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CMS C3: METHOD

ASSUMPTION
A New Profession for the Corporation in the Throes of Structural Change Grant McCracken Author, Chief Culture O cer: How to Create a Living, Breathing Corporation C3 Consulting Practitioner March 8, 2011
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C O N V E R G E N C E C U LT U R E C O N S O R T I U M
C O M PA R AT I V E M E D I A S T U D I E S AT M I T

Assumption Hunters
TABLE OF CONTENTS

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About C3 Research Memos ......................................................................................................................... 3 The Format of this Memo ............................................................................................................................ 4 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 5 Implications ................................................................................................................................................. 7 1. Scan the horizon ................................................................................................................................. 7 2. Excavate the assumptions of the corporation .................................................................................... 7 2.1 Excavate Management models ..................................................................................................... 7 2.2 Excavate the local culture of the corporation. .............................................................................. 7 2.3 Excavate the culture of the component professions. ................................................................... 8 2.4 Excavate the culture of the industry. ............................................................................................ 8 2.5 Excavate the culture of business. ................................................................................................. 8 Professional development ........................................................................................................................... 9 References (by page number) ................................................................................................................... 11 Works Cited ............................................................................................................................................... 16 Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................... 18 About the Author ....................................................................................................................................... 18

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About C3 Research Memos


Introduced in the spring of 2010, Convergence Culture Consortium (C3) research memos are short (8 to 11 pages) position papers - designed from their inception to provide more tactical, design-driven recommendations to the C3 membership. Ideally, these recommendations would then be introduced into the early phase (i.e. ideation or brainstorming) of the strategic design process for new media products, delivery services and content programming. The suggestion here is that an evangelist (or champion) of these innovative insights and recommendations would then be able to: a. Assemble a working group within or across organizational divisions, departments, professions or academic disciplines; and b. Use C3 research memos as a common language for these working group sessions - framing product development, strategic marketing, content programming or market research challenges and subsequent discussions within the framework of C3 Thinking. We encourage the creation of such working groups within C3 Sponsor company organizations. By taking this approach, the hope is that new products, services and programming would better reflect the emergent cultural and media engagement patterns unearthed by the current crop of C3 research. The very contemporaneous wants and needs of the audience (reflected by the sometimes counterintuitive and provocative market insights and recommendations generated by C3) would then be embedded into new products, marketing and programming as soon as they go live or are asynchronously distributed over multiple platforms. 2010 2011 C3 Research Memo Series (to date) Online Advertising: The New Magic by Ravi Inukonda with Daniel Pereira Piracy is the Future of Television by Abigail De Kosnik Embracing the Flow by Nancy Baym You and Our Space by Shenja van der Graaf Aging and the Future of Media Fandom by C. Lee Harrington Assumption Hunters: A New Profession for the Corporation in the Throes of Structural Change by Grant McCracken

2010- 2011 C3 White Papers


In contrast to our research memo series, C3 white papers are longer, higher level discussions (more strategic in nature - i.e. Spreadable Media (2008) or the upcoming How to Ride a Lion by Geoff Long). 2010-2011 C3 White Papers include: Learning to Share: The Relational Logics of Media Franchising by Derek Johnson Turn On, Tune In, Cash Out: Maximizing the Value of Television Audiences by Sheila Seles How to Ride a Lion: A Call for a Higher Transmedia Criticism by Geoff Long (forthcoming)

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The Format of this Memo


This C3 Research Memo finally captures and positions one of the most powerful, challenging and vital discussions that has been floating around the Consortium for the last few years. In the memo, C3 consulting practitioner Grant McCracken takes us on a journey through decades of seminal organizational and management theory (as well as cultural anthropology, economics, etc.). In doing so, McCracken places the MIT Comparative Media Studies Program curriculum (with its commitment to theory) and the Convergence Culture Consortiums "practice model in their rightful place at the center of a discussion of how best the corporation (when attempting, by necessity or crisis, to enact structural change) should recognize patterns and excavate assumptions embedded within the culture of an organization. McCracken argues that MIT CMS theory and C3 practice (deeply rooted in the liberal arts, the humanities and the qualitative social sciences) are a vital institutional locus and methodological framework, respectively, for the continuous recognition of these patterns and for the hunting down of these assumptions. Throughout the memo, Grant references thought leaders, public intellectuals and authors from a variety of disciplines. Due to the variety of professional backgrounds and academic disciplines of the C3 readership, some references may not be familiar to everyone. As a result, the format for citing works and authors throughout the memo is as follows: authors are referenced by their name (at times simply by their last name) and a year of publication in parentheses (xxxx). For example: Henry Jenkins (1992) changes the way we think media mediates. Another industry is upended. Richard Florida (2003) says creativity is not an ancillary of the marketplace, but its prime mover. Starting on page 12, short biographies and Wikipedia links for further research and investigation are provided. A Works Cited section has also been provided (organized alphabetically).

