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# Calculus Cheat Sheet Calculus Cheat Sheet

## Integrals Standard Integration Techniques

Definitions Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.
Definite Integral: Suppose f ( x ) is continuous Anti-Derivative : An anti-derivative of f ( x )
g (b)
ò a f ( g ( x )) g ¢ ( x ) dx = ò g( a) f (u ) du
b
on [ a, b] . Divide [ a, b] into n subintervals of is a function, F ( x ) , such that F ¢ ( x ) = f ( x ) . u Substitution : The substitution u = g ( x ) will convert using
width D x and choose x from each interval. Indefinite Integral : ò f ( x ) dx = F ( x ) + c du = g ¢ ( x ) dx . For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration.
*
i
¥
b
f (x )D x . where F ( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ) . 2
cos ( x3 ) dx
2
cos ( x3 ) dx = ò
85
òa f ( x ) dx = nlim å ò1 5x ò 1 5x (u ) du
* 2 2
Then Ex. cos
®¥
i 1 3
i =1
u=x Þ du = 3x dx Þ x dx = du = 53 sin ( u ) 1 = 35 ( sin ( 8) - sin (1) )
3 2 2 1 8
3
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus x = 1 Þ u = 1 = 1 :: x = 2 Þ u = 2 = 8
3 3

## Part I : If f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b] then Variants of Part I :

d u ( x)
f ( t ) dt = u¢ ( x ) f ëéu ( x ) ûù
dx ò a
x b b
g ( x ) = ò f (t ) dt is also continuous on [ a, b]
b
a
Integration by Parts : ò u dv = uv - ò v du and òa u dv = uv a
- ò v du . Choose u and dv from
a
d b
d x
and g ¢ ( x ) = ò f ( t ) dt = f ( x ) .
dx a dx òv( x) f (t ) dt = -v¢ ( x ) f éëv ( x )ùû integral and compute du by differentiating u and compute v using v = ò dv .

ò xe
-x 5
Part II : f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b] , F ( x ) is d u ( x)
f ( t ) dt = u¢ ( x ) f [ u( x)] - v¢ ( x ) f [ v( x)]
Ex. dx Ex. ò3 ln x dx
dx ò v( x ) u=x dv = e- x Þ du = dx v = -e- x
an anti-derivative of f ( x ) (i.e. F ( x ) = ò f ( x ) dx ) u = ln x dv = dx Þ du = 1x dx v = x
ò xe dx = - xe + ò e dx = - xe- x - e- x + c
-x -x -x

ò3 ln x dx = x ln x 3 - ò3 dx = ( x ln ( x ) - x ) 3
b 5 5 5 5
then ò f ( x ) dx = F ( b) - F ( a ) .
a
= 5ln ( 5) - 3ln ( 3) - 2
Properties
ò f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx ± ò g ( x ) dx ò cf ( x ) dx = c ò f ( x ) dx , c is a constant Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions
b b b b b For ò sin n x cos m x dx we have the following : For ò tan n x secm x dx we have the following :
ò a f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = ò a f ( x ) dx ± ò a g ( x ) dx ò a cf ( x ) dx = c ò a f ( x ) dx , c is a constant 1. n odd. Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to 1. n odd. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and
a b b
òa f ( x ) dx = 0 òa f ( x ) dx = ò f ( t ) dt cosines using sin 2 x = 1 - cos 2 x , then use convert the rest to secants using
a
b a
the substitution u = cos x . tan 2 x = sec 2 x - 1 , then use the substitution
ò a f ( x ) dx = -òb f ( x ) dx
b b
ò f ( x ) dx £ ò
a a
f ( x ) dx 2. m odd. Strip 1 cosine out and convert rest u = sec x .
to sines using cos2 x = 1 - sin2 x , then use 2. m even. Strip 2 secants out and convert rest
b a
If f ( x ) ³ g ( x ) on a £ x £ b then ò f ( x ) dx ³ ò g ( x ) dx the substitution u = sin x . to tangents using sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x , then
a b
b
3. n and m both odd. Use either 1. or 2. use the substitution u = tan x .
If f ( x ) ³ 0 on a £ x £ b then ò f ( x ) dx ³ 0 4. n and m both even. Use double angle 3. n odd and m even. Use either 1. or 2.
a
b
and/or half angle formulas to reduce the 4. n even and m odd. Each integral will be
If m £ f ( x ) £ M on a £ x £ b then m ( b - a ) £ ò f ( x ) dx £ M ( b - a ) integral into a form that can be integrated. dealt with differently.
2 (1 + cos ( 2 x ) ) , sin ( x ) = 2 (1 - cos ( 2 x ) )
a
Trig Formulas : sin ( 2 x ) = 2sin ( x ) cos ( x ) , cos 2 ( x ) = 1 2 1

Common Integrals
ò k dx = k x + c ò u du = sin u + c
cos ò tan u du = ln sec u + c Ex. ò tan3 x sec5 x dx Ex. ò cos x dx
sin 5 x
3

