors are equal if they have the same length aod direction.2 __________________________________ Some of the things we measure are determined simply by their magnitudes. such as F.8 The velocity vector of a particle moving aloog a path <a) io the plane (b) io space. It is the representative ofv in standard position and is the vector we nonnally use to represent v. vectors are usually written in lowercase. to denote a force vector."AB has initial point A and terminal point B and its length is denoted by lAB I. In this section we show how to represent thiogs that have both magnitude and direction in the plane or in space. we need to record the direction in which it acts as well as how large it is. For example. To describe a body's displacement. In handwritten form. or time. and point in the same direction (Fignre 12.

if v = (X2 . Thus. and Zl + V3 = Z2 (see Figure 12. U3) and (v" V2.' PQ is the nonnegative number X.) and the terminal point is Q(X2.Yl). EXAMPLE 1 Find the (a) component form and (b) length of the vector with initial point P( .Y2. There is no third component for planar vectors. 4. DEFINITION If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2). V3) is represented by the directed line segment PQ. This vector is also the only vector with no specific direction. then Xl + VI = X2. denoted by the symbollvl orllvll.Yl = 2 .Zl are the components of PQ.). and a three-dimensional vector is an ordered triple v = (V" V2. where the initial point is P(x"y" Z. 0) or 0 = (0. and U3 = V3.10). Ifv is a three-dimensional vector equal to the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point (V" V2. 0.X" V2 = Y2 .) equal to PQ is v" v = (X2 . the standard position vector v = (v" V2.y" Z2 .Xl = -5 . and V3 are the components ofv.X"Y2 . we will develop the algebra of three-dimensional vectors and simply drop the third component when the vector is tw(}-dimensional (a planar vector).Zl).)2 + vl + vl = Y(X2 - + (Y2 . Z2).4 = -2. Thus (u" U2. Yl + V2 = Y2. With this understanding. then v = (X2 . 1) and terminal point Q( -5. and V3 = Z2 . Z2). V3) of real numbers. then the componentform ofv is v = (V" V2. V3).666 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space coordinates of its terminal point (v" V2. In summary.(-3) = -2.X" Y2 . VI = X2 . Ifv is a vector in the plane its terminal point (V" V2) has two coordinates. given the points P(x" y" Zl) and Q(X2.Y2.Y2) as points in the plane.X" Y2 . then the component form of v is v = (V" V2). bers If v = (V" V2. 0). . Solution (a) The standard position vector v representing PQ has components VI = X2 . So a two-dimensional vector is an ordered pair v = (v" V2) of real numbers.zll' (see Figure 12. The magnitude or length of the vector v = Ivl = Yv. 2.10).Yl.Zl) is the standard position vector for PQ.Yll' + (Z2 . The numV2. Two vectors are equal if and only if their standard position vectors are identical. The only vector with length 0 is the zero vector 0 = (0. 2). The magnitude or length of the vector PQ is the length of any of its equivalent directed line segment representations. If v is two-dimensional with P(X"YI) and Q(X2. V2 = Y2 .) when v is in standard position. V3) are equal if and only iful = v" U2 = V2. v. In particular.y"Z2 . v.3. v. then the distance formula gives the magnitude or length of v.

Another ioterpretation is showo io Figure 12. where the initial poiot of one vector is placed at the termioal poiot of the other.. (b) The parallelogram law of . . b).. DEFINmONS scalar.---I I / I I I I I o (0) (b) FIGURE 12. . A scalar is simply a real number. • Vector Algebra Operations Two principal operations involving vectors are vector addition and scalar multiplication. Notice that F is a two-dimensional vector. The definitions apply to planar vectors except there are ouly two components. U3) and v = (v" V2. given by FIGURE 12. The defioition of vector addition is illustrated geometrically for planar vectors io Figure 12. and is called such when we want to draw attention to its differences from vectors. y t (b) The length or magnitude of v = PQ is I I I I I I Ivl = Y(_2)2 + (-2)2 + (1)2 = V9 = 3.2 Vectors 667 and V3 = Z2 Z1 = 2 ..12....?) "" 14. Scalars can be positive.. The component form of PQ is v = (-2. V3) be vectors with k a u Scalar multiplication: + v = (U1 + v" U2 ku = (ku" ku2.12b (called the parallelogram law of y y __ . What is the effective force moving the cart forward? Solution The effective force is the horizontal component ofF = (a.. (a) Geomelric inlefpretation of the vector swn..12 vector addition.12a. (u" U2) and (Vb V2). -2.I = I. whose horizontal component is the effective force (Example 2). I).14 lb...11)..11 The force pulling the cart forward is represented by the vector F a = IFI cos 45° = (20)(. U3 + V3) We add vectors by addiog the correspondiog components of the vectors. ku3) + V2. We multiply a vector by a scalar by multiplying each component by the scalar. • EXAMPLE 2 A small cart is being pulled along a smooth horizontal floor with a 20-lb force F making a 45° angle to the floor (Figure 12.. Addition: Let u = (u" U2. negative. or zero and are used to "scale" a vector by multiplication.

v) + v = u.3 -7. Note that (u .1) and v = (4. U3 + V3) (v." U2.v = (u. w be vectors and a.21.u+v=v+u 3. forces add vectorially as do velocities.v. a(bu) = (ab)u 9.7. we see that lkul = V(ku. gives u. then (a) u . accelerations." V2. is the diagonal of the parallelogram. V3).3. If k > 0.2) (h) u . The difference u ." V2. called the resultant vector. v. Figure 12.0) = (10. so adding the vector (u . U3 . we have u +v = = = = = (u. u + 0 = u 5. U3) and v = (v" V2. when added to v. then the direction of ku is opposite to that of u.(4. V3) + (u.-4. v EXAMPLE 3 (a) 2u Let u = (-1. The length of ku is the absolute value of the scalar k times the length of u. V3 + U3) (v. .0) = (-1 . where the smn.1 .V3).668 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space addition). 1) + 3(4.13 displays a geometric interpretation of the product ku of the scalar k and vector u. Comparing the lengths of u and ku." U2. (b)u . is obtained hy adding the two force vectors. = • Vector operations have many of the properties of ordinary arithmetic.2) = WVU.0) = (-5. to establish Property 1. Figure 12.2 + ui + u/ = Ikllul. (a + b)u = au + bu 2. Properties orVeetor Operations Let u.v = u + (-v). So the force acting on a particle subject to two gravitational forces. U3) + (v. Ifu = (u" U2.1) . For instance.2 + ui + u.V2. In physics.6. Ou = 0 7. + v" U2 + V2. 8.v= (-1.v) to v gives u (Figure 12.v of two vectors is defmed hy u-v=u+(-v). and so on.0) = (-2. . // FIGURE 12.3. 1. for example. The vector ( -I)u = -u bas the same length as u but points in the opposite direction. Find the components of (h) u . U3) v + u.2) + (12.7.4.)2 + (ku2)2 + (ku 3)2 = Vk2(u.0).7.v" U2 .1) (e) FIGURE 12.v (e) + 3v I!ul. V3) (u.13 Scalar multiples ofu. 6. 4.27. I!ul I( = + + (!y !V1l.14b shows the difference u . if k < 0.14 (a)Thevector u . Solution (a) 2u + 3v = 2(-1.vas the smn u + (-v). (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 lu = u a(u + v) = au + av These properties are readily verified using the definitions of vector addition and multiplication by a scalar.3. b be scalars. + U" V2 + U2.14a). then ku has the same direction as u.

1. 0). Unit Vectors A vector v of length 1 is called a unit vector.O)j + (0 .P21 = (3 - l)i + (2 .2 Vectors 669 When three or more space vectors lie io the same plane. EXAMPLE 4 P2(3.k 3 = Y(2j2 + (2)2 + (-1)2 = Y4 +4+ v'9 = The unit vector u is the direction of P.0) + V3(0.0.Y2. and u + v are always coplanar. We call the scalar (or number) VI the i-component of the vector v. v. Z2) is x (Figure 12. Aoy vector v = (Vh V2. V3) + v2j + V2(0. j = (0.(l. The unit vector vI Iv I has the same direction as v: v Hermann Grassmann (180!l-1877) 3i-4j 3. Solution Speed is the magnitude (length) of v: Ivl = Y(3j2 HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY + (-4j2 = V9+16 = 5.0.0).0. 2. Wheneverv oF O. The standard unit vectors are i = (1.) to P2(X2. express v as a product of its speed times a unit vector io the direction of motion. V2 the j-component. the vector from P. V2. 1) + V3k.15).12. and V3 the k-<omponent. we say they are coplanar vectors./>2 (X2 . FIGURE 12.P2 by its length: P-. v/lvl is a unit vector io the direction of v. 5 = 5' . 0.(Xh Yh z. 0) = Vii + (0.0).4.P2 IP-. 1) to We divide P-. the vectors u.YI)j + That is.xl)i (Z2 .ZI)k. called tbe direction of the nonzero vectorv.itslength Ivl is not zero and is P-. V3) can be written as a linear combination of the standard unit vectors as follows: v = (Vh V2.0. Solution Fiod a unit vector u io the direction of the vector from P.1n component form. 1. For example.5 J · . 0) = vl(l.I)k = 2i + 2j 1= . and k = (0.15 The vector from PI to P2 + (Y2 . 0) + (0.1). • EXAMPLE 5 If v = 3i . V3) = (VI> 0.4j is a velocity vector. 0.P2.

we can express any nonzero vector v in terms of its two importsnt features._+-c2c:--i_-_k 2 +22 +(-1)2 Y2 3 =6(t i +t i -t k ). For example. 4) is ( 0 + 3 + 7 -2 + 2' 2 '2 4 4) = (5"2) 1 . -2.16) that o FIGURE 12. Direction of motion • (speed) In summary. I ' so v F = 6__ = 6 Ivl 21 2i + 2i . by writing v = Iv II. observe (Figure 12. Zl + Z2 EXAMPLE 7 The midpoint of the segment joining P I (3. • . To see why. the equation v = Ivll. Y2.k = 6__.670 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space So v = 3i - / Length 4i = 5Gi . Xl + X2 • 2 1 + Yl + Y2 • 2 I + -2. Z2) is the point Xl ( + X2 2 ' Yl + Y2 Zl + Z2) 2 ' 2 . 4.k . • Midpoint of a Line Segment Vectors are often useful in geometry.k. 1.1 expresses v as its length times its direction. then 1. Solution The force vector has magnitude 6 and direction I.16 The coordinates of tire midpoint are the averages of the coordinates ofPI andP2. the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment are found by aversging. IfvoF 0.0) andP2(7.1 is a unit vector in the direction of v. EXAMPLE 6 A force of 6 newtons is applied in the direction of the vector v = 2i + 2i . The midpoint M of the line segment joining points PI(X"y"ZI) and P2(X2. Express the force F as a product of its magnitude and direction.ti). I . 2. length and direction.

we get IF21 = It follows that w (b) (0. Solution (a) / / / / Since Fl + F2 = (0.2 Vectors 671 Applications An important application of vectors occurs in navigation. The force vectors F 1 and F 2 have magnitudes IF 11 and IF 21 and components that are measured in Newtons.18 in Example 9.17 Vectors representing tire velocities of the airplane u and tailwind v in Example 8.18a. Solving for IF21 in the 1mt equation and substituting the result into the second equation. Solution lfu = the velocity of the airplane alone and v = the velocity of the tailwind. N EXAMPLE 8 Ajet airliner. u lu and (J = and v = (70 cos 60°. Another important application occurs in physics and engineering when several forces are acting on a single object. The velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground is given by the magnitode and clirection of the resultant vector u + v.75. Ifwe let the positive x-axis represent east and the positive y-axis represent north. because of the wind. then the component forms of u and v are u = (500.35\1'3).17).50 Figure 12. 70 sin 60°) = (35.75).4 tan-I '" 6.35\1'3) \15352 = 535i + 35\1'3 j + vi + (35V'3)2 '" 538.4 mph. The airplane holds its compass heading due east but. The resultant force is the sum Fl + F2 and must be equal in magnitude and acting in the opposite (or upward) clirection tu the weight vectur w (see Figure 12.67N. The suspeuded weight IFll = sin 55° + 75 cos 55° tan 40° '" 57. ° _ cos 40° sm40 . then lui = 500 and Ivl = 70 (Figure 12.0) Therefore. +v = = (535.17 The new ground speed of the airplane is about 538. Find the forcea F 1 and F 2 acting in both wirea. and its new clirection is about _ 6. IFdsin55°) and F2 = (IF2Icos40°. -75) IFdcos55° cos 40° and . ° IF llsm55 + IFdcos55°. encounters a 70-mph tailwind blowing in the clirection 60° north of east. FIGURE 12. 55' 40' EXAMPLE 9 A 75-N weight is suspended by two wires. acquires a new ground speed and direction.5° north of east.18b). IF2Isin400). . the resultant vectur leads to the system of equations -IFl Icos 55° IFdsin55° + IF21cos40° + IF21sin400 = 0 = 75. What are they? 500 NOfroSCAIE u FIGURE 12. flying due east at 500 mph in still air. as shown in Figure 12. It follows from the figure that Fl = (-IFI Icos 55°.12.

