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# Chapter 2 Introduction to CFD Introductory FLUENT Training

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Introduction to CFD

What is CFD?

Training Manual

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically the set of governing mathematical equations
Conservation of mass Conservation of momentum Conservation of energy Conservation of species Effects of body forces Etc.

## The results of CFD analyses are relevant in:

Conceptual studies of new designs Detailed product development Troubleshooting Redesign

CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation by reducing total effort and cost required for experimentation and data acquisition.

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Introduction to CFD

## How Does CFD Work?

ANSYS CFD solvers are based on the finite volume method
Domain is discretized into a finite set of control volumes General conservation (transport) equations for mass, momentum, energy, species, etc. are solved on this set of control volumes
Control Volume*

Training Manual

Fluid region of pipe flow is discretized into a finite set of control volumes.

Convection

Diffusion

Generation

Partial differential equations are discretized into a system of algebraic equations All algebraic equations are then solved numerically to render the solution field
* FLUENT control volumes are cell-centered (i.e. they correspond directly with the mesh) while CFX control volumes are node-centered

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## CFD Modeling Overview

Problem Identification
1. 2. Define goals Identify domain

Training Manual

Problem Identification
1. Define your modeling goals 2. Identify the domain you will model

## PreProcessing and Solver Execution Pre-Processing

3. 4. 5. 6. Geometry Mesh Physics Solver Settings
Update Model

Solve
7. Compute solution

3. Create a solid model to represent the domain 4. Design and create the mesh (grid) 5. Set up the physics (physical models, material properties, domain properties, boundary conditions, ) 6. Define solver settings (numerical schemes, convergence controls, ) 7. Compute and monitor the solution

Post Processing
8. Examine results

9.

Post-Processing
8. Examine the results. 9. Consider revisions to the model.
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## 1. Define Your Modeling Goals

Problem Identification
1. 2. Define goals Identify domain

Training Manual

What results are you looking for (i.e. pressure drop, mass flow rate), and how will they be used?
What physical models will need to be included in your analysis (i.e. turbulence, compressibility, radiation)? What simplifying assumptions do you have to make? What simplifying assumptions can you make (i.e. symmetry, periodicity)? Do you require a unique modeling capability?
User-defined functions (written in C) in FLUENT or User FORTRAN functions in CFX

What degree of accuracy is required? How quickly do you need the results? Is CFD an appropriate tool?

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## 2. Identify the Domain You Will Model

Problem Identification
1. 2. Define goals Identify domain

Training Manual

How will you isolate a piece of the complete physical system? Where will the computational domain begin and end?
Domain of Interest Do you have boundary condition as Part of a Larger information at these boundaries? System (not modeled) Can the boundary condition types accommodate that information? Can you extend the domain to a point where reasonable data exists?

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## 3. Create a Solid Model of the Domain

Pre-Processing
3. 4. 5. 6. Geometry Mesh Physics Solver Settings

Training Manual

## How will you obtain a solid model of the fluid region?

Make use of existing CAD models?
Extract the fluid region from a solid part?

## Can you simplify the geometry?

Remove unnecessary features that would complicate meshing (fillets, bolts)? Make use of symmetry or periodicity?
Are both the solution and boundary conditions symmetric / periodic?

Do you need to split the model so that boundary conditions or domains can be created?

## Solid model of a Headlight Assembly

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Introduction to CFD

## 4. Design and Create the Mesh

Pre-Processing
3. 4. 5. 6. Geometry Meshing Physics Solver Settings

Training Manual

A mesh divides a geometry into many elements. These are used by the CFD solver to construct control volumes

## What degree of mesh resolution is required in each region of the domain?

The mesh must resolve geometric features of interest and capture gradients of concern, e.g. velocity, pressure, temperature gradients Can you predict regions of high gradients? Will you use adaption to add resolution?

Triangle

## What type of mesh is most appropriate?

Tetrahedron Hexahedron How complex is the geometry? Can you use a quad/hex mesh or is a tri/tet or hybrid mesh suitable? Are non-conformal interfaces needed?

## Do you have sufficient computer resources?

Pyramid

Prism/Wedge

How many cells/nodes are required? How many physical models will be used?

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For flow-aligned geometries, quad/hex meshes can provide higher-quality solutions with fewer cells/nodes than a comparable tri/tet mesh
Quad/Hex meshes show reduced numerical diffusion when the mesh is aligned with the flow. It does require more effort to generate a quad/hex mesh

Training Manual

Meshing tools designed for a specific application can streamline the process of creating a quad/hex mesh for some geometries.

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For complex geometries, quad/hex meshes show no numerical advantage, and you can save meshing effort by using a tri/tet mesh or hybrid mesh
Quick to generate Flow is generally not aligned with the mesh

Training Manual

Hybrid meshes typically combine tri/tet elements with other elements in selected regions
For example, use wedge/ prism elements to resolve boundary layers. More efficient and accurate than tri/tet alone. Wedge (prism) mesh Tetrahedral mesh

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## Multizone (or Hybrid) Meshes

A multizone or hybrid mesh uses different meshing methods in different regions. For example,
Hex mesh for fan and heat sink Tet/prism mesh elsewhere

## Training Manual Model courtesy of ROI Engineering

Multizone meshes yield a good combination of accuracy, efficient calculation time and meshing effort. When the nodes do not match across the regions, a non-conformal interface can be used.

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Non-Conformal Meshes
Non conformal meshes are useful for meshing complex geometries
Mesh each part then join together

Training Manual

Non-conformal interface

## Non conformal interfaces are also used in other situations

Change in reference frames Moving mesh applications

3D Film Cooling Coolant is injected into a duct from a plenum. The plenum is meshed with tetrahedral cells while the duct is meshed with hexahedral cells Compressor and Scroll The compressor and scroll are joined through a non conformal interface. This serves to connect the hex and tet meshes and also allows a change in reference frame

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## Set Up the Physics and Solver Settings

Pre-Processing
3. 4. 5. 6. Geometry Mesh Physics Solver Settings

Training Manual

## For a given problem, you will need to:

Define material properties
Fluid Solid Mixture

For complex problems solving a simplified or 2D problem will provide valuable experience with the models and solver settings for your problem in a short amount of time.

## Select appropriate physical models

Turbulence, combustion, multiphase, etc.

Prescribe operating conditions Prescribe boundary conditions at all boundary zones Provide initial values or a previous solution Set up solver controls Set up convergence monitors

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## Compute the Solution

Solve
7. Compute solution

Training Manual

The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively until convergence. Convergence is reached when:
Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible.
Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend.

## Overall property conservation is achieved

Imbalances measure global conservation

Quantities of interest (e.g. drag, pressure drop) have reach steady values.
Monitor points track quantities of interest.

## The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon:

A converged and meshindependent solution on a wellposed problem will provide useful engineering results!

Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models. Mesh resolution and independence Numerical errors

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9. Update Model

Training Manual

## Examine the results to review solution and extract useful data

Visualization Tools can be used to answer such questions as:
What is the overall flow pattern? Is there separation? Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form? Are key flow features being resolved?

Post Processing
8. Examine results

## Numerical Reporting Tools can be used to calculate quantitative results:

Examine results to ensure property conservation and correct physical behavior. High residuals may be caused by just a few poor quality cells.

Forces and Moments Average heat transfer coefficients Surface and Volume integrated quantities Flux Balances

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9. Update Model

Training Manual

## Are the physical models appropriate?

Is the flow turbulent? Is the flow unsteady? Are there compressibility effects? Are there 3D effects?

Post Processing
8. Examine results

## Are the boundary conditions correct?

Is the computational domain large enough? Are boundary conditions appropriate? Are boundary values reasonable?

Can the mesh be refined to improve results? Does the solution change significantly with a refined mesh, or is the solution mesh independent? Does the mesh resolution of the geometry need to be improved?

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Introduction to CFD

## Models Available in FLUENT 12

Fluid flow and heat transfer

Training Manual

Turbulence
RANS-based models (SpalartAllmaras, k, k, Reynolds stress) Large-eddy simulation (LES) and detached eddy simulation (DES)

## Species transport Volumetric reactions

Arrhenius finite-rate chemistry Turbulent fast chemistry
Eddy Dissipation, non-Premixed, premixed, partially premixed

## Turbulent finite-rate chemistry

EDC, laminar flamelet, composition PDF transport

Surface Reactions

## Temperature Contours for Kiln Burner Retrofit

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## Models Available in FLUENT 12

Multiphase flows
Discrete Phase Model (DPM) Volume of Fluid (VOF) model for immiscible fluids Mixtures Eulerian-Eulerian and Euleriangranular Liquid/Solid and cavitation phase change
ThreePhase Inlet

Training Manual

Gas outlet

Water outlet

Oil outlet

## Moving and deforming mesh

Moving zones
Single and multiple reference frames (MRF) Mixing plane model Sliding mesh model

## Pressure Contours in a Squirrel Cage Blower (Courtesy Ford Motor Co.)

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## FLUENT CFD Workflow under Workbench 2

Start ANSYS Workbench Drag the Fluid Flow (FLUENT) system from Analysis Systems group in the Toolbox onto preview drop target shown in the Project Schematic.

Training Manual

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## Import the Geometry

Right-click on Geometry cell A2 and select Import Geometry

Training Manual

Import the geometry file (CAD model or DesignModeler .agdb file) You can also link the FLUENT simulation to an existing DesignModeler session.

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Generate a Mesh
Right-click on Mesh cell and select Edit.

Training Manual

## Select Mesh under Model in Outline

Note that Preferences are automatically set for FLUENT, because Meshing was opened from a FLUENT system.

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## Define Boundary and Cell Zones

Create boundary zones using Named selections.
Select the surface which will represent the boundary you wish to set. Right-click the selection and select Create Named Selection. Name the selection and click OK.

Training Manual

You will also need to define the regions of the flow containing fluid and solid (if any).
Solids are required for conjugate heat transfer calculations only. More details will be presented later.

velocit y inlet

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## Set Up and Run FLUENT

Edit the Setup cell to set up the model options
Boundary conditions Solver settings Solution Post processing

Training Manual

Once run, the solution can then be either post processed in FLUENT or data exported to CFD-Post for post processing
Contour and vector plots Profile plots Calculation of forces and moments Animation of unsteady flow results

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## Demonstration of FLUENT Software

Start FLUENT (assume the mesh has already been generated).
Set up a simple problem. Solve the flow field. Postprocess the results.

Training Manual

Online help and documentation is available on each panel by pressing the help button

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