Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 53

POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS

K.R.Padiyar, I.I.Sc.

POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS K.R.Padiyar, I.I.Sc. 1 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS K.R.Padiyar, I.I.Sc. 1 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
OBJECTIVES  To discuss importance of System Dynamics in Power System Operation and Control 

OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVES  To discuss importance of System Dynamics in Power System Operation and Control  To
OBJECTIVES  To discuss importance of System Dynamics in Power System Operation and Control  To

To discuss importance of System Dynamics in Power System Operation and Control

To present historical development of PSD

To present new results in-

Transient (Structure Preserving) Energy Functions and its applications for on-line detection of LOS and discrete control Phenomenon of Strong Resonance

Why Study Power System Dynamics  In steady state, for a specified network configuration, a

Why Study Power System Dynamics

Why Study Power System Dynamics  In steady state, for a specified network configuration, a system
Why Study Power System Dynamics  In steady state, for a specified network configuration, a system

In steady state, for a specified network configuration, a system supplies power (P)

and reactive power (Q) at load nodes by

adjusting generations. We say the system is

in equilibrium.

As load/generation change and/or network change, the equilibrium point changes.

Can we assume that the transition is smooth or reasonably fast?

Why Study Power System Dynamics  It is possible that the system loses stability (unable

Why Study Power System Dynamics

Why Study Power System Dynamics  It is possible that the system loses stability (unable to
Why Study Power System Dynamics  It is possible that the system loses stability (unable to

It is possible that the system loses stability (unable

to reach the desired equilibrium)

The system controls are complex and diverse (e.g. voltage and frequency control)

Some controls are fast , some are slow. It is necessary to ensure coordination for improved system performance.

System stability can be improved by special controls

such as PSS, HVDC and FACTS controllers

Complexities in System Operation 1. In steady state, all generators have to operate synchronously. 2.

Complexities in System Operation

Complexities in System Operation 1. In steady state, all generators have to operate synchronously. 2. Fast
Complexities in System Operation 1. In steady state, all generators have to operate synchronously. 2. Fast

1.

In steady state, all generators have to operate synchronously.

2.

Fast and efficient energy storage devices are not yet available for practical use.

3.

The electrical power flows at speeds approaching that of light.

NOTE: 2 and 3 imply that at any time the generated power equals load plus losses

Complexities 4. Most transmission lines are AC and have no control options unless introduced using

Complexities

Complexities 4. Most transmission lines are AC and have no control options unless introduced using FACTS
Complexities 4. Most transmission lines are AC and have no control options unless introduced using FACTS

4. Most transmission lines are AC and have no control options unless introduced using FACTS Controllers. HVDC links are controllable, but are limited in number.

5. The system is very large, complex and

spread over a wide geographic area NOTE: The above implies need for decentralized or hierarchical control

Complexities 6. The load variations with time are not precisely known and require forecasting. 7.

Complexities

Complexities 6. The load variations with time are not precisely known and require forecasting. 7. There
Complexities 6. The load variations with time are not precisely known and require forecasting. 7. There

6. The load variations with time are not precisely known and require forecasting.

7. There are limits on the rate of change of generator output depending on the prime mover characteristics.

8. Power flows in AC transmission lines are also determined by KVL in addition to

injections. Deregulation has increased

uncertainties in power injections

Complexities 9. The AC lines generate or consume reactive power depending on the power flow.

Complexities

Complexities 9. The AC lines generate or consume reactive power depending on the power flow. Reactive
Complexities 9. The AC lines generate or consume reactive power depending on the power flow. Reactive

9. The AC lines generate or consume reactive power depending on the power flow. Reactive power control is necessary to regulate voltages and ensure stability.

10. Loss of synchronous operation caused by

small or large disturbances leads to system break up and power blackouts. It is essential

to stabilize the system for robust operation

System States 9 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

System States

System States 9 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
System States 9 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
System States 9 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Objectives  In Normal Secure State: Power/Frequency (P/F) and Reactive Power/Voltage (Q/V) control 

Control Objectives

Control Objectives  In Normal Secure State: Power/Frequency (P/F) and Reactive Power/Voltage (Q/V) control 
Control Objectives  In Normal Secure State: Power/Frequency (P/F) and Reactive Power/Voltage (Q/V) control 

In Normal Secure State: Power/Frequency (P/F) and Reactive Power/Voltage (Q/V) control