The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = -37T/4 with the positive u x-axis 15.2u-3v 7.andD = (-2.0). u .B=(2. -I) andS = (-4. where P = (1. -2) 18. 0) and P2 is the point (. x-axis 14. -2) and v = (-2.5) 21. Vii + c. I) 120" coun- terclockwise about the origin 16. -I) and P2 is the point (2. P-. 12. whereR = (2. I) andB is the point (-10. v'3 + v'3 + v'3 i j k .9i-2j+6k 20.3)..5). 0. The vector PQ. Length and DIrection In Exercises 25-30. 7.76). The vector where 0 is the origin and P is the midpoint of segmentRS.3) 22. AB ifA is the point (-7. is the point (5. • Exercises 12.2 Vectors In the Plane In Exercises 1--1!.3) andB is the point( -1.0. 2. 5u .w oP c. 25. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (I.v d.1) v'6 v'6 v'6 30. -2u+ 3vifu = (-1. The vector from the point A = (2. 2. f"md the compooent form of the vector.1. -I) 10.4.u+v+w d. copy vectors U.3. express each vector as a prodoct of its length and direction.08. I. -I) and v = (2. The unit vector that makes an angle 8 = 27T/3 with the positive +V b.3) 11. u .5k 29. The force vectors are then F.v 24.P2 if P. = (-33.08. u . 9. is the point (I.u+v+w 17.3) and Q = (2. -8. 9. u +v 4 5.47. and . -2u 8.2i+j-2k 27.27. -2v 4. 3u Geometric Representations In Exercises 23 and 24. 5) 19. Find the (a) compooent form and (b) magnitude (length) of the vector. 0) 135" coonterc10ckwise about the origin L U V b. _I_i .18 N.P2 if P. I) AB ifA is the point (1. P-. 3. express each vector in the form v = l'2j + v3k. 1.v 6.2) and v = (1._I_j __I_k 26.-I). 2u . The sum of AB and C = (-1. v..24) and F2 = (33. 3) to the origin where A=(I.vifu = (I.0. cD.2) 13.0. + 5v 12 5u + 5v 3 -TI u + TIv L U 5 In Exercises !l-16. head to tail as needed to sketch the indicated vector. The unit vector obtained by rotating the vector (0.u-v+w Vectors In Space In Exercises 17-22. letu = (3.672 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space and IF2 I = 75 cos 55° sin 55° cos 4()0 + cos 55° sin 40° 75 cos 55° sin(550 + 400) '" 43.8.

At what point is the tree located? b. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. 1j + i 5 5 k d. fmdA. the Theory and Applications 41.) Wbat speed and directioo should the jetliner in Example 8 have in order for the resultant vector to be 500 mph due east? 45. PI(O. Try to do the calculations without writiog.7) P.TI _I_i 4. 5) 37.(1/2)j . find 35' a. 34. If the magoi1ude of vector F. is 100 N. Find the compooent form of the velocity of the air- x-axis points east. 0) 39. v2 13 _li . 42. Direction and Midplrints In Exercises 35--38..2k aodB is the point (5. Velocity An airplane is flying in the directioo 25' west of north at 800 kmfh. 40' c'IT d. Find a vector of magoi1ude 3 in the directioo opposite to the directionofv = (1/2)i .-3.P.3). aod b. Find the vector from Cto the midPointM ofsideAB. At what point is the telephone pole? plane. V3 "2 1 -k c. (See Exercise 41.(1/2)k.j. Find the magoi1udes and compooents of the force vectors FI aodF. b. 44.) into two leogths whose ratio is p/q = r. I.(4. If AB 40.5k. Length Direction Vectors 673 30- 45- a. B. Linear combination Let u = i . 0..6.2j. v2 + _I_j V3 V6 33. and the y-axis points north. assuming that the positive x-axis represents due east and the positive y-axis represents due north. v = i + j. are both 75 N. v = 2i + 3j.12. Find a vector ofmagoi1ude 7 in the directioo ofv = 12i . ZI) to P. 4) P. If the magoi1ude of vector F I is 35 N. a 35. PI(I. Consider a lOO-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure.(2. the midpoint ofline segment PI P. 5) 38.i 5 3. P I (3. Try to do the calculations without writiog. 5.TIl . Medians of a triangle Suppose that A.(2. j +1 k 777 46. where UI is parallel to v and U2 is parallel to w. Place an xy-coordinate system so that the origin is the bird's nest. the direction of p-. IfAB P. Use similar triangles to fmd the coordinates of the point Q that divides the segment from PI(XIoYI. 32. 5) 36.. Find the vector from C to the point that lies lwD-thirds of the way from C to M 00 the median CM. Linear combination Let u = 2i + j. and w = i . 49. Consider a woN weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure. Consider a 25-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompaoying figure. 51. 4. -2. a.(x"y" z. where it stops to rest 00 a tree.(2. Consider a 50-N weight suspended by two wires as shown in the accompanying figure.fmdB. 3.2 31. PI( -I. 0) P. 7 b. If the magoi1udes of vectors F I and F. then angles a and fJ are equal. 2 b. It then flies 10 km in the directioo due southeast aod lands atop a telephone pole. -2. 48. a. Location A bird flies from its nest 5 km in the directioo 60' north of east. and C are the corner points of the thin 1riangn1ar plate of constant density shown here. fmd w aod the magoi1ude of vector Fl. i _. Find a. Write U = UI + U2. Length Direction -j a. 5 k 12 k __I_k 47. (Continuation of Example 8. Find scalars a and b such that u = av + bw. 7 . a> 0 TI 1 . -2) fl = i + 4j . 4. . aod w = i + j. Find the vectors whose lengths and directions are given. 50. 1.6). = -7i + 3j + 8kaodAisthepoint(-2. fmd angle a and the magni1ude ofvectorF.2.) 43.

Find the vector from the origin to the point of intersection of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are A(I. If the vectors do not lie along the same line...19) and to finding the work done by a constant force acting through a displacement. where 0 is the angle between the two vectors F and v. C(I. 3) · c. Show thatAa + Bb + Co o.3). If they do lie along the same line. 0 .-1). B(l. Suppose that A. Angle Between Vectors When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so their initial points coincide. and C(-1. After investigating the dot product.AJJC intersect According to Exercise 17. This expression is the sum of the products of the corresponding components for the vectors u and v. not necessarily planar. quadrilateral in space. v THEOREM i-Angle Between Two Vectors vectors u = (Ulo U2. this point is the center of mass.2).674 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 53. V3) is given by oFIGURE 12. B(2. the midpoints of the opposite sides. b. Dot products are also called inner or scalar products because the product results in a scalar. 12. 56. Ifv is parallel to the tangent line to the path at the point where F is applied. then we want the magnitode ofF in the direction ofv. v Length IF I cos Ii FIGURE 12. 0) 52. Theorem I gives a fonnula to detennine this angle. U3) The angle 0 between two nonzero and v = (Vlo V2.obtainedbyrotating can be expressed as u i through an angle 0 in the couoterclockwise direction. Figure 12. Section 6..20 The angle between u and v. 2.-1. . A key part of the calcoIation is an expression called the dot product. and c are. I. Esplain why this form gives every unit vector in the plane. and C are vertices of a triangle and that a. Let ABCD be a general. B. we focus attention on the expression UI VI + U2 V2 + U3 V3 in the calcoIation for O. Unit veeton io the plane Show that a unit vector in the plane (cosO)i + (sinO)j. 0) M 55. the angle between them is 0 if they point in the same direction and 1f if they point in opposite directions. 1f (Figure 12. 3.m. Show that the sum of the vectors is zero. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular n-sided polygon in the plane to the vertices of the polygon.19 shows that the scalar quantity we seek is the length IFI cosO.6.19 The magnitude of the force F in the direction of vector v is the length IFI cos 0 oftheprojectioo ofF ontov. we apply it to finding the projection of one vector onto another (as displayed in Figure 12. A(4. Find the coordinates of the point in which the medians of I!. the angle 0 is measured in the plane containing both of them.3 The Dot Product If a force F is applied to a particle moving along a path.20). (Hint: Show that the segments have the same midpoint) 54. Before proving Theorem 1. not a vector. _ cos -I (utVt + lullvl U2 V2 + U3V3) . In this section we show how to calcoIate easily the angle between two vectors directly from their components. (Hint: What happens to the sum if you rotate the polygon about its center?) c.. we often need to know the magnitode of the force in the direction of motion. Show that the two segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of ABCD bisect each other.2. they form an angle 0 of measure 0 .1. The angle 0 is the angle between u and v.

we find that Iwl2 = lul 2 + Ivl2 .3 The Dotproduct 675 DEFINmON The dot product u' v ("u dot v") of vectors u = (Ul. V2.v.V3)2 2UtVt u? - + Vt 2 + ui - 2U2V2 + vi + ul - 2U3V3 + vl and Therefore.-1)'(-6.C:I'I:I)' . Section 1.cos-1 (U1 1 +lullvl + U3 3) .V1)2 + (U2 .21 The parallelognun law of addition of vectors gives w = u . + ul + ul)' = u. 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl2 .vd + (U3 .U2 . the angle between two vectors u and v is o= 1 cos.V2)' + (U3 .' Iwl 2 = = = Law of cosines Becausew = u .V3)2)' (U1 .Vl.V3). We will see throughoot the remainder of the book that the dot product is a key tool for many important geometric and physical calculations in space (and the plane).Iw1 2 .v.)2 + (U2 .thecomponentformofwis(U1 . we have V V U2 V2 0 .' + ul + uJ' + vl + vl)' = v. not just for rmding the angle between two vectors.21.' + vl + vi (V(U1 .-3) = = (1)(-6) + (-2)(2) + (-1)(-3) -6 . - • In the notation of the dot prodoct. U2.U3 .-2.SO FIGURE 12. V2) = U1 V1 + U2V2.21ullvl cosO 21ullvl cosO = lul 2 + Ivl 2 .Iwl2 = 2(U1V1 lullvl cos 0 = U1 V1 UtVt + U2V2 + U3V3) + U2V2 + U3V3 + U2'V2 + U3V3 cosO = Since 0 :5 () lullvl < 1T.12. lul 2 = (VU12 Ivl 2 = (Vv. V3) is EXAMPLE 1 (8) (1.4 + 3 = -7 = (b) (!i + 3j + k) '(4i - j + 2k) (!)t4) + (3)(-1) + (1)(2) = I • The dot prodoct of a pair of two-dimensional vectors is dermed in a similar fashion: (Ul. U3) and v = (Vl.V2.v. U2)' (Vl.3) to the triangle in Figure 12.2. Proof of Theorem 1 Applying the law of cosines (Equation (8).

676 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 2 Solution Find the angle between u = i .10 or 1.6) are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(4) . Then applying the angle formula.B = (3. DEFINITION ifu'v = O.5) A EXAMPLE 3 Find the angle () in the triangle ABC detennined by the vertices = (0. First we calculate the dot product and magnitudes of these two vectors. = v9 = 3 Ivl = V(6)' () = 1 + (3)' + (2)2 = 1 v49 = 7 cos. If u and v are nonzero vectors with u' v = lullvl cos () = 0. O). We use the fonnula above: u'v = (1)(6) + (-2)(3) + (-2)(2) = 6 .76radians. y B(3. + (-2)(6) = O. and C = (5.5). The converse is also true. <a> u = (3.22 The 1riangle in Example 3.2j .6 . -2) and v = (4.4 = -4 lui = VO)' + (-2). = (-5.1 0 = 1f/2. Solution The angle () is the angle between the vectors CA and CB. Perpendicular (Orthogonal) Vectors 1f/2. then cos () = 0 and () = cos. = v29 + (3)' = IcEl = V(-2). (b) u = 3i .2k and v = 6i + 3j + 2k.36 radians. + (-2). -2) and cE = (-2.2) (Figure 12. - Two nonzero vectors u and v are perpendicular or orthogonal if the angle between them is For such vectors. Vectors u and v are orthogonal (or perpendicular) if and only EXAMPLE 4 To determine if two vectors are orthogonal. - The angle fonnula applies to two·dimensional vectors as well.2j + k and v = 2j + 4k are orthogonal because u' v = (3)(0) + (-2)(2) + (1)(4) = O.3).22). eA'cE = leAl = (-5)(-2) + (-2)(3) = 4 V(-5)' + (-2). we have u' v = 0 because cos (1f/2) = O. calculate their dot product. The component fonns of these two vectors are eA FIGURE 12.C:I'I:I) = cos- '" 1. we have v'13 '" 78.

cos Ii < 0 and proj. U'V = V'U 2. R Q S =u·v+u·w • PS • R P S We now return to the problem of projecting one vector onto another. the effective force moving the box forward in the direction v is the projection ofo ontov.0. U3) = (O)(Ul) = o.v) ( Ivl2 V. + (0)(U2) + (0)(U3) • Dot Product Properties and Vector Projections The dot product obeys many of the laws that hold for ordinary products of real numbers (scalars). u'(v + w) = U'V + U'w 4. If the angle Ii between u and v is acute. For instance.24). U2. FIGURE 12. U3)' (VI = Ul(Vl + WI..3 The Dotproduct 677 (c) 0 is orthogonal to every vector u since o· u = (0. The notation for this vector is proj. V2 + W2. If Ii is obtuse. u ("the vector projection ofu onto v"). u has length -I u I cos Ii and direction Ivl. 1. then 1. projv u has length Iu I cos Ii and direction Iv I (Figure 12. The vector projection of / vi If u represents a force. The projection of u = PQ onto a nonzero vector v = (Figure 12. O) • (UI. (eu)'v = u'(ev) = e(u'v) 3. V3 + W3) + WI) + U2(V2 + W2) + U3(V3 + W3) P /1. FIGURE 12. Properties of the Dot Product Ifu.u = (lui cos Ii) v proj.24 Ifwe pull on the box with force u. posed in the opening to this section.25). here are the proofs of Properties 1 and 3. and w are any vectors and c is a scalar. U'V U' = UlVl + U2V2 + U3V3 = VlUl + V2U2 + V3U3 = V'U 3.v) v ( Ivl Ivl u. -vi proj.0·u=0. (v + w) = (UIo U2. U'U = lul 2 5.23 u onto v. HIsTORICAL BIOGRAPHY Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Proofs of Properties 1 and 3 The properties are easy to prove using the detmition.12.23) is the vector PR determined by dropping a perpendicular from Q to the line PS. Ivl . v.u 1:1 lui cos 8 lullvl cos 8 Ivl u'. u.. In both cases. then projv u represents the effective force in the direction of v (Figure 12.

I = (6i = + 3j + 2k)0 (t i . The vector projection of u onto v is the vector prOJyU = .t j . which is the direction of v). .tk) 2 .2k) = . Ivl2 UOT.2j .678 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space v v Length lui cos 9 (a) Length -lui cos 9 (b) FIGURE 12025 Tbe\ength ofprojyu is (a) lui cos II if cos II '" (b)-lui cos II if cos II < O. Solution We find projy u from Equation (1): + 3j + 2k onto v = i .2 - 4 4 3 = -3' • + 2j Equations (1) and (2) also apply to two-dimensional vectors. (uov)v. EXAMPLE 5 Find the vector projection of u = 6i and the scalar component ofu in the direction ofv. proJy u = v 0v v = 1 + 4 + 4 (. oand The number Iu I cos Ii is called the scalar component of u in the direction of v (or of u onto v).!" (1) The scalar component of u in the direction of v is the scalar lui cos Ii = u·v lVT = v (2) Note that both the vector projection of u onto v and the scalar component of u onto v depend only on the direction of the vector v and not its length (because we dot u with v / Iv I .2j .2k) = -1i 9999' + + We f"md the scalar component of u in the direction of v from Equation (2): lui cos Ii = UOI. We demonstrate this in the next example. onto v = i . To summarize.2k 6-6-4.2J . .3j and . EXAMPLE 6 Find the vector projection of a force F = 5i the scalar component ofF in the direction ofv. uov -1(i .

the work is performed by the component of F in the direction of D.(u.26). Work 1----1 I I : I I I p I D Q IFI cos 6 In Chapter 6.26 The wotk done by a constant force F during a displacement D is ( IF I cos 8) ID I. DEFINmON mentD = PQis The work done by a constant force F acting through a displaceW= F·D. (i 10 .3 The Dotproduct 679 Solution The vector projection is proj. If 0 is the angle between F and D (Figure 12. That formula holds ouly if the force is directed along the line of motion. EXAMPLE 7 IflFI = 40N(newtons).6 (i .. The scalar component ofF in the direction ofv is IFI cosO =-1-1 v F·v 5 .12.3j) = -TO' 1 . + 3 . which is the dot product component Work = (scalar direction ofOfF)(1ength 0 f D ) in the D (lFI cosO)IDI F·D.u) = (u. lO J .!.andO = 60°. u (which has the same direction as v). 1 • A routine calculation (see Exercise 29) verifies that the vector u .u + . then PQ FIGURE 12.. F·D. IDI F in acting from P to Q is Work = F·D = IFIIDI cosO = (40)(3) cos 60° = 3m. u = pro). the work done by De:fmition Given values = (120)(1/2) = 60 J (joules). F = = 5 . • We encounter more challenging work problems in Chapter 16 when we learn to f"md the work done by a variable force along a path in space.3j) 1+9 = -.pro). we calculated the work done by a constant force of magnitude F in moving an object through a distance d as W = Fd. So the equation . If a force F moving an object through a displacement D = has some other direction.v)) Ivl2 V Orthogonal to v expresses u as a sum of orthogonal vectors.v) V Ivl2 Parallel to v + ( u . (u . u is orthogonal to the projection vector proj. ..6 --- vi + 9 v'W.proj.

11. . u=i+v2j-v2k. Is this mere coincidence. 4. u=2i+j. or are there circumstances uoder which we may expect the som of two vectors to be urthogona1 to their difference? Give reasons for your answer. 1. Show that and CB are urthogona1. In the accompanying figore. v = (3/5)i + (4/5)k. B = (2.B '" 'IT) 1 is the angle between v and the positive z-axis (0 '" 1 '" 'IT).11k.B = (0. 16. O). the cosine of the angle between v and u and cos2 a + cos2 fj + cos2 'Y = 1. I). -2). u = 2i + 2j + k u = i + j + k u=v2i+V3j+2k = 5i + j. v & v = direction cosines ofv. TrilUlgle Find the measures of the angles of the mangle whose vertices are A = (-1. Unit vectors are built from direction cosine.2k v=-i+j+k 10. and c are the d.v=-i+j. a :s. Determine the angle 8 required in the water main for the turn from nurth to east. andD = (4.680 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. 6. v = lOi + 11j . 3. I). Sums IUld dilJerence. 7. the vector projy u. u = 2i .2k. and "y of a vector v = ai + bj + ck are dermed as follows: a is the angle between v and the positive x-axis (0 :s. Diagonals of a rhombus Show that the diagonals of a rhombus (parallelogram with sides of equa1lengtil) are perpendicular. Orthogons1ity on a circle Suppose that AB is the diameter of a circle with center 0 and that C is a p-oint on one of the two arcs joiningA andB.0). v = 2i + 10j . Show that if v = ai + bj + ck is a unit vector.4j + Vsk. Rectangle Find the measures of the angles between the diagonals of the rectangle whose vertices are A = (I. b.7j.3 Dot Product and Projections In Exercises 1-8. D Find the angles between the vectors in Exercises !l-12 to the nearest huodredth of a radian.B = Fr' b cos 1 = Fr' c b. 15. Showthat cos a = u. it looks as ifvl + V2 and VI . then a. 13. b. These cosines are called c.3). = (:n. v = 5j . u 2i + u Wj = (:n. Direction angles and direction cosines The direction angles a. lvi. 14. '11') . u = -2i + 4j . Angle Between Vectors 12. v = 2i .Vsk u = 5i + 12j u = 3j + 4k 2. {3.Theory and Examples 17. 9.B is the angle between v and the positive y-axis (0 '" .V2 are orthogonal. Water main construction A water main is to be constructed with a 20% grade in the nurth direction and a 10% grade in the east direction. v=i+2j-k v = 3i + 4k v = V3i + j .3k. u = V3i .4). cA A y 19. and C = (I. 18.2j + k. lui a Fr' cos. fmd L V' a. the scalar component ofn in the direction ofv the direction cosines of v. C = (3. 5.

tnctined plane Suppose that a box is being towed up ao inclined plane as shown in the figure. In Exercises 33-36.S lb. 32. Using the definitioo of the projection ofu onto v. -2).2). P(I. calculation that (u . if U'VI = U\l2 and u =F 0. I). if U'VI = U'V2andu =F O. P( -2. y 60' magnitude f"".3k is applied to a spacecraft with velocity 3i .2j Work 41. -7). 24. Find the force w needed to ma1re the component of the force parallel to the inclined plane equal to 2. Express F as a sum of a vectur para1lel to v vector v and a vector orthogonal to v. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin.j -i . v v i . Does the same rule hold for the dot product? That is. 3).proj.P(2. Give reasons for your answer. Orthogonal unit vectors If Ul and tors and v = aUI + bU2.j. Diagonal ofporallelogram Show that the indicated diagonal of the parallelogram determined by vectors u aod v bisects the aogle betweenuandviflul Ivl. Angles Between Lines In the Plane The acute angIe between intenecting lines that do not cross at right aogles is the same as the angle determined by vectors normal to the lines or by the vectors para1lel to the lines. Equations for Unes in the Plane 31. Then sketch the line. 25.e 27.375 Ib). 33. b.ay the line segment representing v is the sarne as the slope of the given line.12. P(-2. Include v in your sketch as a vector starting at the origin. Perpendicular diagonals Show that squares are the only rec· tangles with perpendicular diagonals. 29. JustifY your answer. U2 are orthogonal unit vec- F 28. Then shade in the points (x. 34. P(ll.) 22.P(-1.1). if any. Copy the axes and vector shown here. Line porallel to a vector Show that the vector v ai + bj is c by establishing that the slope of parallel to the line bx . Work along a tine Find the work done by a force F Si (magnitnde S N) in moving ao object along the line from the otigin to the point (I. . Sailboat The wind passing over a boat's sail exerted a 1000-lb magnitude force F as shown here. In Exercises 37-40.y) for which (xi + yj) • v '" O. A force F 2i + j . I) (distance in meters). P(I. v -2i + j 36. At this level of effort. 39. When parallelograms ore rectangles Prove that a parallelo· gram is a rectangle if and only if its diagonals are equal in length. show by direct O. (This fact is often exploited by carpenters. Under what circumstances. L2 L2 reasons for your answer. use the result of Exercise 32 to fmd ao equation for the line through P parallel to v.f'mdv·ut. How much work did the wind perform in moving the boat forward I mi? Answer in foot-pounds. 40. we can cancel the u and conclude that V2. 21. 37. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity.canyouconcludethatvl = v2?Give v. Locomotive The Union Pacific's Big Boy locomotive could pull 6000-ton 1l'ains with a tractive effort (Pull) of 602. about how much work did Big Bay do on the (approximately straight) 60S-kin journey from San Francisco to Los Angeles? 43. CanceDation in dot products In real-number multiplication. use the result of Exercise 31 to fmd an equation for the line 1hrough P perpendicular to v. show that the inequality Iu • v I '" Iu II v I holds for any vectors u and v. 23. Projectile motion A gun with muzzle velocity of 1200 ft/sec is frred at an angle of 8' above the horizontal. a. 10). 26. u) • projy u 30. does Iu • v I equal Iu II v I ? 42.3 The Dot Product 681 20. P(O. Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Since u' v Iu II v I cos 9.2). v v 2i + 3j 3i . Then sketch the line.148 N (13S. v 2i .2j 38. lnelined plane How much work does it take to slide a crate 20 m along a loading dock by pulling on it with a 200 N force at an aogle of 30' from the horizontal? 44.3j 35. Line perpendicular to a vector Show that v ai + bj is perc by establishing that the slope pendicular to the line ax + by of the vector v is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line.

48. -V3x+2 50. we used the notions of slope and angle of inclination. V3y 3 1 (1 . If one or both of u and v are zero. it makes sense to define the cross product of two parallel nonzero vectors to be O. 49. x 1. The product we use to multiply the vectors together is the vector or cross product. the cross product is a vector. The method does not require that we know the angle between them (as suggested by the definition).682 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 47. Use this fact and the results of Exercise 31 or 32 to rmd the acute angles betweeo the lines in Exercises 45-50. We study the cross product in this section. but we postpone that calculation momentarily so we can focus first on the properties of the cross product. The direction of this third vector tells us the ''inclination'' of the plane. DEFINITION u X v FIGURE 12. the cross product of two vectors u and v is zero ifand only ifu and v are parallel or one or both of them are zero.27 The construction of (lullvl sinO) n u X v. (rs)(u X v) 2. when we needed to describe how a line was tilting. 2x . u X (v 4.V3)x + (1 + V3)y 8 V3x-I. We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane by the right-hand rule. V3x . the second of the two vector multiplication methods. Unlike the dot product. (v -(u X v) + w) + w) X u u X v v X u +u Xw +w Xu 6. we want a way to describe how a plane is tilting. and applies only to vectors in space. Since the sines of 0 and 1f are both zero. Ifu and v are not parallel. The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space. u X (v X w) (u'w)v . s are scalars. For this reason it's also called the vector product of u and v. 45.(u'v)w .y x + V3y -2.2y 12. v. we also define u X v to be zero. In space.27).4 _ _e_C _s_ _ _o_ _c_ _________________________________ Th _rn s Pr du t In studying lines in the plane. Then the cross product u X v ("u cross v") is the vector defined as follows. then 1. We accomplish this by multiplying two vectors in the plane together to get a third vector perpendicular to the plane. Parallel Vectors Nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if and only if u X v The cross product obeys the following laws. (ru) X (sv) 3. 12x + 5y 1. v X u O. There is a straightforward way to calculate the cross product of two vectors from their components. The vector u X v is orthogonal to both u and v because it is a scalar multiple of n. they determine a plane. 46. and w are any vectors and r. TIris means that we choose n to be the unit (normal) vector that points the way your right thumb points when your f'mgers curl1hrough the angle 0 from u to v (Figure 12. TIris way. Properties of the Cross Product If u.

30). cross product multiplication is not associative so (u X v) X w does not generally equal u X (v X w). Iu I being the base of the parallelogram and Iv II sin () I the height.29) z i Xj = -0 X i) = k / and j X k = -(k X j) = i k X i = -(i X k) = j Diagram for recalling these products i Xi = j X j = k X k = o. Then the distributive laws and the rules for multiplying i.29 The pairwise cross products ofi. + u2j + U3k and v = vji + v2j + V3k. Xu The construction of To visualize Property 3. Property I can be verified by applying the definition of cross product to both sides of the equation and comparing the results. Property 5 is a detmition. the magnitode of u X v is FIGURE 12. we find (Figure 12. j. As a rule. Area = base' height lui· Ivllsin 01 luxvl This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Figure 12. Property 2 is proved in Appenrux 8. Property 4 follows by multiplying both sides of the equation in Property 2 by -I and reversing the order of the products using Property 3. and k. j. Iu X V I Is the Area of a Parallelogram Because n is a unit vector.28 v XU. (See Additioual Exercise 17. your thumb points the opposite way.30 The parallelogram detennined by u and v. The component terms in the last line are hard to remember. notice that when the fingers of your right hand curl through the angle 0 from v to u. the unit vector we choose in forming v X u is the negative of the one we choose in forming u X v (Figure 12.U3V2)i - (UjV3 - + (UjV2 - u2 vj)k.12. j. but they are the same as the terms in the expansion of the symbolic determinant j k . \ Determi nant Form ula for u X v Our next objective is to calculate u X v from the components of u and v relative to a Cartesian coordinate system. Suppose that u = uji u FIGURE 12. for example. and k lu X vi lullvl sinO. and k tell us that u X v = (uji + u2j + U3k) X (vji X j + v2j + V3k) = Uj vji X i + Uj V2i + Uj V3i j X k + u2vd X i + + u3vjk X i + u2v2j X U3V2k X + U2V3 j X k j + U3V3k X k U3Vj)j = (U2V3 .4 The (ross Product 683 W FIGURE 12.28).) When we apply the definition to calculate the pairwise cross products of i.

1. -I.18 + 10 = 2 (For more information.I). or 3v'2.O)k = i + 2j . k Ct C2 uXv= EXAMPLE 2 -4 J 1 3 1 = I 3 II -5 2 -4 3 I 3 I I I :1 :1 + + 4) = -2i .3(2 EXAMPLE 2 Find a vector perpendicular to the plane of P(i.2).0).. then i u X v = Ul VI 2 X 2 and 3 X 3 determinants are evaluated as follows: I: !I EXAMPLE = ad .comlthomas. andR(-I. and R( -1.. Q. see the Web site at www.l)i + (1 + I)j + (-I .be j U2 V2 k U3 V3 I = (2)(3) . FIGURE 12. 1. .(.. 1.. ha\fof IPQ X PRI (Example 3).0).. Calculating the Cross Product as a Determinant Ifu = uli + u2j + U3k and v = vii + v2j + V3k.. and R( -I.. I.aw..O)k = -2i + 2j + 2k 1 -2 z R(-I.l)i + (1 + I)j + (2 .k (-I .lbl b'l Ct C3 . -I). Solution Since PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane.. . I.6j + 10k v X u = -(u X v) = 2i + 6j .31). Solution The area of the parallelogram determined by P. + 1(6 + 4) = 10 .I.) PQ = PR = . // . -1.- EXAMPLE 3 Find the area of the triangle with vertices P(I.lbl b'l + a. -1. we have n= IPQ X PRI PQ X PR = 6i + 6k 6v'2 = I. Q(2. -1).31 The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane of triangle PQR (Example 2).(1)( -4) =6+4=10 EXAMPLE 1 Solution Find u X v and v X u ifu = 2i + j + k and v = -4i + 3j + k. The area of 1riang1e PQR is The triangle's area is half of this...2) j 2 2 = 2 12 2 -11' _I -21 2' • =6i+6k." IPQ X PRI = 16i + 6kl = V(6)' + (6)' = Values from Example 2 v'2-36 = 6v'2. Q(2.3) .31).10k • = -5(1 . Solution The vector PQ X PR is perpendicular to the plane because it is perpendicular to both vectors. I v'2' + v'2 k.2) (Figure 12. ------ O.. 1. • EXAMPLE 4 Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of P(I..684 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space I Determinant. its direction n is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane.2) (Figure 12. So we restate the calculation in this easy-to-remember form. ":/ :. Taking values from Examples 2 and 3. PQ X PR = (2 . In terms of components. • . Q(2. andR is ... 0).. _a.

v. As you can see from the fonnula I(u X v)· w I = Iu X v II w II cos 81.34 The number I(u Xv)· w I is the volume of a parallelepiped. Recall that we defined u X v to be 0 when u and v are parallel. we produce a torque that causes the bolt to rotate. V3). FIGURE 12. • Triple Scalar or Box Product The product (u X v)· w is called the triple scalar product ofu. Its length is IFI sin Magnitude of torque vector = Ir II FI sin 8. . Component of F perpendicular to r. V2. If we let n be a unit vector along the axis of the bolt in the direction of the torque. torque exerted by F at P is about 56. or Torque vector = (I r II FI sin 8) n.32. The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of the bolt according to the right-hand rule (so the rotation is counterclockwise when viewed from the tip of the vector). The number we use to measure the torque's magnitude is the product of the length of the lever ann r and the scalar component of F perpendicular to r. the absolute value of this product is the volume of the parallelepiped (parallelogram-sided box) determined by u.4 ft-Ib. v. Ifthe force F in Figure 12.32 is parallel to the wrench. The magnitude of the torque depends on how far out on the wrench the force is applied and on how much of the force is perpendicular to the wrench at the point of application.4 The Cross Product 685 For ease in calculating the cross product using detenninants.33 is IPQ 20lb magnitude force F X FI = IPQIIFI sin 70° (3)(20)(0. and w (in that order). ii:---- or Ir X F I. EXAMPLE 5 3 ft bar The magnitude of the torque generated by force F at the pivot point P in Figure 12.32). In the notation of Figure 12.94) 56.32 The torque vector describes the tendency of the force F to drive the bolt forward. This is consistent with the torque interpretation as well. FIGURE 12. then a complete description of the torque vector is r X F. The number Iu X vi is the area of the base uXv Area of base --=Iuxvl u Volume = area of base . The bar rotates counterclockwise around P. meaning that we are trying to turn the bolt by pushing or pulling along the line of the wrench's handle.4 ft-lb (Example 5).12. we usually write vectors in the fonn v = VI i + v2j + V3k rather than as ordered triples v = (VI.33 The magnitude of the In this example the torque vector is pointing out of the page toward you. height = lu X vi IwlIcos III = I(u X v)· wi FIGURE 12. Torque When we turn a bolt by applying a force F to a wrench (Figure 12. the torque produced is zero.34). and w (Figure 12.

we see that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v.4k. u = 2i + 3j.j . and w. = 7j . (u X v)·w = u'(v X w).686 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space parallelogram.4 Cross Product Calculations In Exercises 1-8. v = 2i + 2j + k v = i + j + 2k uXvandvXu. -4 • Exercises 12. and w. v = -i + j 3. v=-i+j-2k In Exercises 9-14.andw Find the volume of the box (parallelepiped) determined by u = i + 2j . 14. u = -8i . v. v j Xk 13. u = ti - t j + k. The number Iw II cos () I is the parallelepiped's height. u = i + j.2j .4k.k.k. (u X v). u = i. -1 3 =-23. Because of this geometry. The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a determinant: (u X v)·w = [I:: ::Ii + J-w Ul Vl U2 V2 U3 V3 Wl W2 W3 Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a Dcterminant Ul U2 U3 (u X v)· w = VI V2 V3 EXAMPLE 6 v = -2i Solution + 3k. u = = 8. u = i . v = 9. v = i . 4. v=i-k 2. Since the dot product is commutative.j. v = i + 2j i X j. we also have 1 The dot and cross may be interchaoged in a 1riple sca1ar product without altering its value. Using the rule for calculating determinants. 12. u = i . By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as the base planes of the parallelepiped detennined by u. u 6. v.u=i+j-k. rmd the length and direction (when dermed) of 7. we rmd I 2 (uXv)·w= . v= j v= j + k 10.k. and u X vas vectors starting at the origin. u = 2i . u=2i-2j+4k. v= j v= i -3j = 11. S. 1. w is also called the hox product ofu. v=O 2i. u = j + 2k. s1retch the coordinate axes and then include the vectors u. u=2i-2j -k. v.2 0 o 7 The volume is I(u X v)· wi = 23 units cubed.

Let u. B( -I. v. A(1. (uXv)'w b. A vector orthognoal to u and v c. -1.4 The (ross Product 687 Triangles in Space In Exercises 15--18. B(I. 0). verifY that (u X v)· w = (v X w)· u = (w X u)· v and fmd the volume of the parallelepiped (box) determined by n. 1. I). 0).3k. 45. -I) .5k. -I). 41. Q. 18. Parallel and perpendieular vectors I. C(3. A( -I. I). A(O.0) D(O.O. and whieh are not always true? Give reasons for your answers.i-j+k 21. r = -('/T/2)i . 15. 47. A( -1. 0. C(7. 0). 27. Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane PQR. Q(2. ifaoy.2.4.2). 1. and w.3). v. u X (-n) = Area of a Triangle Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are given in Exercises 41-47. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. I). Double eaneellalion If n # 0 aod if u X v = u X w aod u· v = U· lV.- C(2.i+j-2k v 2j 2i+j-2k 2i-j+k -i .. A(I. reasons for your answers.-:-. I) C(6.4) C(O.2i+j 22. if aoy. to describe the followiog. v.w = -15i + 3j . v. 43. I). The vector projection of u onto v Triple Scalar Products 1!l-22. (-u) X v = -(u X v) d. 2i 20. fmd the magoitude of the torque exerted by F on the bolt atP if IPQI = 8io. 39. B(O. A vector oflength In I io the direction ofv 30. -I). w = i + k. Which vectors.. 25. R(3. A vector orthogonal to u X v and u X w f. 38. and w e.k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k In Exercises b.2). -I) p • p 36. a. Area of a Parallelogram Find the areas of the parallelograms whose vertices are given in Exercises 35--40. C(9. -I). u'n = lui e. Q(2. andR.O). Which of the followiog make sense.uXv=vXu f. -1. -I. B(7. C(5. -2). I) 16.k w 2k -i + 2j . v = j . 24. I. c(n X v) = (en) X v = u X (cv) b. -I. u'(v'w) 32.u·v=v·n b. a. then does v = w? Give reasons for your answer. 2.3).4).'/Tj + ('/T/2)k. 17. 4). Cross products of three veetors Show that except in degenerate cases.0). B(0. (uXn)·n=O h. aod IFI = 301b.3).5) 37. 7. -1. u 19. 34. 44. A( -6. I) C(2. 26. h.3). B( -2. -I). and w. h. 0). 2).3) D( -4.-I) 42.0). 2. -I). 3. Whieh vectors.0. Compute (i X j) X j aod i X (j X j).5) D(4. I). (uXv)'v=O C(3. as appropriate. 8). and which are not always a. -2) 29. Find the area of the triangle detennined by the points P. What are the degener- ate cases? 33. and w be vectors. I) Q(3. A(O. are <a) perpendicu1ar? (b) Parallel? Give e.O. 35.et n = 5i . B(3. P(2. D(O. -I). -2.0). a.uXO=OXn=O d. A(1. true? Give reasons for your answers. u X (v'w) Theory and Examples 23. Which of the following are always true. -2) C( -2.12. D(2. (en)'v = u'(cv) = c(n'v) f. -5).2. A(O. ParaI1el and perpendieular vecton I. I. are (a) perpendicular? (b) Parallel? Give reasons for your aoswers. R(3. I). P( -2. Answer in foot- pounds. I). Iu I B(l. A vector orthogonal to u X v and w d.uXv=-(vXu) C(3.0).2). Cancellation in cross products If u X v = u X w and u =F 0. A( -6. (u X v) X w lies in the plane of u and v. R( -1. e. 3) C(I.k. 0.O). A(I. P(I. B(O. a. Given nonzero vectors u. -4). Which of the following are always true. A(O. u X (v X w) d. In Exercises 25 and 26. v = -i + j + k. I. P(1. What cao you cnoclude about the associativity of the cross product? 31.0).j + k. B(l. 46. 0 e. D(2. The volume of the parallelepiped detennined by u. B(IO. I) Q(O. U'U = lul 2 g. 2) = y.O. (uXv)'u=v'(uXv) (aoynumbere) (aoynumbere) e. -I. B(3. u X (v + w) = u X v + u X w g. and which do not? Give reasons for your answers. 40. 0.0). B(2.2.ct u = i + 2j . A( -5. (uXv)'w=u'(vXw) 28. whereas n X (v X w) lies in the plane ofv and w. R(O. I. 0.3). use dot product and cross product notatioo. C( -1.

line segments. The value of I depends on the location of the point P along the line. Equating the corresponding components of the two sides of Equation (1) gives three scalar equations involving the parameter I: X=Xo+tvt. We will use these representations throughout the rest of the book. 00). 0. B(l. -3.xo)i FIGURE 12.P is a scalar multiple ofv. Parametric Equations for a Une The standard parametrization of the line through Po(xo. and the domain of I is (.YO. and (q. 0). a2). zo).P = tv is o y (x . xo) paraDel to v = Vii + V2j + v3kis x = Xo + lVI. (b" IJ. TrilUlgie area Find a formula for the area of the triangle in the xy-plane with vertices at (0. Z = Zo + IV3.). y. y. zo). xo) parallel to v is r(l) = ro + tv. (1) which can be rewritten as xi + yj + zk = xoi + yoj + zok + I(vli + v2j + V3k). and (b" b2). Yo.zo)k = t(vli + V2j + V3k). z) on the line and ro is the position vector of the point Po(XO.yoH + (z . y = Yo + IV2.00. z) for which PoP is parallel to v (Figure 12.688 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space 50. 0). - 00 < I < 00 (3) . y=YO+IV2. -4. + (y . zo) paralle. -00 < 1< 00.. Lines and Line Segments in Space In the plane. Triangle area Find a coacise formula for the area of a triangle in the xy-plane with vertices (a" a2). Yo. !fr(l) is the position vector ofa pointP(x.is the set of all points P(x. and planes in space. e2). (2) where r is the position vector of a point P(x.0). 48. In space a line is detennined by a point and a veclor giving the direction of the line.35).!10 a vector v = Vii + v2j + V3k.y. and D(3. then Equation (1) gives the following vector form for the equation of a line in space. z) on L and ro is the position vector of Po(xo. Find the volume of a parallelepiped if four of its eight vertices are A(O. a line is detennined by a point and a number giving the slope of the line. 5).2). (ai. Explain your work. 49. 12. PoP = tv for some scalar parameter I.5 Lines and Planes in Space This section shows how to use scalar and vector products to write equations for lines.. Thus.35 A point P lies on L through Po parallel to v if and ooly if P-. Yo. These equations give us the standard parametrization of the line for the parameter interval -00<1<00. C(O. Vector Equation for a Line A vector equation for the line L through Po(Xo. 2. The expanded form of the equation P-.. Then !:. Suppose that L is a line in space passing through a point Po(xo. Yo.

0. 2. Yo.2. We could have chosen Q( I.4) parallel to + 4j . • EXAMPLE 2 Q(1. on the line passes through P( -3. z = 4 . + 41. 2) G o 2 4 t =1 x = -2 + 21. • Notice that parametrizations are not unique.2k (Figure 12.2.4).36). Y = 41. 4) as the ''base point" and written These equations serve as well as the first. in this case. -3 + 71) FIGURE 12. they simply place you at a different point on the line for a given value of I. y=2-31.4) at I = \.0. z = -3 + 71. zo) = (-3.2 .z) = (-3 + 41. zo) and moving in the direction ofvec!or v. y = -] .2)j + (4 . "\. z = -3 + 71.4) EXAMPLE 3 Parametrize the line segment joining the points P( -3. The line equations together with this added restriction parametrize the segment.31 3. -1.y.36 Selected points and parameter values on the line in Example 1. we first parametrize the line through the points. -1.YO. Rewriting Equation (2). y = 2 .4) (Figure 12.y = 2 . Solution We begin with equations for the line through P and Q.(-3»k 4i . 0:51:5\.(-3))i + (-I .0. we have r(l) = ro = ro + Iv (4) + Ilvl Initial position / Time ! \ "'Speed Direction . -3) give x = -3 x = ] + 41. taking them. Q(I.4) and vii 2i + 4j .3j + 7k is parallel to the line. Equations (3) become + v2j + V3k equal to 2 NO. z = -3 z = 4 + 71.zo) equal to (-2. We then find the I-values for the endpoints and restrict I to lie in the closed interval bounded by these values.andz = -3 + 71 3 also parametrize the line in Example 2. • The vector fonn (Equation (2» for a line in space is more revealing if we think of a line as the path of a particle starting at position Po(xo.37).31. -3) and Q(1. The equations x = -3 + 41 3 . 4) 4 _ EXAMPLE 1 Find parametric equations for the line through (-2.31. -3) Y We observe that the point (x. -3) at I = 0 and Q(I. = = (I .12. The arrow shows the direction of increasing t.2. -3) and v=2i+4j-2k The vector Pg FIGURE 12.2. from Example 2: x = -3 + 41. Solution Find parametric equations for the line through P( -3. y=2-31. Yo. The arrows show the direction of increasing t.31. -I. but so can the parameter.5 Lines and Planes in Space 689 v = 2i V O(-2. -1. To parametrize a line segment joining two points.2k. Not ouly can the ''base poinf' change.1=0 Solution With Po(XO.21. + 71. We add the restriction 0 :5 I :5 ] to parametrize the segment: x = -3 + 41. and Equations (3) with (xo.-1. 4.37 Example 3 derives a parametrization of line segmentPQ. P(-3.

Q1ation of the figure.With PS = (I . the position of the particle at time I is its initial position plus its distance moved (speed X time) in the direction vi Ivl of its straight-line motion. the absolute value of the IPS X vi scalar component is IPSI sinO. I. Solution We see from the equations for L that L passes thmugh P(I. the position of the helicopter at any time I is r(l) = ro + I(speed)u = 0 + 1(60)(_I_ i + _I_j + _I_ k ) v3 v3 v3 = 20v3I(i + j + k). I).I. z = 21. What is the position of the helicopter after 10 sec? Solution We place the origin at the starting position (helipad) of the helicopter.O)k = -2j + 5k . In the n.690 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space In other words. where 8 is the angle between Distance from a Point S to a Line Through P Parallel to v d= IPS X vi Ivl (5) PSandv. 200v3. EXAMPLE 4 A helicopter is to fly directly from a helipad at the origin in the direction of the point (I. After 10 sec of flight from the origin toward (I. 3. which is Ivl FIGURE 12. which is the length of the vector r(IO). From Equation (4).38 The distance from S to the line through P parallel to v is IPS I sin 8. 200v3. Then the unit vector u = _I_i + _I_j + _I_k v3 v3 v3 gives the flight direction of the helicopter.I)i + (I . 1. 200v3) in space. When I = 10 sec.3)j + (5 . I. r(lO) = 200v3 (i + j + k) = (200v3. The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space s tor v. the helicopter is located at the point (200v3. we find the absolute value of the scalar component of To f'md the distance from a point S to a line that passes thmugJI a point P parallel to a vecPS in the direction of a vector normal to the line (Figure 12.5) to the line L: x = 1 + I. EXAMPLE 5 Find the distance from the point S(I. 0) parallel to v=i-j+2k. It has traveled a distance of (60 ft/secHIO sec) = _ 600 ft. I) at a speed of 60 ft/sec.38). 200v3). y = 3 .

This "tilf' is defmcd by specifying a vector that is perpendicular or normal to the plane.zo)kj 0 or A(x .Axo + l1. Simplifying.(-3)) + 2(y 15 0) + (-I)(z = . This equation is equivalent to (AI + BJ + Ck)'[(x - xo)1 + (y .. ..Xo) + B(y .P . Solution Find an equation for the plane through P o(..zo) Ax + By + Cz = D. zo) and is normal to the vector a = AI + Bj + CIL Then M is the set of all p(x.Yo + Czo EXAMPLE 6 n=5i+2j-k. The vector a = AI + BJ + Ck is normal to the plane Ax + By + Cz = D. 0.39). where D .k.Yo. the dot product n' PoP = o.z + 7 5x 0 + 2y - z = -22.M I FIGURE 12. • 1 - An Equation for a Plane in Space .Yo)J + (z . A plane in space is determined by knowUlg a point on the plane and its "tilf' or orientation.12. vector normal to the plane: A point Plies in the plane tbrough Po normal to a if and only ifa' P-.5 Lines and Planes in Space 6g1 omd I PS X v = 0 1 Equation (5) gives J -2 -1 k 5 = i 2 + 5j + 2)[. y. became the coefficients of x.Xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - Zo) o.)'O.Yo) + C(z .39 The standard equation for a plane in space is defined in terms of. Equation for a Plane The plane throughPo(XO.o. 7) perpendicular to The component equation is 5(x .. we obtain 5x + + 2y .z = -22. and z in the equation 5x + 2y . y.. d IPS X vi Ivl v'1 + 25 + 4 v'1 + 1 + 4 v':iO v'6 Vs . z) for which PoP is orthogonal to a (Figure 12. Thus. zo) normsl to n = Ai Vector eqnation: Componeat equation: Component equation IimpIified: + Bj + Ckhas 0 n'PoP = 0 A(x . • Notice in Example 6 how the components of a = 51 + 2J .3. Suppose that plane M passes through a point Po(xo.7) O.

2z = 15 and 2x + y . We substitute the components of this vector and the coordinates of A(O. EXAMPLE 9 Find parametric equations for the line m which the planes 3x . we can take any point common to the two planes. 0).2z = 15 and 2x + y . SoLution We fmd a vector parallel to the line and a point on the line and use Equations (3). and qo. ° FIGURE 12. 0). Two planes that are not parallel intersect in a line.0) + 2(y .1) = 3x + 2y + 6z = 6. 0. we may be interested in knowing what portion of the line segment is hidden from our view by the plate.692 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space EXAMPLE 7 Find an equation for the plane throughA(O. In our case. y = -1 + 2t. This application is used in computer graphics (Exercise 74). z = 1St. Or we could have let x = and solved for y and z. SoLution The line of intersection of two planes is perpendicular to both planes' normal vectors 01 and 02 (Figure 12.2z = 5. 01 X 02 = 3 2 Any nonzero scalar multiple of 01 X j -6 1 02 k -2 = 14i -2 + 2j + 15k. 3. ° - Lines of Intersection Just as lines are parallel if and only if they have the same direction. 1) into the component form of the equation to obtain 3(x . To find a point on the line. 01 X 02 is a vector parallel to the planes' line of intersection. SoLution We find a vector normal to the plane and use it with one of the points (it does not matter which) to write an equation for the plane.0) + 6(z . For example. .0). two planes are parallel if and only if their normals are parallel. The cross product ---" AB X AC = ° 2 ° 3 j k -1 = 3i + 2j + 6k -1 is normal to the plane. Turning this around. Substituting z = in the plane equations and solving for x andy simultaneously identifies one of these points as (3. 0. will do as well.6y . B(2.40) and therefore parallel to 01 X 02.40 How the line of intersection of two planes is related to the planes' normal vectors (Example 8). Example 8 identifies v = 14i + 2j + 15k as a vector parallel to the line. -1. The choice z = is arbitrary and we could have chosen z = 1 or z = -1 just as well. ° ° Sometimes we want to know where a line and a plane intersect. or 01 = k02 for some scalar k. The different choices would simply give _ different parametrizations of the same line.1). The line is x = 3 + 14t. if we are looking at a flat plate and a line segment passes through it. EXAMPLE 8 Find a vector parallel to the line of intersection of the planes 3x . 0.6y .2z = 5 intersect.

41 The distance from Sio the plane is the length of the vector projection of liS onto n (Example II). Solution We find a point P in the plane and calculate the length of the vector projection of PS onto a vector n norma! to the plane (Figure 12. Solution The point y = -21. 1) / / 0)1/ / Distance from S to the plane y / / / / x '(2. z = 1 +1 + 21. EXAMPLE 11 Find the distance fromS(I.1) = (f. -21. . That is.0. 1. The coefficients in the equation 3x+2y+6z=6give n=3i+2j+6k.0) FIGURE 12. (0. • The Distance from a Point to a Plane If P is a point on a plane with normal n.O). 3) to the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.0. The point of intersection is (x.12./ 0=31+2j+61< ____ _ S(I.y.41). z 3x + 2y + 6:z: = 6 I .1 . the distance fromS to the plane is d = Ips· 1:11 (6) where n = Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the plane.2.5 Lines and Planes in Space 693 EXAMPLE 10 Find the point where the line 8 x=3+ 21. intersects the plane 3x + 2y + 6z = 6.2. 1 + I) lies in the plane if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the plane. if + 21) + 2(-21) + 6(1 + I) = 6 8+61-41+6+61=6 81 = -8 1 = -1. then the distance from any point S to the plane is the length of the vector projection of pS onto n. that is.z)lt=-1 = 2.

