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1 INTRODUCTION The GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG is a byproduct of the iron manufacturing industry.

Iron ore, coke and limestone are fed into the furnace and the resulting molten slag floats above the molten iron at a temperature of about 15000 C to 16000 C. The molten slag has a composition of about 30% to 40% SiO2 and about 40% CaO, which is close to the chemical composition of Portland cement. After the molten iron is tapped off, the remaining molten slag, which consists of mainly siliceous and aluminous residue (Higgins, 2007) is then water-quenched rapidly, resulting in the formation of a glassy granulate. This glassy granulate is dried and ground to the required size (Hooton, 2000), which is known as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The production of GGBS requires little additional strength as compared with the strength needed for the production of Portland cement. The replacement of Portland cement with GGBS will lead to significant reduction of carbon dioxide gas emission. GGBS is therefore an environmentally friendly construction material. It can be used to replace as much as 80% of the Portland cement used in concrete. GGBS concrete has better water permeability characteristics as well as improved resistance to corrosion and sulphate attack. As a result, the service life of a structure is enhanced and the maintenance cost reduced. In view of the potential advantages of using GGBS, the Standing Committee on Concrete Technology (SCCT) endorsed in 2008 the proposal by the Public Works Central Laboratory (PWCL) to conduct a research study to investigate the strength development and durability of GGBS concrete. The main aim of the study is to compare the performance of concrete containing various proportions of GGBS. The influence of silica fume and the sources of GGBS were also studied. In September 2009, an interim report containing the Findings of laboratory tests on concrete cubes up to an age of 91 days were issued (Leung et al, 2009). Concrete is the most-used man-made material on earth. However its main constituent,

clinker-based cement has a relatively high carbon footprint. The construction industry worldwide has embarked on a programme to reduce this carbon footprint, through many measures, in particular the substitution of clinker with supplementary cementitious materials, such as GGBS and fly-ash, and by using inert limestone filler. As the cement industry in Ireland responded to the imperative to reduce its carbon intensity, new cement types came on to the market. Portland cements replaced the more carbon-intensive Portland limestone cements, and GGBS became commercially available to Irish concrete manufacturers. With these new cement types, and combinations thereof, it was necessary to demonstrate the performance, in particular durability, of blends of these cements made at the concrete mixer.

2 LITERATURE REVIEW The hydraulic potential of blast furnace slag was first discovered in Germany in 1862. In 1865, lime-activated blast furnace slag started to be produced commercially in Germany and in 1880 GGBS was first used in combination with Portland cement (Concrete Society, 1991). In Europe, GGBS has been used for over 100 years. In North America, the history of the use of GGBS in quality concrete dates back about 50 years (Yazdani, 2002). In Southeast Asian countries including Mainland China and Hong Kong, GGBS was used in concrete in around 1990. Between 1955 and 1995, about 1.1 billion tonnes of cement was produced in Germany, about 150 million tonnes of which consisted of blast furnace slag (Gisele et al, 1995). In China, the estimated total GGBS production was about 100 million tonnes in 2007 (Chen, 2006). GGBS has been widely used as a partial replacement of Portland cement in construction projects. In Western Europe, the amount of GGBS used accounts for about 20% of the total cement consumed, whereas in the Netherlands it accounts for 60% of the total cement consumption (Tsinghua University, 2004). There are abundant examples of the use of GGBS concrete in construction projects. In New York, the concrete used in the construction of the World Trade Centre has about 40% GGBS replacement (Slag Cement Association, 2005). At the Minneapolis Airport, the airfield pavements were constructed using concrete with 35% GGBS replacement. Other projects using GGBS include the worlds largest aquarium - the Atlantas Georgia Aquarium which used 20% to 70% GGBS replacement. The Detroit Metro Airport Terminal Expansion used concrete with 30% GGBS replacement. The Air Train linking New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport with Long Island Rail Road trains used concrete with 20% to 30% GGBS replacement.

In China, GGBS has been widely used in major construction projects such as the Three Gorges Dam, Beijing-Shanghai Express Rail, and Cross-bay Bridge of Hangzhou Bay. The GGBS replacement level is generally around 40% (China Cements, 2009; ChinaBiz, 2009). In Hong Kong, GGBS was used in the construction of the Tsing Ma Bridge, which requires a design life of 120 years. For this project, the GGBS replacement levels were from 59% to about 65%, with a maximum water/ (cement + GGBS + silica fume) ratio of about 0.39. GGBS was also used in the construction of the Stonecutter Island Bridge with GGBS replacement of between 60% and 70%. For reinforced concrete in a marine environment, the SCCT endorsed in year 2000 a specification, which allows the use of GGBS. The specified replacement level for normal application is in the range of 60% to 75% by mass of the cementitious content whilst for low heat applications it ranges from 60% to 90% (Standing Committee on Concrete Technology, 2000). GGBS is also routinely used to limit the temperature rise in large concrete pours. The more gradual hydration of GGBS cement generates both lower peak and less total overall heat than Portland cement. This reduces thermal gradients in the concrete, which prevents the occurrence of micro cracking which can weaken the concrete and reduce its durability, and was used for this purpose in the construction of the Jack Lynch Tunnel in Cork.

3 MINERAL ADMIXTURES AND BLENDED CEMENTS There are inorganic materials that also have pozzolanic or latent hydraulic properties. These very fine-grained materials are added to the concrete mix to improve the properties of concrete (mineral admixtures), or as a replacement for Portland cement (blended cements). 3.1 TYPES OF MINERAL ADMIXTURES Ground granulated blast slag (GGBS) Fly ash Silica fume High reactivity Metakoalin (HRM) 3.1.1 FLY ASH A by-product of coal-fired electric generating plants it is used to partially replace Portland cement (by up to 60% by mass). The properties of fly ash depend on the type of coal burnt. In general, siliceous fly ash is pozzolanic, while calcareous fly ash has latent hydraulic properties. 3.1.2 GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG A by-product of steel production is used to partially replace Portland cement (by up to 80% by mass). It has latent hydraulic properties. 3.1.3 SILICA FUME A by-product of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is similar to fly ash, but has a particle size 100 times smaller. This results in a higher surface to volume ratio and a much faster pozzolanic reaction. Silica fume is used to increase strength and durability of concrete, but generally requires the use of super plasticizers for workability.

3.1.4 HIGH REACTIVITY METAKAOLIN (HRM) Metakaolin produces concrete with strength and durability similar to concrete made with silica fume. While silica fume is usually dark grey or black in colour, high-reactivity metakaolin is usually bright white in colour, making it the preferred choice for architectural concrete where appearance is important. 3.2 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES Chemical admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes. In normal use, admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement and are added to the concrete at the time of batching/mixing. The common types of admixtures are as follows. ACCELERATORS speed up the hydration (hardening) of the concrete. Typical materials used are CaCl2 , Ca(NO3)2 and NaNO3. However, use of chlorides may cause corrosion in steel reinforcing and is prohibited in some countries, so that nitrates may be favoured. RETARDERS slow the hydration of concrete and are used in large or difficult pours where partial setting before the pour is complete is undesirable. Typical polyol retarders are sugar, sucrose, sodium gluconate, glucose, citric acid, and tartaric acid. AIR ENTRAINMENTS add and entrain tiny air bubbles in the concrete, which will reduce damage during freeze-thaw cycles, thereby increasing the concrete's durability. However, entrained air entails a trade off with strength, as each 1% of air may result in 5% decrease in compressive strength.

PLASTICIZERS increase the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete, allowing it is placed more easily, with less consolidating effort. A typical plasticizer is lignosulfonate. Plasticizers can be used to reduce the water content of a concrete while maintaining workability and are sometimes called waterreducers due to this use. Such treatment improves its strength and durability characteristics. SUPER PLASTICIZERS (also called high-range water-reducers) are a class of plasticizers that have fewer deleterious effects and can be used to increase workability more than is practical with traditional plasticizers. Compounds used as super plasticizers include sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate, sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensate, acetone formaldehyde

condensate and polycarboxylate ethers. PIGMENTS can be used to change the colour of concrete, for aesthetics. CORROSION INHIBITORS are used to minimize the corrosion of steel and steel bars in concrete. BONDING AGENTS are used to create a bond between old and new concrete (typically a type of polymer). PUMPING AIDS improve pump ability, thicken the paste and reduce separation and bleeding.

4 SLAG Slag is a PARTIALLY VITREOUS BY PRODUCT OF SMELTING ORE to separate the metal fraction from the unwanted fraction. 4.1 TYPES OF SLAG Granulated Slag, Air-cooled Slag, Pelletized or Expanded Slag, Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag, Air cooled blast furnace slag rip rap and Slag cement. 4.1.1 GRANULATED SLAG Granulated slag is rapidly cooled by large quantities of water to produce a sand-like granule that is primarily ground into a cement commonly known as GGBS (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag), or Type S slag cement. It is also mixed with Portland cement clinker to make a blended Type 1S cement.

FIG 4.1.1 GRANULATED SLAG 4.1.2 AIR-COOLED SLAG Blast furnace slag is allowed to slowly cool by ambient air, is processed through a screening and crushing plant and is processed into many sizes for use

primarily as a construction aggregate. Common uses are as aggregates in readymix concrete, precast concrete, hot mix asphalt aggregate, septic drain fields and pipe backfill.

FIG 4.1.2 AIR-COOLED SLAG 4.1.3 PELLETIZED OR EXPANDED SLAG Pelletized or Expanded Slag is quickly cooled using water or steam to produce a lightweight aggregate that can be used for high fire-rated concrete masonry and lightweight fill applications over marginal soils. Due to its reduced weight, it is perfectly suited for aggregate in lightweight concrete masonry, lightweight ready-mix concrete and lightweight precast concrete.

FIG 4.1.3 PELLETIZED OR EXPANDED SLAG

4.1.4 AIR-COOLED BLAST FURNACE SLAG This smaller sized aggregate is primarily used in chip and seal applications, also known as "Chip Seal" or "Aggregate Seal Coating", applied to existing pavement surfaces. The primary purpose for Chip and Seal is to achieve a skid resistance on rural pavements and to maximize driving safety. It is also used in concrete masonry and hot mix asphalt.

FIG 4.1.4 AIR-COOLED BLAST FURNACE SLAG 4.1.5 AIR COOLED BLAST FURNACE SLAG RIP RAP: The largest slag aggregate, riprap is a permanent cover of rock used to stabilize shorelines and stream banks, and prevents erosion along slopes and embankments. It is also used in gabion baskets, Mineral Wool manufacture (insulation), and lightweight fill.

FIG 4.1.5 AIR COOLED BLAST FURNACE SLAG RIP RAP 4.1.6 SLAG CEMENT Slag cement is commonly found in ready-mix concrete, precast concrete, masonry, soil cement, concrete wallboard, floor levelling compounds and high temperature resistant building products. Its measurable benefits in concrete include improved workability and finish ability, high compressive and flexural strengths, and resistance to aggressive chemicals.

FIG 4.1.6 SLAG CEMENT

5 MANUFACTURE OF GGBS FROM MOLTEN IRON GGBS is made from a by-product of the production of iron in a blast furnace where iron ore, limestone and coke are heated to about 1500C. When these materials melt in the blast furnace, two products are producedmolten iron, and molten slag. The molten slag is lighter and floats on the top of the molten iron. The molten slag comprises mostly silicates and alumina from the original iron ore, combined with some oxides from the limestone. The process of granulating the slag involves cooling the molten slag through high-pressure water jets. This rapidly quenches the slag and forms granular particles generally no larger than 5 mm in diameter. The rapid cooling prevents the formation of larger crystals, and the resulting granular material comprises some 95% non-crystalline calcium-alumino silicates.

FIG 5 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF GGBS

The granulated slag is further processed by drying and then ground to a very fine powder, which is GGBS (ground granulated blast furnace slag) cement. Grinding of the granulated slag is carried out in a rotating ball mill.

FIG 5.1 ROTATING BALL MILL The granulated slag, after drying, is ground to a very fine powder in the rotating ball mill, which contains some 3.6 million high chromium cast steel balls. 6 BENEFITS OF USING GGBS IN CONCRETE Reduced heat of hydration, hence no thermal cracks Improved workability Improved resistance to chloride ingress Protection from sulphate attacks Protection from alkali-aggregate reaction Prevention of corrosion of reinforcing steel Improved long term strength Due to the above advantages, GGBS imparts much needed durability to concrete and mortar. It can be used for all types of construction in coastal areas. It is also used in high grades of concrete, where use of cement replacement materials is required to control the danger of shrinkage and thermal cracks.

6.1 SUSTAINABILITY It has been reported that the manufacture of one tonne of Portland cement would require about 1.5 tonnes of mineral extractions together with 5000 MJ of energy, and would generate about 0.95 tonne of CO2 equivalent (Higgins, 2007). As GGBS is a by-product of the iron manufacturing industry, Higgins also reported that the production of one tonne of GGBS would only generate about 0.07 tonne of CO2 equivalent and consume about 1300 MJ of energy. According to Higgins GGBS scores 0.47 Eco points, whereas Portland cement scores 4.6, which means GGBS would only bring about one-tenth of that of Portland cement in terms of environmental impact. In China, it has been reported that a GGBS manufacturer in Xian produced about 1.2 million tonnes of GGBS in year 2008, which could help to reduce about 1.2 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions, 1.1 million tonnes of coal consumption and 1.7 million tonnes of mineral extraction. There are obvious environmental benefits by making full use of the slag (ChinaBiz, 2009).Since GGBS is a by-product of steel manufacturing process, its use in concrete is recognized by LEED etc. as improving the sustainability of the project and will therefore add points towards LEED certification. In this respect, GGBS can also be used for superstructure in addition to the cases where the concrete is in contact with chlorides and sulfates. This is provided that the slower setting time for casting of the superstructure is justified. 6.2 CONCRETE WITH IMPROVED DURABILITY It is generally known that GGBS can improve the durability of a concrete structure by reducing the water permeability, increasing the corrosion resistance and increasing the sulphate resistance. The improved properties can extend the service life of structures and reduce the overall maintenance costs. Based on a life cycle prediction model, the service life of a Maryland bridge deck was estimated to have increased from 38 years to 75 years with the use of concrete incorporating 40% GGBS replacement (Slag Cement Association, 2005).

GGBS cement is routinely specified in concrete to provide protection against both sulphate attack and chloride attack. GGBS has now effectively replaced sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) on the market for sulfate resistance because of its superior performance and greatly reduced cost compared to SRPC. Most projects in Dublin's Docklands, including Spencer Dock, are using GGBS in subsurface concrete for sulfate resistance. To protect against chloride attack, GGBS is used at a replacement level of 50% in concrete. Instances of chloride attack occur in reinforced concrete in marine environments and in road bridges where the concrete is exposed to splashing from road de-icing salts.The use of GGBS in such instances will increase the life of the structure by up to 50% had only Portland cement been used, and precludes the need for more expensive stainless steel reinforcing. 6.3 STRENGTH Concrete containing GGBS cement has a higher ultimate strength than concrete made with Portland cement. It has a higher proportion of the strengthenhancing calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) than concrete made with Portland cement only, and a reduced content of free lime, which does not contribute to concrete strength. Concrete made with GGBS continues to gain strength over time, and has been shown to double its 28-day. 6.4 APPEARANCE In contrast to the stony grey of concrete made with Portland cement, the near-white colour of GGBS cement permits architects to achieve a lighter colour for exposed fair-faced concrete finishes, at no extra cost. To achieve a lighter colour finish, GGBS is usually specified at between 50% to 70% replacement levels, although levels as high as 85% can be used. GGBS cement also produces a smoother, more defect free surface, due to the fineness of the GGBS particles. Dirt does not adhere to GGBS concrete as easily as concrete made with Portland cement, reducing maintenance costs. GGBS

cement prevents the occurrence of efflorescence, the staining of concrete surfaces by calcium carbonate deposits. Due to its much lower lime content and lower permeability, GGBS is effective in preventing efflorescence when used at replacement levels of 50% to 60%. 7 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 7.1 PARTICLE SIZE The IS 12089-2009 requires that the minimum specific surface area of GGBS shall be 2750 cm2/g (IS 12089-2009). It has been reported that slag with a specific surface area between 4000 cm2/g and 6000 cm2/g would significantly improve the performance of GGBS concretes IS 12089-2009 adopt a requirement on the specific surface area rather than the particle size of GGBS. Some researchers reported that the reactivity of GGBS would be improved when the particle size was less than 45m. They suggested that less than 2% of the GGBS particles should be retained on the 45m sieve and that the specific surface area shall be greater than 4200 cm2/g. 7.2 DENSITY There are no specific requirements in IS 12089-2009 on the density of Portland cement and GGBS. Indian standard specification requires the relative density of GGBS to be not less than 2.85 (IS 12089-2009). The Concrete Society (1991) reported that the relative density of GGBS was about 2.9 as compared to 3.15 for Portland cement. The inclusion of GGBS in a concrete mix as an equal mass replacement for Portland cement would cause a slight increase in the total volume of the cementitious content. 7.3 COLOUR GGBS powder is almost white in colour in the dry state .Fresh GGBS concrete may show mottled green or bluish-green areas on the surface mainly due to the presence of a small amount of sulphide. This colour fades subsequently

after casting, as the sulphide decomposes in air to form hydrogen sulphide (Slag Cement Association, 2005). 7.4 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 7.4.1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The basic components of GGBS comprise generally as follows TABLE 7.4.1 CHEMICAL COMPONENTS IN GGBS 30-38 % 15-25 % 0.5-2 % CaO MgO Mn Glass 30-45 % 4-17 % 1-5 % 85-98%

Other minor components including Fe2O3, MnO, TiO2 and SO3 are also present in GGBS. The compositions do not change very much so long as the sources of iron ore, coke and flux are consistent (Bye, 1999). 7.4.2 ALKALIS Alkali metal ions are present in granulated blast furnace slag as an integral part of the glass structure. Consequently, the water-soluble alkali content is low (Concrete Society, 1991). 7.4.3 SULPHIDES There is generally a small amount of calcium sulphide in GGBS. The IS limits the total sulphide content of GGBS to 2.0%. The presence of such a small amount of sulphide can cause a colour change of the fresh concrete.

8 OTHER PROPERTIES 8.1 SETTING TIMES The setting time of concrete with GGBS is generally greater than that of similar concrete with Portland cement only. Although under typical Irish conditions, the initial set is unlikely to be extended by more than one hour for concrete containing up to 50% GGBS. Setting times will increase with increasing GGBS content, although factors such as curing temperature and w/c ratio also need to be considered. The longer setting time has the advantage of allowing concrete to be worked for longer periods: thus time delays, including delays in transport, between mixing and using concrete are less critical. It also reduces the risk of cold joints in larger concrete pours. 8.2 WATER DEMAND The surfaces of GGBS particles are smoother and glassier than those of Portland cement. As a result, less of the mixing water is adsorbed onto the surface of the GGBS particles. Thus concretes containing GGBS will generally require less water compared to those containing Portland cement only. The typical water demands for GGBS concrete is of the order of 35% lower than that for Portland cement concrete. This is equivalent to a reduction of from 5 to 10 litres of water per metre cubed of concrete. For high GGBS replacement ratios in the order of 70% and 80%, the reduction in water demand may be smaller, due to the much higher concentration of the finer GGBS particles. 8.3 BLEEDING Bleeding occurs when water rises to the surface of freshly placed concrete. Properly controlled bleeding is beneficial to the curing regime of concrete. Concrete with up to 40% GGBS replacement does not exhibit different bleeding characteristics from that of concrete made with Portland cement. However, for higher percentages of GGBS, there is an increasing tendency for extra bleeding. This is due to the increase in setting times of these mixes.

However this can be countered by using finer cement, lower w/c ratio, finer sand grading, air entrainment, and heated concrete or insulation blankets. 8.4 POWER FLOATING Concrete produced with GGBS cement can be power floated in the same way as Portland cement concrete. As GGBS concrete stays plastic for a longer time than Portland cement concrete, this enables the contractor to achieve a very flat finish. Experience in Ireland has shown that if using greater than 50% GGBS, particularly in cold weather, it may be necessary to change the finishing regime, leaving a 10 to 12 hour period between placing and power floating, e.g. place the concrete late in the afternoon and power float first thing the following morning. 8.5 WORKABILITY It is generally known that GGBS particles are less water absorptive than Portland cement particles and thus GGBS concrete is more workable than Portland cement concrete. For equivalent workability, a reduction in water content of up to 10% is possible (Richardson 2006). Researchers believed that this was due to the smooth and dense surface of the slag that made GGBS less water absorptive as compared to Portland cement (ACI Committee 233R, 1995). Some researchers reported that GGBS concrete mixes exhibited 20% to 50% greater slumps than ordinary concrete with the same water/cementitious content ratio (Duos & Eggers, 1999). 8.6 DRYING SHRINKAGE Most of the papers in the literature reported that the use of GGBS has little influence on the drying shrinkage of concrete. Some reported that GGBS would lower the drying shrinkage potential under certain conditions. It has been reported that under a curing condition of 200 C and 60% relative humidity after a period of 28 days storage in water, the drying shrinkage of 50% GGBS concrete was about 10% lower than the OPC concrete (Concrete Society, 1991). Li & Yao (2001) reported that the use of ultra-fine GGBS and silica fume could greatly reduce the drying shrinkage.

8.7 HYDRATION TEMPERATURE Experiments showed that the inclusion of GGBS in concrete could significantly reduce the temperature rise during the hydration of cement (Bamforth, 1980). Researchers found that, with 70% GGBS replacement, it was possible to reduce the hydration temperature by about 30% (Tongji University, 2004). Other researchers also found that the temperature rise was reduced when GGBS replacement level was increased up to 70%. The reduction was significant only at the 70% replacement level. 8.8 ELASTIC MODULUS It is widely accepted that the effect of GGBS replacement on the elastic modulus of concrete is negligible (Concrete Society, 1991). 9 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 9.1 CO2 AND OTHER POLLUTANTS In India, cement manufacture is currently the second largest industrial source of CO2 and NOX emissions, after the generation of electrical power from fossil fuels. Almost one tonne of CO2 is generated in the manufacture of one tonne of Portland cement, along with 2kg of SO2, 3.5kg of NOX and 2kg of CO. On the other hand GGBS cement is manufactured from an industrial byproduct, and has a minimal CO2 footprint, and zero harmful pollutant emissions such as SO2, CO and NOX. The following chart (see p. 61) illustrates the difference in CO2 emissions between GGBS and Portland cement, and demonstrates the savings that can be made by using GGBS cement. 9.2 ENERGY SAVINGS In addition to CO2 savings, the embodied energy of GGBS is only some 7% to 8% of that of Portland cement. The manufacture of Portland cement is a high energy use process, involving three separate processes: Quarrying, crushing and blending limestone and shale. Burning the limestone and shale in a rotating kiln to produce clinker. Grinding the clinker to make cement.

The energy consumption per tonne of Portland cement produced equals 4,000 MJ. In contrast, the manufacture of GGBS cement only involves the transport, drying and grinding of an industrial by-product, and is a low energy operation. In addition, it is a recycling operation and has downstream benefits in that it eliminates the need for landfill disposal. The energy consumption per tonne of GGBS produced equals 307 MJ .Thus the energy saved by replacing Portland cement with GGBS cement equals 3,693 MJ per tonne. 9.3 REDUCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CONCRETE It is well established that about half of the environmental impact of concrete delivered to site derives from the cement in the concrete. Therefore, reducing the Portland cement content will reduce the environment impact of concrete. Eutrophication is where elevated levels of mineral and organic nutrients in ponds promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content and often causes the extinction of other organisms. 9.4 OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS To summarize the environmental savings that can be made by using GGBS cement, take the example of a mid-sized engineering project, such as a shopping centre, using some 5000m3 concrete. PM10 is very fine dust, passing 10 microns in size that is harmful to health. It is clear from the above that the CO2, energy and other environmental savings using GGBS are significant. These savings are far greater that can be made by simple individual lifestyle changes. Professionals who are in a position to make choices - architects, engineers and any specifies should see this as an excellent opportunity to make a contribution to the environment, as significant environmental benefits are very easy to achieve at no additional cost.

10 INFLUENCES ON DURABILITY It is generally known that the inclusion of GGBS in concrete can improve the durability. GGBS concrete generally has a low permeability resulting in reduced chloride penetration, enhanced resistance to sulphate attack and alkali silica reaction as compared with ordinary Portland cement concrete (Hollinshead et al, 1996). Research findings indicate that the rate of corrosion of steel in cracked GGBS concrete at cover depths of 20 mm and 40 mm would be significantly reduced by at least 40% when compared to that of Portland cement concrete (Scott & Alexander, 2007). It has been reported that a higher calcium hydrate (CH) content will in general produce concrete of poor durability due to an inhomogeneous mix with poor bonding between calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and CH. Higher CH contents will lead to a greater permeability and a lower durability. The GGBS particles are retained in CSH form resulting in a hardened paste of greater density and smaller pore size as compared to Portland cement paste. Smaller pore size gives rise to a lower permeability and hence a higher durability in general (Feldman, 1983; ACI Committee 233R, 1995). 10.1 CHLORIDE INGRESS GGBS concrete has generally lower permeability and hence better resistance to chloride penetration. It has been reported that the pore structure of the concrete was changed during the reaction of GGBS particles with the calcium hydroxide and alkalis released during hydration. The pores were filled with calcium silicate hydrates instead of calcium hydroxide. Researchers reported that as the GGBS content increased from zero to 50%, the chloride permeability dropped significantly at 90 days (Richardson, 2006). Ryou & Ann (2008) also reported that the rate of chloride transport was reduced to the lowest level in concrete with 60% GGBS replacement.

10.2 SULPHATE RESISTANCE Cement with 65% GGBS by mass is specified as high sulphate resistance cement according to DIN 1164 (Geiseler et al, 1995). However, some studies find that GGBS of high alumina content and high fineness level may affect the sulphate resistance of GGBS concrete (Lee et al, 2006). 10.3 CARBONATION Researchers from Tsinghua University reported that the amount of GGBS replacement was not an important factor with regard to the rate of carbonation of GGBS concrete (Tsinghua University, 2004). When the water/ (GGBS+OPC) ratio is 0.5, GGBS concrete showed an increased carbonation depth (about 3-4 mm during the construction period) as compared to Portland cement concrete of the same grade. However, such small increase in the carbonation depth had no practical implication and it would not increase the risk of corrosion of the reinforcement in GGBS concrete. Laboratory studies on accelerated carbonation test by Tsinghua University found that when the water/ (GGBS+OPC) ratio is reduced from 0.5 to 0.4, the 28-day carbonation depth is reduced from over 10 mm to about 4-6 mm. 10.4 ALKALI AGGREGATE REACTION Many researchers confirmed that GGBS had the ability to reduce the deleterious expansion caused by alkali aggregate reaction (AAR), especially when GGBS was used to replace Portland cement of high alkali content. GGBS has been used in the UK, Germany, and Japan as a means to reduce the risk of damage due to AAR. In the UK, high levels of GGBS (50%) are generally used (Concrete Society, 1991). Wang & Read (1995) reported that the ability of GGBS to reduce the deleterious effect of AAR was due to its low reactive alkali content and its ability to inhibit AAR. The overall lime-to-silica (Ca/Si) ratio of the hydration products (CSH) was reduced by inclusion of GGBS in the concrete as partial replacement of Portland cement as compared to pure Portland cement concrete.

The hydration products of low Ca/Si ratio can immobilize free-alkalis and hence reduce the risk of AAR (Wang & Read, 1995). 11 STRENGTH DEVELOPMENTS 11.1 EARLY AGE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT General literature review indicates that GGBS concrete has lower early strengths because the rate of initial reaction of GGBS is slower than that of Portland cement. GGBS is therefore generally grounded to a finer state than Portland cement. Researcher reported that, as the fineness of GGBS increased from around 4000 cm2/g to 6000 cm2/g, the 28-day strength increased significantly (Hamling, 1992). Lane & Ozyildirum (1999) reported that the early strengths (up to 28 days) of concrete mixes (with 25%, 35%, 50%, and 60% GGBS replacements) were lower than that of Portland cement concrete mixes. By 56 days, the strength of 50% and 60% GGBS mixes exceeded that of the Portland cement mix, and by one year all GGBS mixes were stronger than the Portland cement mixes (Lane & Ozyildirum, 1999). 11.2 INFLUENCE OF CURING TEMPERATURE AND DURATION Curing temperature has an important effect on the curing duration required to achieve the designed strength or durability. The curing temperature affects the rate of hydration of cement, which affects the strength development of concrete (Meeks & Nicholas, 1999). Neville (1981) reported that the rate of hydration increased with a rise in the curing temperature. This is beneficial to the early strength development of concrete up to the age of seven days. When the curing temperature is about 30oC or above, the strength of seven days onwards may be adversely affected. Neville explained that a high initial temperature might cause the initial hydration rate to be too high such that there would be insufficient time available for the hydration products to diffuse away from the cementitious grain and precipitate uniformly in the interstitial space. As a result, a high concentration of the hydration products was