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Introduction
I read recently that the thing that keeps CEOs awake at night is discontinuous innovation of the kind Clay Christensen (1997) describes. This struck me as odd because Christensens discontinuity isnt hard to recognize or anticipate. (His model says: an incumbent offers more value than customers want, and a competitor responds with products that are cheaper but good enough.) Scary, to be sure, but how does it count as a sleep stealer? Theres nothing particularly mysterious or unmanageable here. Surely, the scarier thing for a CEO to discover is that the world has changed in a way that defies his or her deepest assumptions. This change is hard to detect. And when detected, it is hard to respond to. I would have thought that in a Schumpeterian (2009) world of creative destruction, this is more likely and the more problematical event (Handy 1991). Lets call it structural change. Every corporation, every act of commerce, is predicated on a set of assumptions. These are the infrastructure of all thought and even the most instrumental action. Every enterprise is, as Drucker (2006) and Levitt (1960) demonstrated, shot through with assumptions, some witting, most not.1 These assumptions arent just technically invisible. They are deliberately invisible. In turns out that some knowledge is more powerful the more deeply it is assumed. (So says Gregory Bateson [1972].) Indeed, the more we use an idea, the more completely it disappears from view. Thus do our deepest ideas go without saying. Semi-deep ideas can be evoked with a single buzz word. They are built in or, as Richard Foster and Sarah Kaplan (2004) prefer, locked in. In a perfect world, these assumptions would float to the surface upon expiration. As fish do. But they dont. So we keep using them. These assumptions are deeply implicated in the way we see the world. They can be and have been stuff of our best hunches and most powerful intuitions. Breaking up is hard to do. What provokes assumption failure? Where does structural change come from? Some of it comes from the ceaseless innovation of the world. Dupont introduces something called plastic. James Black finds a new way to make pharmaceuticals. Or Mr. Newmark invents Craigs List. We doze for a moment and theres a fast food industry. We doze a moment more and theres a slow food movement. (American markets are like the weather, or for that matter the markets, in Ireland. Wait a moment, they will change. ) Even as these innovations make themselves visible on the surface of the marketplace, in a less obvious way they attack our deepest assumptions Some structural change comes from the academic and the management literature. The authors of the Cluetrain Manifesto (2000) say advertising is not messaging, its conversation. An industry turns on its
Drucker, Peter F. 2006. The Practice of Management. Harper Paperbacks, p. 50. Levitt, Theodore. 1960. Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review 38:45-56. In public policy, a sunset provision or sunset clause is a provision in a statute or regulation that terminates or repeals all or portions of the law after a specific date, unless further legislative action is taken to extend it.
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ear. Henry Jenkins (1992) changes the way we think media mediates. Another industry is upended. Richard Florida (2003) says creativity is not an ancillary of the marketplace, but its prime mover. Joseph Pine and James Gilmore (1999) say, You are not making products or services. Youre making experiences. Whatever else they do, these ideas contradict a fundamental assumption of capitalism, that the business of business is making things. Each in their way, Drucker (2006), Michael Porter (1998), Thomas Stewart (2001) and others anticipated this assault on literalism. We are not making things to make money, they said. We are creating value to capture value. And with this fundamental change, new process and practice is set in train, and the world begins to drift. Structural change also comes from practice. It emerges from things happening in the marketplace, the corporation, or the world of the consumer. This change is not created or officiated by experts. (Unless of course that expert is Oprah.) It comes swimming up out of the interactions of many parties, driven by various motives, parties who may not be aware of the intentions or even the presence of others. Take the case of the American great room. In the last 25 years, millions of Americans knocked down the walls between kitchen, living room, and dining room. They spent many hundreds of millions of dollars, in the process turning their homes into construction zones. The great room did not from the design community or even an Oprah episode. It came from Americans, flying by the seat of their pants, trying to figure out a way to accommodate emerging notions of children, childhood, child rearing, domesticity, parenthood, feminism, informality, media consumption, dining, hospitality, weekends, entertainment, cooking, serving, and food. So much for our assumptions about the American family.

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Implications
There are several steps the corporation can take to protect itself from structural change.