ò x dx = ò sin u du = - cos u + c ò sec u du = ln sec u + tan u + c ò tan x sec xdx = ò tan x sec x tan x sec xdx
n 1
x n+1 + c, n ¹ -1 3 5 2 4 5 4 (sin x ) sin x 2 2
ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx
sin x sin x sin x
n +1 3 3 3

## ò x dx = ò x dx = ln x + c ò sec u du = tan u + c ò a + u du = a tan ( a ) + c = ò ( sec2 x - 1) sec 4 x tan x sec xdx

-1 1 2 1 u
1 -1
2 2
2 2

(1-cos x) sin x
dx ( u = cos x )
3
ò a x + b dx = a ln ax + b + c ò sec u tan u du = sec u + c
cos x
ò a 1- u du = sin ( a ) + c = ò ( u - 1) u du
1 1 u -1
2 2
2 4
( u = sec x ) 2 2
= - ò (1-u ) du = - ò 1- 2u +u du
2 4

## ò ln u du = u ln ( u ) - u + c ò csc u cot udu = - csc u + c u 3 u 3

= sec x - sec x + c
1 7 1 5
7 5
= 12 sec2 x + 2 ln cos x - 12 cos 2 x + c
ò e du = e + c ò csc u du = - cot u + c
u u 2

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Calculus Cheat Sheet Calculus Cheat Sheet

Trig Substitutions : If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and Applications of Integrals
formula to convert into an integral involving trig functions. b

## a 2 - b 2 x 2 Þ x = ab sin q b2 x2 - a 2 Þ x = ab secq a 2 + b2 x2 Þ x = ab tanq

Net Area : ò a f ( x ) dx represents the net area between f ( x ) and the
x-axis with area above x-axis positive and area below x-axis negative.
cos2 q = 1- sin2 q tan 2 q = sec2 q - 1 sec2 q = 1 + tan2 q

òx ó ( 23 cosq ) dq = ò sin122 q dq
16
Ex. dx 16
2
4 -9 x 2 õ 4 sin 2 q ( 2cos q ) Area Between Curves : The general formulas for the two main cases for each are,
9
b d
x = 23 sin q Þ dx = 23 cosq dq y = f ( x) Þ A = ò - éëlower function ùû dx & x = f ( y ) Þ A = ò - éëleft functionùû dy
= ò 12 csc dq = -12 cot q + c
2
a
é ù
ëupper function û
c
é right functionù
ë û

## 4 - 9x = 4 - 4sin q = 4 cos q = 2 cosq

2 2 2
Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to x’s. From If the curves intersect then the area of each portion must be found individually. Here are some
substitution we have sin q = 32x so, sketches of a couple possible situations and formulas for a couple of possible cases.
Recall x = x . Because we have an indefinite
2

## integral we’ll assume positive and drop absolute

value bars. If we had a definite integral we’d
need to compute q ’s and remove absolute value
bars based on that and,
ì x if x ³ 0 4 -9 x 2
x =í From this we see that cot q = . So,
î - x if x < 0
3x
4 4 -9 x 2
òx dx = - +c
16
d
In this case we have 4 - 9x 2 = 2 cos q . 2
4 - 9 x2 x b
A = ò f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx A = ò f ( y ) - g ( y ) dy c b
A = ò f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx + ò g ( x ) - f ( x ) dx
a c a c
P( x)
Partial Fractions : If integrating ò Q( x) dx where the degree of P ( x ) is smaller than the degree of Volumes of Revolution : The two main formulas are V = ò A ( x ) dx and V = ò A ( y ) dy . Here is
Q ( x ) . Factor denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition of some general information about each method of computing and some examples.
the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.F.D.). For each factor in the Rings Cylinders
denominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following table.
(
A = p ( outer radius) 2 - ( inner radius) 2 ) A = 2p ( radius ) ( width / height )

Factor in Q ( x ) Term in P.F.D Factor in Q ( x ) Term in P.F.D Limits: x/y of right/bot ring to x/y of left/top ring Limits : x/y of inner cyl. to x/y of outer cyl.
Horz. Axis use f ( x ) , Vert. Axis use f ( y ) , Horz. Axis use f ( y ) , Vert. Axis use f ( x ) ,
A A1 A2 Ak
ax + b ( ax + b )
k
+ +L+ g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx. g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx.
ax + b ax + b ( ax + b )2 ( ax + b )
k

Ax + B A1 x + B1 Ak x + Bk
+L +
( ax + bx + c ) Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 Ex. Axis : y = a £ 0 Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 Ex. Axis : y = a £ 0
2 k
ax 2 + bx + c ax2 + bx + c ( ax 2 + bx + c )
k
ax 2 + bx + c

## 7 x2 +13 x A( x2 + 4) +( Bx+ C) ( x -1)

ò 7 x2 +13 x Bx + C
Ex. ( x -1)( x2 + 4)
dx ( x -1)( x2 + 4 )
= x -1 + x2 + 4
A
= ( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )

## 7 x2 +13 x Set numerators equal and collect like terms.

ò dx = ò 3 x +16
x-1 + x2 + 4
4
dx
7 x 2 + 13x = ( A + B ) x 2 + ( C - B ) x + 4 A - C
( x -1)( x2 + 4 )

=ò x -1 + x2 + 4
4 3x
+ 16
x2 + 4
dx Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve
= 4 ln x - 1 + 32 ln ( x2 + 4) + 8 tan-1 ( x2 ) to get constants.
A+ B = 7 C - B = 13 4A- C = 0 outer radius : a - f ( x ) outer radius: a + g ( x ) radius : a - y radius : a + y
Here is partial fraction form and recombined. width : f ( y ) - g ( y )
A=4 B=3 C = 16 inner radius : a - g ( x ) inner radius: a + f ( x ) width : f ( y ) - g ( y )

An alternate method that sometimes works to find constants. Start with setting numerators equal in
These are only a few cases for horizontal axis of rotation. If axis of rotation is the x-axis use the
previous example : 7 x 2 + 13x = A ( x2 + 4 ) + ( Bx + C ) ( x - 1) . Chose nice values of x and plug in. y = a £ 0 case with a = 0 . For vertical axis of rotation ( x = a > 0 and x = a £ 0 ) interchange x and
For example if x = 1 we get 20 = 5A which gives A = 4 . This won’t always work easily. y to get appropriate formulas.

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Calculus Cheat Sheet

Work : If a force of F ( x ) moves an object Average Function Value : The average value
b
b of f ( x ) on a £ x £ b is f avg = 1
ò a f ( x ) dx
in a £ x £ b , the work done is W = ò F ( x ) dx b- a
a

Arc Length Surface Area : Note that this is often a Calc II topic. The three basic formulas are,
b b b
L = ò ds SA = ò 2p y ds (rotate about x-axis) SA = ò 2p x ds (rotate about y-axis)
a a a
where ds is dependent upon the form of the function being worked with as follows.
ds = 1 + ( ) dy 2
dx
dx if y = f ( x ) , a £ x £ b ds = ( dxdt )
2
+ ( ) dy 2
dt
dt if x = f ( t ) , y = g ( t ) , a £ t £ b

1+ ( ) ds = r 2 + ( ddrq ) dq if r = f (q ) , a £ q £ b
2 2
ds = dx
dy
dy if x = f ( y ) , a £ y £ b
With surface area you may have to substitute in for the x or y depending on your choice of ds to
match the differential in the ds. With parametric and polar you will always need to substitute.

Improper Integral
An improper integral is an integral with one or more infinite limits and/or discontinuous integrands.
Integral is called convergent if the limit exists and has a finite value and divergent if the limit
doesn’t exist or has infinite value. This is typically a Calc II topic.

Infinite Limit
¥ t b b
1. ò f ( x ) dx = lim ò f ( x ) dx 2. ò ¥ f ( x ) dx = lim ò f ( x ) dx
a t ®¥ a - t ® -¥ t
¥ c ¥
3. ò ¥ f ( x ) dx = ò ¥ f ( x ) dx + ò
- - c
f ( x ) dx provided BOTH integrals are convergent.
Discontinuous Integrand
b b b t
1. Discont. at a: ò f ( x ) dx = lim+ ò f ( x ) dx 2. Discont. at b : ò f ( x ) dx = lim- ò f ( x ) dx
a t®a t a t ®b a
b c b
3. Discontinuity at a < c < b : ò f ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx + ò f ( x ) dx provided both are convergent.
a a c

## Comparison Test for Improper Integrals : If f ( x ) ³ g ( x ) ³ 0 on [ a, ¥ ) then,

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥
1. If ò f ( x ) dx conv. then ò g ( x ) dx conv. 2. If ò g ( x ) dx divg. then ò f ( x ) dx divg.
a a a a
¥
Useful fact : If a > 0 then òa xp
1
dx converges if p > 1 and diverges for p £ 1 .

## Approximating Definite Integrals

b
For given integral ò a f ( x ) dx and a n (must be even for Simpson’s Rule) define Dx = b-na and
divide [ a, b] into n subintervals [ x0 , x1 ] , [ x1 , x2 ] , … , [ xn-1, xn ] with x0 = a and xn = b then,

## ò f ( x ) dx » D x éë f ( x ) + f ( x ) + L + f ( x )ùû , xi* is midpoint [ xi -1, xi ]

b
* * *
Midpoint Rule : 1 2 n
a

b Dx
Trapezoid Rule : ò f ( x ) dx » 2 ëé f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + +2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + f ( x ) ûù
a 0 1 2 n -1 n

b Dx
Simpson’s Rule : ò f ( x ) dx » 3 éë f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + f ( x )ùû
a 0 1 2 n-2 n-1 n

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins