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XR3D SERIES: WHITE PAPER 2010

XR3D SERIES: WHITE PAPER

2010

VOTI Inc.

XR3D SERIES: WHITE PAPER

2010

Confidential and Proprietary Notice

This document is not intended for general circulation or publication and cannot be reproduced in any form without the prior written permission of VOTI, Inc. The information provided herein and any accompanying material is considered highly confidential and proprietary to VOTI, Inc.

Table of Contents

 
  • 1. PURPOSE

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  • 2. XR3D SERIES VS. CURRENT CLASSIC BAGGAGE SCREENING SYSTEMS

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  • 3. THE ATTENUATION IMAGE AND THE ATOMIC NUMBER IMAGE

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  • 3.1. NORMALIZATION

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  • 3.2. FUSION

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  • 3.3. ATOMIC NUMBER CALIBRATION

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  • 3.4. MATERIAL DISCRIMINATION IMAGE BASED ON ATOMIC NUMBER

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4.

CONCLUSION

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  • 1. PURPOSE

The field of X-ray imaging has seen ste ady evolutionary advancement since being introduc ed many decades ago and has emerged as a powerful tool for reliable security screening. The advent of dual-ener gy systems marked an important milestone in this evolution w hen introduced several years ago, and this technol ogy is now being used extensively for threat detection at critica l points-of-entry across the world. However, despite being able to produce a greater depth of data than prior-gen eration single-energy systems, dual-energy syste ms still bear important capability gaps and have much need f or improvement. Recognizing these deficiencies, V OTI Inc has developed

advanced XR3D technology aimed a t enhancing security screening operations while

capabilities. XR3D technology focuses

on the three main areas of advancement as describ

maximizing detection d herein:

Detector Configuration – new g eometries

Image Enhancement – normaliz ation and fusion algorithms

Improved Detection – calibratio n techniques and new colormaps

VOTI’s XR3D X-ray imaging scanner

is a complete new system offering that incorp orates innovative new

hardware and software design to provid e much-enhanced X-ray security screening.

1. PURPOSE The field of X-ray imaging has seen ste ady evolutionary advancement since being introduc

Figure 1.0 - XR3D

  • 2. XR3D series vs. current cla ssic baggage screening systems

In traditional systems, the X-ray gene rator is directed vertically at the detectors, with th e bag or parcel to be scanned passing in-between. Consider ing it is placed in a Cartesian coordinate system , , , , with as its origin, the resulting scan produces an i mage that is a projection of the bag in the , , pl ane. Hence, the bag is fully revealed in the , , plane. Th e detectors being configured in a conventional L-S hape in , , plane, also partially reveal the bag in , , plane. The drawback is that such systems ar e not able to present important information that may lie in th e , , plane, (Figure 2.1). As such, this traditi onal approach has the inherent disadvantage of not capturing t hreats that are aligned with the , , plane.

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1. PURPOSE The field of X-ray imaging has seen ste ady evolutionary advancement since being introduc

Figure 2.1

Left: A n object placed in a Cartesian coordinate system Right: The image of a scan performed on a bag by a traditi onal screening system

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The XR3D series provides an image far more revealing of the bag because the projection is not restricted to the ( , , ) and , , planes, but includes the ( , , ) plane. Also, the XR3D detector array is not configured to a conventional L-Shape, but rather to a proprietary, improved configuration that maximizes the detection of each surface. The result is a 3D perspective projection of the bag in every plane of the coordinate system. As illustrated below, the same bag is scanned in a XR3D series scanner (Figure 2.2).

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The XR3D series provides an image far more revealing of the bag because the projection is

Figure 2.2

Left: An object placed in a Cartesian coordinate system Right: Suitcase scan performed with VOTI XR3D series

Knives and razor blades not detected in Figure 2.1 are clearly displayed with the XR3D series.

  • 3. THE ATTENUATION IMAGE AND THE ATOMIC NUMBER IMAGE

Dual-energy systems acquire two different images, a High Energy (HE) image and a Low Energy (LE) image. The quality of both attenuation images (density information) and atomic number image (material discrimination) are based upon four different steps of processing High and Low energy images: Normalization, Fusion, Atomic Number Calibration and Material Discrimination Image based on Atomic Number.