1. Scan the horizon Watch for changes in the world that will test and perhaps overturn the assumptions in the corporation. The disintermediation of the supply chain, what will this mean to our assumptions about distribution? More specifically, what happens when Amazon.com begins to eliminate bricks and mortar retails and the Mall? Is there a New Normal that defines consumer taste and preference and what would it mean to our assumptions about what consumers want? The corporation needs to examine the future, and to anticipate how it will challenge present assumptions (McCracken, 2009).

2. Excavate the assumptions of the corporation 2.1 Excavate Management models These models sweep through the corporation with some frequency: excellence from Peters and Waterman (2004), reengineering from Hammer and Champy (2004), built to last from Collins and Porras (2003). These models, with their key phrases and characteristic points of view, reform the corporate culture and the minds of managers (Collins 2000, Davenport and Prusak 2003, Gray 2003, Hindle 2008, Martin 2009, Micklethwait and Wooldridge 1998, Sapir 1977, Sutton 1997). There is no sunset clause for management models.2 We may stop using the model, but rarely do we repudiate it. The model is still there, passive and invisible. Occasionally it will reactivate without warning. Someone will object to strategy A on the grounds that I cant see what this has to do with excellence. Everyone recognizes the term. They know it as a value that corporation once valued. So people are inclined to defer. Excellence. Good point. Lets move on. Too bad. Because strategy A was a good idea. 2.2 Excavate the local culture of the corporation. The local culture of the corporation has many sources: the vision of the founder, ideas introduced through mergers and acquisitions, cataclysmic events in the history of the corporation (public ones like
In public policy, a sunset provision or sunset clause is a provision in a statute or regulation that terminates or repeals all or portions of the law after a specific date, unless further legislative action is taken to extend it. Anonymous. n.d., Sunset Provision. Wikipedia entry.
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the depression of the 1920s, and private ones like the time the CFO decamped with the corporate playbook), and the culture of the locality (Silicon Valley vs. New York City vs. Austin, Texas). Here too we have a variety of old and new ideas pouring into the corporation. The old live on. The new recruit vigorously. The corporation hums with a variety of ideas, some visible, all active.

2.3 Excavate the culture of the component professions. There are many professional paths to the business world. People come up as engineers, MBAs, entrepreneurs, accountants, industrial designers, graphic designers, liberal arts graduates. Each of these professions imbues the graduate with a certain way of seeing the world, of solving a problem (Khurana 2010). (I did a project for a Canadian telecom and the marketer expressed her frustration with the engineers with whom we were working, Every time I leave them in a room together, they start building a machine!) In a perfect world, the corporation would achieve a miracle of ecumenical cooperation. More often, certain professional cultures are given more influence than others. So we need the various professional assumptions and the value hierarchy that distribute their power. 2.4 Excavate the culture of the industry. Every industry has characteristic ways and means. The car culture of Detroit, the start up culture of Silicon Valley, the P&G method as it has influenced the world of CPG (consumer packaged goods), the engineering cultures of IBM and GE, the new approaches emerging from the likes of Etsy and Zappos. Furthermore, every industry is various. Some part of the financial world sees itself as white shoe. Another is Florsheim. Still another is hush puppy. These assumptions need mapping. To be sure, they build consensus and confer strength. But they also create vulnerability when change happens.

2.5 Excavate the culture of business. The world of business has certain shared assumptions (Kanter 1993). We are inclined to share a certain way of defining the actor, the action, the motive, the objective, the unit of analysis. These appear to be matters of simple rationality. But of course the differences between Japanese, American, and Canadian business practice tell us that cultural choice shapes this rationality. Furthermore, there is a range of choice within the rational. There are many ways, in that horrible phrase, to skin a cat. The key problem: one rationality may conceal another, as they discovered recently at IBM. Kevin Clark, then Director of IBM Alumni Relations and the Greater IBM Connection, noticed that IBM was insisting on the boundaries of the corporation perhaps a little too literally. The fact of the matter is that Information Technology is a small world. Sooner or later everyone in the industry is going to work for

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IBM. And this means that its wrong of IBM to treat outsiders as outsiders. Clark noticed, for instance, that when people left IBM, IBM was inclined to severe the relationship. Clark believed the more sensible approach was to treat them as temporarily relocating, and to keep the relationship alive. The culture of business encourages the corporation to insist on an emphatic boundary when indeed something more porous is sometimes called for. Only the retrieval of business assumptions renders this opportunity visible. The task here is to find the assumption and to release the corporation from its thrall. This is what Henry Jenkins did with his notion of transmedia. We can see how many ideas take their powers of illumination and the ability to create value from their ability to transcend the assumptions of the moment. This category has many examples including, again, Henry Jenkins (2008) notion of transmedia, C.K. Prahalad and M.S. Krishnan (2008) on the notion of cocreation, Charles Handy (1984) on the future of work and Warren Bennis (2009) on the nature of leadership.