The line through (2.20.5) perpendicular to the plane Find parametrizations for the line segments joining the points in Exercises 13. 0). I.1. 0). (0. (0. 5. I) 3.2j + (1 . 2.0) 14.1) . Solution The vectors 01 = 15 and = 3i . The line through P( -2. . Find the angle between the planes 3x . () = = COS-I cos. .5z = 21 (2. 0. The x-axis 12. The line through the origin parallel to the vector 2j + + k 6. 2).1) 5. 1. The angle between them is FIGURE 12.42).0). (0.2k are normals to the planes.1) parallel to the vector i +j +k 2.I. 9. -7.0. 0). If we take P to be the y-intercept (0. 2.0) perpendicular to the plane x + 2y + 2z = 13 10.1) and Q( -I. 1. y = 2 . 13. The z-axis 1.I (2 1) 4 About 79 deg 1.0. .694 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The points on the plane easiest to find from the plane's equation are the intercepts. 19.3.O)k + 3k.5 Lines and Line Segments Find parametric equations for the lines in Exercises 1. The line through (1. then n = = (1 . • Exercises 12. 0.0) (1. 2. 0).0.1). 16. 1. (1.3) and Q(3. (0.0) (0. The line through (0. 0). 101 =V(3)2 + (2? + (6)2 =v'49 =7.2z EXAMPLE 12 2x + y .12. -2) 4.2z = 5. (2. The line through the point P(3. The line through P(I. 0) perpendicular to the vectors u = i 2j + 3k and v = 3i + 4j + 5k 11. 0. (1. (0.0) (0.6y . The line through 3x + 7y . 1) parallel to the z-axis 8.2k.2. 0.6j . The line through the point (3. 15. z = 31 7. 02 = 2i +j . Draw coordinate axes and sketch each segment. I. (1.3/2) (1. 1. 18. 1) parallel to the line x = I + 2/.42 The angle between two planes is obtained from the angle between their normals.3)j + (3 . (1.0.-1. The distance from S to the plane is d=ln·I:11 1 length ofprojn 1_ 1 i + lil 7 7 7 (i . indicating the direction of increasing 1 for your parametrization.4.0) 17. 0. . 0) and Q(1. (1.2j + 3k)' = (t + t i j + k) * Ps 1 11 . 7 • Angles Between Planes The angle between two intersecting planes is defined to be the acute angle between their normal vectors (Figure 12. 3. The line through P(1. 1) (3.O)i i . -4. 3. 20.38 radians. -2.1).

and (0.z= -3 +48. Find the distance from the plane x x + 2y + 6z = 10. z = -31 parallel to the plane 2x + y . 0. = -00 < t< 00 57.I.8) 25. y = = L2: x 1 . = -2 .-1.y + 2z = 7. I). x . and then fmd the plane determined by these lines. either they are parallel. 38. y = I z = -(1/2) . z = (thexy-plane) x + 2y + z = 2 ° 52. -I). Find a plane throughPo(2. The plane through (I. y=I+5t. 1 + ls.(3/2)k. 2x-2y-z=5 SO. 43. (2. 2x+y-2z=2 00 z 2 .3z = 7 Find parametrizations for the lines in which the planes in Exercises 57-{. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. fmd the point in which the line meets the plane. y = • + 3. 40.I. I. 46. The plane through (2. -2. 4. 2 Z Z = 1 . Y = 3 + 21. I) perpendicular to the vector from the origin to A 27.z = 3. Z = 21 z = -3 .3). 61.2j + k. In Exercises 29 and 30. -00 L2:x=2-s. Describe the reasooing behind your answer. y = 2+ -2 + 2r. (I. (2. In each exercise.2x+2y+2z=3. -oo<s<oo L3: x = 5 + 2r. -I) and perpendicular to the line of inletsection of the planes 2x + y . or they are skew (imagine. x=4-1.y= I + 2s. + 6t.4s. or are skew. z = 5t. I) and petpendicular to the plane 4x . (2. I. < 00 < r < 00 < 1 < 00 < r< 00 = 8 + 3r. Y + t. 39. (-1.12.I) normal to n = 3i .k 22. -2.j + 3k. -4. 2). z = 31 meets the coordinste planes. Use Equations (3) to generate a pararoe1rizatioo of the line through P(2. -2. y = -3. -2. + 6. I) 24. -I). z = 1 + I. x + y . (0. Then generate another pararoe1rizatioo of the line using the point P2( -2. 3x+ 2y+ 6z =6 26. x -2y + 3z=-1 3x+y+z=7 23.5 Lines and Planes in Space 695 Planes Find equations for the planes in Exercises 21-26. find the point of intersectino. 2x + 2y . I) and the vector V2 = -i + (I/2)j .x=I-I. Find equations for the line in the plane z = 3 thst mskes an angle of'IT/6rad with i and an aogle of'IT/3 rad withj.0).12). (0. 29. Find the point of intersectino of the lines x = I. z=21 z=-5+31 z = 4t 37. 53.x=I+21. Is the line x = I . The plane through A(I.4z = -12 55. Z = z = 2 .1.\12k.3x-6y-2z=3.3) parallel to the plane Angles Find the aogles between the planes in Exercises 47 and 48. -3. 34. and x = • + 2. . and x = 2s + 2. 2x . L3: x = 3 + 2r. 35. determine whether the lines. 21. 5) perpendicular to the line D Use a calculator to fmd the acute angles between the planes in Exercises 49-52 to the nearest hundredth of a radian. 5x-2y= 11. LI: x = I + 21. y=31. 45. z=31. LI: x = 3 + 21.-1). z=I+I. 4y = -12.2y + 4z = 2. 5. x + Y + z = I. 67. P2(3.2s.t. Y = 3 .Z = 3. 41. y = 31 + 2. -1. and then fmd the plane detennined by these lines.5t z = 3 x = 5 x = 2 + 31. x + Y = I. the flight paths of two planes in the sky).2t. x+y+z=2 56. 36. (0.3). x = -1 + 31. 4. 62. 5) normal to nl = i . 2x + y . y = -I . -00 <s< < 1 < 00 < s< 59. y = -I . 2x-y+3z=6 6x + 3y . 5x + y-z = 10. Y = 2 + 5t. LI: x = I. 2. Y = -21.4). lines. Y = -I + 2. (2. -00 -00 -00 < 1< 00 Distances In Exercises 33-38.2j . y = -2.I. . The plane through (I. x = 5 + t.0. x + 2y + Z = 2. Then generate another equatioo for the same plane using the point P2(3.6. Given two lines in space. find the distance from the point to the line. I. y = -I + 41. Z = 5. + I. + 2y + 6z = I to the plane 66.2z = 2 48. 64. y + 21. 28.. 54. z = -1 + s. y = 1 + 31. Y = 4 + S.0. z = 31.I. y=3+2t. 7). x = 10 y= I +2t. Describe the reasoning behind your answer. z = -48 . 4y-5z= -17 L2: x = 1 + s. Theory and Examples 63. 2. x = 4t. Z <. tsken two at a time. T.I.0. 32.z = 8? Give reasons for your answer. 3). z = -2 . z = 4t 51.2. (1.4).(3.31.7) parallel to VI = 2i . In Exercises 39-44. y=3s. x = 2. Use the coroponent form to generate an equation for the plane through P I (4. z = 4t + 3. -00 00 31. The plane through Po(2. Find the point of intersection of the lines x = 21 + I. I. + 41.0. L2:x= I + 4. -00 30. fmd the plane detennined by the intersecting Intersecting Lines and Planes In Exercises 53-56. Fiod the distance from the line x = 2 + I. y = 1 T. Find a plane through the points PI(I. 0) and the normal vector. 47. find the distance from the point to the plane. z=l+s. If they intersect. 49.2z = 5 60. and (-1. for example. (2.4. + 2y + 2z = 13 3x + 2y + 6z = 6 4y + 3z = -12 2x + y + 2z = 4 2x + y + 2z = 4 -4x + y + z = 4 x Yzi 65. are parallel. (0.3). 2. 1. x + Y = 2 58. (0. x +y +Z + 3z = I. y = 5 = I + 4t.(I/2)ttotheplanex + 2y + 6z = 10. 5).0 intersect. -00 x=21. intersect.0). 42. Ll:x = = -1 + t. or they inletseet.21. The plane through Po( 0.0). 44. Exercises 61 and 62 each give three lines. 33.2 = + 2 Vzj . -1. y = 2s + 4.

and z. Quadric surfaces are surfaces defmed by second-degree equations in x.t. How can you tell when two planes Alx + Bly + Clz = DI and A.44).) 12. we have studied two special types of surfaces: spheres and planes. z). 0) lies on the parabola y = x' in the xy-piane.0.43). . any point Q(xo. x02. z) lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = xo. Y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis (Figure 12. 70.. 0. we call the cylinder ''the cylinder y = x 2 .y + C'z = D. The point PI will be portrayed as the point p(0. Suppose LI and L. 2).z) whose y-coordinate is the square of its x-coordinate lies on the cylinder because it lies on the line x = Xo. 69. L ° z P(O. What portioo of the line segmeot is hiddeo from your view by the plate? (This is an exercise in f'mding intersections of lines and planes. The curve is called a generating curve for the cylinder (Figure 12.xo2.y. Perspective in computer graphics In computer graphics and perspective drawing. Regardless of the value of z. In solid geometry. How do you know that your plane is perpeodicular to M? 71.6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces Up to now. The line segment from (1. 1). 0) as sbown bere and that we want to represent a point PI(XI. but now we allow generating curves of any kind. we extend our inventory to include a variety of cylinders and quadric surfaces.y = xo' through Po parallel to the z-axis. Then.? Give reasons for your answer." • lines through generating curve parallel to x-axis FIGURE 12. In this section. the points on the surface are the points whose coordinates satisfY the equation y = x 2 • This makes y = x 2 an equation for the cylinder. and ( -2. 0) to (0.YI. Which planes have an equation of this form? 72.x + B. Write equations for each plane in the form Ax + By + Cz = D.696 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space b. are parallel? Perpeodicular? Give reasons for your answer. Find two differeot planes whose intersectioo is the line x = 1 + t. Hidden lines in computer graphics Here is another typical problem in computer graphics. but there are others of equal interest which will be needed in Chapters 14-16. z) : y x Write a vector equation that holds between BP and BPI' Use the equation to expressy andz in terms OfXO.. Cylinders z Generating curve (in lbe yz-plane) A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a straight line along a given planar curve while holding the line parallel to a given fixed line.. What do you find? 68. You are looking at a triangular plate whose vertices are at (1. Is it possible for a nonzero vector to be perpeodicu1ar to both LI and L. The problem for us as graphics designers is to f'mdy andz givenE andP I . and c. We do this by projecling PI onto the plane with a ray from E..43 A cylinder and generatiog curve. y. 0. we need to represent oi!jects seen by the eye in space as images on a two-dimensional plane. h. The cylinder in our first example is generated by a parabola EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation for the cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the parabola y = x 2 . Find a plane through the origin that is perpendicular to the plane M: 2x + 3y + z = 12 in a right angle. The graph of (x/a) + (y/b) + (z/c) = 1 is a plane for any nonzero numbers a. for Solution any value of z. Your eye is at (4. 2) passes through the plate. 1. y. 00. are disjoint (noointersecting) nooparallellines.YI.y = 2 . Zl) as a point on the yz-plane.Xl. xo2. 0). therefore. Test the formulas obtained for y and z in part (a) by investigatiog their behavior at XI = and XI = Xo and by seeing what happeos as xo . the generating curves are circles. where cylinder means circular cylinder.0). Because of this. the point Q(xo. Suppose that the eye is at E(xo. 73. The point Po(xo. Z = 0 (Figure 12. 2. Z = 3 + 2t. andzi.. Spheres are quadric surfaces. 74.44). Conversely. (I. 0. 2.

As Example 1 suggests.. .. FIGURE 12... For instance. For example... We fucus on the special equation . .. D. The bosic quadric smfaces are ellipsoids.y) = c in the xy-p1ane defines a cylinder paraIle! to the z-axis whose equation is also f(x. I . B. ± b. Iy I :S h.. C.y) = c. . and E are oonstmJ. r .. Spheres are special cases of ellipsoids.. .. 1 _ .:'. and (0. EXAMPLE 2 The ellipsoid (Figure 12.. Elliptical cross-section in the pIane z .rface is the graph in space of a second-degree equation in x.6 Cylinder. .45) cuts the coonlinatc axes at (± a. y ''f FIGURE 12. 0). We call it "the cylinder y _ xl. z) = c in the xz-plane defines a cylinder parallel to they-axis wh08C space equation is also g(x. xOl.' . S1DD- mmy table of graphs of the basic types." where A.E. . In a similar way. and Quadric Surfaces 6g7 .. paraboloids.z) = c. any curve g(x. . " >t-:... 0.. and z. : f . / c /' .. the equation x 2 + y2 = 1 def'mcs the circular cylinder made by the lines parallel to the z-axis that pass through the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 in the xy-plane.. 0)... and Iz I :s c..44 Everypointofthe cylinder in Example 1 has coordinates of the form (ZO. y.12. and then give II.ts.. when z = o.z) = c def'mes a cylinder parallel to the x-axis whose space equation is also hey.(xl +Byl + Cz1 + Dz . Quadric Surfaces A quadric I. any curve f(x. z) = c. The axis of a cylinder need not be parallel to a coordinate axis. It lics within the rectangular box defmcd by the inequalities Ix I :S a. z)...45 The ellipsoid in Example 2 has elliptical Cf'OfIS-sections in each of the three coordinate planes. and hyperboloid....--.. ± c). The curves in which the three coordinate planes cut the surface are ellipses. elliptical cones.1"". We present a few examples illustrating how to sketch a quadric surface. O..lo . The surface is symmetric with respect to each of the coordinate planes because each variable in the defmmg equation is squared.. (0. I I -- \ . Any curve h(y. r1 " .

the surface is a sphere. If all three are equal. To a person traveling the xz-plane the origin looks like a maximum. the surface is an ellipsoid of revolu_ tion.7. If any two of the semiaxes a.y2 = 1 b FIGURE 12. --- y2 b2 x2 Zo C' a2 with its focal axis parallel to the y-axis and its vertices on the parabola in Equation (1).. Such a point is called a saddle point of a surface. _ Table 12.(zoic) ) = 1. y / 22 The parabola z = - /' Part of the hyperbola \ in the xz·plane a x2 / ' in the plane z = -c a . is the ellipse y2 2 2 x2 ----::-----=----:2. and c are equal.2 a (1 . If Zo is negative. Near the origin. We will say more about saddle points in Section 14. To a person traveling along the surface in the yz-plane the origin looks like a minimum. The crosssections in these planes are x = 0: the parabola z = c2 y2 . c > o. b the parabola z = .46 The hyperbolic paraboloid (y2/b 2) .c2 x 2 • a (1) y = 0: (2) In the plane x = 0.. the parabola opens upward from the origin. The parabola in the plane y = 0 opens downward. the surface is shaped like a saddle or mountain pass.698 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space The curve cut from the surface by the plane z = zo.X 2 = 1 b a 2 2 z / "\-----.46).(zoic) ) + b (1 .1 shows graphs of the six basic types of quadric surfaces. Part of the hyperbola y 2 . b. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the z-axis above and below the xy-plane are hyperbolas.(x 2/a 2) = z/c. EXAMPLE 3 The hyperbolic paraboloid --- y2 b x2 a2 2 c' c> 0 has symmetry with respect to the planes x = 0 and y = 0 (Figure 12. If we cut the surface by a plane z = Zo > 0. Each surface shown is symmetric with respect to the z-axis. The cross-sections in planes perpendicular to the other axes are parabolas. the focal axis is parallel to the x-axis and the vertices lie on the parabola in Equation (2). IZo I < c. the cross-section is a hyperbola. but other coordinate axes can serve as well (with appropriate changes to the equation). .

. ... .6 Cylinder. . Tho PEIobolu _ .. ill Ibo "."pImo " . and Quadric Surfaces 699 TABLE 12. . 'Ibe p. +.'.."'1110 1f'1Ilmo ____ . ._1 . .12. . 'Ibe e1Hpee - . -T'---- . ..1 Graphs of Quadric Surfaces . • ELLIPSOID ELLIPTICAL PARABOLOID • )f--r-" .>0 .cV'i f ./ ELLIPTICAL CONE HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET .nbolu _ ..... HYPERBOLOID OF 1WO SHEETS HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID % C' . .

y 2 _ 1 10. (y'/4) .y:1+ z 2_ x 2=1 30. y2-:x:1 _ z ASSORTED 33.4. the ellipsoid . .x _ _ 2_ 2 z y 8. 25. f• .1. .c? . 4x:1 20.. L .z :1=1 29. x:1 +y:1 + 4z2 = 10 3.x:1+ y 2. X:1+ y 2=z:1 :n. z= 1 +y2_X:1 35. Drawtng + 4y:1 + 2z2 = 36 Sketch the surfaces in Exercises 13-44.700 Chapter 12: Vector. Also.z:1+4y 2_4x:1=4 4.t2 ELUPSOIDS 17. 16y2 + 9z:1 _ 4x 2 42.. z = _4. J. Y _ _ (x:1 + z2) 37. 40.b . Now find the volume of the ellipsoid -+-+. x:1 + 4z:1 = y2 L 2.y:1_ x 2_ z 2=1 44. z = _(X2 + y2) 43. (The area of an ellipse . x 2 +y2_z2 _ 4 39. 9. d. L Express the area.) The swfaces arc labeled (a)-{I).y=I-:x 2 -z2 26.6 Matchtng Equations with Surfaces In Exercises 1-12. . X=z2_ y :1 11. 9y2 +z:1 = 16 5. 9 4 by the plane z . X2 +y2=4 15. of the cross-section cut from. 4x 2 + 9y2 + _ 36 + 4y:1 + z:1 = 16 + 4y2 + 36z2 _ 36 PARABOLOIDS AND CONES . x 2 +z2 _ 1 41. c. and the Geometry of Space Exercises 12. 9x:1 . 9.. x _ y 2_ z 2 7.'/4) - HYPERBOLOIDS 27. z2_ X:1_ y 2= 1 y z' 1 HYPERBOUC PARABOLOIDS •• . L h• . identify each surface by type (paraboloid. . 21. 14.(.z 2 +x:1. ellipsoid. 4x 2 + y2 _ 36 18. y 31. match the equation with the surface it defines. Use slices perpendicular to the z-axis to fmd the volume of the ellipsoid in part (a). z=x:1+4y:1 23.t2 + y2 + z2 = 9 19.. 4x:1 + = 9y2 28.4y 2+ z 2_4x:1=4 34. 1.x 2 +y:1=z Theory and Examples 45. .x2 +2z 2 _ S 9. a:1 b2 c2 y x2 y2 z:1 Does your formula give the volume of a sphere of radius a if a . with semiaxesa andbis7rab. b. etc.y:1+ z 2=X 2 6. 1&2 + 4y2 _ 1 y .z=y2-1 16.c as a function of c.z=S-:x2 -y:1 24.1: 2 _ y2 12. 4x:1 + 4y:1 = z2 36.) b. k. CYUNDERS 13.

How are vectors added and subtracted geometrically? Algebraically? 3. How do you find a vector's magnitude and direction? 4. Show that the volume ofthe segment cut from the paraboloid x2 y2 z -2+ . suppose the sides of the barrel are straightened to turn the barrel into a cylinder of radius R and height 2h. What is the determinant formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors relative to the Cartesian i. how is the result related to the original vector? What if the scalar is zero? Negative? 5. -2 2 1 2. How do you find the distance from a point to a line in space? From a point to a plane? Give examples. 16. 53. cones. The barrel shown here is shaped like an ellipsoid with equal pieces cut from the ends by planes perpendicular to the z-axis. The crosssections perpendicular to the z-axis are circular.Chapter 12 46. 49. z D Plot the surfaces in Exercises 49-52 over the indicated domains. y -2 -2 -3 3 3 2 3 + y2. 17. Define the cross product (vector product) of two vectors. What are box products? What significance do they have? How are they evaluated? Give an example. its midsection radius is R. Can you express a line in space by a single equation? A plane? 12.= a b2 c 3. k-coordinate system? Use it in an example. where Am is the area of the region cut by the hyperboloid from the plane z = h/2. Express your answer in part (a) in terms of h and the areas Ao and Ah of the regions cut by the hyperboloid from the planes z = 0 andz = h. 5x 2 z2 . and planes in space? Give examples. 48. and hyperboloids (equations and sketches). by the plane z = h equals half the segment's base times its altitude. z2 16 = 1- 9 +z z2 = 0 and the planes z = 0 and z = h. j. -3 h. How do you find equations for lines. -3 + 2y2 over x x x a. suppose r = 0 and h = R so the barrel is a sphere. x x -0. What is a cylinder? Give examples of equations that define cylinders in Cartesian coordinates.9 y2 x2 z2 = 1x2 y2 16 55. y - V4 - Chapter Questions to Guide Your Review 10. 1. and which are not? Give examples. 9 - x2 1 = 16 + 2 y2 58.5 2. Show that the volume in part (a) is also given by the formula V= h "6 (Ao + 4Am + Ah ). Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperboloid x2 y2 z2 -2+ -2 . Identify the type of quadric surface from your graph. First. . Does your formula give the cylinder's volume? Second. 9 + 36 = x2 y2 z2 = 1 . When is the cross product of two vectors equal to zero? 9.25 54. If a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar. How do you find equations for spheres in space? Give examples. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by dot products? Give examples. The barrel is 2h units high. Then check two things.= 1 a b c2 COMPUTER EXPLORATIONS Use a CAS to plot the surfaces in Exercises 53-58. line segments. What geometric interpretation does the dot product have? Give examples. c. 13. 51. -1 47. 57. Define the dot product (scalar product) of two vectors. a. and its end radii are both r. Which algebraic laws are satisfied by cross products. h > o. y y y y 2 y y 50.3y2 56. 7. you can. When is the dot product of two vectors equal to zero? 6. paraboloids. Does your formula give the sphere's volume? Questions to Guide Your Review 701 h. 3. 1. 8. What geometric or physical interpretations do cross products have? Give examples. z = x 2 Viewing Surfaces If -2 x 2. Find a formula for the barrel's volume. When do directed line segments in the plane represent the same vector? 2. z = x 2 52. 11. What are quadric surfaces? Give examples of different kinds of ellipsoids. What is the vector projection of a vector u onto a vector v? Give an example of a useful application of a vector projection. 9 . -2 d.y2. How do you find the intersection of two lines in space? A line and a plane? Two planes? Give examples. -3 -2 -2 -1 c. z = y2. 2. z = 1 . 14. 15. rotate the surface into different viewing positions.

fmd lvi. v=2i+j-k u=i+j-5k 20. R(O. Find the acute angle betweeo the planes x + y = I and y+z= 1. 2i . v = i + j + 2k u=-i-k 39. Find the points in which the line x = I + 21. (6.k 15. 33.3j + 3y +Z = 2 35.21.5k and v = -4i . fmd an equatioo for the plane througb points + 6k 14. Q(O. !flvl = 2. v = i + j u=2i+j-2k In Exercises 19 and 20. Find (a) the componeot form of the vector aod (b) its magnitude. Lines. -2.Y . 41. -I). 44. . lui. z = 3t meets the three coordinate planes. . (2. Q(2. Find a vector 2 units long in the direction ofv = 4i . 38. Find the acute angle between the planes x = 7 and x + y = -3. Z = 31.0).u+v 4. In Exercises 21 and 22. w=i+j+k In Exercises 5-8.3). 9. Z = -1 Z +t = I 30. 28. R( -1.4. 34.5y + 2z = 6.fmd Iv .j 8. i + 2j . 16. w=-i-2j+3k 26. I). P(i. 13.2). y = -I .6. Suppose that n is DOnnai to a plane and that v is parallel to the plane. let u = (-3. 31.y + 2z = -8 intersect. (3. 1.4) and v = (2. fmd the distance from the point to the plane. Iwl = 3. v.0. 36.andthe angie between v andw is 1f/3.0. 37. 32. v=2i+j+k.j + 4k. v2i + v2j 10.etsint)i + (etsint + etcost)j wheol = In 2. 19. I) 18. The unit vector that makes an angle of 1f/6 radian with the positivex-axis 7.y = 4 2x Vedor Calculations in Three Dimensions Express the veetors in Exercises 13 and 14 in terms of their leogtha and directions. Velocity vector v = (etcost . Vedor Calculations in Two Dimensions In Exercises 1-4. 40. Find the point in which the line througb the origin perpendicular to the plane 2x . 5. -6). -5). 2. Velocityveetorv = (-2sinl)i + (2cosI)jwheol = 1f/2. 0. Find a vector 5 units loog in the direction opposite to the directioo ofv = (3/5) i + (4/5)k. Parametrize the line that passes througb the point (I. P(i. 1.8j + ak be parallel? x+2y-2z=5 and 5x-2y-z=0 intersect is parallel to the line x = -3 + 21. -2u 2.3i + 7k. Find a veetor in the plane parallel to the line ax + by = c. In Esercises 33 and 34. The veetor obtained by rotating (0. 10). P.2wl· 24.Q.u=i+j. the angle between v and u. 43. 0. 0). and Distances 27. -1. Find pararne1ric equations for the line in which the planes x + 2y + Z = I and x . The vector 2 units loog in the directioo 4i .0). 5v 2S. 1.2. u=i-j. fmd the distance from the point to the line. (0. u=i. 3) parallel to the vector v = .1) Iv X u I. u.y = 6 . fmd proj.Z = 4 meets the plane 3x . v.3u-4v 3. 29. v=j.andR. and the vector projection ofo onto v.2. In Exercises 37 and 38. Show that the line in which the planes v=i+j 22.3. Describe how you would fmd a veetor n that is both perpendicular to v and parallel to the plane. z = I + 41. 2. For what value or values of a will the vectors u = 2i + 4j . 21. fmd the component form of the vector.u=i+j-k. y = 31.I. and u X v as vectors at the origin. Planes. V'u. x . In Exercises 29 and 30. u X v. v=i+j 23. Find an equation for the plane that passes through the point (3. u=i-2j v2z + v=i+j+k 42. The veetor 5 units loog in the directioo opposite to the directioo of(3/5)i + (4/5)j Express the vectors in Exercises 9-12 in terms of their lengtha aod directioos. I) througb an angle of21f/3 radians 6. 12.j 11. and w. Parametrize the line segment joining the points P(I. 17. y = 2 + I. fmd (a) the area of the parallelogram determined by vectors u and v and (b) the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors u. x = 2 + I. U'v. 1) normal to the veetor n = 2i + j + k.. Y = t.0) perpendicular to the line x = -I + I. Find an equatioo for the plane that passes through the point (-1.702 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Practice Exercises In Exercises 25 and 26. 0) and Q(I. In Esercises 17 and 18. -i . x = -t. the scalar compooent of u in the direction afv. draw coordinate axes and then sketch u. v X u.

-I) andD(4. 63.I = and x -y + 2z+ 7 = O. x 2 + (y . 50. x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 C( -2. 3).-l. Find the point in which the line through the origin perpendicular totheplane2x . 2. 3.0).y + 2z = -2 meets the plane.2y + z + 3 = 0 and 2x .t? 49. 4yl+zZ-ob:l =4 76.4x 2 +4y 2+ Z l=4 69.z = 0 and x + Y + 2z = 0 make with the positive L the coordinates of D. -1). e. -I). y .2i . the cosine of the interior angle atB. 2) and B(2.I. an equatioo for the plane of the parallelogram.0. Find a vector parallel to the plane 2x . (2i . -13/'.3J + 3k)' b. Find D).z = -4 in a point P.2y+ z + 3 + k(2x . Find the distance from the point (2. 53.6y + 10z . Thm project AC onto D.z = 4mcctsthep1mc3x . y B(l. X2 +y2_z2=4 75. I) that lies parallel to the line through Identify and sketch the surfaces in Exercises 65-76. 0).2. 71. 0. The distance is ttl be meuured along the line perpendicular In the two lines. The puallelogram !hawn here has vertices at A(2.4(1.) Find the distance between the line through A(4.z . Is v = 2i . Shaw that for every real number k the plane x .4 and orthogonaltot+J+k. Find an equation for the plane through A(-2.4j + k related in any !pCcial way to the plane 2x + Y = 5? Give reasons for your answer. (2i .atcs of P and find equations for the line in the plane through P perpendicular ttl L. The planes 3x L Practice Exercises I)J + zk) . z2 _x 2 _ y2 = I . 0) to the plane through A(O.4) .91 Give reasoos for your 61. (x + 2) + l1(y 046.3j + 3k) X «x + 2)i + (y . onto iiC. -3) and B(I. (Continuatio1l o/Exerci.y .j + 3k) X (-3i + k)·«x + 2)i + (y . z=t c. Xl+zZ=yl 74. andR(-2.-1) and B(-I. 65. I) normal ttl the plane 2x . 0. on the three coord. 51. yl_x2_zl= 1 66. b.i. 4. B(I.3-t. Q(3. the area of the parallelogram. 64.i .na. d. 2. I. 2).z + I) = 0 contains the line of intmscction of the planes x . 1) and the line through C(t. -2). the vector projection of BA.y .z + I = O. x . 3) o 54.4). 3)paraIleltou . x=3+2t.O) and the line L2 through the points C(3. C(I. o.tJ. Quadric SumCt!!s 59. 4).0 703 + 6z = I and 2x + 2y . -1. z = _(x 2 + y2) 71. «x + 2)1 + (y .5y +22' = 6. -2.y. 2. I. 0. Find the point in which the line through p(3. through the points . z = -5t related in any way to the plane -4x . Find the coonIin. y = -2 + 31. 2.I)j + zk) 6l. -I).3z Shaw that the planes are orthogonal. 0. andD.O.j + 2k.i+ 2j + k.Chapter 12 45. The line L: e. Distmte betweea lineI Find the distance bctwccn the line L. FltBt fmd • vector D perpendicular to both lines.P = 0 represents through Po normal to D. A(2. 26/') ""'D(16/'. z . I.2i + 3j + kandv . -1) 55.O. 60. 51. Find a vector of magnitude 2 parallel to the line of intcncction of theplane8x + 2y +z . d. 48.1) .2.B . Find the distance from the point P(I. C(l. 4. What set docs the inequality D' PoP> 0 tcpICscn.y . ""'D(2. Is the line x = 1 + 2t. -13/'. 47.1)2 + z2 = I 68. B(2.2-3t b.-Ilt. The equation. the areas of the orthogonal projections of the panillelogram in1eDcctll the plane x + 3y . 3fu:l + 91 2 + 4z2 = 36 70.andC . o. 2) 58. Find a unit vector orthogonal to A in the plane of B and C if A . Find equatiOlli for the line of intersection. O)? 67. f. What angle doc! the line of intcncction of the planca 2x + Y .' P-. Y = _(Xl + zZ) """"'. X2 +y2=z2 73. 56. L (21 . "'" C(2.z = 3 intcncct in a Iinc.j + k.I)j + zk) = 0 e.2k. 0). Which of the following are equations for the plane through the points P(I.!e 63. x-axis? 57. y=2t. 5.i + j . 3) to the plane 2x + 3y + 5z . -1. planes. Find an equation for the plane that pasSCll through the point (1.

k." If you are installing the plug with a lO.0).5-in. H2 stops its flight at (446. Y = -3 + lOt. 3. Time t is measured in hours and all coordinates are measured in miles. Torque The operator's manual for the Toro® 21 in. lawnmower says "tighten the spark plug to 15 ft-lb (20. How long will it take HI to reach H2? 3. 2) z x --- ----. a. -\ Nor TO SCALE Submarine 2. 1. HI: H2: x = 6 + 40t. -----_ B I (l. Due to system malfunctions. and ship B locates it in the direction of the vector 18i . they separate and follow different straight-line paths given by b. Find the magnitudes and components of vectors F I and F 2. the submarine was located at (2.J!___ I / 1/ v: : I // I / y -------1// Ship A ShipB (4. Submarine hunting Two surface ships on maneuvers are trying to determine a submarine's course and speed to prepare for an aircraft intercept. Rotating body The line through the ongm and the point A( 1. to what position should the surface ships direct the aircraft? z I I / _---I.5. a.6j . where T I and T 2 are force vectors directed along the wires. 0). The aircraft is due in 20 min. 3. 1) and. in a negligible amount of time. As shown here. x = 6 + 11 Ot. z = -3 + 2t z = -3 + t. whereas ship B is located at (0. Find the velocity v of the point of the body that is at the position B(l. Ship A locates the submarine in the direction of the vector 2i + 3j .0. Two hours later. -1/3). 1) is the axis of rotation of a right body rotating with a constant angular speed of3/2 rad/sec. 5. Y = -3 + 4t. socket wrench that places the center of your hand 9 in. Assuming that the submarine moves in a straight line at a constant speed.) 6. 0. Consider the weight suspended by two wires in each diagram.704 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Chapter Additional and Advanced Exercises clockwise when we look toward the origin fromA. The rotation appears to be and 121- T - wcosa sin (a+{3) .4 N· m). 13. (Hint: This triangle is a right triangle. All coordinates are given in thousands of feet. 13. and angles a and {3.0) y 5. about how hard should you pull? Answer in pounds. Find the vectors T I and T 2 and show that their magnitudes are w cos (3 ITII = sin (a + (3) 4. HI and H 2. are traveling together. Four minutes ago.0) x (0. 1. A helicopter rescue Two helicopters. 0). At time t = 0. from the axis of the spark plug. 2). HI is advised of this fact and heads toward H2 at 150 mph. ship A is located at (4. Consider a weight of w N suspended by two wires in the diagram. lands at (446. -1.(I/3)k.

)I2. and z. . 16. a. and E is one·third of the way between C and B. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by any two adjacent faces of the tetrahedron. The projection of a veetor on a plane Let P be a plane in space and let v be a vector.(XhYh z. Triple vector products The triple vector products (u X v) X w and u X (v X w) are usoally not equal. a. P2(X2. Then projp v is the "shadow" ofv onto P. (u'w)v .I. Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y . - Va 2 + b 2 cl • a. Find an equation for the plane parallel to the plane 2x . Show that the lines c. i+j-2k Zj Zi+j-Zk 2i-j+k -i . 9. c. In the fIgure here.2y + z 3.Y3. Yh Zt). and D are coplanar (lie in a common plane) if and only if AD . 2i b.Y + 2z -4 if the point (3.) to the plane Ax + By + Cz Dis Zt Z2 - X X X3 - x Y' . fmd w in tenns ofv and z. 10. b3 -d3 15. and P3(X3. Use vectors to fmd the angle 0 formed by the base of the tetrahedron and any one of its other edges. Showthat XI X2 - 12. If P is the plane x + 2y + 6z 6 and v i + j + k.(XhY') to the line ax+by=cis d lax. W. Assuming Iv I Iwi. Suppose the suo is shining so that its rays are norma1 to the plane P. i-j+k c. 14. and Ax + By + Cz D. 2. and intersect or are parallel if and only if at Cl b1-d1 b2 - a2 a3 C2 C3 d2 = O. and line.(v·w)u. D is the midpoint of side AB oftriang1e ABC. with z orthogonal to the line L.Y 0 and 3x . 8.z 0 pass through the center of the sphere. and v aod w ma1cing equal angles {j with L.z 2x + 3y . For a fIxed a determine the value of (j which minimizes the magnitude IT21· 7. Determinants and planes 11. Write equations for the planes that lie parallel to and 5 units away from the plane x . What set of points in space is described by the equation x Xl X2 b. Z3 - z is an equation for the plane through the three noncollinear points Pt(xt.Y Y2 .Chapter 12 Additional and Advanced Exercises b. The vector projection ofv onto the plane P. can be defmed informally as follows. is d Y Yl Y2 Z Zl Z2 I I ID. D 2 2 B p C 1 b. Z2).k Zk -i+Zj-k i + 2k 2i+4j-2k . B. The accompanying figure shows nonzero vectors v. although the formulas for evaluating them from components are similar: (u X v) X w (u'w)v . Use vectors to show that the distance from P. Use vectors to prove that F is the midpoint of line segment CD.z 12. projp v. + by. This angle is commonly referred to as a dihedral angle. Use vectors to ahow that the distance from P. Consider a regular tetrahedron of side length 2. Z3).fmdprojpv.D21 IAi + Bj + Ckl .Y z Z d VA2+B2+C 2 . a. .Y y. u v w A D B a. C u X (v X w) VerilY each formula for the following vectors by evaluating its two sides and coroparing the results.(u·v)w. 13. Prove that four points A. d. -I) is equidistant from the two planes. Determinant. For a fIxed {j determine the value of a which minimizes the 705 magnitude IT . 17. Show that the distance between the parallel planes Ax + By + Cz D. Find an equation for the sphere that is tangent to the planes x + Y + z 3 and x + Y + z 9 if the planes 2x . 6 and I 07 X3 Y3 Z3 b. C. b. 2i+ j d. (AB X BC) O.

25. u X v . Getting Started in Plotting in 3D Part I: Use the vector def"mition of lines and planes to generste graphs and equations. . then b. 20. Chapter Technology Application Projects Mathematica/Maple Module: Using to Represent Lilies and Find Distances Parts I and II: Learn the advantages of interpretiog lines as vectors. (Hint: Let u . Part ill: Use vectors to f"md the distance from a point to a line.W (a' + b')(c' + d') '" (ac + bd)' v .Iv Iu + Iu Iv bisects the angle between u and v. c. Show that w . v"r for any four nurohers a.ci u·r V'WI.cosAsinB. 23. derive the trigonometric identity sin(A . and to compare different forms for the equations of a single line. Putting a in DiMensions onto Il 'IWo-DiIIIensional Caln'llS Use the concept of planes in space to obtain a two-dimensional image.(uXv).B) . w. and r are any 21.(u'v X i)i + (u'v X j)j + (u'v X k)k c.sinAcosB .s and dot products vectors. and d.(wxr)_lu. Showthat Ivlu + lulvand Ivlu . 0 19. Cro.ai + bj and + dj. show that u .0 if and only ifu . u for every vector u and that U' u . Use vectors to prove that 18. v. Dot multiplication is positive def"utite cation of vectors is positive definite.) Show that dot multipli- 22. Part II: Plot functions that are def"med implicitly. that is.706 Chapter 12: Vectors and the Geometry of Space Show that if u. Cro•• and dot products Prove or disprove the formula u X (u X (u X v))·w . b. By forming the cross product of two appropriate vectors. 24.O. Show that Iu + v I '" Iu I + Iv I for any vectors u and v.lulvare orthogonal.-Iul'u'v X w.

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