Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

Maladaptive Patterns of Behavior Sir Kim Octaviano NCM 102 Final Exam ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER Is one

e of the best-researched disorders in medicine and is characterized by prominent symptoms of inattention and / or hyperactivity impulsivity. Given that any child has a 10% chance of being diagnosed with ADHD, overlap syndromes with other diseases can occur merely by chance. ADHD is a heterogenous behavioral disorder with multiple etiologies. The symptoms have been attributed to neuromaturational delay, catecholamine deficits, altered glucose metabolism in the brain and frontal lobe dysfunction Three Kinds of ADHD Combined ADHD (most common type) involves all of the symptoms Inattentive ADHD ( previously known as ADD ) which is marked by impaired attention and concentration Hyperactive Impulsive ADHD, which is marked by hyperactivity without inattentiveness Symptoms of ADHD There are three, different categories of symptoms for ADHD, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Treatment for ADHD The most common type of treatment for ADHD is called a stimulant. This is at first look unlikely since symptoms of ADHD all point out to over-stiimulation. However, brain stimulants such as Dexedrine have a paradoxical, or reverse effect which actually has a calming effect on children with ADHD. For many children, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work and learn. Medication may also improve physical coordination. AUTISM The onset of this disorder is generally noted before the age of 3 years. Most cases are detected when parents start to wonder why their children havent started to speak or socialize yet, roughly around the time a child starts to speak, at around 2 years of age. Autism is sometimes referred to as early infantile autism, childhood autism or KAnners autism. This disorder is characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest and activities. Stereotypical movements include: repetitive movements, rhythmic movements such as hand rocking or hand flapping, banging the head or other body parts against objects or people, hitting, biting or picking at oneself, grinding teeth, and compulsive nail biting. Specifically, autistic children have an inability to establish a meaningful relationship due to their lack of responsiveness to others. They do not display an interest in or need of cuddling, touching or hugging. They ignore people as if they were inanimate objects or not present in the environment. Children with autism are well-known for going to great lengths to avoid eye contact. Approximately 50% of children with autism have an IQ below 50, but some have exceptional memory, as observed in idiot-savants.

Nursing Considerations Use repetition and keep the tone of your voice pleasant and cheerful. If verbal intervention is ineffective, note that some autistic children may respond to verbal cues. Risk for injury is very high; nurses should always be aware of the possibility of stereotypical injuring behaviors and measures should be done to ensure the safety of the child, such as the wearing of helmets and padding the environment

EATING DISORDERS ANOREXIA NERVOSA The client with anorexia nervosa refuse to maintain a normal body weight, intensely fears weight gain and exhibits a disturbed perception about his or her body. Symptoms of this disorder include: Refusal to maintain minimally normal body weight Intense fear of gaining weight even with preoccupation with thoughts of food Significant distortion in perception of body shape or size Amenorrhea Depressed Mood Social Withdrawal Irritability Insomnia Decreased Interest in Sex Inflexible thinking Strong need to CONTROL ones environment Russels sign (Callus formation on finger) Age of onset is usually late adolescence Eighty-five percent of clients develop anorexia before age 20. Various methods are used to lose weight, methods include purging, or attempts to eliminate the body of excess calories by induced vomiting. Abuse of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, diet pills, or stimulants; excessive exercise or a refusal to eat. BULIMIA NERVOSA Episodic binge, a rapid consumption of a large amount of food in less than 2 hours, is classified as bulimia nervosa. The person is aware that the behavior is abnormal, fears the inability to stop eating voluntarily, is self-critical, and may experience depression after each episode. Certain traits are found among individuals with bulimia, who often view themselves as unlovable, inadequate, and unworthy. The desire to please becomes very powerful as the adolescent strives to be perfect, thin, loved and accepted. Serious Medical consequences may occur because of alternating bingeing and ourging. These situations include: Chronic inflammation of the lining of the esophagus Rupture of the esophagus Dilation of the stomach Rupture of the stomach Electrolyte imbalance or abnormalities Heart problems Chronic enlargement of the parotid glands Dehydration

Dental erosion and gum disease

SEXUAL PARAPAHILIAS Bestiality or Zoophilia: Sexual contact with animals serves as a preferred method to produce sexual excitement. It is rarely seen. Exhibitionism: An adult male obtains sexual gratification from repeatedly exposing his genitals to unsuspecting strangers, usually women and children who are involuntary observers. He has a strong need to demonstrate masculinity and potency. Fetishism: Sexual contact with inanimate articles (fetishes) results in sexual gratification. Most often it is a piece of clothing or footwear. Parts of the body may also take on fetishistic significance. Its occurrence is almost exclusive to men who fear rejection by members of the opposite sex. Frotteurism: Sexual excitement is achieved by touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person. Sexual Masochism: Sexual pleasure occurs while one is experiencing emotional or physical pain. The willing recipient of erotic whipping is considered to be masochistic. Necrophilia: Sexual arousal occurs while the person is using corpses to meet sexual needs. Pedophilia: The use of prepubertal children is needed to achieve sexual gratification. Pedophilia can be an actual sexual act or a fantasy. Sexual Sadism: Sexual gratification is experienced while the person inflicts physical or emotional pain on others. Severe forms of this behavior may be present in schizophrenia. Telephone Scatologia: Sexual gratification is achieved by telephoning someone and making lewd or obscene remarks. Transvestic Fetishism: A heterosexual male achieves sexual gratification through wearing the clothing of a woman (cross-dressing). It is a learned response due to encouragement by family members. As a child, the person was considered more attractive when dressed up as a girl. Voyeurism: The achievement of sexual pleasure by looking at unsuspecting persons who are naked, undressing, or engaged in sexual activity. Individuals engaging in voyeurism are commonly called Peeping Toms. Coprophilia: The feeling of sexual release or excitement by excreting, or receiving the excreta of another during the sexual act.