Professional development
Who will do this? Who will dig out assumptions for the corporations? The Liberal Arts ought to be a superb recruiting ground for this new profession. One could argue that the ability to find and scrutinize assumptions is the great gift part of the liberal arts education. But of course this part of the university continues to sneer at anything attached to commerce as beneath its dignity and corrupted by gainful motive (Nussbaum 2010). The move to post-modernism compounds the problem by insisting on the instability of knowledge and the inscrutability of the world (Swaim, 2010). A.G. Lafley (2008) has called for a hard headed humanist but hard headed humanists are in short supply. The management consultant may not be the right person to undertake this work, but we have much to learn from the Bains and McKinseys of the world. The consulting houses are good at working from faint signals and approximate measures, at living with noisy data sets and problems that might as well be shape-shifters they are so fluid and changeable. We need to learn these methods and approaches, which is another way to say that we need to learn how to deal with the world when it is merely ignited by ideas and not very much comprehended by them. A profession of this kind will need an institutional locus. To be sure, there are inklings and experiments. Henry Jenkins and William Uricchio (2010) have created something remarkable at CMS, and Henry Jenkins experiment continues at the Annenberg School at USC. David Kelley is creating something interesting at the Design Program at Stanford as is Joel M. Podolny at Apple University. Peter Drucker left behind an inclusive experiment at the Claremont University business school named for him.3
Reflecting the Drucker philosophy of management, we believe that management is a human enterprisean art as well as a sciencethat integrates perspectives from the social and behavioral sciences, from philosophy and the humanities, from history and technology, and from religion and mathematics. This liberal art of management brings together the complex realities of the world in which we live, our diverse cultural, institutional, and intellectual backgrounds, and our ethical responsibilities. Anonymous. n.d. Mission and Vision. Peter F. Drucker
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If we dolly back a little further, another opportunity emerges: the creation of a consulting house that makes the pattern recognition of the arts, humanities and social sciences an integral part of the advice it gives to business. Here too there are inklings and experiments. And a question: why only these?


and Masatoshi Ito Graduate School of Management: Mission and Vision Statement. Claremont University. http://www.cgu.edu/pages/290.asp (Accessed September 6, 2010)

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References (by page number)


Page 5 Clay Christensen is the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. He is the author of The Innovator's Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disruptive_technology Joseph Schumpeter (1883 - 1950) was an economist and political scientist. He is the author of Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_destruction Charles Handy is a British author and philosopher specializing in organizational management. He is the author of The Age of Unreason. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Handy Peter Drucker (1909 2005) was Clarke Professor of Social Science and Management at Claremont Graduate University. He was the author of The Practice of Management. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Drucker Theodore Levitt (1925 - 2006) was a professor at Harvard Business School. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Levitt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_myopia Gregory Bateson (1904 1980) was an anthropologist and author of Steps to an Ecology of Mind (1972). SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_Bateson Richard Foster is Senior Partner and an Innovation Specialist from McKinsey & Company and Sarah Kaplan is the Associate Professor of Strategy at the Rotman School of the University of Toronto. They are co-authors of Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market--And How to Successfully Transform Them.

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Page 5 (cont.): Henry Jenkins is the founder and lead researcher of the Convergence Culture Consortium (C3) and the founder of the Comparative Media Studies (CMS) Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Professor Jenkins is Provost Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts, a joint professorship at the USC Annenberg School for Communication and the USC School of Cinematic Arts. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Jenkins Page 6 Richard Florida is a professor and head of the Martin Prosperity Institute at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_class Joseph Pine is a writer, educator and consultant. James Gilmore is an adjunct lecturer at The Graduate School of Business Administration at the University of Virginia. They co-authored The Experience Economy: Work Is Theater & Every Business a Stage. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Experience_Economy Michael Porter is the Bishop William Lawrence University Professor at Harvard Business School. He is the author of Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competition. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Porter Thomas Stewart is the Chief Marketing and Knowledge Officer of Booz & Company, a global management consulting firm and the author of The Wealth of Knowledge: Intellectual Capital and the Twenty-first Century Organization. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_A._Stewart Page 7 Grant McCracken is an anthropologist, blogger, a consulting practitioner to the Convergence Culture Consortium (C3) and author, most recently of Chief Culture Officer: How to Create a Living, Breathing Corporation (2009).

