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Energy and exergy analysis of hybrid micro-channel

photovoltaic thermal module


Sanjay Agrawal

, G.N. Tiwari
Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
Received 7 January 2010; received in revised form 12 October 2010; accepted 16 November 2010
Available online 17 December 2010
Communicated by: Associate Editor S.C. Bhattacharya
Abstract
In this communication, an attempt has been made to evaluate energy and exergy analysis of a hybrid micro-channel photovoltaic
thermal (MCPVT) module based on proposed micro-channel solar cell thermal (MCSCT) under constant mass ow rate of air in terms
of design and climatic parameter. The performance in terms of overall annual thermal and exergy gain and exergy eciency of micro-
channel photovoltaic thermal module have been evaluated by considering four weather conditions for dierent climatic conditions of
India. Further analysis has also been carried out for single channel photovoltaic thermal (SCPVT) module and the results of micro-
channel photovoltaic thermal module and single channel photovoltaic thermal module have been compared.
On the basis of numerical computations, it has been observed that an overall annual thermal and exergy gains have been increased by
70.62% and 60.19% respectively for MCPVT module for Srinagar climatic conditions. Similar observations have been made for
Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Exergy; Micro-channel; Hybrid photovoltaic thermal module
1. Introduction
Several theoretical and experimental studies of hybrid
photovoltaic thermal systems are available in the literature.
Among the rst, Kern and Russell (1978) have given the
design and performance of water and air cooled hybrid
PVT collector and they found that the hybrid collector sys-
tems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial
heating loads. The passively cooled photovoltaic panels are
best suited for structures located in regions where year-
round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal
energy demands predominate. Hendrie (1979) has pre-
sented a theoretical model on PVT systems using conven-
tional thermal collector techniques. Florschuetz (1979)
has suggested an extension of HottelWiller model to ana-
lyze steady state combined photovoltaic thermal collector
with simple modication of conventional parameters of
the original model by assuming a linear correlation
between eciency of solar cell array and its temperature
over its operating temperature range. Raghuraman (1981)
has given numerical methods for predicting the perfor-
mances of liquid and air PVT at plate collectors.
Cox and Raghuraman (1985) have studied air type
hybrid systems and made use of computer simulation to
optimize the design of at PVT solar air collector in order
to increase the solar absorption and reducing the infrared
emittance. Lalovic (1986) has proposed a novel transparent
type of a-Si cell as a low cost improvement of hybrid sys-
tems. Bhargava et al. (1991) and Prakash (1994) have stud-
ied the eect of air mass ow rate, air channel depth, length
and fraction of absorber plate area covered by solar cells
on single pass air heater. They concluded that the solar cell
eciency was marginally improved while an average
thermal eciency of about 5070% for water heating and
1751% for air heating was obtained. Garg and Agarwal
0038-092X/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.solener.2010.11.013

Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9911428863; fax: +91 11 26591251.


E-mail address: sanju.aggrawal@gmail.com (S. Agrawal).
www.elsevier.com/locate/solener
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
(1995) presented the rst simulation study of the PVT air-
cooling at plate collector. Sopian et al. (1996) have pro-
posed at university of Miami a new design of double pass
PVT collector which can produce more heat, while simulta-
neously having a productive cooling eect on the cell.
Loferski et al. (1998) have given the result for a hybrid sys-
tem with air circulator. Jones and Underwood (2001) have
studied the temperature prole of a photovoltaic (PV)
module in non steady state condition. They conducted
experiments for cloudy as well as clear day condition for
analysis. The photovoltaic module is employed for directly
converting solar energy into electricity. The remaining ther-
mal energy available with PV module increases its temper-
ature and hence electrical eciency decreases. If thermal
energy associated with PV module is removed then its elec-
trical eciency can be improved. The carrier of thermal
energy associated with the PV module can either be air
or water. The integrated arrangement for utilizing the ther-
mal energy as well as electrical energy with PV module is
referred to as the hybrid photovoltaic thermal system. Per-
formance analysis of a PVT system can be carried out
either in terms of energy or exergy. Tripanagnostopoulos
et al. (2002) studied an integrated unglazed hybrid PVT
system with a booster diuse reector with the horizontal
roong of a building and concluded that the system yields
distinctly clear higher electrical and thermal outputs. Sand-
nes and Rekstad (2002) observed that the hybrid PVT sys-
tem concept must be used for low temperature thermal
applications and for increasing their electrical eciency.
Bosanac et al. (2003) have dened energy eciency as the
total energy yield for a year and the results are calculated
from the rst law of thermodynamics and exergy eciency
as the total exergy yield per year. According to Coventry
and Lovegrove (2003), exergy (sometimes called availabil-
ity) has been dened as the maximum theoretical useful
work obtainable from system as it returns to equilibrium
with the environment. Chow (2003) has analyzed the
PVT water collector with a single glazing in transient con-
ditions, consisted of tubes, in thermal contact with the at
plate on account of metallic bond. It has been observed
that the electrical eciency is increased by 2% at the mass
ow rate of 0.01 kg/s due to decrease in temperature of so-
lar cell of PV module. Temperature dependence of open
circuit voltage, intensity dependence of the eciency and
thermo photovoltaic conversion eciency has been dis-
cussed by Wu rfel (2009). Zondag et al. (2003) and Chow
(2003) have given reasons for reduction of the electrical e-
ciency of the PV module. They are packing factor (PF) of
PV module, ohmic losses between two consecutive solar
cells and the temperature of the module. It has been found
that an overall electrical eciency of the PV module can be
increased by increasing the packing factor (PF) and reduc-
ing the temperature of the PV module by using the thermal
energy associated with the PV module. Nelson (2003) has
described basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic
devices, physical models of solar cell operation, character-
Nomenclature
A
c
area of solar cell, m
2
b width of the micro-channel, m
d depth of micro-channel, m
C
f
specic heat of air, J/kg K
dx elemental length, m
dt elemental time, s
h heat transfer coecient, W/m
2
K
h
o
heat transfer coecient from solar cell to ambi-
ent through glass cover, W/m
2
K
h
i
heat transfer coecient from solar cell to ow-
ing air, W/m
2
K
h
b
heat transfer coecient from owing air to
ambient, W/m
2
K
I(t) incident solar intensity, W/m
2
K thermal conductivity, W/mK
L length, m
N number of micro-channel solar cell thermal
(MCSCT)
_ m
f
air mass ow rate in micro-channel, kg/s
_
Q
u
useful heat, W
T temperature, K
T average temperature, K
U overall heat transfer coecient, W/m
2
K
v velocity of air, m/s
g
o
eciency at standard test condition
(I(t) = 1000 W/m
2
and T
a
= 25 C)
V velocity of uid (air) owing inside of channel,
m/s
n
pv
number of rows of micro-channel solar cell ther-
mal (MCSCT)
b
0
temperature coecient of eciency, 1/K
Greek letters
a absorptivity
b packing factor
g eciency
q density, kg/m
3
Subscripts
a ambient
air air in the duct
c solar cell
e eective
f uid(air)
f
i
inlet uid
f
o
outgoing uid
S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370 357
istics and design of common types of solar cell and ap-
proaches to increasing solar cell eciency. Tiwari and Sod-
ha (2006) have developed a thermal model of integrated
photovoltaic and thermal solar (IPVTS) water/air heating
system. They observed that an overall thermal eciency
of IPVTS system for summer and winter conditions is
about 65% and 77%, respectively. Tiwari and Sodha
(2006) have validated the theoretical and experimental re-
sult for photovoltaic (PV) module integrated with air duct
for composite climate of India. They concluded that an
overall thermal eciency of PVT system is signicantly in-
creased due to utilization of thermal energy from PV mod-
ule. Thermal photovoltaic solar hybrid system for ecient
solar energy conversion has been discussed by Vorobiev
et al. (2005) and it has been found that thermal photovol-
taic solar hybrid systems oer unexplored possibilities to
increase the eciency of solar to electric energy conversion.
The possibility of generating electricity and heat energy
from a commercial PV module adopted as a PVT air solar
collector with either forced or natural airow in the chan-
nel was demonstrated by Tonui and Tripanagnostopoulos
(2007). Nayak and Tiwari (2008) have made exergy analy-
sis of integrated photovoltaic thermal (IPVT) water heater
under constant ow rate. They observed that an overall
exergy and thermal eciency of IPVT is maximum at the
hot water withdrawal ow rate of 0.006 kg/s. Dubey and
Tiwari (2009) have made detailed analysis of thermal en-
ergy, exergy and electrical energy yield by varying number
of collectors by considering four weather conditions. Du-
bey et al. (2009) have developed an analytical expression
for electrical eciency of PV module with and without ow
as function of climatic and design parameter and found
that glass to glass PV module with duct gives higher electri-
cal eciency as well as higher outlet air temperature i.e. it
gives higher thermal eciency. Performance analysis of a
hybrid photovoltaicthermal integrated system has also
been done by Radziemska (2009) who presented the con-
cept of exergy analysis for evaluation of the PVT systems
which is very useful tools for the improvement and cost-
eectiveness of the system. Energy and exergy analysis have
been done by Agrawal and Tiwari (2010) for building inte-
grated photovoltaic thermal system which is tted on the
rooftop with an eective area of 65 m
2
. It is capable of
annually producing the net electrical and thermal exergies
of 16209 kWh and 1531 kWh respectively.
In this paper, a photovoltaic solar cell with micro-chan-
nel (Fig. 1a) which is encapsulated in between solar cell and
tedlar is considered for the study. Such system has been
proposed and will be referred as hybrid micro-channel
solar cell thermal (MCSCT). In order to obtain maximum
electrical and thermal eciency, a series and parallel com-
bination of MCSCT have been considered which is referred
as micro-channel photovoltaic thermal (MCPVT) module
as shown in Fig. 2.
An overall annual gain in energy, exergy and exergy e-
ciency of the MCPVT module have been evaluated by con-
sidering four types of weather conditions for four dierent
cities (Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi) in
India. These cities are classied under the four dierent cli-
matic condition of India.
The four types of weather conditions are dened as,
Type a (clear days): The ratio of daily diuse to daily
global radiation is less than or equal to 0.25 and sun-
shine hours greater than or equal to 9 h.
Type b (hazy days): The ratio of daily diuse to daily
global radiation is between 0.25 and 0.50 and sunshine
hours between 7 and 9 h.
Type c (hazy and cloudy days): The ratio of daily diuse
to daily global radiation is between 0.50 and 0.75 and
sunshine hours between 5 and 7 h.
Micro-channel
Solar cell
d=500 m
L=0.12 m
b
=
0
.
1
2