Insecure State: Preventive control (Infeasible in systems with power shortages)

Emergency State: Emergency control to remove limit violations and stabilize the system

Control Objectives  In Extremis State: Control to cut losses and protect the system (Note:

Control Objectives

Control Objectives  In Extremis State: Control to cut losses and protect the system (Note: the
Control Objectives  In Extremis State: Control to cut losses and protect the system (Note: the

In Extremis State: Control to cut losses and protect the system (Note: the system has already separated into islands that have to be protected to prevent further collapse) In Restorative State: Resynchronization to restore loads and system integrity

Historical Development  Loss of Synchronism (LOS) due to major disturbances (faults followed by clearing)

Historical Development

Historical Development  Loss of Synchronism (LOS) due to major disturbances (faults followed by clearing) was
Historical Development  Loss of Synchronism (LOS) due to major disturbances (faults followed by clearing) was

Loss of Synchronism (LOS) due to major disturbances (faults followed by clearing)

was a major problem till fast acting circuit

breakers and AVR were introduced. This was

termed as TRANSIENT (Angle) STABILITY

The study of transient stability was performed by AC network analyzers

The classic texts by Crary and Kimbark were published in the fifties

Historical Development  In the sixties, the systems started experiencing spontaneous, low frequency (0.2-2 Hz)

Historical Development

Historical Development  In the sixties, the systems started experiencing spontaneous, low frequency (0.2-2 Hz)
Historical Development  In the sixties, the systems started experiencing spontaneous, low frequency (0.2-2 Hz)

In the sixties, the systems started experiencing

spontaneous, low frequency (0.2-2 Hz) oscillations which can grow and result in LOS. The problem was

traced to fast acting excitation systems with high

gain AVR. The oscillations are observed at high loading condition with long lines.

The solution was to introduce Power System

Stabilizers (PSS) with inputs from speed, frequency or power (or a combination of speed and power).

The design of PSS to damp inter-area modes can be

complex.

Historical Development  In early seventies, the problem of Sub-Synchronous Resonance (SSR) involving Torsional

Historical Development

Historical Development  In early seventies, the problem of Sub-Synchronous Resonance (SSR) involving Torsional
Historical Development  In early seventies, the problem of Sub-Synchronous Resonance (SSR) involving Torsional

In early seventies, the problem of Sub-Synchronous

Resonance (SSR) involving Torsional Interaction (TI) was experienced. The torsional modes (10-50 Hz)

can be negatively damped due to interaction

between the electrical and mechanical systems.

The series capacitors can cause maximum

undamping when the electrical resonance mode has

a frequency (f e ) = mode.

f o f m , f m is freq. of torsional

HVDC converters and FACTS controllers can also

result in SSR. However, TCSC can damp SSR.

Historical Development  In late seventies, the systems ,due to stressed transmission network and reactive

Historical Development

Historical Development  In late seventies, the systems ,due to stressed transmission network and reactive power
Historical Development  In late seventies, the systems ,due to stressed transmission network and reactive power

In late seventies, the systems ,due to stressed transmission network and reactive power constraints, experienced voltage instability and collapse (although no LOS

occurs). The operation of OLTC can cause voltage collapse.

Transient voltage instability can be caused by induction motor loads and HVDC inverters

Transient Voltage Instability due to Induction Motor Load

Transient Voltage Instability due to Induction Motor Load 16 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Transient Voltage Instability due to Induction Motor Load 16 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Transient Voltage Instability due to Induction Motor Load 16 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Voltage Stability  It can be difficult to distinguish between voltage stability and angle stability

Voltage Stability

Voltage Stability  It can be difficult to distinguish between voltage stability and angle stability 
Voltage Stability  It can be difficult to distinguish between voltage stability and angle stability 

It can be difficult to distinguish between voltage stability and angle stability

Loss of synchronism can also be accompanied by voltage collapse

Hence care needs to be taken in identifying the nature of instability

Analysis of Voltage Instability decoupled from Angle Instability is important

SMIB System- Swing curves 18 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

SMIB System- Swing curves

SMIB System- Swing curves 18 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
SMIB System- Swing curves 18 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
SMIB System- Swing curves 18 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
SMIB System- Terminal voltage 19 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

SMIB System- Terminal voltage

SMIB System- Terminal voltage 19 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
SMIB System- Terminal voltage 19 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
SMIB System- Terminal voltage 19 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some Facts on Voltage Stability 20  The simplest system that exhibits voltage instability is

Some Facts on Voltage Stability

Some Facts on Voltage Stability 20  The simplest system that exhibits voltage instability is Single
Some Facts on Voltage Stability 20  The simplest system that exhibits voltage instability is Single

20

The simplest system that exhibits voltage instability is Single Machine Load Bus (SMLB) system.

 The simplest system that exhibits voltage instability is Single Machine Load Bus (SMLB) system. K.R.Padiyar

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Dynamics of Load Restoration 21 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Dynamics of Load Restoration

Dynamics of Load Restoration 21 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Dynamics of Load Restoration 21 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Dynamics of Load Restoration 21 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some Facts on Voltage Stability 22 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Some Facts on Voltage Stability

Some Facts on Voltage Stability 22 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some Facts on Voltage Stability 22 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some Facts on Voltage Stability 22 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some Facts on Voltage Stability 22 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

22

Some Facts on Voltage Stability 22 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Some facts about Voltage stability 23 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Some facts about Voltage stability

Some facts about Voltage stability 23 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some facts about Voltage stability 23 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Some facts about Voltage stability 23 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
An Interesting Example 24 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

An Interesting Example

An Interesting Example 24 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
An Interesting Example 24 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
An Interesting Example 24 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Region of Stability in K-T plane 25 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Region of Stability in K-T plane

Region of Stability in K-T plane 25 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Region of Stability in K-T plane 25 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Region of Stability in K-T plane 25 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Eigenvalue Loci (SM and EM) 26 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Eigenvalue Loci (SM and EM)

Eigenvalue Loci (SM and EM) 26 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Eigenvalue Loci (SM and EM) 26 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Eigenvalue Loci (SM and EM) 26 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Simulation Results 27 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Simulation Results

Simulation Results 27 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Simulation Results 27 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Simulation Results 27 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Simulation Results 28 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Simulation Results

Simulation Results 28 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Simulation Results 28 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Simulation Results 28 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Study Tools  Time domain simulation Transient stability simulation (< 20 s) Midterm simulation (<

Study Tools

Study Tools  Time domain simulation Transient stability simulation (< 20 s) Midterm simulation (< 5
Study Tools  Time domain simulation Transient stability simulation (< 20 s) Midterm simulation (< 5

Time domain simulation Transient stability simulation (< 20 s) Midterm simulation (< 5 mts)

Long term simulation Electro-Magnetic Transient simulation (when network transients are considered in SSR simulation)

• Small signal stability analysis

Study Tools  Frequency domain analysis (damping torque analysis for SSR studies)  Transient Energy

Study Tools

Study Tools  Frequency domain analysis (damping torque analysis for SSR studies)  Transient Energy Function
Study Tools  Frequency domain analysis (damping torque analysis for SSR studies)  Transient Energy Function

Frequency domain analysis (damping torque analysis for SSR studies)

Transient Energy Function analysis for direct stability evaluation

Bifurcation analysis (AUTO 97 software by

Doedel et al)

Transient Energy Functions on Structure Preserving Models

Transient Energy Functions on Structure Preserving Models 31 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Transient Energy Functions on Structure Preserving Models 31 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

31

Transient Energy Functions on Structure Preserving Models 31 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Transient Energy Functions on Structure Preserving Models 31 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Recent Developments in SPEF  By applying network analogy, where power is analogous to current,

Recent Developments in SPEF

Recent Developments in SPEF  By applying network analogy, where power is analogous to current, frequency
Recent Developments in SPEF  By applying network analogy, where power is analogous to current, frequency

By applying network analogy, where power is analogous to current, frequency variation analogous to voltage, it is possible to represent a lossless system by a network

consisting of nonlinear inductors (representing transmission lines) and capacitors representing rotor inertias, excited

by current sources.

Structure Preserving Energy Functions 33 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Structure Preserving Energy Functions

Structure Preserving Energy Functions 33 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Structure Preserving Energy Functions 33 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Structure Preserving Energy Functions 33 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

33

Structure Preserving Energy Functions 33 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

On-line Detection of LOS 34 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

On-line Detection of LOS

On-line Detection of LOS 34 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
On-line Detection of LOS 34 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
On-line Detection of LOS 34 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
On-line Detection of LOS 34 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Single line diagram of 10 generator New England system

Single line diagram of 10 generator New England system 35 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Single line diagram of 10 generator New England system 35 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Single line diagram of 10 generator New England system 35 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Angle across Series Elements for the Critically Unstable Case

Angle across Series Elements for the Critically Unstable Case 36 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Angle across Series Elements for the Critically Unstable Case 36 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Angle across Series Elements for the Critically Unstable Case 36 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Power Flow and rate of change of angle for the stable and unstable cases

Power Flow and rate of change of angle for the stable and unstable cases 37 K.R.Padiyar
Power Flow and rate of change of angle for the stable and unstable cases 37 K.R.Padiyar
Power Flow and rate of change of angle for the stable and unstable cases 37 K.R.Padiyar

A New Discrete Control Algorithm based on Energy Function

A New Discrete Control Algorithm based on Energy Function 38 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A New Discrete Control Algorithm based on Energy Function 38 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A New Discrete Control Algorithm based on Energy Function 38 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Control Strategy for a Two Machine System

Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 39 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 39 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 39 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 39 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Control Strategy for a Two Machine System

Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 40 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 40 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy for a Two Machine System 40 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy 41 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Control Strategy

Control Strategy 41 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Control Strategy 41 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

41

Control Strategy 41 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Extension to Multi-machine Systems 42 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Extension to Multi-machine Systems

Extension to Multi-machine Systems 42 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Extension to Multi-machine Systems 42 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Extension to Multi-machine Systems 42 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Potential Energy in Multi-machine Systems

Potential Energy in Multi-machine Systems 43 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Potential Energy in Multi-machine Systems 43 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Potential Energy in Multi-machine Systems 43 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A Case Study of Ten Machine System 44 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

A Case Study of Ten Machine System

A Case Study of Ten Machine System 44 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A Case Study of Ten Machine System 44 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

44

A Case Study of Ten Machine System 44 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A Case Study of Ten Machine System 44 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Swing Curves and Energy Variation 45 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Swing Curves and Energy Variation

Swing Curves and Energy Variation 45 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Swing Curves and Energy Variation 45 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Swing Curves and Energy Variation 45 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Swing Curves and Energy Variation 45 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Swing Curves and Energy Variation 45 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A UPFC Connected in a Line 46 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

A UPFC Connected in a Line

A UPFC Connected in a Line 46 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A UPFC Connected in a Line 46 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
A UPFC Connected in a Line 46 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Optimization of Power Flow Using UPFC

Optimization of Power Flow Using UPFC 47 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Optimization of Power Flow Using UPFC 47 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Optimization of Power Flow Using UPFC 47 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Optimization of Power Flow Using UPFC 47 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Expressions for Max and Min Power Flows in a Line with UPFC

Expressions for Max and Min Power Flows in a Line with UPFC 48 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Expressions for Max and Min Power Flows in a Line with UPFC 48 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Expressions for Max and Min Power Flows in a Line with UPFC 48 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Strong Resonance Phenomenon 49 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Strong Resonance Phenomenon

Strong Resonance Phenomenon 49 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Strong Resonance Phenomenon 49 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Strong Resonance Phenomenon 49 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Analysis of Strong Resonance 50 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Analysis of Strong Resonance

Analysis of Strong Resonance 50 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Analysis of Strong Resonance 50 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Analysis of Strong Resonance 50 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

50

Analysis of Strong Resonance 50 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Strong Resonance between Swing and Exciter Modes

Strong Resonance between Swing and Exciter Modes 51 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
Strong Resonance between Swing and Exciter Modes 51 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

51

Strong Resonance between Swing and Exciter Modes 51 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

Implications of Strong Resonance  The eigenvalue sensitivities are very high near strong resonance. Methods

Implications of Strong Resonance

Implications of Strong Resonance  The eigenvalue sensitivities are very high near strong resonance. Methods of
Implications of Strong Resonance  The eigenvalue sensitivities are very high near strong resonance. Methods of

The eigenvalue sensitivities are very high near strong resonance. Methods of controller tuning based on sensitivity information may be unreliable.

Optimal choice of controller parameters may

result in operation near strong resonance.

Detection of strong resonance is possible using reduced order models.

POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS THANK YOU 53 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS

POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS THANK YOU 53 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.
POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS THANK YOU 53 K.R.Padiyar I.I.Sc.

THANK YOU