built up around the hydrating grains retarding the subsequent hydration process and adversely affected the long-term strength of concrete (Neville, 1981). Concrete containing GGBS has slower reaction rates. A longer curing duration is essential for proper development of the properties of GGBS (Neville, 1996). Some researchers (Meeks & Nicholas, 1999) recommend a minimum curing period of three days for high performance or durable GGBS concrete. The reason is that durability is controlled mainly by the quality of the concrete at surface and good curing is important for the quality of concrete at surface. High GGBS replacement concrete is more susceptible to poor curing conditions than Portland cement concretes probably due to the reduced formation of hydrate at early ages. Researchers found that curing in air lowered the strength by 21% and 47% for 50% and 65% GGBS replacement concrete respectively as compared to moist-cured samples at 180 days (Richardson, 2006) and the strength for a 50% GGBS replacement mix with an initial seven days moist curing followed by air curing is not significantly affected as compared to the moist-cured sample of the same GGBS replacement level. 11.3 ADDITION TO CONCRETE In the India, GGBS is normally supplied as a separate material and added at the concrete mixer. However, it can also be blended with Portland cement in a cement factory and marketed as Portland slag or Blast furnace cement. The British Standard for 'Concrete' [BS 8500] allows either approach to be used. These alternative routes have little effect on the properties of the finished concrete and the savings in carbon dioxide emissions are broadly similar. Generally, adding the GGBS at the concrete mixer: Reduces transport burdens, because the addition can be delivered directly to the concrete plant without having to go via a cement factory. Provides more accurate proportions, because the materials are weighbatched in a concrete plant.

A major advantage of adding GGBS at the concrete mixer, rather than at the cement factory, is the flexibility to vary the proportion and thereby optimise the technical performance of the concrete. The most widely used GGBS proportion is 50% but it is advantageous to be able to vary the proportion to meet specific requirements, e.g.: TABLE 11.3 COMPOSITIONS WITH CONCRETE PERCENTAGE OF GGBS 66 - 80%

PROPERTY Sulphate resistance Chloride ingress heat of hydration

REQUIREMENT

high sulfate resistance

high chloride resistance

66 - 80%

controlling temperature rise to avoid extended finishing times,

50 - 70%

setting time

for applications such as power-floated floors high early strength

25 - 40%

30 - 40%

very low early-strength gain, e.g. for Early-strength secant piling

81- 95%

to avoid retardation in cold water

30 - 40%

Some users, e.g. precast concrete factories producing only a small range of products that require similar concrete properties, will not want to incur the expense of the additional silo needed to blend at the mixer and may prefer a factory-blended cement. 12 PRELIMINARY TESTS 12.1 CEMENT Setting time test Consistency test Compressive test 13.1 COARSE AGGREGATE Sieve Analysis test Specific gravity test Water absorption test 14.1 FINE AGGREGATE Sieve Analysis test Specific gravity test Fineness test Density test Water Absorption test

12.1 TESTS ON CEMENT 12.1.1 CONSISTENCY TEST PURPOSE The basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency as specified by the IS: 4031 (Part 4) 1988. PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes. Fill the mould with paste and level it with a trowel. Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface. Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste. Note the reading on the gauge. Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm. RESULT OF CONSISTENCY TEST FOR CEMENT The penetration index obtained for consistency test of cement is 33 mm.

12.2 TESTS FOR INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME PURPOSE We need to calculate the initial and final setting time as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) 1988. PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT Prepare a cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. Start a stop-watch, the moment water is added to the cement. Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste gauged as above, the mould resting on a non-porous plate and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is the test block. INITIAL SETTING TIME Place the test block under the rod bearing the needle. Lower the needle gently in order to make contact with the surface of the cement paste and release quickly, allowing it to penetrate the test block. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the test block to a point 5.0 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The time period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle fails to pierce the test block by 5.0 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould, is the initial setting time. FINAL SETTING TIME Replace the above needle by the one with an annular attachment. The cement should be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently

to the surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression therein, while the attachment fails to do so. The period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test block, while the attachment fails to do so, is the final setting time. RESULTS INITIAL SETTING TIME The determined value for initial setting time of cement is 36 minutes. FINAL SETTING TIME The determined value for final setting time of cement is 550 minutes.

FIG 12.2

12.3 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST FOR CEMENT The compressive strength of hardened cement is the most important of all the properties. Therefore, it is not surprising that the cement is always tested for its compressive strength at the laboratory before the cement is used in important works. Strength test are not done on neat cement paste because of difficulties of excessive shrinkage and subsequent cracking of neat cement. Strength of cement is indirectly found on cement sand mortar in specific proportion. The cubes are prepared for this purpose. The cubes are then tested in compression testing machine at the end on three days and seven days. Testing of cubes is carried out on their three sides without packing. Thus the cubes are tested at each time. PREPARATION OF CEMENT MORTAR CUBES Take 555 grams of standard sand, 185gms of cement (i.e ratio of cement to sand is 1:3) in a non-porous enamel tray and mix them with a trowel for one minute. Add water quantity (P/4 + 3.0) % of combined weight of cement and sand and mix the three ingredients thoroughly until the mixture is of uniform colour. The time of mixing should be less than three minutes and not more than four minutes. Immediately after mixing fill the mortar into a cube mould of sizes 7.06cm.Compact the mortar either by hand compaction in a standard specified manner or on the vibrating table. Place the moulds in cabin at a temperature of 27 2 C for 24 hours. Remove the specimen from the moulds and submerge them in clean water for curing. TESTING OF CEMENT MORTAR CUBES Take the cube out of water at the end of three days with dry cloth. Measure the dimensions of the surface in which the load is to be applied. Let be L and B respectively.