m
Tedlar
Air inlet
Air outlet
a
b
Fig. 1. (a) View at A of Fig. 2 proposed micro-channel solar cell thermal
(MCSCT). (b) Air ow pattern over elementary area bdx of proposed
micro-channel solar cell thermal (MCSCT).
A
Fig. 2. Micro-channel PVT module (nine rows each having four cells in
series are connected in parallel).
358 S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
Type d (cloudy days): The ratio of daily diuse to daily
global radiation is greater than or equal to 0.75 and sun-
shine hours less than or equal to 5 h.
The monthly average data of solar radiation for dierent
climatic conditions was obtained from Indian Metrological
Department (IMD), Pune.
2. System description
The present study has been carried out on the proposed
single hybrid micro-channel solar cell thermal (MCSCT) as
shown in Fig. 1a. The proposed solar cell having dimension
0.12 m length and 0.12 m breadth has been considered. The
solar cell have eective area of 0.0144 m
2
with micro-chan-
nel of depth 500 lm below the solar cell. In the proposed
design of MCSCT the channel is between cell and tedlar
due to which the thermal resistance of tedlar is eliminated
unlike conventional PV module in which there is tedlar
thermal resistance between PV module and owing air.
There is provision for the inlet and outlet air to ow
through the micro-channel of solar cell as shown in
Fig. 1b. For the analysis, PVT module of nine rows, each
having four cells with micro-channel in series, are con-
nected in parallel as shown in Fig. 2, have been considered.
If the outlet of one micro-channel solar cell thermal
(MCSCT) is connected to the inlet of another MCSCT,
then it is referred as series connection. If the inlet and out-
let of each micro-channel solar cell thermal are same, then
it is referred as parallel connection.
The hybrid MCPVT module based on micro-channel
solar cell thermal (MCSCT) has been analyzed in terms of
an overall energy, exergy and exergy eciency. The result
has also been compared with result of photovoltaic thermal
(PVT) module with single channel of Dubey et al. (2009),
which will be referred as single channel photovoltaic thermal
(SCPVT) module with same (micro depth) ow rate.
3. Thermal modeling
In order to write the energy balance equation of
MCSCT, the following assumptions have been made:
One dimensional heat-conduction is good approxima-
tion for the present study.
There is no temperature gradient along the thickness of
solar cell.
The specic heat of air remains constant.
Heat capacity of solar cell is neglected.
The system is in quasi-steady state.
The ohmic losses in the solar cell are negligible.
There is stream line ow of air through the micro-chan-
nel at small ow rate.
Packing factor (b) is unity.
Fig. 1 shows the cross sectional view of PV cell with
micro-channel and an elemental area bdx of MCSCT.
Following Tiwari and Sodha (2006), the energy balance
equation for solar cell can be written as
a
c
Itbdx h
o
T
c
T
a
bdx h
i
T
c
T
f
bdx
g
c
Itbdx 1
Rate of solar
energy available
on solar cell
_

_
_

_
Rate of heat loss from
top surface of solar cell
to ambient
_

_
_

Rate of heat transfer


from solar cell to
flowing fluid i:e: air
_

_
_

_
Rate of
electrical energy
produced
_

_
_

_
From Eq. (1), the expression for solar cell temperature is
T
c

a
c
It g
c
It h
o
T
a
h
i
T
f
h
o
h
i
or
T
c

a
eff
It h
o
T
a
h
i
T
f
h
o
h
i
2
where a
e
= (a
c
g
c
)
Energy balance for air owing in the micro-channel of
MCSCT for elemental area bdx is given by
h
i
T
c
T
f
bdx _ m
f
C
f
dT
f
dx
dx h
b
T
f
T
a
bdx 3
Rate of heat transfer
from solar cell to
flowing fluid i:e: air
_

_
_

_
The mass flow
rate of flowing
fluid i:e: air
_

_
_

Rate of heat transfer


from flowing fluid to
ambient
_

_
_

_
where _ m
f
qLdV
Solving Eqs. (2) and (3) with initial condition at x = 0,
i.e. T
f
= T

; one gets
T
f

h
p
a
eff
U
L
It T
a
_ _
1 exp
bU
L
x
_ m
f
C
f
_ _ _ _
T
fi
exp
bU
L
x
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
4
At, x = L, T
f
= T
fo
, the outlet air temperature of micro-
channel solar cell thermal (MCSCT), one gets
T
fo

h
p
a
eff
U
L
It T
a
_ _
1 exp
bU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _ _ _
T
fi
exp
bU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
5
The average air temperature over the length of air below
micro-channel solar cell thermal (MCSCT) is obtained with
help of Eq. (4) as
T
f

1
L
_
L
0
T
f
dx
S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370 359
or
T
f

h
p
a
eff
U
L
It T
a
_ _
1
1 exp
bU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
bU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_
_
_
_
T
fi
1 exp
bU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
bU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_
_
_
_
6
For a number of MCSCT connected in series, the outlet
temperature of rst MCSCT will be the inlet for second
MCSCT, the outlet temperature of second MCSCT will
be the inlet for the third and so on. Hence for a system
of N number of MCSCT connected in series, the outlet
air temperature from Nth, MCSCT can be expressed in
terms of T

.
The outlet air temperature of N number of MCSCT con-
nected in series is derived as
T
foN

h
p
a
eff
U
L
It T
a
_ _
1 exp
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _ _ _
T
fi
exp
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
7
The rate of useful thermal energy obtained for n
pv
row of
MCPVT module
_
Q
U;N
n
pv
_ m
f
C
f
T
foN
T
fi
8
or
_
Q
U;N
n
pv
_ m
f
C
f
1 exp
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _ _ _
h
p
a
eff
U
L
It T
a
T
fi
_ _
9
3.1. Instantaneous electrical eciency
Electrical eciency of solar cell depends on solar cell
temperature is given by Schott (1985) and Evans (1981)
and it is expressed as
g g
o
1 b
o
T
c
T
o
10
An expression for temperature dependent electrical e-
ciency of hybrid micro-channel solar cell thermal as
function of design as well as climatic parameter can be
obtained as
gg
o
1b
o
a
eff
It
h
o
h
i
T
o
T
a

h
i
h
p
a
eff
It
U
L
h
o
h
i

_ _
1
1exp
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_
_
_
_
_
_

h
i
h
o
h
i

1exp
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_ _
NbU
L
L
_ m
f
C
f
_
_
_
_
_
_
T
a
T
fi

_ _ _
11
3.2. Energy analysis
The energy analysis is based on the rst law of thermo-
dynamics, and the expression for total thermal gain can be
dened as,

_
Q
u;total

_
Q
u;thermal

_
Q
u;electrical
g
cpower
12
where
_
Q
u;thermal

_
Q
uN
1000
13
Overall thermal gain from a PVT system = thermal energy
collected by the PVT system + (electrical output /g
cpower
).
where, g
cpower
is the electric power generation eciency
conversion factor of a conventional power plant for India.
This is so because electrical energy is a high-grade form
of energy which is required for operation of DC motor.
This electrical energy has been converted to equivalent
thermal energy by using electric power generation eciency
conversion factor as 0.200.40 for a conventional power
plant, Huang et al. (2001) and it depends on quality of coal,
usual the value of this factor is taken as 0.38 for
conversion.
3.3. Exergy analysis
The exergy of a thermodynamic system is the maximum
work that can be done by the system when undergoes
reversible processes that bring the system into complete
thermodynamic equilibrium with a dened reference envi-
ronment. Exergy is always destroyed when a process
involves a temperature change. This destruction is propor-
tional to the entropy increase of the system together with
its surroundings. The destroyed exergy has been called
anergy. Exergy analysis identies the location, magnitude
and the source of thermodynamic ineciencies in a system.
This information, which can not be provided by other
means (e.g., energy analysis), is very useful for the improve-
ment and cost-eectiveness of the system. The exergy anal-
ysis is based on the second law of thermodynamics, which
includes accounting the total exergy inow, exergy outow
and exergy destructed from the system.
The general exergy balance for a micro-channel PVT
module can be written as,

_
Ex
in

_
Ex
out

_
Ex
dest
14
or,

_
Ex
in

_
Ex
thermal

_
Ex
electrical

_
Ex
dest
and

_
Ex
out

_
Ex
thermal

_
Ex
electrical
15
where
360 S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
_
Ex
in
A
c
N It 1
4
3

T
a
T
s
_ _

1
3

T
a
T
s
_ _
4
_ _
; Petela 2003 16
_
Ex
thermal

_
Q
U;N
1
T
a
273
T
fo
273
_ _
and 17
_
Ex
electrical

gAIt
1000
_ _
18
where A is area of module and T
s
is the Sun temperature in
Kelvin.
The Exergy eciency of MCPVT module is dened by
Hepbasli (2008) as follows:
g
EX

_
Ex
out
_
Ex
in
_ _
100 19
4. Methodology
The climatic data, namely solar radiation and ambient
air temperature have been obtained from Indian Metrolog-
ical Department (IMD), Pune (see Table 2). The hourly
variation of solar radiation and ambient air temperature
for a typical day of Srinagar has been shown in Fig. 3.
4.1. Energy analysis
Annual electrical, thermal output and exergy can be
obtained as follows:
4.1.1. Annual thermal gain
I. The rate of useful thermal energy for conguration as
explained in system description are obtained using
Eq. (9) considering N equal to four and putting, n
pv
equal to nine for conguration .
II. Daily thermal gain in kWh of ad type weather have
been calculated using Eq. (13).
III. Monthly thermal gain in kWh have been calculated
by multiplying daily thermal output and no. of clear
days in a month of ad type weather of MCPVT
module.
IV. Annual thermal gain has been calculated by summing
the monthly thermal gain of ad type weather of
MCPVT module.
V. An overall annual thermal gain has been evaluated
using Eq. (12)
4.1.2. Annual electrical gain
I. MCSCT based electrical eciency of MCPVT mod-
ule have been calculated for conguration as
explained in system description using Eq. (11) consid-
ering N equal to four based on hourly solar radiation,
ambient temperature and cell temperature.
II. Daily electrical energy generated in kWh of ad type
weather of MCPVT module have been calculated by
Eq. (18).
III. Monthly electrical output have been calculated by
multiplying daily electrical energy generated and no.
of clear days in a month of ad type weather of
MCPVT module.
IV. Anannual electrical output have beencalculatedby sum-
ming the monthly electrical output of ad type weather.
4.2. Exergy analysis
I. Daily exergy equivalent of thermal output has been
calculated from Eq. (17).
II. Monthly output exergy has been calculated by multi-
plying daily exergy output and no. of clear days in a
month of ad type weather.
III. Annual output exergy has been calculated by sum-
ming the monthly input exergy of ad type weather.
IV. As electrical output of MCPVT module is a form of
exergy, overall annual exergy of MCPVT module is
obtained by Eq. (15)
4.3. Exergy eciency
Exergy eciency has been calculated by following steps:
I. Firstly daily input exergy of ad type weather have
been calculated using Eq. (18).
II. Monthly input exergy has been calculated by multi-
plying daily exergy input and no. of clear days in a
month of ad type weather.
III. Annual input exergy have been calculated by sum-
ming the monthly input exergy of ad type weather.
IV. Daily exergy output of ad type weather have been
evaluated by using Eqs. (15), (17) and (18).
V. Monthly output exergy have been calculated by mul-
tiplying daily exergy output and no. of clear days in a
month of ad type weather.
VI. Annual output exergy have been calculated by sum-
ming the monthly input exergy of ad type weather.
VII. An overall exergy eciency has been calculated by
using Eq. (19).
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00
Time (Hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

W
/
m
2
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
m
b
i
e
n
t

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

0
C
It
Ta
Fig. 3. Hourly variation of solar intensity and ambient temperature for
the month of January.
S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370 361
5. Results and discussions
The values of various design parameter of MCSCT are
given in Table 1.The hourly variation of solar intensity
and ambient temperature for a typical day in the month
of January for Srinagar has been shown in the Fig. 3. Fol-
lowing the above mentioned methodology, Eqs. (2), (5) and
(11) have been computed by using Matlab 7 for evaluating
the hourly variation of solar cell, the outlet air temperature
and solar cell electrical eciency of micro-channel photo-
voltaic thermal (MCPVT) module at dierent depth of
micro-channel for the month of January of Srinagar. The
results have been shown in Fig. 4. It is observed that the
electrical eciency decreases with increase of solar cell
and the outlet air temperature and vice-versa with decrease
of solar cell and the outlet air temperature. These results
are in accordance with the result reported by earlier
researcher, Zondag et al. (2003). It has also been observed
that the solar cell temperature and the outlet air tempera-
ture are maximum and electrical eciency is minimum
between 12:00 and 13:00 h. One can also observe that solar
cell electrical eciency, outlet air temperature is higher and
solar cell temperature is lower at micro-channel depth (d)
of 500 lm in comparison to that of micro-channel depth
1000 and 1500 lm. Hence for better performance of
MCPVT, micro-channel depth 500 lm has been taken for
further calculations.
The monthly thermal energy, exergy and electrical
energy gain are evaluated by using Eq. (9), (15) and (18).
The computation has been carried out by considering the
four type weather condition (ad type) of Srinagar. For
MCPVT and SCPVT modules, the monthly variation of
an overall thermal energy gain (kWh) for four type of
weather condition of Srinagar have been shown in Fig. 5.
It is seen that the maximum and the minimum overall
thermal energy gain for both the cases are obtained during
May and December month respectively. It is also seen that
monthly variation of overall thermal energy gain of
MCPVT module is higher than SCPVT module as
expected. This is due to decrease in heat transfer coecient
from solar cell to owing air by eliminating the tedlar ther-
mal resistance and because of change in air ow pattern
due to partition of single channel into combination of pro-
posed micro-channel solar cell thermal as shown in Fig. 2.
An overall thermal energy gain for MCPVT and SCPVT
modules are 42.96 kWh and 24.39 kWh in the month of
May and 19.45 kWh and 12.41 kWh in month of December
respectively. This concludes that the monthly overall ther-
mal energy gain in case of MCPVT module is higher than
SCPVT module. The monthly variation of overall exergy
gain (kWh) for Srinagar has been shown in Fig. 6. It is
clear that the maximum and the minimum overall exergy
gain for both the case are obtained during May and
December month respectively. In this case too, the monthly
variation of overall exergy gain of MCPVT module is
higher than SCPVT module. Monthly overall exergy e-
ciency has been evaluated with help of Eqs. (15)(19) of
MCPVT and SCPVT module of Srinagar. Monthly varia-
tion of overall exergy eciency of ad type weather of
Srinagar of MCPVT and SCPVT modules have been
shown in Figs. 7 and 8 respectively. Monthly overall exergy
eciency for both the cases (MCPVT and SCPVT module)
has been shown in Fig. 9 for comparison. It has been
observed that the monthly overall exergy eciency of
MCPVT module is maximum (18%) in month of January
and minimum (15.8%) in the month of June while in case
of SCPVT module, an overall exergy eciency is maximum
(12.48%) in month of December and minimum (9.38%) in
month of June. On the basis of above result it is concluded
that MCPVT module give higher overall exergy eciency
than SCPVT module.
The similar analysis of monthly overall thermal energy,
exergy gain and exergy eciency for rest three dierent cities
of India (Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi) have been
evaluated. On the basis of monthly analysis, annual analysis
have been carried out for all four cities .The comparison
chart of overall annual thermal and exergy gain considering
the four type of weather condition for four dierent cities of
India (Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and NewDelhi) taking
both the case (MCPVT and SCPVT module) is shown in
Figs. 10 and 11 respectively. The detailed analysis shows that
the maximum overall annual thermal gain (434.09 kWh in
case of MCPVT module and 249.64 kWh in case of SCPVT
module) and overall exergy gain (152.96 kWh in case of
MCPVT module and 93.57 kWh in case of SCPVT module)
is obtained for the Bangalore and minimum overall annual
thermal gain (377.43 kWh in case of MCPVT module and
221.20 kWh in case of SCPVT module) and overall exergy
gain (132.91 kWh in case of MCPVT module and
82.97 kWh in case of SCPVT module) for the Srinagar .It
can be seen that the annual overall thermal and exergy gain
for all four cities of MCPVTmodule are higher than SCPVT
module.
The comparison graph of overall exergy eciency for
four dierent cities of India taking both the case (MCPVT
Table 1
Design parameters of micro-channel solar cell
thermal (MCSCT).
Parameters Values
c
f
J/kg K 1012
h
o
W/m
2
K 5.7 + 3.8 v
h
i
W/m
2
K 2.8 + 3 v
h
b
W/m
2
K 1
K
c
W/mK 0.039
L
c
m 0.0003
a
c
0.9
b
0
1/K 0.0045
g
c
0.15
_ m
f
kg/s .000036
v m/s 1.5
V m/s 0.5
d m 0.0005
A
c
m
2
0.0144
q kg/m
3
1.29
362 S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
Table 2
Measured average hourly global radiations (W/m
2
) on horizontal surface, number of days fall under dierent weather conditions and the average ambient
temperature (C) for dierent places in India (Source: IMD, Pune).
Month
Solar radiation Time January February March April May June July August September October November December
(a) Bangalore: (i) Measured average hourly global radiations for type a weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 181.04 208.59 230.90 269.44 309.26 277.77 276.16 274.54 279.17 249.54 208.33 142.54
9 am 412.80 428.66 493.29 536.80 558.34 511.11 528.47 545.84 541.66 501.94 453.89 376.59
10 am 617.39 655.05 736.69 780.56 753.70 698.61 686.57 674.54 758.34 720.51 664.17 589.52
11 am 781.10 821.46 926.62 963.89 905.56 823.61 815.97 808.33 908.34 864.72 798.89 750.79
12 pm 855.07 911.99 1034.14 1046.88 969.91 861.12 865.74 870.37 986.11 934.40 875.28 828.25
1 pm 866.49 910.10 1029.51 1048.96 963.89 826.38 836.34 846.29 926.39 914.91 870.56 837.62
2 pm 788.35 859.22 936.92 956.25 878.70 850.00 821.07 792.13 920.84 862.55 796.39 771.43
3 pm 637.26 716.03 779.28 772.22 743.52 737.50 652.78 568.05 537.50 602.36 640.83 619.92
4 pm 429.83 500.63 561.69 550.00 538.43 444.44 437.04 429.63 477.77 435.60 425.83 408.57
5 pm 201.69 262.00 323.03 274.65 290.28 319.44 290.51 261.57 256.94 231.02 200.00 185.79
(a) Bangalore: (ii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type b weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 159.82 178.04 194.27 235.99 249.91 217.13 241.67 212.78 261.11 223.61 139.24 128.31
9 am 392.66 400.95 429.51 479.40 475.93 432.25 443.21 431.11 405.56 416.67 376.39 344.71
10 am 615.48 604.51 626.39 699.30 688.43 646.61 624.07 652.22 716.67 665.27 614.93 584.39
11 am 774.11 748.09 788.02 852.78 828.89 757.72 779.32 752.22 825.00 859.03 721.53 735.45
12 pm 794.25 818.75 872.57 941.55 878.80 827.32 776.85 835.56 866.67 919.45 767.36 772.75
1 pm 796.23 827.52 864.41 948.38 854.44 824.69 756.17 796.67 669.44 850.00 777.08 725.66
2 pm 745.63 689.24 775.52 850.93 769.17 752.93 710.80 730.56 611.11 750.00 718.75 658.20
3 pm 609.72 583.85 581.42 669.44 653.98 560.65 604.01 558.89 450.00 683.34 530.21 490.61
4 pm 411.71 410.85 412.50 487.27 457.04 414.04 419.75 422.22 372.22 447.23 400.00 317.20
5 pm 196.73 192.01 229.34 245.60 253.52 220.83 259.88 227.22 213.89 215.28 148.61 130.95
(a) Bangalore: (iii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type c weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 124.31 125.00 185.42 153.70 203.47 202.38 189.77 172.68 182.41 181.95 112.78 85.77
9 am 311.81 347.22 345.14 344.44 384.26 408.34 356.00 372.69 425.92 378.47 290.00 284.37
10 am 484.72 534.26 547.92 560.19 551.85 583.73 504.97 518.52 638.89 582.64 435.00 499.65
11 am 665.97 710.19 780.55 775.00 702.32 617.46 574.27 694.45 747.22 652.78 590.56 572.92
12 pm 561.80 624.07 870.14 807.40 860.88 782.94 692.54 635.65 745.37 650.00 593.33 526.04
1 pm 610.41 825.00 674.31 789.81 832.41 715.87 697.51 700.46 765.74 644.45 641.67 535.42
2 pm 609.72 662.04 486.81 697.22 690.97 650.79 605.70 646.30 637.04 700.00 430.56 496.18
3 pm 485.42 459.26 371.53 720.37 532.87 468.25 557.02 485.65 542.59 484.72 414.44 406.94
4 pm 256.94 327.78 259.03 516.67 394.68 353.97 389.18 346.30 409.26 340.97 279.45 300.35
5 pm 160.42 130.56 184.03 233.33 230.79 200.00 199.42 185.19 218.52 115.28 98.33 105.56
(a) Bangalore: (iv) Measured average hourly global radiations for type d weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 101.39 133.33 152.43 177.95 203.47 182.54 141.67 165.08 150.00 110.52 81.67 69.44
9 am 270.37 350.00 355.32 397.80 440.27 344.44 331.25 282.54 222.22 204.33 108.89 190.74
10 am 481.02 577.78 479.05 478.06 477.08 476.98 446.88 450.79 308.33 377.54 361.11 384.26
11 am 446.76 616.67 533.45 576.79 620.14 546.03 494.10 519.84 419.44 424.28 522.22 276.85
12 pm 366.20 422.22 537.96 623.84 709.72 636.11 482.29 651.98 522.22 541.03 666.67 310.19
1 pm 423.61 500.00 534.37 589.76 645.14 633.73 481.25 603.57 480.56 426.54 525.00 347.22
2 pm 431.48 511.11 540.39 594.85 649.31 564.29 485.42 508.33 438.89 481.90 408.33 351.85
3 pm 412.50 583.33 463.19 488.54 513.89 471.03 345.83 400.79 427.78 350.45 361.11 241.67
4 pm 235.65 338.89 297.34 328.18 359.03 253.18 299.31 291.67 258.33 107.89 104.44 132.41
5 pm 166.20 233.33 176.85 182.18 187.50 117.46 154.86 148.81 77.78 58.73 47.22 99.07
Type of days January February March April May June July August September October November December
(a) Bangalore: (v) Number of days fall in dierent weather condition
a 7 8 9 9 7 8 7 6 8 7 6 7
b 16 11 11 10 13 11 13 11 10 10 10 10
c 6 7 8 9 8 8 7 10 9 11 12 12
d 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2
Month
Solar radiation Time January February March April May June July August September October November December
(a) Bangalore: (vi) Average ambient temperature for dierent months (C)
8 am 16.00 17.60 18.50 21.80 20.80 21.70 21.60 21.30 21.30 21.40 16.70 16.50
9 am 16.00 17.10 18.50 21.60 20.80 21.80 21.10 21.10 20.80 21.40 16.70 16.50
10 am 16.00 16.60 18.50 21.60 20.80 20.80 20.80 20.70 20.60 21.50 16.40 15.40
S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370 363
Table 2 (continued)
Month
Solar radiation Time January February March April May June July August September October November December
11 am 15.90 16.60 18.50 21.60 20.80 20.80 20.70 20.80 20.60 21.80 16.40 15.30
12 pm 16.50 17.10 20.00 21.60 20.90 21.50 20.70 20.80 20.80 21.90 17.20 15.70
1 pm 18.40 19.60 22.90 24.30 22.40 22.50 20.50 22.40 22.80 22.70 20.10 20.00
2 pm 21.30 23.20 25.20 26.90 24.10 24.00 21.40 23.80 23.30 22.90 21.40 22.30
3 pm 23.50 25.90 26.90 29.70 26.00 25.50 23.10 25.50 24.30 22.90 22.90 23.50
4 pm 25.80 28.20 29.70 32.50 27.30 26.10 25.50 26.80 26.30 24.00 24.40 24.10
5 pm 25.00 29.60 31.20 33.20 28.10 27.20 26.50 28.20 28.10 24.10 24.90 24.60
(b) Jodhpur: (i) Measured average hourly global radiations for type a weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 129.75 200.73 286.48 343.28 378.15 398.61 399.89 337.71 275.52 208.82 138.47 120.90
9 am 330.27 414.62 494.82 549.00 574.17 576.39 578.23 526.88 475.52 405.64 332.69 299.79
10 am 506.54 591.27 676.60 723.33 735.65 716.67 718.96 682.14 645.31 582.35 494.86 462.20
11 am 632.93 713.56 787.82 823.56 843.70 817.13 819.74 787.82 755.90 694.04 607.73 577.78
12 pm 691.90 776.19 845.99 886.72 896.11 883.33 886.16 848.20 810.24 752.94 666.39 639.18
1 pm 690.68 776.85 853.37 893.56 900.28 891.67 894.52 854.90 815.28 754.98 671.67 637.33
2 pm 626.45 711.90 787.29 826.95 844.26 845.37 848.08 801.73 755.38 695.26 617.13 582.91
3 pm 503.24 587.70 669.12 717.33 729.17 732.87 735.21 687.31 639.41 571.41 497.82 460.27
4 pm 332.81 410.58 490.60 550.94 568.33 574.07 575.91 524.33 472.74 407.27 336.57 300.55
5 pm 130.03 196.63 275.37 338.94 369.54 389.35 390.60 324.73 258.86 201.14 139.95 110.98
(b) Jodhpur: (ii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type b weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 108.95 177.66 256.97 325.96 358.36 360.76 356.67 318.75 268.38 204.26 126.53 89.39
9 am 290.68 376.71 460.98 527.81 548.83 543.36 533.00 496.53 474.95 402.73 310.88 263.89
10 am 460.31 553.31 630.16 701.79 710.64 682.64 660.55 644.56 641.77 566.20 476.57 429.20
11 am 583.43 672.75 750.62 810.22 817.98 786.07 778.78 731.13 736.41 675.23 587.45 550.54
12 pm 649.01 738.24 813.49 865.71 877.08 838.19 845.33 809.72 796.77 727.04 644.44 611.69
1 pm 639.41 734.22 820.64 870.90 880.94 847.01 838.00 825.93 794.85 735.14 649.72 616.51
2 pm 571.52 665.13 757.05 797.49 817.05 802.13 785.78 774.88 740.40 678.98 600.19 550.15
3 pm 444.30 525.00 640.78 685.45 706.93 694.62 691.56 662.50 612.78 549.63 473.52 428.70
4 pm 279.71 357.86 465.21 514.52 547.98 544.23 534.11 492.36 443.18 388.06 319.26 264.31
5 pm 99.25 161.11 252.69 313.03 358.98 360.55 351.78 311.11 260.50 190.28 130.09 90.28
(b) Jodhpur: (iii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type c weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 62.15 133.33 192.86 256.60 294.44 320.20 326.39 278.03 280.56 91.67 77.78 56.95
9 am 207.99 300.93 356.35 486.81 465.74 444.45 430.76 445.71 412.96 184.72 205.56 208.80
10 am 337.85 494.44 495.64 584.03 601.85 613.89 592.26 580.30 526.85 287.50 356.94 272.68
11 am 410.42 611.11 595.24 729.17 690.74 714.65 686.31 685.35 627.32 618.05 422.23 457.41
12 pm 462.50 510.18 687.30 821.18 767.59 787.63 730.36 762.12 733.33 688.89 581.95 468.52
1 pm 545.49 577.78 677.38 753.82 739.81 788.64 706.15 740.15 767.13 680.55 531.95 463.43
2 pm 491.32 516.67 620.64 719.10 714.81 711.87 646.03 680.56 740.74 558.33 473.62 425.00
3 pm 370.49 320.37 482.15 650.00 646.30 653.54 585.71 564.90 604.17 513.88 293.06 331.02
4 pm 232.29 220.37 352.38 498.26 475.00 527.53 480.16 453.79 411.11 398.61 231.94 199.54
5 pm 83.33 110.19 186.91 314.24 295.37 337.88 298.02 259.34 251.85 176.38 106.94 75.00
(b) Jodhpur: (iv) Measured average hourly global radiations for type d weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 50.46 53.70 119.44 125.42 186.32 247.22 105.00 159.03 152.78 183.33 76.39 47.22
9 am 182.87 204.63 166.66 175.00 327.78 480.56 231.67 291.67 330.56 377.78 248.61 161.11
10 am 319.91 337.04 373.61 392.29 387.81 383.33 315.00 314.58 391.67 533.33 302.77 302.78
11 am 422.69 531.48 433.33 455.00 495.56 536.11 397.78 468.05 475.00 538.89 369.44 313.89
12 pm 427.78 475.00 340.27 357.29 505.04 652.78 500.56 451.39 537.04 666.67 304.17 380.56
1 pm 396.76 437.96 415.27 436.04 584.68 733.33 546.67 461.11 474.07 647.22 362.50 355.56
2 pm 463.89 488.89 556.95 584.79 479.89 375.00 471.67 579.86 392.59 583.33 352.77 438.89
3 pm 368.52 387.03 431.94 453.54 289.27 125.00 315.56 506.94 312.04 425.00 288.89 350.00
4 pm 277.32 315.74 191.66 201.25 252.01 302.78 239.44 343.06 269.45 305.56 158.34 238.89
5 pm 120.83 177.78 84.72 88.96 195.87 302.78 187.22 165.97 116.67 144.44 56.95 63.89
Type of days January February March April May June July August September October November December
(b) Jodhpur: (v) Number of days fall in dierent weather condition
a 7 9 11 11 9 7 6 5 5 6 5 6
b 14 13 13 15 17 18 16 18 17 13 11 14
c 8 5 6 3 4 4 6 5 6 10 11 9
d 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 2
(continued on next page)
364 S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
Table 2 (continued)
Month
Solar radiation Time January February March April May June July August September October November December
(b) Jodhpur: (vi) Average ambient temperature for dierent months (C)
8 am 13.40 16.90 22.50 24.00 31.10 31.90 26.40 26.40 23.30 21.80 15.40 17.50
9 am 12.80 15.90 21.70 23.80 30.20 32.20 25.70 26.50 23.20 21.50 15.30 17.00
10 am 11.90 15.80 21.30 23.30 29.50 32.60 25.70 26.50 23.20 21.00 15.90 16.00
11 am 11.60 15.60 21.30 23.30 29.40 32.70 25.70 26.50 23.20 20.60 15.90 16.00
12 pm 11.70 15.60 21.90 23.30 29.80 33.20 25.70 28.20 23.20 21.90 16.30 16.00
1 pm 10.50 17.10 25.30 24.50 31.10 34.80 25.90 29.10 24.90 26.40 21.50 16.00
2 pm 14.30 19.60 29.80 26.60 32.70 36.00 26.30 29.60 26.80 29.80 25.50 18.80
3 pm 19.40 22.60 32.30 29.70 33.90 37.10 27.00 30.60 29.50 33.60 27.70 22.00
4 pm 21.70 25.10 33.80 31.80 35.50 33.80 28.10 32.60 31.70 34.30 30.00 24.80
5 pm 24.20 26.10 34.30 32.50 36.80 40.00 28.60 32.60 32.40 35.10 30.90 25.60
(c) New Delhi: (i) Measured average hourly global radiations for type a weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 132.99 180.29 266.77 368.14 406.31 436.67 367.36 333.59 277.96 168.75 121.46 93.12
9 am 355.56 403.58 488.94 588.48 608.84 637.22 587.04 528.54 501.30 364.58 316.04 275.27
10 am 554.69 594.44 671.21 767.81 776.26 802.22 737.27 674.49 682.04 565.28 485.35 443.25
11 am 680.73 729.39 804.33 888.32 897.98 915.00 831.71 820.20 809.07 694.45 609.97 565.87
12 pm 726.74 786.02 866.93 941.01 956.82 951.67 881.48 868.18 869.07 761.80 664.01 621.83
1 pm 733.85 792.03 869.28 944.12 950.51 946.11 896.53 807.83 855.19 756.25 657.45 618.39
2 pm 656.08 728.58 803.15 878.68 886.62 882.78 820.60 766.67 779.81 686.11 587.37 553.31
3 pm 500.00 584.23 665.33 746.90 761.37 765.56 753.24 658.08 656.48 543.75 454.17 426.19
4 pm 311.46 391.22 483.01 568.30 580.81 611.67 569.68 477.78 483.89 362.50 274.62 253.97
5 pm 106.42 178.23 264.10 348.61 372.48 420.00 373.15 305.81 270.19 152.08 84.09 68.78
(c) New Delhi: (ii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type b weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 119.58 186.67 300.45 413.11 439.11 433.34 398.66 366.89 277.34 260.00 153.11 86.66
9 am 332.50 425.84 540.22 635.55 641.34 641.34 592.22 551.78 499.78 442.00 332.22 280.22
10 am 516.25 609.59 733.78 808.89 794.45 794.45 751.11 713.55 687.55 598.00 470.89 456.45
11 am 650.41 752.50 872.45 936.00 898.45 912.89 840.66 832.00 788.66 693.34 574.89 580.66
12 pm 708.75 813.75 933.11 999.55 947.55 999.55 936.00 881.11 837.78 728.00 606.66 629.78
1 pm 723.33 822.50 938.89 982.22 936.00 996.66 907.11 881.11 860.89 702.00 563.34 635.55
2 pm 650.41 758.33 869.55 901.34 852.22 912.89 837.78 808.89 800.22 615.34 491.11 566.22
3 pm 498.75 603.75 713.55 751.11 722.22 808.89 707.78 687.55 667.34 465.11 352.45 424.66
4 pm 315.00 408.33 522.89 557.55 540.22 635.55 554.66 505.55 462.22 283.11 193.55 228.22
5 pm 110.84 183.75 288.89 332.22 340.89 416.00 352.45 317.78 265.78 98.22 86.66 63.55
(c) New Delhi: (iii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type c weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 71.11 117.78 197.78 288.89 361.11 358.33 333.33 297.50 261.25 195.83 66.66 66.66
9 am 235.55 284.45 366.66 453.34 566.67 555.56 530.67 490.00 456.53 365.56 206.66 216.00
10 am 360.00 420.00 513.34 582.22 708.33 727.78 642.66 597.50 617.50 496.11 333.34 365.34
11 am 457.78 522.22 613.34 677.78 841.67 816.67 744.00 700.00 691.39 587.50 415.55 482.67
12 pm 515.55 562.22 664.45 724.45 894.44 833.33 778.67 702.50 730.97 624.06 444.45 544.00
1 pm 515.55 562.22 662.22 720.00 872.22 861.11 762.66 702.50 752.09 608.39 453.34 522.66
2 pm 462.22 506.66 602.22 664.45 805.56 763.89 722.67 630.00 712.50 514.39 406.66 448.00
3 pm 353.34 384.45 497.78 564.45 666.67 688.89 602.67 540.00 575.28 383.83 313.34 341.34
4 pm 217.78 266.66 353.34 420.00 513.89 538.89 469.33 430.00 414.30 229.77 177.78 200.00
5 pm 71.11 111.11 188.89 233.34 322.22 333.33 280.00 282.50 255.97 73.11 62.22 58.67
(c) New Delhi: (iv) Measured average hourly global radiations for type d weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 51.20 94.30 169.75 266.75 304.12 235.12 262.50 208.47 155.00 110.84 63.88 54.45
140.11 188.61 331.42 441.89 503.44 350.12 397.50 358.89 287.50 237.66 184.00 176.95
10 am 237.11 247.89 479.61 600.86 623.56 454.88 515.00 440.70 425.00 375.66 273.44 272.22
11 am 301.78 291.00 552.36 716.72 702.78 595.44 587.50 530.41 557.50 488.12 375.66 356.61
12 pm 379.92 369.14 590.08 773.30 761.56 672.12 605.00 572.64 585.00 503.44 444.66 397.45
1 pm 379.92 412.25 627.80 757.14 764.12 682.34 615.00 588.47 585.00 511.12 477.88 405.61
2 pm 328.72 374.53 568.53 689.78 621.00 631.22 517.50 562.09 530.00 454.88 424.22 359.34
3 pm 261.36 299.08 463.45 541.58 529.00 536.66 445.00 496.11 442.50 339.88 337.34 239.55
4 pm 161.67 204.78 307.17 425.72 426.78 426.78 347.50 348.34 350.00 237.66 198.33 141.55
5 pm 45.80 88.92 161.67 239.80 255.56 281.12 232.50 195.28 187.50 113.75 66.44 52.72
Type of days January February March April May June July August September October November December
(c) New Delhi: (v) Number of days fall in dierent type of days for New Delhi
a 3 3 5 4 4 3 2 2 7 5 6 3
b 8 4 6 7 9 4 3 3 3 10 10 7
c 11 12 12 14 12 14 10 7 10 13 12 13
d 9 9 8 5 6 9 17 19 10 3 2 8
S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370 365
Table 2 (continued)
Month
Solar radiation Time January February March April May June July August September October November December
(c) New Delhi: (vi) Average monthly ambient temperature (
o
C) for each month for New Delhi from IMD, Pune
8 am 7.90 9.20 15.80 25.00 30.80 26.50 26.10 24.30 27.90 21.00 17.00 9.60
9 am 7.90 9.10 15.90 25.00 30.80 26.30 26.10 24.30 27.90 21.00 16.70 9.10
10 am 7.90 8.90 15.90 25.00 30.10 26.30 26.20 24.30 27.90 20.50 16.50 8.90
11 am 6.60 8.80 15.80 25.10 30.60 26.50 26.30 24.30 28.30 20.50 16.00 8.70
12 pm 6.40 8.90 16.60 25.90 31.80 27.30 26.60 24.40 28.90 22.70 16.20 9.40
1 pm 7.70 11.40 19.90 27.60 33.80 29.90 28.00 25.50 30.60 25.00 20.50 13.10
2 pm 10.60 15.10 22.80 30.30 35.30 31.40 28.40 25.60 32.30 28.30 25.00 16.80
3 pm 13.00 18.30 26.20 31.70 36.60 32.20 29.30 26.00 33.50 30.50 27.60 19.30
4 pm 15.00 20.10 27.00 33.20 37.60 33.60 30.40 26.40 33.90 31.60 28.50 20.90
5 pm 16.50 21.60 28.90 34.40 38.50 34.30 32.20 27.10 35.50 32.70 29.60 21.70
(d) Srinagar: (i) Measured average hourly global radiations for type a weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 73.61 69.79 221.53 373.06 408.52 434.92 408.89 289.58 291.25 179.42 66.67 30.55
9 am 252.78 284.72 461.57 594.31 633.52 634.52 626.11 542.71 492.78 379.32 272.22 213.89
10 am 455.56 481.60 665.74 776.53 793.52 796.43 788.06 711.11 668.47 544.75 452.78 360.19
11 am 545.84 647.22 800.70 880.56 915.74 904.76 888.89 831.60 784.30 661.83 558.33 485.19
12 pm 577.78 732.99 891.43 932.50 981.67 951.19 950.28 885.42 842.71 719.34 652.78 543.52
1 pm 572.22 747.57 905.79 931.81 975.74 963.89 958.89 903.47 832.57 702.06 622.22 513.89
2 pm 511.11 688.20 841.67 870.70 913.70 919.84 850.55 843.75 760.69 622.53 563.89 470.37
3 pm 418.06 562.50 703.71 735.69 783.89 795.24 727.78 745.49 612.71 479.84 380.56 362.04
4 pm 227.78 356.60 498.15 531.11 560.56 626.19 550.55 534.38 400.49 290.84 216.67 201.85
5 pm 43.06 127.08 245.37 283.06 344.81 417.46 317.78 293.40 196.11 94.86 25.00 52.78
(d) Srinagar: (ii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type b weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 25.70 86.11 146.43 266.88 359.83 366.03 316.58 267.13 250.82 168.98 46.20 33.33
9 am 165.51 250.00 369.05 464.96 547.76 572.49 555.69 538.89 463.40 364.82 184.35 202.78
10 am 315.05 474.31 556.75 676.28 733.98 755.88 713.58 671.29 636.77 525.00 339.72 277.78
11 am 421.53 719.44 661.51 826.92 857.91 919.23 892.03 864.82 742.16 639.58 462.50 341.67
12 pm 463.66 812.50 769.05 858.55 893.16 878.53 888.80 899.08 761.93 693.06 518.52 525.00
1 pm 473.38 811.81 816.67 811.32 880.66 888.94 844.88 800.82 761.44 677.78 521.20 544.44
2 pm 457.18 750.00 665.87 673.29 711.65 808.60 769.77 730.93 694.77 593.29 473.89 491.67
3 pm 361.81 585.41 535.72 446.37 355.13 542.84 590.17 637.50 527.29 448.61 357.59 327.78
4 pm 216.43 359.03 351.98 390.17 318.70 419.07 438.24 457.41 334.80 266.43 203.52 155.56
5 pm 52.55 70.83 184.53 184.83 206.31 222.60 258.29 293.98 157.35 81.25 58.80 27.78
(d) Srinagar: (iii) Measured average hourly global radiations for type c weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 23.89 35.48 51.39 208.33 204.34 204.85 188.89 177.43 165.97 133.33 33.33 39.75
9 am 90.00 123.89 94.44 352.08 360.42 217.52 344.44 320.14 295.83 211.11 155.56 158.48
10 am 191.67 230.67 151.39 592.36 474.48 323.26 372.22 387.85 403.48 258.33 289.81 238.50
11 am 271.67 338.09 281.94 622.22 550.35 380.51 505.56 532.64 559.72 427.78 399.38 295.91
12 pm 306.67 399.70 434.72 783.34 668.76 447.54 541.67 529.17 516.66 702.78 428.70 304.76
1 pm 377.78 396.53 408.33 603.47 651.74 574.04 711.11 622.22 533.33 636.11 400.00 242.92
2 pm 359.44 392.25 475.00 604.86 600.35 600.71 577.78 559.73 541.67 433.33 367.28 260.59
3 pm 383.33 321.33 390.28 576.39 574.99 500.37 508.33 443.06 377.78 202.78 255.86 169.61
4 pm 155.56 157.83 226.38 331.25 284.38 293.83 263.89 290.28 316.67 94.44 124.69 88.34
5 pm 30.00 38.83 72.22 188.89 229.34 268.86 225.00 180.21 135.42 50.00 32.10 23.85
(d) Srinagar: (iv) Measured average hourly global radiations for type d weather condition (W/m
2
)
Global 8 am 29.63 56.95 77.78 127.78 177.78 186.11 194.44 163.89 41.67 39.45 37.22 25.00
9 am 148.15 168.06 205.56 241.67 277.78 263.89 250.00 191.67 100.00 129.16 158.33 112.22
10 am 258.89 279.17 369.44 394.44 419.44 369.44 319.44 449.44 219.44 294.44 369.44 225.00
11 am 351.85 286.81 391.67 188.89 489.45 511.39 533.33 544.44 438.89 406.94 375.00 438.89
12 pm 361.11 364.58 366.67 550.00 733.33 611.11 488.89 688.33 641.67 527.78 413.89 531.11
1 pm 300.00 323.61 283.33 933.33 933.33 708.33 483.33 593.89 575.00 483.33 391.67 491.67
2 pm 286.11 287.50 319.00 583.33 883.33 655.55 427.78 569.44 491.67 405.56 319.44 388.89
3 pm 171.30 221.53 246.50 427.78 655.56 590.28 325.00 375.00 341.67 312.50 283.33 304.44
4 pm 80.56 100.00 144.44 119.44 94.44 184.72 275.00 197.22 277.78 188.89 100.00 105.56
5 pm 20.37 42.36 47.22 77.78 108.34 141.67 175.00 116.67 88.89 60.56 32.22 16.67
Type of days January February March April May June July August September October November December
(d) Srinagar: (v) Number of days fall in dierent weather condition
a 5 7 8 10 13 11 7 6 14 12 5 3
b 17 14 17 17 15 12 17 18 12 12 14 8
(continued on next page)
366 S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
and SCPVT module) is shown in Fig. 12. It has been
observed that an overall exergy eciency of MCPVT mod-
ule for all four cities are higher than SCPVT module and it
is further to be noted that for both cases (MCPVT and
SCPVT modules), the overall exergy eciency are higher
for the Srinagar city . An overall monthly exergy eciency
of MCVT module varies between 15.83% and 18.03% and
for SCPVT module it varies between 9.38% and 12.33% for
the Srinagar.
Table 2 (continued)
Type of days January February March April May June July August September October November December
c 7 4 3 2 2 4 4 3 3 5 8 19
d 2 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 3 1
Month
Solar radiation Time January February March April May June July August September October November December
(d) Srinagar: (vi) Average ambient temperature for dierent months (C)
8 am 0.20 4.50 3.80 11.90 17.30 21.20 19.20 19.40 13.00 6.30 2.10 1.40
9 am 0.50 4.30 3.10 11.60 16.80 20.70 19.20 19.40 12.80 5.80 1.60 1.40
10 am 0.80 3.90 2.70 11.40 16.00 20.20 18.60 19.40 12.40 5.40 1.50 1.30
11 am 0.80 4.00 2.50 11.40 16.10 20.30 18.80 19.30 12.30 5.20 1.20 0.90
12 pm 0.90 4.00 3.30 11.70 17.60 22.50 19.60 19.30 12.40 6.40 1.20 0.80
1 pm 0.10 3.90 6.50 13.70 18.30 24.40 20.40 20.30 13.80 9.00 3.50 2.30
2 pm 1.60 4.90 9.50 14.80 19.50 26.60 20.40 20.80 14.40 11.50 6.00 4.20
3 pm 2.70 6.30 12.10 15.90 20.70 28.40 21.40 22.80 16.10 14.50 10.00 5.30
4 pm 4.50 7.30 13.00 17.10 23.90 29.20 21.60 24.80 18.50 16.90 12.30 6.70
5 pm 6.40 7.80 14.30 18.80 24.60 30.30 21.50 25.30 19.60 18.60 13.60 7.70
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month of Year
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