3.1. Normalization

In order to obtain high spatial resolution, the XR3D uses a larger quantity of detectors. Each detector has a unique sensitivity to noise and varying contrast levels with respect to HE and LE levels (Figure 3.1.1), because each row of photodiodes bears its own electronic properties.

The XR3D series provides an image far more revealing of the bag because the projection is
The XR3D series provides an image far more revealing of the bag because the projection is

Figure 3.1.1 - Left: LE raw image Right: HE raw image

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To obtain the best image quality whil e removing the noise between each detector ca rd, a VOTI-proprietary normalization algorithm is applied to bot h images (Figure 3.1.2).

To obtain the best image quality whil e removing the noise between each detector ca rd,
To obtain the best image quality whil e removing the noise between each detector ca rd,

Fig ure 3.1.2 - Left: LE normalized image Right: HE normalized image

This normalization is processed by m easuring the minimum signal from the detector

array when the X-ray

generator is not powered (V off) and

the maximum signal when it is powered on (V on ), but before a bag is

scanned, at which point mathematical a lgorithms are applied to produce normalized images .

  • 3.2. Fusion

Without having to display both images , it is still necessary to get the maximum informat ion on the screen; the images of high energy and low energy are processed with a VOTI-proprietary fusion algo rithm that provides the most revealing image based upon the in formation obtained with HE and LE levels (Figure 3 .2.1).

To obtain the best image quality whil e removing the noise between each detector ca rd,

Figure 3.2.1 - HE-LE fusion image

  • 3.3. Atomic number calibration

The atomic number is a basic chemi cal property of materials, which is quantifiable us ing dual-energy X-ray systems. For the materials comprising s everal chemicals, the formula is:

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where is the fraction of total numbe r electrons associated with each element and is the atomic number of each element. However, this formula is only valid for the lower energy levels. Actually, using X-ray dua l-energy detectors, the effective atomic number is a linear funct tion of the ratio LE/HE (Figure 3.3.1).

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LE/HE
LE/HE

Figure 3.3.1 – Effective atomic number Vs. LE/HE ratio

Consequently, it is possible to calibrate based on an estimate of the effective atomic number depending on the High Energy level and Low Energy level. To accomplish this, two materials with different effective atomic numbers are required to create a calibration data file. However, in order to get a more accurate atomic number it is necessary to obtain a good linear regression, so it is better to use more than two materials. The XR3D system is calibrated with Plexiglas, aluminum and steel. Also, since the detectors are not sensitive to temperature and humidity, like some other systems in the market, their calibration is always efficient and provides an effective atomic number with a high accuracy of more than 95 %.

3.4. Material discrimination image based on atomic number

The dual-energy X-ray technique for generating discriminating images divides materials into three different categories in accordance with the chemical/electronic nomenclature of common materials: organic, metallic and “in-between” which is often referred to as “poor-metal”. The image regions exhibiting the signature of each of these categories are colored orange, blue and green, respectively. Actually, a colormap is called and applied in order to create the material discrimination image by using the information of the effective atomic number. The colormap conforms to an international standard, but not the algorithm used to build it. Indeed, while traditional systems use the same colormap for all their scans, VOTI’s XR3D series generates and applies a new colormap for each new scan. The company’s proprietary algorithms compute the colormap to be optimized and maximize the discrimination of materials in a same bag. It is based upon the analysis of the dynamic range of every image pixel. Consequently, the XR3D series is dynamic and auto upgradeable so it provides a very high capacity to discriminate a very large range of materials (Figure 3.4.1).

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Figure 3.4.1 – Mat erial Discrimination Image computed with XR3D ser es 4. CONCLUSION Today’s dual-energy

Figure 3.4.1 – Mat erial Discrimination Image computed with XR3D ser es

4. CONCLUSION

Today’s dual-energy systems, introduc ed almost a decade ago, have deficiencies that are clearly addressed with the enhancements and innovations rep resented by VOTI’s XR3D technology in order to p rovide vastly-improved detection capabilities for critical point-of -entry security screening applications.

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