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Page 7 (cont.): SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grant_McCracken Tom Peters and Robert Waterman co-authored In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Peters Michael Hammer and James Champy are the co-authors of Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering Jim Collins and Jerry Porras co-authored Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_C._Collins Thomas Davenport and Laurence Prusak are the authors What's the Big Idea? Creating and Capitalizing on the Best New Management Thinking. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_H._Davenport David Gray is a member of the Boston Consulting Groups Strategy Institute in Boston and the director of the firms Strategy Gallery. SEE: http://hbr.org/2003/11/wanted-chief-ignorance-officer/ar/1. Tim Hindle is a former business and management editor of The Economist and was the founder editor of EuroBusiness. He is the author of Guide to Management Ideas and Gurus. Roger Martin is the Dean of the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto and the author of Opposable Mind: Winning Through Integrative Thinking. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Martin John Micklethwait (the New York bureau chief of The Economist) and Adrian Woolridge (West Coast bureau chief of The Economist) co-authored The Witch Doctors: Making Sense of the Management Gurus. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Micklethwait

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Page 7 (cont.): David Sapir is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Virginia. He is the author of The Social Use of Metaphor: Essays on the Anthropology of Rhetoric. Robert Sutton is professor of management science and engineering at the Stanford Engineering School, where he is the co-director of the Center for Work, Technology, and Organization and an active researcher in the Stanford Technology Ventures Program. He is the author of Weird Ideas That Work: How to Build a Creative Company. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_I._Sutton Page 8 Rakesh Khurana is an Associate Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, and author of numerous important articles and books in the areas of leadership and management. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rakesh_Khurana Rosabeth Moss Kanter is the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professor at Harvard Business School. She is the author of Men & Women of the Corporation. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosabeth_Moss_Kanter Page 9 SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmedia_storytelling http://techtv.mit.edu/collections/convergenceculture:847/videos/4720-keynote- revenge-of-the-origami-unicorn-five-key-principles-of-transmedia-entertainment C.K. Prahalad (1941 - 2010) was the Paul and Ruth McCracken Distinguished University Professor of Corporate Strategy at the Stephen M. Ross School of Business in the University of Michigan and M. S. Krishnan is the Michael R. and Mary Kay Hallman Fellow & Professor of Business Information Technology; Chair of Business Information Technology at the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business. They co-authored The New Age of Innovation. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prahalad

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Page 9 (cont.): Warren Bennis is University Professor and Distinguished Professor of Business Administration and Founding Chairman of The Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California. He is the author of On Becoming a Leader. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Bennis Martha Nussbaum is Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at theUniversity of Chicago. She is the author of Not For Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martha_Nussbaum Barton Swaim received his doctorate from the University of Edinburgh. A.G. Lafley is the former Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer of Procter & Gamble, retiring from the company in 2010. With Ram Charan, he wrote The Game Changer, How You Can Drive Revenue and Profit Growth with Innovation. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._G._Lafley William Uricchio is the Director and MIT Faculty Investigator of C3 as well as the Director of the MIT Comparative Media Studies Program, and a professor of Comparative Media History at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. SEE: http://cms.mit.edu/news/inmediasres/CMS-10th-Anniversary.pdf http://cms.mit.edu/news/2010/04/podcast_cms_10th_anniversary_w.php http://cms.mit.edu/news/2010/04/podcast_cms_10th_anniversary_a.php David Kelley is the founder and chairman of IDEO. He also serves as the Donald W. Whittier professor in the Product Design program at Stanford University, where he also established the schools Hasso Plattner Institute of Design. SEE: http://dschool.stanford.edu/ Joel M. Podolny is an American sociologist and is the former Dean of the Yale School of Management. He is currently the vice president and dean of Apple University. SEE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_M._Podolny http://news.cnet.com/8301-13579_3-10073097-37.html