Place the cube in compressive testing machine and apply the load uniformly at the rate of 35N/mm2.Note the load at which the cube fails. Let it be P. Calculate the compressive strength of the cube by using formula. The compressive strength at the end of three days should not be less than 16N/mm2 Repeat the same procedure (steps 1 to 4) for other two cubes. Repeat the whole procedure (Step 1 to 5) to find the compressive strength of the cube at the end of 7 days and it should not be less than 22 N/mm2 TABULATION FOR 3rd DAY S.NO LOAD (N) AREA (mm2) COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (MPa) 1. 2. 3. 150000 140000 145000 4900 4900 4900 Average FOR 7th DAY S.NO LOAD (N) AREA (mm2) COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (MPa) 1. 2. 205000 210000 4900 4900 41.84 42.86 = 30.61 28.57 29.59 29.59 MPa

3.

195000

4900 Average =

39.8 41.17 MPa

FOR 28th DAY S.NO LOAD (N) AREA (mm2) COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (MPa) 1. 2. 3. 260000 255000 265000 4900 4900 4900 Average CALCULATION Cube mould of size Area of the mould = 70 mm = 70 *70 = 4900 mm2 For 3rd day Compressive strength = = = 30.61 MPa = 53.06 52.04 54.08 53.06 MPa

13.1 COARSE AGGREGATE 13.1.1 SIEVE ANALYSIS PROCEDURE Take 5000 grams of coarse aggregates by weighing the material in a digital scale. Weigh each of the clean sieve, along with the bottom pan, and record their weights. Place the aggregates in the mechanical sifter (sieve sizes used are 1 , 1, , , 3/8, & #4). This apparatus is used for shaking the material (similar to the principle of a paint-mixing machine) and sieving it. Determine the aggregates that are retained in each individual sieve and record the data. To ensure that all materials are collected, use the steel brush to clean each sieve. Tabulate the data and determine the percent retained, and the percentage that would have been retained in each sieve, if that sieve alone was used to sieve the whole volume. The fineness modulus is obtained by adding the percentage of material retained in all the sieves and dividing it by 100. Plot a graph of percent passing by weight vs. sieve sizes.

FIG 13.1.1

13.1.2 WATER ABSORPTION TEST PURPOSE To determine the water absorption of given coarse aggregate. PROCEDURE The coarse aggregate passing through IS 10mm sieve is taken about 200g. They are dried in an oven at a temperature of 110o 5oC for 24 hours. The coarse aggregate is cooled to room temperature. Its weight is taken as (W1g) .The dried coarse aggregate is immersed in clean water at a temperature 27o 2oC for 24 hours. The coarse aggregate is removed from water and wiped out of traces of water with a cloth. Within three minutes from the removal of water, the weight of coarse aggregate W2 is found out The above procedure is repeated for various samples. FORMULA Percentage of water absorption =

RESULT OF WATER ABSORPTION TEST FOR COARSE AGGREGATE The water absorbed by the aggregate is determined as 0.8 %

14 TESTS ON FINE AGGREGATES 14.1 SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATE PROCEDURE Take 500g sample of fine aggregate (as per CSA code provisions, the aggregates must be completely dry). This is determined by weighing the material on a digital scale. Also weigh each sieve of the mechanical sifter, and the pan, and record the weights. Place the aggregate in the top sieve of the well-cleaned mechanical sifter (sieves used are # 4, # 8, # 16, # 30, # 50 & # 100). This apparatus is used for shaking the aggregates (similar to the principle used in a paint-mixing machine) and sieving them. The mechanical sifter has a bottom pan (to receive the material passing # 100 sieve) and a lid to close the sifter during the test. After placing the lid on the sifter, agitate the sifter for about 10 minutes. Determine the weight of aggregates that are retained in each of the sieves, by weighing each of the sieves (along with the retained aggregates), and subtracting the weight of each sieve. Also record all the weights of aggregates retained in each of the sieves. To ensure that all materials are collected, clean each sieve carefully using the proper type of brush. Also verify whether the sum of weights of aggregates, retained in all the sieves, and the bottom pan is equal to the initial weight of the aggregates taken. Tabulate the data and determine the percentage retained in each sieve. From these values calculate the (cumulative) percentage of material that would have been retained in the sieve if the whole volume of material was to be sifted in that sieve alone.

Then add the percentage of material retained in all the sieves and divide by 100 to get the fineness modulus. Also prepare a column to determine the cumulative percentage passing through the sieve to plot the fineness modulus curve. Plot a graph of percentage passing by weight vs sieve size. GRAPH 14.1 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SAND CONFIRMING TO ZONE-II (IS 383-1970)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.15 0.3 0.425 1.18 2.36 4.75 10 % finer