m
o
n
t
h
l
y

e
x
e
r
g
y

g
a
i
n

(
K
W
h
)
Micro-channel PVT module
Single channel PVT module
Fig. 6. Monthly variation of overall exergy gain by considering ad type
weather condition of micro-channel PVT module and single channel PVT
module of Srinagar.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month of Year

o
v
e
r
a
l
l

m
o
n
t
h
l
y

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y

g
a
i
n

(
K
W
h
)
Micro-channel PVT module
Single channel PVT module
Fig. 5. Monthly variation of overall thermal energy gain by considering
ad type weather condition of micro-channel PVT module and single
channel PVT module of Srinagar.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00
Time (Hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
o
c
12
13
14
15
16
17
C
e
l
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,

%
T
c
, at d=500 m
T
c
, at d=1000 m
T
fo
, at d=500 m
T
c
, at d=1500 m
T
fo
, at d=1000 m
T
fo
, at d=1500 m
T
fi
, at d=500, 1000, 1500 m

e
, at d=500 m

e
, at d=1000 m

e
, at d=1500 m
Fig. 4. Hourly variation of cell temperature, outlet air temperature, inlet air temperature and cell eciency for the month of January.
S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370 367
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month of Year
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

e
x
e
r
g
y

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,

%
a type
b type
c type
d type
Including all
Weather conditions
Fig. 8. Monthly variation of overall exergy eciency by considering ad type weather condition of single channel PVT module of Srinagar.
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month of year
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

m
o
n
t
h
l
y

e
x
e
r
g
y

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,

%

Overall monthly exergy
efficiency of micro-
channel PVT module)
Overall monthly exergy
efficiency of single
Channel PVT module)
Fig. 9. Monthly overall exergy eciency by considering ad type weather condition of Srinagar of micro-channel PVTmodule and single channel PVTmodule.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Srinagar Banglore Jodhpur New Delhi
City
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

a
n
n
u
a
l

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

g
a
i
n

(
K
w
h
)
Micro-channel PVT module
Single Channel PVT module
Fig. 10. Annual overall thermal energy gain for four dierent cities of
India by considering ad type weather condition of micro-channel PVT
module and single channel PVT module.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Srinagar Banglore Jodhpur New Delhi
City
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

a
n
n
u
a
l

e
x
e
r
g
y

g
a
i
n

(
K
W
h
)
Micro channel PVT module
Single Channel PVT module
Fig. 11. Annual overall exergy gain for four dierent cities of India by
considering ad type weather condition of micro-channel PVT module and
single channel PVT module.
15
16
17
18
19
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month of Year

O
v
e
r
a
l
l

e
x
e
r
g
y

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,

%
a type
b type
c type
d type
Including all
Weather conditions
Fig. 7. Monthly variation of overall exergy eciency by considering ad type weather condition of micro-channel PVT module of Srinagar.
368 S. Agrawal, G.N. Tiwari / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356370
6. Conclusions
The following conclusions have been drawn:
An overall annual thermal gain of the proposed
MCPVT module has been increased by 70.62%,
73.88%, 74.05% and 72.59% over SCPVT module for
Srinagar, Banglore, Jodhpur and New Delhi Indian cli-
matic conditions respectively.
An overall annual exergy gain of the proposed MCPVT
module has been increased by 60.19%, 63.47%, 62.41%
and 60.47% over SCPVT module for Srinagar, Bang-
lore, Jodhpur and New Delhi Indian climatic conditions
respectively.
An overall annual exergy eciency of the proposed
MCPVT module has also been increased by 57.61%,
63.19%, 61.08% and 58.43% over SCPVT module for
Srinagar, Banglore, Jodhpur and New Delhi Indian cli-
matic conditions respectively.
Acknowledgments
The authors are thankful toDr. Arvind Tiwari for his idea
of analyzing micro-channel solar cell thermal. The authors
are also thankful to the Indian Meteorology Department
(IMD), Pune for providing the hourly radiation and ambient
temperature data of dierent city in India.
Appendix A. In modeling equations, we used following
relations for dening the design parameters, which are
shown in Table 1.
a
eff
a
c
g
c

_ m
f
qLdV
h
o
5:7 3:8 v
h
i
2:8 3 v
h
b

L
c
K
c

1
h
i
_ _
1
h
p

h
i
h
o
h
i
_ _
U
fa

1
h
i

1
h
o
_ _
1
U
L
h
b
U
fa
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