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Works Cited
Anonymous. n.d. Mission and Vision. Peter F. Drucker and Masatoshi Ito Graduate School of Management: Mission and Vision. http://www.cgu.edu/pages/290.asp (Accessed September 6, 2010). Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an ecology of mind; collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chandler Publishing. Bennis, Warren. 2009. On Becoming a Leader. Fourth Edition, Fourth Edition. Basic Books. Carpenter, Edmund. 1976. Oh What a Blow That Phantom Gave Me! Flamingo. Christensen, Clayton M. 1997. The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business School Press. Collins, David. 2000. Management Fads and Buzzwords: Critical-Practical Perspectives. Routledge. Collins, Jim, and Jerry I. Porras. 2004. Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies. HarperBusiness. Davenport, Thomas H., and Laurence Prusak. 2003. What's the Big Idea? Creating and Capitalizing on the Best New Management Thinking. Harvard Business School Press. Drucker, Peter F. 2006. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Harper Paperbacks. Florida, Richard. 2003. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. Basic Books. Foster, Richard, and Sarah Kaplan. 2004. Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market--And How to Successfully Transform Them. Reprint. Crown Business. Gray, David. 2003. Wanted: Chief Ignorance Officer. Harvard Business Review. November. http://hbr.org/2003/11/wanted-chief-ignorance-officer/ar/1. Hammer, Michael, and James Champy. 2004. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. Rev Upd. Collins Business. Handy, Charles. 1985. The Future of Work. Blackwell Publishers. Handy, Charles. 1991. The Age of Unreason. Harvard Business Press. Hindle, Tim. 2008. Guide to Management Ideas and Gurus. Bloomberg Press. Jenkins, Henry. 1992. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. Routledge. Jenkins, Henry. 2008. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. Revised. NYU Press.

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Jenkins, Henry. 2007. From YouTube to YouNiversity. Confessions of an Aca/Fan: Archives. http://www.henryjenkins.org/2007/02/from_youtube_to_youniversity.html (Accessed September 6, 2010). Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1993. Men and Women of the Corporation: new edition. Basic Books. Khurana, Rakesh. 2010. From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession. Princeton University Press. Lafley, A.G., and Ram Charan. 2008. The Game-Changer: How You Can Drive Revenue and Profit Growth with Innovation. Crown Business. Levine, Frederick with Christopher Locke, Doc Searls and David Weinberg. 2000. The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual. Perseus Publishing. Levitt, Theodore. 1960. "Marketing Myopia". Harvard Business Review 38, no. 4 (July August): 45-56. Martin, Roger L. 2009. Opposable Mind: Winning Through Integrative Thinking. Harvard Business Press. McCracken, Grant. 2009. Chief Culture Officer: How to Create a Living, Breathing Corporation. Basic Books. Micklethwait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge. 1998. The Witch Doctors: Making Sense of the Management Gurus. Three Rivers Press. Nussbaum, Martha C. 2010. Not For Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities. Princeton University Press. Peters, Thomas J., and Robert H. Waterman. 2004. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best- Run Companies. Harper Paperbacks. Pine, B. Joseph, and James H. Gilmore. 1999. The Experience Economy: Work Is Theater & Every Business a Stage. Harvard Business Press. Porter, Michael E. 1998. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press. Prahalad, C.K., and M.S. Krishnan. 2008. The New Age of Innovation: Driving Cocreated Value Through Global Networks. McGraw-Hill. Sapir, David J. 1977. The Social Use of Metaphor: Essays on the Anthropology of Rhetoric. University of Pennsylvania Press. Schumpeter, Joseph A. 2009. Can Capitalism Survive? Creative Destruction and the Future of the Global Economy. Harper Perennial Modern Classics.

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Stewart, Thomas A. 2001. The Wealth of Knowledge: Intellectual Capital and the Twenty-first Century Organization. Doubleday Business. Sutton, Robert I. 1997. Weird Ideas That Work: How to Build a Creative Company. Free Press. Swaim, Barton. 2010. Human Errors. Times Literary Supplement. No. 5616, November 16. Uricchio, William. 2010. Introductory Statement. in CMS 10th Anniversary. May 7.

Acknowledgements
Thanks to Daniel Pereira for his thoughts on the original version of this C3 Research Memo.

About the Author


Grant McCracken holds a PhD from the University of Chicago in cultural anthropology. He is the author of Big Hair, Culture and Consumption, Culture and Consumption II: Markets, Meaning and Brand Management, Flock and Flow, The Long Interview, Plenitude: Culture by Commotion, and the forthcoming Transformations: Identity Construction in Contemporary Culture. He has been the director of the Institute of Contemporary Culture at the ROM (Royal Ontario Museum), a senior lecturer at the Harvard Business School, a visiting scholar at the University of Cambridge and he is now an adjunct professor at McGill University. He has consulted widely in the corporate world, including the Coca-Cola Company, IKEA, Chrysler, Kraft, Kodak, and Kimberly Clark. He is a member of the IBM Social Networking Advisory Board.

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